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Sample records for rotation soil tillage

  1. Soil tillage practices and crops rotations effects on yields and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology and Results: Three soil tillage practices in main plot (T1 = no tillage with direct sowing, T2 = minimum tillage by soil scarifying with IR12 tool and T3 = conventional tillage with animals drawn plough) were compared and combined to four crops rotation systems, in a split-plot experimental design. Soil chemical ...

  2. Soil tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli

    2013-01-01

    The web platform offers a compilation of various formats and materials dealing with reduced tillage and its challenges regarding weeds. A selection of short movies about mechanical weeding, green manure and tailor-made machinery is listed. Leaflets and publications on reduced tillage can be downloaded. In there, different treatments and machinery are tested and compared to advice farmers on how to conserve soil while keeping weed under control. For Swiss farmers information on the leg...

  3. Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R; Deen, B

    2013-01-01

    long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Topsoil measurements were carried out for three different rotations: R1, (C–C–C–C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6, (C–C–O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and R8, (C......–C–S–S) corn, corn, soybean (Glycine max L.), soybean. A red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) cover crop was under seeded in oats and spring barley in R6. In 2010, first year corn was grown in R6 and R8. The tillage treatments included no tillage, NT and mouldboard ploughing, MP. Topsoil structural quality...

  4. Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system.

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    Liqun Zhu

    Full Text Available Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC, dissolved organic C (DOC and microbial biomass C (MBC contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0-7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7-14 cm depth. However, at 14-21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta.

  5. Long-Term Effects of Rotational Tillage On Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure, Soil Quality and Crop Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard; Deen, Bill

    year old long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Measurements were carried out in the topsoil for three different rotations: R1 (C-C-C-C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6. (C-C-O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare...... L.) and R8, (C-C-S-S) corn, corn, soybean (Glycine max L.), soybean. A red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) cover crop was under seeded in oats and spring barley in R6. In 2010, first year corn was grown in R6 and R8. The tillage treatments included no tillage, NT and mouldboard plowing, MP. Topsoil...

  6. Species composition and density of weeds in a wheat crop depending on the soil tillage system in crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yankov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo on slightly leached chernozem soil type. For the purposes of this investigation, variants from a stationary field experiment initiated in 1987 and based on various soil tillage tools and operations were analyzed. The species composition and density of weeds were followed in a wheat crop grown after grain maize using the following soil tillage systems: plowing at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; cutting at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – cutting at 8 – 10 cm (for wheat; disking at 10 – 12 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; no-tillage (for maize – no-tillage (for wheat.Weed infestation was read at the fourth rotation since the initiation of the trial. The observations were made in spring before treatment of the crop with herbicides. The soil tillage system had a significant effect on the species composition and density of weeds in the field with wheat grown after previous crop maize. The long-term alternation of plowing with disking in parallel with the usage of chemicals for weed control lead to lower weed infestation of the weed crop. The lower weed density after this soil tillage system was not related to changes in the species composition and the relative percent of the individual species in the total weed infestation. The long-term application in crop rotation of systems without turning of the soil layer and of minimal and no-tillage increased the amount of weeds. The reason is the greater variability of weed species which typically occur after shallow soil tillage.

  7. Soil and water conservation in the Pacific Northwest through no-tillage and intensified crop rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) summer fallow rotation typically practiced in the intermediate precipitation zone [300-450 mm (12-18 in)] of the inland Pacific Northwest has proven to be economically stable for producers in this region. However multiple tillage operations are used to control...

  8. Forms of phosphorus in an oxisol under different soil tillage systems and cover plants in rotation with maize

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    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fractions play a key role in sustaining the productivity of acid-savanna Oxisols and are influenced by tillage practices. The aim of this study was to quantify different P forms in an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo from the central savanna region of Brazil under management systems with cover crops in maize rotation. Three cover crops (Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan (L., and Raphanus sativus L. were investigated in maize rotation systems. These cover crops were compared to spontaneous vegetation. The inorganic forms NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP represented more than half of the total P in the samples collected at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season when the maize was grown. The concentration of inorganic P of greater availability (NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP was higher in the soil under no-tillage at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season. Concentrations of organic P were higher during the dry season, when the cover crops were grown. At the dry season, organic P constituted 70 % of the labile P in the soil planted to C. cajan under no-tillage. The cover crops were able to maintain larger fractions of P available to the maize, resulting in reduced P losses to the unavailable pools, mainly in no-tillage systems.

  9. The Energy Effectiveness Of Crops In Crop Rotation Under Different Soil Tillage Systems

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    Strašil Zdeněk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT method, minimum tillage (MT and a system with no tillage (NT. The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter of the primary product and the total harvested production. The energy effectiveness (energy output: energy input was selected for evaluation. The greatest energy effectiveness for the primary product was established as 6.35 for barley, 6.04 for wheat and 3.68 for mustard; in the case of total production, it was 9.82 for barley, 10.08 for wheat and 9.72 for mustard. When comparing the different tillage conditions, the greatest energy effectiveness was calculated for the evaluated crops under the MT operation and represented the primary product of wheat at 6.49, barley at 6.69 and mustard at 3.92. The smallest energy effectiveness for the primary product was found in wheat 5.77 and barley 6.10 under the CT option; it was 3.55 for mustard under the option of NT. Throughout the entire cropping pattern, the greatest energy effectiveness was established under the minimum tillage option – 5.70 for the primary product and 10.47 for the total production. On the other hand, the smallest values were calculated under CT – 5.22 for the primary product and 9.71 for total production.

  10. Microbial community responses to soil tillage and crop rotation in a corn/soybean agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris R; Blair, Peter L; Boyd, Charlie; Cody, Brianne; Hazel, Alexander; Hedrick, Ashley; Kathuria, Hitesh; Khurana, Parul; Kramer, Brent; Muterspaw, Kristin; Peck, Charles; Sells, Emily; Skinner, Jessica; Tegeler, Cara; Wolfe, Zoe

    2016-11-01

    The acreage planted in corn and soybean crops is vast, and these crops contribute substantially to the world economy. The agricultural practices employed for farming these crops have major effects on ecosystem health at a worldwide scale. The microbial communities living in agricultural soils significantly contribute to nutrient uptake and cycling and can have both positive and negative impacts on the crops growing with them. In this study, we examined the impact of the crop planted and soil tillage on nutrient levels, microbial communities, and the biochemical pathways present in the soil. We found that farming practice, that is conventional tillage versus no-till, had a much greater impact on nearly everything measured compared to the crop planted. No-till fields tended to have higher nutrient levels and distinct microbial communities. Moreover, no-till fields had more DNA sequences associated with key nitrogen cycle processes, suggesting that the microbial communities were more active in cycling nitrogen. Our results indicate that tilling of agricultural soil may magnify the degree of nutrient waste and runoff by altering nutrient cycles through changes to microbial communities. Currently, a minority of acreage is maintained without tillage despite clear benefits to soil nutrient levels, and a decrease in nutrient runoff-both of which have ecosystem-level effects and both direct and indirect effects on humans and other organisms.

  11. Overall assessment of soil quality on humid sandy loams: Effects of location, rotation and tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Hansen, Elly Møller; Rickson, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    .e. visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS), overall visual structure (OVS) and overall soil structure (OSS)) were employed to differentiate the effects of these alternative management practices on soil structural quality and relative crop yield (RY). A Pearson correlation was also employed to find...... the correlation between the soil quality indices and relative crop yield. Relevant soil properties for calculating the soil quality indices were measured or obtained from previous publications. Crop rotation affected the soil structure and RY. The winter-dominated crop rotation (R2) resulted in the poorest soil...... correlations were found in most cases between soil quality indices (including M-SQR) and RY. This highlights the influence of soil quality (as measured by the selected indicators) – and soil structure in particular – on crop yield potential....

  12. Influence of Conservation Tillage on some Soil Physical Properties and Crop Yield in Vetch-Wheat Rotation in Dryland Cold Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Winter wheat is an important, well-adapted grain crop under dryland condition of the northwest of Iran. Soil water is the most limiting resource for crop growth in dryland areas. Therefore, farmers need to use crop residues and minimum tillage to control the soil erosion and effectively store and to use the limited precipitation received for crop production. Crop rotation and tillage system could affect crop yield due to their effects on water conservation and soil chemical and physical properties. Galantini et al., (2000 studied the effect of crop rotation on wheat productivity in the Pampean semi-arid region of Argentina and found that a wheat–vetch (Vicia sativa L. rotation resulted in higher yield and protein content, and greater yield components than the other rotations.Payne et al. (2000 stated that where precipitation amount is marginal (400 mm, dry field pea offers a potential alternative to summer fallowing. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal tillage system for increasing crop productivity in a vetch–wheat rotation in dryland farming of the northwest of Iran. Materials and Methods The field experiment was carried out from 2010 to 2014 at the Dryland Agricultural Research Station (latitude37° 12´N; longitude 46◦20´E; 1730 m a.s.l., 25 km east of Maragheh, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. The long-term (10 years average precipitation, temperature and relative humidity of the station are 336.5 mm, 9.4 ◦C and 47.5%, respectively. The soil (Fine Mixed, Mesic, Vertic Calcixerepts, USDA system; Calcisols, FAO system at the study site had a clay loam texture in the 0–15 cm surface layer and a clay texture in the 15–80 cm depth. This study was conducted in vetch (Vicia pannonica- wheat (Triticum aestivum L. rotation. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The tillage treatments consisted of (1 conventional tillage: moldboard plowing followed by one

  13. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil tillage significantly affects organic carbon accumulation, microbial biomass, and subsequently enzymatic activity in surface soil. Microbial activity in soil is a crucial parameter contributing to soil functioning, and thus a basic quality factor for soil. Since enzymes remain soil after excretion by living or disintegrating cells, shifts in their activities reflect long-term fluctuations in microbial biomass. In order to study the effects of no-till on biochemical and microbiological properties in comparison to conventional tillage in a representative soil from South Spain, an experiment was conducted since 1982 on the experimental farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research of Andalusia (IFAPA) in Carmona, SW Spain (37o24'07''N, 5o35'10''W). The soil at the experimental site was a very fine, montomorillonitic, thermic Chromic Haploxerert (Soil Survey Staff, 2010). A randomized complete block design involving three replications and the following two tillage treatments was performed: (i) Conventional tillage, which involved mouldboard plowing to a depth of 50 cm in the summer (once every three years), followed by field cultivation to a depth of 15 cm before sowing; crop residues being burnt, (ii) No tillage, which involved controlling weeds before sowing by spraying glyphosate and sowing directly into the crop residue from the previous year by using a planter with double-disk openers. For all tillage treatments, the crop rotation (annual crops) consisted of winter wheat, sunflower, and legumes (pea, chickpea, or faba bean, depending on the year), which were grown under rainfed conditions. Enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase, dehydrogenase, aryl-sulphatase, acid phosphatase, and urease), soil microbial biomass by total viable cells number by acridine orange direct count, the density of cultivable groups of bacteria and fungi by dilution plating on semi-selective media, the physiological profiles of the microbial communities by BiologR, and the

  14. Response of a two-year sugar beet-sweet sorghum rotation to an agronomic management approach diversified by soil tillage and nitrogen fertilisation

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    A. Domenico Palumbo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservative agriculture and nitrogen fertilisation have been evaluated for the purpose of assessing their impact on the sustainability of a cropping system based on a two-year rotation with two crops considered for the bio-ethanol supply chain: sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. The experimental activity started in 2009 in Foggia (Apulia, southern Italy. We discuss the results obtained in the 2010-2011 period. Soil minimum tillage (MT vs no tillage (NT combined with two doses of nitrogen fertilisation (75 and 150 kg ha–1 of mineral nitrogen as ammonium nitrate were compared. The experimental system, which is still operational (soil tillage plus nitrogen fertilisation, was arranged with a split-plot design with three replicates. Treatments were applied on the same plots every year with both crops present at the same time. At the first harvest in 2010, no difference was observed. As to the second year, the comparison between NT vs MT treatments showed that sugar beet had lower total yield (35 vs 42 t ha–1, dry biomass (10 vs 14 t ha–1, and sucrose yield (6.7 vs 8.2 t ha–1. Total soluble solids, on average 19%, were not influenced by the experimental treatments. Nitrogen (N control was less productive than the fertilised treatments (average between N75 and N150 in terms of total fresh root yield (32 vs 42 t ha–1, dry biomass (10 vs 14 t ha–1, and sucrose yield (6.0 vs 8.1 t ha–1. As with sugar beet, during the second year, also sweet sorghum sown in NT vs MT plots had a reduced yield, although the difference was more marked for fresh biomass (–35% than for dry biomass (–20%. No interaction in terms of soil tillage nitrogen fertilisation occurred. In summary, in the first two-year period (2010-2011 of the experimental trial, no tillage soil management showed decreased yields of both crops. Sugar beet displayed a higher sensitivity to the lack of nitrogen supply than sweet

  15. Atributos físicos do solo em sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas Soil tillage and crop rotation systems on the soil physical attributes

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    Silvio Tulio Spera

    2009-01-01

    attributes were assessed after twenty years of implementation (1985 to 2005 on a typical Dystrophic Red Latosol (Rodic Hapludox located in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Four soil tillage systems were evaluated: 1 no-tillage; 2 minimum tillage; 3 conventional tillage using a disk plow plus disk harrow, and 4 conventional tillage using a moldboard plow plus disk harrow. Three crop rotation systems were evaluated: I (wheat/soybean, II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum, and III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn or sorghum and white oats/soybean. A randomized complete block design, with split-plots and three replicates, was used. The main plots were formed by the soil tillage systems, while split-plots were composed by crop rotation systems. As control, soil samples were collected in a subtropical forest fragment adjacent to the experiment. Soil tillage systems and crop rotation systems influenced soil physical parameters when compared to the samples collected in a fragment of subtropical forest. During four years (2001 to 2005 the physical attributes were altered among different soil tillage management. The no-tillage system (PD presented higher soil bulk density and microporosity in comparison to the other systems, mainly in 0.10 to 0.15 m layer, characterizing high soil compaction levels. Crop systems did not promote favorable changes in physical attributes independent of the type of soil management.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity, root colonization, and soil alkaline phosphatase activity in response to maize-wheat rotation and no-tillage in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Yang, Anna; Zhu, Anning; Wang, Junhua; Dai, Jue; Wong, Ming Hung; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring the effects of no-tillage (NT) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT) on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the species composition and ecological function of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi during the growth and rotation of crops under NT and CT. From late June 2009 to early June 2010, 32 topsoil (0-15 cm) samples from four individual plots per treatment (CT and NT) were collected at both the jointing and maturation stages of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from a long-term experimental field that was established in an Aquic Inceptisol in North China in June 2006. The AM fungal spores were isolated and identified and then used to calculate species diversity indices, including the Shannon- Wiener index (H'), Evenness (E), and Simpson's index (D). The root mycorrhizal colonization and soil alkaline phosphatase activity were also determined. A total of 34 species of AM fungi within nine genera were recorded. Compared with NT, CT negatively affected the soil AM fungal community at the maize sowing stage, leading to decreases in the average diversity indices (from 2.12, 0.79, and 0.82 to 1.79, 0.72, and 0.74 for H', E, and D, respectively), root mycorrhizal colonization (from 28% to 20%), soil alkaline phosphatase activity (from 0.24 to 0.19 mg/g/24 h) and available phosphorus concentration (from 17.4 to 10.5 mg/kg) at the maize jointing stage. However, reductions in diversity indices of H', E, and D were restored to 2.20, 0.81, and 0.84, respectively, at the maize maturation stage. CT should affect the community again at the wheat sowing stage; however, a similar restoration in the species diversity of AM fungi was completed before the wheat jointing stage, and the highest Jaccard index (0.800) for similarity in the species composition of soil AM fungi between CT and NT was recorded at

  17. Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Bogdan, Ileana; Ioan Pop, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Soil tillage system and its intensity modify by direct and indirect action soil temperature, moisture, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance and soil structural condition. Minimum tillage and no-tillage application reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first years of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. All this physicochemical changes affect soil biology and soil respiration. Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil respiration is one measure of biological activity and decomposition. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant and fertilizer. Our research follows the effects of the three tillage systems: conventional system, minimum tillage and no-tillage on soil respiration and finally on soil organic carbon on rotation soybean - wheat - maize, obtained on an Argic Faeoziom from the Somes Plateau, Romania. To quantify the change in soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest). Soil monitoring system of CO2 and O2 included gradient method, made by using a new generation of sensors capable of measuring CO2 concentration in-situ and quasi-instantaneous in gaseous phase. At surface soil respiration is made by using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. These areas were was our research presents a medium multi annual temperature of 8.20C medium of multi annual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: i). Conventional system: reversible plough (22-25 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); ii). Minimum tillage system: paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); iii). No-tillage. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three

  18. Efeito de sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas na fertilidade do solo, após vinte anos Soil tillage and crop rotation systems on soil fertility attributes after twenty years

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    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são escassos os estudos disponíveis com experimentos de longa duração em sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas. Após vinte anos (1985 a 2005, a fertilidade de solo foi avaliada, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em Passo Fundo (RS, em quatro sistemas de manejo de solo (SMSs - 1 plantio direto (PD, 2 cultivo mínimo (CM, 3 preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos e com grade de discos (PCD e 4 preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas e com grade de discos (PCA - e em três sistemas de rotação de culturas (SRCs: I (trigo/soja, II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho e III (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia branca/soja, incluindo como testemunha um fragmento adjacente de floresta subtropical (FST. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. As parcelas (4 x 90 m no total de 12, foram constituídas pelos SMSs, e as subparcelas, pelos SRCs (4 x 10 m, no total de 72. Os valores de pH, carbono, P extraível e K disponível diferiram entre os SMSs. No PD, houve acúmulo de carbono orgânico, P e K, na camada superficial. Não houve diferença do nível de matéria orgânica (MOS entre PD e FST, em todas as camadas estudadas. O nível de MOS e os teores de P e K foram mais elevados na camada 0-0,05 m, quando comparados com os observados de 0,15-0,20 m de profundidade, sob PD e nas rotações II e III. Observou-se que em FST os valores de pH, Ca, P e de K foram menores do que os dos SMSs e SRCs.Long term field studies on crop rotation and soil tillage systems under Brazilian conditions are scarce. Soil fertility characteristics were assessed after twenty years (1985 to 2005 on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol located in Passo Fundo, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Four soil tillage systems (STS - 1 no-tillage, 2 minimum tillage, 3 conventional tillage using disk plow followed by disk harrow, and 4

  19. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  20. The impact of different soil tillage on weed infestation of spring barley in conditions of dryer climatic areas Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Winkler

    2008-01-01

    The impact of soil tillage on weeds in spring barley was observed on the field trial. The field trial was established in very warm and dry climatic region (experimental field station in Žabčice, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Czech Republic). In the experiment there was used 7-strip crop rotation and three variants of soil tillage: conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), when soil is shallow loosened and no tillage (NT) what means direct sowing without any soil t...

  1. Soil organic carbon sequestration and tillage systems in Mediterranean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Di Bene, Claudia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Farina, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon sequestration is of special interest in Mediterranean areas, where rainfed cropping systems are prevalent, inputs of organic matter to soils are low and mostly rely on crop residues, while losses are high due to climatic and anthropic factors such as intensive and non-conservative farming practices. The adoption of reduced or no tillage systems, characterized by a lower soil disturbance in comparison with conventional tillage, has proved to be positively effective on soil organic carbon (SOC) conservation and other physical and chemical processes, parameters or functions, e.g. erosion, compaction, ion retention and exchange, buffering capacity, water retention and aggregate stability. Moreover, soil biological and biochemical processes are usually improved by the reduction of tillage intensity. The work deals with some results available in the scientific literature, and related to field experiment on arable crops performed in Italy, Greece, Morocco and Spain. Data were organized in a dataset containing the main environmental parameters (altitude, temperature, rainfall), soil tillage system information (conventional, minimum and no-tillage), soil parameters (bulk density, pH, particle size distribution and texture), crop type, rotation, management and length of the experiment in years, initial SOCi and final SOCf stocks. Sampling sites are located between 33° 00' and 43° 32' latitude N, 2-860 m a.s.l., with mean annual temperature and rainfall in the range 10.9-19.6° C and 355-900 mm. SOC data, expressed in t C ha-1, have been evaluated both in terms of Carbon Sequestration Rate, given by [(SOCf-SOCi)/length in years], and as percentage change in comparison with the initial value [(SOCf-SOCi)/SOCi*100]. Data variability due to the different environmental, soil and crop management conditions that influence SOC sequestration and losses will be examined.

  2. Soil Tillage Conservation and its Effect on Soil Properties Bioremediation and Sustained Production of Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Muresan, Liliana; Andriuca, Valentina; Cojocaru, Olesea

    2017-04-01

    soil features resulted in a positive impact on the water permeability of the soil. Availability of soil moisture during the crop growth resulted in better plant water status. Subsequent release of conserved soil water regulated proper plant water status, soil structure, and lowered soil penetrometer resistance. Productions obtained at STC did not have significant differences for the wheat and maize crop but were higher for soybean. The advantages of minimum soil tillage systems for Romanian pedo-climatic conditions can be used to improve methods in low producing soils with reduced structural stability on sloped fields, as well as measures of water and soil conservation on the whole agroecosystem. Presently, it is necessary to make a change concerning the concept of conservation practices and to consider a new approach regarding the good agricultural practice. We need to focus on an upper level concerning conservation by focusing on soil quality. Carbon management is necessary for a complexity of matters including soil, water management, field productivity, biological fuel and climatic change. In conclusion a Sustainable Agriculture includes a range of complementary agricultural practices: (i) minimum soil tillage (through a system of reduced tillage or no-tillage) to preserve the structure, fauna and soil organic matter; (ii) permanent soil cover (cover crops, residues and mulches) to protect the soil and help to remove and control weeds; (iii) various combinations and rotations of the crops which stimulate the micro-organisms in the soil and controls pests, weeds and plant diseases. Acknowledgements: This paper was performed under the frame of the Partnership in priority domains - PNII, developed with the support of MEN-UEFISCDI, project no. PN-II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-0015: Expert System for Risk Monitoring in Agriculture and Adaptation of Conservative Agricultural Technologies to Climate Change, and International Cooperation Program - Sub-3.1. Bilateral AGROCEO c. no. 21BM

  3. Effect of no-tillage crop rotation systems on nutrient status of a rhodic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the effects of no-tillage and eight crop rotations (established in 1985) on chemical properties of a Rhodic Ferralsol (Typic Haplorthox, Soil Taxonomy) and on nutrient uptake by maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) leaves were assessed in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, using a randomized ...

  4. [Effects of different tillage patterns on soil properties, maize yield and water use efficiency in Weibei Highland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xia; Li, Jun; Wang, Xu-Dong

    2018-02-01

    An eight-year field experiment of straw returning was conducted on dark loessial soil in Weibei Highland to investigate the effects of tillage patterns on soil aggregate, soil organic carbon (SOC), corn yield and soil water use efficiency (WUE). There were six tillage patterns, including conventional tillage (CT/CT), no-tillage (NT/NT), subsoiling tillage (ST/ST), no-tillage/subsoiling tillage (NT/ST), conventional tillage/no-tillage (CT/NT) and conventional tillage/subsoiling tillage (CT/ST). The results showed that compared with CT/CT, the patterns of NT/NT, ST/ST and the rotational tillage patterns (NT/ST, CT/NT and CT/ST) decreased the mean mass diameter of soil mechanical stable aggregate. The patterns of NT/NT, ST/ST and NT/ST increased the content of soil water-stable aggregate with the particle size >0.25 mm (WR 0.25 ) and their mean mass diameter, especially in the depth of 20-50 cm. These patterns reduced the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD). Compared with CT/CT, the patterns of NT/ST, CT/NT, NT/NT and ST/ST increased the content of SOC in 0-10 cm soil layer. The content of SOC decreased as the increases of soil depth for all tillage patterns, but the decrease in SOC of three single tillage patterns (ST/ST, NT/NT and CT/CT) was larger than that of three rotational tillage patterns. Compared with CT/CT, the other five tillage patterns increased soil water storage in 0-200 cm soil profile, crop yield and WUE in maize. The yield and WUE in NT/ST pattern were significantly increased by 15.1% and 27.5%, respectively. Both corn yield and WUE were significantly and positively correlated with soil water storage in 0-200 cm soil profile in field during the cropping and fallow periods. Moreover, soil water storage during the cropping period was positively correlated with WR 0.25 , but negatively correlated with PAD in 0-50 cm soil layer. Particularly, maize yield, WUE and soil water storage during the cropping period were closely related to WR 0.25 in 20

  5. The effect of tillage intensity on soil structure and winter wheat root/shoot growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    was followed during the growing seasons using spectral reflectance and mini-rhizotron measurements, respectively. A range of soil physical properties were measured. We found decreased early season shoot and root growth with decreasing tillage intensity. Differences diminished later in the growing season...... of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage intensity on crop growth dynamics and soil structure. A tillage experiment was established in autumn 2002 on two Danish sandy loams (Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in a cereal-based crop rotation. The tillage systems included in this study were direct drilling (D...... with decreasing tillage intensity for the first year winter wheat at Foulum. In general ploughing resulted in the highest grain yields. This study highlights the important interaction between soil structure and crop growth dynamics....

  6. The impact of different soil tillage on weed infestation of spring barley in conditions of dryer climatic areas Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of soil tillage on weeds in spring barley was observed on the field trial. The field trial was established in very warm and dry climatic region (experimental field station in Žabčice, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Czech Republic. In the experiment there was used 7-strip crop rotation and three variants of soil tillage: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT, when soil is shallow loosened and no tillage (NT what means direct sowing without any soil tillage. The weed infestation was evaluated by counting method before herbicide application. Analysis of va­rian­ce (ANOVA and then LSD methods, DCA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis and CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis were used for evaluation of results. The obtained results showed, that different soil tillage did not statistically influenced weed infestation in spring barley. The number of weed species depended on the depth of soil tillage, the variant of minimum tillage had lower number of weed species. These species were more common on the variant of conventional tillage: Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora, Sinapis arvensis, Veronica polita. The variant of minimum tillage was more suitable for these species: Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Amaranthus sp., Galium aparine. On the variant of direct so­wing there appeared mainly these species: Sonchus oleraceus, Lactuca serriola, Tripleurospermum inodorum.

  7. A simplified modelling approach for quantifying tillage effects on soil carbon stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatskikh, Dmitri; Hansen, Søren; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2009-01-01

    Soil tillage has been shown to affect long-term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) content in a number of field experiments. This paper presents a simplified approach for including effects of tillage in models of soil C turnover in the tilled-soil layer. We used an existing soil organic matter...... (SOM) model (CN-SIM) with standard SOC data for a homogeneous tilled layer from four long-term field experiments with conventionally tilled (CT) and no-till (NT) treatments. The SOM model was tested on data from long-term (>10 years) field trials differing in climatic conditions, soil properties......, residue management and crop rotations in Australia, Brazil, the USA and Switzerland. The C input for the treatments was estimated using data on crop rotation and residue management. The SOM model was applied for both CT and NT trials without recalibration, but incorporated a 'tillage factor' (TF) to scale...

  8. Predicting soil workability and fragmentation in tillage: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obour, Peter Bilson; Lamandé, Mathieu; Edwards, Gareth T. C.

    2017-01-01

    of SWRC and the drop-shatter tests or tensile strength; (i) to quantify the effects of soil texture, organic matter and compaction on soil workability; and (ii) to compare soil water content for workability in the field with theoretical soil workability, thereby improving the prediction of soil......Soil workability and friability are required parameters to consider when creating suitable seedbeds for crop establishment and growth. Knowledge of soil workability is important for scheduling tillage operations and for reducing the risk of tillage-induced structural degradation of soils....... A reliable evaluation of soil workability implies a distinctive definition of the critical water content (wet and dry limits) for tillage. In this review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the methods for determining soil workability, and the effects of soil properties and tillage systems on soil...

  9. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Abolanle Busari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to match food production with increasing world population through identification of sustainable land management strategies. However, the struggle to achieve food security should be carried out keeping in mind the soil where the crops are grown and the environment in which the living things survive. Conservation agriculture (CA, practising agriculture in such a way so as to cause minimum damage to the environment, is being advocated at a large scale world-wide. Conservation tillage, the most important aspect of CA, is thought to take care of the soil health, plant growth and the environment. This paper aims to review the work done on conservation tillage in different agro-ecological regions so as to understand its impact from the perspectives of the soil, the crop and the environment. Research reports have identified several benefits of conservation tillage over conventional tillage (CT with respect to soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as crop yields. Not less than 25% of the greenhouse gas effluxes to the atmosphere are attributed to agriculture. Processes of climate change mitigation and adaptation found zero tillage (ZT to be the most environmental friendly among different tillage techniques. Therefore, conservation tillage involving ZT and minimum tillage which has potential to break the surface compact zone in soil with reduced soil disturbance offers to lead to a better soil environment and crop yield with minimal impact on the environment. Keywords: Atmosphere, Greenhouse gases, Conservation tillage, Sustainable crop yield

  10. Impact of tillage intensity on clay loam soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraghmeh, Omar; Petersen, Carsten; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    Soil structure and structural stability are key parameters in sustainable soil management and optimum cropping practices. Locally and temporally adapted precision tillage may improve crop performance while at the same time reduce environmental impacts. The main objective of this study...... was to improve the knowledge of precision tillage practices through characterizing the effect of varied tillage intensities on structural properties of a clay loam soil. A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with two main factors, i.e. operational speed (OS, 2 levels......) and rotovating speed (RS, 3 levels). The tillage was conducted using a PTO-driven rotovator equipped to measure angular velocity. The effect of traffic compaction, made directly after tillage, was measured on soil taken from wheel track (WT) compared with soil outside wheel track (NWT). Soil samples from 0-3 cm...

  11. Tillage and manure effect on soil microbial biomass and respiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of both tillage and liquid pig manure application on soil microbial biomass, enzyme activities and microbial respiration in a meadow soil. The results obtained did not show any significant effect of tillage and manure on microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) ...

  12. A multiple soil ecosystem services approach to evaluate the sustainability of reduced tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérès, Guénola; Menasseri, Safya; Hallaire, Vincent; Cluzeau, Daniel; Heddadj, Djilali; Cotinet, Patrice; Manceau, Olivier; Pulleman, Mirjam

    2017-04-01

    In the current context of soil degradation, reduced tillage systems (including reduced soil disturbance, use of cover crops and crop rotation, and improved organic matter management) are expected to be good alternatives to conventional system which have led to a decrease of soil multi-functionality. Many studies worldwide have analysed the impact of tillage systems on different soil functions, but overran integrated view of the impact of these systems is still lacking. The SUSTAIN project (European SNOWMAN programme), performed in France and the Netherlands, proposes an interdisciplinary collaboration. The goals of SUSTAIN are to assess the multi-functionality of soil and to study how reduced-tillage systems impact on multiple ecosystem services such as soil biodiversity regulation (earthworms, nematodes, microorganisms), soil structure maintenance (aggregate stability, compaction, soil erosion), water regulation (run-off, transfer of pesticides) and food production. Moreover, a socio-economic study on farmer networks has been carried out to identify the drivers of adoption of reduced-tillage systems. Data have been collected in long-term experimental fields (5 - 13 years), representing conventional and organic farming strategies, and were complemented with data from farmer networks. The impact of different reduced tillage systems (direct seeding, minimum tillage, non-inverse tillage, superficial ploughing) were analysed and compared to conventional ploughing. Measurements (biological, chemical, physical, agronomical, water and element transfer) have been done at several dates which allow an overview of the evolution of the soil properties according to climate variation and crop rotation. A sociological approach was performed on several farms covering different production types, different courses (engagement in reduced tillage systems) and different geographical locations. Focusing on French trials, this multiple ecosystem services approach clearly showed that

  13. Tillage effects on soil. Physical properties and sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physical properties and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) yield under convectional tillage (CT) and zero-tillage (Z,TJ. was monitored for 3 consecutive years in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria (SGSZN). While bulk density of CT increased slightly over the years, significant decrease of 12 and 8% were ...

  14. Influence of Soil Tillage Systems on Soil Respiration and Production on Wheat, Maize and Soybean Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, P. I.; Rusu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant, fertilizer etc. The data presented in this paper were obtained on argic-stagnic Faeoziom (SRTS, 2003). These areas were was our research, presents a medium multiannual temperature of 8.20C, medium of multiannual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: A. Conventional system (CS): V1-reversible plough (22-25 cm)+rotary grape (8-10 cm); B. Minimum tillage system (MT): V2 - paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); V3 - chisel (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm);V4 - rotary grape (10-12 cm); C. No-Tillage systems (NT): V5 - direct sowing. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. The experimental variants were studied in the 3 years crop rotation: maize - soy-bean - autumn wheat. To soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest) using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration, the daily average is lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Productions obtained at MT and NT don't have significant differences at wheat and are higher at soybean. The differences in crop yields are recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by CNCSIS

  15. Influence of Tillage and Mulch on Soil Physical Properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (M0); rice straw, (MRice); wheat straw, (MWheat); plastic sheet, (MPlastic) at 4 t ... Happy seeder and deep tillage along with plastic mulch have positive impact ... use efficiency and yield parameters by creating a favorable soil environment.

  16. Effects of Different Soil Tillage Intensity on Yields of Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pernicová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the period 1990–2012, effects of different soil tillage intensity on yields of spring barley were studied in a field experiment in the sugar-beet producing region (Ivanovice na Hané, Czech Republic. The forecrop of the spring barley was always sugar beet; following in three different crop rotations, after maize for silage, winter wheat and spring barley. Four variants of tillage were evaluated: Variant 1 – ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m; Variant 2 – shallow ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m; Variant 3 – no tillage; Variant 4 – shallow loosening soil to the depth of 0.10 m.Effect of different tillage on yields of spring barley was statistically insignificant. In all three crop rotations, the highest and the lowest average yields were obtained in Variant 2 (ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 1 (ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Average yields in variants of soil tillage were these: variant 1 – 6.42 t.ha−1; variant 2 – 6.57 t.ha−1, variant 3 – 6.53 t.ha−1, variant 4 – 6.50 t.ha−1. The obtained results indicate that in these pedo-climatic conditions reduction of intensity soil tillage represented a very suitable alternative in case of growing spring barley after sugar beet as compared with the conventional method of tillage by ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m.

  17. Soil respiration in a long-term tillage treatment experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelybó, Györgyi; Birkás, Márta; Dencsö, Márton; Horel, Ágota; Kása, Ilona; Tóth, Eszter

    2016-04-01

    Regular soil CO2 efflux measurements have been carried out at Józsefmajor longterm tillage experimental site in 2014 and 2015 with static chamber technique in no-till and ploughing plots in seven spatial replicates. The trial was established in 2002 on a loamy chernozem soil at the experimental site of the Szent István University nearby the city Hatvan, northern Hungary. At the site sunflower (Helianthus A.) and wheat (Triticum A.) was grown in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Ancillary measurements carried out at the site included weather parameters, soil water content, soil temperature. The aim of the investigation was to detect the effect of soil disturbance and soil tillage treatments on soil CO2 emission in agricultural ecosystems. Soil respiration measurements were carried out every week during the vegetation period and campaign measurements were performed scheduled to tillage application. In this latter case, measurements were carried out 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and 7 days after tillage operation. Results showed that during the vegetation season in the majority of measurement occasions emission was higher in the no-till plots. These differences; however were not found to be statistically significant. Due to the short term effect of tillage treatment, emissions increased following tillage treatment in the ploughed plots. Soil water content was also examined as main driver of soil CO2 fluxes. Soil water content sharply decreases in the surface layer (5-10 cm depth) after tillage treatment indicating a fast drying due to soil disturbance. This effect slowly attenuated and eventually extincted in approx. two weeks. CO2 emission measurements were associated with high uncertainties as a result of the measurement technique. Our further aim is to reduce this uncertainty using independent measurement techniques on the field.

  18. Soil workability as a basis for advice on tillage activities

    OpenAIRE

    Cadena Zapata, M.

    1999-01-01

    In the tropical area of Mexico, when and how to carry out tillage is a qualitative decision. There is no quantified information about the interaction between a chosen process of cultivation, soil type and weather, which dictate the tool and power requirements. Waste of energy and soil degradation by erosion and compaction, and lack of timeliness are recognized problems caused by inadequate tillage management in the tropical area of Mexico.

    In this thesis, the workab...

  19. Influence of Tillage and Mulch on Soil Physical Properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    tillage along with plastic mulch have positive impact on soil physical properties, root growth, water use efficiency ... positive effects on crop yield (Gla & Kulig,. 2008). ... potash fertilizers were applied at 120, 100 and 60 .... 0-10. 1.57B. 1.57B. 1.57B. 1.8B. 1.7B. 1.8B. Tillage × Soil depth. CTInitial. 0-5 ...... (Brassica napus). Eur.

  20. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  1. 3D Structure of Tillage Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Iván; Losada, Juan Carlos; Falconer, Ruth; Hapca, Simona; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure may be defined as the spatial arrangement of soil particles, aggregates and pores. The geometry of each one of these elements, as well as their spatial arrangement, has a great influence on the transport of fluids and solutes through the soil. Fractal/Multifractal methods have been increasingly applied to quantify soil structure thanks to the advances in computer technology (Tarquis et al., 2003). There is no doubt that computed tomography (CT) has provided an alternative for observing intact soil structure. These CT techniques reduce the physical impact to sampling, providing three-dimensional (3D) information and allowing rapid scanning to study sample dynamics in near real-time (Houston et al., 2013a). However, several authors have dedicated attention to the appropriate pore-solid CT threshold (Elliot and Heck, 2007; Houston et al., 2013b) and the better method to estimate the multifractal parameters (Grau et al., 2006; Tarquis et al., 2009). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of the algorithm applied in the multifractal method (box counting and box gliding) and the cube size on the calculation of generalized fractal dimensions (Dq) in grey images without applying any threshold. To this end, soil samples were extracted from different areas plowed with three tools (moldboard, chissel and plow). Soil samples for each of the tillage treatment were packed into polypropylene cylinders of 8 cm diameter and 10 cm high. These were imaged using an mSIMCT at 155keV and 25 mA. An aluminium filter (0.25 mm) was applied to reduce beam hardening and later several corrections where applied during reconstruction. References Elliot, T.R. and Heck, R.J. 2007. A comparison of 2D and 3D thresholding of CT imagery. Can. J. Soil Sci., 87(4), 405-412. Grau, J, Médez, V.; Tarquis, A.M., Saa, A. and Díaz, M.C.. 2006. Comparison of gliding box and box-counting methods in soil image analysis. Geoderma, 134, 349-359. González-Torres, Iván. Theory and

  2. Impact of no-till and conventional tillage practices on soil chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.; Bangash, N.

    2015-01-01

    There is a global concern about progressive increase in the emission of greenhouse gases especially atmosphere CO/sub 2/. An increasing awareness about environmental pollution by CO/sub 2/ emission has led to recognition of the need to enhance soil C sequestration through sustainable agricultural management practices. Conservation management systems such as no-till (NT) with appropriate crop rotation have been reported to increase soil organic C content by creating less disturbed environment. The present study was conducted on Vanmeter farm of The Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to estimate the effect of different tillage practices with different cropping system on soil chemical properties. Tillage treatments were comprised of conventional tillage (CT) and No-till (NT).These treatments were applied under continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW) cropping system following randomized complete block design. No-till treatment showed significant increase in total C (30%), active C (10%), and passive salt extractable (18%) and microwave extractable C (8%) and total nitrogen (15%) compared to conventional tillage practices. Total nitrogen increased significantly 23 % in NT over time. Maximum effect of no-till was observed under corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea crop rotation. These findings illustrated that no-till practice could be useful for improving soil chemical properties. (author)

  3. Effects of Conventional and Conservation Tillage on Soil Hydraulic Properties of a Silty-loamy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Niels Arne; Bens, O.; Buczko, U.

    2004-01-01

    Infiltration into soils is strongly correlated with macroporosity. Under agricultural land use, the properties of the macropore network are governed by the applied management and tillage system. On an experimental site with a silt loam soil partly under conventional and conservation tillage, the ......, conservation tillage could possibly offer a means to reduce surface runoff and flood generation in agricultural landscapes dominated by silty-loamy soils. d 2...

  4. Rendimento de grãos de soja em função de diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas Soybean yield associated to different soil tillage methods and crop rotations systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas sobre o rendimento de grãos e componentes do rendimento de soja durante seis anos. Foram comparados quatro sistemas de manejo de solo - 1 plantio direto, 2 cultivo mínimo, no inverno e semeadura direta, no verão, 3 preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos, no inverno e semeadura direta, no verão e 4 preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas, no inverno e semeadura direta, no verão - e três sistemas de rotação de culturas: sistema I (trigo/soja, sistema II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo e sistema III (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo e aveia branca/soja. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. O rendimento de grãos e o peso de 1.000 grãos de soja cultivada sob plantio direto e sob cultivo mínimo foi superior ao de soja cultivada sob preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos e com arado de aivecas. A maior estatura de plantas de soja ocorreu no plantio direto. O rendimento de grãos de soja cultivada após trigo, no sistema II, foi superior ao de soja cultivada após aveia branca e após trigo, no sistema III, e após trigo, no sistema I. O menor rendimento de grãos, peso de grãos por planta de soja e peso de 1.000 grãos ocorreu quando em monocultura (trigo/soja.The objective of this six-year study was to assess the soil tillage systems and crop rotation systems on soybean grain and yield components were evaluated at Embrapa Trigo in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. Four soil tillage systems - 1 no-tillage, 2 minimum tillage in winter and no-tillage in summer, 3 conventional tillage with disk plow in winter and no-tillage in summer, and 4 tillage using a moldboard plow in winter and no-tillage in summer - and three crop rotation systems [system I (wheat/soybean, system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum, and system III (wheat

  5. Effect of conservation tillage and peat application on weed infestation on a clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amendment of soil with peat is an attempt to avoid crop yield variation in the transition to conservation tillage, as it improves seedbed conditions and crop growth in drought-sensitive clay soils. Weed infestations were compared in 1999-2000 between the original and peat-amended clay (Typic Cryaquept, very fine, illitic or mixed under different autumn tillage systems in an oats-barley rotation. In a field experiment, sphagnum peat (H = 4 had been spread (0.02 m 3 m -2 on the soil surface in August 1995. Tillage treatments included mouldboard ploughing (to 20 cm and stubble cultivations of different working depths (8 or 15 cm and intensity (once or twice. Weed biomass and density were assessed by an area of 1 m 2 per field plot in August 1999-2000 and June 2000. The 1999 season was dry, but soil moisture conditions were more favourable in 2000. Peat application tended to increase the number of volunteer oats and Chenopodium album in 1999, while decreasing Galium spurium biomass. Ploughing significantly increased the abundance of Chenopodium album and Lamium purpureum in barley (Hordeum vulgare in 1999. Weed infestation was much lower in 2000, and tillage effect on Chenopodium album was minor in oats (Avena sativa. Growth of Lamium purpureum and Fumaria officinalis was stimulated in ploughed soils both years. Intensity and working depth of stubble cultivation had no significant effect on weeds.;

  6. Soil workability as a basis for advice on tillage activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadena Zapata, M.

    1999-01-01

    In the tropical area of Mexico, when and how to carry out tillage is a qualitative decision. There is no quantified information about the interaction between a chosen process of cultivation, soil type and weather, which dictate the tool and power requirements. Waste of energy and soil

  7. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltrea, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Soil application of organic waste products (OWP) can maintain or increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content, which in turn could lead to increased porosity and potentially to reduced energy use for soil tillage. Only a few studies have addressed the effect of SOC content on draught force...... for soil tillage, and this still needs to be addressed for fields that receive diverse types of organic waste of urban, agricultural and agro-industrial origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in SOC induced by repeated soil application of OWP on draught force for soil...... tillage and tractor fuel consumption. Draught force was measured for tillage with conventional spring tillage tines, as well as bulk density, soil texture and SOC content in the CRUCIAL field experiment, Denmark in which diverse types of OWP had been applied annually for 11 years. The OWP included...

  8. Vertical distribution and composition of weed seeds within the plough layer after eleven years of contrasting crop rotation and tillage schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda; Melander, Bo; Kudsk, Per

    2016-01-01

    Tillage methods and crop rotation are probably the two most important cropping factors affecting weed communities, particularly when herbicide use is restricted. This study examined weed dynamics following eleven years of different tillage and crop rotation treatments. The aboveground grass weed...... flora was recorded each year and the content and vertical location of individual weed seeds within the plough layer (0–20 cm) were determined after 11 years of continuous mouldboard ploughing (P), pre-sowing tine cultivation to 8–10 cm soil depth (H8-10) and direct drilling (D). The content of weed...... seeds, especially grass weeds, was determined for three distinct soil layers (0–5, 5–10 and 10–20 cm), reflecting the cultivation depths of the tillage treatments. The annual grass weeds, Apera spica-venti and Vulpia myuros, were promoted by non-inversion tillage and in the case of V. myuros also...

  9. Assessment of tillage systems in organic farming: influence of soil structure on microbial biomass. First results

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Jean François; Peigné, Joséphine; Chaussod, Rémi; Roger-Estrade, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Soil tillage modifies environmental conditions of soil microorganisms and their ability to release nitrogen. We compare the influence of reduced tillage (RT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP) on the soil microbial functioning in organic farming. In order to connect soil structure generated by these tillage systems on the soil microbial biomass we adopt a particular sampling scheme based on the morphological characterisation of the soil structure by the description of the soil profile. This method...

  10. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    ), and moldboard plowing (MP) with and without a cover crop were evaluated in a long-term experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark. Chemical, physical, and biological soil properties were measured in the spring of 2012. The field measurements included mean weight diameter (MWD) after the drop-shatter test......, penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K......Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H...

  11. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  12. Tillage effects on N2O emission from soils under corn and soybeans in eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorich, E.G.; St-Georges, P.; McKim, U.F.; Chan, C.; Rochette, P.

    2008-01-01

    New research has suggested that no-till agricultural practices will result in higher levels of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions due to increased levels of denitrification. This study was evaluated and compared N 2 O emissions from tilled and no-till soils. Data used in the study were comprised of more than 1500 flux measurements of N 2 O taken between April and October over a period of 3 years at a site in Ottawa, Ontario. Soybean and corn crop rotations were used. Treatment effects of tillage, crop, and time of season on N 2 O fluxes were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. The study evaluated the responses of tillage during periods when soil temperatures were above 0 degrees C. Results of the studies demonstrated that fertilization management practices contributed to the higher N 2 O emissions observed in soils planted with corn when compared with soils planted with soybeans. Biological nitrogen (N) fixation in soybeans did not contribute to annual N 2 O emissions, and the effects of tillage on N 2 O emissions varied from year to year. The tilled soils typically had better aeration, higher temperatures, and lower water content than no-till soils. N 2 O emissions from no-till soils were lower than rates observed in tilled soils in 2 of the 3 years studied. Higher emissions observed in no-till soils were attributed to timing and the method of fertilizer placement. It was concluded that further studies are needed to develop methods of improving N use efficiency within tillage systems. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  13. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON NODULATION AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jug

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary soil tillage for different crops in Croatia is generally based on mouldboard ploughing which is the most expensive for crops production. Negative effects due to frequent passes by equipment and machines (deterioration of soil structure, soil compaction, lower biogenity and soil tilth, together with negative economical and energetical costs, can be lowered and avoided by introduction of reduced soil tillage or direct drilling (No-tillage. Accordingly, the main goal of this research was to determine effects of conventional and reduced soil tillage systems on yield components and nodulation ability of nitrogen fixing bacteria in soybean crop. The research was established at chernozem soil type of northern Baranja as monofactorial completely randomized block design in four repetitions. The soil tillage variants were as follows: CT Conventional Tillage (primary soil tillage by moldboard ploughing at 25-30 cm depth, DH Multiple Diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, and NT No-tillage system. Results show significantly lower plant density, mass of 1000 grains and grain yield at variants with reduced soil tillage in both investigation years. However, reduced tillage systems had positive trend on nitrogen-fixing bacteria nodulation, since the highest values of number and mass of nodules per plant were recorded. This research was run during the years 2002 and 2003, the last one extremely droughty, thus it requires continuation.

  14. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON NODULATION AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jug; Mihaela Blažinkov; S. Redžepović; Irena Jug; B. Stipešević

    2005-01-01

    The primary soil tillage for different crops in Croatia is generally based on mouldboard ploughing which is the most expensive for crops production. Negative effects due to frequent passes by equipment and machines (deterioration of soil structure, soil compaction, lower biogenity and soil tilth), together with negative economical and energetical costs, can be lowered and avoided by introduction of reduced soil tillage or direct drilling (No-tillage). Accordingly, the main goal of this resear...

  15. [Effects of Tillage on Soil Respiration and Root Respiration Under Rain-Fed Summer Corn Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xing-li; Liao, Yun-cheng

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of different tillage systems on soil respiration and root respiration under rain-fed condition. Based on a short-term experiment, this paper investigated soil respiration in summer corn growth season under four tillage treatments including subsoiling tillage (ST), no tillage (NT), rotary tillage (RT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT). The contribution of root respiration using root exclusion method was also discussed. The results showed that soil respiration rate presented a single peak trend under four tillage methods during the summer corn growing season, and the maximum value was recorded at the heading stage. The trends of soil respiration were as follows: heading stage > flowering stage > grain filling stage > maturity stage > jointing stage > seedling stage. The trends of soil respiration under different tillage systems were as follows: CT > ST > RT > NT. There was a significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperatures (P soil respiration using exponential function equation. However, there was no significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil moisture. Root respiration accounted for 45.13%-56.86% of the proportion of soil respiratio n with the mean value 51.72% during the summer corn growing season under different tillage systems. Therefore, root exclusion method could be used to study the contribution of crop growth to carbon emission, to compare effects of different tillage systems on the contribution of root respiration provides the bases for selecting the measures to slow down the decomposition of soil carbon.

  16. ECONOMICS RESULTS OF WHEAT PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE WAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kanisek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat consumption in the world increases and its importers are some European countries too. The present price of wheat grain will make selling at the market difficult for manufactures from the Republic of Croatia. Conditions and results of four year organizational - economical investigations of conventional and four ways of reduced soil tillage at wheat production are displayed in this paper. Total of 9.35 hours/ha of machinery work and 114.3 l/ha of fuel are consumed at conventional soil tillage. Total costs are 1660 DM/ha. Price of grain is 276.71 DM/t and profit amounts to 187.83 DM/ha. If the soil tillage is done by a disk harrow costs of the machinery work reduce to 471.36 DM/ha and profitability amounts to 16.5%. When soil tillage is done by multitiller with classical sowing, a yield of 5.65 t/ha st price of 273.37 DM/t and investment profitability 12.7% are obtained. Direct sowing by a Rotosem, without previous tillage, requires 11.66 hours/ha of human work and 7.18 hours/ha of machinery work. to meet the total costs 4.9 t/ha of grains need. In order to get equipment, 98 t of grains from land of 17.5 ha should be given annually during the period of 8 years. Plughing and sowing by Rotosem give 5.9 t/ha grains at price of 279.36 DM/t. Total energy cost at conventional production is 30085 and at reduced one it is 27972 MJ/ha.

  17. Effects of tillage during the nonwaterlogged period on nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions in typical Chinese rice-wheat rotation ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zhou, Zaixing; Zheng, Xunhua; Xie, Baohua; Liu, Chunyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Zhu, Jianguo

    2010-03-01

    Tillage practices result in major changes to soil environmental conditions and to the distribution of crop residues and nutrients in the soil profile, which may consequently affect the biogenic production and emission of N trace gases. To investigate the effects of tillage during the nonwaterlogged period on nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in rice-wheat rotation systems, we performed field experiments at three sites (Suzhou, Wuxi, and Jiangdu) in the Yangtze River Delta using static chamber techniques. The results showed that the effect of tillage on the emissions of both gases differed among the three field sites due to differences in agricultural management and soil texture. At the site with a light soil texture (Jiangdu: sandy loam), no tillage resulted in reduced NO emissions (0.5 kg N ha-1) as compared to conventionally tilled fields (0.9 kg N ha-1; p tillage plots showed significantly higher emissions (p tillage resulted in lower NO and higher N2O emissions from either N fertilized or unfertilized fields even though these results were not statistically significant. In the silty clay loam soils (Suzhou), which showed the highest soil organic carbon contents and the highest rates of N trace gas emissions in all three of the investigated sites, reduced tillage resulted in much higher NO emissions, whereas N2O emissions were not obviously influenced by tillage practices (reduced tillage versus tillage: NO, 9.5 versus 5.4 kg N ha-1; N2O, 10.6 versus 9.0 kg N ha-1). Similar effects of tillage were observed for the direct emission factors of the applied N during the wheat season. The observed emission factors for the different sites ranged from 0.3% to 2.4% for N2O (mean: 1.0%) and from 0.1% to 4.0% (mean: 0.9%) for NO, respectively. The observed site-to-site differences in emission factors are most likely the results of variations in soil properties (such as texture and pH) and agricultural practices (such as tillage and crop residue management

  18. Effect of Soil Tillage Practices on Dynamic of Bacterial Communities in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka; Mihaela Blažinkov; Viviane Radl; Danijel Jug; Nataša Hulak; Sulejman Redžepović; Michael Schloter

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that intensive tillage has notable effect on properties of the soil microbiota that may influence numerous important soils functions, e.g. mobilization of nutrients or change of the overall emission rates of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate dynamic of microbial communities in soil planted with soybean under different tillage systems. Moreover, abundance of populations harboring the nitrous- oxide reductase gene (nosZ) a...

  19. Soil tillage conservation and its effect on erosion control, water management and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Dr.; Gus, Dr.; Bogdan, Dr.; Moraru, Dr.; Pop, Dr.; Clapa, Dr.; Pop, Drd.

    2009-04-01

    The energetic function of the soil expressed through the potential energy accumulated through humus, the biogeochemical function (the circuit of the nutrient elements) are significantly influenced by its hydrophysical function and especially by the state of the bedding- consolidation, soil capacity of retaining an optimal quantity of water, and then its gradual disponibility for plant consumption. The understanding of soil functions and management including nutrient production, stocking, filtering and transforming minerals, water , organic matter , gas circuit and furnishing breeding material, all make the basis of human activity, Earth's past, present and especially future. The minimum tillage soil systems - paraplow, chisel or rotary grape - are polyvalent alternatives for basic preparation, germination bed preparation and sowing, for fields and crops with moderate loose requirements being optimized technologies for: soil natural fertility activation and rationalization, reduction of erosion, increasing the accumulation capacity for water and realization of sowing in the optimal period. By continuously applying for 10 years the minimum tillage system in a crop rotation: corn - soy-bean - wheat - potato / rape, an improvement in physical, hydro-physical and biological properties of soil was observed, together with the rebuilt of structure and increase of water permeability of soil. The minimum tillage systems ensure an adequate aerial-hydrical regime for the biological activity intensity and for the nutrients solubility equilibrium. The vegetal material remaining at the soil surface or superficially incorporated has its contribution to intensifying the biological activity, being an important resource of organic matter. The minimum tillage systems rebuild the soil structure, improving the global drainage of soil which allows a rapid infiltration of water in soil. The result is a more productive soil, better protected against wind and water erosion and needing less

  20. Crop rotations and poultry litter impact dynamic soil chemical properties and soil biota long-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic soil physiochemical interactions with conservation agricultural practices and soil biota are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims to quantify long-term (12-yr) impacts of cover crops, poultry litter, crop rotations, and conservation tillage and their interactions on soil physiochemica...

  1. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil with poultry litter applications in conventional and conservation tillage systems in northern Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, T; Reddy, K C; Reddy, S S; Nyakatawa, E Z; Raper, R L; Reeves, D W; Lemunyon, J

    2008-01-01

    Increased CO2 release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage has generated concerns about contributions to global warming. Maintaining current levels of soil C and/or sequestering additional C in soils are important mechanisms to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere through production agriculture. We conducted a study in northern Alabama from 2003 to 2006 to measure CO2 efflux and C storage in long-term tilled and non-tilled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plots receiving poultry litter or ammonium nitrate (AN). Treatments were established in 1996 on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typic Paleudults) and consisted of conventional-tillage (CT), mulch-tillage (MT), and no-tillage (NT) systems with winter rye [Secale cereale (L.)] cover cropping and AN and poultry litter (PL) as nitrogen sources. Cotton was planted in 2003, 2004, and 2006. Corn was planted in 2005 as a rotation crop using a no-till planter in all plots, and no fertilizer was applied. Poultry litter application resulted in higher CO2 emission from soil compared with AN application regardless of tillage system. In 2003 and 2006, CT (4.39 and 3.40 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and MT (4.17 and 3.39 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) with PL at 100 kg N ha(-1) (100 PLN) recorded significantly higher CO2 efflux compared with NT with 100 PLN (2.84 and 2.47 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Total soil C at 0- to 15-cm depth was not affected by tillage but significantly increased with PL application and winter rye cover cropping. In general, cotton produced with NT conservation tillage in conjunction with PL and winter rye cover cropping reduced CO2 emissions and sequestered more soil C compared with control treatments.

  2. Atrazine degradation and enzyme activities in an agricultural soil under two tillage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahía, Jorge; Martín, Angela; Carballas, Tarsy; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2007-05-25

    The content of atrazine and its metabolites (hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine) as well as the activities of two soil enzymes (urease and beta-glucosidase) were evaluated in an acid agricultural soil, located in a temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain), with an annual ryegrass-maize rotation under conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT). Samples were collected during two consecutive years from the arable layer at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm) and different times after atrazine application. Hydroxyatrazine and deisopropylatrazine were the main metabolites resulting from atrazine degradation in the acid soil studied, the highest levels being detected in the surface layer of the NT treatment. A residual effect of atrazine was observed since hydroxyatrazine was detected in the arable layer (0-5 cm, 5-20 cm) even one year after the herbicide application. Soil enzyme activities in the upper 5 cm layer under NT were consistently higher than those in the same layer under CT. Urease and beta-glucosidase activities decreased with depth in the profile under NT but they did not show any differences between the two depths for the plots under CT. For both tillage systems enzyme activities also reflected temporal changes during the maize cultivation; however, no consistent effect of the herbicide application was observed.

  3. Effects of Tillage Systems on Changes of Soil Nutrients, Yield and Land Equivalent Ratio in Roselle – Green Gram Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hodiani mehr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping is one of the components of sustainable agriculture and as part of crop rotation in the design of sustainable system. One of the benefits of intercropping is greater use of available resources. The aims of this study were to evaluate different tillage systems and cropping patterns of Roselle and Green Gram on some soil nutrients and the use efficiency of environmental resources. Usually, intercropping used at Low fertility soil with low input conditions in the tropics region. Bahrani et al. (2007 reported that no tillage systems compared with conventional tillage with crop residue, were increased soil organic carbon content in maize production. Ramroudi et al. (2011 expressed conventional tillage reduced amount of nitrogen compared to no tillage system. Material and Methods The research was conducted at Zabol city. Split plot experiment performed based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plot was three levels of tillage system (zero (without plowing, reduced (disk and conventional tillage (disc plow and sub plot was planting ratio with five levels (pure culture of Roselle, pure culture of Green gram, 50% roselle+50% green gram, 25% roselle+75% green gram, 75% roselle+25% green gram were considered. Preparing the ground in mid-June 2012, according to the type of plowing was performed. For comparison of means were used by Duncan's test at 5% probability. Results and Discussion The effects of tillage systems, planting ratios and interaction of tillage systems × planting ratio on soil organic carbon and nitrogen were very significant. The highest and lowest levels of organic carbon were obtained in zero tillage (1.14% and conventional tillage systems (0.63 %, respectively. The highest and lowest nitrogen of soil after harvest, of pure culture of Green gram (0.11 % and 75 % of Roselle + 25% Green gram intercropping (0.06 % were obtained respectively, Tillage system could not affected the

  4. Effects of no tillage on the abundance and diversity of soil and olive tree canopy arthropods.

    OpenAIRE

    Lousão, C.; Bento, Albino; Campos, M.; Ruano, F.; Pereira, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Soil tillage is a traditional practice in the olive groves of Trás-os-Montes region (Northeast of Portugal) where the soil is maintained without any vegetal cover. However, this agronomic practice may have dangerous environmental effects of several orders. In this way, with the present work we aimed to contribute for the knowledge about the effect of two soil management practices in the olive grove (traditional tillage in comparison to no tillage) on the arthropods abundance an...

  5. YIELD OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L. ON DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE VARIANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Jug

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced tillage, as well as the most reduced tillage – No-till – every year are becoming more important in our region. Unfortunately, the areas under reduced tillage are still very small. In order to establish optimal system of reduced soil tillage, the experimental trials were set on Chernozem soil type in northern Baranja during three vege¬tation seasons (1998/1999-2000/2001 and five soil tillage systems: CT Conventional Tillage (primary soil tillage by moldboard ploughing at 30-35 cm depth, DH Multiple Diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, CH Chiseling and diskharrowing (chiseling at 30-35 cm and diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, PD One diskharro-wing pass (diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, and NT No-tillage system. The highest yields were recor¬ded at CT with three-year average of 9.29 t/ha, followed by CH with 8.37 t/ha, DH with 8.07 t/ha, PD with 6.99 t/ha, whereas the lowest yields were recorded at NT treatment, with three-year average of 5.94 t/ha. The highest profit was achieved at CT treatment (665,34 HRK/ha, followed by CH (189,24 HRK/ha, DH (77,20 HRK/ha, PD (-334,95 HRK/ha and NT (-459,81 HRK/ha.

  6. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Information about the quantitative effect of conservation tillage combined with a cover crop on soil structure is still limited. This study examined the effect of these management practices on soil pore characteristics of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial. The tillage treatments (main...... plots) included direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H), and moldboard plowing (MP). The cover crop treatments were subplot with cover crop (+CC) and without cover crop (−CC). Minimally disturbed soil cores were taken from the 4- to 8-, 12- to 16-, and 18- to 27-cm depth intervals...... in the spring of 2012 before cultivation. Soil water retention and air permeability were measured for matric potentials ranging from −1 to −30 kPa. Gas diffusivity was measured at −10 kPa. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was also used to characterize soil pore characteristics. At the 4- to 8- and 18- to 27-cm...

  7. Planning soil tillage using quality function deployment (QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian forest sector represents about 4% of gross domestic product (GDP which is correspondent to US$ 21.0 billion. The natural forest area is approximately 4.8 million hectares and for the near future there will be a need to increase the planted area. To avoid or minimize the impact of mechanized practices on forest soils, the reduced tillage has been developed. The aim of this work is to define the technical priorities of the reduced tillage for eucalyptus seedlings, using quality function deployment (QDF. The design requirements classified as the most important to attend seedling demands were the furrow width and depth, and clod sizes. QFD has the potential to be applied to agro-forestry systems to translate plant demands into technical requirements.

  8. Spatial Distribution of Soil Fauna In Long Term No Tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, J. Z. F.; Vieira, S. R.; Siqueira, G. M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil is a complex system constituted by living beings, organic and mineral particles, whose components define their physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil fauna plays an important role in soil and may reflect and interfere in its functionality. These organisms' populations may be influenced by management practices, fertilization, liming and porosity, among others. Such changes may reduce the composition and distribution of soil fauna community. Thus, this study aimed to determine the spatial variability of soil fauna in consolidated no-tillage system. The experimental area is located at Instituto Agronômico in Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil). The sampling was conducted in a Rhodic Eutrudox, under no tillage system and 302 points distributed in a 3.2 hectare area in a regular grid of 10.00 m x 10.00 m were sampled. The soil fauna was sampled with "Pitfall Traps" method and traps remained in the area for seven days. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to determine the main statistical moments (mean variance, coefficient of variation, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis). Geostatistical tools were used to determine the spatial variability of the attributes using the experimental semivariogram. For the biodiversity analysis, Shannon and Pielou indexes and richness were calculated for each sample. Geostatistics has proven to be a great tool for mapping the spatial variability of groups from the soil epigeal fauna. The family Formicidae proved to be the most abundant and dominant in the study area. The parameters of descriptive statistics showed that all attributes studied showed lognormal frequency distribution for groups from the epigeal soil fauna. The exponential model was the most suited for the obtained data, for both groups of epigeal soil fauna (Acari, Araneae, Coleoptera, Formicidae and Coleoptera larva), and the other biodiversity indexes. The sampling scheme (10.00 m x 10.00 m) was not sufficient to detect the spatial

  9. EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  10. Fungal Communities in Rhizosphere Soil under Conservation Tillage Shift in Response to Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziting Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation tillage is an extensively used agricultural practice in northern China that alters soil texture and nutrient conditions, causing changes in the soil microbial community. However, how conservation tillage affects rhizosphere and bulk soil fungal communities during plant growth remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of long-term (6 years conservation (chisel plow, zero and conventional (plow tillage during wheat growth on the rhizosphere fungal community, using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene and quantitative PCR. During tillering, fungal alpha diversity in both rhizosphere and bulk soil were significantly higher under zero tillage compared to other methods. Although tillage had no significant effect during the flowering stage, fungal alpha diversity at this stage was significantly different between rhizosphere and bulk soils, with bulk soil presenting the highest diversity. This was also reflected in the phylogenetic structure of the communities, as rhizosphere soil communities underwent a greater shift from tillering to flowering compared to bulk soil communities. In general, less variation in community structure was observed under zero tillage compared to plow and chisel plow treatments. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal orders Capnodiales, Pleosporales, and Xylariales contributed the highest to the dissimilarities observed. Structural equation models revealed that the soil fungal communities under the three tillage regimes were likely influenced by the changes in soil properties associated with plant growth. This study suggested that: (1 differences in nutrient resources between rhizosphere and bulk soils can select for different types of fungi thereby increasing community variation during plant growth; (2 tillage can alter fungal communities' variability, with zero tillage promoting more stable communities. This work suggests that long-term changes in

  11. Soil nitrogen dynamics and leaching under conservation tillage in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation tillage (CsT) involves management that reduces soil erosion by maintaining crop residue cover on farm fields. Typically, both infiltration and soil organic matter increase over time with CsT practices. We compared the impact of a commonly used CsT practice, strip tillage (ST), to conven...

  12. Soil water retention as affected by tillage and residue management in semiarid Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bescansa, P.; Imaz, M.J.; Virto, I.; Enrique, A.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation tillage preserves soil water and this has been the main reason for its rapid dissemination in rainfed agriculture in semiarid climates. We determined the effects of conservation versus conventional tillage on available soil water capacity (AWC) and related properties at the end of 5

  13. Relating soil microbial activity to water content and tillage-induced differences in soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Petersen, Søren O

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have identified optima in soil water content for aerobic microbial activity, and this has been ascribed to a balance between gas and solute diffusivity as limiting processes. We investigated the role of soil structure, as created by different tillage practices (moldboard ploughing......, MP, or shallow tillage, ST), in regulating net nitrification, applied here as an index of aerobic microbial activity. Intact soil cores were collected at 0–4 and 14–18 cm depth from a fine sandy (SAND) and a loamy (LOAM) soil. The cores were drained to one of seven matric potentials ranging from − 15...... content to a maximum and then decreased. This relationship was modelled with a second order polynomium. Model parameters did not show any tillage effect on the optimum water content, but the optimum coincided with a lower matric potential in ST (SAND: − 140 to –197 hPa; LOAM: − 37 to − 65 hPa) than in MP...

  14. Long-term C-CO2 emissions and carbon crop residue mineralization in an oxisol under different tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil C-CO2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM. The main soil C-CO2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification, mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 ºC. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a conventional tillage (CT and (b no tillage (NT in combination with three cropping systems: (a R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat, (b R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat, and (c R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/ black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat. The soil C-CO2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements, by trapping the CO2 in an alkaline solution. The soil gravimetric moisture in the 0-0.05 m layer was determined concomitantly with the C-CO2 efflux measurements. The crop residue C mineralization was evaluated with the mesh-bag method, with sampling 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days after the beginning of the evaluation period for C measurements. Four C conservation indexes were used to assess the relation between C-CO2 efflux and soil C stock and its compartments. The crop residue C mineralization fit an exponential model in time. For black oat, wheat and maize residues, C mineralization was higher in CT than NT, while for soybean it was similar. Soil moisture was higher in NT than CT, mainly in the second year of evaluation. There was no difference in tillage systems for annual average C-CO2 emissions, but in some individual evaluations, differences between

  15. Effect of simulated tillage on microbial autotrophic CO2 fixation in paddy and upland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Tida; Wu, Xiaohong; Liu, Qiong; Zhu, Zhenke; Yuan, Hongzhao; Wang, Wei; Whiteley, A. S.; Wu, Jinshui

    2016-01-01

    Tillage is a common agricultural practice affecting soil structure and biogeochemistry. To evaluate how tillage affects soil microbial CO2 fixation, we incubated and continuously labelled samples from two paddy soils and two upland soils subjected to simulated conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) treatments. Results showed that CO2 fixation (14C-SOC) in CT soils was significantly higher than in NT soils. We also observed a significant, soil type- and depth-dependent effect of tillage on the incorporation rates of labelled C to the labile carbon pool. Concentrations of labelled C in the carbon pool significantly decreased with soil depth, irrespective of tillage. Additionally, quantitative PCR assays revealed that for most soils, total bacteria and cbbL-carrying bacteria were less abundant in CT versus NT treatments, and tended to decrease in abundance with increasing depth. However, specific CO2 fixation activity was significantly higher in CT than in NT soils, suggesting that the abundance of cbbL-containing bacteria may not always reflect their functional activity. This study highlights the positive effect of tillage on soil microbial CO2 fixation, and the results can be readily applied to the development of sustainable agricultural management. PMID:26795428

  16. Simulation of Tillage Systems Impact on Soil Biophysical Properties Using the SALUS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sartori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable land management has been defined as the management system that allows for production, while minimizing risk, maintaining quality of soil and water. Tillage systems can significantly decrease soil carbon storage and influence the soil environment of a crop. Crop growth models can be useful tools in evaluating the impact of different tillage systems on soil biophysical properties and on the growth and final yield of the crops. The objectives of this paper were i to illustrate the SALUS model and its tillage component; ii to evaluate the effects of different tillage systems on water infiltration and time to ponding, iii to simulate the effect of tillage systems on some soil biophysical properties. The SALUS (System Approach to Land Use Sustainability model is designed to simulate continuous crop, soil, water and nutrient conditions under different tillage and crop residues management strategies for multiple years. Predictions of changes in surface residue, bulk density, runoff, drainage and evaporation were consistent with expected behaviours of these parameters as described in the literature. The experiment to estimate the time to ponding curve under different tillage system confirmed the theory and showed the beneficial effects of the residue on soil surface with respect to water infiltration. It also showed that the no-tillage system is a more appropriate system to adopt in areas characterized by high intensity rainfall.

  17. Simulation of Tillage Systems Impact on Soil Biophysical Properties Using the SALUS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Basso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable land management has been defined as the management system that allows for production, while minimizing risk, maintaining quality of soil and water. Tillage systems can significantly decrease soil carbon storage and influence the soil environment of a crop. Crop growth models can be useful tools in evaluating the impact of different tillage systems on soil biophysical properties and on the growth and final yield of the crops. The objectives of this paper were i to illustrate the SALUS model and its tillage component; ii to evaluate the effects of different tillage systems on water infiltration and time to ponding, iii to simulate the effect of tillage systems on some soil biophysical properties. The SALUS (System Approach to Land Use Sustainability model is designed to simulate continuous crop, soil, water and nutrient conditions under different tillage and crop residues management strategies for multiple years. Predictions of changes in surface residue, bulk density, runoff, drainage and evaporation were consistent with expected behaviours of these parameters as described in the literature. The experiment to estimate the time to ponding curve under different tillage system confirmed the theory and showed the beneficial effects of the residue on soil surface with respect to water infiltration. It also showed that the no-tillage system is a more appropriate system to adopt in areas characterized by high intensity rainfall.

  18. Suitability of technical materials for machinery subsoilers for soil tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bednář

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil processing belongs to the basic elements in the process of crop production. Currently classic tillage method is decreasing and the only trend has stated as a shallow plowing. Suitable post harvest soil tillage greatly affects yields in the next cycle. The aim of the study is the analysis of abrasive wear of selected construction materials and their subsequent use for DXRV-HD cultivator. The performed tests are focused on monitoring the mechanical properties of the materials and their use for variable cutting tip of cultivator body. Tested materials are divided into four categories. These materials include tool steel (19436, carbon steel (12050, cast iron with globular graphite and welding material supplied as a functional complex on low carbon steel by the Abraweld company. These materials are tested together with the original part of share cultivator. The present experiment is focused on metallorgraphic, mechanical and abrasive analysis. Structural component of the material is identified by metallographic photos and then compared with the impact strength tested on Charpy hammer. Followed the abrasion resistance according to CSN 01 5084 and the total evaluation of the tested samples are done.

  19. Effects of tillage on the Fe oxides activation in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangyu; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Taihui

    2009-07-01

    Since mid-1950s, the wetland ecosystems in Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China have been experiencing greater changes in land use, which had negative effects on the soil environments. This study assessed the effects of soil tillage on the activation of soil Fe in the region. The test ecosystems included natural wetland, paddy field and upland field converted from wetland. Soil samples at the depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, 40-60 cm, 60-90 cm and 90-120 cm were collected from each of the ecosystems for the analysis of vertical distribution of soil pH, organic carbon, chelate Fe oxides and Fe(II). The results showed that the conversion of wetland into paddy field and upland field induced a decrease of organic carbon content in 0-10 cm soil layer by 61.8% (P carbon showed that chelate Fe oxides and Fe(II) was correlated positively with soil organic carbon and chelate ratio had a more positive relationship with organic carbon than chelate Fe oxides and Fe(II). The results of chelate Fe oxides, Fe(II) and chelate ratio of Fe suggested that reclamation could prevent the Fe activation and organic matter is credited for having an important influence on the process of Fe activation.

  20. Surface water ponding on clayey soils managed by conventional and conservation tillage in boreal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. ALAKUKKU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface water ponding and crop hampering due to soil wetness was monitored in order to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage practices and perennial grass cover on soil infiltrability for five years in situ in gently sloping clayey fields. Thirteen experimental areas, each having three experimental fields, were established in southern Finland. The fields belonged to: autumn mouldboard ploughing (AP, conservation tillage (CT and perennial grass in the crop rotation (PG. In the third year, direct drilled (DD fields were established in five areas. Excluding PG, mainly spring cereals were grown in the fields. Location and surface area of ponded water (in the spring and autumn as well as hampered crop growth (during June-July were determined in each field by using GPS devices and GIS programs. Surface water ponding or crop hampering occurred when the amount of rainfall was clearly greater than the long-term average. The mean of the relative area of the ponded surface water, indicating the risk of surface runoff, and hampered crop growth was larger in the CT fields than in the AP fields. The differences between means were, however, not statistically significant. Complementary soil physical measurements are required to investigate the reasons for the repeated surface water ponding.;

  1. Microbiological parameters as indicators of soil quality under various soil management and crop rotation systems in southern Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCHINI, J. C.; CRISPINO, C. C.; SOUZA, R. A.; TORRES, E.; HUNGRIA, M.

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record This article attempts to recognize soil parameters that can be used to monitor soil quality under different crop and soil management systems. The rates of CO2 emissions (soil respiration) were affected by variations in the sampling period, as well as in soil management and crop rotation. Considering all samples, CO2 emissions were 21% greater in conventional tillage. Soil microbial biomass was also influenced by sampling period and soil management, but not by crop rota...

  2. Translocation of Soil Particles during Secondary Soil Tillage along Contour Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Petr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A high percentage of arable land and erosion risk on agricultural land are typical of current agriculture. While tillage erosion is a less frequently studied issue, it impacts vast areas of agricultural land. Not all relationships between cultivation equipment, the gradient of the plot and other factors have been known until now. Intensive soil tillage can be a crucial erosive factor mainly when the cultivation equipment moves in a fall line direction. Nevertheless, even when the equipment moves along contour lines, soil particles can be translocated perpendicular to the direction of the equipment movement (in a fall line direction. This phenomenon has not yet been adequately studied. For measurements, a field trial with secondary tillage of soil was laid out (a seedbed preparation implement was used. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the effect of the working tools of the cultivation equipment on the crosswise and lengthwise translocation of soil particles during soil tillage. Aluminium cubes, with a side length of 16 mm, were used as tracers. Before the operation, the tracers were inserted in a row perpendicular (at a right angle to a direction of the equipment passes. After the equipment passes, position of tracers was evaluated within a two-axis grid. The trial was performed at three gradients of the plot (2°, 6° and 11°. For each gradient, the 1-pass, 2-pass and 3-pass treatments were tested. The equipment always moved along the plot contour line. After the equipment passes in all treatments, all tracers were localized on an orthogonal grid. The results of the trial demonstrate the effect of the slope gradient on the crosswise translocation of particles during secondary tillage of soil in the slope direction. The tillage equipment translocated particles in the fall line direction even if it passed along the contour line. With the increasing intensity of passes, the effect of the equipment on crosswise translocation increases

  3. The effect of tillage systems and mulching on soil microclimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Most of these traditional farmers employ zero tillage system and mulching .... Based on tillage systems, some researchers have ... The planting activity took ... tree as practised by most traditional farmers, owing to the high cost.

  4. Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenzi, Cledimar Rogério; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Tiecher, Tadeu Luis; Lorensini, Felipe; Cancian, Adriana; Stefanello, Lincon; Girotto, Eduardo; Vieira, Renan Costa Beber; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Successive swine effluent applications can substantially increase the transfer of phosphorus (P) forms in runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in the soil and transfer of P forms in surface runoff from a Hapludalf soil under no-tillage subjected to successive swine effluent applications. This research was carried out in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, from 2004 to 2007, on a Typic Hapludalf soil. Swine effluent rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha(-1) were broadcast over the soil surface prior to sowing of different species in a crop rotation. Soil samples were collected in stratified layers, and the levels of available P were determined. Samples of water runoff from the soil surface were collected throughout the period, and the available, soluble, particulate, and total P were measured. Successive swine effluent applications led to increases in P availability, especially in the soil surface, and P migration through the soil profile. Transfer of P forms was closely associated with runoff, which is directly related to rainfall volume. Swine effluent applications also reduced surface runoff. These results show that in areas with successive swine effluent applications, practices that promote higher water infiltration into the soil are required, e.g., crop rotation and no-tillage system.

  5. Effect of tillage systems and permanent groundcover intercropped with orange trees on soil enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage systems and groundcover crops intercropped with orange trees on soil enzyme activities. The experiment was performed in an Ultisol soil in northwestern Paraná State. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated [conventional tillage (CT across the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m strip width] in combination with various groundcover vegetation management systems. Soil samples were collected after five years of experimental management at a depth of 0-15 cm under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space in the following treatments: (1 CT-Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT-Arachis pintoi; (3 CT-Bahiagrass; (4 CT-Brachiaria humidicola; and (5 ST-B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and groundcover crops influenced the soil enzyme activities both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola provided higher amylase, arylsulfatase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase than other groundcover species. Strip tillage increased enzyme activities compared to the conventional tillage system.

  6. Fertilizer placement and tillage effects on phosphorus leaching in fine-textured soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of no-tillage in agricultural watersheds has resulted in substantial reductions in sediment and particulate phosphorus (P) delivery to surface waters. No-tillage, however, may result in increased losses of dissolved P in tile-drained landscapes due to the accumulation of P in surface soil l...

  7. Pesticide Interactions with N source and Tillage: Effects on soil biota and ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John; Petersen, Søren O; Elsgaard, Lars

    . This study was planned to evaluate interactions between pesticide use and other soil management factors. The study was carried out within a long-term tillage experiment using two tillage practices (no-till (NT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP), two contrasting N sources (manure and mineral fertiliser), and two...

  8. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. © 2013.

  9. Simulated soil organic carbon response to tillage, yield, and climate change in the southeastern Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive tillage, low-residue crops, and a warm, humid climate have contributed to soil organic carbon (SOC) loss in the southeastern Coastal Plains region. Conservation (CnT) tillage and winter cover cropping are current management practices to rebuild SOC; however, there is sparse long-term field...

  10. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities below the Seedbed under Two Contrasting Tillage Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florine Degrune

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct consequences for the associated ecosystem services. Although there is increasing evidence that different tillage regimes alter the soil microbiome, we have a limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of these effects. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers to explore changes in soil microbial community structure under two contrasting tillage regimes (conventional and reduced tillage either with or without crop residue retention. Soil samples were collected over the growing season of two crops (Vicia faba and Triticum aestivum below the seedbed (15–20 cm. Tillage, crop and growing stage were significant determinants of microbial community structure, but the impact of tillage showed only moderate temporal dependency. Whereas the tillage effect on soil bacteria showed some temporal dependency and became less strong at later growing stages, the tillage effect on soil fungi was more consistent over time. Crop residue retention had only a minor influence on the community. Six years after the conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, soil moisture contents and nutrient levels were significantly lower under reduced than under conventional tillage. These changes in edaphic properties were related to specific shifts in microbial community structure. Notably, bacterial groups featuring copiotrophic lifestyles or potentially carrying the ability to degrade more recalcitrant compounds were favored under conventional

  11. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities below the Seedbed under Two Contrasting Tillage Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrune, Florine; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Colinet, Gilles; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hartmann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct consequences for the associated ecosystem services. Although there is increasing evidence that different tillage regimes alter the soil microbiome, we have a limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of these effects. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers to explore changes in soil microbial community structure under two contrasting tillage regimes (conventional and reduced tillage) either with or without crop residue retention. Soil samples were collected over the growing season of two crops ( Vicia faba and Triticum aestivum ) below the seedbed (15-20 cm). Tillage, crop and growing stage were significant determinants of microbial community structure, but the impact of tillage showed only moderate temporal dependency. Whereas the tillage effect on soil bacteria showed some temporal dependency and became less strong at later growing stages, the tillage effect on soil fungi was more consistent over time. Crop residue retention had only a minor influence on the community. Six years after the conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, soil moisture contents and nutrient levels were significantly lower under reduced than under conventional tillage. These changes in edaphic properties were related to specific shifts in microbial community structure. Notably, bacterial groups featuring copiotrophic lifestyles or potentially carrying the ability to degrade more recalcitrant compounds were favored under conventional tillage, whereas

  12. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  13. The tillage effect on the soil acid and alkaline phosphatase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Oprica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatases (acid and alkaline are important in soils because these extracellular enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of organic phosphate esters to orthophosphate; thus they form an important link between biologically unavailable and mineral phosphorous. Phosphatase activity is sensitive to environmental perturbations such as organic amendments, tillage, waterlogging, compaction, fertilizer additions and thus it is often used as an environmental indicator of soil quality in riparian ecosystems. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of tillage systems on phosphatases activity in a field experiment carried out in Ezăreni farm. The phosphatase activitiy were determined at two depths (7-10 cm and 15-25cm layers of a chernozem soil submitted to conventional tillage (CT in a fertilised and unfertilised experiment. Monitoring soil alkaline phosphatase activity showed, generally, the same in fertilized soil profiles collected from both depths; the values being extremely close. In unfertilized soils, alkaline phosphatase activity is different only in soils that were exposed to unconventional work using disc harrows and 30cm tillage. Both works type (no tillage and conventional tillage cause an intense alkaline phosphatase activity in 7-10 cm soil profile. Acid phosphatase activity is highly fluctuating in both fertilized as well unfertilized soil, this enzyme being influenced by the performed works.

  14. The effects of forward speed and depth of conservation tillage on soil bulk density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahmoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation of tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption, and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with either primary or secondary tillage or planting operations. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Moreover, it helps easier development of root through reducing soil penetration resistance. Tillage is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save substantial amounts of fuel, time and energy consumption. Conservation tillage loosens the soil without turning, but by remaining the plant left overs, stems and roots. Bulk density reflects the soil’s ability to function for structural support, water and solute movement, and soil aeration. Bulk densities above thresholds indicate impaired function. Bulk density is also used to convert between weight and volume of soil. It is used to express soil physical, chemical and biological measurements on a volumetric basis for soil quality assessment and comparisons between management systems. This increases the validity of comparisons by removing the error associated with differences in soil density at the time of sampling. The aim of conservation tillage is to fix the soil structure. This investigation was carried out considering the advantages of conservation tillage and less scientific research works on imported conservation tillage devices and those which are made inside the country

  15. Influence of physical and chemical properties of different soil types on optimal soil moisture for tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zebec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil plasticity is the area of soil consistency, i.e. it represents a change in soil condition due to different soil moisture influenced by external forces activity. Consistency determines soil resistance in tillage, therefore, the aim of the research was to determine the optimum soil moisture condition for tillage and the influence of the chemical and physical properties of the arable land horizons on the soil plasticity on three different types of soil (fluvisol, luvisol and humic glaysol. Statistically significant differences were found between all examined soil types, such as the content of clay particles, the density of packaging and the actual and substitution acidity, the cation exchange capacity and the content of calcium. There were also statistically significant differences between the examined types of soil for the plasticity limit, liquid limit and the plasticity index. The average established value of plasticity limit as an important element for determining the optimal moment of soil tillage was 18.9% mass on fluvisol, 24.0% mass on luvisol and 28.6% mass on humic glaysol. Very significant positive direction correlation with plasticity limits was shown by organic matter, clay, fine silt, magnesium, sodium and calcium, while very significant negative direction correlation was shown by hydrolytic acidity, coarse sand, fine sand and coarse silt. Created regression models can estimate the optimal soil moisture condition for soil cultivation based on the basic soil properties. The model precision is significantly increased by introducing a greater number of agrochemical and agrophysical soil properties, and the additional precision of the model can be increased by soil type data.

  16. Long-term conventional and no-tillage effects on field hydrology and yields of a dryland crop rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch, SM, tillage as a result of improved soil conditions and water conservation, but information on long-term tillage effects on field hydrology and sustained crop production are needed. Our objective ...

  17. The influence of conservation tillage methods on soil water regimes in semi-arid southern Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupangwa, W.; Twomlow, S.; Walker, S.

    Planting basins and ripper tillage practices are major components of the recently introduced conservation agriculture package that is being extensively promoted for smallholder farming in Zimbabwe. Besides preparing land for crop planting, these two technologies also help in collecting and using rainwater more efficiently in semi-arid areas. The basin tillage is being targeted for households with limited or no access to draught animals while ripping is meant for smallholder farmers with some draught animal power. Trials were established at four farms in Gwanda and Insiza in southern Zimbabwe to determine soil water contributions and runoff water losses from plots under four different tillage treatments. The tillage treatments were hand-dug planting basins, ripping, conventional spring and double ploughing using animal-drawn implements. The initial intention was to measure soil water changes and runoff losses from cropped plots under the four tillage practices. However, due to total crop failure, only soil water and runoff were measured from bare plots between December 2006 and April 2007. Runoff losses were highest under conventional ploughing. Planting basins retained most of the rainwater that fell during each rainfall event. The amount of rainfall received at each farm significantly influenced the volume of runoff water measured. Runoff water volume increased with increase in the amount of rainfall received at each farm. Soil water content was consistently higher under basin tillage than the other three tillage treatments. Significant differences in soil water content were observed across the farms according to soil types from sand to loamy sand. The basin tillage method gives a better control of water losses from the farmers’ fields. The planting basin tillage method has a greater potential for providing soil water to crops than ripper, double and single conventional ploughing practices.

  18. N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from a fallow–wheat rotation with low N input in conservation and conventional tillage under a Mediterranean agroecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez-Rio, Angela, E-mail: angela.tellez@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Marco, Sonia [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navas, Mariela; López-Solanilla, Emilia [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas UPM-INIA. Dpto Biotecnología. E.T.S.I. Agrónomos. Technical University of Madrid. Campus Montegancedo, UPM. Autovía M-40, Salida 38 N, 36S. 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón. Madrid (Spain); Tenorio, Jose Luis [Dpto. de Medio Ambiente, INIA. Ctra. de La Coruña km. 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallejo, Antonio [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Conservation agriculture that includes no tillage (NT) or minimum tillage (MT) and crop rotation is an effective practice to increase soil organic matter in Mediterranean semiarid agrosystems. But the impact of these agricultural practices on greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}), is variable depending mainly on soil structure and short/long-term tillage. The main objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of three tillage systems (NT, MT and conventional tillage (CT)) and land-covers (fallow/wheat) on the emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} in a low N input agricultural system during one year. This was achieved by measuring crop yields, soil mineral N and dissolved organic C contents, and fluxes of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}. Total cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the tillage systems or between fallow and wheat. The only difference was produced in spring, when N{sub 2}O emissions were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fallow than in wheat subplots, and NT reduced N{sub 2}O emissions (P < 0.05) compared with MT and CT. Taking into account the water filled pore space (WFPS), both nitrification and denitrification could have occurred during the experimental period. Denitrification capacity in March was similar in all tillage systems, in spite of the higher DOC content maintained in the topsoil of NT. This could be due to the similar denitrifier densities, targeted by nirK copy numbers at that time. Cumulative CH{sub 4} fluxes resulted in small net uptake for all treatments, and no significant differences were found among tillage systems or between fallow and wheat land-covers. These results suggest that under a coarse-textured soil in low N agricultural systems, the impact of tillage on GHG is very low and that the fallow cycle within a crop rotation is not a useful strategy to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: • Tillage systems and land-covers with low N

  19. Gross mineralization of nitrogen in fertile soils. Effects of the tillage system and soil depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla, C.; Echeverria, H.; Studdert, G.

    2002-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the aim of determining the effect of different tillage systems and soil depths on gross mineralization rates (TMB). The studied soil was a Typic Argiudoll Petrocalcic Paleudoll complex, under: conventional tillage for 23 yr. (PC treatment); no tillage for 6 yr. (PD treatment), and pasture for 4 yr. (P treatment) and 0-10 and 10-20 sampling depths. TMB were estimated through 15 N dilution technique, by addition of labelled (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (10% 15 N at. exc.) at days 0, 7, 21 and 35. Twenty-four and 72 h after each addition, N inorganic content and 15 N enrichment of inorganic were determined on 2M KCl extracts in order to estimate the TMB. At 0-10 cm depth, TMB increase until day 21 and decreased afterwards. There were no significant differences between tillage treatments. At 10-20 cm soil depth PC and PD TMB were constant during the whole analysed period. P treatment had a quadratic adjust, with negative linear component. P TMB was lower than PC and PD until day 21 but afterwards it was significantly higher. These results suggest the presence in the pasture of an organic matter fraction, which mineralizes lately but with a high rate. (author)

  20. Extrapolating effects of conservation tillage on yield, soil moisture and dry spell mitigation using simulation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoga, Z. J.; Tumbo, S. D.; Kihupi, N.; Semoka, J.

    There is big effort to disseminate conservation tillage practices in Tanzania. Despite wide spread field demonstrations there has been some field experiments meant to assess and verify suitability of the tillage options in local areas. Much of the experiments are short lived and thus long term effects of the tillage options are unknown. Experiments to study long term effects of the tillage options are lacking because they are expensive and cannot be easily managed. Crop simulation models have the ability to use long term weather data and the local soil parameters to assess long term effects of the tillage practices. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) crop simulation model; was used to simulate long term production series of soil moisture and grain yield based on the soil and weather conditions in Mkoji sub-catchment of the great Ruaha river basin in Tanzania. A 24 year simulated maize yield series based on conventional tillage with ox-plough, without surface crop residues (CT) treatment was compared with similar yield series based on conservation tillage (ox-ripping, with surface crop residues (RR)). Results showed that predicted yield averages were significantly higher in conservation tillage than in conventional tillage ( P APSIM simulation model, showed that average soil moisture in the conservation tillage was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) (about 0.29 mm/mm) than in conventional tillage (0.22 mm/mm) treatment during the seasons which received rainfall between 468 and 770 mm. Similarly the conservation tillage treatment recorded significantly higher yields (4.4 t/ha) ( P < 0.01) than the conventional tillage (3.6 t/ha) treatment in the same range of seasonal rainfall. On the other hand there was no significant difference in soil moisture for the seasons which received rainfall above 770 mm. In these seasons grain yield in conservation tillage treatment was significantly lower (3.1 kg/ha) than in the conventional tillage treatment (4.8 kg

  1. Carbon fractions and soil fertility affected by tillage and sugarcane residue management an Xanthic Udult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Maria Lopes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gradual change in management practices in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. production from burning straw to a green harvesting system, as well as the use of minimum soil tillage during field renovation, may affect soil fertility and soil organic matter (SOM contents. The objectives of this work were to investigate the influence of sugar cane production systems on: (1 soil fertility parameters; (2 on physical carbon fractions; (3 and on humic substance fractions, in a long-term experiment, comparing two soil tillage and two residue management systems an Xanthic Udult, in the coastal tableland region of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of plots (conventional tillage (CT or minimum tillage (MT and subplots (residue burned or unburned at harvesting, with five replicates The highest values of Ca2+ + Mg2+ and total organic carbon (TOC were observed in the MT system in all soil layers, while high values of K+ were observed in the 0.1-0.2 m layer. The CT associated with the burned residue management negatively influenced the TOC values, especially in the 0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m layers. The carbon in the humin fraction and organic matter associated with minerals were significantly different among the tillage systems; the MT showed higher values than the CT. However, there were no significant differences between the sugarcane residue management treatments. Overall, fractioning the SOM allowed for a better understanding of tillage and residue management systems effects on the soil properties.

  2. Effect of various tillage practices on soil properties and maize growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate tillage practices are vital for good tilth that is pre-requisite for aggregate formation, soil aeration, better root development and plant growth. A field experiment of maize was carried out at the experimental site of Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam during two consecutive growing seasons 2009 and 2010. A randomized complete block design with three treatment conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT) was used in the study. Significant differences between tillage treatments were observed in the soil properties, growth and root development of plants. The NT treatment retained higher soil water contents (15.8 and 16.0%) measured at 0-20 cm depth during 2009 and 2010, respectively. Likewise, the soil bulk density (1.4 and 1.4 cm-3) was higher at this depth consequently; it resulted in greater soil strength (81 N m-2 and 79 N m-2) during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The negative and significant correlations were recorded between root dry weight and soil strengths. On the other hand, positive and significant relationship of root dry weight with mean total dry matter production and LAI was observed. Moreover, the root development related observations were significantly enhanced under CT as compared to RT and NT treatments. The results indicate that conventional tillage improve maize growth and root development by improving soil properties. (author)

  3. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  4. Tillage for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, W.

    1999-01-01

    Soil tillage is the manipulation of soil which is generally considered as necessary to obtain optimum growth conditions for a crop. In the same time the resulting modification of soil structure has serious implications for the behaviour of the soil to erosive forces by water and wind. In

  5. Comparison of runoff and soil loss in different tillage systems in the Mollisol region of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longitudinal ridge tillage is the conventional tillage method in the cold, Mollisol region of Northeast China in which furrows are oriented up and down the slope. Soil erosion is a serious problem in this region in part due to the use of this tillage system with long slope lengths. It is unclear wha...

  6. Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bramorski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR and tortuosity (T and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage soil (NTS and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking soil (CTS. Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity, demonstrating the importance of the tillage system for the physical surface conditions, favoring water retention and infiltration in the soil. The increase in surface roughness by the tillage treatments was considerably greater than its reduction by rain action. The surface roughness and tortuosity had more influence on the soil volume lost by surface runoff than in the conventional treatment. Possibly, other variables influenced soil and water losses from the no-tillage treatments, e.g., soil type, declivity, slope length, among others not analyzed in this study.

  7. Long-Term No-Tillage Direct Seeding Mode for Water-Saving and Drought-Resistance Rice Production in Rice-Rapeseed Rotation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-bin DU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of long-term no-tillage direct seeding mode on rice yield and the soil physiochemical property in a rice-rapeseed rotation system, a comparative experiment with a water-saving and drought-resistance rice (WDR variety and a double low rapeseed variety as materials was conducted under no-tillage direct seeding (NTDS mode and conventional tillage direct seeding (CTDS mode for four years, using the CTDS mode as the control. Compared with the CTDS mode, the actual rice yield of WDR decreased by 8.10% at the first year, whereas the plant height, spikelet number per panicle, spikelet fertility, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, actual yield, and harvest index increased with no-tillage years, which led to the actual yield increase by 6.49% at the fourth year. Correlation analysis showed that the panicle length was significantly related to the actual yield of WDR. Compared with the CTDS mode in terms of the soil properties, the pH value of the NTDS mode decreased every year, whereas the contents of soil organic matter and total N of the NTDS mode increased. In the 0–5 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the soil bulk decreased, whereas the contents of soil organic matter, total N, and available N increased. In the 5–20 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the available N and K decreased, whereas the soil bulk, contents of soil organic matter, and total N increased. In summary, the NTDS mode increased the rice yield, and could improve the paddy soil fertility of the top layer.

  8. Effects of soil tillage on the energy budget of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casa, R.; Cascio, B. lo

    1997-01-01

    The different terms of the energy budget were measured by the Bowen ratio method on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown on a conventional tillage and a direct drilling system. The differences found in the energy budgets varied according to the degree of fractional ground cover and of soil water availability. Soil heat flux was greater for the direct drilling treatment, although soil heating was slower as compared to the conventional tillage. Comparisons for well watered and dry conditions revealed that the conventional tillage system used as latent heat a fraction of net radiation greater than the direct drilling treatment only in well watered conditions. In dry conditions the differences in latent heat fluxes and canopy resistances between the two tillage systems were smaller [it

  9. Grassland soil tillage by three implements in an Ultisol and its physical and hydropedological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Camacho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to test the effects of soil tillage with 3 different implements on compaction, physical and hydropedological properties of an Ultisol under cattle production, located in San Mateo, Alajuela. An area of approximately 10 000 m2 was selected and divided into 16 plots (650 m2 each and was tilled with 3 different implements corresponding to the treatments, following an unrestricted random experimental design, with a plot as experimental unit. Soil without tillage (T, tillage by spader plow (PM, tillage by chisel plow (C or tillage by subsoiler (S were established as treatments. Forty days after tillage treatments, soil penetration resistance every 5 cm up to 50 cm deep was assessed, and gravimetric moisture content, bulk and particle density, water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity, all of them up to the first 10 cm deep, all of them were measured. Soil compaction, expressed as soil penetration resistance, was reduced by tillage treatments; the lowest values for soil compaction were found in the spader plow treatment (PM. This same treatment enhanced cumulated infiltration (38.70±3.60 mm at 150 min significantly, comparing with those obtained in T treatment (0.09±0.02 mm at 150 min. No significant differences were found among tillage treatments for bulk density, total porosity and airspace, but comparing with control treatment (T they were found. Subsoiler treatment (S favored the highest values for hydraulic conductivity, but no significant differences with the other treatments were found (p>0.05.

  10. The effect of different tillage and cover crops on soil quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    This paper examines the effect of different tillage treatments and cover crop on soil physical, chemical and biological properties of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial set up in 2007 at Foulum, Denmark. The experimental design is a split plot design with different tillage practices (di...... that P improved soil quality compared to H and D, especially when combined with cover crop. We also conclude that D may benefit from cover crop to yield better soil friability and hence soil quality.......This paper examines the effect of different tillage treatments and cover crop on soil physical, chemical and biological properties of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial set up in 2007 at Foulum, Denmark. The experimental design is a split plot design with different tillage practices...... (direct drilling (D), harrowing (H) to a depth of 8 cm and ploughing to a depth of 20 cm (P)) as main plot. The soil was cropped with cover crop (+CC) or left without cover crop (-CC) as split plot treatments in the main plots with different tillage treatments. We assessed topsoil structural quality...

  11. Ofloxacin sorption in soils after long-term tillage: The contribution of organic and mineral compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dandan; Chen, Bingfa; Wu, Min; Liang, Ni; Zhang, Di; Li, Hao; Pan, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Intensive human activities in agricultural areas resulted in significant alteration of soil properties, which consequently change their interactions with various contaminants. This process needs to be incorporated in contaminant behavior prediction and their risk assessment. However, the relevant study is missing. This work was designed to examine the change of soil properties and ofloxacin (OFL) sorption after tillage. Soil samples were collected in Yuanyang, Mengzi, and Dianchi areas with different agricultural activities. Although the mineral compositions of soils from Yuanyang and Dianchi differed greatly, these compositions are similar after tillage, especially for paddy soils. Soil pH decreased generally after OFL sorption, suggesting that ion exchange of OFL with protons in soil organic matter (SOM) was important for OFL sorption. However, a positive relationship between SOM and OFL sorption was not observed. On the contrary, increased SOM decreased OFL sorption when soils from the same geological location were compared. Generally speaking, tillage activities or dense vegetations greatly decreased OFL sorption. The higher OFL sorption in B horizon than A horizon suggested limited leaching of OFL through soil columns. The summed sorption calculated based on the sorption of individual soil components and their percentages in soils was higher than the intact soil. This phenomenon may be understood from the interactions between soil components, such as the coating of SOM on mineral particles. This study emphasizes that soil should be treat as a dynamic environmental matrix when assessing antibiotic behaviors and risks, especially in the area with intense human activities. - Highlights: • Mineral compositions tend to be similar after tillage. • Increased SOM decreases OFL sorption for soils from the same geological location. • Tillage activities or dense vegetations greatly decrease OFL sorption. • The summed sorption of individual soil components is

  12. Occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium species under wheat crop in zero tillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestro, L. B.; Stenglein, S. A.; Forjan, H.; Dinolfo, M. I.; Aramburri, A. M.; Manso, L.; Moreno, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    The presence of Fusarium species in cultivated soils is commonly associated with plant debris and plant roots. Fusarium species are also soil saprophytes. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium spp. at different soil depths in a zero tillage system after the wheat was harvested. Soil samples were obtained at three depths (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm) from five crop rotations: I, conservationist agriculture (wheat-sorghum-soybean); II, mixed agriculture/livestock with pastures, without using winter or summer forages (wheat-sorghum-soybean-canola-pastures); III, winter agriculture in depth limited soils (wheat-canola-barley-late soybean); IV, mixed with annual forage (wheat-oat/Vicia-sunflower); V, intensive agriculture (wheat-barley-canola, with alternation of soybean or late soybean). One hundred twenty two isolates of Fusarium were obtained and identified as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. oxysporum, F. scirpi and F. solani. The most prevalent species was F. oxysporum, which was observed in all sequences and depths. The Tukey's test showed that the relative frequency of F. oxysporum under intensive agricultural management was higher than in mixed traditional ones. The first 5 cm of soil showed statistically significant differences (p=0.05) with respect to 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths. The ANOVA test for the relative frequency of the other species as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. scirpi and F. solani, did not show statistically significant differences (p<0.05). We did not find significant differences (p<0.05) in the effect of crop rotations and depth on Shannon, Simpson indexes and species richness. Therefore we conclude that the different sequences and the sampling depth did not affect the alpha diversity of Fusarium community in this system. (Author) 51 refs.

  13. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.

  14. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  15. Soil Aggregation, Organic Carbon Concentration, and Soil Bulk Density As Affected by Cover Crop Species in a No-Tillage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil aggregation and the distribution of total organic carbon (TOC may be affected by soil tillage and cover crops. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of crop rotation with cover crops on soil aggregation, TOC concentration in the soil aggregate fractions, and soil bulk density under a no-tillage system (NTS and conventional tillage system (CTS, one plowing and two disking. This was a three-year study with cover crop/rice/cover crop/rice rotations in the Brazilian Cerrado. A randomized block experimental design with six treatments and three replications was used. The cover crops (treatments were: fallow, Panicum maximum, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha, and millet (Pennisetum glaucum. An additional treatment, fallow plus CTS, was included as a control. Soil samples were collected at the depths of 0.00-0.05 m, 0.05-0.10 m, and 0.10-0.20 m after the second rice harvest. The treatments under the NTS led to greater stability in the soil aggregates (ranging from 86.33 to 95.37 % than fallow plus CTS (ranging from 74.62 to 85.94 %. Fallow plus CTS showed the highest number of aggregates smaller than 2 mm. The cover crops affected soil bulk density differently, and the millet treatment in the NTS had the lowest values. The cover crops without incorporation provided the greatest accumulation of TOC in the soil surface layers. The TOC concentration was positively correlated with the aggregate stability index in all layers and negatively correlated with bulk density in the 0.00-0.10 m layer.

  16. Determination of crop residues and the physical and mechanical properties of soil in different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring and management of soil quality is crucial for sustaining soil function in ecosystem. Tillage is one of the management operations that drastically affect soil physical quality. Conservation tillage methods are one of the efficient solutions in agriculture to reduce the soil erosion, air pollution, energy consumption, and the costs, if there is a proper management on the crop residues. One of the serious problems in agriculture is soil erosion which is rapidly increased in the recent decades as the intensity of tillage increases. This phenomenon occurs more in sloping lands or in the fields which are lacking from crop residues and organic materials. The conservation tillage has an important role in minimizing soil erosion and developing the quality of soil. Hence, it has attracted the attention of more researchers and farmers in the recent years. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of different tillage methods has been investigated on the crop residues, mechanical resistance of soil, and the stability of aggregates. This research was performed on the agricultural fields of Urmia University, located in Nazloo zone in 2012. Wheat and barley were planted in these fields, consecutively. The soil texture of these fields was loamy clay and the factorial experiments were done in a completely randomized block design. In this study, effect of three tillage systems including tillage with moldboard (conventional tillage, tillage with disk plow (reduced tillage, chisel plow (minimum tillage and control treatment on some soil physical properties was investigated. Depth is second factor that was investigated in three levels including 0-60, 60-140, and 140-200 mm. Moreover, the effect of different percentages of crop residues on the rolling resistance of non-driving wheels was studied in a soil bin. The contents of crop residues have been measured by using the linear transects and image processing methods. In the linear

  17. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. de Carvalho; Eliete N. Eduardo; Wilk S. de Almeida; Lucas A. F. Santos; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L.) development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models...

  18. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soils

    OpenAIRE

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The long-term effects of tillage system and residue management on soil organic carbon stabilization are studied in two tropical soils in Zimbabwe, a red clay and a sandy soil. The four tillage systems evaluated were conventional tillage (CT), mulch ripping (MR), clean ripping (CR) and tied ridging (TR). Soil organic carbon (SOC) content was measured for each size fraction as well as total SOC. Based on the findings, the authors conclude that residue management - mainta...

  19. Do Tillage Methods Affect Germination and Species Similarity of Soil Weed Seeds Bank?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahgholi Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural practices such as tillage used for crop production influence the composition of the weed seed bank in the soil. In order to investigate the effects of different tillage methods on seed bank properties, species diversity and similarity, two laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out as randomized complete block design with four replications in 2011. Treatments included: once tillage per year (T1, twice tillage per year (T2, more than twice tillage (T3 and no tillage (T4. Laboratory results showed that the T3 and T4 treatments had the highest and the lowest observed seeds numbers, respectively. Between the laboratory observed weed seeds, the maximum weed seed numbers were Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus in the T3 treatment, while Chenopodium album, Polygonum aviculare and Cuscuta campestris had the highest seed numbers in the T2 treatment. At the greenhouse study, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus and Hordeum morinum in the T2 treatment were dominant species. The highest diversity was observed in the T2 treatment, and Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were dominant species in the T2 and T3 treatments. Maximum species similarity index was achieved from the T1 and T3 treatments. Thereby this study concluded that increasing of tillage number could affect the similarity index of weed seeds and subsequently alters the weed community composition.

  20. Experimental analysis of CO2 emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO 2 emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO 2 emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO 2 emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO 2 emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO 2 emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO 2 emissions from soils during the

  1. Effect of inoculum density and soil tillage on the development and severity of rhizoctonia root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K L; Paulitz, T C

    2008-03-01

    Rhizoctonia spp. cause substantial yield losses in direct-seeded cereal crops compared with conventional tillage. To investigate the mechanisms behind this increased disease, soils from tilled or direct-seeded fields were inoculated with Rhizoctonia spp. at population densities from 0.8 to 250 propagules per gram and planted with barley (Hordeum vulgare). The incidence and severity of disease did not differ between soils with different tillage histories. Both R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae stunted plants at high inoculum densities, with the latter causing pre-emergence damping-off. High inoculum densities of both species stimulated early production of crown roots in barley seedlings. Intact soil cores from these same tilled and direct-seeded fields were used to evaluate the growth of Rhizoctonia spp. from colonized oat seeds. Growth of R. oryzae was not affected by previous tillage history. However, R. solani AG-8 grew more rapidly through soil from a long-term direct-seeded field compared to tilled soils. The differential response between these two experiments (mixed, homogenized soil versus intact soil) suggests that soil structure plays a major role in the proliferation of R. solani AG-8 through soils with different tillage histories.

  2. Which soil tillage is better in terms of the soil organic matter and soil structure changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR ŠIMANSKÝ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate effects of minimum (MT and conventional tillage (CT on soil organic matter and soil structure in haplic Chernozems and mollic Fluvisols. The content of soil organic carbon (Corg as well as parameters of stability and vulnerability of soil structure were quantified. The results showed that soil type had statistically significant influence on Corg. In haplic Chernozems the Corg content near the surface (0–0.1 m was significantly higher under MT (by 6% compared to CT, however, in layer 0–0.3 m under CT the average Corg content was by 16% higher than under MT. In mollic Fulvisols under MT, the average Corg content (17.5 ± 5.4 g*kg-1 was significantly less for the 0–0.3 m layer than the CT (22.7 ± 0.4 g*kg-1. In Chernozems, total content of water-stable micro-aggregates (WSAmi was higher in MT (90.8% than in CT (69.5%. In mollic Fluvisols, the average content of WSAmi was higher in CT (62.5% than in MT (53.2%. The low aggregate stability and the high structure vulnerability were reflected also due to the high contents of WSAmi in both soils. The stability of aggregates was a higher in mollic Fluvisols than in haplic Chernozems. In haplic Chernozems, better soil structure stability was under CT than MT, on the other hand, in mollic Fluvisols, the average value of coefficient of aggregate stability was lower by 32% in CT than MT.

  3. Soil erosion measurements under organic and conventional land use treatments and different tillage systems using micro-scale runoff plots and a portable rainfall simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Song, Zhengshan; Wittwer, Raphaël; van der Heijden, Marcel; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major environmental problem of our time and negatively affects soil organic matter (SOM), aggregate stability or nutrient availability for instance. It is well known that agricultural practices have a severe influence on soil erosion by water. Several long-term field trials show that the use of low input strategies (e.g. organic farming) instead of conventional high-input farming systems leads to considerable changes of soil characteristics. Organic farming relies on crop rotation, absence of agrochemicals, green manure and weed control without herbicides. As a consequence, SOM content in the top soil layer is usually higher than on arable land under conventional use. Furthermore, the soil surface is better protected against particle detachment and overland flow due to a continuous vegetation cover and a well-developed root system increases soil stability. Likewise, tillage itself can cause soil erosion on arable land. In this respect, conservation and reduced tillage systems like No-Till or Ridge-Till provide a protecting cover from the previous year's residue and reduce soil disturbance. Many studies have been carried out on the effect of farming practices on soil erosion, but with contrasting results. To our knowledge, most of those studies rely on soil erosion models to calculate soil erosion rates and replicated experimental field measurement designs are rarely used. In this study, we performed direct field assessment on a farming system trial in Rümlang, Switzerland (FAST: Farming System and Tillage experiment Agroscope) to investigate the effect of organic farming practises and tillage systems on soil erosion. A portable single nozzle rainfall simulator and a light weight tent have been used with micro-scale runoff plots (0.4 m x 0.4 m). Four treatments (Conventional/Tillage, Conventional/No-Tillage, Organic/Tillage, Organic/Reduced-tillage) have been sampled with 8 replications each for a total of 32 runoff plots. All plots have been

  4. Soil surface roughness decay in contrasting climates, tillage types and management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Bertol, Ildegardis; Tondello Barbosa, Fabricio; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Soil surface roughness describes the variations in the elevation of the soil surface. Such variations define the soil surface microrelief, which is characterized by a high spatial variability. Soil surface roughness is a property affecting many processes such as depression storage, infiltration, sediment generation, storage and transport and runoff routing. Therefore the soil surface microrelief is a key element in hydrology and soil erosion processes at different spatial scales as for example at the plot, field or catchment scale. In agricultural land soil surface roughness is mainly created by tillage operations, which promote to different extent the formation of microdepressions and microelevations and increase infiltration and temporal retention of water. The decay of soil surface roughness has been demonstrated to be mainly driven by rain height and rain intensity, and to depend also on runoff, aggregate stability, soil reface porosity and soil surface density. Soil roughness formation and decay may be also influenced by antecedent soil moisture (either before tillage or rain), quantity and type of plant residues over the soil surface and soil composition. Characterization of the rate and intensity of soil surface roughness decay provides valuable information about the degradation of the upper most soil surface layer before soil erosion has been initiated or at the very beginning of soil runoff and erosion processes. We analyzed the rate of decay of soil surface roughness from several experiments conducted in two regions under temperate and subtropical climate and with contrasting land use systems. The data sets studied were obtained both under natural and simulated rainfall for various soil tillage and management types. Soil surface roughness decay was characterized bay several parameters, including classic and single parameters such as the random roughness or the tortuosity and parameters based on advanced geostatistical methods or on the fractal theory. Our

  5. Tillage effects on topsoil structural quality assessed using X-ray CT, soil cores and visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbout, Amin; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Søren Baarsgaard

    2013-01-01

    stratification of the 0–20 cm topsoil layer for both tillage treatments. The stratification of the direct drilled soil was in accordance with our expectations whereas it was surprising for the ploughed soil. The dense lower topsoil layer for the ploughed soil was probably caused by compaction during secondary...

  6. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  7. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities below the Seedbed under Two Contrasting Tillage Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Florine Degrune; Florine Degrune; Nicolas Theodorakopoulos; Gilles Colinet; Marie-Pierre Hiel; Marie-Pierre Hiel; Bernard Bodson; Bernard Taminiau; Georges Daube; Micheline Vandenbol; Martin Hartmann

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct conseq...

  8. Effect of tillage and crop residue on soil temperature following planting for a Black soil in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; McLaughlin, Neil; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Minggang; Liang, Aizhen

    2018-03-14

    Crop residue return is imperative to maintain soil health and productivity but some farmers resist adopting conservation tillage systems with residue return fearing reduced soil temperature following planting and crop yield. Soil temperatures were measured at 10 cm depth for one month following planting from 2004 to 2007 in a field experiment in Northeast China. Tillage treatments included mouldboard plough (MP), no till (NT), and ridge till (RT) with maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crops. Tillage had significant effects on soil temperature in 10 of 15 weekly periods. Weekly average NT soil temperature was 0-1.5 °C lower than MP, but the difference was significant (P Northeast China representative of a cool to temperate zone.

  9. Water stability of soil aggregates in different systems of Chernozem tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Bartlová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of various agrotechnical measures on macrostructural changes in the ploughing layer and subsoil were studied within the period of 2008–2010. Soil macrostructure was evaluated on the base of water stability of soil aggregates. Altogether three variants of soil tillage were established, viz. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1, deep soil loosening to the depth of 0.35–0.40 m (Variant 2, and shallow tillage to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 3. Experiments were established on a field with Modal Chernozem in the locality Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou (maize-growing region, altitude of 210 m, average annual sum of precipitation 461 mm. In the first experimental year, winter rape was the cultivated crop and it was followed by winter wheat, maize and spring wheat in subsequent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of different methods of tillage on water stability of soil aggregates and on yields of individual crops. An overall analysis of results revealed a positive effect of cultivation without ploughing on water stability of soil aggregates. In the variant with ploughing was found out a statistically significant decrease of this stability. At the same time it was also found out that both minimum tillage and deep soil loosening showed a positive effect on yields of crops under study (above all of maize and winter wheat.

  10. Urease activity and its relation to soil organic matter, microbial biomass nitrogen and urea-nitrogen assimilation by maize in a Brazilian oxisol under no-tillage and tillage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Vasconcellos, C.A.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Guedes, G.A.A.; Fernandes, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the relationship between urease activity (UA) and soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass N (Nbiom) content, and urea-N fertilizer assimilation by maize in a Dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplustox) cultivated for 9 years under no-tillage (NT), tillage with a disc plough (DP), and tillage

  11. Methodology proposal for the development of Tillage Models - (Part II) Indexes of physical-mechanic characterization of the soil and development of a tillage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano Osorno Fernando; Castillo Herran, Bernardo

    1999-01-01

    A proposal was presented for the elaboration of tillage models that allows making decisions on systems of soil preparation (including the option of zero tillage) starting with measurements of the condition of these. After following a plan of sampling of diverse physical-mechanics parameters of the soil and of a statistical process of correlation, they were chosen as representative variables: the apparent density, the cone index, the content of humidity and the cohesion (torsion box, proves in situ); not only such parameters are very related to each other, but rather they also make possible to estimate other variables of interest like the total porosity appropriately, the macro-porosity, the hydraulic conductivity and in general the soil resistance, which makes viable to choose methods of removal of the soil in function of the initial state of the same one. In the proven case it could verify the possibility to establish systems of tillage reduction

  12. The effect of different tillage methods and organic fertilizers on soil physical state and crop yield

    OpenAIRE

    Ožeraitienė, Danutė; Čiuberkis, Steponas

    2006-01-01

    The present paper summarises the data of field and laboratory trials conducted in Lithuania (Vežaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture) during the period 2003-2006. The effects of primary soil tillage: 1) deep (22-25 cm) ploughing; 2) shallow (10-12 cm) ploughing; 3) shallow (8-10 cm) tillage with a disc harrow as well as the effects of different organic fertilizers (farmyard manure, green manure and straw) on the main physical indicators of moraine loam soil (structure, bul...

  13. Seedling emergence response of rare arable plants to soil tillage varies by species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torra, Joel; Recasens, Jordi; Royo-Esnal, Aritz

    2018-01-01

    Very little information is available on emergence of rare arable plants (RAP) in relation to soil disturbance and seed burial conditions in Europe. This information is essential to design conservation and soil management strategies to prevent the decline of these species in agroecosystems. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of soil cultivation with burial time on the emergence and seed persistence of RAP. Seeds of 30 RAP species were collected from Spanish arable fields and subjected to two tillage treatments: (a) no soil disturbance, and (b) autumnal soil disturbance down to 10 cm depth every year. The treatments simulated no-till and tilled (disking), respectively. In plots under no-till, RAP seeds were sown at 1-cm depth. In the tilled plots, seeds were sown homogeneously mixed in the top 1-10 cm of soil. The trial was established every two consecutive seasons, and each trial was maintained for two years. Annual cumulative plant emergence was calculated each year; whereas the first trial was monitored for a third year to estimate seed longevity using a persistence index. The response in emergence of the 30 RAP to annual tillage varied among species. With burial time (number of years), higher emergence was observed for seeds sown in tilled soil. This was true across all species, and with strong season effects. The persistence index was correlated with seed weight, species with bigger seeds had low persistence indices while no pattern was observed for small seeded species. Most RAP species, particularly those with high persistence, showed induction of secondary dormancy processes, highlighting the importance of tillage to promote RAP emergence, and hence, seed bank replenishment. Therefore, as time passes the absence of soil tillage may represent a driver of RAP seed bank decline for those species with secondary dormancy processes. In conclusion, it is important to design soil management strategies, such as regular tillage to promote

  14. Infiltration and Soil Loss Changes during the Growing Season under Ploughing and Conservation Tillage

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    Gergely Jakab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Decreased water retention and increased runoff and soil loss are of special importance concerning soil degradation of hilly crop fields. In this study, plots under ploughing (conventional tillage (PT and conservation tillage (CT; 15 years were compared. Rainfall simulation on 6 m2 plots was applied to determine infiltration and soil loss during the growing season. Results were compared with those measured from 1200 m2 plots exposed to natural rainfalls in 2016. Infiltration was always higher under CT than PT, whereas the highest infiltration was measured under the cover crop condition. Infiltration under seedbed and stubble resulted in uncertainties, which suggests that natural pore formation can be more effective at improving soil drainage potential than can temporary improvements created by soil tillage operations. Soil erodibility was higher under PT for each soil status; however, the seedbed condition triggered the highest values. For CT, soil loss volume was only a function of runoff volume at both scales. Contrarily, on PT plots, some extreme precipitation events triggered extremely high soil loss owing to linear erosion, which meant no direct connection existed between the scales. Improved soil conditions due to conservation practice are more important for decreasing soil loss than the better surface conditions.

  15. Soil CO 2 fluxes from direct seeding rice fields under two tillage practices in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-fang; Kou, Zhi-kui; Yang, Jin-hua; Cai, Ming-li; Wang, Jin-ping; Cao, Cou-gui

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural practices affect the production and emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from paddy soils. It is crucial to understand the effects of tillage and N fertilization on soil CO 2 flux and its influencing factors for a better comprehension of carbon dynamics in subtropical paddy ecosystems. A 2-yr field study was conducted to assess the effects of tillage (conventional tillage [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) and N fertilization (0 and 210 kg N ha -1) on soil CO 2 fluxes during the 2008 and 2009 rice growing seasons in central China. Treatments were established following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices as the main plot and N fertilizer level as the split-plot treatment. The soil CO 2 fluxes were measured 24 times in 2008 and 17 times in 2009. N fertilization did not affect soil CO 2 emissions while tillage affected soil CO 2 emissions, where NT had similar soil CO 2 emissions to CT in 2008, but in 2009, NT significantly increased soil CO 2 emissions. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were 2079-2245 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 2084-2141 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2008, and were 1257-1401 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 1003-1034 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2009, respectively. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were significantly related to aboveground biomass and soil organic C. Before drainage of paddy fields, soil CO 2 fluxes were significantly related to soil temperature with correlation coefficients ( R) of 0.67-0.87 in 2008 and 0.69-0.85 in 2009; moreover, the Q 10 values ranged from 1.28 to 1.55 and from 2.10 to 5.21 in 2009, respectively. Our results suggested that NT rice production system appeared to be ineffective in decreasing carbon emission, which suggested that CO 2 emissions from integrated rice-based system should be taken into account to assess effects of tillage.

  16. Long-term effects of conventional and reduced tillage systems on soil condition and yield of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rátonyi, Tamás; Széles, Adrienn; Harsányi, Endre

    2015-04-01

    As a consequence of operations which neglect soil condition and consist of frequent soil disturbance, conventional tillage (primary tillage with autumn ploughing) results in the degradation and compaction of soil structure, as well as the reduction of organic matter. These unfavourable processes pose an increasing economic and environmental protection problem today. The unfavourable physical condition of soils on which conventional tillage was performed indicate the need for preserving methods and tools. The examinations were performed in the multifactorial long-term tillage experiment established at the Látókép experiment site of DE MÉK. The experiment site is located in the Hajdúság loess ridge (Hungary) and its soil is loess-based calcareous chernozem with deep humus layer. The physical soil type is mid-heavy adobe. The long-term experiment has a split-split plot design. The main plots are different tillage methods (autumn ploughing, spring shallow tillage) without replication. In this paper, the effect of conventional and reduced (shallow) tillage methods on soil conditions and maize yield was examined. A manual penetrometer was used to determine the physical condition and compactedness of the soil. The soil moisture content was determined with deep probe measurement (based on capacitive method). In addition to soil analyses, the yield per hectare of different plots was also observed. In reduced tillage, one compacted layer is shown in the soil resistance profile determined with a penetrometer, while there are two compacted layers in autumn ploughing. The highest resistance was measured in the case of primary tillage performed at the same depth for several years in the compacted (pan disk) layer developed under the developed layer in both treatments. The unfavourable impact of spring shallow primary tillage on physical soil conditions is shown by the fact that the compaction of the pan disk exceed the critical limit value of 3 MPa. Over the years, further

  17. Assessing Tillage Effects on Soil Hydraulic Properties via Inverse Parameter Estimation using Tension Infiltrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Andreas; Bodner, Gernot; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2010-05-01

    Hydraulic properties are key factors controlling water and solute movement in soils. While several recent studies have focused on the assessment of the spatial variability of hydraulic properties, the temporal dynamics are commonly not taken into account, primarily because its measurement is costly and time-consuming. However, there is extensive empirical evidence that these properties are subject to temporal changes, particularly in the near-saturated range where soil structure strongly influences water flow. One main source of temporal variability is soil tillage. It can improve macroporosity by loosening the soil and thereby changing the pore-size distribution. Since these modifications are quite unstable over time, the pore space partially collapses after tillage. This effect should be largest for conventional tillage (CT), where the soil is ploughed after harvest every year. Assessing the effect of different tillage treatments on the temporal variability of hydraulic properties requires adequate measurement techniques. Tension infiltrometry has become a popular and convenient method providing not only the hydraulic conductivity function but also the soil rentention properties. The inverse estimation of parameters from infiltration measurements remains challenging, despite some progress since the first approach of Šimůnek et al. (1998). Measured data like the cumulative infiltration, the initial and final volumetric water content, as well as independently measured retention data from soil core analysis with laboratory methods, have to be considered to find an optimum solution describing the soil's pore space. In the present study we analysed tension infiltration measurements obtained several times between August 2008 and December 2009 on an arable field in the Moravian Basin, Lower Austria. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage including ploughing (CT), reduced tillage with chisel only (RT), and no-tillage treatment using a direct seeding

  18. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Residue retention and reduced tillage are both conservation agricultural management options that may enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in tropical soils. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term tillage and residue management on SOC dynamics in a Chromic Luvisol (red clay soil)

  19. Soil Biochemical Changes Induced by Poultry Litter Application and Conservation Tillage under Cotton Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri Sajjala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc. have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT, and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decreased the activity of these enzymes at 10–20 cm. The increase in enzyme activity was a good indicator of intensive soil microbial activity in different soil management practices. Poultry litter (PL application under NT, MT, and rye cropping system could be considered as effective management practices due to the improvement in carbon (C content and the biochemical quality at the soil surface. The activities of the studied enzymes were highly correlated with soil total nitrogen (STN soil organic carbon (SOC at the 0–10 cm soil depth, except for acid phosphatase where no correlation was observed. This study revealed that agricultural practices such as tillage, PL, and cover crop cropping system have a noticeable positive effect on soil biochemical activities under cotton production.

  20. RESEARCHES REGARDING TO CONTROL SPECIES CONVOLVULUS ARVENSIS L. ON RELATION WITH SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS

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    Teodor RUSU

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The research paper presents the results obtained in the pedoclimatic conditions of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, concerning the control of Convolvulus arvensis L species. To determine or accomplish the relation with soil tillage systems and herbicides applied on soy-bean, wheat and maize crop. Minimum tillage systems determine an increasing percentage of Convolvulus arvensis species at weeding, different depending on experimental variant and on crop: 11.2-39.1% at soy-bean, 0.9-4.2% at wheat and 11.9-24.4% at maize crop. The number of Convolvulus arvensis seeds increases with 169% at tillage variant with disk + rotary harrow, 77% of these being located in the first 10 cm soil depth.

  1. Effect of Tillage Practices on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity in Wheat-Mungbean-Rice Cropping System under Subtropical Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Monirul; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0–15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept). PMID:25197702

  2. Tillage systems and cover crops on soil physical properties after soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil management alters soil physical attributes and may affect crop yield. In order to evaluate soil physical attributes in layers from 0 to 0.40 m and soybean grain yield, in the 2012/2013 agricultural year, an essay was installed in the experimental area of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS/CPCS. Soil tillage systems were: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no tillage (DS, the cover crops used were millet, sunn hemp and fallow. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split plots. For the layer of 0.20-0.30 m, millet provided the best results for soil bulk density, macro and microporosity. The resistance to penetration (RP was influenced in the layer of 0-0.10 m, and millet provided lower RP. The DS provided the lowest RP values for the layer of 0.10-0.20 m. The treatments did not influence yield or thousand-seed weight.

  3. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity influenced by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information exists about sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) affected by management practices to account for net emissions from agroecosystems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas...

  4. Shallow tillage effects on soil properties for temperate-region hard-setting soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    Shallow tillage (ST; typically soil physical properties and hence modifies significantly the conditions for root growth and soil biotic activity as compared to mouldboard ploughing (MP; typically ∼25 cm). At field capacity in the spring, we measured cone...... quoted 1.5 MPa critical limit for root growth. Across the 11 field experiments, the untilled ST soil at 14–18 cm generally had lower ɛa and ka than the mechanically loosened soil at the same depth for MP. Also the specific air permeability (pore organization = ka/ɛa) was lower for ST than for MP. SOC...... penetration resistance (PR) of the top 40 cm soil and sampled intact soil cores (at 0–4 and 14–18 cm depths) in 11 field experiments (4–23% clay) after continued ST and MP management for mostly 4–8 years (two experiments >30 years). Bulk soil was sampled from 0 to ∼20 cm of the MP soil and from the two layers...

  5. Tillage effects on soil quality after three years of irrigation in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation is being initiated on large areas of traditionally rainfed land to meet increasing global demand for food, feed, fiber, and fuel. However, the consequences of this transition on soil quality (SQ) have scarcely been studied. Therefore, after previously identifying the most tillage-sensitiv...

  6. [Dynamics of aquic brown soil enzyme activities under no-tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiumei; Li, Qi; Liang, Wenju; Jiang, Yong; Wen, Dazhong

    2006-12-01

    This paper studied the effects of no-tillage on the dynamics of invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities in an aquic brown soil during maize growing season. The results showed that in 0 - 10 cm soil layer, the invertase activity at jointing, trumpet-shaped and ripening stages, urease activity at jointing and booting stages, and acid phosphatase activity at booting and ripening stages were significantly higher under no-tillage (NT) than under conventional tillage (CT). In 10 - 20 cm soil layer, the invertase activity at seedling, jointing and trumpet-shaped stages was significantly different between NT and CT, and the urease activity during whole growing season except at booting stage was significantly higher under NT than under CT. In 20 - 30 cm soil layer, the invertase activity during maize growing season was significantly lower under NT than under CT, and urease activity at seedling stage and acid phosphate activity at ripening stage were significantly different between these two treatments. Under NT, there was a decreasing trend of soil enzyme activities with increasing soil depth; while under CT, soil invertase and acid phosphatase activities increased, but urease activity decreased with increasing soil depth.

  7. The Effects of Different Tillage Systems on Soil Hydrology and Erosion in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, A. V. F. A.; Fernandes, N. F.; Souza, A. P.; Miranda, J. P.; Rocha, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    Conventional tillage usually imposes a variety of modifications on soil properties that can lead to important changes in the type and magnitude of the hydrological processes that take place at the upper portion of the soil profile. Plough pan formation, for example, is considered to be an important consequence of conventional tillage practices in southeastern Brazil, decreasing infiltration rates and contributing to soil erosion, especially in steep slopes. In order to characterize the changes in soil properties and soil hydrology due to the plough pan formation we carried out detailed investigations in two experimental plots in Paty do Alferes region, located in the hilly landscape of Serra do Mar in southeastern Brazil, close to Rio de Janeiro city. Farming activities are very important in this area, in particular the ones related to the tomato production. The local hilly topography with short and steep hillslopes, as well as an average annual rainfall of almost 2000 mm, favor surface runoff and the evolution of rill and gully erosion. The two runoff plots are 22m long by 4m wide and were installed side by side along a representative hillslope, both in terms of soil (Oxisol) and steepness. At the lower portion of each plot there is a collecting trough connected by a PVC pipe to a 500 and 1000 liters sediment storage boxes. Soil tillage treatments used in the two plots were: Conventional Tillage (CT), with one plowing using disc-type plow (about 18 cm depth) and one downhill tractor leveling, in addition to burning residues from previous planting; and Minimum Tillage (MT), which did not allow burning residues from previous planting and preserved a vegetative cover between plantation lines. Runoff and soil erosion measurements were carried out in both plots immediately after each rainfall event. In order to characterize soil water movements under the two tillage systems (CT and MT), 06 nests of tensiometers and 04 nests of Watermark sensors were installed in each

  8. Chemical and physical soil attributes in integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Hernani Alves da; Moraes,Anibal de; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio; Fonseca,Adriel Ferreira da; Caires,Eduardo Fávero; Dias,Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Although integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) under no-tillage (NT) is an attractive practice for intensify agricultural production, little regional information is available on the effects of animal grazing and trampling, particularly dairy heifers, on the soil chemical and physical attributes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of animal grazing on the chemical and physical attributes of the soil after 21 months of ICLS under NT in a succession of annual winter pastur...

  9. [Effects of Short-time Conservation Tillage Managements on Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Soybean-Winter Wheat Rotation System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Chen, Xi; Hu, Zheng-hua; Chen, Shu-tao; Zhang, Han; Ling, Hui; Shen, Shuang-he

    2016-04-15

    Field experiments including one soybean growing season and one winter-wheat growing season were adopted. The experimental field was divided into four equal-area sub-blocks which differed from each other only in tillage managements, which were conventional tillage (T) , no-tillage with no straw cover ( NT) , conventional tillage with straw cover (TS) , and no-tillage with straw cover (NTS). CO₂ and N₂O emission fluxes from soil-crop system were measured by static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that: compared with T, in the soybean growing season, NTS significantly increased the cumulative amount of CO₂ (CAC) from soil-soybean system by 27.9% (P = 0.045) during the flowering-podding stage, while NT significantly declined CAC by 28.9% (P = 0.043) during the grain filling-maturity stage. Compared with T, NT significantly declined the cumulative amount of N₂O (CAN) by 28.3% (P = 0.042) during the grain filling-maturity stage. In the winter-wheat growing season, compared with T, TS and NT significantly declined CAC by 24.3% (P = 0.032) and 36.0% (P = 0.041) during the elongation-booting stage, and also declined CAC by 26.8% (P = 0.027) and 33.1% (P = 0.038) during the maturity stage. During the turning-green stage, compared with T treatment, NT, NTS, and TS treatments had no significant effect on CAN, while NTS significant declined CAN by 42.0% (P = 0.035) compared with NT. Our findings suggested that conservation tillage managements had a more significant impact on CO₂ emission than 20 emission from soil-crop system.

  10. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emission during the following winter-wheat season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Hu, Zheng-Hu; Wu, Yang-Zhou; Sun, Yin-Yin; Sheng, Lu; Chen, Shu-Tao; Xiao, Qi-Tao

    2014-07-01

    In order to study the effect of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emissions in the following crop-growing season, field experiments were conducted in the winter wheat-growing season. Four treatments were conventional tillage (T), no-tillage with no straw cover (NT), no-tillage with straw cover (NTS), and conventional tillage with straw incorporation (TS), respectively. The CO2 and N2O fluxes were measured using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that in the following winter wheat-growing season, conservation tillage did not change the seasonal pattern of CO2 and N2O emission fluxes from soil, and had no significant effect on crop biomass. Conservation tillage significantly reduced the accumulative amount of CO2 and N2O. Compared with the T treatment, the accumulative amount of CO2 under TS, NT, and NTS treatments were reduced by 5.95% (P = 0.132), 12.94% (P = 0.007), and 13.91% (P = 0.004), respectively, and the accumulative amount of N2O were significantly reduced by 31.23% (P = 0.000), 61.29% (P = 0.000), and 33.08% (P = 0.000), respectively. Our findings suggest that conservation tillage significantly reduced CO2 and N2O emission from soil in the following winter wheat-growing season.

  11. [Diversity of soil fauna in corn fields in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China under effects of conservation tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang-Gen; Zhu, An-Ning; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Huan-Chao; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Cong-Zhi

    2009-10-01

    An investigation was made on the abundance and diversity of soil fauna in the corn fields under conventional and conservation tillage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The abundance and diversity of soil fauna were higher at corn maturing (September) than at its jointing stage (July), and higher at jointing stage under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. Soil fauna mainly distributed in surface soil layer (0-10 cm), but still had a larger number in 10-20 cm layer under conservation tillage. The individuals of acari, diptera, diplura, and microdrile oligochaetes, especially those of acari, were higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. At maturing stage, an obvious effect of straw-returning under conservation tillage was observed, i. e., the more the straw returned, the higher the abundance of soil fauna, among which, the individuals of collembola, acari, coleopteran, and psocoptera, especially those of collembolan, increased significantly. The abundance of collembola at both jointing and maturing stages was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of straw returned, suggesting that collembola played an important role in straw decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  12. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N_2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N_2O and CH_4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N_2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH_4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N_2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH_4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al"3"+ toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N_2O and CH_4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH_4 emissions and, under CT, abate N_2O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N_2O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N_2O and CH_4 emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT. • NT and liming provide an opportunity for N_2O and CH_4 mitigation.

  13. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Marco, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalosrodriguez@wur.nl [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Espejo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.espejo@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallejo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.vallejo@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio, E-mail: i.mariscal@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N{sub 2}O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N{sub 2}O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH{sub 4} emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N{sub 2}O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH{sub 4} oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al{sup 3+} toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH{sub 4} emissions and, under CT, abate N{sub 2}O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N{sub 2}O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT

  14. Leaching of pesticides through normal-tillage and low-tillage soil--a lysimeter study. I. Isoproturon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomsgaard, Inge S; Spliid, Niels Henrik; Felding, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Isoproturon is a herbicide, which was used in Denmark against grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds until 1998. Isoproturon has frequently been detected in ground water monitoring studies. Leaching of isoproturon (N,N-dimethyl-N'-(4-(1-methylethyl)-phenyl)urea) and its metabolites, N'-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N-methylurea and N'-(4-isopropylphenyl)urea was studied in four lysimetres, two of them being replicates from a low-tillage field (lysimeter 3 and 4), the other two being replicates from a normal tillage field (lysimeter 5 and 6). In both cases the soil was a sandy loam soil with 13-14% clay. The lysimetres had a surface area of 0.5 m2 and a depth of 110 cm. Lysimeter 3 and 4 were sprayed with unlabelled isoproturon while lysimeter 5 and 6 was sprayed with a mixture of 14C-labelled and unlabelled isoproturon. The total amount of isoproturon sprayed onto each lysimeter was 63 mg, corresponding to 1.25 kg active ingredient per ha. The lysimeters were sprayed with isoproturon on October 26, 1997. The lysimetres were installed in an outdoor system in Research Centre Flakkebjerg and were thus exposed to normal climatic conditions of the area. A mean of 360 l drainage water were collected from lysimeter 3 and 4 and a mean of 375 litres from lysimeter 5 and 6. Only negligible amounts of isoproturon and its primary metabolites were found in the drainage water samples, and thus no significant difference between the two lysimeter sets was shown. In a total of 82 drainage water samples, evenly distributed between the four lysimetres isoproturon was found in detectable amounts in two samples and N'-(4-isopropylphenyl)urea was found in detectable amounts in two other samples. The detection limit for all the compounds was 0.02 microg/l. 48% and 54% of the added radioactivity were recovered from the upper 10 cm soil layer in lysimeter 5 and 6, respectively, and 17 and 14% from 10-20 cm's depth. By extraction first with an aquatic CaCl2 solution 0.49% of the added radioactivity was

  15. Effects of 24 Years of Conservation Tillage Systems on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24-year study was conducted in southern Illinois (USA on land similar to that being removed from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage systems on: (1 amount and rates of soil organic carbon (SOC storage and retention, (2 the long-term corn and soybean yields, and (3 maintenance and restoration of soil productivity of previously eroded soils. The no-till (NT plots did store and retain 7.8 Mg C ha−1 more and chisel plow (CP −1.6 Mg C ha−1 less SOC in the soil than moldboard plow (MP during the 24 years. However, no SOC sequestration occurred in the sloping and eroding NT, CP, and MP plots since the SOC level of the plot area was greater at the start of the experiment than at the end. The NT plots actually lost a total of −1.2 Mg C ha−1, the CP lost −9.9 Mg C ha−1, and the MP lost −8.2 Mg C ha−1 during the 24-year study. The long-term productivity of NT compared favorably with that of MP and CP systems.

  16. Carbon Storage and Carbon Dioxide Emission as Influenced by Long-term Conservation Tillage and Nitrogen Fertilization in Corn-Soybean Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although agriculture is a victim of environmental risk due to global warming, but ironically it also contributes toglobal greenhouse gas (GHG emission. The objective of this experiment was to determine the influence of long-termconservation tillage and N fertilization on soil carbon storage and CO2 emission in corn-soybean rotation system. Afactorial experiment was arranged in a randomized completely block design with four replications. The first factorwas tillage systems namely intensive tillage (IT, minimum tillage (MT and no-tillage (NT. While the second factorwas N fertilization with rate of 0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 applied for corn, and 0, 25, and 50 kg N ha-1 for soybeanproduction. Samples of soil organic carbon (SOC after 23 year of cropping were taken at depths of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-20 cm, while CO2 emission measurements were taken in corn season (2009 and soybean season (2010.Analysis of variance and means test (HSD 0.05 were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System package. At 0-5 cm depth, SOC under NT combined with 200 kg N ha-1 fertilization was 46.1% higher than that of NT with no Nfertilization, while at depth of 5-10 cm SOC under MT was 26.2% higher than NT and 13.9% higher than IT.Throughout the corn and soybean seasons, CO2-C emissions from IT were higher than those of MT and NT, whileCO2-C emissions from 200 kg N ha-1 rate were higher than those of 0 kg N ha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 rates. With any Nrate treatments, MT and NT could reduce CO2-C emission to 65.2 %-67.6% and to 75.4%-87.6% as much of IT,respectively. While in soybean season, MT and NT could reduce CO2-C emission to 17.6%-46.7% and 42.0%-74.3% as much of IT, respectively. Prior to generative soybean growth, N fertilization with rate of 50 kg N ha-1could reduce CO2-C emission to 32.2%-37.2% as much of 0 and 25 kg N ha-1 rates.

  17. Impact of tillage on soil magnetic properties: results over thirty years different cultivation plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesson, Julien; Kessouri, Pauline; Buvat, Solène; Tabbagh, Alain

    2010-05-01

    Cultivation may favour or not different processes such as air and water circulation, organic matter and fertilizers supplies..., consequently it can a priori induce significant changes in local oxido-reduction conditions which determine the magnetic properties of soils: the soil magnetic signal. If laboratory measurements on soil samples can be slow and irreversible, it is also possible to perform in field measurements by using electromagnetic devices that allow quick and easy measuring over the relevant soil thicknesses both in time (TDEM) and frequency (FDEM) domains. The object of this study is to compare the variation of two magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, measured by FDEM apparatus and magnetic viscosity measured by TDEM apparatus) and there ratio along depth for three different types of tillage (no tillage, ploughing, and simplified tillage). An experimental plot of 80 m by 50 m total area, on which these three types of tillage have been conducted for more than thirty years, was surveyed. The plot is divided in five strips of 16 m by 50 m area, each of which being cultivated by one type of tillage only. Each strip is divided in two parts, one half with nitrogen-fixing crop during intercultivation winter period and the other half with bare soil during this period. On each part, the variation along depth of both magnetic properties was assessed by surveying with different devices corresponding to three different volumes of investigation. For the magnetic susceptibility measurements the devices used were the MS2 of Bartington Ltd with the MS2D probe and the CS60 a slingram prototype use in VCP and HCP configurations. For the magnetic viscosity, the devices used were the DECCO from Littlemore ltd. And the VC100, a slingram prototype, used at two heights. Eleven values of the two magnetic properties have been recorded using each device and their medians calculated. The data were inverted to define the median magnetic profiles of each half

  18. Characterization of cover crops by NMR spectroscopy: impacts on soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus under tillage regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of cover crops by solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and its effects on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Typic Acrustox. Cover crops (Crotalaria juncea, Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan, Mucuna pruriens and Raphanus sativus and natural fallow were studied in rotation with maize under conventional and no-tillage regimes. Tissues of Crotalaria juncea, Canavalia brasiliensis, Mucuna pruriens and Raphanus sativus were analyzed using CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected at the end of the growing season of the cover crops (September 2002 and during the grain filling period in corn from 0-5 and 5-10 cm layers. Cajanus cajan presented the lowest content of polysaccharides and along with Mucuna pruriens presented the highest percentage of aromatic carbon compounds, reflecting the slow decomposition of highly lignified material. Carbon stocks were higher in the superficial soil layer and under no-tillage due to the accumulation and slower decomposition of plant tissues under these conditions. Increases in the C/N ratio of the soil with Mucuna pruriens and the C/P ratio with Cajanus cajan in the dry season were also related to slower rates of decomposition, caused by the large concentration of aromatic compounds in the tissues of these species. The higher C/P ratios found at 0-5 cm layer are due to higher values of P (Mehlich-1 at 5-10 cm (25 mg kg-1 layer and the higher concentration of carbon in the superficial soil layer as a result of the accumulation of plant residues.

  19. The influence of reduced tillage on water regime and nutrient leaching in a loamy soil

    OpenAIRE

    Baigys, Giedrius; Gaigalis, Kazimieras; Kutra, Ginutis

    2006-01-01

    The effect of tillage technologies and terms on soil moisture regime and nitrate leaching was studied in field trials carried out on 0.76-1.36-ha fields. The study site was arranged in Pikeliai village (Kėdainiai district). The soil prevailing in the study site is Endocalcari - Endohypogleic Cambisol, sandy light loam and sandy loam on deeper layers of sandy loam and sandy light loam. The arable horizon contains sandy light loam, which is characteristic of the soils prevailing in the Middle L...

  20. Experimental analysis of CO{sub 2} emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragienė, Sidona [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Šarauskis, Egidijus, E-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@asu.lt [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Romaneckas, Kęstutis, E-mail: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt [Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Science, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Sasnauskienė, Jurgita, E-mail: jurgita.sasnauskiene@asu.lt [Institute of Environment and Ecology, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Masilionytė, Laura, E-mail: laura.masilionyte@gmail.com [Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys distr. (Lithuania); Kriaučiūnienė, Zita, E-mail: zita.kriauciuniene@asu.lt [Experimental Station, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Rapsu str. 7, LT-53363 Noreikiskes, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania)

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO{sub 2} emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO{sub 2} emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO{sub 2

  1. Soil and crop residue CO2-C emission under tillage systems in sugarcane-producing areas of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate management of agricultural crop residues could result in increases on soil organic carbon (SOC and help to mitigate gas effect. To distinguish the contributions of SOC and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. residues to the short-term CO2-C loss, we studied the influence of several tillage systems: heavy offset disk harrow (HO, chisel plow (CP, rotary tiller (RT, and sugarcane mill tiller (SM in 2008, and CP, RT, SM, moldboard (MP, and subsoiler (SUB in 2009, with and without sugarcane residues relative to no-till (NT in the sugarcane producing region of Brazil. Soil CO2-C emissions were measured daily for two weeks after tillage using portable soil respiration systems. Daily CO2-C emissions declined after tillage regardless of tillage system. In 2008, total CO2-C from SOC and/or residue decomposition was greater for RT and lowest for CP. In 2009, emission was greatest for MP and CP with residues, and smallest for NT. SOC and residue contributed 47 % and 41 %, respectively, to total CO2-C emissions. Regarding the estimated emissions from sugarcane residue and SOC decomposition within the measurement period, CO2-C factor was similar to sugarcane residue and soil organic carbon decomposition, depending on the tillage system applied. Our approach may define new emission factors that are associated to tillage operations on bare or sugarcane-residue-covered soils to estimate the total carbon loss.

  2. Impact of different cropping conditions and tillage practices on the soil fungal abundance of a Phaeozem luvico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, R.P.; Aulicino, M.B.; Mónaco, C.I.; Kripelz, N.; Cordo, C.A.

    2015-07-01

    Fungal diversity seems to be a good indicator of ecosystem disturbance and functioning. The purpose of this work was to quantify the fungal population as a sensitive indicator of the changes caused by stubble placement in two tillage systems: reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) with and without cropping. To this end, we determined the effect of soil disturbances such as N fertilization, tillage practice, and cropped area on the soil fungal communities of a Phaeozem luvico of the El Salado river basin (Argentina). Soil samples (at 0-10 cm depth) were collected from a field cultivated with wheat at post-harvest, before sowing and at tillering. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was studied on Nash Snyder and Oxgall agar media after different treatments and assessed as colony forming units (CFU/gof soil). The diversity of the fungal population was studied by Shannon´s index (H). The tillage system showed a marked effect only at post-harvest and the number of propagules was highest under RT for both culture media. The largest values of H were found only at post-harvest when Oxgall agar was used. A significant decrease in the values of H was observed when CT and high fertilization was applied in the wheat cropped area. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was different in soils under the different tillage practices. (Author)

  3. Characterization of tillage effects on soil permeability using different measures of macroporosity derived from tension infiltrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, G.; Schwen, A.; Scholl, P.; Kammerer, G.; Buchan, G.; Kaul, H.-P.; Loiskandl, W.

    2010-05-01

    approaches (direct vs. inverse evaluation, capillary vs. flow weighted pore radius). We will show the influence of the distinct evaluation procedures on the resulting effective macroporosity, as well as on the relationships between macropore radius and hydraulic conductivity (Moret and Arrúe, 2007) and pore fraction respectively (Carey et al., 2007). The infiltration measurements used in this study were obtained in a long-term tillage trial located in the semi-arid region of Eastern Austria. Measurements were taken five times over the vegetation period, starting immediately after tillage until harvest of the winter wheat crop. Three tillage systems were evaluated, being conventional tillage with plough, minimum tillage with chisel and no-tillage. Additional to infiltration measurements, also soil water content was monitored continuously by a capacitance probe in all three replicates of each tillage treatment in 10, 20 and 40 cm soil depth. Water content time series are used to derive flow velocity in the wet range by cross-correlation analysis (Wu et al., 1997). This effective parameter of water transmission will then be compared to the flow behaviour expected from the characterization of soil macroporosity. We will show that mainly in no-tillage systems large macropores contribute essentially to flow and therefore the decision on pore measure and evaluation procedure to be used leads to substantial differences. For a detailed comparison of tillage effects on soil hydraulic properties it is therefore essential to analyse the contribution of different tension infiltrometry based evaluation methods to explain effective water transmission through the complex porous network of the soil. References Carey, S.K., Quinton, W.L., Goeller, N.T. 2007. Field and laboratory estimates of pore size properties and hydraulic characteristics for subarctic organic soils. Hydrol. Process. 21, 2560-2571. Moret, D., Arrúe, J.L. 2007. Characterizing soil water conducting macro- and mesoporosity

  4. Impact of cover crops and tillage on porosity of podzolic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błażewicz-Woźniak, M.; Konopiñski, M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of cover crops biomass, mixed with the soil on different dates and with the use of different tools in field conditions. The cover crop biomass had a beneficial influence on the total porosity of the 0-20 cm layer of the soil after winter. The highest porosity was achievedwith cover crops of buckwheat, phacelia and mustard, the lowest with rye. During the vegetation period the highest porosity of soil was observed in the ridges. Among the remaining non-ploughing cultivations, pre-winter use of stubble cultivator proved to have a beneficial influence on the soil porosity, providing results comparable to those achieved in conventional tillage. The differential porosity of the soil was modified not only by the catch crops and the cultivation methods applied, but also by the sample collection dates, and it did change during the vegetation period. The highest content of macropores after winter was observed for the phacelia cover crop, and the lowest in the case of cultivation without any cover crops. Pre-winter tillage with the use of a stubble cultivator increased the amount of macropores in soil in spring, and caused the biggest participation of mesopores as compared with other non-ploughing cultivation treatments of the soil. The smallest amount of mesopores was found in the ridges.

  5. Effect of tillage and rainfall on transport of manure-applied Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Norma E; Wang, Ping; Lejeune, Jeff; Shipitalo, Martin J; Ward, Lucy A; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Dick, Warren A

    2009-01-01

    Most waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been attributed to agricultural sources due to the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal wastes and manure spreading on farmlands. No-till, an effective conservation practice, often results in soil having higher water infiltration and percolation rates than conventional tillage. We treated six undisturbed no-till and six tilled soil blocks (30 by 30 by 30 cm) with 1 L liquid dairy manure containing 10(5) C. parvum oocysts per milliliter to test the effect of tillage and rainfall on oocyst transport. The blocks were subjected to rainfall treatments consisting of 5 mm or 30 mm in 30 min. Leachate was collected from the base of the blocks in 35-mL increments using a 64-cell grid lysimeter. Even before any rain was applied, approximately 300 mL of water from the liquid manure (30% of that applied) was transported through the no-till soil, but none through the tilled blocks. After rain was applied, a greater number and percentage of first leachate samples from the no-till soil blocks compared to the tilled blocks tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In contrast to leachate, greater numbers of oocysts were recovered from the tilled soil, itself, than from the no-till soil. Although tillage was the most important factor affecting oocyst transport, rainfall timing and intensity were also important. To minimize transport of Cryptosporidium in no-till fields, manure should be applied at least 48 h before heavy rainfall is anticipated or methods of disrupting the direct linkage of surface soil to drains, via macropores, need to be used.

  6. Long-term influence of tillage and fertilization on net carbon dioxide exchange rate on two soils with different textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiziene, Dalia; Feiza, Virginijus; Slepetiene, Alvyra; Liaudanskiene, Inga; Kadziene, Grazina; Deveikyte, Irena; Vaideliene, Asta

    2011-01-01

    The importance of agricultural practices to greenhouse gas mitigation is examined worldwide. However, there is no consensus on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and CO emissions as affected by soil management practices and their relationships with soil texture. No-till (NT) agriculture often results in soil C gain, though, not always. Soil net CO exchange rate (NCER) and environmental factors (SOC, soil temperature [T], and water content [W]), as affected by soil type (loam and sandy loam), tillage (conventional, reduced, and NT), and fertilization, were quantified in long-term field experiments in Lithuania. Soil tillage and fertilization affected total CO flux (heterotrophic and autotrophic) through effect on soil SOC sequestration, water, and temperature regime. After 11 yr of different tillage and fertilization management, SOC content was 23% more in loam than in sandy loam. Long-term NT contributed to 7 to 27% more SOC sequestration on loam and to 29 to 33% more on sandy loam compared with reduced tillage (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Soil water content in loam was 7% more than in sandy loam. Soil gravimetric water content, averaged across measurement dates and fertilization treatments, was significantly less in NT than CT and RT in both soils. Soil organic carbon content and water storage capacity of the loam and sandy loam soils exerted different influences on NCER. The NCER from the sandy loam soil was 13% greater than that from the loam. In addition, NCER was 4 to 9% less with NT than with CT and RT systems on both loam and sandy loam soils. Application of mineral NPK fertilizers promoted significantly greater NCER from loam but suppressed NCER by 15% from sandy loam. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Zhang, H.; dikgwatlhe, S.B.; Xue, J.; Qiu, K.; Tang, H.; Chen, F.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientific community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different tillage systems and

  8. [Characters of infiltration and preferential flow of black soil in Northeast China under different tillage patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Shen, Yan; Shi, Xiu-Huan; Luo, Jin-Ming; Yang, Xue-Ming

    2008-07-01

    By using dye tracer and double-ring infiltrometer techniques, the characters of infiltration and preferential flow of black soil under no-tillage (NT) and fall moldboard plow (MP) were compared after six years continuous management. The results showed that the infiltration rate was higher under NT than under MP. When the infiltration reached steady, the infiltration rate and accumulative infiltration capacity under NT were 1.35 and 1.44 times as high as those under MP, respectively. The penetration depth of methylene blue reached a depth of 43 cm in NT soil, being 16 cm deeper than that in MP soil. Comparing with MP soil, NT soil had better development of pore structure and more biological pores, and presented better preferential flow character, which were of importance for water infiltration and soil and water conservation.

  9. Emissions of nitrous oxide from Irish arable soils: effects of tillage and reduced N input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, M.; Jones, M.B.; Ambus, Per

    2010-01-01

    and reduced N fertilizer on seasonal fluxes and emission factors of N2O and to study the relationship between crop yield and N-induced fluxes of N2O. The soil is classified as a sandy loam with a pH of 7.4 and a mean organic carbon and nitrogen content at 15 cm of 19 and 1.9 g kg(-1) dry soil, respectively....... Reduced tillage had no significant effect on N2O fluxes from soils or crop grain yield. Multiple regression analysis revealed that soil moisture and an interaction between soil moisture and soil nitrate are the main significant factors affecting N2O flux. The derived emission factor was 0...... nitrogen fertilizer by 50% compared to the normal field rate, N2O emissions could be reduced by 57% with no significant decrease on grain yield or quality. This was consistent over the 2 years of measurements....

  10. Soil microbial properties after long-term swine slurry application to conventional and no-tillage systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, Elcio L; Machineski, Oswaldo; Hamid, Karima I A; Yada, Ines F U; Barbosa, Graziela M C; Nakatani, Andre S; Coyne, Mark S

    2014-08-15

    Swine waste can be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but large amounts may accumulate excess nutrients in soil or contaminate the surrounding environment. This study evaluated long-term soil amendment (15 years) with different levels of swine slurry to conventional (plow) tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) soils. Long-term swine slurry application did not affect soil organic carbon. Some chemical properties, such as calcium, base saturation, and aluminum saturation were significantly different within and between tillages for various application rates. Available P and microbial parameters were significantly affected by slurry addition. Depending on tillage, soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity increased up to 120 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) in all application rates. The NT system had higher microbial biomass and activity than CT at all application levels. There was an inverse relationship between the metabolic quotient (qCO2) and MBC, and the qCO2 was 53% lower in NT than CT. Swine slurry increased overall acid phosphatase activity, but the phosphatase produced per unit of microbial biomass decreased. A comparison of data obtained in the 3rd and 15th years of swine slurry application indicated that despite slurry application the CT system degraded with time while the NT system had improved values of soil quality indicators. For these Brazilian oxisols, swine slurry amendment was insufficient to maintain soil quality parameters in annual crop production without additional changes in tillage management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On-farm assessment of tillage impact on the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and structural soil properties in a semiarid region in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemai, Imene; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Ben Guirat, Saida; Ben-Hammouda, Moncef; Gallali, Tahar

    2012-12-30

    In semiarid areas, low and erratic rainfall, together with the intensive agricultural use of soils, has depleted soil organic carbon and degraded the soil's chemical, biological and physical fertility. To develop efficient soil-management practices for the rapid restoration of severely degraded soils, no-till, mulch-based cropping systems have been adopted. Thus, a study was conducted on a farm to evaluate the effect of a no-tillage system (NT) versus conventional tillage (CT) on the vertical (0-50 cm) distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), structural instability (SI), stable aggregates and infiltration coefficient (Ks) in a clay loam soil under rain-fed conditions in a semiarid region of north-western Tunisia. CT consisting of moldboard plowing to a depth of 20 cm was used for continuous wheat production. NT by direct drilling under residue was used for 3 (NT3) and 7 (NT7) years in wheat/fava bean and wheat/sulla crop rotations, respectively. SOC was more significantly increased (p < 0.05) by NT3 and NT7 than by CT at respective depths of 0-10 and 0-20 cm, but a greater increase in the uppermost 10 cm of soil was observed in the NT7 field. NT3 management decreased BD and consequently increased TP at a depth of 0-10 cm. The same trend was observed for the NT7 treatment at a depth of 0-30 cm. Ks was not affected by the NT3 treatment but was improved at a depth of 0-30 cm by the NT7 treatment. Changes in BD, TP and Ks in the NT7 plot were significant only in the first 10 cm of the soil. Both NT3 and NT7 considerably reduced SI (p < 0.1) and enhanced stable aggregates (p < 0.05) across the soil profile. These differences were most pronounced under NT7 at a depth of 0-10 cm. The stratification ratio (SR) of the selected soil properties, except that of SI, showed significant differences between the CT and NT trials, indicating an improvement in soil quality. NT management in the farming systems of north-western Tunisia was

  12. Identifying conservation hotspots using tillage erosion modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage operations redistribute soil within agricultural landscapes due to deviations in the quantity of soil moved during tillage. Tillage erosion is the net loss or accumulation of soil at any spot within an agricultural landscape due to soil being directly moved by tillage; it is a dominant erosi...

  13. [Analysis of soil respiration and influence factors in wheat farmland under conservation tillage in southwest hilly region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Long-Chang; Luo, Hai-Xiu; Zhou, Hang-Fei; Ma, Zhong-Lian; Zhang, Cui-Wei

    2013-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of conservation tillage on soil respiration in dry cropping farmland in southwest purple hilly region, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Beibei, Chongqing. The respiration and the hydrothermal and biotic factors of soil were measured and analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat/maize/soybean. There were four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching) and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching), which were all in triplicates. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate changed in the range of 1.100-2.508 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) during the reproductive growth stage of wheat. There were significant differences in soil respiration rate among different treatments, which could be ranked as RS > R > TS > T. The soil temperature in the 10cm layer was ranked as T > R > TS > RS. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature fitted well with an exponential function, in which the Q10 values were 1.25, 1.20, 1.31 and 1.26, respectively. The soil moisture in the 5cm layer was ranked as TS > RS > T > R. The best fitting model between soil moisture and soil respiration was a parabolic curve, indicating the presence of soil moisture with the strongest soil respiration. The response threshold of wheat to soil moisture was 14.80%-17.47% during the reproductive stage. The dominant groups of soil animals were Collembola and Acarina, which were correlated with soil respiration to some extent. The correlation was high in the treatments T and R, ranged from 0.669-0.921, whereas there was no remarkable correlation in the other treatments.

  14. Effects of tillage practice on soil structure, N2O emissions and economics in cereal production under current socio-economic conditions in central Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žurovec, Ognjen; Sitaula, Bishal Kumar; Čustović, Hamid; Žurovec, Jasminka; Dörsch, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT). The field experiment was conducted in the Sarajevo region on a clayey loam under typical climatic conditions for humid, continental BH. N2O emissions were monitored in a Maize-Barley rotation over two cropping seasons. Soil structure was studied at the end of the second season. In the much wetter 2014, N2O emission were in the order of CT > RT > NT, while in the drier 2015, the order was RT > CT > NT. The emission factors were within or slightly above the uncertainty range of the IPCC Tier 1 factor, if taking account for the N input from the cover crop (alfalfa) preceding the first experimental year. Saturated soils in spring, formation of soil crusts and occasional droughts adversely affected yields, particularly in the second year (barley). In 2014, yield-scaled N2O emissions ranged from 83.2 to 161.7 g N Mg-1 grain (corn) but were much greater in the second year due to crop failure (barley). RT had the smallest yield-scaled N2O emission in both years. NT resulted in economically inacceptable returns, due to the increased costs of weed control and low yields in both years. The reduced number of operations in RT reduced production costs and generated positive net returns. Therefore, RT could potentially provide agronomic and environmental benefits in crop production in BH.

  15. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon in relation to water erosion and tillage erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojun, Nie; Jianhui, Zhang; Zhengan, Su

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) are associated with soil erosion, yet there is a shortage of research concerning the relationship between soil erosion, SOC, and especially microbial biomass carbon (MBC). In this paper, we selected two typical slope landscapes including gentle and steep slopes from the Sichuan Basin, China, and used the (137)Cs technique to determine the effects of water erosion and tillage erosion on the dynamics of SOC and MBC. Soil samples for the determination of (137)Cs, SOC, MBC and soil particle-size fractions were collected on two types of contrasting hillslopes. (137)Cs data revealed that soil loss occurred at upper slope positions of the two landscapes and soil accumulation at the lower slope positions. Soil erosion rates as well as distribution patterns of the erosion is the major process of soil redistribution in the gentle slope landscape, while tillage erosion acts as the dominant process of soil redistribution in the steep slope landscape. In gentle slope landscapes, both SOC and MBC contents increased downslope and these distribution patterns were closely linked to soil redistribution rates. In steep slope landscapes, only SOC contents increased downslope, dependent on soil redistribution. It is noticeable that MBC/SOC ratios were significantly lower in gentle slope landscapes than in steep slope landscapes, implying that water erosion has a negative effect on the microbial biomass compared with tillage erosion. It is suggested that MBC dynamics are closely associated with soil redistribution by water erosion but independent of that by tillage erosion, while SOC dynamics are influenced by soil redistribution by both water erosion and tillage erosion.

  16. Qualidade de solo submetido a sistemas de cultivo com preparo convencional e plantio direto Soil quality under tillage and no-tillage cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusângela Antônia Costa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de um Latossolo Vermelho submetido a sistemas de cultivo com preparo convencional e plantio direto. Foram estudadas duas áreas experimentais, localizadas na Embrapa Cerrados, em Planaltina, DF, com oito e dez anos de cultivo. Foram coletadas amostras de solo, em diversas profundidades, nas parcelas experimentais e em área de cerrado nativo. Os seguintes atributos foram avaliados: densidade do solo, porosidade total, capacidade de água disponível, grau de floculação, resistência do solo à penetração, teor de matéria orgânica, capacidade de troca catiônica, fósforo remanescente, carbono da biomassa microbiana e respiração basal. Os dados obtidos foram comparados a valores referenciais quanto à qualidade do solo, mediante modelagem gráfica. Observou-se que a qualidade do solo, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo, é similar quanto aos atributos físicos; os teores de matéria orgânica e fósforo remanescente também são semelhantes, mas a capacidade de troca catiônica é mais alta no solo sob plantio direto. Em relação aos atributos biológicos, o solo sob plantio direto apresenta atividade biológica mais elevada. A qualidade do solo em ambos os sistemas é similar, em relação aos atributos avaliados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of an Oxisol under tillage and no-tillage systems. Two experimental areas were studied, both located in Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, with eight and ten years of cropping. Soil samples were collected from different depth layers in the experimental plots and native cerrado vegetation area. The following soil atributes were evaluated: bulk density, soil porosity, available water capacity, degree of flocculation, soil resistance to penetration, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, equilibrium phosphorus, microbial biomass carbon and basal respiration. The data obtained were compared with referential

  17. Geophysical characterization of soil moisture spatial patterns in a tillage experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Giráldez, J. V.; Muriel, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge on the spatial soil moisture pattern can improve the characterisation of the hydrological response of either field-plots or small watersheds. Near-surface geophysical methods, such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), provide a means to map such patterns using non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa. In this study ECa was measured using an EMI sensor and used to characterize spatially the hydrologic response of a cropped field to an intense shower. The study site is part of a long-term tillage experiment in Southern Spain in which Conventional Tillage (CT), Direct Drilling (DD) and Minimum Tillage (MT) are being evaluated since 1982. Soil ECa was measured before and after a rain event of 115 mm, near the soil surface and at deeper depth (ECas and ECad, respectively) using the EM38-DD EMI sensor. Simultaneously, elevation data were collected at each sampling point to generate a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Soil moisture during the first survey was close to permanent wilting point and near field capacity during the second survey. For the first survey, both ECas and ECad, were higher in the CT and MT than in the DD plots. After the rain event, rill erosion appeared only in CT and MT plots were soil was uncovered, matching the drainage lines obtained from the DEM. Apparent electrical conductivity increased all over the field plot with higher increments in the DD plots. These plots showed the highest ECas and ECad values, in contrast to the spatial pattern found during the first sampling. Difference maps obtained from the two ECas and ECad samplings showed a clear difference between DD plots and CT and MT plots due to their distinct hydrologic response. Water infiltration was higher in the soil of the DD plots than in the MT and CT plots, as reflected by their ECad increment. Higher ECa increments were observed in the depressions of the terrain, where water and sediments accumulated. On the contrary, the

  18. Soil-blade orientation effect on tillage forces determined by 3D finite element models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayadi Ibrahmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of the cutting parameters of a blade on the tillage force components using finite element modeling. A three-dimensional model was carried out with Abaqus Explicit in order to study the interaction between the tool and soil. The soil was modeled with linear forms of the Drucker-Pager model, while the tool was considered as a rigid body with a reference point taken at its tip. The effect of tillage depth and the width of a vertical blade were studied. It was found that the amounts of the draught and vertical forces increase linearly with a slope of 0.037 and 0.0143 respectively when the width increases. The narrow tool (width< 60mm has a greater effect on the specific draught force than a larger tool. Draught and specific draught force increase with polynomial and linear curve respectively versus the depth. However, this effect was reduced for the vertical force. These results were in a good agreement with previously published works. The second part of this paper is focused on the oblique position of the blade to evaluate the effect of the attack angles on both the tillage forces (draught, lateral and vertical and the cutting process of the soil during and after its failure. For all considered angles, the draught force presents the highest values compared to the vertical and lateral forces. Results showed that working with small cutting and an average rake angles (30° to 60° and 45° respectively can produce a good soil inversion.

  19. soil failure crescent radii measurement for draft in tillage study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1986-09-01

    Sep 1, 1986 ... SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY. FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY. OWERRI. ABSTRACT. Field clay loam and sandy loam soils were tilled with a chisel .... modified earth moving equation proposed by Mckyes and All was: ... applications of analytical mechanics.

  20. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  1. [Responses of accumulation-loss patterns for soil organic carbon and its fractions to tillage and water erosion in black soil area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng Zhi; Chen, Xiang Wei; Wang, En Heng

    2017-11-01

    Tillage and water erosion have been recognized as the main factors causing degradation in soil organic carbon (SOC) pools of black soil. To further explore the response of SOC and its fractions to different driving forces of erosion (tillage and water), geostatistical methods were used to analyze spatial patterns of SOC and its three fractions at a typical sloping farmland based on tillage and water erosion rates calculated by local models. The results showed that tillage erosion and deposition rates changed according to the slope positions, decreasing in the order: upper-slope > lower-slope > middle-slope > toe-slope and toe-slope > lower-slope > middle-slope > upper-slope, respectively; while the order of water erosion rates decreased in the order: lower-slope > toe-slope > middle-slope > upper-slope. Tillage and water erosion cooperatively triggered intense soil loss in the lower-slope areas with steep slope gradient. Tillage erosion could affect C cycling through the whole slope at different levels, although the rate of tillage erosion (0.02-7.02 t·hm -2 ·a -1 ) was far less than that of water erosion (5.96-101.17 t·hm -2 ·a -1 ) in black soil area. However, water erosion only played a major role in controlling C dynamics in the runoff-concentrated lower slope area. Affected by water erosion and tillage erosion-deposition disturbance, the concentrations of SOC, particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon in depositional areas were higher than in erosional areas, however, microbial biomass carbon showed an opposite trend. Tillage erosion dominated SOC dynamic by depleting particulate organic carbon.

  2. Tillage and Water Deficit Stress Effects on Corn (Zea mays, L.) Root Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    One goal of soil management is to provide optimum conditions for root growth. Corn root distributions were measured in 2004 from a crop rotationtillage experiment that was started in 2000. Corn was grown either following corn or following sunflower with either no till or deep chisel tillage. Wate...

  3. Soil microbial biomass under different management and tillage systems of permanent intercropped cover species in an orange orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate soil erosion and enhance soil fertility in orange plantations, the permanent protection of the inter-rows by cover species has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the microbial biomass, due to different soil tillage systems and intercropped cover species between rows of orange trees. The soil of the experimental area previously used as pasture (Brachiaria humidicola was an Ultisol (Typic Paleudult originating from Caiuá sandstone in the northwestern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST (strip width 2 m, in combination with different ground cover management systems. The citrus cultivar 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime rootstock was used. Soil samples were collected after five years of treatment from a depth of 0-15 cm, under the tree canopy and in the inter-row, in the following treatments: (1 CT and an annual cover crop with the leguminous species Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and a perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and an evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and a cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of Brachiaria humidicola. Soil tillage and the different cover species influenced the microbial biomass, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row. The cultivation of brachiaria increased C and N in the microbial biomass, while bahiagrass increased P in the microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P by the presence of ground cover species and according to the soil P content. The grass species increased C, N and P in the soil microbial biomass from the inter-row more than leguminous species.

  4. Effects of tropical ecosystem engineers on soil quality and crop performance under different tillage and residue management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulleman, Mirjam; Paul, Birthe; Fredrick, Ayuke; Hoogmoed, Marianne; Hurisso, Tunsisa; Ndabamenye, Telesphore; Saidou, Koala; Terano, Yusuke; Six, Johan; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Feeding a future global population of 9 billion will require a 70-100% increase in food production, resulting in unprecedented challenges for agriculture and natural resources, especially in Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural practices that contribute to sustainable intensification build on beneficial biological interactions and ecosystem services. Termites are the dominant soil ecosystem engineers in arid to sub-humid tropical agro-ecosystems. Various studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of termites for rehabilitation of degraded and crusted soils and plant growth in semi-arid and arid natural ecosystems. However, the contribution of termites to agricultural productivity has hardly been experimentally investigated, and their role in Conservation Agriculture (CA) systems remains especially unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the effects of termites and ants on soil physical quality and crop productivity under different tillage and residue management systems in the medium term. A randomized block trial was set up in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003. Treatments included a factorial combination of residue retention and removal (+R/-R) and conventional and reduced tillage (+T/-T) under a maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glyxine max. L.) rotation. A macrofauna exclusion experiment was superimposed in 2005 as a split-plot factor (exclusion +ins; inclusion -ins) by regular applications of pesticides (Dursban and Endosulfan) in half of the plots. Macrofauna abundance and diversity, soil aggregate fractions, soil carbon contents and crop yields were measured between 2005 and 2012 at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Termites were the most important macrofauna species, constituting between 48-63% of all soil biota, while ants were 13-34%, whereas earthworms were present in very low numbers. Insecticide application was effective in reducing termites (85-56% exclusion efficacy) and earthworms (87%), and less so ants (49-81%) at 0-15 cm soil depth

  5. Reduced tillage and cover crops as a strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil organic carbon sequestration in dry Mediterranean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, María; Garcia-Franco, Noelia; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Martínez-Mena, María

    2016-04-01

    The implementation of sustainable land management (SLM) practices in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems can be beneficial to maintain or enhance levels of soil organic carbon and mitigate current atmospheric CO2 increase. In this study, we assess the effects of different tillage treatments (conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), reduced tillage combined with green manure (RTG), and no tillage (NT)) on soil CO2 efflux, aggregation and organic carbon stabilization in two semiarid organic rainfed almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., var. Ferragnes) orchards located in SE Spain Soil CO2 efflux, temperature and moisture were measured monthly between May 2012 and December 2014 (site 1), and between February 2013 and December 2014 (site 2). In site 1, soil CO2 efflux rates were also measured immediately following winter and spring tillage operations. Aboveground biomass inputs were estimated at the end of the growing season in each tillage treatment. Soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected in the rows between the trees (n=4) in October 2012. Four aggregate size classes were distinguished by sieving (large and small macroaggregates, free microaggregates, and free silt plus clay fraction), and the microaggregates occluded within macroaggregates (SMm) were isolated. Soil CO2efflux rates in all tillage treatments varied significantly during the year, following changes during the autumn, winter and early spring, or changes in soil moisture during late spring and summer. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed that there were no significant differences in soil CO2 efflux between tillage treatments throughout the study period at both sites. Average annual values of C lost by soil respiration were slightly but not significantly higher under RT and RTG treatments (492 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) than under NT treatment (405 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) in site 1, while slightly but not significantly lower values were observed under RT and RTG treatments (468 and 439 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1

  6. The Effects of Different Tillage Methods on Available Soil Potassium Measured by Various Extractors in a Soil with High Specific Surface Area

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    M. Hosseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of any tillage method on soil properties, depends on location (soil, water and air and the number of (years their implementation. Soil compaction reduces yield through increased soil mechanical resistance against root growth and lower water and nutrient use efficiency (Gamda et al. 18 & Ishagh et al 23. Soil surface and sub surface compaction both reduce yield due to limited root growth and plant potassium uptake (Doulan et al. 14. Sabt et al. (50 reported that in the study area, which the lands are mostly illite clay (high specific surface area with sufficient nitrogen, soil potassium is the most important limiting factor for the growth of wheat.Considering the point that loess soils in Golestan Province have a high specific surface area,they can provide potassium for plants to produce crop, but for a higher production, potassium fertilizers should be used. Previous studies indicated that production of wheat is limited due to potassium deficiency (4, 49, 54 and 57. In these soils with a high specific surface area, the speed of movement of potassium from the soil solution is low, and doing solimits wheat yield.In loess soils containing high illite and high specific surface area (eg, soilsin the series of Rahmat Abad of Gorgan, ammonium acetate measured potassium on exchange and solution surfaces, which is highly correlated with grain yield (54 . There is a high correlation between grain yield with overload of potassium and Na TPB extraction (57. The aim of this study was to absorb potassium (limiting factor for plant growth with different tillage systemsat different depths. International recommendations towards reducing the depth and intensity of tillage (from minimum tillage to no-tillage in order to reduce erosion and oxidation of organic substances plays an important role in determining the amount of greenhouse gases. If potassium absorption does not reduceafter reducing tillage intensity,low or no-tillage methods

  7. The dependence of the content of Cs137 forms in sod-podzolic sabulous soil of different degree of humidification on the basic soil tillage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulko, N.N.; Ermolenko, A.V.; Lazarevich, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of the content of 137 Cs-forms in sod-podzolic sabulous soils of different degree of humidification on the basic soil tillage is presented. Structure (in %) of plant available 137Cs in automorphic and semi-hydromorphic soils is shown. The influence of soil tillage type on 137Cs content is analyzed per 2007-2008. Content (in %) of plant available 137Cs in automorphic and semi-hydromorphic soils during moldboard plowing, beardless plowing, surface disc plowing and minimum tillage is evaluated. In sod-podzolic sabulous soils with 137 Cs pollution density which equals to 13-15 Cu/km2 the content of the accessible for plants forms (water-soluble, exchangeable, mobile forms) makes in average 9-11%; of those inaccessible (not exchangeable, fixed) 89-91%. It is established, that the degree of the hydromorphic feature in sod-podzolic sabolous soil influence the content of accessible forms of 1376cs in its top layer. The chisel tillage and the minimum tillage make it possible to decrease the accessible 137Cs connections by 2-4%

  8. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

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    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  9. Quantification of tillage, plant cover, and cumulative rainfall effects on soil surface microrelief by statistical, geostatistical and fractal indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Bertol, I.; Vidal Vázquez, E.

    2008-07-01

    Changes in soil surface microrelief with cumulative rainfall under different tillage systems and crop cover conditions were investigated in southern Brazil. Surface cover was none (fallow) or the crop succession maize followed by oats. Tillage treatments were: 1) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS), 2) conventional tillage (CT), 3) minimum tillage (MT) and 4) no tillage (NT) under maize and oats. Measurements were taken with a manual relief meter on small rectangular grids of 0.234 and 0.156 m2, throughout growing season of maize and oats, respectively. Each data set consisted of 200 point height readings, the size of the smallest cells being 3×5 cm during maize and 2×5 cm during oats growth periods. Random Roughness (RR), Limiting Difference (LD), Limiting Slope (LS) and two fractal parameters, fractal dimension (D) and crossover length (l) were estimated from the measured microtopographic data sets. Indices describing the vertical component of soil roughness such as RR, LD and l generally decreased with cumulative rain in the BS treatment, left fallow, and in the CT and MT treatments under maize and oats canopy. However, these indices were not substantially affected by cumulative rain in the NT treatment, whose surface was protected with previous crop residues. Roughness decay from initial values was larger in the BS treatment than in CT and MT treatments. Moreover, roughness decay generally tended to be faster under maize than under oats. The RR and LD indices decreased quadratically, while the l index decreased exponentially in the tilled, BS, CT and MT treatments. Crossover length was sensitive to differences in soil roughness conditions allowing a description of microrelief decay due to rainfall in the tilled treatments, although better correlations between cumulative rainfall and the most commonly used indices RR and LD were obtained. At the studied scale, parameters l and D have been found to be useful in interpreting the configuration properties of

  10. Análise multivariada da fauna edáfica em diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo Multivariate analysis of soil fauna under different soil tillage and crop management systems

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    Dilmar Baretta

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo sobre a diversidade de animais da fauna edáfica, por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. Na análise canônica discriminante, os preparos conservacionistas com sucessão de culturas foram separados em relação aos tratamentos com rotação de culturas. Os grupos Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda e Collembola, e o índice de Shannon (H foram os atributos que mais contribuíram para separar os tratamentos. A análise de correspondência mostrou forte associação dos grupos Acarina e Hymenoptera com o tratamento semeadura direta com sucessão de culturas, e do grupo Collembola com o preparo convencional.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage and crop management systems on soil fauna groups, by means of multivariate analysis. In the canonical discriminant analysis the conservation soil management systems with crop succession were discriminated in relation to other treatments with crop rotation. The groups Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, and Collembola, and the Shannon index (H showed the highest contribution for the discrimination between treatments. The correspondence analysis showed a strong association between Acarina and Hymenoptera groups with the treatment no-tillage with crop succession, and between Collembola group with the conventional tillage system.

  11. Chaos emerging in soil failure patterns observed during tillage: Normalized deterministic nonlinear prediction (NDNP) and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kenshi; Upadhyaya, Shrinivasa K; Andrade-Sanchez, Pedro; Sviridova, Nina V

    2017-03-01

    Real-world processes are often combinations of deterministic and stochastic processes. Soil failure observed during farm tillage is one example of this phenomenon. In this paper, we investigated the nonlinear features of soil failure patterns in a farm tillage process. We demonstrate emerging determinism in soil failure patterns from stochastic processes under specific soil conditions. We normalized the deterministic nonlinear prediction considering autocorrelation and propose it as a robust way of extracting a nonlinear dynamical system from noise contaminated motion. Soil is a typical granular material. The results obtained here are expected to be applicable to granular materials in general. From a global scale to nano scale, the granular material is featured in seismology, geotechnology, soil mechanics, and particle technology. The results and discussions presented here are applicable in these wide research areas. The proposed method and our findings are useful with respect to the application of nonlinear dynamics to investigate complex motions generated from granular materials.

  12. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

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    Lazar Bireescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized agrofond, using moderate mineral doses (N80P80 as average of 2009–2010 period, under minimum tillage (2x disk, paraplow, chisel compared to conventional (plugging at 20 cm and 30 cm. In the case of soil works with chisel and paraplow without return of furrow, the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis highlights an increase of soil physiological potential, in the both variants (unfertilized and fertilized, unlike the method of alternating the depth of plugging that proved to be ineffective.

  13. 29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil.â 780.110 Section 780.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSIN...

  14. Relationships between Fungal Biomass and Nitrous Oxide Emission in Upland Rice Soils under No Tillage and Cover Cropping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaorigetu; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Sato, Yoshinori; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between soil microbial properties and nitrous oxide emission were examined in upland soil under different tillage systems [no tillage (NT), rotary and plow tillage] and cover crop systems (fallow, cereal rye, and hairy vetch) in 2004 and 2005. Microbiological analyses included the determination of soil ergosterol as an indicator of fungal biomass, bacterial plate counting, and MPN estimations of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers. The combined practice of NT with rye-cover crop treatment increased fungal biomass but not bacterial populations in 0-10 cm deep soils. Such increase in fungal biomass was not found in 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm deep cover-cropped NT soil. The combined practice of NT with rye-cover cropping resulted in higher in situ N(2)O emission rates compared with rotary- and plow-till treatments. N(2)O flux was positively correlated with soil ergosterol content but not with denitrifier MPN and other soil chemical properties. These results suggested a significant contribution of fungi to N(2)O emission in cover-cropped NT soils.

  15. Effects of Zero Tillage (No-Till) Conservation Agriculture on soil physical and biological properties and their contributions to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John N.; Rass, Gerard; de Freitas, Pedro L.; Basch, Gottlieb; González Sanchez, Emilio J.; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Kassan, Amir; Derpsch, Rolf; Friedrich, Theodor; Giupponi, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Not cultivating soil, rotating crops over the years, and leaving crop residues on the surface in the practice of zero tillage/conservation agriculture (ZT/CA) reverses the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure, while increasing soil biological activity by a factor of 2 to 4. The results of this are many: (a) not cultivating reduces soil compaction, leaving old root holes to facilitate internal drainage, averts the pulverization of soil aggregates and formation of pans, reduces draft power for planting and gives shelter, winter food and nesting sites for fauna, (b) crop residues on the surface practically eliminate wind and water erosion, reduce soil moisture loss through the mulch effect, slow spring warm-up (possibly offset by a lower specific heat demand with less water retention in surface soil) and act as a reserve of organically-compounded nutrients (as they decompose to humus), (c) more SOM means higher available water and nutrient retention, higher biological activity year round (enhancing biological controls), higher levels of water-stable aggregates and a positive carbon sink in incremental SOM. The positive impacts for society are: (i) more and cheaper food, (ii) reduced flood and drought-induced famine risks, (iii) a positive carbon sink in SOM and possible reductions in NO2 emissions, (iv) cleaner water and greater aquifer recharge due to reduced runoff, (v) cleaner air through effective elimination of dust as a product of cultivation (vi) less water pollution and greater aquifer recharge from reduced rainfall runoff, (vii) farm diesel consumption halved, (viii) reduced demand for (tropical) de-forestation, by permitting crop expansion on steeper lands, (ix) increased wildlife populations (skylarks, plovers, partridge and peccaries) and (x) an improved conservation mindset in farmers. It is notable that, in spite of successful practitioners in all European countries, mainstream adoption is still to come

  16. GRANULOMETRIC AND HUMIC FRACTIONS CARBON STOCKS OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER UNDER NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM IN UBERABA, BRAZIL

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    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cover plant use preceding grain crops in Cerrado soil can increase the carbon stocks of chemical and physical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon stocks of SOM granulometric and humic fractions in a Cerrado area under no-tillage system with different cover plant, and compare the results with those from conventional tillage and fallow areas, in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. The implemented cover crops were: millet, tropical grass and sunn hemp. Furthermore, an area was used in fallow and another as a control area (conventional tillage. After cover crop removal, the areas were subdivided for the corn and soybean plantation. Soil samples were collected in the 0.0-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m depths, with posterior quantification of total organic carbon (TOC levels and chemical and granulometric fractionation of SOM. Humic acid carbon (C-HAF, fulvic acids (C-FAF and humin (C-HUM were quantified through these fractionations. The granulometric fractions consisted in particulate organic matter (POM and mineral organic matter (MOM. Using the carbon levels for each fraction, the respective stocks for each depth were calculated, including the 0.0-0.20 m layer. In the 0.0-0.20 m layer, TOC had the highest stocks for the millet area. The highest POM stocks were found for the corn plantation over sunn hemp and the fallow and soybean area over millet and tropical grass (0.0-0.20 m. In relation to the MOM stocks, the highest values were observed in the areas with millet, sunn hemp and tropical (palisade grass, all superior to those found in the conventional tillage and fallow areas, independent of evaluated culture (0.10-0.20 m. The highest C-HUM stocks were observed in the area with tropical grass (0.025-0.05 m and areas with tropical grass and sunn hemp (0.10-0.20 m, when compared to conventional tillage, independent of evaluated culture (corn and soybean. The highest C-FAH stocks in the depth of 0

  17. Rotação de culturas e propriedades físicas e químicas em Latossolo Vermelho de Cerrado sob preparo convencional e semeadura direta em adoção Crop rotation and physical and chemical properties of a Red Latosol in the Cerrado under conventional tillage and recent no-tillage

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    Vicente Pereira de Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O manejo inadequado do solo tem promovido a degradação de suas propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, após três anos da instalação de sistemas de manejo do solo, os efeitos da rotação com adubo verde, soja ou milho (verão e feijão "de inverno", sendo utilizadas as seguintes espécies na adubação verde: mucuna-preta, milheto, crotalária e guandu, nas propriedades físicas e químicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico e na produtividade das culturas. Outro tratamento foi adicionado como alternativa à adubação verde, o pousio. Os sistemas de manejo do solo foram: semeadura direta não consolidada e preparo convencional. O estudo foi realizado em Selvíria-MS, no ano agrícola de 1999/2000. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. O sistema de semeadura direta, após três anos de instalada a rotação, degradou mais as propriedades físicas do solo na camada superficial. Por outro lado, neste sistema e camada de solo, houve acréscimo no teor de matéria orgânica e no pH, bem como na produtividade do milho, superior à do sistema de preparo convencional. O feijão em rotação à cultura do milho, na semeadura convencional, e em rotação à soja, na semeadura direta, foi a melhor opção quanto à produtividade.Inadequate soil management has led to the degradation of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the yields and physical and chemical soil properties of a dystropherric Red Latosol (Oxisol in the third year of a crop rotation that included green manures, with soybean or corn (summer and common bean (winter crops. The following green manure species were used: velvet bean, millet, sunnhemp, pigeon pea, cultivated under conventional tillage and recently adopted no-tillage. The experiment was conducted in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 1999

  18. Chemical and physical soil attributes in integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage

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    Hernani Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available Although integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS under no-tillage (NT is an attractive practice for intensify agricultural production, little regional information is available on the effects of animal grazing and trampling, particularly dairy heifers, on the soil chemical and physical attributes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of animal grazing on the chemical and physical attributes of the soil after 21 months of ICLS under NT in a succession of annual winter pastures (2008, soybeans (2008/2009, annual winter pastures (2009, and maize (2009/10. The experiment was performed in the municipality of Castro (PR in a dystrophic Humic Rhodic Hapludox with a clay texture. The treatments included a combination of two pasture (annual ryegrass monoculture and multicropping - annual ryegrass, black oat, white clover and red clover with animal grazing during the fall-winter period with two animal weight categories (light and heavy, in a completely randomized block experimental design with 12 replications. After the maize harvest (21 months after beginning, soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers to measure soil chemical and physical attributes. The different combinations of pasture and animal weight did not alter the total organic carbon and nitrogen in the soil, but they influence the attributes of soil acidity and exchangeable cations. The monoculture pasture of ryegrass showed greater soil acidification process compared to the multicropping pasture. When using heavier animals, the multicropping pasture showed lesser increase in soil bulk density and greater macroporosity.

  19. Short-term turnover of soil organic matter after tillage proven by Pyrolysis-field ionization MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sebastian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Leinweber, Peter; Glatzel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about the composition and the turnover dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) is crucial to the fertility of agricultural soils. Even short-term changes of SOM are of fundamental importance. Tillage changes the decomposition and the mineralisation of SOM. By disrupting macroaggregates, tillage induces an increased turnover and hampers the aggregation of SOM. As a consequence, mineralisation of SOM is stimulated which may imply an additional efflux of CO2 and N2O from soil. Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) has been developed as a key method for SOM research. This powerful analytical tool allows a rapid, global and objective determination of the majority of chemical compound classes and is an appropriate method for the analysis of even small differences of biogeochemical matters. Hence, Py-FIMS may allow for a precise detection of the turnover of SOM and the involved compounds that are affected by tillage in the short-term. Py-FIMS measurements along with the determination of the CO2 and N2O effluxes from soil after tillage at the same site may give new insights into the compounds of SOM which are mineralised and consequently contribute to fundamental processes such as respiration, nitrification and denitrification. We applied Py-FIMS to soil samples from a stagnic Luvisol taken before and after tillage from a harvested maize field in Northern Germany. The samples were taken from two treatments amended with mineral fertiliser (MF) and biogas residues (BR), respectively, and also from an unfertilised control (UC). Tillage was conducted by disc harrowing, followed by mouldboard ploughing up to 30 cm. Simultaneously the soil efflux of CO2 and N2O was measured with a dynamic chamber technique. Before tillage, the mass spectra showed distinct differences in the relative ion intensities: the BR treatment showed much more volatilised matter during pyrolysis indicating an increased amount of SOM. Furthermore, in this treatment, the proportions

  20. Effects of Plant Residues in Two Types of Soil Texture on Soil characteristics and corn (Zea mays L. NS640 Yield in a Reduced -Tillage cropping System

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    E Hesami

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The impact of agronomy on the subsequent product in rotational cropping systems depends on factors such as plant type, duration of crop growth, soil moisture content, tillage type, irrigation method, the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, quantity and quality of returned crop residues to the soil. Prior cultivated crops improve the next crop yield by causing different conditions (nitrogen availability, organic matter and volume of available water in soil. This study was conducted due to importance of corn cultivation in Khuzestan and necessity of increasing the soil organic matter, moisture conservation and in the other hand the lack of sufficient information about the relationship between soil texture, type of preparatory crop in low-tillage condition and some soil characteristics and corn growth habits. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of residue of preparatory crops in low plowing condition in two soil types on corn yield and some soil characteristics. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out at Shooshtar city located in Khuzestan province. An experiment was performed by combined analysis in randomized complete block design in two fields and in two consecutive years with four replications. Two kinds of soil texture including: clay loam and clay sand. Five preparatory crops including: broad bean, wheat, canola, cabbage and fallow as control assigned as sub plots. SAS Ver. 9.1 statistical software was used for analysis of variance and comparison of means. Graphs were drawn using MS Excel software. All means were compared by Duncan test at 5% probability level. Results and Discussion The soil texture and the type of preparatory crop influenced the characteristics of the soil and corn grain yield. Returning the broad bean residue into two types of soil caused the highest grain yield of corn 10128.6 and 9547.9 kgha-1, respectively. The control treatment in sandy loam texture had the lowest corn seed

  1. Economic feasibility of no-tillage and manure for soil carbon sequestration in corn production in northeastern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendell, Dustin L; Williams, Jeffery R; Rice, Charles W; Nelson, Richard G; Boyles, Scott B

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the economic potential of no-tillage versus conventional tillage to sequester soil carbon by using two rates of commercial N fertilizer or beef cattle manure for continuous corn (Zea mays L.) production. Yields, input rates, field operations, and prices from an experiment were used to simulate a distribution of net returns for eight production systems. Carbon release values from direct, embodied, and feedstock energies were estimated for each system, and were used with soil carbon sequestration rates from soil tests to determine the amount of net carbon sequestered by each system. The values of carbon credits that provide an incentive for managers to adopt production systems that sequester carbon at greater rates were derived. No-till systems had greater annual soil carbon gains, net carbon gains, and net returns than conventional tillage systems. Systems that used beef cattle manure had greater soil carbon gains and net carbon gains, but lower net returns, than systems that used commercial N fertilizer. Carbon credits would be needed to encourage the use of manure-fertilized cropping systems.

  2. Effect of pre-sowing soil tillage for wheat on the crop structure and the yield components in Dobrudzha region

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    P. Yankov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute on slightly leached chernozem soil. In order to clarify the effect of some types of pre-sowing soil tillage for wheat on the crop structure and certain yield components, the following variants of a stationary field experiment were analyzed: double disking at depth 10-12 cm (check variant; ploughing at 14-16 cm + disking; no-tillage (direct sowing – pre-sowing treatment of the area with total herbicides. Wheat was sown after previous crop grain maize and was fertilized with N P K . Wheat cultivar Enola was planted at norm 550 germinating 140 120 80 2 seeds/m . The number of emerging wheat plants was read using square sampling frames sized 50 cm x 50 cm. Using the same sampling frames, the tillering in autumn prior to the wintering of the crops was followed, and in spring – prior to booting stage. The number of productive tillers was also read using these sampling frames. To determine the length of spike, the number of grains in it, and their weight, 30 spikes from 8 replications of each variant were analyzed. The emerging of the wheat plants, under the conditions of slightly leached chernozem soil in Dobrudzha region, was more uniform after sowing following disking, and after direct sowing. The minimal pre-sowing tillage and no-tillage for wheat ensured better autumn development of the crop and the plants. In these variants, higher number of overwintering plants and productive tillers per unit area were registered. Spike length was the highest after ploughing as pre-sowing tillage. Significant variations in the number of grains per spike of the investigated variants were not found. Grain weight per spike was the lowest under direct sowing.

  3. The effect of soil tillage system and weeding time on the growth of weed and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril

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    Husni Thamrin Sebayang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and yield of soybeans can decrease due to competition from weeds. Various efforts have been made to control the growth of weeds such as land preparation and weeding periods. An experiment to study the effect of soil tillage systems and weeding time on the growth of weeds and soybean crop yield (Glycine max (L. Merril has been done in Wringinsongo Village, Tumpang Sub-District, Malang Regency from February to May 2017. The split-plot design with three replicates was used with the soil tillage system as the main plot consisting of three levels, T0: no tillage, T1: minimum tillage, and T2: conventional tillage, and weeding time as the sub plot consisting of 4 levels, P0: no weeding, P1: weeding 1 time, P2: weeding two times and P3: weeding three times. The results showed that the dominant weed species before treatment were Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, and Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane. After treatment, the dominant weed species were Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry, and Eclipta alba (False daisy. There was no significant difference of the dry weight of weeds in conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting, and minimum tillage and no tillage. For the yield of soybeans, conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting were not significant with that of minimum tillage. The yield of soybeans was lower than that of with no tillage and no weeding.

  4. Comparisons of weed community, soil health and economic performance between wheat-maize and garlic-soybean rotation systems under different weed managements

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    Mahmud A. Muminov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the impacts of different weed managements on weed community, soil health and economic performance between the wheat–maize (WM and garlic–soybean (GS rotations. A total of four treatments (H0T, tillage without herbicide; H0T0, without both herbicide and tillage; HT, both herbicide and tillage; HT0, herbicide without tillage were designed for both rotations. A total of 16 weed species were recorded in the WM rotation, with life forms of 62% for annuals, 12% for annual + perennial and 20% for perennials. While in the GS rotation, there were 17 weed species, with 71% being annuals. When crop rotation changed from WM to GS, the topsoil layer seed bank (0–5 cm decreased by 137%. GS rotation always had higher earthworm densities than that of WM under the same condition. Organic weed control (H0T, H0T0 from both WM and GS added more soil organic matters than the chemical methods (HT and HT0. Economically, up to 69% higher net profit had been achieved in the GS than WM for their organic products. This study provides an ecological basis to guide organic farming practices, especially for weed management in the future.

  5. Root systems and soil microbial biomass under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venzke Filho Solismar de Paiva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some root parameters such as distribution, length, diameter and dry matter are inherent to plant species. Roots can influence microbial population during vegetative cycle through the rhizodeposits and, after senescence, integrating the soil organic matter pool. Since they represent labile substrates, especially regarding nitrogen, they can determine the rate of nutrient availability to the next crop cultivated under no-tillage (NT. The root systems of two crop species: maize (Zea mays L. cultivar Cargill 909 and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivar Embrapa 59, were compared in the field, and their influence on spatial distribution of the microbial C and N in a clayey-textured Typic Hapludox cultivated for 22 years under NT, at Tibagi, State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, was determined. Digital image processing and nail-plate techniques were used to evaluate 40 plots of a 80 ´ 50 ´ 3 cm soil profile. It was observed that 36% and 30% of the maize and soybeans roots, respectively, are concentrated in the 0 to 10 cm soil layer. The percent distribution of root dry matter was similar for both crops. The maize roots presented a total of 1,324 kg C ha-1 and 58 kg N ha-1, with higher root dry matter density and more roots in decomposition in the upper soil layer, decreasing with depth. The soybean roots (392 kg C ha-1 and 21 kg N ha-1 showed higher number of thinner roots and higher density per length unity compared to the maize. The maize roots enhanced microbial-C down to deeper soil layers than did the soybean roots. The microbial N presented a better correlation with the concentration of thin active roots and with roots in decomposition or in indefinite shape, possibly because of higher concentration of C and N easily assimilated by soil microorganisms.

  6. Spatially resolved data on sediment transport: 1) field application examining fluorescent soil particle movement from tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, John; Hardy, Robert; Pates, Jacqueline; James, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Understanding where sediment originates from and where it travels to, in what quantities and at which rate is at the heart of many questions surrounding sediment transport. Progress towards unravelling these questions and deepening our understanding has come from a wide range of approaches, including laboratory and field experiments conducted at a variety of scales. In seeking to understand the connectivity of sources and sinks of sediment scientists have spent considerable energy in developing tracing technologies. These have included numerous studies that have relied on the chemical properties of the soil and sediment to establish source-sink connectivity, and the use of 137Ceasium, from radioactive fall-out, to map sediment redistribution. More recently there has been an upsurge in interest in the use of artificially applied soil tracers, including rare earth element oxides and magnetic minerals. However all these tracing methods have a significant drawback: they rely on the collection of samples to assess their concentration. This means that their spatial distribution cannot easily be established in situ and that the environment that is being studied is damaged by the sampling process; nor can data be collected in real time which allows a dynamic understanding of erosion and transport processes to be developed. Here we report on the field application of a fluorescent sand sized tracer at the hillslope scale during a tillage erosion experiment. Here we trialled both intensity based and particle counting methodologies for tracer enumeration. After simulating seven years of tillage on a hillslope we were able to precisely determine the distribution of the fluorescent tracer and also its incorporation and distribution within the soil profile. Single grains of tracer could be found over 35 m from the insertion point. In a second abstract we report on an application that combines novel fluorescent videography techniques with custom image processing to trace the

  7. Crop rotation impact on soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, I.; Ashraf, M.; Mahmood, T.; Islam, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Management systems influence soil quality over time. A study was carried out on Van meter farm of the Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to evaluate the impact of crop rotations on soil quality from 2002 to 2007. The crop rotations comprised of continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW). Ten soil cores were collected at 0-7.5, 7.5-15, 15-22.5 and 22.5-30 cm, and sieved. The soils were analyzed for total microbial biomass (C/sub mic/), basal respiration (BR) and specific maintenance respiration (qCO/sub 2/) rates as biological quality indicators; total organic carbon (TC), active carbon (AC) and total nitrogen (TN) as chemical quality indicators; and aggregate stability (AS), particulate organic matter (POM) and total porosity (ft) as physical quality parameters at different depths of soil. The inductive additive approach based on the concept of 'higher value of any soil property except ft, a better indicator of soil quality' was used to calculate the biological (SBQ), chemical (SCQ), physical (SPQ) and composite soil quality (SQI) indices. The results showed that crop rotation had significant impact on C/sub mic/, BR, qCO/sub 2/, TC, AC, TN, AS and POM except ft at different depths of soil. The CSW had higher soil quality values than CC and CS. The values of selected soil quality properties under the given crop rotation significantly decreased except ft with increasing soil depth. The SBQ (23%), SCQ (16%), SPQ (7%) and SQI (15%) improved under CSW over time. The results imply that multiple cropping systems could be more effective for maintaining and enhancing soil quality than sole-cropping systems. (author)

  8. Economic and energy assessment of minimalized soil tillage methods in maize cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Szulc; Andrzej Dubas

    2014-01-01

    Grain yield of maize cultivated in the years 1997-2009 in monoculture and with annual tillage simplifications was assessed in energy and economy terms. Effects of no-tillage system and direct sowing (D) with cultivation with autumn deep (A) and shallow (B) ploughing and cultivation with spring pre-sowing ploughing (C) were compared. It was demonstrated that the 13-year maize grain yield in no-tillage system and direct sowing was lower by 10.4% than the yield obtained in conventional tillage s...

  9. Effects of Long-term Conservation Tillage on Soil Nutrients in Sloping Fields in Regions Characterized by Water and Wind Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunjian; Cao, Xue; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weiyu; Feng, Yongzhong; Qiao, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation tillage is commonly used in regions affected by water and wind erosion. To understand the effects of conservation tillage on soil nutrients and yield, a long-term experiment was set up in a region affected by water and wind erosion on the Loess Plateau. The treatments used were traditional tillage (CK), no tillage (NT), straw mulching (SM), plastic-film mulching (PM), ridging and plastic-film mulching (RPM) and intercropping (In). Our results demonstrate that the available nutrients in soils subjected to non-traditional tillage treatments decreased during the first several years and then remained stable over the last several years of the experiment. The soil organic matter and total nitrogen content increased gradually over 6 years in all treatments except CK. The nutrient content of soils subjected to conservative tillage methods, such as NT and SM, were significantly higher than those in soils under the CK treatment. Straw mulching and film mulching effectively reduced an observed decrease in soybean yield. Over the final 6 years of the experiment, soybean yields followed the trend RPM > PM > SM > NT > CK > In. This trend has implications for controlling soil erosion and preventing non-point source pollution in sloping fields by sacrificing some food production.

  10. Effects of land clearing techniques and tillage systems on runoff and soil erosion in a tropical rain forest in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehigiator, O A; Anyata, B U

    2011-11-01

    This work reports runoff and soil loss from each of 14 sub-watersheds in a secondary rain forest in south-western Nigeria. The impact of methods of land clearing and post-clearing management on runoff and soil erosion under the secondary forest is evaluated. These data were acquired eighteen years after the deforestation of primary vegetation during the ' West bank' project of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA). These data are presented separately for each season; however, statistical analyses for replicates were not conducted due to differences in their past management. Soil erosion was affected by land clearing and tillage methods. The maximum soil erosion was observed on sub-watersheds that were mechanically cleared with tree-pusher/root-rake attachments and tilled conventionally. A high rate of erosion was observed even when graded-channel terraces were constructed to minimize soil erosion. In general there was much less soil erosion on manually cleared than on mechanically cleared sub-watersheds (2.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1) versus 13.8 t ha(-1) yr(-1)) and from the application of no-tillage methods than from conventionally plowed areas (6.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1) versus 12.1 t ha(-1) yr(-1)). The data indicate that tillage methods and appropriate management of soils and crops play an important role in soil and water conservation and in decreasing the rate of decline of soil quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; López-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0

  12. The influence of biopreparations on the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in shallow and deep soil tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujokienė, Vilma; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Lekavičienė, Kristina; Adamavičienė, Aida; Buragienė, Sidona; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2018-06-01

    The application of innovation in agriculture technologies is very important for increasing the efficiency of agricultural production, ensuring the high productivity of plants, production quality, farm profitability, the positive balance of used energy, and the requirements of environmental protection. Therefore, it is a scientific problem that solid and soil surfaces covered with plant residue have a negative impact on the work, traction resistance, energy consumption, and environmental pollution of tillage machines. The objective of this work was to determine the dependence of the reduction of energy consumption and CO 2 gas emissions on different biopreparations. Experimental research was carried out in a control (SC1) and seven different biopreparations using scenarios (SC2-SC8) using bacterial and non-bacterial biopreparations in different consistencies (with essential and mineral oils, extracts of various grasses and sea algae, phosphorus, potassium, humic and gibberellic acids, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, and calcium), estimating discing and plowing as the energy consumption parameters of shallow and deep soil tillage machines, respectively. CO 2 emissions were determined by evaluating soil characteristics (such as hardness, total porosity and density). Meteorological conditions such average daily temperatures (2015-20.3 °C; 2016-16.90 °C) and precipitations (2015-6.9 mm; 2016-114.9 mm) during the month strongly influenced different results in 2015 and 2016. Substantial differences between the averages of energy consumption identified in approximately 62% of biological preparation combinations created usage scenarios. Experimental research established that crop field treatments with biological preparations at the beginning of vegetation could reduce the energy consumption of shallow tillage machines by up to approximately 23%, whereas the energy consumption of deep tillage could be reduced by up to approximately 19.2% compared with the control

  13. Mineralogy and phosphorus adsorption in soils of south and central-west Brazil under conventional and no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessé Rodrigo Fink

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The low phosphorus availability in tropical and subtropical soils, normally related to adsorption of phosphate to the minerals surfaces, can be attenuated when organic matter (OM accumulates in the soils. Herein, we report the results of long-term experiments (18–32 years aimed at quantifying the maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity (MPAC and its determinant mineralogical variables in Brazilian soils and at assessing the effect of no-tillage (NT in mitigating the phosphorus adsorption of soils. The MPAC of soils ranged from 297 to 4,561 mg kg-1 in the 0.00–0.10 m layer and from 285 to 4,961 mg kg-1 in the 0.10–0.20 m layer. The MPAC was correlated with the concentrations of iron oxides, goethite and ferrihydrite, gibbsite/(gibbsite+kaolinite ratio and the specific surface area. The OM increased in the 0.00–0.10 m layer of NT soils, which was not reflected on the decrease of MPAC for the no-tillage soils.

  14. Effects of Tillage Methods on Some Soil Physical Properties, Growth and Yield of Water Melon in a Semi-Arid Region of Nigeria

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    A. Dauda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate tillage method is necessary to create an optimum seed bed condition for optimum crop growth and yield. Two-year field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effects of different tillage methods on the physical properties of sandy loam soil, growth and yield of water melon (Citrullus vulgaris in a semi-arid environment. The Tillage treatments were disc ploughing plus disc harrowing (DP+DH, double disc ploughing (DDP, double disc harrowing (DDH, disc ploughing (DP and disc harrowing (DH as minimum tillage (MT and zero tillage (ZT and direct drilling method (control. The watermelon seeds were Planted manually placing three (3 seeds per hole at an interval of 1.5m along the rows and 50cm between the rows at an average depth of 5cm. The treatments were laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. Results showed that disc ploughing + disc harrowing (DP+DH was found to be more appropriate and profitable tillage method in improving soil physical properties and growth and yield of water melon in a sandy loam soil. Watermelon yield, fruit weight (FW, fruit length (FL, fruit diameter (FD and leaf area index (LAI were significantly influenced (P=0.05, but influence of tillage treatments were not significant on the number of fruit per plant (NFPP. A numerical value of 31.0t/ha, 26.0, 5.4kg, 29.0cm, and 33.8cm were recorded for maximum crop yield, NFPP, FW, FD and FL respectively in DP+DH-treated plots. For zero tillage (ZT treatment, maximum of crop yield and NFPP were 26.5t/ha and 20.0 respectively. Thus for enhanced growth and yield of watermelon, DP/DH would be more preferable. The orthodox method of zero tillage is out rightly discouraged

  15. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  16. Carbon dioxide emissions after application of different tillage systems for loam in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwen, Li; Lifeng, Hu; Fub, Chen; Xuemin, Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Tillage operations influence soil physical properties and crop growth, and thus both directly and indirectly the cropland CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In this study, the results of CO2 flux measurements on cropland, under different tillage practices in northern China, are presented. CO2 flux on croplands with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea may L.) rotation was monitored on plots with conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT). Soil CO2 flux was generally greater in CT than in NT, and the RT CO2 flux was only slightly smaller than the CT. Daily soil CO2 emissions for CT, RT, and NT averaged 11.30g m-2, 9.63 g m-2 and 7.99 g m-2, respectively, during the growing period. Analysis of variance shows that these differences are significant for the three tillage treatments. Peak CO2 emissions were recorded on the CT and RT croplands after tillage operations. At the same time, no obviously increased emission of CO2 occurred on the NT plot. These differences demonstrate that tillage results in a rapid physical release of CO2.

  17. Tillage-induced changes to soil structure and organic carbon fractions in New Zealand soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Saggar, S.; Ross, C. W.; Dando, J. L.; Newman, R. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of increasing cropping and soil compaction on aggregate stability and dry-sieved aggregate-size distribution, and their relationship to total organic C (TOC) and the major functional groups of soil organic carbon, were investigated on 5 soils of contrasting mineralogy. All soils except the allophanic soil showed a significant decline in aggregate stability under medium- to long-term cropping. Mica-rich, fine-textured mineral and humic soils showed the greatest increase in the mean weight diameter (MWD) of dry aggregates, while the oxide-rich soils, and particularly the allophanic soils, showed only a slight increase in the MWD after long-term cropping. On conversion back to pasture, the aggregate stability of the mica-rich soils increased and the MWD of the aggregate-size distribution decreased, with the humic soil showing the greatest recovery. Aggregate stability and dry aggregate-size distribution patterns show that soil resistance to structural degradation and soil resilience increased from fine-textured to coarse-textured to humic mica-rich soils to oxide-rich soils to allophanic soils. Coarse- and fine-textured mica-rich and oxide-rich soils under pasture contained medium amounts of TOC, hot-water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), and acid hydrolysable carbohydrate (AHC), all of which declined significantly under cropping. The rate of decline varied with soil type in the initial years of cropping, but was similar under medium- and long-term cropping. TOC was high in the humic mica-rich and allophanic soils, and levels did not decline appreciably under medium- and long-term cropping. 13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance evidence also indicates that all major functional groups of soil organic carbon declined under cropping, with O-alkyl C and alkyl C showing the fastest and slowest rate of decline, respectively. On conversion back to pasture, both WSC and AHC returned to levels originally present under long-term pasture. TOC recovered to original pasture

  18. Seasonal herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff and sediments of an olive orchard under conventional tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Maria Jesus; de Luna, Elena; Gómez, José Alfonso; Cornejo, Juan; Hermosín, M. Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Several pollution episodes in surface and groundwaters with pesticides have occurred in areas where olive crops are established. For that reason, it is necessary to know the evolution of some pesticides in olive trees plantation depending on their seasonal application. This is especially important when conventional tillage is used. A monitoring of two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen)in the first cm of soil and, in runoff and sediment yield was carried out after several rainfall events. The rainfall occurred during the study was higher in winter than in spring giving rise more runoff in winter. However, no differences in sediment yields were observed between spring and winter. Terbuthylazine depletion from soil is associated to the first important rainfall events in both seasons (41 mm in spring and 30 mm in winter). At the end of the experiment, no terbuthylazine soil residues were recovered in winter whereas 15% of terbuthylazine applied remained in spring. Oxyfluorfen showed a character more persistent than terbuthylazine remaining 48% of the applied at the end of the experiment due to its low water solubility. Higher percentage from the applied of terbuthylazine was recovered in runoff in winter (0.55%) than in spring (0.17%). Nevertheless, no differences in terbuthylazine sediments yields between both seasons were observed. That is in agreement with the values of runoff and sediment yields accumulated in tanks in both seasons. Due to the low water solubility of oxyfluorfen very low amount of this herbicide was recovered in runoff. Whereas, in sediment yields the 39.5% of the total applied was recovered. These data show that the dissipation of terbuthylazine from soil is closely related with leaching processes and in less extent with runoff. However, oxyfluorfen dissipation is more affected by runoff processes since this herbicide is co-transported in sediment yields. Keywords: olive crop, pesticide, runoff, sediments, surface water, groundwater

  19. Effects of tillage and nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 emissions and soil organic carbon in paddy fields of central China.

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    Li Cheng-Fang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon (C sequestration in paddy soils is necessary to help better understand the effect of agricultural practices on the C cycle. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tillage practices [conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT] and the application of nitrogen (N fertilizer (0 and 210 kg N ha(-1 on fluxes of CH(4 and CO(2, and soil organic C (SOC sequestration during the 2009 and 2010 rice growing seasons in central China. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased CH(4 emissions by 13%-66% and SOC by 21%-94% irrespective of soil sampling depths, but had no effect on CO(2 emissions in either year. Tillage significantly affected CH(4 and CO(2 emissions, where NT significantly decreased CH(4 emissions by 10%-36% but increased CO(2 emissions by 22%-40% in both years. The effects of tillage on the SOC varied with the depth of soil sampling. NT significantly increased the SOC by 7%-48% in the 0-5 cm layer compared with CT. However, there was no significant difference in the SOC between NT and CT across the entire 0-20 cm layer. Hence, our results suggest that the potential of SOC sequestration in NT paddy fields may be overestimated in central China if only surface soil samples are considered.

  20. Effects of tillage and nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 emissions and soil organic carbon in paddy fields of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Fang, Li; Dan-Na, Zhou; Zhi-Kui, Kou; Zhi-Sheng, Zhang; Jin-Ping, Wang; Ming-Li, Cai; Cou-Gui, Cao

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying carbon (C) sequestration in paddy soils is necessary to help better understand the effect of agricultural practices on the C cycle. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tillage practices [conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT)] and the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0 and 210 kg N ha(-1)) on fluxes of CH(4) and CO(2), and soil organic C (SOC) sequestration during the 2009 and 2010 rice growing seasons in central China. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased CH(4) emissions by 13%-66% and SOC by 21%-94% irrespective of soil sampling depths, but had no effect on CO(2) emissions in either year. Tillage significantly affected CH(4) and CO(2) emissions, where NT significantly decreased CH(4) emissions by 10%-36% but increased CO(2) emissions by 22%-40% in both years. The effects of tillage on the SOC varied with the depth of soil sampling. NT significantly increased the SOC by 7%-48% in the 0-5 cm layer compared with CT. However, there was no significant difference in the SOC between NT and CT across the entire 0-20 cm layer. Hence, our results suggest that the potential of SOC sequestration in NT paddy fields may be overestimated in central China if only surface soil samples are considered.

  1. The effect of soil extracts from a monoculture of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown under different tillage systems on the germination of its seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out in the period 2006-2008. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aqueous soil extracts from the soil of a spring wheat monoculture on seed germination energy and capacity, the length of the first leaf and of the longest radicle as well as the number of radicles. Moreover, the content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the soil was compared in the last year of the study. The soil used to prepare the solutions came from a field experiment established on medium heavy mixed rendzina soil. Spring wheat, cv. Zebra, was grown using plough tillage and two conservation tillage methods in the presence of undersown crops (red clover, Westerwolds ryegrass and stubble crops (lacy phacelia, white mustard. Germination energy of the seeds watered with the soil extracts from the ploughed plots was significantly higher than this trait in the seeds watered with the extracts from the conservation tillage treatments with spring disking of the catch crops. Germination energy and capacity of spring wheat in the control treatment watered with distilled water were significantly higher compared to the other treatments under evaluation. Spring wheat watered with the aqueous extract prepared from the soil obtained from the plough tillage treatment produced a significantly longer first leaf compared to the treatments in which both conservation tillage methods had been used. The shortest leaf and the lowest number of radicles were produced by the seedlings watered with the soil extract from the treatment with the white clover stubble crop. Radicle length was not significantly differentiated by the soil extracts under consideration. The content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the rendzina soil determined during the spring period was higher than that determined in the autumn. The content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the soil was lower in the conservation tillage treatments with autumn incorporation of the catch crops than in the plots in which

  2. Carbon sequestration in clay and silt fractions of Brazilian soils under conventional and no-tillage systems

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    Cecília Estima Sacramento dos Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of soils to sequestrate carbon (C is mainly related to the formation of organo-mineral complexes. In this study, we investigated the influence of soil management systems on the C retention capacity of soil with an emphasis on the silt and clay fractions of two subtropical soils with different mineralogy and climate. Samples from a Humic Hapludox and a Rhodic Hapludox, clayey soils cultivated for approximately 30 years under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT were collected from six layers distributed within 100-cm soil depth from each site and from an adjacent native forest. After the removal of particulate organic matter (POM, the suspension (<53 µm was sonicated, the silt and clay fractions were separated in accordance with Stokes' law and the carbon content of whole soil and physical fractions was determined. In the Humic Hapludox, the clay and silt fractions under NT showed a higher maximum C retention (72 and 52 g kg-1, respectively in comparison to those under CT (54 and 38 g kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the C concentration increase in both fractions under NT occurred mainly in the topsoil (up to 5 cm. The C retention in physical fractions of Rhodic Hapludox varied from 25 to 32 g kg-1, and no difference was observed whether under an NT or a CT management system. The predominance of goethite and gibbsite in the Humic Hapludox, as well as its exposure to a colder climate, may have contributed to its greater C retention capacity. In addition to the organo-mineral interaction, a mechanism of organic matter self-assemblage, enhanced by longer periods of soil non-disturbance, seems to have contributed to the carbon stabilization in both soils.

  3. Effect of N fertilization and tillage on nitrous oxide (N2O) loss from soil under wheat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Aberle, Ezra; Teboh, Jasper; Yuja, Szilvia; Liebig, Mark; Meier, Jacob; Boyd, Alec

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O-N) is one of the most important gases in the atmosphere because it is 300 times more powerful than carbon dioxide in its ability to trap heat, and is a key chemical agent of ozone depletion. The amount of N2O-N emitted from agricultural fields can be quite high, depending on the complex interplay between N fertility and residue management, plant N uptake, microbial processes, environmental conditions, and wet-up and dry-down events. High N fertilizer rates generally increase yields, but may disproportionately increase N2O-N losses due to prolonged residence time in soil when not used by the crop, and incomplete decomposition of excess N-compounds by microbes. Tillage could also affect N2O-N losses through changes in soil moisture content. Though nitrogen monoxide (NO) is one form of N lost from the soil, especially under conventional tillage, this study objective was to quantify N2O loss in wheat fields from applied urea on soil under no-till (NT) versus incorporated urea under conventional till (CT).

  4. Mechanized farming in the humid tropics with special reference to soil tillage, workability and timeliness of farm operations : a case study for the Zanderij area of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, D.

    1987-01-01

    The reported investigations concern aspects of mechanized farming for the production of rainfed crops on the loamy soils of the Zanderij formation in Suriname and in particular, the effect of tillage on crop yield and soil properties, workability of field operations and timeliness of field

  5. Soil physical and X-ray computed tomographic measurements to investigate small-scale structural differences under strip tillage compared to mulch till and no-till

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlitz, Julia; Rücknagel, Jan; Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing application of conservation tillage techniques where the soil is no longer turned, but only loosened or left completely untilled. Dead plant material remains on the soil surface, which provides environmental and economic benefits such as the conservation of water, preventing soil erosion and saving time during seedbed preparation. There is a variety of conservation tillage systems, e.g. mulch till, no-till and strip tillage, which is a special feature. In strip tillage, the seed bed is divided into a seed zone (strip-till within the seed row: STWS) and a soil management zone (strip-till between the seed row: STBS). However, each tillage application affects physical soil properties and processes. Here, the combined application of classical soil mechanical and computed tomographic methods is used on a Chernozem (texture 0-30 cm: silt loam) to show small-scale structural differences under strip tillage (STWS, STBS) compared to no-till (NT) and mulch till (MT). In addition to the classical soil physical parameters dry bulk density and saturated conductivity (years: 2012, 2014, 2015) at soil depths 2-8 and 12-18 cm, stress-strain tests were carried out to map mechanical behavior. The stress-strain tests were performed for a load range from 5-550 kPa at 12-18 cm depth (year 2015). Mechanical precompression stress was determined on the stress-dry bulk density curves. Further, CT image cross sections and computed tomographic examinations (average pore size, porosity, connectivity, and anisotropy) were used from the same soil samples. For STBS and NT, a significant increase in dry bulk density was observed over the course of time compared to STWS and MT, which was more pronounced at 2-8 cm than at 12-18 cm depth. Despite higher dry bulk density, STBS displayed higher saturated conductivity in contrast to STWS, which can be attributed to higher earthworm abundance. In strip tillage, structural differences were identified

  6. PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND SOIL HYDRO PHYSICAL PROPERTIES UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE PRACTICES AND COVER CROPS IN A TYPIC HAPLUSULT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Mohammed Lawal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tillage practices influence soil physical, chemical and biological qualities which in-turn alters plant growth and crop yield. In the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS ecological zone of Nigeria, agricultural production is mainly constrained by low soil nutrient and water holding capacity, it is therefore, imperative to develop appropriate management practices that will give optimal soil hydro-physical properties for proper plant growth, effective soil and water management and environmental conservation. This study investigated the effect of three tillage practices (no till, reduced till and conventional till and four cover crops (Centrosema pascuorum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Cucurbita maxima and Glyine max and a bare/control (no cover crop on some soil physical properties of a Typic Haplusult during the rainy seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013 in Samaru, NGS ecological zone of Nigeria. The field trials were laid out in a split plot arrangement with tillage practices in the main plots and cover crops in the subplots, all treatments were replicated three times. Auger and core soil samples were collected at the end of each cropping season each year in three replicates from each treatment plot at four depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 cm. Particle size distribution, bulk density, total pore volume and water retention at various soil matric potentials were determined using standard methods. Data obtained were compared with optimum values and fitted into a RETC computer code for quantifying soil hydraulic behavior and physical quality. Results showed that different tillage practices had varied effect on soil physical properties. No-till had the highest water holding capacity at most suction points evaluated, it had 4.3 % and 12.9 % more soil moisture than the reduced till  and conventionally tilled systems across all matric potentials while Centrosema pascuorum (3.1% and Cucurbita maxima (5.5% were best among evaluated cover crops in retaining soil moisture

  7. Soil ecological impacts of the short rotation industry with poplar trees and pastures in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; Bodenoekologische Auswirkungen der Kurzumtriebswirtschaft mit Pappeln und Weiden in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahle, Petra; Moeller, Josefine; Seelig, Andreas; Baum, Christel [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Bodenphysik und Ressourcenschutz

    2013-10-01

    The impact of short rotation coppice (SRC), a former soil rotation coppice (FRC) and a continuously annually tilled arable soil (TS) on different soil properties was investigated. Parameters were chemical soil properties, like the concentration of soil organic matter (SOC) and total nitrogen (Nt), physical soil properties, like the bulk density, porosity and aggregate stability and biological soil properties, like abundance and biomass of earth worms. The return to annual crops involved an intense tillage and aeration of the soil. The study indicated, that the lack of tillage under SRC and the quantity of leaf and root litter can lead to an increased carbon accumulation in the upper soil. Tillage of former SRC leads to a fast redistribution of SOC in the topsoil combined with a loss of porosity, aggregate stability and abundance of earth worms. Subsequent investigations should contribute to select tillage strategies for FRC, which contribute to conserve the accumulated SOC and decrease the impact on the porosity and aggregate stability. (orig.)

  8. Temperature and water pressure head effects on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite of isoxaflutole in a loamy soil under two tillage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alletto, Lionel [Universite de Toulouse - Ecole d' ingenieurs de Purpan, Agronomy Department, 75, voie du TOEC BP 57 611, 31 076 Toulouse Cedex 3 (France); UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: lionel.alletto@purpan.fr; Benoit, Pierre [UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: benoit@grignon.inra.fr; Bergheaud, Valerie [UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: bergheau@grignon.inra.fr; Coquet, Yves [UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: Yves.Coquet@agroparistech.fr

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature and water pressure head on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite (DKN) of isoxaflutole during 84 d in samples collected in a loamy soil under conventional (CT) and conservation (MT) tillage systems. Soil temperature was the major factor controlling DKN degradation in the two tillage systems. The shortest half-lives (T{sub 1/2}) were measured in the seedbed samples under MT at 25 deg. C and -33 cm water pressure head. We found that mouldboard ploughing under CT was responsible for the spatial variability of herbicide degradation properties, whereas under MT herbicide degradation was associated to the vertical distribution of organic matter. - Tillage practices influence the spatial variability of diketonitrile degradation in soil and its sensitivity to pedoclimatic conditions.

  9. Temperature and water pressure head effects on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite of isoxaflutole in a loamy soil under two tillage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alletto, Lionel; Benoit, Pierre; Bergheaud, Valerie; Coquet, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature and water pressure head on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite (DKN) of isoxaflutole during 84 d in samples collected in a loamy soil under conventional (CT) and conservation (MT) tillage systems. Soil temperature was the major factor controlling DKN degradation in the two tillage systems. The shortest half-lives (T 1/2 ) were measured in the seedbed samples under MT at 25 deg. C and -33 cm water pressure head. We found that mouldboard ploughing under CT was responsible for the spatial variability of herbicide degradation properties, whereas under MT herbicide degradation was associated to the vertical distribution of organic matter. - Tillage practices influence the spatial variability of diketonitrile degradation in soil and its sensitivity to pedoclimatic conditions

  10. The Transformation of Agriculture in Brazil Through Development and Adoption of Zero Tillage Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. de Freitas

    2014-03-01

    These were the turning points in the sustainable development of annual crop farming in Brazil. Today, society recognizes the role of these pioneers as key to achieving social, economic and environmental sustainability. ZT/CA reversed the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter and soil structure by abandoning conventional tillage, thus improving soil physical and chemical characteristics. This was achieved by promoting cover cropping and permanent soil cover with crop residues, crop rotations, and complementary, environmentally suitable soil management technologies.

  11. Runoff amount and quality as influenced by tillage and fertilizer management choices in a Cecil soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage and fertilizer choices and their interactions have varying impacts on levels and qualities of runoff from agricultural fields. We quantified runoff, sediment loss, concentrations and loads of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), dissolved reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and total...

  12. Changes in the fertility of a leached chernozem under different primary tillage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V. A.; Gromovik, A. I.; Borontov, O. K.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the fertility of a leached chernozem under different tillage technologies (moldboard, non-inversive, and combined tillage) were studied in a multifactor stationary field experiment established in 1985 in Voronezh oblast on a low-humus medium-deep light clayey leached chernozem. The nine-field rotation of cereals and sugar beet was practiced. It was found that the major parameters of soil fertility—the content and qualitative composition of humus and the physicochemical and physical properties of the chernozem—remained relatively stable independently from the applied primary tillage technologies. However, taking into account economic characteristics (crop yields, production costs, energy expenses, etc.), the combined tillage system proved to be most efficient. It can be recommended for cereals-sugar beet rotation systems in the central chernozemic region, as it ensures the highest efficiency of crop growing and preserves the fertility of leached chernozems.

  13. Tillage and Fertilizer Management Effects on Soil-Atmospheric Exchanges of Methane and Nitrous Oxide in a Corn Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermson Z. Nyakatawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Land application of poultry litter (PL presents an opportunity to improve soil productivity and disposal of poultry waste. We investigated methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from agricultural soil receiving PL and ammonium nitrate (AN fertilizers using surface (SA, soil incorporation (SI, and subsurface band (BA application methods in conventional (CT and no-tillage (NT systems on a Decatur silt loam soil in North Alabama. Plots under CT and NT were sinks of CH4 in spring, summer, and fall. In winter, the plots had net emissions of 3.32 and 4.24 g CH4 ha-1 day-1 in CT and NT systems, respectively. Plots which received AN were net emitters of CH4 and N2O, whereas plots which received PL were net sinks of CH4. Plots which received PL using SA or SI methods were net emitters of N2O, whereas under PL using BA application, the plots were net sinks of N2O. Our study indicates that using subsurface band application of PL was the most promising environmentally sustainable poultry waste application method for reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural soil in NT and CT corn production systems on the Decatur soil in north Alabama.

  14. Effects of tillage, organic resources and nitrogen fertiliser on soil carbon dynamics and crop nitrogen uptake in semi-arid West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2006-01-01

    Tillage, organic resources and fertiliser effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics were investigated in 2000 and 2001 in Burkina Faso (West Africa). A split plot design with four replications was laid-out on a loamy-sand Ferric Lixisol with till and no-till as main treatments and fertiliser types as

  15. Evaporação da água na superfície do solo em sistemas de plantio direto e preparo convencional Soil surface water evaporation under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genei Antonio Dalmago

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos quantificar a evaporação da água na superfície do solo, em plantio direto e em preparo convencional, e avaliar o uso de microlisímetros de pesagem para medir esse processo. As medições foram feitas em campo, nos verões de 2001/2002, 2002/2003 e 2004/2005, em experimentos irrigados e não irrigados. Utilizaram-se delineamentos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro repetições, cujos tratamentos consistiram de sistemas de manejo do solo – plantio direto e preparo convencional –, e a presença ou ausência de cultivo de milho. Mediu-se a evaporação diária durante períodos de secagem do solo, entre precipitações ou irrigações consecutivas. Em experimentos sem irrigação, a evaporação acumulada foi maior sob plantio direto, na maioria dos períodos de medição, independentemente da presença da lavoura de milho. Nos experimentos com irrigação, a evaporação não apresentou diferenças regulares entre sistemas de manejo de solo. Normalmente, no início dos períodos de medição, com dois a cinco dias de secagem do solo, a evaporação foi maior em solo sob preparo convencional, tendo-se tornado maior em plantio direto, no restante do período de secagem. O emprego de microlisímetros de pesagem é eficiente para medir a evaporação na superfície do solo.This work aimed to quantify the evaporation of water on the soil surface under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems, and to evaluate the microlysimeters use to measure this process. Measurements were performed in the field, during the summers of 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2004/2005, in experiments with and without irrigation. Completely randomized designs were used, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of no-tillage and conventional soil tillage systems, in the presence or absence of corn cultivation. Evaporation was measured daily, during drying periods between precipitations and consecutive irrigations. Without

  16. Soil microbiome characteristics and soilborne disease development associated with long-term potato cropping system practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cropping system practices substantially affect soil microbial communities and the development of soilborne diseases. Cropping systems incorporating soil health management practices, such as longer rotations, disease-suppressive crops, reduced tillage, and/or organic amendments can potentially...

  17. Phosphorus forms and chemistry in the soil profile under long-term conservation tillage: a phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Carter, Martin R; James, Dean C; Liu, Corey W

    2010-01-01

    In many regions, conservation tillage has replaced conventional tilling practices to reduce soil erosion, improve water conservation, and increase soil organic matter. However, tillage can have marked effects on soil properties, specifically nutrient redistribution or stratification in the soil profile. The objective of this research was to examine soil phosphorus (P) forms and concentrations in a long-term study comparing conservation tillage (direct drilling, "No Till") and conventional tillage (moldboard plowing to 20 cm depth, "Till") established on a fine sandy loam (Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. No significant differences in total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total P, or total organic P concentrations were detected between the tillage systems at any depth in the 0- to 60-cm depth range analyzed. However, analysis with phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed differences in P forms in the plow layer. In particular, the concentration of orthophosphate was significantly higher under No Till than Till at 5 to 10 cm, but the reverse was true at 10 to 20 cm. Mehlich 3-extractable P was also significantly higher in No Till at 5 to 10 cm and significantly higher in Till at 20 to 30 cm. This P stratification appears to be caused by a lack of mixing of applied fertilizer in No Till because the same trends were observed for pH and Mehlich 3-extractable Ca (significantly higher in the Till treatment at 20 to 30 cm), reflecting mixing of applied lime. The P saturation ratio was significantly higher under No Till at 0 to 5 cm and exceeded the recommended limits, suggesting that P stratification under No Till had increased the potential for P loss in runoff from these sites.

  18. Using isotopic tracers to assess the impact of tillage and straw management on the microbial metabolic network in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Groenigen, K.; Forristal, D.; Jones, M. B.; Schwartz, E.; Hungate, B. A.; Dijkstra, P.

    2013-12-01

    By decomposing soil organic matter, microbes gain energy and building blocks for biosynthesis and release CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, insight into the effect of management practices on microbial metabolic pathways and C use efficiency (CUE; microbial C produced per substrate C utilized) may help to predict long term changes in soil C stocks. We studied the effects of reduced (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) on the microbial central C metabolic network, using soil samples from a 12-year-old field experiment in an Irish winter wheat cropping system. Each year after harvest, straw was removed from half of the RT and CT plots or incorporated into the soil in the other half, resulting in four treatment combinations. We added 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate and 1-13C and U-13C glucose as metabolic tracer isotopomers to composite soil samples taken at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm) from each treatment and used the rate of position-specific respired 13CO2 to parameterize a metabolic model. Model outcomes were then used to calculate CUE of the microbial community. We found that the composite samples differed in CUE, but the changes were small, with values ranging between 0.757-0.783 across treatments and soil depth. Increases in CUE were associated with a decrease in tricarboxylic acid cycle and reductive pentose phosphate pathway activity and increased consumption of metabolic intermediates for biosynthesis. Our results indicate that RT and straw incorporation promote soil C storage without substantially changing CUE or any of the microbial metabolic pathways. This suggests that at our site, RT and straw incorporation promote soil C storage mostly through direct effects such as increased soil C input and physical protection from decomposition, rather than by feedback responses of the microbial community.

  19. Soil phosphorus loss in tile drainage water from long-term conventional- and non-tillage soils of Ontario with and without compost addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Wang, Y T; Ma, B L; Welacky, T

    2017-02-15

    Recent ascertainment of tile drainage a predominant pathway of soil phosphorus (P) loss, along with the rise in concentration of soluble P in the Lake Erie, has led to a need to re-examine the impacts of agricultural practices. A three-year on-farm study was conducted to assess P loss in tile drainage water under long-term conventional- (CT) and non-tillage (NT) as influenced by yard waste leaf compost (LC) application in a Brookston clay loam soil. The effects of LC addition on soil P loss in tile drainage water varied depending on P forms and tillage systems. Under CT, dissolved reactive P (DRP) loss with LC addition over the study period was 765g P ha -1 , 2.9 times higher than CT without LC application, due to both a 50% increase in tile drainage flow volume and a 165% increase in DRP concentration. Under NT, DRP loss in tile drainage water with LC addition was 1447gPha -1 , 5.3 times greater than that for NT without LC application; this was solely caused by a 564% increase in DRP concentration. However, particulate P loads in tile drainage water with LC application remained unchanged, relative to non-LC application, regardless of tillage systems. Consequently, LC addition led to an increase in total P loads in tile drainage water by 57 and 69% under CT and NT, respectively. The results indicate that LC application may become an environmental concern due to increased DRP loss, particularly under NT. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diferencias de las condiciones mecánicas de un suelo arcilloso sometido a diferentes sistemas de labranza Differences in mechanical conditions of a clayey soil under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Draghi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue cuantificar la reacción mecánica del suelo al tránsito, a través de la resistencia a la penetración y la densidad aparente para visualizar posibles diferencias debido al sistema de labranza utilizado. El ensayo se instaló sobre un suelo Argiudol típico, sobre dos lotes, provenientes cada uno de seis años de cultivo trigo-soja bajo dos formas de labranza: siembra directa (SD y labranza convencional (LC. Se establecieron 4 tratamientos de tránsito, correspondientes a 6, 8, 10 y 12 pasadas de un tractor de diseño convencional (2WD Massey Fergusson 1175 de 52,25 kW (71 CV en el motor. Para determinar los efectos del tránsito sobre la compactación inducida, se determinaron la densidad global (DA y la resistencia a la penetración (RP. Luego de 6 años de rotación trigo-soja bajo estas dos formas de cultivo (siembra directa y labranza convencional la condición mecánica de los suelos resultó ser significativamente diferente, al menos en las capas más superficiales, resultando el suelo trabajado con SD mayores valores de RP que la condición de LC. La siembra directa registró valores de DA limitantes para el normal desarrollo radicular a menores intensidades de tráfico y desde menores profundidades. A medida que aumentó la intensidad de tráfico disminuyó la profundidad donde se alcanzaron valores de resistencia a la penetración potencialmente determinantes de la detención en el crecimiento radicular.With the aim to evaluate the soil mechanic reaction-traffic relationship to different tillage systems, penetration resistance and soil bulk density measurements were made. Four traffic conditions (6, 8, 10 and 12 passes of a 2WD, 52.25 kW tractor were evaluated in a typic Argiudol soil with six years of wheat-soybean rotation under no-tillage and conventional tillage. Bulk density and penetration resistance were used to evaluate the traffic effects on soil compaction. After the six-year rotation

  1. Soil tillage and water infiltration in semi-arid Morocco: the role fo surface and sub-surface soil conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimanche, P.H.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Production of cereals in a dryland farming system forms an important part of agricultural production in Morocco. Yield levels on the Saïs Plateau between Meknès and Fez in the semi-arid zone, however, remain low possibly because of sub-optimum water use due to inefficient tillage systems. A study

  2. Distribution of light and heavy fractions of soil organic carbon as related to land use and tillage practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Lal, R.; Owens, L.; Izaurralde, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    Mass distributions of different soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions are influenced by land use and management. Concentrations of C and N in light- and heavy fractions of bulk soils and aggregates in 0–20 cm were determined to evaluate the role of aggregation in SOC sequestration under conventional tillage (CT), no-till (NT), and forest treatments. Light- and heavy fractions of SOC were separated using 1.85 g mL−1 sodium polytungstate solution. Soils under forest and NT preserved, respectively, 167% and 94% more light fraction than those under CT. The mass of light fraction decreased with an increase in soil depth, but significantly increased with an increase in aggregate size. C concentrations of light fraction in all aggregate classes were significantly higher under NT and forest than under CT. C concentrations in heavy fraction averaged 20, 10, and 8 g kg−1 under forest, NT, and CT, respectively. Of the total SOC pool, heavy fraction C accounted for 76% in CT soils and 63% in forest and NT soils. These data suggest that there is a greater protection of SOC by aggregates in the light fraction of minimally disturbed soils than that of disturbed soil, and the SOC loss following conversion from forest to agriculture is attributed to reduction in C concentrations in both heavy and light fractions. In contrast, the SOC gain upon conversion from CT to NT is primarily attributed to an increase in C concentration in the light fraction.

  3. Descompactación de suelos franco limosos en siembra directa: efectos sobre las propiedades edáficas y los cultivos Decompaction of no-tillage soils: effects on soil properties and crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina R Álvarez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La descompactación mecánica puede mejorar las condiciones físicas de suelos franco limosos que sufren compactación en siembra directa. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: 1-evaluar la influencia de la descompactación mecánica (e.g. paratill o cultivie sobre algunas propiedades físicas y químicas de suelos manejados bajo siembra directa; 2- cuantificar el impacto de la descompactación sobre el rendimiento de maíz; 3-evaluar la perdurabilidad de la descompactación sobre variables físicas edáficas, desarrollo de raíces y rendimiento de los cultivos implantados luego del maíz. Durante la campaña 2006/07 se condujeron seis ensayos de campo en lotes de producción de maíz ubicados en la Pampa Ondulada. Se compararon parcelas apareadas en siembra directa continua (TEST vs. parcelas con pasaje de equipo descompactador a 30 cm (DESC. La resistencia a la penetración disminuyó 37 y 24% (p Mechanical decompaction may improve the physical properties of no-tillage silty loam soils. The aims of this study were to: 1- evaluate the influence of mechanical tilling (e.g. paratill or cultivie on soil physical (gravimetric water content, bulk density, penetration resistance and infiltration rate and chemical (nitrate content properties in no-tillage soils; 2- quantify the impact of soil decompaction on maize yield; and 3- evaluate the persistence of soil compaction alleviation on soil penetration resistance, root abundance and crop yields after maize. Six field experiments were conducted in no-tillage maize plots in the Rolling Pampa region. Paired plots were compared: continuous no tillage (TEST vs. soil compaction alleviation by deep tillage (DESC. Soil penetration resistance decreased by 37and 24 % (p < 0.05 at the 0-25 cm and 0-40 cm soil layers, respectively, and the soil infiltration rate increased (p= 0.07 from TEST to DESC at the V5-V6 maize growing stage. No deep tillage effect was observed on soil bulk density and nitrate content

  4. Distribution of nitrogen ammonium sulfate (15N) soil-plant system in a no-tillage crop succession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Flavia Carvalho da Silva; Libardi, Paulo Leonel

    2012-01-01

    the n use by maize (Zea mays, l.) is affected by n-fertilizer levels. this study was conducted using a sandy-clay texture soil (Hapludox) to evaluate the efficiency of n use by maize in a crop succession, based on 15 N labeled ammonium sulfate (5.5 atom %) at different rates, and to assess the residual fertilizer effect in two no-tillage succession crops (signal grass and corn). Two maize crops were evaluated, the first in the growing season 2006, the second in 2007, and brachiaria in the second growing season. The treatments consisted of n rates of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha -1 in the form of labeled 15 N ammonium sulfate. This fertilizer was applied in previously defined subplots, only to the first maize crop (growing season 2006). The variables total accumulated n; fertilizer-derived n in corn plants and pasture; fertilizer-derived n in the soil; and recovery of fertilizer-n by plants and soil were evaluated.The highest uptake of fertilizer n by corn was observed after application of 120 kg ha -1 N and the residual effect of n fertilizer on subsequent corn and brachiaria was highest after application of 180 kg ha -1 N. After the crop succession, soil n recovery was 32, 23 and 27 % for the respective applications of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha -1 N. (author)

  5. Evaluation of a model framework to estimate soil and soil organic carbon redistribution by water and tillage using 137Cs in two U.S. Midwest agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuguang; Schumacher, Joseph A.; Schumacher, Thomas E.; Kaspar, Thomas C.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Napton, Darrell; Jaynes, Dan B.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated lands in the U.S. Midwest have been affected by soil erosion, causing soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution in the landscape and other environmental and agricultural problems. The importance of SOC redistribution on soil productivity and crop yield, however, is still uncertain. In this study, we used a model framework, which includes the Unit Stream Power-based Erosion Deposition (USPED) and the Tillage Erosion Prediction (TEP) models, to understand the soil and SOC redistribution caused by water and tillage erosion in two agricultural fields in the U.S. Midwest. This model framework was evaluated for different digital elevation model (DEM) spatial resolutions (10-m, 24-m, 30-m, and 56-m) and topographic exponents (m = 1.0–1.6 and n = 1.0–1.3) using soil redistribution rates from 137Cs measurements. The results showed that the aggregated 24-m DEM, m = 1.4 and n = 1.0 for rill erosion, and m = 1.0 and n = 1.0 for sheet erosion, provided the best fit with the observation data at both sites. Moreover, estimated average SOC redistributions were 1.3 ± 9.8 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 1 and 3.6 ± 14.3 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 2. Spatial distribution patterns showed SOC loss (negative values) in the eroded areas and SOC gain (positive value) in the deposition areas. This study demonstrated the importance of the spatial resolution and the topographic exponents to estimate and map soil redistribution and the SOC dynamics throughout the landscape, helping to identify places where erosion and deposition from water and tillage are occurring at high rates. Additional research is needed to improve the application of the model framework for use in local and regional studies where rainfall erosivity and cover management factors vary. Therefore, using this model framework can help to improve the information about the spatial distribution of soil erosion across agricultural landscapes and to gain a better understanding of SOC

  6. Indicadores da condição hídrica do solo com soja em plantio direto e preparo convencional Indicators of soil water condition for soy bean under no-tillage and conventional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieta G. Martorano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Indicadores da condição hídrica do solo foram avaliados em um experimento de campo, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brasil. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico típico, utilizado durante oito anos em sistema plantio direto e preparo convencional. A cultivar de soja Fepagro Rs(-10, foi semeada em 20/11/2003, com 0,40 m entre fileiras e 300 mil plantas por hectare, em tratamentos irrigados e não irrigados. Variáveis do sistema solo-planta-atmosfera foram monitoradas e a ênfase neste trabalho visou aos períodos secos; monitoraram-se, também, variações no potencial matricial da água no solo, entre 0,075 e 1,20 m de profundidade. Verificou-se que o tempo de secagem do solo foi mais prolongado nas parcelas sob plantio direto indicando, em períodos de secagem, potenciais matriciais menos negativos, menores temperaturas máximas e menor amplitude térmica que em preparo convencional; também, a altura de plantas e o índice de área foliar apontaram que maiores estoques de água em plantio direto podem reduzir efeitos do déficit hídrico em soja cultivada neste sistema de manejo. Esses indicadores reforçam a importância da análise integrada de respostas das culturas em um enfoque sistêmico de manejo de solo e água.Soil water condition indicators were assessed in a field experiment conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil. The Paleudult soil of the experimental area has been managed during eight years under no-tillage and conventional tillage. Soy bean cultivar Fepagro Rs(-10 was sown on November 20, 2003, with 0.40 m of row spacing and 300,000 plants ha-1, with and without irrigation. Variables of soil, plant and atmosphere were monitored with emphasis during drought periods. Variations of the matrix water potential were monitored from 0.075 to 1.20 m of soil depth. A regular delay was observed in the soil drying process in no-tilled plots, in particular during drought periods, indicating higher water storage in no-tillage than in

  7. Residual effects of fallows on selected soil hydraulic properties in a kaolinitic soil subjected to conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyamadzawo, G.; Nyamugafata, P.; Chikowo, R.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Improved fallows have been used to reduce time required for soil fertility regeneration after cropping in low input agricultural systems. In semi-arid areas of Southern Africa, Acacia angustissima and Sesbania sesban are among some of the more widely used improved fallow species. However the

  8. Weed Population Dynamics, Water Productivity and Grain Yield of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. in No-Tillage and Conventional Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mojab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elimination or reduction of tillage in conservation agricultural systems has led to wide variations in germination, emergence, and growth of weeds and has caused variations in the density and diversity of weeds under such systems. Maintaining crop residues on the soil surface has many potential benefits in agricultural production systems; such as reducing water and wind erosions, increasing the soil organic matter content, improving the soil structure and sowing conditions, as well as a better weed management through allelopathy or physical interference provided by the crop residues. Crop residue and tillage system cause potential changes in the soil temperature and water content, which influence soil density, structure, moisture, as well as soil temperature and nutrients. Crop residues act as mulches and can effect on weed seed germination and seedling emergence. Therefore, the objectives of current study were to evaluate the effects of no-tillage systems on: (i narrow- and broadleaved weed densities, (ii crop yield and (iii water productivity (WP. Materials and Methods: A two-year field study based on a split plot experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out in Zahedshahr, Fars province, Iran (latitude 28˚44΄N, longitude 53˚48΄E, 1180 m altitude during 2009-10 and 2010-11 growing seasons. The planting practices including moldboard plow, disk and leveler were practiced in conventional tillage plots and crop planting was performed using a drill seeder (made by Kohorasan Co., Iran. The no-tillage plots were directly planted without any soil disturbance and removing wheat residues of the last year using a direct planter machine (model Berteni, Argentina. Furrow irrigation was used at both systems and a water counter (model WD, size DN100 was applied to measure the amount of used water based on m3 ha-1. 1 x 1 m quadrates that were installed at the center of each plot. Crop density, narrow

  9. Long-term no-tillage application increases soil organic carbon, nitrous oxide emissions and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) yields under rain-fed Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badagliacca, Giuseppe; Benítez, Emilio; Amato, Gaetano; Badalucco, Luigi; Giambalvo, Dario; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Ruisi, Paolo

    2018-05-20

    The introduction of legumes into crop sequences and the reduction of tillage intensity are both proposed as agronomic practices to mitigate the soil degradation and negative impact of agriculture on the environment. However, the joint effects of these practices on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions from soil remain unclear, particularly concerning semiarid Mediterranean areas. In the frame of a long-term field experiment (23 years), a 2-year study was performed on the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to evaluate the effects of the long-term use of no tillage (NT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) on yield and N 2 O and NH 3 emissions from a Vertisol in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Changes induced by the tillage system in soil bulk density, water filled pore space (WFPS), organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN), denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), and bacterial gene (16S, amoA, and nosZ) abundance were measured as parameters potentially affecting N gas emissions. No tillage, compared with CT, significantly increased the faba bean grain yield by 23%. The tillage system had no significant effect on soil NH 3 emissions. Total N 2 O emissions, averaged over two cropping seasons, were higher in NT than those in CT plots (2.58 vs 1.71 kg N 2 O-N ha -1 , respectively; P emissions in NT plots were ascribed to the increase of soil bulk density and WFPS, bacteria (16S abundance was 96% higher in NT than that in CT) and N cycle genes (amoA and nosZ abundances were respectively 154% and 84% higher in NT than that in CT). The total N 2 O emissions in faba bean were similar to those measured in other N-fertilized crops. In conclusion, a full evaluation of NT technique, besides the benefits on soil characteristics (e.g. TOC increase) and crop yield, must take into account some criticisms related to the increase of N 2 O emissions compared to CT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of cover crops and tillage on actual and potential soil erosion in an olive grove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Blanca; Bienes, Ramón; García-Díaz, Andrés; Panagopoulos, Thomas; José Marqués, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The study was carried out in an olive grove in central Spain (South of Madrid; Tagus River Basin). In this semi-arid zone, the annual mean temperature is 13.8 ºC and the annual precipitation is 395 mm. Olive groves are planted in an erosion prone area due to steep slopes up to 15%. Soil is classified as Typic Haploxerept with clay loam texture. The land studied was formerly a vineyard, but it was replaced by the studied olive grove in 2004. It covers approximately 3 ha and olive trees are planted every 6 x 7 metres. They were usually managed by tillage to decrease weed competition. This conventional practice results in a wide surface of bare soil prone to erosion processes. In the long term soil degradation may lead to increase the desertification risk in the area. Storms have important consequences in this shallow and vulnerable soil, as more than 90 Mg ha-1 have been measured after one day with 40 mm of rainfall. In order to avoid this situation, cover crops between the olive trees were planted three years ago: sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and purple false brome (Brachypodium distachyon), and they were compared with annual spontaneous vegetation after a minimum tillage treatment (ASV). The results regarding erosion control were positive. We observed (Oct. 2012/Sept. 2013) annual soil loss up to 11 Mg ha-1 in ASV, but this figure was reduced in the sown covers, being 8 Mg ha-1 in sainfoin treatment, 3,7 Mg ha-1 in barley treatment, and only 1,5 Mg ha-1 in false brome treatment. Those results are used to predict the risk of erosion in long term. Moreover, soil organic carbon (SOC) increased with treatments, this is significant as it reduces soil erodibility. The increases were found both in topsoil (up to 5 cm) and more in depth, in the root zone (from 5 to 10 cm depth). From higher to lower SOC values we found the false brome (1.05%), barley (0.92%), ASV (0.79%) and sainfoin (0.71%) regarding topsoil. In the root zone (5-10 cm depth

  11. Neutral hydrolysable sugars, OC and N content across soil aggregate size fractions, as an effect of two different crop rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Carlo; Giannetta, Beatrice; Kölbl, Angelika; Monaci, Elga; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Vischetti, Costantino

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results regarding the effects of two 13 years long crop rotations, on the composition of mineral associated neutral sugars, organic carbon (OC) and N concentration, across different aggregate size fractions. The two cropping sequences were characterized by different levels of N input from plant residues and tillage frequency. We also analysed the changes that occurred in soil organic matter (SOM) chemical composition following the cultivation in the two soils of winter wheat and chickpea on the same soils. The analysis of OC and N content across soil aggregate fractions allowed getting an insight into the role played by SOM chemical composition in the formation of organo-mineral associations, while neutral sugars composition provided information on mineral associated SOM origin and decomposition processes, as pentoses derive mostly from plant tissues and hexoses are prevalently of microbial origin. Soil samples were collected from two adjacent fields, from the 0-10 cm layer, in November 2011 (T0). For 13 years before the beginning of the experiment, one soil was cultivated mostly with alfalfa (ALF), while a conventional cereal-sunflower-legume rotation (CON) was carried out on the other. Winter wheat and chickpea were sown on the two soils during the following 2 growing seasons and the sampling was repeated after 18 months (T1). A combination of aggregates size and density fractionation was used to isolate OM associated with mineral particles in: macro-aggregates (>212 μm), micro-aggregates ( 63 μm) and silt and clay size particles (carbohydrates contributions in every other fraction. GM/AX varied slightly between the soils. In conclusion, the crop rotation determined the accumulation of different levels of SOM in the two soils. The 18-months cultivation experiment determined an increase in the tillage intensity in ALF, and the introduction of N rich chickpea residues in CON. Consequently SOM chemical composition responded divergently in

  12. Retenção e disponibilidade de água às plantas, em solo sob plantio direto e preparo convencional Retention and availability of water to plants in soils under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genei A. Dalmago

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Teve-se, neste trabalho, como função principal, avaliar a retenção de água no solo e sua disponibilidade às plantas, em plantio direto (PD e preparo convencional (PC. O estudo foi conduzido em Eldorado do Sul, Brasil, em 2002. Densidade do solo, porosidade total, macroporosidade, mesoporosidade, microporosidade, distribuição do tamanho de mesoporos, curvas de retenção de água, capacidade de campo (CC e ponto de murcha permanente (PMP foram analisados em sete profundidades no perfil. As maiores diferenças ocorreram próximo à superfície. Na profundidade de 2,5 cm a densidade foi 7% menor e a porosidade total foi cerca de 15% maior em PD do que em PC. A mesoporosidade apresentou distribuição exponencial em PD, com valores mais elevados em tamanhos maiores de poros, mas teve tendência a uma curva normal em PC. Em todo o perfil, PC apresentou cerca de 53% mais água armazenada em comparação a PD; entretanto, a armazenagem de água foi 80% maior em PD próximo à superfície (2,5 cm de profundidade. Nos primeiros 15 cm de profundidade 70% da água disponível foram retidos acima de -80 kPa em PD, em comparação a 50%, para PC. O sistema plantio direto aumenta a disponibilidade de água às plantas próximo à superfície e com menos energia de retenção, em comparação com o preparo convencional.This work had the objective of evaluating the soil water storage and availability to plants, when comparing the no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems. The study was conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil, in 2002. Soil density, total porosity, macroporosity, mesoporosity, microporosity, distribution of mesopores size, curves of water retention, field capacity (FC, and permanent wilting point (PWP were analyzed in seven depths, into the soil profile. The highest differences occurred close to the soil surface. At 2.5 cm deep, the soil density was 7% lower while the total soil porosity was about 15% higher in NT than in CT. The

  13. Evaluating the effect of tillage on soil structural properties using the pedostructure concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pedostructure (PS) concept is a physically-based method of soil characterization that defines a soil based on its structure and the relationship between structure and soil water behavior. There are fifteen unique pedostructure parameters that define the macropore and micropore soil water behavio...

  14. Management-induced Soil Structure Degradation: Organic Matter Depletion and Tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, B.D.; Munkholm, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Soil structure is an important element of soil quality since changes in structural characteristics can cause changes in the ability of soil to fulfil different functions and services. Emphasis in this chapter is placed on the role of soil structure in biological productivity of agroecosystems. Combinations of management practices in which the extent of the degradation of soil structure caused by one practice is balanced or exceeded by the extent of regeneration by other practices will help su...

  15. Spatial distribution patterns of soil mite communities and their relationships with edaphic factors in a 30-year tillage cornfield in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Gao, Meixiang; Liu, Jinwen; Guo, Yuxi; Liu, Dong; Zhu, Xinyu; Wu, Donghui

    2018-01-01

    Spatial distribution is an important topic in community ecology and a key to understanding the structure and dynamics of populations and communities. However, the available information related to the spatial patterns of soil mite communities in long-term tillage agroecosystems remains insufficient. In this study, we examined the spatial patterns of soil mite communities to explain the spatial relationships between soil mite communities and soil parameters. Soil fauna were sampled three times (August, September and October 2015) at 121 locations arranged regularly within a 400 m × 400 m monitoring plot. Additionally, we estimated the physical and chemical parameters of the same sampling locations. The distribution patterns of the soil mite community and the edaphic parameters were analyzed using a range of geostatistical tools. Moran's I coefficient showed that, during each sampling period, the total abundance of the soil mite communities and the abundance of the dominant mite populations were spatially autocorrelated. The soil mite communities demonstrated clear patchy distribution patterns within the study plot. These patterns were sampling period-specific. Cross-semivariograms showed both negative and positive cross-correlations between soil mite communities and environmental factors. Mantel tests showed a significant and positive relationship between soil mite community and soil organic matter and soil pH only in August. This study demonstrated that in the cornfield, the soil mite distribution exhibited strong or moderate spatial dependence, and the mites formed patches with sizes less than one hundred meters. In addition, in this long-term tillage agroecosystem, soil factors had less influence on the observed pattern of soil mite communities. Further experiments that take into account human activity and spatial factors should be performed to study the factors that drive the spatial distribution of soil microarthropods.

  16. Soil Temperature Moderation by Crop Residue Mulch, Grevilla Robusta Tillage Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteng'i, S.B.B.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of mulching with crop residues and shading by Grevillea robust trees on the soil temperatures of Mt. Kenya Volcanic soils at Matanya area, Laikipia district, were studied. Soil thermistors connected to data-loggers(type Grant squirrel)were used to record soil temperaturs. The soils were mulched and minimum tilled (depths of 0.04 till 0.05m), and unmulched and deep tilled (depths 0.20till 0.25m) in plots of pruned and unpruned trees and also to cotrol (non-agroforestry) plots. The results showed that closer tp the trees, canopy differences ionfluenced changes in soil temperatures of about ≠2.0 degrees centrigrade. The dumping depth and Stigters ratio values showed soil temperatures were modified by treatment and tree canopy differences. The modified soil temperatures resulted in better crop performance when the soil water was adequate.(author)

  17. Evaluation Of Onion Production On Sandy Soils By Use Of Reduced Tillage And Controlled Traffic Farming With Wide Span Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Hans Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of vegetables is often characterised by intensive field traffic and use of heavy machines. By implementing controlled traffic farming (CTF, compaction of the growth zone can be avoided. An experiment was established in an onion field on a coarse sandy loam. Treatments were applied in the field that for five years had been managed by seasonal CTF (SCTF, where harvest is performed by random traffic due to lack of suitable harvest machines. The main treatment was compaction with a fully loaded potato harvester. The split treatment in the crossed split plot design was mechanical loosening. Bulk density, macroporosity, penetration resistance, water retention characteristics and yield were measured. Mechanical loosening caused improvements in the physical soil measurements and more roots were found in the upper soil layers. The highest yield was however found in the CTF simulation plots (19% higher than in the SCTF simulated plots. Using wide span tractors as a harvest platform will enable CTF in vegetable production. Avoidance of compaction will enable reduced tillage intensity and productivity can be improved both through higher yield of the area that is cropped and by a larger percentage of fields can be cropped area as less area will be needed for tracks.

  18. Effect of tillage on soil physical properties, growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ploughing plus harrowing plus bedding (PHB), on soil physical properties, growth and shoot yield of large-green leafy amaranth (Amaranth sp.). Soil moisture retention and infiltration rates were also measured in two cropping seasons. Soil moisture retention did not reflect any significant differences in the first and second ...

  19. Mapping tillage operations over peri-urban croplands using a synchronous SPOT4/ASAR ENVISAT pair and soil roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Gilliot, Jean-Marc

    2014-05-01

    Tillage operations (TOs) affect nutrient uptake, carbon sequestration, water and CO2 exchanges in soil, and therefore impact soil ecology together with biophysical processes such as soil erosion, leaching, run-off and infiltration. They are critical for parameterizing complex dynamic models of carbon and nitrogen. This study done in the framework of the Prostock-Gessol3 project presents an approach for mapping TOs of bare agricultural fields over a peri-urban area characterized by conventional tillage system in the western suburbs of Paris (France), combining synchronous SPOT4 and ENVISAT/ASAR images (HH and HV polarizations). Spatial modeling relied on 57 reference within-field areas named 'reference zones' (RZs) homogeneous for their soil properties, constructed in the vicinity of 57 roughness measurement locations and spread across 20 agricultural fields for which TOs were known. Soil roughness expressed as the standard deviation of surface height (Hrms) was estimated on the ground with a fully automatic photogrammetric method based on the processing of a set of overlapping pictures taken from different viewpoints from a simple digital camera all around a rectangular frame. The relationship was studied between the mean backscattering coefficient of the ASAR image and Hrms choosing a limited set of 28 RZs, on which successive random selections of training/validating RZs were then performed; the remaining 29 RZs were kept for validating the final map results. Six supervised per-pixel classifiers were used in order to map 2 TOs classes (seedbed&harrowed and late winter plough) in addition to 4 landuse classes (forest, urban,crops and grass, water bodies): support vector machine with polynomial kernel (pSVM), SVM with radial basis kernel (rSVM), artificial neural network (ANN), Maximum Likelihood (ML), regression tree (RT), and random forests (RF). All 6 classifiers were implemented in a bootstrapping approach in order to assess the uncertainty of map results. The

  20. Combining Old and New Stable Isotope Techniques to Evaluate the Impact of Conservation Tillage on Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics and Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Clercq, T.; Xu, H.; Mercklx, R.; Heiling, M.; Dercon, G.; Resch, C.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a major carbon pool. It is a crucial factor for soil quality including several soil physical properties and a major nutrient source for crops. It also plays a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Soils can act as a carbon sink or source depending on land use and agricultural management practices. Some practices such as conservation tillage or no-tillage could increase SOM stocks, particularly in the topsoil, but in the long term it remains to be seen if and how this SOM is stabilized (De Clercq et al., 2015; Govaerts et al., 2009). In order to evaluate the sustainability and efficiency of soil carbon sequestration measures and the impact of different management and environmental factors, information on SOM stability and mean residence time (MRT) is required. However, this information on SOM stability and MRT is expensive to determine via radiocarbon dating, precluding a wide spread use of stability measurements in soil science. But alternative methods based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, can provide this information at a fraction of the cost

  1. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  2. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  3. RNA Sequencing Analysis Reveals Transcriptomic Variations in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Leaves Affected by Climate, Soil, and Tillage Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and development of plants are sensitive to their surroundings. Although numerous studies have analyzed plant transcriptomic variation, few have quantified the effect of combinations of factors or identified factor-specific effects. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis on tobacco leaves derived from 10 treatment combinations of three groups of ecological factors, i.e., climate factors (CFs, soil factors (SFs, and tillage factors (TFs. We detected 4980, 2916, and 1605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs that were affected by CFs, SFs, and TFs, which included 2703, 768, and 507 specific and 703 common DEGs (simultaneously regulated by CFs, SFs, and TFs, respectively. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in abiotic stress responses and secondary metabolic pathways were overrepresented in the common and CF-specific DEGs. In addition, we noted enrichment in CF-specific DEGs related to the circadian rhythm, SF-specific DEGs involved in mineral nutrient absorption and transport, and SF- and TF-specific DEGs associated with photosynthesis. Based on these results, we propose a model that explains how plants adapt to various ecological factors at the transcriptomic level. Additionally, the identified DEGs lay the foundation for future investigations of stress resistance, circadian rhythm and photosynthesis in tobacco.

  4. Tillage and water management for riceland productivity in acid sulfate soils of the Mekong delta, Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    1997-01-01

    Acid sulfate soils are characterized by low pH and high concentrations of aluminum, sulfate, iron and hydrogen sulfide. Removal of at least part of these substances is a prerequisite for land use, at least in severely acid soils. In this study, the effectiveness of harrowing and flushing with

  5. Tillage Effect on Soil Moisture Storage and Wheat Yield on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertisols are one of the agriculturally important soils in Delanta Dawunt, north central highlands of Ethiopia, for peasant farmers as almost all the cereal, soil and forage crops are grown on them. However, waterlogging during the growing season impedes the performances of cereal crops. It is crucial to seek for cost effective ...

  6. Visual soil structure effects of tillage and corn stover harvest in Iowa, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive harvest of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for ethanol production has raised concerns regarding negative consequences on soil structure and physical quality. Visual soil structure assessment methods have the potential to help address these concerns through simple, straightforward on-farm evaluat...

  7. Microbial biomass and soil fauna during the decomposition of cover crops in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Colpo Gatiboni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of plant residues is a biological process mediated by soil fauna, but few studies have been done evaluating its dynamics in time during the process of disappearance of straw. This study was carried out in Chapecó, in southern Brazil, with the objective of monitoring modifications in soil fauna populations and the C content in the soil microbial biomass (C SMB during the decomposition of winter cover crop residues in a no-till system. The following treatments were tested: 1 Black oat straw (Avena strigosa Schreb.; 2 Rye straw (Secale cereale L.; 3 Common vetch straw (Vicia sativa L.. The cover crops were grown until full flowering and then cut mechanically with a rolling stalk chopper. The soil fauna and C content in soil microbial biomass (C SMB were assessed during the period of straw decomposition, from October 2006 to February 2007. To evaluate C SMB by the irradiation-extraction method, soil samples from the 0-10 cm layer were used, collected on eight dates, from before until 100 days after residue chopping. The soil fauna was collected with pitfall traps on seven dates up to 85 days after residue chopping. The phytomass decomposition of common vetch was faster than of black oat and rye residues. The C SMB decreased during the process of straw decomposition, fastest in the treatment with common vetch. In the common vetch treatment, the diversity of the soil fauna was reduced at the end of the decomposition process.

  8. Warmer and Wetter Soil Stimulates Assimilation More than Respiration in Rainfed Agricultural Ecosystem on the China Loess Plateau: The Role of Partial Plastic Film Mulching Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Daozhi; Hao, Weiping; Mei, Xurong; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Caylor, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem carbon storage have acquired widespread concern due to its alleviation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, combining of furrow-ridge with plastic film mulching in spring maize ecosystem was widely applied to boost crop water productivity in the semiarid regions of China. However, there is still limited information about the potentials for increased ecosystem carbon storage of this tillage method. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast net carbon dioxide exchange, biomass accumulation and carbon budgets of maize (Zea maize L.) fields under the traditional non-mulching with flat tillage (CK) and partial plastic film mulching with furrow-ridge tillage (MFR) on the China Loess Plateau. Half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of both treatments were synchronously measured with two eddy covariance systems during the growing seasons of 2011 through 2013. At same time green leaf area index (GLAI) and biomass were also measured biweekly. Compared with CK, the warmer and wetter (+1.3°C and +4.3%) top soil at MFR accelerated the rates of biomass accumulation, promoted greater green leaf area and thus shortened the growing seasons by an average value of 10.4 days for three years. MFR stimulated assimilation more than respiration during whole growing season, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEE of -79 gC/m2 than CK. However, after considering carbon in harvested grain (or aboveground biomass), there is a slight higher carbon sink (or a stronger carbon source) in MFR due to its greater difference of aboveground biomass than that of grain between both treatments. These results demonstrate that partial plastic film mulched furrow-ridge tillage with aboveground biomass exclusive of grain returned to the soil is an effective way to enhance simultaneously carbon sequestration and grain yield of maize in the semiarid regions.

  9. Warmer and Wetter Soil Stimulates Assimilation More than Respiration in Rainfed Agricultural Ecosystem on the China Loess Plateau: The Role of Partial Plastic Film Mulching Tillage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daozhi Gong

    Full Text Available Effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem carbon storage have acquired widespread concern due to its alleviation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, combining of furrow-ridge with plastic film mulching in spring maize ecosystem was widely applied to boost crop water productivity in the semiarid regions of China. However, there is still limited information about the potentials for increased ecosystem carbon storage of this tillage method. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast net carbon dioxide exchange, biomass accumulation and carbon budgets of maize (Zea maize L. fields under the traditional non-mulching with flat tillage (CK and partial plastic film mulching with furrow-ridge tillage (MFR on the China Loess Plateau. Half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE of both treatments were synchronously measured with two eddy covariance systems during the growing seasons of 2011 through 2013. At same time green leaf area index (GLAI and biomass were also measured biweekly. Compared with CK, the warmer and wetter (+1.3°C and +4.3% top soil at MFR accelerated the rates of biomass accumulation, promoted greater green leaf area and thus shortened the growing seasons by an average value of 10.4 days for three years. MFR stimulated assimilation more than respiration during whole growing season, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEE of -79 gC/m2 than CK. However, after considering carbon in harvested grain (or aboveground biomass, there is a slight higher carbon sink (or a stronger carbon source in MFR due to its greater difference of aboveground biomass than that of grain between both treatments. These results demonstrate that partial plastic film mulched furrow-ridge tillage with aboveground biomass exclusive of grain returned to the soil is an effective way to enhance simultaneously carbon sequestration and grain yield of maize in the semiarid regions.

  10. Efecto de cuatro métodos de labranza sobre las propiedades físicas y la pérdida de suelo en la rotación papa-pastos en áreas de ladera en una región alto andina de Colombia Effect of four tillage methods on the physical properties and loss of soil in the potato-grass rotation in hillside areas of a high Andean region in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleón Bernal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio avaluó la pérdida y los cambios en las propiedades físicas del suelo y la producción de papa amarilla Solanum phureja, como resultado de cuatro sistemas de labranza (Tracción humana, LTH; Tracción animal, LTA; Mecánica, LM; y Mecánica combinada, LMC en Santa Lucía, municipio de Tuluá, región alto andina de Colombia a 2.870 msnm. Los tratamientos se evaluaron usando un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. La pérdida de suelo se determinó por medio de canaletas de escorrentía. La información se analizó por medio de una matriz de cambio para cada propiedad física. La tracción mecánica afectó negativamente las propiedades físicas del suelo, lo que se evidenció en el incremento de pérdidas por escorrentía. La mayor pérdida de suelo se asoció con el uso de LM y disminuyó hasta el 50% con LTH: (LM 6.12 t ha-1 año-1; LMC 5.0 t ha-1 año-1; LTA 3.7 t ha-1 año-1 and LTH 2.73 t ha-1 año-1. LTA generó la mayor retribución económica y ambiental, porque su producción (13 t/ha fue mayor que el promedio obtenido en los tratamientos (12.4 t/ha y la pérdida de suelo fue menor que la generada por LM y LMC.This study evaluated the loss and the changes in the soil physical properties, and the production of yellow potato Solanum phureja, as a result of four tillage systems (Human traction, THT; Animal traction, ATT; Mechanical, MT; and Mechanical combined, CMT in Santa Lucia, Tuluá municipality, high andean region of Colombia to 2.870 masl. Treatments were evaluated using a completely randomized blocks desing with three replicates, and the data examined by means of a matrix of change for each physical property. Soil loss was determined by the ditch of runoff. Mechanical traction affected the soil physical properties negatively, that became evident in the increment of losses with the runoff. The bigger loss of soil was correlated with MT use and it diminished to the 50 % with HTT: (MT 6.12 tha-1

  11. Earthworm populations are affected from Long-Term Crop Sequences and Bio-Covers under No-Tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworms are crucial for improving soil biophysical properties in cropping systems. Consequently, effects of cropping rotation and bio-covers were assessed on earthworm populations under no-tillage sites. Main effects of 6 different cropping sequences [corn (Zea mays), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum),...

  12. Effects of tillage on runoff from a bare clayey soil on a semi-arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arid areas. However, by adopting appropriate soil management practices, the runoff can be harnessed for improving crop yields. The main objective of this study was to quantify rainfall-runoff relationships under in-field rainwater harvesting ...

  13. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  14. Effects of strip and full-width tillage on soil carbon IV oxide-carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    (Reicosky and Lindstrom, 1995). Moldboard ... Only a relatively small amount of CO2 was ... climatic data relating to the experimental area are provided in Table. 1. ..... Martin. R. Carter (Ed.). Canadian Society of Soil Science, Lewis Publishers.

  15. Depth distribution of preferential flow patterns in a sandy loam soil as affected by tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Petersen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-tracer studies using the anionic dye Brilliant Blue FCF were conducted on a structured sandy loam soil (Typic Agrudalf. 25 mm of dye solution was applied to the surface of 11 1.6 x 1.6 m field plots, some of which had been subjected to conventional seed bed preparation (harrowing while others had been rotovated to either 5 or 15 cm depth before sowing. The soil was excavated to about 160 cm depth one or two days after dye application. Flow patterns and structural features appearing on vertical or horizontal cross sections were examined and photographed. The flow patterns were digitized, and depth functions for the number of activated flow pathways and the degree of dye coverage were calculated. Dye was found below 100 cm depth on 26 out of 33 vertical cross sections made in conventionally tilled plots showing that preferential flow was a prevailing phenomenon. The depth-averaged number of stained flow pathways in the 25-100 cm layer was significantly smaller in a plot rotovated to 5 cm depth than in a conventionally tilled plot, both under relatively dry initial soil conditions and when the entire soil profiles were initially at field capacity. There were no examples of dye penetration below 25 cm depth one month after deep rotovation. Distinct horizontal structures in flow patterns appearing at 20-40 cm depth coupled with changes in flow domains indicated soil layering with abrupt changes in soil structure and hydraulic properties.

  16. Using Water and Agrochemicals in the Soil, Crop and Vadose Environment (WAVE Model to Interpret Nitrogen Balance and Soil Water Reserve Under Different Tillage Managements

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    Zare Narjes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying models to interpret soil, water and plant relationships under different conditions enable us to study different management scenarios and then to determine the optimum option. The aim of this study was using Water and Agrochemicals in the soil, crop and Vadose Environment (WAVE model to predict water content, nitrogen balance and its components over a corn crop season under both conventional tillage (CT and direct seeding into mulch (DSM. In this study a corn crop was cultivated at the Irstea experimental station in Montpellier, France under both CT and DSM. Model input data were weather data, nitrogen content in both the soil and mulch at the beginning of the season, the amounts and the dates of irrigation and nitrogen application. The results show an appropriate agreement between measured and model simulations (nRMSE < 10%. Using model outputs, nitrogen balance and its components were compared with measured data in both systems. The amount of N leaching in validation period were 10 and 8 kgha–1 in CT and DSM plots, respectively; therefore, these results showed better performance of DSM in comparison with CT. Simulated nitrogen leaching from CT and DSM can help us to assess groundwater pollution risk caused by these two systems.

  17. Qualidade e rendimento de sementes de soja produzidas sob cultivo orgânico em plantio direto e preparo reduzido do solo = Quality and production of soybean seeds in no tillage and reduced tillage soil systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a qualidade das sementes de soja em cultivo orgânico sob dois sistemas de manejo do solo, plantio direto e preparo reduzido do solo (escarificação + gradagem na região Oeste do Paraná. Foram utilizados 6 tratamentos para o controle de pragas mais uma testemunha (1.Baculovirus anticarsia; 2.Baculovirus anticarsia + Extrato de Cinamomo; 3.Extrato de Cinamomo; 4.Bacillus thurigiensis; 5.Óleo de Neen; 6.Composto A; 7.Testemunha. Os parâmetros avaliados foram teor de água, peso de100 sementes, porcentagem de germinação, vigor determinado pelo envelhecimento acelerado e teste de tetrazólio e também rendimento de sementes. Os dados obtidos foram analisados pelo teste de Scott – Knott a 5% de significância e permitiram concluir que o alto grau dedeterioração das sementes, provocado pela baixa eficiência dos tratamentos, contribuiu para o decréscimo da qualidade. O sistema de manejo do solo não influenciou no rendimento de sementes e o tratamento com Composto A apresentou maior rendimento.This trial aimed at determining soybean seeds quality in an organic production under two soil management systems: no tillage and reduced tillage (scarification + grading in western region of the State of Paraná. Six treatments were designed to control some weeds plus one check treatment (1.Baculovirus anticarsia; 2.Baculovirus anticarsia +cinnamon extract; 3.Cinnamon extract; 4.Baculovirus thurigiensis; 5.Neen oil; 6.Composite A; 7.Check treatment. Parameters as water content, weight of one hundred seeds, seedling percentage, seeds vigor determined by fast aging, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride andseedling yield were evaluated. The data were analyzed by the Scott Knott test – 5% of significance – which allowed to conclude that the high level of seedling deterioration, derived from the low efficiency of treatments, contributed to the decreased seed quality. However, the soil tillage system did not influence

  18. Influence of Robinia pseudoacacia short rotation coppice on soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Morvan; Isabelle, Bertrand; Gwenaelle, Gibaud

    2015-04-01

    Human activities can lead to the degradation of soil physical properties. For instance, machinery traffic across the land can induce the development of compacted areas at the wheel tracks. It leads to a decrease in porosity which results in a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity, and therefore, prevents water infiltration and promotes surface runoff. Land use, soil management and soil cover also have a significant influence on soil physical properties (Kodesova et al., 2011). In the arable land, surface runoff and soil erosion are enhanced by the absence of soil cover for part of the year and by the decrease of aggregate stability due to a decline of soil organic matter. In that context, few studies focused on the effects of a Robinia pseudoacacia short rotation coppice (SRC) on soil physical properties. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effect of the conversion of a grassland in a SRC on soil physical properties. These properties have also been compared to those of arable land and natural forest. For that, in several plots of the experimental farm of Grignon (30 km west of Paris, France), different measurements were performed: i) soil water retention on a pressure plate apparatus for 7 water potential between 0 and 1500 kPa, ii) bulk density using the method for gravelly and rocky soil recommended by the USDA, iii) aggregate stability using the method described in Le Bissonnais (1996), and iv) soil hydraulic conductivity using a Guelph permeameter. All these measurements were performed on the same soil type and on different land uses: arable land (AL), grassland (GL), natural forest (NF) and short rotation coppice (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia planted 5 years ago. Soil water retention measurements are still under progress and will be presented in congress. Bulk density measurements of the AL, GL and SRC are not significantly different. They ranged from 1.32 to 1.42. Only the NF measurements are significantly lower than the other (0.97). Aggregate

  19. Sistemas de preparo do solo, plantas de cobertura e produtividade da cultura da mandioca Soil tillage systems, cover crops and productivity in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auro Akio Otsubo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do uso de plantas de cobertura e de sistemas de preparo do solo, no desenvolvimento e na produtividade da cultura da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. O trabalho foi conduzido em Argissolo Vermelho, sob sistema convencional de preparo do solo, e em cultivo mínimo sobre palhada de mucuna-cinza (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy, sorgo granífero [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] e milheto [Pennisetum americanum (L. K. Schum.]. Aos dezoito meses após o plantio da mandioca, foram avaliados: altura de plantas, produção de massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, número de raízes tuberosas, produtividade, percentagem de matéria seca e de amido nas raízes tuberosas e índice de colheita. Observou-se que o sistema convencional de preparo do solo pode ser substituído, na cultura da mandioca, pela prática do cultivo mínimo, associada ao uso de coberturas vegetais, por promover incrementos significativos na produtividade da cultura, especialmente, quando se utiliza o milheto como planta de cobertura. O uso de plantas de cobertura no pré-cultivo de mandioca, em sistema de preparo mínimo do solo, representa uma alternativa eficiente para um melhor manejo dessa cultura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of cover crops and soil tillage systems in the development and yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. The experiment was carried out in an Arenic Hapludult under conventional tillage, and in a minimum tillage system over mucuna (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] and millet straw [Pennisetum americanum (L. K. Schum.]. Eighteen months after cassava planting, the following variables were evaluated: plant height, shoot dry matter production, number of roots, yield, dry matter and starch content on storage roots, and harvest index. It was observed that conventional tillage could be replaced by minimum tillage in cassava crop, when associated

  20. Wind erosion potential influenced by tillage in an irrigated potato-sweet corn rotation in the Columbia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a concern within the Columbia Basin of the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States due to the sandy texture of soils and small amount of residue retained on the soil surface after harvest of vegetable crops like potato. This study assessed potential wind erosion of an irrigated ...

  1. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    OpenAIRE

    S. M Hosseini; S Afzalinia; K Mollaei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006). Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006). In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by com...

  2. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A.; Serafini, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s -1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  3. Effects of tillage practice and atmospheric CO2 level on soil CO2 efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affects both the quantity and quality of plant tissues, which impacts the cycling and storage of carbon (C) within plant/soil systems and thus the rate of CO2 release back to the atmosphere. Research to accurately quantify the effects of elevated CO2 and as...

  4. Comparison of aggregate stability within six soil profiles under conventional tillage using various laboratory tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Rohošková, M.; Žigová, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2009), s. 550-554 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fast wetting test * slow wetting test * shaking after pre-wetting test * wet sewing Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  5. Atributos químicos de um Cambissolo Húmico após 12 anos sob preparo convencional e semeadura direta em rotação e sucessão de culturas Chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept after 12 years under conventional and no tillage with crop succession and rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patrícia Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O manejo adequado do solo é uma das bases para a sustentabilidade do sistema agrícola. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar atributos químicos de um Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico após 12 anos em dois sistemas de preparo do solo, com rotação e sucessão de culturas. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, utilizando preparo convencional (PC e semeadura direta (SD, sob rotação (r e sucessão (s de culturas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. As sequências de cultivo foram: feijão-pousio-milho-pousio-soja-pousio no PCr; milho-pousio no PCs; feijão-aveia-milho-nabo-soja-ervilhaca na SDr; e milho-ervilhaca na SDs. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas 0-2,5; 2,5-5; 5-10; e 10-20cm. Avaliou-se carbono orgânico total (COT, cálcio, magnésio, alumínio trocável, fósforo, potássio, nitrogênio total (NT e pH em água. A SD aumentou os teores de COT e nutrientes em comparação ao PC, especialmente na camada superficial do solo. O cultivo de milho e ervilhaca em sucessão aumentou os teores de COT e NT na camada superficial do solo em comparação com a rotação sob semeadura direta.Suitable soil management is one of the bases for sustainability in agricultural systems. The study aimed to evaluate chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept for 12 years under two tillage systems, with crops rotation and succession. The experiment was carried out in Lages, SC, under conventional tillage (CT and no-till (NT, with rotation (r and succession (s cropping systems, using crop sequences of beans-fallow-maize-fallow-soybean in CTr; maize-fallow in CTs; beans-oats-maize-fodder radish-soybean-vetch in NTr; and maize-vetch in NTs. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm. The variables assessed were total organic carbon (TOC, calcium, magnesium, exchangeable aluminum, phosphorus, potassium

  6. Modelling the effect of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon stocks: does soil erosion matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeu, Elisabet; Van Wesemael, Bas; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decades, an increasing number of studies have been conducted to assess the effect of soil management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. At regional scales, biogeochemical models such as CENTURY or Roth-C have been commonly applied. These models simulate SOC dynamics at the profile level (point basis) over long temporal scales but do not consider the continuous lateral transfer of sediment that takes place along geomorphic toposequences. As a consequence, the impact of soil redistribution on carbon fluxes is very seldom taken into account when evaluating changes in SOC stocks due to agricultural management practices on the short and long-term. To address this gap, we assessed the role of soil erosion by water and tillage on SOC stocks under different agricultural management practices in the Walloon region of Belgium. The SPEROS-C model was run for a 100-year period combining three typical crop rotations (using winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet and maize) with three tillage scenarios (conventional tillage, reduced tillage and reduced tillage in combination with additional crop residues). The results showed that including soil erosion by water in the simulations led to a general decrease in SOC stocks relative to a baseline scenario (where no erosion took place). The SOC lost from these arable soils was mainly exported to adjacent sites and to the river system by lateral fluxes, with magnitudes differing between crop rotations and in all cases lower under conservation tillage practices than under conventional tillage. Although tillage erosion plays an important role in carbon redistribution within fields, lateral fluxes induced by water erosion led to a higher spatial and in-depth heterogeneity of SOC stocks with potential effects on the soil water holding capacity and crop yields. This indicates that studies assessing the effect of agricultural management practices on SOC stocks and other soil properties over the landscape should

  7. Effect of simplified tillage and mineral fertilization on weed infestation of potato growing on loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Bujak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper effect of limitation of postharvest measure to single cultivating or disking of soil and mineral fertilization level on number, air-dry matter and botanical composition of weeds in the potato-field is presented. Simplifield postharvest measure was increasing insignificantly and more intensive fertilization was limiting the weed infestation of potato-field. Decteasing of weeds number increasing fertilization was ststistically significant. Dominating species of weeds in the potato-field were Capsella bursa-pastoris, Poa annua, Viola arvensis, Chenopodium album, Elymus repens i Equisetum arvense.

  8. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huawei; Sharratt, Brenton; Schillinger, William F.; Bary, Andrew I.; Cogger, Craig G.

    2018-06-01

    Conservation tillage is a viable management strategy to control soil wind erosion, but other strategies such as land application of biosolids that enhance soil quality may also reduce wind erosion. No studies have determined the effects of biosolids on wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolids fertilizer to traditional (disk) and conservation (undercutter) tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow (WW-SF) rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Soil loss ranged from 12 to 61% lower for undercutter than disk tillage, possibly due to retention of more biomass on the soil surface of the undercutter versus disk tillage treatment. In contrast, soil loss was similar to or lower for biosolids as compared with synthetic fertilizer treatment. Our results suggest that biosolids applications to agricultural lands will have minimal impact on wind erosion.

  9. Resurrection of glyphosate resistant palmer amaranth control in conservation tillage dicamba tolerant cotton; soil health salvation using herbicide technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation agriculture hecterage in the mid-south and southeastern US has decreased because of herbicide resistant and other hard to control weeds. Producers have increasingly utilized tillage, the majority either using a moldboard plow to deeply bury weed seed and decrease emergence, or ‘vertica...

  10. Impact of glyphosate resistant corn, glyphosate applications, and tillage on soil nutrient ratios, exoenzyme activities, and nutrient acquisition ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report results of the last two years of a 7-year (2008-2014) field experiment designed to test the null hypothesis that applications of glyphosate on glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) as a routine weed control practice under both conventional and reduced tillage practices would have no effe...

  11. Armazenamento de carbono em frações lábeis da matéria orgânica de um Latossolo Vermelho sob plantio direto Carbon storage in labile fractions of soil organic matter in a tropical no-tillage Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimélio Bayer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A reserva de carbono na matéria orgânica (MO do solo é uma importante estratégia para atenuar a concentração de dióxido de carbono na atmosfera. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do plantio direto (PD, durante seis anos, sob quatro sistemas de cultura de outono na sucessão comercial soja-milho (guandu- anão-milheto, crotalária-sorgo, girassol-aveia-preta e nabo forrageiro-milho, no armazenamento de carbono nas frações particulada (>53 µm e associada aos minerais (Carbon storage in the soil organic matter (SOM is an important strategy to mitigate carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the no-tillage (NT use for six years, under four autumn (dry-season cover crops based maize and soybean crop rotations (pigeon pea-pearl millet, bengan hemp-sorghum, sunflower-black oat, and wild radish-maize, on C storage in the particulate (>53 µm and mineral-associated (<53 µm SOM fractions of a clayey Oxisol from Brazilian Cerrado region. In comparison to conventional tillage (CT under summer cash-crops, NT increased the total organic carbon (TOC stocks in the surface soil layer (0-5 cm. In the top 20 cm layer, NT soil under wild radish-maize had 9% (4.66 Mg ha-1 more TOC than the conventionally tilled soil. On the other hand, C storage in NT soil under other cropping systems was statiscally similar to the CT soil. The C stocks in the particulate SOM fraction increased by 37 to 52% in NT soil (0-20 cm in comparison to CT. The higher sensitivity to soil management changes made the particulate organic matter a more adequate soil quality index compared to the TOC stocks. The C stock in the mineral-associated SOM fraction was not affected by soil management systems, which can be related to the short-term under NT and or to the highly stable soil microaggregates in this clayey Oxisol. The preferential C storage in the labile SOM fraction is an environmental benefit, which

  12. TILLAGE EROSION: THE PRINCIPLES, CONTROLLING FACTORS AND MAIN IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wysocka-Czubaszek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tillage erosion is one of the major contributors to landscape evolution in hummocky agricultural landscapes. This paper summarizes the available data describing tillage erosion caused by hand-held or other simple tillage implements as well as tools used in typical conventional agriculture in Europe and North America. Variations in equipment, tillage speed, depth and direction result in a wide range of soil translocation rates observed all over the world. The variety of tracers both physical and chemical gives a challenge to introduce the reliable model predicting tillage erosion, considering the number and type of tillage operation in the whole tillage sequence.

  13. PERFORMANCE OF A GRAIN DRILL IN FUNCTION OF SOIL TILLAGE AND MAIZE CROP SPACING DESEMPENHO DE SEMEADORA-ADUBADORA EM FUNÇÃO DO PREPARO DE SOLO E ESPAÇAMENTO DA CULTURA DO MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Hiroshi Kaneko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The performance of machines and agricultural implements are of fundamental importance, especially when subjected to different types of soil tillage, and have to adapt to these conditions, in order to promote good operational performance. The objective of this study was to analyze the operational performance of a Marchesan Supreme Cop grain drill, equipped with four rows, spaced 0.90 m, according to three types of tillage: conventional tillage (plowing and two harrowing series, reduced tillage (scarification with a roller, and no-tillage, in areas previously seeded with maize (Zea mays L., at two spacing measures (0.90 m and 0.45 m. The results indicate that the demand for power, tensile stress, and motor rotation, in the sowing operation, were not influenced by tillage and maize crop. The tractor wheel slip showed different results, being lower in no-tillage

  14. A multifractal approach to characterize cumulative rainfall and tillage effects on soil surface micro-topography and to predict depression storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vidal Vázquez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the indices currently employed for assessing soil surface micro-topography, such as random roughness (RR, are merely descriptors of its vertical component. Recently, multifractal analysis provided a new insight for describing the spatial configuration of soil surface roughness. The main objective of this study was to test the ability of multifractal parameters to assess in field conditions the decay of initial surface roughness induced by natural rainfall under different soil tillage systems. In addition, we evaluated the potential of the joint use of multifractal indices plus RR to improve predictions of water storage in depressions of the soil surface (MDS. Field experiments were performed on an Oxisol at Campinas, São Paulo State (Brazil. Six tillage treatments, namely, disc harrow, disc plough, chisel plough, disc harrow + disc level, disc plough + disc level and chisel plough + disc level were tested. In each treatment soil surface micro-topography was measured four times, with increasing amounts of natural rainfall, using a pin meter. The sampling scheme was a square grid with 25 × 25 mm point spacing and the plot size was 1350 × 1350 mm (≈1.8 m2, so that each data set consisted of 3025 individual elevation points. Duplicated measurements were taken per treatment and date, yielding a total of 48 experimental data sets. MDS was estimated from grid elevation data with a depression-filling algorithm. Multifractal analysis was performed for experimental data sets as well as for oriented and random surface conditions obtained from the former by removing slope and slope plus tillage marks, respectively. All the investigated microplots exhibited multifractal behaviour, irrespective of surface condition, but the degree of multifractality showed wide differences between them. Multifractal parameters provided valuable information for characterizing the spatial features of soil micro-topography as they were able to

  15. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha-1, N1: 110 kg ha-1, N2: 170 kg ha-1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3-, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha-1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha-1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days. Differences could be

  16. Evaluación de la compactación de suelos en siembra directa en la Llanura Chacopampeana de la provincia de Tucumán, R. Argentina Evaluation of soil compaction under no tillage systems in the Chacopampeana Plain in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Agustín Sanzano

    2012-06-01

    para decidir el uso de descompactadores de suelo.No-tilled soils can cause topsoil compaction as a result of the lack of soil removal and of machinery traffic. Using subsoilers can reduce this effect. This study was carried out in grain fields located at four sites in the Chacopampeana Plain, province of Tucumán, Argentina. Five no-tillage soil management situations were evaluated in terms of soil compaction degree and other related soil physical properties. These situations were: 'new soils', under no tillage management for less than five years (N; more than 10 years under no tillage management, continuously planted with soybean (SS; more than 10 years under no tillage management and soybean/corn rotation (SM; more than 10 years under no tillage management, with deep vertical tillage prior to sowing, and continuously planted with soybean (SS + LVP; and soils of more than 10 years under no tillage management, soybean/corn rotation, and deep vertical tillage before sowing (SM + LVP. Parameters evaluated before sowing were: bulk density (Dap, maximum bulk density (Dap max, relative apparent density, penetration resistance (RP, crop residue, infiltration rate (I, and organic matter (OM. In topsoil, OM was significantly higher in N than in SS and SS + LVP, while SM and SM + LVP showed intermediate values. LVP showed significantly lower crop residues than those without LPV. In turn, SM had higher crop residues than SS. Upper 20 cm Dap was higher in all situations without LVP, except in N. In most situations, relative apparent density did not exceed 90%, considered critical for normal soybean root growth. RP was significantly lower in SS + LPV and SM + LVP than in SS and SM, respectively. Infiltration rates (I were significantly higher in LPV than in those situations without tillage. However, N had the highest I, probably due to soil porous system conservation. It is advisable to quantify all these parameters before deciding to use deep tillage equipments.

  17. Fabrication and evaluation of a reservoir tillage machine to reduce runoff from farms with sprinkler irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Rostami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, in a lot of farm land due to reasons such as high density, heavy textured soils, steep terrain and a large body of water at each irrigation, rapid and complete absorption of water in the soil does not happen and runoff will be accrued. Improvement of infiltration reduces runoff and thus increases available water capacity. The main methods used to increase the infiltration area: The use of soil amendments, soil management by tillage and conservation farming. These methods may be used separately or together. Reservoir tillage is the process by which small holes or depressions are punched in the soil to prevent runoff of water from irrigation or rainfall. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new reservoir tillage machine for runoff control in the fields. Materials and Methods Fabricated machine has four main units include three-point hitch, toolbar, frame and tillage unit. Tillage unit was a spider wheel with 6 arms that has 6 Wedge-shaped blades, mounted on them. Each tillage unit mounted on a frame and the frame is attached to the toolbar with a yoke. The toolbar was attached to the tractor by three-point hitch. The movement of tractor caused blades impact soil and spider wheel was rotating. Spider wheel rotation speed was depended on the forward speed of the tractor. Blades were created mini-reservoirs on the soil surface for "In situ" irrigation water or rainwater harvesting. Theoretically distance between basins, created by reservoir tillage machine, fabricated in this study was 57 and 68 cm for Arm's length of 30 and 40 cm respectively. For the construction of machine, first the plan was drawn with SolidWorks software and then the parts of the machine were built based on technical drawings. First tillage unit was constructed and its shaft was based in two bearings. Six of the arms were positioned at 60 degrees from each other around tillage units and connected by welding. For evaluation of machine

  18. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  19. Conservation agriculture effects on soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Abdollahi, Lotfollah

    ploughing to a depth of 20 cm (MP), harrowing to a depth of 8-10 cm (H) and direct drilling (D). Minimally disturbed core samples were taken at 4-8, 12-16 and 18-27 cm depths 11 years after experimental start. Water retention characteristics were measured for a range of matric potential ranging from -10......Conservation tillage in combination with crop rotation, residue management and cover crops are key components of conservation agriculture. A positive long-term effect of applying all components of conservation agriculture on soil structural quality is expected. However, there is a lack...... of quantitative knowledge to support this statement. This study examines the long-term effects of crop rotations, residue management and tillage on soil pore characteristics of two sandy loam soils in Denmark. Results are reported from a split plot field experiment rotation as main plot factor and tillage...

  20. Tillage and residue burning affects weed populations and seed banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, S; Sindel, B M; Jessop, R S

    2006-01-01

    An integrated weed management approach requires alternative management practices to herbicide use such as tillage, crop rotations and cultural controls to reduce soil weed seed banks. The objective of this study was to examine the value of different tillage practices and stubble burning to exhaust the seed bank of common weeds from the northern grain region of Australia. Five tillage and burning treatments were incorporated in a field experiment, at Armidale (30 degrees 30'S, 151 degrees 40'E), New South Wales, Australia in July 2004 in a randomized block design replicated four times. The trial was continued and treatments repeated in July 2005 with all the mature plants from the first year being allowed to shed seed in their respective treatment plots. The treatments were (i) no tillage (NT), (ii) chisel ploughing (CP), (iii) mould board ploughing (MBP), (iv) wheat straw burning with no tillage (SBNT) and (v) wheat straw burning with chisel ploughing (SBC). Soil samples were collected before applying treatments and before the weeds flowered to establish the seed bank status of the various weeds in the soil. Wheat was sown after the tillage treatments. Burning treatments were only initiated in the second year, one month prior to tillage treatments. The major weeds present in the seed bank before initiating the trial were Polygonum aviculare, Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. Tillage promoted the germination of other weeds like Hibiscus trionum, Medicago sativa, Vicia sp. and Phalaris paradoxa later in the season in 2004 and Convolvulus erubescens emerged as a new weed in 2005. The MBP treatment in 2004 reduced the weed biomass to a significantly lower level of 55 g/m2 than the other treatments of CP (118 g/m2) and NT plots (196 g/m2) (P < 0.05). However, in 2005 SBC and MBP treatments were similar in reducing the weed biomass. In 2004, the grain yield trend of wheat was significantly different between CP and NT, and MBP and NT (P < 0.05) with maximum yield of 5898

  1. Short-Term Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Turnover Assessed by δ 13C Abundance in Particle-Size Fractions of Black Soils from Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xuewen

    2014-01-01

    The combination of isotope trace technique and SOC fractionation allows a better understanding of SOC dynamics. A five-year tillage experiment consisting of no-tillage (NT) and mouldboard plough (MP) was used to study the changes in particle-size SOC fractions and corresponding δ 13C natural abundance to assess SOC turnover in the 0–20 cm layer of black soils under tillage practices. Compared to the initial level, total SOC tended to be stratified but showed a slight increase in the entire plough layer under short-term NT. MP had no significant impacts on SOC at any depth. Because of significant increases in coarse particulate organic carbon (POC) and decreases in fine POC, total POC did not remarkably decrease under NT and MP. A distinct increase in silt plus clay OC occurred in NT plots, but not in MP plots. However, the δ 13C abundances of both coarse and fine POC increased, while those of silt plus clay OC remained almost the same under NT. The C derived from C3 plants was mainly associated with fine particles and much less with coarse particles. These results suggested that short-term NT and MP preferentially enhanced the turnover of POC, which was considerably faster than that of silt plus clay OC. PMID:25162052

  2. Soil fauna and its relation with environmental variables in soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    Full Text Available The present study aims to generate knowledge about the soil fauna, its relation to other explanatory environmental variables, and, besides it, to select edaphic indicators that more contribute to separate the land use systems (LUS. Five different LUS were chosen: conventional tillage with crop rotation (CTCR; no-tillage with crop rotation (NTCR; conventional tillage with crop succession (CTCS; no-tillage with crop succession (NTCS and minimum tillage with crop succession (MTCS. The samples were made in the counties Chapecó, Xanxerê and Ouro Verde located in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and were considered the true replicates of the LUS. In each site, nine points were sampled in a sampling grid of 3 x 3. At the same points, soil was sampled for the physical, chemical and biological attributes (environmental variables. Pitfall traps were used to evaluate the soil fauna. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA. The soil fauna presented potential to be used as indictors of soil quality, since some groups proved to be sensible to changes of the environmental variables and to soil management and tillage. The soil management using crop rotation (NTCR and CTCR presented higher diversity, compared to the systems using crop succession (NTCS, MTCS and NTCS, evidencing the importance of the soil tillage, independent of the season (summer or winter. The variable that better contributed to explain these changes were the chemical variables (potassium, pH, calcium, organic matter, available phosphorus, potential acidity, and biological variables (Shannon diversity index, Collembola, Pielou equitability index and microbial biomass carbon, respectively.

  3. 105-116 Effect of Winged Subsoiler and Traditional Tillage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3) compared to traditional tillage (Qs = 34 mm-season-. 1, T = 49 ... Maresha plow that cuts soil deeper than achieved with the traditional .... Data Processing and Analysis. Statistical ... soil compaction and shallow depth could be addressed.

  4. Influence of Soil Management on Water Retention from Saturation to Oven Dryness and Dominant Soil Water States in a Vertisol under Crop Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Karl; Pachepsky, Yakov; Pederera, Aura; Martinez, Gonzalo; Espejo, Antonio Jesus; Giraldez, Juan Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Unique water transfer and retention properties of Vertisols strongly affect their use in rainfed agriculture in water-limited environments. Despite the agricultural importance of the hydraulic properties of those soils, water retention data dryer than the wilting point are generally scarce, mainly as a result of practical constraints of traditional water retention measurement methods. In this work we provide a detailed description of regionalized water retention data from saturation to oven dryness, obtained from 54 minimally disturbed topsoil (0-0.05m) samples collected at a 3.5-ha experimental field in SW Spain where conventional tillage (CT) and direct drilling (DD) is compared in a wheat-sunflower-legume crop rotation on a Vertisol. Water retention was measured from saturation to oven dryness using sand and sand-kaolin boxes, a pressure plate apparatus and a dew point psychrometer, respectively. A common shape of the water retention curve (WRC) was observed in both tillage systems, with a strong discontinuity in its slope near -0.4 MPa and a decreasing spread from the wet to the dry end. A continuous function, consisting of the sum of a double exponential model (Dexter et al, 2008) and the Groenevelt and Grant (2004) model could be fitted successfully to the data. Two inflection points in the WRC were interpreted as boundaries between the structural and the textural pore spaces and between the textural and the intra-clay aggregate pore spaces. Water retention was significantly higher in DD (ptillage and compaction, increasing and decreasing the amount of the largest pores in CT and DD, respectively, but resulting in a proportionally larger pore space with relevant pore-sizes for water dynamics and agronomic performance. Significant differences in water retention and equivalent pore-sizes at the dry end of the WRC could be associated with the higher organic matter content found in DD. These results explain the superior performance of DD over CT in satisfying

  5. Impact of crop residue management on crop production and soil chemistry after seven years of crop rotation in temperate climate, loamy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Hiel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Society is increasingly demanding a more sustainable management of agro-ecosystems in a context of climate change and an ever growing global population. The fate of crop residues is one of the important management aspects under debate, since it represents an unneglectable quantity of organic matter which can be kept in or removed from the agro-ecosystem. The topic of residue management is not new, but the need for global conclusion on the impact of crop residue management on the agro-ecosystem linked to local pedo-climatic conditions has become apparent with an increasing amount of studies showing a diversity of conclusions. This study specifically focusses on temperate climate and loamy soil using a seven-year data set. Between 2008 and 2016, we compared four contrasting residue management strategies differing in the amount of crop residues returned to the soil (incorporation vs. exportation of residues and in the type of tillage (reduced tillage (10 cm depth vs. conventional tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth in a field experiment. We assessed the impact of the crop residue management on crop production (three crops—winter wheat, faba bean and maize—cultivated over six cropping seasons, soil organic carbon content, nitrate ( ${\\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}$ NO 3 − , phosphorus (P and potassium (K soil content and uptake by the crops. The main differences came primarily from the tillage practice and less from the restitution or removal of residues. All years and crops combined, conventional tillage resulted in a yield advantage of 3.4% as compared to reduced tillage, which can be partly explained by a lower germination rate observed under reduced tillage, especially during drier years. On average, only small differences were observed for total organic carbon (TOC content of the soil, but reduced tillage resulted in a very clear stratification of TOC and also of P and K content as compared to conventional tillage. We observed no effect of residue

  6. Impact of crop residue management on crop production and soil chemistry after seven years of crop rotation in temperate climate, loamy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Barbieux, Sophie; Pierreux, Jérôme; Olivier, Claire; Lobet, Guillaume; Roisin, Christian; Garré, Sarah; Colinet, Gilles; Bodson, Bernard; Dumont, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Society is increasingly demanding a more sustainable management of agro-ecosystems in a context of climate change and an ever growing global population. The fate of crop residues is one of the important management aspects under debate, since it represents an unneglectable quantity of organic matter which can be kept in or removed from the agro-ecosystem. The topic of residue management is not new, but the need for global conclusion on the impact of crop residue management on the agro-ecosystem linked to local pedo-climatic conditions has become apparent with an increasing amount of studies showing a diversity of conclusions. This study specifically focusses on temperate climate and loamy soil using a seven-year data set. Between 2008 and 2016, we compared four contrasting residue management strategies differing in the amount of crop residues returned to the soil (incorporation vs. exportation of residues) and in the type of tillage (reduced tillage (10 cm depth) vs. conventional tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth)) in a field experiment. We assessed the impact of the crop residue management on crop production (three crops-winter wheat, faba bean and maize-cultivated over six cropping seasons), soil organic carbon content, nitrate ([Formula: see text]), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) soil content and uptake by the crops. The main differences came primarily from the tillage practice and less from the restitution or removal of residues. All years and crops combined, conventional tillage resulted in a yield advantage of 3.4% as compared to reduced tillage, which can be partly explained by a lower germination rate observed under reduced tillage, especially during drier years. On average, only small differences were observed for total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil, but reduced tillage resulted in a very clear stratification of TOC and also of P and K content as compared to conventional tillage. We observed no effect of residue management on the [Formula: see

  7. Tamanho da subamostra e representatividade da fertilidade do solo no sistema plantio direto Subsample size and soil fertility representativity in the no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo André Schlindwein

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os corretivos e fertilizantes, quando aplicados de forma localizada, mantêm-se ao longo das linhas de cultivo no sistema plantio direto. Isto se reflete no aumento da variabilidade horizontal dos atributos químicos do solo, causando dificuldades para a coleta de amostras representativas do seu estado de fertilidade. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em dois estudos, em solos cultivados no sistema plantio direto. O primeiro foi com objetivo de relacionar o tamanho da amostra e a variabilidade de fósforo e potássio disponíveis. Para isto, amostrou-se o solo de um experimento e de uma lavoura, em diferentes tamanhos de subamostras e camadas, em Latossolo Vermelho com adubação a lanço. O segundo estudo foi conduzido para testar a eficiência de equipamentos de amostragem com diferentes tamanhos, através da variabilidade dos atributos de fertilidade do solo e o seu efeito no número de subamostras para compor uma amostra composta, dentro de determinados limites de precisão. Para isto, amostraram-se duas lavouras em Latossolo Vermelho, na profundidade de 0-10cm, com trado de rosca e pá de corte; esta no tamanho de 5/10cm (espessura/largura na lavoura de adubação a lanço e 5cm pela largura da entrelinha na lavoura de adubação em linha. As amostras retiradas com trado de rosca apresentaram menores teores de matéria orgânica e potássio disponível na lavoura de adubação em linha e de fósforo disponível em ambos os modos de adubação. Nesta situação, também ocorreu maior variabilidade e, consequentemente, necessidade de coletar um maior número de subamostras para representar o estado de fertilidade no sistema plantio direto. Amostras com 5/10cm (espessura/largura, foram eficientes para representar o estado de fertilidade do solo com adubação a lanço no sistema plantio direto.Fertilizers and lime, when applieds on surface to soil or along crop rows in the no tillage system, increase its residual effect. This results in an

  8. Modeling Edge Effects of Tillage Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage erosion has been recognized as an important factor in redistribution of soil over time and in the development of morphological changes within agricultural fields. Field borders, fences, and vegetated strips that interrupt soil fluxes lead to the creation topographic discontinuities or lynche...

  9. Increase of rotation angle of soil layers during plow operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, VV; Afonichev, D. N.; Vasilenko, S. V.; Khakhulin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    One of the advantages of plowing is the ability of the plow to hide the weed seeds deep into the soil. The depth of the embankment exceeds 10-12 cm, from there the weeds can not rise to the surface of the soil. They perish halfway. But for this, it is necessary to wrap the soil layers at an angle close to 180 °. Modern ploughs can not turn the layers of soil at an angle of more than 135 °, therefore the plow is required to be equipped with additional working elements. The aim of the study is to create an adaptation to the plow to expand the furrow before laying the next soil layer. In a wide furrow, the formation will completely tip, the previous layer will not interfere with it. The device is a set of vertical shields. Each shield is fixed behind the working body of the plow. It is installed with an angle of attack of 20-25 ° to move the previous layer to expand the furrow by 10-12 cm. The model and industrial samples of the plow have shown improved agrotechnical indicators. The average angle of the formation rotation was 177 °, the burial of plant residues in the soil increased from 61 to 99%. The field surface with blocks more than 5 cm decreased from 36.3 to 13.4%, the height of the ridges decreased from 7 to 4 cm. The force of soil pressure on the shield was measured by a strain gage. It is 130-330 N depending on the depth of processing and the speed of movement. The increase in power costs for the four-hull plow was 190-750 W. The coulters on the plow are unnecessary, and this saves energy more than its increase for shields.

  10. Water flow in soil from organic dairy rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Eriksen, Jørgen; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2017-01-01

    rye. Each plot was irrigated for an hour with 18·5 mm of water containing a conservative tracer, potassium bromide; 24 h after irrigation, macropores >1 mm were recorded visually on a horizontal plan of 0·7 m2 at five depths (10, 30, 40, 70 and 100 cm). The bromide (Br−) concentration in soil was also......Managed grasslands are characterized by rotations of leys and arable crops. The regime of water flow evolves during the leys because of earthworm and root activity, climate and agricultural practices (fertilizer, cutting and cattle trampling). The effects of duration of the leys, cattle trampling...... and fertilizer practice on the movement of water through sandy loam soil profiles were investigated in managed grassland of a dairy operation. Experiments using tracer chemicals were performed, with or without cattle slurry application, with cutting or grazing, in the 1st and the 3rd year of ley, and in winter...

  11. Rotação de culturas no sistema plantio direto em Tibagi (PR: II - Emissões de CO2 e N2O Crop rotation under no-tillage in Tibagi (Paraná State, Brazil: II - CO2 and N2O emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Siqueira Neto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade agrícola pode alterar a quantidade e qualidade da matéria orgânica do solo (MOS, resultando em emissões de dióxido de carbono (CO2 e óxido nitroso (N2O do solo para a atmosfera. O sistema plantio direto (SPD com a utilização de leguminosas em sistemas de rotação é uma estratégia que deve ser considerada tanto para o aumento da quantidade de MOS como para seu efeito na redução das emissões dos gases de efeito estufa. Com o objetivo de determinar os fluxos de gases do efeito estufa (CO2 e N2O do solo, um experimento foi instalado em Tibagi (PR, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico textura argilosa. Os tratamentos, dispostos em faixas não casualizadas com parcelas subdivididas, foram: sistema plantio direto por 12 anos com sucessões milho/trigo e soja/trigo (PD12 M/T e PD12 S/T, respectivamente e por 22 anos (PD22 M/T e PD22 S/T, respectivamente. As emissões de CO2 do solo foram aproximadamente 20 % mais elevadas no PD22 em relação ao PD12. As emissões de CO2 apresentaram correlação significativa (R² = 0,85; p The agricultural activity can change the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM, resulting in CO2 and N2O emissions from the soil. No-tillage (NT with legume species in crop rotation is a strategy that should be considered not only to increase the SOM quantity, but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to determine the soil-atmosphere gas emissions with greenhouse effect (CO2 and N2O. For this purpose, an experiment was installed in Tibagi (Paraná State, Brazil, on a clayey Oxisol (Typic Hapludox. The treatments were conducted in non-random strips with subdivided plots: no-tillage crop successions corn/wheat and soybean/wheat (NT12 M/T and NT12 S/T, respectively for 12 years and no-tillage (NT22 M/T and NT22 S/T, respectively for 22 years. The CO2 soil emissions were nearly 20 % higher in NT22 than in NT12. The CO2 emissions were significantly correlated (R

  12. Effect of tillage on earthworms over short- and medium-term in conventional and organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.; Eswaramurthy, T.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms play an important role in many soil functions and are affected by soil tillage in agricultural soils. However, effects of tillage on earthworms are often studied without considering species and their interactions with soil properties. Furthermore, many field studies are based on one-time

  13. 137Cs profiles in erosion plots with different soil cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, A.C.; Appoloni, C.R.; Cassol, E.A.; Melquiades, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Cesium-137 methodology has been successfully used to assess soil erosion. Seven erosion plots were sampled to determine the 137 Cs profile and to assess the erosion rates. Cesium-137 profile for native pasture plot showed an exponential decline below 5 cm depth, with little 137 Cs activity in the superficial layer (0-5 cm). Cesium-137 profile for wheat-soybean rotation plot in conventional tillage showed a uniform distribution with depth. For this plot, the soil loss occurs more in middle than upper and lower level. Cesium-137 profile for wheat-soybean rotation and wheat-maize rotation plots in no-tillage showed a similar result to the native pasture, with a minimum soil loss in the superficial layer. Cesium-137 profile for bare soil and cultivated pasture plots are similar, with a soil erosion rate of 229 t ha -1 year -1 . In the plots with a conventional tillage a greater soil loss occur in middle than upper and lower level. In no-tillage cultivation plots occurs soil loss in lower level, but no sign of soil loss neither gain in the upper level is observed. Cesium-137 methodology is a good tool to assess soil erosion and the 137 Cs profile gives a possibility to understand the soil erosion behavior in erosion plots. (author)

  14. Water-use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Fang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259-7898 kg ha-1 for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic.

  15. Evolution of physical properties of soils according to tillage systems on annual crops/ Evolução de propriedades físicas do solo em função dos sistemas de manejo em culturas anuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério R. M. Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil management must keep the soil physical properties next to the original conditions in natural systems to assure the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review synthesizes the effects of conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-tillage systems of annual crops, on soil physical properties as bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to root penetration, infiltration speed, hydraulic conductivity,compressibility, organic matter level, soil aggregate size and stability. No-tillage presents advantages on organic matter level, size and stability of aggregates, compressibility and hydraulic conductivity but has limitations on bulk density and resistance to root penetration. Minimum tillage with chisel plow is specially efficient in relation to infiltration speed and hydraulic conductivity, and intermediate between conventional and no-tillage in other aspects. Conventional tillage with total pulverization of soil surface,mainly on tropical conditions, presents the less favorable scores on soil physical properties, close to minimum tillage and no-till only in few circumstances, and frequently the most different from the natural conditions. The conservation systems by their side, despite of similarities in some aspects with natural conditions, are not able to reproduce the conditions of natural forests, savannas or natural pastures, but are in the sustainability direction.Para assegurar a sustentabilidade do sistema produtivo, o manejo do solo deve manter as propriedades físicas do solo o mais próximo das condições originais em que este se encontrava na natureza. Esta revisão sintetiza os efeitos de três sistemas de manejo de solo (convencional, mínimo e direto em culturas anuais sobre as propriedades físicas do solo como densidade, porosidade, resistência à penetração, velocidade de infiltração, condutividade hidráulica, compressibilidade, nível de matéria orgânica, tamanho e estabilidade de agregados. O plantio direto

  16. Crop sequences in no-tillage system: effects on soil fertility and soybean, maize and rice yield Sequências de culturas em semeadura direta: efeitos sobre a fertilidade do solo e a produtividade de soja, milho e arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Valente Marcelo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing crop residues in no-tillage system can alter soil chemical properties, which may consequently influence the productivity of succession crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil chemical properties and soybean, maize and rice yield, grown in the summer, after winter crops in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil (21 ° 15 ' 22 '' S; 48 ° 18 ' 58 '' W on a Red Latosol (Oxisol, in a completely randomized block design, in strip plots with three replications. The treatments consisted of four summer crop sequences (maize monocrop, soybean monocrop, soybean/maize rotation and rice/bean/cotton rotation combined with seven winter crops (maize, sunflower, oilseed radish, pearl millet, pigeon pea, grain sorghum and sunn hemp. The experiment began in September 2002. After the winter crops in the 2005/2006 growing season and before the sowing of summer crops in the 2006/2007 season, soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5; 2.5-5.0; 5-10; 10-20; and 20-30 cm. Organic matter, pH, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and H + Al were determined in each soil sample. In the summer soybean/maize rotation and in maize the organic matter contents and P levels were lower, in the layers 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm, respectively. Summer rice/bean/cotton rotation increased soil K levels at 0-10 cm depth when sunn hemp and oilseed radish had previously been grown in the winter, and in the 0-2.5 cm layer for millet. Sunn hemp, millet, oilseed radish and sorghum grown in the winter increased organic matter contents in the soil down to 30 cm. Higher P levels were found at the depths 0-2.5 cm and 0-5 cm, respectively, when sunn hemp and oilseed radish were grown in the winter. Highest grain yields for soybean in monoculture were obtained in succession to winter oilseed radish and sunn hemp and in rotation with maize, after oilseed radish, sunn hemp and millet. Maize yields were highest in succession to winter oilseed radish

  17. Consórcio de milho e Brachiaria decumbens em diferentes preparos de solo = Maize and Brachiaria decumbens under different soil tillage in farmingpasture integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simério Carlos Silva Cruz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparos conservacionistas e sistemas de produção que visam à maximização sustentável do uso do solo e da água têm surgido como alternativas para regiões caracterizadas por períodos chuvosos relativamente curtos e temperaturas elevadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema de consorciação entre milho e Brachiaria decumbens que melhor se adapte às condições dafoclimáticas da região da Zona da Mata do Estado de Alagoas. Os tratamentos consistiram de um híbrido de milho BRS3150, cultivado nos sistemas: Preparo Convencional, Cultivo Mínimo e Semeadura Direta (BRS3150consorciado com Brachiaria decumbens. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualisados com parcelas subdivididas. Amostras de solo foram coletadas para análise química. Também foram avaliados os componentes da produção e produtividade de grãos de milho. Os diferentes preparos do solo e a presença de Brachiaria decumbens, no sistema de consócio com milho, não exerceram influência sobre os componentes da produção. Os resultados analisados permitem concluir que a presença da Brachiaria decumbens interferiu negativamente na produtividade dos grãos de milho, quando cultivado em sistema deconsórcio, e as maiores produtividades foram obtidas nos sistemas conservacionistas.Conservation tillage and production systems that aim to maximize soiland water use in a sustainable form have become alternatives for regions that have relatively short periods of rain and high temperatures. The objective of this research was to evaluate intercropping systems with maize and Brachiaria that have better adaptation to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the “Zona da Mata” region, state of Alagoas. The treatments consisted of a BRS 3150 hybrid of maize, cultivated in the following systems: Conventional Cropping, Minimum Cultivation and No-tillage (BRS 3150 intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens. The design used was randomized block with subdivided plots. Soil

  18. No-tillage and fertilization management on crop yields and nitrate leaching in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Manxiang; Liang, Tao; Wang, Lingqing; Zhou, Chenghu

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was performed from 2003 to 2008 to evaluate the effects of tillage system and nitrogen management regimes on crop yields and nitrate leaching from the fluvo-aquic soil with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–maize (Zea mays L.) double-cropping system. The tillage systems consisted of conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT). Three nitrogen management regimes were included: 270 kg N ha−1 of urea for wheat and 225 kg N ha−1 of urea for maize (U), 180 kg N ha−1 of urea and 90 kg N ha−1 of straw for wheat and 180 kg N of urea and 45 kg N ha−1 of straw for maize (S), 180 kg N ha−1 of urea and 90 kg N ha−1 of manure for wheat and 180 kg N ha−1 of urea and 45 kg N ha−1 of manure for maize (M). An array of tension-free pan lysimeters (50 cm × 75 cm) were installed (1.2 m deep) to measure water flow and -N movement. No significant effect of the N management regime on yields of winter wheat and maize grain was found in the 5-year rotation. Tillage systems had significant influences on -N leaching from the second year and thereafter interacted with N management regimes on -N loads during all maize seasons. The average yield-scaled -N leaching losses were in order of CTS leaching losses while sustaining crop grain yields. Considering the lower costs, NTS could be a potential alternative to decrease yield-scaled -N leaching losses and improve soil fertility while maintaining crop yield for the winter wheat–maize double-cropping systems in the North China Plain. PMID:25859321

  19. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0-5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G-). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G- compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems.

  20. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees Mineralização do carbono e nitrogênio sob diferentes preparos de solo e coberturas permanentes intercalares em pomar de laranjeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a mineralização do Carbono e Nitrogênio devido ao cultivo intercalar de diferentes coberturas permanentes em pomar de laranjeira. O experimento foi

  1. A methodological approach for deriving regional crop rotations as basis for the assessment of the impact of agricultural strategies using soil erosion as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Marco; Fürst, Christine; Thiel, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Regarding increasing pressures by global societal and climate change, the assessment of the impact of land use and land management practices on land degradation and the related decrease in sustainable provision of ecosystem services gains increasing interest. Existing approaches to assess agricultural practices focus on the assessment of single crops or statistical data because spatially explicit information on practically applied crop rotations is mostly not available. This provokes considerable uncertainties in crop production models as regional specifics have to be neglected or cannot be considered in an appropriate way. In a case study in Saxony, we developed an approach to (i) derive representative regional crop rotations by combining different data sources and expert knowledge. This includes the integration of innovative crop sequences related to bio-energy production or organic farming and different soil tillage, soil management and soil protection techniques. Furthermore, (ii) we developed a regionalization approach for transferring crop rotations and related soil management strategies on the basis of statistical data and spatially explicit data taken from so called field blocks. These field blocks are the smallest spatial entity for which agricultural practices must be reported to apply for agricultural funding within the frame of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) program. The information was finally integrated into the spatial decision support tool GISCAME to assess and visualize in spatially explicit manner the impact of alternative agricultural land use strategies on soil erosion risk and ecosystem services provision. Objective of this paper is to present the approach how to create spatially explicit information on agricultural management practices for a study area around Dresden, the capital of the German Federal State Saxony. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Monoculture, Crop Rotation, and Soil Moisture Content on Selected Soil Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters in Wheat Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plants are known to have different soil microbial communities associated with them. Agricultural management practices such as fertiliser and pesticide addition, crop rotation, and grazing animals can lead to different microbial communities in the associated agricultural soils. Soil dilution plates, most-probable-number (MPN, community level physiological profiling (CLPP, and buried slide technique as well as some measured soil physicochemical parameters were used to determine changes during the growing season in the ecosystem profile in wheat fields subjected to wheat monoculture or wheat in annual rotation with medic/clover pasture. Statistical analyses showed that soil moisture had an over-riding effect on seasonal fluctuations in soil physicochemical and microbial populations. While within season soil microbial activity could be differentiated between wheat fields under rotational and monoculture management, these differences were not significant.

  3. Precise tillage systems for enhanced non-chemical weed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurstjens, D.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and residue manipulation can assist weed management by killing weeds mechanically, interfering in weed lifecycles, facilitating operations and enhancing crop establishment and growth. Current tillage systems often compromise these functions, resulting in heavy reliance on herbicides,

  4. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conservation tillage techniques and evaluate the impacts of the system on ... biological soil manipulation to optimize conditions for seed germination, emergence and ..... planting and weeding operations as total expense and sales from maize ...

  5. Artificial neural network approach for mapping contrasting tillage practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage information is crucial for environmental modeling as it directly affects evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, carbon sequestration, and soil losses due to wind and water erosion from agricultural fields. However, collecting this information can be time consuming and costly. Remote sensi...

  6. Efeitos de sistemas de preparo nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico Effects of tillage systems on the soil physical properties of a dystrophic Red Latosol

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    Karina Maria Vieira Cavalieri

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de preparo do solo e o manejo dos resíduos culturais assumem fundamental importância para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas de produção de mandioca nos solos de textura média a arenosa da região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de preparo utilizados para o plantio da cultura da mandioca, em algumas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: plantio sem revolvimento do solo (PSR, preparo mínimo com escarificação (PM e preparo convencional com aração e gradagem (PC. Nas camadas de 0-0,15 e 0,15-0,30 m, foram avaliadas as seguintes propriedades físicas: a densidade do solo (Ds, a curva de retenção de água no solo, a curva de resistência do solo à penetração e o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO. Nos sistemas de preparo com reduzida mobilização do solo (PSR e PM, foram constatados maiores valores de Ds e de resistência do solo à penetração. A curva de retenção de água foi influenciada apenas pela Ds, a qual incorporou os efeitos dos sistemas de preparo, independentemente da camada amostrada. A modelagem da curva de resistência do solo à penetração foi influenciada pelos sistemas de preparo e camadas amostradas, com maior resistência à penetração em PSR > PM > PC, acentuada na camada subsuperficial. Com o aumento da Ds, verificou-se redução do IHO associada aos efeitos da resistência do solo à penetração e da porosidade de aeração que determinaram, respectivamente, os limites inferior e superior de água disponível. Os valores do IHO seguiram a seqüência PC = PM > PSR na camada de 0-0,15 m, não diferindo significativamente na camada de 0,15-0,30 m. O valor de densidade do solo crítica (Dsc, densidade em que IHO = 0, foi menor no PSR e PM, comparado ao PC, o que contribuiu para a menor freqüência de valores de densidade maiores que a Dsc no PC.Soil tillage systems and the crop

  7. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

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    Rongyan Bu

    Full Text Available Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR/cotton-rapeseed (CR rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile, intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles, and high (90th percentile levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C and N (POM-N contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively. Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  8. Recuperação da qualidade estrutural, pelo sistema plantio direto, de um Argissolo Vermelho Soil structural quality restoration by no-tillage system of a Hapludalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Flores

    2008-11-01

    densidade e porosidade do solo a recuperação não foi observada.Soils with high sand content in the A horizon are prone to degradation processes, depending on management system used. This study had as objective to evaluate the degradation of a Hapludalf formed from granite, located in the Passo do Pilão watershed in Pelotas county, cultivated under conventional system, and its recovery by no-tillage system, compared to two native systems, namely grass field and forest. The experiment was setup in an agricultural area, in April of 1995, with the cultivation of Avena strigosa plus Vicia vilosa, both for conventional system and no-tillage. An area under native grasses and another with native forest were sampled for comparison. Soils samples were colleted from the layers of 0-0.05m, 0.10-0.15m and 0.20-0.25m, to determine the soil texture, porosity, densities, water retention, aggregate stability and distribution, and organic carbon content. The cultivation systems increase the soil bulk density and reduce total porosity, microporosity, water retention and availability, compared with native systems such as grass field and forest. The conventional system reduces organic carbon content and aggregate stability, whereas no-tillage, after five years, increases, somewhat, the organic carbon content in the surface layer, but increases aggregate stability to values near of those for native systems. The aggregate stability had direct relationship with organic carbon content up to an upper limit of 25g kg-1. The bulk density, macroporosity, S parameter, organic carbon content and aggregate stability are good indicators of the changes observed in the soil management systems. For the Hapludalf formed from granite, there was recovery of the properties related to soil structure stability, but in those related to soil bulk density and porosity no recovery was observed.

  9. influence of tillage practices on physical properties of a sandy loam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    many regions of the world if the mechanics of tillage effects on soil physical properties is to be well understood. Thus, the ... tillage systems on water storage of a sandy loam soil after 22 years of ..... Soil infiltration ... and processes. Academy ...

  10. Effect of four tillage methods on the physical properties and loss of soil in the potato–grass rotation in hillside areas of a high Andean region in Colombia Efecto de cuatro métodos de labranza sobre las propiedades físicas y la pérdida de suelo en la rotación papa–pastos en áreas de ladera en una región alto andina de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Luís

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the loss and the changes in the soil physical properties, and the production of yellow potato Solanum phureja, as a result of four tillage systems (Human traction, THT; Animal traction, ATT; Mechanical, MT; and Mechanical combined, CMT in Santa Lucia, Tuluá municipality, high andean region of Colombia to 2.870 masl. Treatments were evaluated using a completely randomized blocks desing with three replicates, and the data examined by means of a matrix of change for each physical property. Soil loss was determined by the ditch of runoff. Mechanical traction affected the soil physical properties negatively, that became evident in the increment of losses with the runoff. The bigger loss of soil was correlated with MT use and it diminished to the 50 % with HTT: (MT 6.12 tha–1 year–1; CMT 5.0 tha–1 year–1; ATT 3.7 tha–1 year–1 and HTT 2.73 tha–1 year–1. ATT generated the bigger cost–reducing and environmental retribution, because his production (13 tha–1 was major than the average obtained in the treatments (12.4 tha–1 and the lost one belonging to ground was minor than the generated for MT and CMT.Este estudio avaluó la pérdida y los cambios en las propiedades físicas del suelo y la producción de papa amarilla Solanum phureja, como resultado de cuatro sistemas de labranza (Tracción humana, LTH; Tracción animal, LTA; Mecánica, LM; y Mecánica combinada, LMC en Santa Lucía, municipio de Tuluá, región alto andina de Colombia a 2.870 msnm. Los tratamientos se evaluaron usando un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. La pérdida de suelo se determinó por medio de canaletas de escorrentía. La información se analizó por medio de una matriz de cambio para

  11. Relations between Agronomic Practice and Earthworms in Norwegian Arable Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pommeresche, Reidun; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Norwegian studies of earthworms (density, biomass, burrows density, species, juvenile to adult ratios) in arable soil in Norway conducted during the last 20 years. The effects of crop rotations, fertilization, soil tillage and compaction on earthworms are presented, based on various field experiments. Geophagous (soil eating) species such as Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. rosea dominate the earthworm fauna in Norwegian arable soil. Lumbricus terrestris is also present; in ...

  12. Efeitos de sistemas de cultivo na densidade e macroporosidade do solo e no desenvolvimento radicular do milho em latossolo roxo Effects of tillage systems on bulk density, aeration porosity and root development of corn in a typic haplorthox soil

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    Paulo César Corsini

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudados os efeitos imediato e residual de dois sistemas de preparo na densidade e macroporosidade do solo e no desenvolvimento radicular do milho (Zea mays L., em camadas estruturalmente estabilizadas de um Latossolo Roxo, mantido por longo período sob plantio direto de milho. Os efeitos imediatos das operações envolvendo a subsolagem e a aração e gradagem aumentaram, em menos de um ano agrícola, a macroporosidade da camada superficial desse solo bem como o potencial de desenvolvimento radicular. Nesses tratamentos e nos três primeiros anos agrícolas, a adoção contínua do sistema de plantio direto diminuiu a porosidade de aeração do solo e o potencial de desenvolvimento radicular do milho. Os benefícios da manutenção desse sistema conservacionista nos valores de macroporosidade e densidade na camada superficial do solo iniciaram-se no quarto ano agrícola. A partir daí aumentaram, atingindo no oitavo ano agrícola consecutivo valores semelhantes aos imediatamente obtidos após as operações mecânicas realizadas na instalação do experimento. As relações entre desenvolvimento radicular, densidade e macroporosidade do solo foram estabelecidas por equações bem como por classes de desenvolvimento radicular.The objective of this study was to evaluate the immediate and the residual effects of soil preparation on bulk density, aeration porosity and root development relationships in stabilized structural layers of a typic Haplorthox soil due to long-term no-tillage system of corn (Zea mays L..The immediate effects of soil preparation to planting involving subsoiling, plowing, and disking improved soil macroporosity and root development for a short period of time. In these treatments and on the first three consecutive years, the adoption of continuous no-tillage management decreased soil macroporosity and root development. The long-term benefits of continuous no-tillage on soil macroporosity initiated at the

  13. Efecto acumulativo de la siembra directa sobre algunas características del suelo en la región semiárida central de Argentina Long term effect of no-tillage on some soil properties in the central semiarid region of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Abril

    2005-12-01

    recent adoption of no-tillage practices in the country. Moreover, most of the available research on no-tillage in Argentina refers to the humid Pampas region. In contrast, information on the semi-arid region is very scarce, despite the fact that an increased cover stubble is particularly useful in water-limited soils. In this paper we report a long-term evaluation (5 and 10 years periods of no-tillage practices on a chemical (SOM, total N and NO3-N and biological (microbial biomass and activity soil characteristics, and b quantity, identifiable fractions, and chemical quality of stubble material in soybean monoculture and soybean-corn rotation. Research was conducted at Manfredi INTA Experimental Station in semi-arid, central Argentina (31°49' S and 63°46' W. Soils under no-tillage system had higher SOM and total N content compared with control (conservation tillage with chisel plow in both, soybean monoculture and soybean-corn rotations. The observed difference increased with time (10 and 20% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Nitrate content, and microbial activity and biomass showed high variability in the measurement periods, depending on climatic condition at the sampling date. Stubble cover was greater in the corn-soybean rotation with corn as preceding crop (2473.9 g m-2 than in soybean monoculture (1035.7 g m-2. The stubble non-identifiable fraction was very significant in all treatments (ranging between 2-10 t ha-1, which would favor new surface soil formation. The soybean-corn rotation with soybean as preceding crop showed the lowest values in all chemical parameters, particularly in soluble compounds (nitrate, ammonium and soluble carbon. Contrarily with what is usually assumed, our results suggest that nutrient release from long-term stubble may become a significant nutrient source for the crops. Therefore, this nutrient source should be considered when evaluating crop fertilization requirements.

  14. Long-term effects of potato cropping system strategies on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropping systems incorporating soil health management practices, such as longer rotations, disease-suppressive crops, reduced tillage, and/or organic amendments can substantially affect soil microbial communities, and potentially reduce soilborne potato diseases and increase productivity, but long-t...

  15. TILLAGE OPERATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Gasanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to identify the possibility of recycling the carbon in the atmosphere and the efficient use of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR coming to the soil surface by means of the formation of highly natural phytocenosis in the back half of the summer and to minimize soil preparation period for the next crop in the rotation.Methods. We studied two systems of soil management in the stubble period, they cause: Firstly, CO2 emissions from the soil under the existing soil cultivation methods for crop rotation in the region. Secondly, the accumulation of CO2 in the organic mass of natural phytocenosis followed by plowing the green mass in the stage of milk-wax ripeness of the seeds – the dominants, and minimizing the period of preparing the ground for the next crop rotation.Result. According to the obtained data, it shows that a nutritious regime of soil under the winter wheat during plowing of green mass of natural phytocenosis is substantially improved compared to the tillage system. Similar findings were obtained by other researchers that justify the fact that the green manure crops, in this case natural phytocoenosis, throughout its life involves hard compound subarable soil layers in the biological cycle which is used to create organic matter.Conclusion. We provide a scientific rationale for the inexpediency of the use of existing tillage systems in agricultural landscapes, which are causing systematic destruction of weed - field vegetation during the periods free from agrocenoses.

  16. Does grazing of cover crops impact biologically active soil C and N fractions under inversion and no tillage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...

  17. Soil aggregation and bacterial community structure as affected by tillage and cover cropping in the Brazilian Cerrados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peixoto, R. S.; Coutinho, H. L. C.; Madari, B.; Machado, P. L. O. A.; Rumjanek, N. G.; Van Elsas, J. D.; Seldin, L.; Rosado, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial-based indicators of soil quality are believed to be more dynamic than those based on physical and chemical properties. Recent developments in molecular biology based techniques have led to rapid and reliable tools to characterize microbial community structures. We determined the effects of

  18. Tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management effects on soil organic carbon sequestration in rice-based cropping systems: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the major agricultural strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, enhance food security, and improve agricultural sustainability. This paper synthesizes the much-needed state-of-knowledge on the effects of management practices, such as tilla...

  19. Response of CH4 and N2O emissions and wheat yields to tillage method changes in the North China plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzhong Tian

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify soil methane (CH(4 and nitrous oxide (N(2O emissions when converting from minimum and no-tillage systems to subsoiling (tilled soil to a depth of 40 cm to 45 cm in the North China Plain. The relationships between CH(4 and N(2O flux and soil temperature, moisture, NH(4 (+-N, organic carbon (SOC and pH were investigated over 18 months using a split-plot design. The soil absorption of CH(4 appeared to increase after conversion from no-tillage (NT to subsoiling (NTS, from harrow tillage (HT to subsoiling (HTS and from rotary tillage (RT to subsoiling (RTS. N(2O emissions also increased after conversion. Furthermore, after conversion to subsoiling, the combined global warming potential (GWP of CH(4 and N(2O increased by approximately 0.05 kg CO(2 ha(-1 for HTS, 0.02 kg CO(2 ha(-1 for RTS and 0.23 kg CO(2 ha(-1 for NTS. Soil temperature, moisture, SOC, NH(4 (+-N and pH also changed after conversion to subsoiling. These changes were correlated with CH(4 uptake and N(2O emissions. However, there was no significant correlation between N(2O emissions and soil temperature in this study. The grain yields of wheat improved after conversion to subsoiling. Under HTS, RTS and NTS, the average grain yield was elevated by approximately 42.5%, 27.8% and 60.3% respectively. Our findings indicate that RTS and HTS would be ideal rotation tillage systems to balance GWP decreases and grain yield improvements in the North China Plain region.

  20. Reduced tillage and green manures for sustainable cropping systems - Overview of the TILMAN-ORG project

    OpenAIRE

    Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Reduced tillage and green manures are environmentally friendly practices that increase levels of soil organic matter and biological activity, improve soil stability, and reduce fuel consumption and may mitigate the climate impact of crop production. The avoidance of deep ploughing is successfully practiced as no-tillage agriculture in conventional farming systems. However, these no-tillage systems rely on herbicides for weed control and mineral fertilisers for plant nutrients. As these inputs...

  1. Disturbance of Ultisol soil based on interactions between furrow openers and coulters for the no-tillage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francetto, T.R.; Alonço, A. dos S.; Brandelero, C.; Machado, O.D. da C.; Veit, A.A.; Carpes, D.P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of different associations between coulters and fertilizer furrow openers on soil disturbance, furrow depth and width, according to forward speed. The study was conducted on a farm in Santa Maria (Brazil/RS), in soil classified as sandy loam Ultisol. The experiment consisted of 24 combinations of treatments with three replications in a 2×3×4 factorial experiment. The combinations were formed by the interaction of the factors including: two types of furrow openers (hoe and double-disc), three types of coulters (no-coulter, smooth and offset fluted) and four levels of forward speed (1.11, 1.67, 2.22 and 2.78 m/s). Soil elevation and soil disturbance area profiles were obtained with the use of a micro profilometer, and disturbance values were calculated with the aid of computer software program Auto Cad. The disturbance area was not affected by speed; it was greater when using the hoe opener, and in association with the offset fluted coulter. Speed was inversely proportional to the depth of the furrows made by the hoe opener. Furthermore, the hoe caused the greatest furrow width (0.26 m) in comparison with the double-disc (0.24 m). The use of different coulters associated with furrow openers increased this variable (0.23 m for the no-coulter condition, 0.25 m with smooth and 0.26 m with offset fluted). The use of coulters combined with furrow openers reduces soil swelling, in approximately 8% for the smooth and 20% for the offset fluted. (Author)

  2. Influence of Conservation Tillage and Soil Water Content on Crop Yield in Dryland Compacted Alfisol of Central Chile Influencia de la Labranza de Conservación y el Contenido de Agua sobre el Rendimiento del Cultivo en un Alfisol compactado del Secano Central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martinez G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean dryland areas of the Mediterranean climate region are characterized by highly degraded and compacted soils, which require the use of conservation tillage systems to mitigate water erosion as well as to improve soil water storage. An oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA crop rotation was established under the following conservation systems: no tillage (Nt, Nt + contour plowing (Nt+Cp, Nt + barrier hedge (Nt+Bh, and Nt + subsoiling (Nt+Sb, compared to conventional tillage (Ct to evaluate their influence on soil water content (SWC in the profile (10 to 110 cm depth, the soil compaction and their interaction with the crop yield. Experimental plots were established in 2007 and lasted 3 yr till 2009 in a compacted Alfisol. At the end of the growing seasons, SWC was reduced by 44 to 51% in conservation tillage systems and 60% in Ct. Soil water content had a significant (p En Chile, las zonas de clima mediterráneo se caracterizan por suelos altamente degradados y compactados por erosión, lo que requiere el uso de sistemas de labranza conservacionista para mitigar la erosión hídrica, así como incrementar el contenido de agua en el suelo. Se evaluó una rotación avena (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA establecida bajo los siguientes sistemas conservacionistas: cero labranza (Nt, Nt + curvas de nivel (Nt+Cp, Nt + franjas vivas (Nt+Bh y Nt + subsolado (Nt+Sb, las que fueron comparadas al sistema de labranza convencional (Ct, para evaluar su influencia en el contenido de agua en el suelo (SWC en el perfil (10 a 110 cm profundidad, la compactación del suelo y su interacción con el rendimiento del cultivo. Las parcelas experimentales fueron establecidas 3 años seguidos (2007 al 2009 en un Alfisol compactado. Al final de la temporada, el SWC disminuyó 44 a 51% en los sistemas conservacionistas y 60% en el sistema convencional. El sistema de

  3. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  4. Influence of agricultural management on chemical quality of a clay soil of semi-arid Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibno Namr, Khalid; Mrabet, Rachid

    2004-06-01

    Morocco's semi-arid lands are characterized by unique challenges. The most important obstacles to the development of durable agriculture are (1) limited and unpredictable supply of soil moisture and (2) low soil quality. Intensive use of soil throughout history has led to depletion in soil quality, leading in return to reduced yields because of the consequent reduced organic matter. Recognizing the need to recover soil quality and production decline, INRA scientists began, in the early 1980s, research on the effects of crop rotations, tillage and residue management on the productivity and quality of cropped soils. The present study concerns the short-term effect of rotation, tillage and residue management on selected quality indices of a calcixeroll (organic matter, nitrogen, particulate organic carbon (Cpom), particulate organic nitrogen (Npom) and pH). Hence, three rotations (wheat-wheat, WW; fallow-wheat, FW; and fallow-wheat-barley, FWB), two tillage systems (conventional offset disking, CT and no-tillage, NT), and three levels of residue in the NT system (NT 0 = no-residue cover, NT 50 = half surface residue cover, NT 100 = full surface residue cover) were selected. Three surface horizons were sampled (0-2.5, 2.5-7 and 7-20 cm). The study results showed an improvement of measured soil chemical properties under NT compared to CT, at the surface layer. No-tillage system helped sequestration of carbon and nitrogen, build-up of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen and sensible reduction of pH only at the surface layer. Continuous wheat permitted a slight improvement of soil quality, mainly at the 0-2.5 cm depth. Effects of rotation, tillage and residue level were reduced with depth of measurements.

  5. Agronomic performance of common bean in straw mulch systems and topdressing nitrogen rates in no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pagan Loeiro da Cunha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn no-tillage systems, straw coverage on soil surface is the key to success, and the choice of crops for rotation is crucial to achieve the sustainability and quality that conservation agriculture requires. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of the common bean cultivar IAC Formoso sown in succession to three straw mulch systems (corn alone, corn/Urochloa ruziziensisintercrop and U. ruziziensisalone and topdress nitrogen rates (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1N, at the four-leaf stage, three years after the implementation of no-tillage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block split plot design, with three replications. Common bean highest yields were achieved in succession to U. ruziziensisalone and intercropped with corn. The corn/U. ruziziensisintercrop provided both straw and seed production, allowing for quality no-tillage. Topdressed nitrogen influenced the common bean yield when in succession to corn alone, U. ruziziensisalone and corn/U. ruziziensisintercrop in no-tillage.

  6. Tillage and Farmyard Manure Effects on Crusting and Compacting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal rainwater losses through increased runoff volumes reduce soil moisture and hence result in agricultural drought. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrological effects of two tillage practices with and without farmyard manure on surface runoff and soil loss of crusting and compacting soils under field ...

  7. Effects of Tillage Model on Healthy Plough Layer Structure and Its Development Trends

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    HU Jun-ming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil cultivation is closely related to land productivity. Nutrient in plough layer is the key factor affecting the absorption and utilization of crop nutrients. Good plough layer structure is beneficial to the coordination of water, fertilizer, gas and heat. The depth of arable layer is related to tillage methods. Constructing good plough layer structure is conducive to crop growth and distribution. This paper reviewed both domestic and foreign researches regarding tillage models, which included conventional tillage, protective cultivation, rotary tillage, deep tillage, and so on. Based on the above research results, the effects of tillage models on the healthy soil layer construction were discussed from the soil bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregates, infiltration of soil, soil heavy metals, soil respiration and the characters of root system. The deficiencies of current research were pointed out from several aspects such as tillage system, system positioning, tillage efficiency, suitable crop. In order to maximize the comprehensive production capacity of cultivated land resources and solve the contradiction between human being and land, this paper forecasted the development trend of ideal plough layer structure from four aspects:Cultivate patterns according to local conditions, the establishment of complex farming models, accelerating the research and application of new agricultural machinery, conducting systematic research of farmland microclimate environment. This will provide the theoretical basis and technical support for the optimal farming mode in agricultural production.

  8. Tillage, fertilization systems and chemical attributes of a Paleudult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Penedo Dorneles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tillage and fertilization methods may affect soil fertility. With the aim of assessing changes in soil chemical properties over a period of ten years, soil samples of a Paleudult were collected over nine seasons at three layer depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 cm and were chemically analyzed. Grain yield and nutrient export in two summer crops, soybean (Glycine max and corn (Zea mays, in a field experiment set in Eldorado do Sul, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were determined. Three soil tillage systems were evaluated, conventional (CT, reduced (RT and no-tillage (NT, combined with mineral (lime and fertilizers and organic (poultry litter fertilization. The no-tillage system stood out as compared to the others, especially in the surface layer, in terms of values of organic matter, soil pH, available phosphorus, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. Phosphorus content was higher under organic than mineral fertilization due to the criteria used for the establishment of fertilizer doses. Under organic fertilization, soil pH values were similar to those obtained in limed soil samples because of the cumulative effect of the organic fertilizer. Soybean yield was lower under NT in comparison to the RT and CT systems. Consequently, soybean grain exported a lower content of nutrients than maize grain. Maize yield was not affected by either tillage or fertilization systems.

  9. Uncertainties in assessing tillage erosion - How appropriate are our measuring techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiener, P.; Wilken, F.; Aldana-Jague, E.; Deumlich, D.; Gómez, J. A.; Guzmán, G.; Hardy, R. A.; Quinton, J. N.; Sommer, M.; Van Oost, K.; Wexler, R.

    2018-03-01

    Tillage erosion on arable land is a very important process leading to a net downslope movement of soil and soil constitutes. Tillage erosion rates are commonly in the same order of magnitude as water erosion rates and can be even higher, especially under highly mechanized agricultural soil management. Despite its prevalence and magnitude, tillage erosion is still understudied compared to water erosion. The goal of this study was to bring together experts using different techniques to determine tillage erosion and use the different results to discuss and quantify uncertainties associated with tillage erosion measurements. The study was performed in northeastern Germany on a 10 m by 50 m plot with a mean slope of 8%. Tillage erosion was determined after two sequences of seven tillage operations. Two different micro-tracers (magnetic iron oxide mixed with soil and fluorescent sand) and one macro-tracer (passive radio-frequency identification transponders (RFIDs), size: 4 × 22 mm) were used to directly determine soil fluxes. Moreover, tillage induced changes in topography were measured for the entire plot with two different terrestrial laser scanners and an unmanned aerial system for structure from motion topography analysis. Based on these elevation differences, corresponding soil fluxes were calculated. The mean translocation distance of all techniques was 0.57 m per tillage pass, with a relatively wide range of mean soil translocation distances ranging from 0.39 to 0.72 m per pass. A benchmark technique could not be identified as all used techniques have individual error sources, which could not be quantified. However, the translocation distances of the macro-tracers used were consistently smaller than the translocation distances of the micro-tracers (mean difference = - 26 ± 12%), which questions the widely used assumption of non-selective soil transport via tillage operations. This study points out that tillage erosion measurements, carried out under almost

  10. Can conservation agriculture improve phosphorus (P) availability in weathered soils? Effects of tillage and residue management on soil P status after 9 years in a Kenyan Oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margenot, Andrew; Paul, B.K.; Pulleman, M.M.; Parikh, Sanjai; Fonte, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    The widespread promotion of conservation agriculture (CA) in regions with weathered soils prone to phosphorus (P) deficiency merits explicit consideration of its effect on P availability. A long-term CA field trial located on an acid, weathered soil in western Kenya was evaluated for effects of

  11. Atributos físicos do solo sob diferentes preparos e coberturas influenciados pela distribuição de poros Soil physical attributes under different tillage systems and cover crops, as influenced by pore distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurâimi de Q. Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho se propõe avaliar a influência da distribuição de poros sobre alguns atributos físicos do solo sob semeadura direta (SD e preparo convencional (PC, cultivado com diferentes culturas de cobertura, no sistema de produção orgânica de feijão e milho. O trabalho foi conduzido em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Em novembro de 2003 foram instalados quatro experimentos, dois em SD e dois em PC, um em cada manejo com feijão e o outro com milho. Foram comparados em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, crotalária, guandu, mucuna-preta, sorgo e pousio. Amostragens de solo das parcelas e de uma mata próxima foram realizadas nas profundidades de 0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, em novembro de 2007, para determinação do teor de matéria orgânica (M.O. e de atributos físicos do solo. O uso do solo sob vegetação de cerrado para a produção agrícola, independentemente do sistema de cultivo, resultou em redução na porosidade total (Pt, macroporosidade (Mp e capacidade de aeração do solo (CAS. Os atributos físicos do solo foram afetados favoravelmente pela M.O. As variações em Pt, Mp, CAS e capacidade de água disponível do solo podem ser explicadas pela variação na distribuição do tamanho de poros do solo, principalmente daqueles com ∅ > 0,075 mm.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of pore distribution on some physical attributes of soil under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems, cultivated with different cover crops, in organic production of common bean and corn. The work was carried out in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, on an Oxisol. In November 2003 four experiments were installed, two of them under NT and the other two under CT. In each soil tillage system, an experiment was conducted with corn and another with common bean. Sunn hemp, pigeon pea, velvet bean, sorghum, and fallow were compared in a randomized block design, with four replications. Samples were

  12. [Conservation tillage systems in North America and their significance for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Xiaoping; Fang, Huajun; Liang, Aizhen; Qi, Xiaoning; Wang, Yang

    2004-02-01

    Soil degradation through erosion and desertification reduces soil productivity, and is a serious problem in agricultural production of China. To avert our arable land from further degradation, soil management must be shifted from degrading tillage to conservation practices. Over viewing the technology used in the 20th century for controlling soil degradation from erosion, conservation tillage developed in the United States and adopted in South America and Africa is one of the most successful measures to overcome soil degradation problems. This paper reviewed the historical development and the current situation of conservation tillage systems used in North and South America, with special reference to their effects on soil erosion control and soil quality. The increasing adoption of conservation tillage systems in North and South America and Africa followed an enhanced awareness of the increasing risk of soil erosion and the high cost of fuel associated with conventional tillage. Many crucial points for successfully adopting conservation tillage systems were emphasized, such as equipment/tool development and chemical weed control. Adopting conservation tillage could provide China with low-priced means of reducing soil degradation and improving soil and water quality.

  13. Effect of crop rotation on soil nutrient balance and weediness in soddy podzolic organic farming fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarina, Livija; Zarina, Liga

    2017-04-01

    The nutrient balance in different crop rotations under organic cropping system has been investigated in Latvia at the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics since 2006. Latvia is located in a humid and moderate climatic region where the rainfall exceeds evaporation (soil moisture coefficient > 1) and the soil moisture regime is characteristic with percolation. The average annual precipitation is 670-850 mm. The average temperature varies from -6.7° C in January to 16.5 °C in July. The growing season is 175 - 185 days. The most widespread are podzolic soils and mainly they are present in agricultural fields in all regions of Latvia. In a wider sense the goal of the soil management in organic farming is a creation of the biologically active flora and fauna in the soil by maintaining a high level of soil organic matter which is good for crops nutrient balance. Crop rotation is a central component of organic farming systems and has many benefits, including growth of soil microbial activity, which may increase nutrient availability. The aim of the present study was to calculate nutrient balance for each crop in the rotations and average in each rotation. Taking into account that crop rotations can limit build-up of weeds, additionally within the ERA-net CORE Organic Plus transnational programs supported project PRODIVA the information required for a better utilization of crop diversification for weed management in North European organic arable cropping systems was summarized. It was found that the nutrient balance was influenced by nutrients uptake by biomass of growing crops in crop rotation. The number of weeds in the organic farming fields with crop rotation is dependent on the cultivated crops and the succession of crops in the crop rotation.

  14. Implications of observed and simulated soil carbon sequestration for management options in corn-based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing cropping systems to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) improves soil health and a system’s resiliency to impacts of changing climate. Our objectives were to 1) monitor SOC from a bio-energy cropping study in central Pennsylvania that included a corn-soybean-alfalfa rotation, switchgrass, a...

  15. Soil chemical properties and legume-cereal rotation benefits in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted at the Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria Teaching and Research Farm in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. The objective was to evaluate the effects of edible grain legumes (cowpea and soybean) and velvet-bean/maize rotations on soil chemical properties and the contribution ...

  16. Implications of observed and simulated soil carbon sequestration for management options in corn-based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing cropping systems to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) improves soil health and a system’s resiliency to impacts of changing climate. Our objectives were to 1) monitor SOC from a bio-energy cropping study in central Pennsylvania that included a corn-soybean-alfalfa rotation, switchgrass, ...

  17. Sistemas de cultivo de arroz irrigado e a compactação de um Planossolo Tillage systems of irrigated rice and compaction of a Planosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Pedrotti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Em 1993 foi avaliada a compactação de um Planossolo cultivado sob diferentes sistemas de manejo, medindo-se a densidade do solo, por meio do método do anel volumétrico, em três camadas de solo. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis sistemas de manejo, selecionados de um experimento conduzido na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, desde 1985. Observaram-se, de maneira geral, valores altos de densidade do solo; na primeira camada de solo (0-10 cm o sistema que apresentou o menor valor foi o cultivo de arroz em plantio direto sob a resteva do azevém e nos sistemas que envolvem maior mobilização do solo (arroz contínuo e rotação arroz-soja-milho os valores de densidade do solo foram maiores em relação aos sistemas de preparo reduzido do solo (azevém x arroz plantio direto e soja x arroz plantio direto. Ocorreu maior compactação, em relação à primeira camada, na camada intermediária (1020 cm, em todos os sistemas de cultivo, exceto no sistema de rotação arroz-soja-milho, no qual não houve diferença de densidade entre as camadas de solo.In 1993, it was evaluated the compaction of a Planosol (Albaqualf submitted to different tillage systems, measuring soil density through the volumetric ring method, in three layers. Treatments consisted of six tillage systems selected from an experiment conducted at Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, since 1985. High soil density values were obtained; in the first layer (0-10 cm, the no-tillage rice cultivation on the rye-grass straw was the system with the lowest value. The systems that involved more soil mobilization (rice continuous and rotation rice-soybeans-maize resulted in higher soil density values compared to the reduced preparing systems (rye-grass x rice in zero tillage and soybean x rice in zero tillage. Compacted structures were identified in the intermediate layer (10-20 cm in all tillage systems, except for the

  18. Soil carbon fractions in response to long-term crop rotations in the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversified crop rotations may enhance C fractions and soil quality by affecting the quality and quantity of crop residue returned to the soil compared with monocropping and fallow. We evaluated the effect of 30-yr-old diversified crop rotations on soil C fractions at 0- to 15- and 15- to 30-cm dept...

  19. Demanda energética na subsolagem realizada antes e depois de diferentes sistemas de preparo periódico do solo Energy demand in the subsoiling performed before and after different systems of periodic soil tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Salvador

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A subsolagem é uma das operações mecanizadas de elevado custo e demanda energética por área, tradicionalmente utilizada pelos agricultores antes do preparo do solo na descompactação de camadas adensadas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a demanda energética na operação de subsolagem realizada antes e depois de diferentes sistemas de preparo periódico num solo classificado como Nitossolo Vermelho Distroférrico. Os sistemas de preparo periódico foram: aração com discos; aração com discos mais uma gradagem de nivelamento; grade aradora; grade aradora mais gradagem de nivelamento e escarificação. O trator utilizado como fonte de potência no experimento foi um Valmet 128 (4x2tda. A demanda energética por área foi menor na subsolagem realizada depois do preparo periódico do solo, proporcionando uma economia de 21,9%. A realização da subsolagem depois do preparo periódico do solo resultou numa diminuição da exigência de força de tração em 21,1% e da potência disponível na barra de tração em 15%.Subsoiling is one of the mechanized operations of high cost and energy demand per area, traditionally utilized by farmers before soil tillage in the decompactation of hardened layers. This research was intended to evaluate the energy demand in the subsoiling operation performed before and after different systems of periodic tillage in a soil classified as Distroferric Red Nitossol. The periodic tillage systems were: plowing with disks; plowing with disks plus one leveling; plowing harrow; plowing harrow plus leveling and chiseling. The tractor utilized as a power source in the experiment was a Valmet 128 (4x2tda. The demand for energy area was lower in subsoiling held after the regular preparation of the soil, providing a saving of 21.9%. The completion of subsoiling after the preparation of the soil resulted in a decrease in demand for power to pull in 21% and 15% of the power available in the bar of traction.

  20. Propriedades químicas e fauna do solo influenciadas pela calagem em sistema semeadura direta Effects of liming on chemical properties and soil fauna in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Cesar Almeida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da calagem e sua influência sobre atributos químicos e de fauna do solo em um Cambissolo sob sistema de semeadura direta. O experimento vem sendo conduzido em Lages, SC, desde maio de 2001. Os tratamentos foram: semeadura direta com calcário incorporado na dose de 1 SMP (SD-inc e superficial nas doses de 1/5 SMP (SD-1/5sup e 1/2 SMP (SD-1/2sup. Como padrão, utilizou-se solo sem cultivo e sem aplicação de calcário, e uma área de pastagem perene com calcário incorporado na dose de 1 SMP (PI-inc. O solo foi amostrado nas camadas de 0-5; 5-10; 10-20cm para análise de Ca2+, Mg+2, Al3+, pH em água e em CaCl2; e de 0-10cm para carbono orgânico total e fauna do solo. A aplicação superficial de calcário no sistema de semeadura direta na maior dose (1/2 SMP elevou os teores de Ca2+ até 10cm de profundidade e de Mg+2 até a camada de 10 a 20cm. A abundância e a diversidade da fauna edáfica foram maiores nas áreas sob semeadura direta e pastagem, em relação ao solo sem cultivo, mostrando sensibilidade às alterações advindas do manejo do solo, mas sem correlação direta com as modificações químicas decorrentes da calagem.This research was aimed at evaluating the effect of liming and its influence on chemistry and fauna properties of a Cambisol under no-tillage system. The experiment has been carried out in Lages, SC, southern Brazil, since May 2001. The treatments were: no-tillage with incorporated lime in the rate of 1 SMP (NT-inc; superficial liming in the rate of 1/5 SMP (NT-1/5sup, and 1/2 SMP (NT-1/2sup. As control treatment, bare soil without cultivation without lime application (BS, and plots with perennial pasture with incorporate lime in the rate of 1 SMP (Pp-inc were used. Soil samples were collected in the layers of 0-5; 5-10; 10-20cm depth for analysis of Ca2+, Mg+2, Al3+, water and CaCl2 pH. Total organic carbon and soil fauna were analysed in the layer 0-10cm. The superficial

  1. Eleven years' effect of conservation practices for temperate sandy loams: II. Soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfallah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is regarded by many as a sustainable intensification strategy. Minimal soil disturbance in combination with residue retention are important CA components. This study examined the long-term effects of crop rotation, residue retention, and tillage on soil pore characte......Conservation agriculture (CA) is regarded by many as a sustainable intensification strategy. Minimal soil disturbance in combination with residue retention are important CA components. This study examined the long-term effects of crop rotation, residue retention, and tillage on soil pore...... characteristics of two Danish sandy loams. Rotation R2 is a rotation of winter crops (mainly cereals) with residues retained, rotation R3 a mix of winter and spring crops (mainly cereals) with residues removed, and rotation R4 the same mix of winter and spring crops, but with residues retained. Each rotation...... included the tillage treatments: moldboard plowing to 20-cm depth (MP), harrowing to 8- to 10-cm depth (H) and direct drilling (D). Soil cores were taken from the topsoil (4–8, 12–16, 18–27 cm) in mid-autumn 2013 and early spring 2014. Water retention, air permeability, and gas diffusivity was determined...

  2. Haplic Chernozem Properties as Affected by Different Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hábová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2007–2011 we assessed content and quality of humic substances with relationship to soil structure. Object of study was Haplic Chernozem (Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou, Czech Republic under three different tillage systems: – conventional ploughing to a depth of 0.22 m (CP; – reduced tillage with shallow harrowing to a depth of 0.15 m (RTSH; – reduced tillage with subsoiling to a depth of 0.35–0.40 m (RTS. Isolation of humic acids was made according to IHSS standard method using spectrometer Shimadzu 8700. Aggregates stability was determined by wet sieving method. Results showed that macrostructure stability was directly connected with time of sampling and content and quality of humic substances. After five years of experiment statistically significant differences in humic substances content were found. The highest structure stability, quantity and quality of humic substances were achieved under reduced tillage with shallow harrowing.

  3. Developments in conservation tillage in rainfed regions of North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Cai, D.X.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.; Perdok, U.D.

    2007-01-01

    Dryland regions in northern China account for over 50% of the nation's total area, where farming development is constrained by adverse weather, topography and water resource conditions, low fertility soils, and poor soil management. Conservation tillage research and application in dryland regions of

  4. Tillage as a driver of change in weed communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armengot, L.; Blanco-Moreno, J.M.; Bàrberi, P.; Bocci, G.; Carlesi, S.; Aendekerk, R.; Berner, A.; Celette, F.; Grosse, M.; Huiting, H.; Kranzler, A.; Luik, A.; Mäder, P.; Peigné, J.; Stoll, E.; Delfosse, P.; Sukkel, W.; Surböck, A.; Westaway, S.; Sans, F.X.

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of non-inversion tillage practices has been widely promoted due to their potential benefits in reducing energy consumption and greenhouse emissions as well as improving soil fertility. However, the lack of soil inversion usually increases weed infestations and changes the composition

  5. Soil erosion and its control in Chile - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellies, A.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerate erosion in Chile is a consequence from land use that degrade soil such as compaction, loss of organic matter and soil structure. The erosion is favored by the very hilly landscape of the country that increases erosivity index and the high erodibility given by an elevated annual rate of rainfall with irregular distribution. Several experiences have demonstrated that adequate crop management and crop rotations can minimize erosion. The most effective control is achieved conserving and improving soil structure with management systems that include regular use of soil-improving crops, return of crop residues and tillage practices, thus avoiding unnecessary breakdown soil or compacted soil structure. Conservation tillage increased organic matter levels improving stabile soil structure, aeration and infiltration. (author) [es

  6. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  7. Perdas de solo e nutrientes num latossolo vermelho-amarelo ácrico típico, com diferentes sistemas de preparo e sob chuva natural Soil and nutrient losses under different tillage systems in a clayey oxisol under natural rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Siqueira Leite

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo erosivo é a principal causa de degradação dos solos, trazendo, como consequência, prejuízos ao setor agrícola e ao meio ambiente, com reflexos econômicos e também sociais. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as perdas de solo e nutrientes em diferentes sistemas de preparo num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo ácrico típico. Foram instaladas cinco parcelas experimentais contendo os seguintes tratamentos: preparo convencional e cultivo morro abaixo (CMA; preparo convencional e plantio em nível (CEN; preparo com uma grade aradora e uma niveladora e plantio em nível (CNiv; preparo com duas gradagens niveladoras, plantio em nível (NA e cultivo mínimo em nível (CMN. As perdas de solo foram determinadas pelo método direto durante o ciclo da cultura de algodão, de dezembro de 2005 a junho de 2006. A cada coleta foram retiradas amostras de solo para quantificar as perdas dos nutrientes N, P, K e carbono orgânico (C-org nos sedimentos. A diminuição no revolvimento do solo proporcionou menores perdas de sedimento, nutrientes e C-org, destacando o CMN como o mais eficiente. As perdas de N, P, K e C-org nos sedimentos apresentaram tendências semelhantes às das perdas de solo, e N, P e K variaram conforme as adubações utilizadas. O C-org foi encontrado em maior quantidade no sedimento. A taxa de infiltração básica (TIB expressou diferença entre os tratamentos na seguinte ordem em valores crescentes: CMA CNiv NA Erosion is the main cause of soil degradation, and it leads to adverse effects to agriculture and environment, with social and economic implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil and nutrient losses in different soil tillage systems in a typic Acric Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol. On five plots with the following soil tillage treatments were evaluated: conventional tillage and down-slope tillage (CMA; conventional tillage and contour seeding (CEN; tillage with one passage of heavy disk

  8. Crop coefficient and water consumption of eggplant in no-tillage system and conventional soil preparation Coeficiente de cultura e consumo hídrico da berinjela em sistema de plantio direto e de preparo convencional do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Under organic management in Seropédica-RJ, Brazil, using a weighing lysimeter, the crop coefficients (kc, the maximum evapotranspiration and the productivity of eggplant cultivation under two cropping systems (no tillage with straw plus soil with conventional preparation were determined. A whole randomized layout with two treatments (no tillage and conventional and five replicates during 134 days of cultivation were adopted. There were no significant differences in the eggplant cultivation in the two cropping systems, with a maximum commercial productivity obtained from 47.42 Mg ha-1 for the no-tillage system, and 47.91 Mg ha-1 for the conventional tillage. The accumulated ETc was 285.15 and 323.44 mm for the no-tillage and conventional, respectively. The crop coefficients value for the phases: 1 - transplanting, flowering, 2 - flowering-fruiting, 3 - fruit- first harvesting, 4- first harvesting of the final crop cycle was 0.83, 0.77, 0.90 and 0.97 in no-tillage system for the respective phases and for the conventional one 0.81, 1.14, 1.17 and 1.05 for the same steps described above.Sob manejo orgânico, foram determinados em Seropédica-RJ, utilizando lisímetro de pesagem, os coeficientes de cultura (kc, a evapotranspiração máxima e a produtividade da cultura da berinjela, em dois sistemas de cultivo (plantio direto com adição de palha e em solo com o preparo convencional. Foi adotado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos (plantio direto e convencional e com cinco repetições, durante 134 dias de cultivo. Não houve diferenças significativas na produtividade da cultura da berinjela nos dois sistemas de cultivo, sendo a produtividade comercial máxima obtida de 47,42 Mg ha-1, para o sistema de plantio direto, e de 47,91 Mg ha-1, para o sistema de plantio convencional. A ETc acumulada foi de 285,15 e 323,44 mm, para o sistema de plantio direto e plantio convencional, respectivamente. Os valores de coeficiente de

  9. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  10. Re-plant problems in long-term no-tillage cropping systems : causal analysis and mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal

    2016-01-01

    No-tillage is considered as a promising alternative for tillage-based conventional farming, by saving energy-input and time, reducing groundwater pollution and counteracting soil erosion and losses of the soil-organic matter. However, in the recent past, no-tillage farmers in Southwest Germany repeatedly reported problems particularly in winter wheat production, characterized by stunted plant growth in early spring, chlorosis, impaired fine root development and increased disease susceptibilit...

  11. The Role of Government Policies in the Adoption of Conservation Tillage in China: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ya

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many areas of China have been facing increasing problems of soil erosion and land degradation. Conservation tillage, with both economic and ecological benefits, provides a good avenue for Chinese farmers to conserve land as well as secure food production. However, the adoption rate of conservation tillage systems is very low in China. In this paper, the author constructs a theoretical model to explain a farmer’s adoption decision of conservation tillage. The goal is to investigate potential reasons behind the low adoption rate and explores alternative policy tools that can help improve a farmer’s incentive to adopt conservation tillage in China.

  12. Decoupling the deep: crop rotations, fertilization and soil physico-chemical properties down the profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Eleanor; Honermeier, Bernd; Don, Axel; Amelung, Wulf; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    Crop fertilization provides vital plant nutrients (e.g. NPK) to ensure yield security but is also associated with negative environmental impacts. In particular, inorganic, mineral nitrogen (Nmin) fertilization leads to emissions during its energy intensive production as well as Nmin leaching to receiving waters. Incorporating legumes into crop rotations can provide organic N to the soil and subsequent crops, reducing the need for mineral N fertilizer and its negative environmental impacts. An added bonus is the potential to enhance soil organic carbon stocks, thereby reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In this study we assessed the effects of legumes in rotation and fertilization regimes on the depth distribution - down to 1 m - of total soil nitrogen (Ntot), soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as isotopic composition (δ13C, δ15N), electrical conductivity and bulk density as well as agricultural yields at a long-term field experiment in Gießen, Germany. Fertilization had significant but small impacts on the soil chemical environment, most particularly the salt content of the soil, with PK fertilization increasing electrical conductivity throughout the soil profile. Similarly, fertilization resulted in a small reduction of soil pH throughout the soil profile. N fertilization, in particular, significantly increased yields, whereas PK fertilizer had only marginal yield effects, indicating that these systems are N limited. This N limitation was confirmed by significant yield benefits with leguminous crops in rotation, even in combination with mineral N fertilizer. The soil was physically and chemically influenced by the choice of crop rotation. Adding clover as a green mulch crop once every 4 years resulted in an enrichment of total N and SOC at the surface compared with fava beans and maize, but only in combination with PK fertilization. In contrast, fava beans and to a lesser extent maize in rotation lowered bulk densities in the subsoil compared with clover

  13. Influence of Maize Rotations on the Yield of Soybean Grown in Meloidogyne incognita Infested Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kinloch, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A replicated field study was conducted from 1972 to 1980 involving soybeans grown in 2-, 3-, and 4-year rotations with maize in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Monocultured soybeans were maintained as controls. Cropping regimes involved root-knot nematode susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars and soybeans treated and not treated with nematicides. Yields of susceptible cultivars declined with reduced length of rotation. Nematicide treatment significantly increased yields of sus...

  14. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  15. Sustainable semiarid dryland production in relation to tillage effects on Hydrology: 1983-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch tillage, SM, as a result of improved soil conditions or water conservation, but knowledge of long-term tillage effects on the comprehensive field hydrology and sustained crop production is needed. ...

  16. Earthworm activity and soil structural changes under conservation agriculture in central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Navarrete, A.; Rodriguez-Aragonés, C.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Kooistra, M.J.; Sayre, K.D.; Brussaard, L.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Crop residue mulching combined with zero tillage and crop rotation, known as conservation agriculture (CA), is being promoted as an alternative system to revert soil degradation in maize-based farming in the central highlands of Mexico. The goal of this paper was to determine the effects of CA vs.

  17. South African Journal of Plant and Soil - Vol 33, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and radiation use efficiency of sugarcane for bioethanol production in South Africa, benchmarked against other selected crops · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ... Soil water and mineral nitrogen content as influenced by crop rotation and tillage practice in the Swartland subregion of the Western Cape · EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  18. Cultivar specific plant-soil feedback overrules soil legacy effects of elevated ozone in a rice-wheat rotation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Qi; Yang, Yue; Bao, Xuelian; Zhu, Jianguo; Liang, Wenju; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tropospheric ozone has been recognized as one of the most important air pollutants. Many studies have shown that elevated ozone negatively impacts yields of important crops such as wheat or rice, but how ozone influences soil ecosystems of these crops and plant growth in rotation systems is

  19. Evaluating energy efficiency of site-specific tillage in maize in NE Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocco, M; Basso, B; Sartori, L; Martin, E C

    2008-10-01

    This paper examine the efficiency of energy use of three conservation tillage practices (SST - sub-soil tillage; MT - minimum tillage; and NT - no tillage) performed within two management zones, previously identified in a field according to the stability of yield variability. Experiments were carried out in 2003 in NE Italy, on a farm near Rovigo, on a 8-ha field with clay soil, in maize (Zea mays, L.). The purpose of the paper is (i) to investigate the energy variability due to these tillage practices performed spatially within two management zones and (ii) to analyze the long-term energetic efficiency for each tillage practice. The energy balance was highest for SST with respect to MT and NT, due to labor and fuel consumption rates. The energy balance was influenced by the spatial pattern of yield, with appreciable differences between practices in terms of both the conversion index of energy for tillage (9.0, 12.6 and 22.8GJha(-1) for SST, MT and NT, respectively) and the energy use efficiency for tillage (8.0, 11.6, 21.8GJha(-1) for SST, MT and NT, respectively). Based on the simulated data and the calibration results, SALUS model proved to be a good tool for analyzing long-term effects of tillage practices on yield. The NT treatment showed the best efficiency over years, due to the low inputs in comparison with the output level.

  20. Congo grass grown in rotation with soybean affects phosphorus bound to soil carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Merlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus supply to crops in tropical soils is deficient due to its somewhat insoluble nature in soil, and addition of P fertilizers has been necessary to achieve high yields. The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which a cover crop (Congo grass - Brachiaria ruziziensis in rotation with soybean can enhance soil and fertilizer P availability using long-term field trials and laboratory chemical fractionation approaches. The experimental field had been cropped to soybean in rotation with several species under no-till for six years. An application rate of no P or 240 kg ha-1 of P2O5 had been applied as triple superphosphate or as Arad rock phosphate. In April 2009, once more 0.0 or 80.0 kg ha-1 of P2O5 was applied to the same plots when Congo grass was planted. In November 2009, after Congo grass desiccation, soil samples were taken from the 0-5 and 5-10 cm depth layer and soil P was fractionated. Soil-available P increased to the depth of 10 cm through growing Congo grass when P fertilizers were applied. The C:P ratio was also increased by the cover crop. Congo grass cultivation increased P content in the soil humic fraction to the depth of 10 cm. Congo grass increases soil P availability by preventing fertilizer from being adsorbed and by increasing soil organic P.

  1. Métodos de amostragem de solos em áreas sob plantio direto no Sudoeste Goiano Methods of soil sampling in areas under no-tillage in the Southwest Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson H. D. Acqua

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A amostragem de solo é a etapa mais importante do programa de avaliação da sua fertilidade; ressalta-se que a recomendação de corretivos e de fertilizantes é definida a partir da interpretação dos resultados de análises químicas realizadas na amostra. Com o objetivo de avaliar esses resultados em função do método de amostragem amostras de solo foram retiradas em 12 áreas distintas cultivadas há 2, 5 e 10 anos sob o sistema plantio direto. Utilizaram-se o trado holandês e a furadeira elétrica retirando-se as amostras de solo em 3 posições e 2 profundidades e se avaliando a fertilidade do solo em função do tempo de adoção do sistema plantio direto. Constatou-se incremento do teor de P nas áreas cultivadas há 10 anos sob plantio direto, em relação às demais. Os valores de Ca, Mg, P, K, pH, CTC e V apresentaram gradiente de concentração em função do não revolvimento do solo, aplicações superficiais de calcário e adubações na linha de plantio. Os equipamentos de amostragem influíram nos resultados das análises de solo sendo que todos os macronutrientes, com exceção do S, e todos os micronutrientes, apresentaram valores elevados quando amostrados com a furadeira elétrica.Soil sampling is the first and fundamental step in an evaluation program of soil fertility, and the recommendation of lime and fertilizer is defined through the interpretation of the results of chemical analysis of the sample. With the objective of evaluating the results of the chemical analysis of the soil as a function of the sampling method, soil samples were collected from 12 different areas that have been under no-tillage system for 2, 5 and 10 years. The Ducth auger hole and the electric drill were used to collect the soil samples at 3 different positions and 2 depths, evaluating the soil fertility as a function of time of the direct planing system. There was an increment of P in areas with 10 years under no-tillage system in comparison

  2. Fungal Genetics and Functional Diversity of Microbial Communities in the Soil under Long-Term Monoculture of Maize Using Different Cultivation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gałązka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity in the soil may be limited under natural conditions by inappropriate environmental factors such as: nutrient resources, biotic and abiotic factors, tillage system and microbial interactions that prevent the occurrence or survival of the species in the environment. The aim of this paper was to determine fungal genetic diversity and community level physiological profiling of microbial communities in the soil under long-term maize monoculture. The experimental scheme involved four cultivation techniques: direct sowing (DS, reduced tillage (RT, full tillage (FT, and crop rotation (CR. Soil samples were taken in two stages: before sowing of maize (DSBS-direct sowing, RTBS-reduced tillage, FTBS-full tillage, CRBS-crop rotation and the flowering stage of maize growth (DSF-direct sowing, RTF-reduced tillage, FTF-full tillage, CRF-crop rotation. The following plants were used in the crop rotation: spring barley, winter wheat and maize. The study included fungal genetic diversity assessment by ITS-1 next generation sequencing (NGS analyses as well as the characterization of the catabolic potential of microbial communities (Biolog EcoPlates in the soil under long-term monoculture of maize using different cultivation techniques. The results obtained from the ITS-1 NGS technique enabled to classify and correlate the fungi species or genus to the soil metabolome. The research methods used in this paper have contributed to a better understanding of genetic diversity and composition of the population of fungi in the soil under the influence of the changes that have occurred in the soil under long-term maize cultivation. In all cultivation techniques, the season had a great influence on the fungal genetic structure in the soil. Significant differences were found on the family level (P = 0.032, F = 3.895, genus level (P = 0.026, F = 3.313 and on the species level (P = 0.033, F = 2.718. This study has shown that: (1 fungal diversity was changed

  3. Produção de laranja 'Pêra' em sistemas de preparo de solo e manejo nas entrelinhas Fruit yields of 'Pêra' orange under different soil tillage and interrow management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2008-02-01

    ção acumulada de frutos nas safras de 1996 a 2005. O preparo de solo em faixas, com manutenção de gramínea remanescente nas entrelinhas, mostrou-se apropriado para implantação dos pomares. As plantas de cobertura permanente utilizadas nas entrelinhas do pomar não comprometeram a produção de laranja, sendo importantes para melhoria da fertilidade do solo. As gramíneas foram mais indicadas que as leguminosas como cobertura vegetal nas entrelinhas do pomar.The conventional soil tillage used in the implantation of citrus orchards is based on the removal of the plant residues and soil tilling in the entire area, and the management of orchards on the elimination of any plant residues from the interrows. This has led to erosion and reduced soil fertility, with negative effects on the trees and the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil management systems that decrease soil erosion and improve the fertility status of a Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone, cultivated with citrus in the northwestern state of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area, and strip-tillage (ST with 2 m width, with different interrow management systems. The citrus cultivar was Pêra orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia rootstock. The citrus orchard was established in August 1993, and the tree rows were spaced 7 m apart with 4 m between trees. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with three replications and six treatments: (1 CT and pineapple intercropping in the first year followed by weed control with post emergence herbicide; (2 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous crop Calopogonium mucronoides; (3 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (4 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (5 CT and cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation and (6 ST and maintenance of the

  4. Effect of integrated forage rotation and manure management on yield, nutrient balance and soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a field experiment established in 1995 and still on going. It is located in Lodi, in the irrigated lowlands of Lombardy, Northern Italy. The experiment compares two rotations: the annual double cropping system, Italian ryegrass + silage maize (R1; and the 6-year rotation, in which three years of double crop Italian ryegrass + silage maize are followed by three years of alfalfa harvested for hay (R6 Each rotation have received two types of dairy manure: i farmyard manure (FYM; ii semi-liquid manure (SLM. The intent was to apply to each unit land area the excreta produced by the number of adult dairy cows sustained, in terms of net energy, by the forage produced in each rotation, corresponding to about 6 adult cows ha-1 for R1 and 4 adult cows ha-1 for R6. Manure was applied with (N1 or without (N0 an extra supply of mineral N in the form of urea. The objectives of this study were: i to assess whether the recycling of two types of manure in two forage rotation systems can sustain crop yields in the medium and long term without additional N fertilization; ii to evaluate the nutrient balance of these integrated forage rotations and manure management systems; iii to compare the effects of farmyard manure and semi-liquid manure on soil organic matter. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased yield of silage maize by 19% and alfalfa by 23%, while Italian ryegrass was not influenced by the manure treatment. Yet, silage maize produced 6% more in rotation R6 compared to rotation R1. The mineral nitrogen fertilization increased yield of Italian ryegrass by 11% and of silage maize by 10%. Alfalfa, not directly fertilized with mineral nitrogen, was not influenced by the nitrogen applied to the other crops in rotation. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased soil organic matter (SOM by +37 % for the rotation R1, and by +20% for the rotation R6. Conversely, no significant difference on SOM was observed

  5. Produtividade e qualidade de frutos de melão em resposta à cobertura do solo com plástico preto e ao preparo do solo Yield and quality of melon fruits in response to plastic mulch and soil tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyton O. Miranda

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o efeito da intensidade do preparo e da cobertura do solo com plástico preto sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de melão irrigado por gotejamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Mossoró, no delineamento blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial com parcela subdividida, com três repetições. Foram avaliados o tipo de preparo do solo (área total ou em faixas e profundidade de preparo (20; 30; 40 e 50 cm, com parcelas divididas em com ou sem cobertura do solo. Os frutos foram classificados em tipo exportação, mercado interno e refugo para determinar peso de frutos de cada tipo, número total de frutos e seu peso médio. Foram determinados a firmeza de polpa, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, espessura da polpa e formato do fruto. A qualidade dos frutos de melão foi reduzida pela cobertura do solo apenas em termos de firmeza de polpa. O preparo do solo em faixas não influenciou as características estudadas. Maiores profundidades de preparo aumentaram a produção de frutos tipo exportação, entretanto diminuíram a produção para o mercado interno.The effect of black polyethylene mulch and soil tillage intensity was determined on yield and quality of drip irrigated melon. The field trial was carried out in Mossoró, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized complete block in a factorial scheme with three replications. Two soil tillage methods were evaluated (strip tillage or tillage of the entire area and tillage depth (20; 30; 40 and 50 cm, with split plots with or without mulch. Fruits were classified in export type, internal market type and rejected, to determine total yield and the yield of each type, number of fruits and fruit mean weight. Pulp firmness, total soluble solids, pulp thickness and fruit shape were determined. Results showed a decrease in pulp firmness with black plastic mulch. Strip tillage did not influence any studied characteristic. Yield of both export type and internal market melons was

  6. Sub-soil microbial activity under rotational cotton crops in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polain, Katherine; Knox, Oliver; Wilson, Brian; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbial communities contribute significantly to soil organic matter formation, stabilisation and destabilisation, through nutrient cycling and biodegradation. The majority of soil microbial research examines the processes occurring in the top 0 cm to 30 cm of the soil, where organic nutrients are easily accessible. In soils such as Vertosols, the high clay content causes swelling and cracking. When soil cracking is coupled with rain or an irrigation event, a flush of organic nutrients can move down the soil profile, becoming available for subsoil microbial community use and potentially making a significant contribution to nutrient cycling and biodegradation in soils. At present, the mechanisms and rates of soil nutrient turnover (such as carbon and nitrogen) at depth under cotton rotations are mostly speculative and the process-response relationships remain unclear, although they are undoubtedly underpinned by microbial activity. Our research aims to determine the contribution and role of soil microbiota to the accumulation, cycling and mineralisation of carbon and nitrogen through the whole root profile under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and cotton-maize rotations in regional New South Wales, Australia. Through seasonal work, we have established both baseline and potential microbial activity rates from 0 cm to 100 cm down the Vertosol profile, using respiration and colourimetric methods. Further whole soil profile analyses will include determination of microbial biomass and isotopic carbon signatures using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methodology, identification of microbial communities (sequencing) and novel experiments to investigate potential rates of nitrogen mineralisation and quantification of associated genes. Our preliminary observations and the hypotheses tested in this three-year study will be presented.

  7. Perdas de solo e água num Latossolo Vermelho aluminoférrico submetido a diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo sob chuva natural Water erosion caused by natural rainfall in a clayey Hapludox with different cropland tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Beutler

    2003-06-01

    active agents of water erosion, furthermore influenced by soil cover and roughness, crop and soil tillage. Compared to conventional tillage, water erosion is reduced in soil conservation tillage because this method is less intensive, preserves the cover longer, and sometimes increases soil roughness. Erosion losses (soil and water of a clayey Hapludox with a slope of 0.09 m m-1 were evaluated in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from November 1994 to October 1999 under natural rainfall. The treatments, in two replications, consisted of the following downslope soil tillage systems: no-tillage, conventional tillage, minimum tillage, and tillage rotation, with some summer and winter crop rotation combinations, and conventional tillage without crop (standard unit of the Universal Soil Loss Equation-USLE as control. In no-tillage with crop rotation there was a soil loss reduction of 45 % in relation to summer conventional tillage and to winter no-tillage crop rotation systems, and of 99 % in relation to bare soil. Conservation tillage reduced the mean soil loss by 80 % in relation to conventional tillage. Mean soil losses were twice as high during the spring/summer as in the fall/winter period in no-tillage treatments, while in the other treatments average losses of the crop years were 3.3 higher in fall/winter. Water losses were small, with a behavior similar to that of the soil losses, in spite of the quantity difference.

  8. Effects of different soil management practices on soil properties and microbial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Anna M.; Czyż, Ewa A.; Dexter, Anthony R.; Furtak, Karolina M.; Grządziel, Jarosław; Stanek-Tarkowska, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The effects of different tillage systems on the properties and microbial diversity of an agricultural soil was investigated. In doing so, soil physical, chemical and biological properties were analysed in 2013-2015, on a long-term field experiment on a loamy sand at the IUNG-PIB Experimental Station in Grabów, Poland. Winter wheat was grown under two tillage treatments: conventional tillage using a mouldboard plough and traditional soil tillage equipment, and reduced tillage based on soil crushing-loosening equipment and a rigid-tine cultivator. Chopped wheat straw was used as a mulch on both treatments. Reduced tillage resulted in increased water content throughout the whole soil profile, in comparison with conventional tillage. Under reduced tillage, the content of readily dispersible clay was also reduced, and, therefore, soil stability was increased in the toplayers, compared with conventional tillage. In addition, the beneficial effects of reduced tillage were reflected in higher soil microbial activity as measured with dehydrogenases and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate, compared with conventional tillage. Moreover, the polimerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that soil under reduced till-age had greater diversity of microbial communities, compared with conventionally-tilled soil. Finally, reduced tillage increased organic matter content, stability in water and microbial diversity in the top layer of the soil.

  9. Enhanced yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation using buried straw mulch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhibin; Liu, Hui; Wan, Shuixia; Hua, Keke; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Wang, Daozhong; He, Chuanlong; Guo, Xisheng

    2017-08-01

    Straw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a 2-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilisation alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha -1 wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0-15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha -1 wheat straw ditch buried at 15-30 cm (NPKDW). NPKWS and NPKDW enhanced crop yield and improved soil biotical properties compared to mineral fertilisation alone. NPKDW contributed to greater crop yields and soil nutrient availability at 15-30 cm depths, compared to NPKWS treatment. NPKDW enhanced soil microbial activity and bacteria species richness and diversity in the 0-15 cm layer. NPKWS increased soil microbial biomass, bacteria species richness and diversity at 15-30 cm. The comparison of the CK0 and NPKWS treatments indicates that a straw ditch buried by digging to the depth of 15-30 cm can improve crop yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation system. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Aspectos econômicos do uso de fontes orgânicas de nutrientes associadas a sistemas de preparo do solo Economical aspects of organic nutrient sources associated with soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Pandolfo

    2008-09-01

    ário, P e K, após nove anos de aplicação das fontes de nutrientes, tem importante participação no desempenho econômico das mesmas.Economical analysis is important to make decision on the use of organic nutrient sources. The objective of this study was to elaborate an economical analysis of different nutrient sources to help farmers and technicians to make decision about the use of these sources at different soil management. The study was carried out at the Epagri Experimental Station of Campos Novos, using a long-term experiment. The treatments were a combination of five tillage systems (no-till; chisel plow; conventional tillage; conventional tillage with crop residues burned and conventional tillage with crop residues removed from the field, with four nutrient sources (TES=control, no fertilizer; AM=mineral fertilizer according with technical recommendation for each crop; EA=5mg ha-1 of moisture poultry litter; ELB=60m³ ha-1 of liquid cattle manure; and ELS=40m³ ha-1 of slurry pig manure. The economical attributes used were variable costs of production, total income, and the cost of the necessity of lime and fertilizers application to improve soil chemical condition after nine years of applying treatments. A model was used to quantify and analyse the effect of nutrient sources in economical aspects, for each nutrient source within each soil tillage. The outputs were triangular pictures and their areas with 90% confidence limits. It was concluded that economical aspect effects of the organic nutrient sources were dependent on tillage systems, and the better performance was in no-till system. EA and ELS showed better economical results. ELS and ELB, even showing different picture areas, were the sources that showed lesser variability in economical attribute evaluated, and did not have one highlight attribute among them. The use of cost of the necessity of lime and fertilizers application to improve soil chemical condition after nine years of applying treatments

  11. Soil management practices under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Adel; Chami Ziad, Al; Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. Soil building practices such as crop rotations, intercropping, symbiotic associations, cover crops, organic fertilizers and minimum tillage are central to organic practices. Those practices encourage soil formation and structure and creating more stable systems. In farm nutrient and energy cycling is increased and the retentive abilities of the soil for nutrients and water are enhanced. Such management techniques also play an important role in soil erosion control. The length of time that the soil is exposed to erosive forces is decreased, soil biodiversity is increased, and nutrient losses are reduced, helping to maintain and enhance soil productivity. Organic farming as systematized and certifiable approach for agriculture, there is no surprise that it faces some challenges among both farmers and public sector. This can be clearly demonstrated particularly in the absence of the essential conditions needed to implement successfully the soil management practices like green manure and composting to improve soil fertility including crop rotation, cover cropping and reduced tillage. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed highlighting their beneficial impact on the environmental soil characteristics. Keywords: soil fertility, organic matter, plant nutrition

  12. Uso da radiação solar pelo milho sob diferentes preparos do solo, espaçamento e disponibilidade hídrica Interception and use of solar radiation by maize, as modifying soil tillage, row spacing and irrigation water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Horn Kunz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de interceptação e de uso da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA pela cultura do milho em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo, arranjos de plantas e disponibilidade hídrica. O milho foi cultivado em plantio direto e preparo convencional, na combinação com duas disponibilidades hídricas (irrigado e sequeiro e espaçamentos de 40 e 80 cm entre fileiras de plantas. Em cada tratamento, foram instalados sensores para medida da RFA transmitida pela cultura, na superfície do solo, ao passo que a RFA incidente foi medida acima da cultura. A redução da distância entre fileiras aumentou a eficiência de interceptação em todos os tratamentos. Sob plantio direto, a cultura apresentou maior eficiência de interceptação em relação ao preparo convencional. O deficit hídrico diminuiu a eficiência de interceptação devido ao enrolamento foliar, e esse efeito foi mais pronunciado em preparo convencional, em ambos espaçamentos estudados. Embora a eficiência de interceptação tenha sido maior no espaçamento de 40 cm, a eficiência de uso não diferiu entre espaçamentos, mas diminuiu em condições de deficit hídrico.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of interception and use of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR by maize crops submitted to different conditions of soil tillage, plant arrangement, and water availability. Maize was cropped in no-tillage and conventional tillage, combined to treatments of soil water availability (irrigated and in rain fed, and plant row spacing (40 and 80 cm among rows. Sensors were installed in each treatment, for measuring the PAR transmitted by the canopy to the soil surface, while the incoming PAR was measured above the crop. Increments of efficiency of interception were obtained by reducing the row spacing in all treatments. Higher values of efficiency of interception were observedin no-tillage than in conventional

  13. Semeadora-adubadora: exigências em função do preparo do solo, da pressão de inflação do pneu e da velocidade Planter: requirements as related to soil tillage, tire pressure, and machine speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Angeli Furlani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available As semeadoras-adubadoras, responsáveis pela correta adição de semente e adubo ao solo, possuem mecanismos dosadores acionados por suas rodas motrizes, que giram em função do contato com a superfície do solo. Esse contato é influenciado, entre outros fatores, pela pressão de inflação dos pneus. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o desempenho de uma semeadora-adubadora de precisão em função do preparo do solo (preparo convencional e plantio direto, das velocidades de deslocamento e da pressão de inflação do seu pneu. O trabalho foi realizado na UNESP de Jaboticabal (SP no ano de 2006. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: força de tração e potência na barra, consumo de combustível (horário, ponderal, operacional e específico, capacidade de campo operacional, patinagem dos rodados do trator e da semeadora-adubadora, estande inicial e distribuição longitudinal de sementes. O sistema plantio direto demandou maior força (35 %, potência e consumo horário de combustível; o mesmo aconteceu na maior velocidade. A pressão de inflação das rodas da semeadora proporcionou menor patinagem e maior estande inicial de plântulas.Planter machines, responsible for the correct placing of seeds and fertilizer in the ground, have dosing mechanisms set in motion by the drive wheels, as they rotate in function of the contact with the ground surface. This contact is influenced, among other factors, by tire pressure. The objective of this work was to study the performance of a planter as affected by soil tillage, machine speed and planter tire pressure. The following variables were evaluated: traction force and drawbar pull, fuel consumption, field capacity, wheel skidding, initial stand and longitudinal seed distribution. The greatest force was needed in the no-tillage system, which also demanded the highest power and hourly fuel consumption. The same results were found at the fastest speed. In this system the tire pressure of

  14. N-utilization in non-inversion tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    When changing from ploughing to non-inversion tillage, N rates are of particular importance both for farmers and the environment. A tillage and fertilizer experiment was established in Denmark under temperate coastal climatic conditions to evaluate the N fertilizer responses on yields and N uptake......–30 kg N ha−1 of the total fertilizer N amount in autumn to autumn-sown crops (1.00NAut). In all the crop rotations, straw was chopped and retained after harvest. Different types of N fertilizer responses were observed in the six crops, but generally yields were lower with non-inversion tillage than...... with ploughing. On two occasions, yields in ploughed plots were significantly (p able to offset the growth reduction, which resulted from poor growth in patches probably caused...

  15. Soil methane oxidation in a long-term no-tillage system in Southern BrazilOxidação de metano em solo a longo prazo sob plantio direto no Sul do Brasil

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    Cimélio Bayer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation management systems are usually suggested as alternative to restore the soil methane (CH4 oxidation capacity of degraded soils; however, little information is available on tropical and subtropical soils. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term (19 years effect of no-tillage (NT versus conventional tillage (CT management systems on CH4 fluxes in a formerly degraded Acrisol in Southern Brazil. Annual CH4 fluxes of two cropping systems [O/M-black oat (Avena strigosa/maize and V/M-vetch (Vigna sativa/maize] were measured in NT and CT soils. Static chambers were used for air sampling, while chromatography was used for CH4 analysis. Analysis of the historical dataset at this experimental site indicated improvements in soil quality under the NT system, especially in legume-based cropping system (V/M that exhibited the highest annual biomass input. CH4 fluxes ranged from −42 ± 2 to 38 ± 16 μg C m-2 h-1, and annual CH4 emissions ranged from −825 ± 117 (CT V/M to 453 ± 185 g C ha-1 (NT O/M. Thus, the annual CH4 oxidation capacity of the soil was not related to the soil quality produced by the soil management systems. On the basis of our results and published literature, we postulate that conservation management systems improve the methane oxidation and soil quality in distinct soil layers, which result in a slow effect of these management systems on the methane oxidation capacity. Sistemas conservacionistas de manejo de solo são considerados usualmente uma alternativa para restaurar a capacidade de solos agrícolas degradados em oxidar metano (CH4, mas escassa informação é disponível para solos tropicais e subtropicais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito de longo prazo (19 anos do plantio direto (PD nos fluxos de CH4 em um Argissolo Vermelho (Classificação Brasileira degradado da região Sul do Brasil, em comparação ao preparo convencional (PC. Fluxos anuais de CH4 do solo foram avaliados nos sistemas PD e

  16. Impact of wheat / faba bean mixed cropping or rotation systems on soil microbial functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanâa Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases and enhacing ecological serices. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the two years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration (SIR method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and mycorrhizal soil infectivity. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after 2 cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities.

  17. Long term effects of different tillage systems influencing yield and energy efficiency in maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Momirović, Nebojša; Dolijanović, Željko; Oljača, Mićo V.; Videnović, Živorad

    2011-01-01

    Adoption and improvement of different tillage systems toward agricultural sustainability has a great social, economical and environmental impact. The base of sustainability is a system productivity as ratio of output to input in a given system, measured in the same units, commonly as energy requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the aspect of energy requirements in the different soil tillage systems regarding total energy consumption under conventional tillage. The appropri...

  18. Abundance, production and stabilization of microbial biomass under conventional and reduced tillage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van K.J.; Bloem, J.; Baath, E.; Boeckx, P.; Rousk, J.; Bodé, S.; Forristal, P.D.; Jones, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Soil tillage practices affect the soil microbial community in various ways, with possible consequences for nitrogen (N) losses, plant growth and soil organic carbon (C) sequestration. As microbes affect soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics largely through their activity, their impact may not be

  19. Rationally Managed Pastures Stock More Carbon than No-Tillage Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizumi L. S. Seó

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant share of Greenhouse Gases (GHG produced from agriculture comes from cattle farming. The reduction in GHG emissions from ruminants fed with grains has led some researchers to recommend such a diet as a means of mitigating emissions in the sector. A more accurate balance of emissions, however, must include the carbon (C stocked by feed crops. Within the grain production system, no-tillage (NT cultivation systems have a greater capacity to increase and store soil organic carbon (SOC. Within grazing management systems, the rotation used in Voisin's Rational Grazing (VRG allows the accumulation of SOC through root growth. The objective of this study was to assess the C stock of pasture under VRG and compare soil C stock between VRG pasture and fields under no-tillage management, in two seasons over a period of 1 year. The study included five dairy farms in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In each property, we collected soil to quantify SOC from VRG pasture and NT fields, in summer and winter. In the pasture, to determine the total stock, we also collected samples from the aerial parts of plants and the roots. Further, we estimated how efficient would be producing milk from those pastures or from those crops. The VRG pasture showed a greater capacity to stock C in the soil than the no-tillage fields (VRG = 115.0 Mg C ha−1; NT = 92.5 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00009, with the greatest difference at a depth of 0–10 cm (VRG = 41 Mg C ha−1; NT = 32 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00008. In VRG, 95% of C was in the soil, 1% in the aerial part of plants, and 4% in the roots. On pasture was produced 0.15 kg of milk.kg−1 of C stored, and on NT system 0.13 kg of milk.kg−1 of C stored. In this study, we conclude that independent of season, the soil in well managed pastures had a greater stock of C, produced more milk and produced more milk.kg−1 of stored C than fields under NT management. Therefore, when comparing GHG emissions of ruminants with different

  20. Soil management and application of agricultural gypsum in a Planosol for soybean cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesan, Enio; Tonetto, Felipe; Teló, Gustavo Mack; Coelho, Lucas Lopes; Aramburu, Bruno Behenck; Trivisiol, Vinicius Severo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of soil management systems, tillage, and application of gypsum agricultural to soil, on soybean development in lowland areas. The experiment was carried out on an Alfisol in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement. The two soil tillage practices were without deep tillage and with deep tillage. Gypsum treatments were no gypsum application, 500kg of gypsum ha-1, 1000kg of gypsum ha-1, and 1500kg of gypsum ha-1. Deep tillage res...

  1. Soil Labile Organic Matter under Long-term Crop Rotation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljnikov, E.

    2009-04-01

    Temperate grassland soils, typically Mollisols, have remained agriculturally productive with limited inputs for many years, despite the mining of energy and nutrients reserves contained within the soil organic fraction (Janzen, 1987; Tiessen et al., 1994). Such system can be considered resilient, at least initially, but one must question for how long such systems can be sustained. Effect of long-term land-use on biologically active fractions of soil organic matter is not well understood. Investigations were conducted in more than 40-year static experiments in northern Kazakhstan. We examined five fallow-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping systems with different frequencies of the fallow phase: continuous wheat (CW), 6-y rotation (6R), 4-y rotation (4R), 2-y rotation (2R) and continuous fallow (CF). A unique sample from nationally protected virgin steppe near the experimental field was sampled for comparison with long-term cultivated soils. Soil samples were collected from the two phases of each rotation, pre- and post-fallow, and analyzed for biological soil properties that are potentially mineralizable C (PMC), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) and "light fraction" C (LFC) and N (LFN). Potentially mineralizable C was inversely proportional to the frequency of fallow and was highest in CW. Potentially mineralizable N was more responsive to rotation phase than other indices of SOM. Light fraction OM was negatively correlated to the frequency of fallow and was higher in pre-fallow than in post-fallow phases. All studied biological characteristics were drastically greater in the soil from the natural steppe. The results suggested that the yearly input of plant residues in a less frequently fallowed system built up more PMC, whereas PMN was closely correlated to recent inputs of substrate added as plant residue. We concluded that a frequent fallowing for long period may deplete SOM via accelerated mineralization. The results may

  2. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006. Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006. In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by combining different tillage and planting operations. Results of research conducted in Fars province shows that conservation tillage saves fuel consumption for 77% compared to the conventional system (Afzalinia et al., 2009. Conservation tillage also reduces energy consumption from 23.6 to 42.8% in comparison to the conventional tillage (Rusu, 2005. Since energy indices would be affected by reduced input energies in conservation tillage, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of different tillage and planting methods on energy inputs and energy indices in irrigated wheat production in Eghlid region. Materials and Methods: This research was performed to evaluate and compare the energy indices in irrigated wheat production under different tillage and planting methods. The study was conducted in the form of a randomized complete block experimental design with five treatments and three replications in Eghlid region. The treatments were included, conventional tillage and seed broadcasting (A, conventional tillage and planting with Machine Barzegar grain drill (B, reduced tillage and seeding with Roto-seeder (C, direct seeding with Jairan Sanaat grain drill (D, and direct seeding with Sfoggia direct drill (E. Experimental plots with 10 by 50 m dimensions were used in this study. Loss crop residues were taken out of the experimental plots and standing crop residues were retained in the plots. In the conventional tillage method, primary tillage was performed

  3. Reduced soil cultivation and organic fertilization on organic farms: effects on crop yield and soil physical traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surböck, Andreas; Gollner, Gabriele; Klik, Andreas; Freyer, Bernhard; Friedel, Jürgen K.

    2017-04-01

    A continuous investment in soil fertility is necessary to achieve sustainable yields in organic arable farming. Crucial factors here besides the crop rotation are organic fertilization and the soil tillage system. On this topic, an operational group (Project BIOBO*) was established in the frame of an European Innovation Partnership in 2016 consisting of organic farmers, consultants and scientists in the farming region of eastern Austria. The aim of this group is the development and testing of innovative, reduced soil cultivation, green manure and organic fertilization systems under on-farm and on-station conditions to facilitate the sharing and transfer of experience and knowledge within and outside the group. Possibilities for optimization of the farm-specific reduced soil tillage system in combination with green manuring are being studied in field trials on six organic farms. The aim is to determine, how these measures contribute to an increase in soil organic matter contents, yields and income, to an improved nitrogen and nutrient supply to the crops, as well as support soil fertility in general. Within a long-term monitoring project (MUBIL), the effects of different organic fertilization systems on plant and soil traits have been investigated since 2003, when the farm was converted to organic management. The examined organic fertilization systems, i.e. four treatments representing stockless and livestock keeping systems, differ in lucerne management and the supply of organic manure (communal compost, farmyard manure, digestate from a biogas plant). Previous results of this on-station experiment have shown an improvement of some soil properties, especially soil physical properties, since 2003 in all fertilization systems and without differences between them. The infiltration rate of rainwater has increased because of higher hydraulic conductivity. The aggregate stability has shown also positive trends, which reduces the susceptibility to soil erosion by wind and

  4. The effect of conservation tillage forward speed and depth on farm fuel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jalali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Much research has focused on either reducing or eliminating tillage operations to develop sustainable crop production methods. The greatest costs in farm operations are associated with tillage due to greater specific energy requirement in tillage and the high fuel costs. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with eitherprimary or secondary tillage or planting operations. The amount of fuel saved depends on the combined operations. Generally, light tillage, spraying, and fertilizing operations consume between 0.25 and 0.50 gallons of diesel fuel per acre. Fuel savings of 0.12 to 0.33 gallons per acre can usually be expected from combining operations. Eliminating one primary tillage operation and combining one light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operation with another tillage or planting operation can usually save at least a gallon of diesel fuel per acre. Combining operations has the added benefit of reducing wheel traffic and compaction. To improve the tillage energy efficiency, implementing effective and agronomic strategies should be improved. Different tillage systems should be tested to determine the most energy efficient ones. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Tillage is a time consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save considerable amounts of fuel, time and

  5. Matéria orgânica e aumento da capacidade de troca de cátions em solo com argila de atividade baixa sob plantio direto Soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity increase in a low activity clay soil under no-tillage system

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    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de manejo afeta a matéria orgânica do solo, o que pode ter expressivo efeito na CTC de solos com argila de atividade baixa. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito da utilização durante 21 anos do sistema plantio direto (SPD sobre os estoques de carbono orgânico (CO, bem como a sua relação com o aumento da CTC de um Latossolo bruno (629 g kg-1 de argila, em Guarapuava, PR. O SPD promoveu acúmulo de CO na camada superficial do solo (0-6cm, o que refletiu-se num aumento de 2,63t ha-1 no estoque de CO, na camada de 0-20cm, em comparação ao preparo convencional. A baixa taxa de acúmulo de CO (0,12t ha-1 ano-1 foi relacionada à alta estabilidade física da matéria orgânica neste solo argiloso e oxídico. Apesar do pequeno acúmulo de CO no solo sob SPD, este teve reflexo positivo na CTC do solo, com um aumento médio, na camada de 0-8cm, de 15,2mmol c kg-1 na CTC efetiva, e de 20,7mmol c kg-1 na CTC a pH 7,0, em comparação ao solo em preparo convencional. Os resultados obtidos reforçam a importância do SPD quanto ao seu efeito nos estoques de matéria orgânica e, em consequência, na CTC de solos tropicais e subtropicais com predominância de argila de atividade baixa.Soil management affects the organic matter stocks, and thus the CEC especially in low activity clay soils. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term (21 years effect of the no-tillage on soil organic carbon (SOC stocks and its relationship with CEC increase in a clayey Oxisol (Hapludox, in Guarapuava (PR, Southern Brazil. No-tillage soil had only 2.63t ha-1 more SOC than conventionally tilled soil at 0-20cm, and the highest net accumulation occurred in soil surface layers (0-6cm. The low accumulation rate of SOC in the no-tilled soil (0,12t ha-1 yr-1 was related to the high physical stability of soil organic matter in this clayey Oxisol. Despite the small effect on SOC contents, the no-tilllage had an expressive influence on the CEC of 0-8cm soil

  6. Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (II Fumonisin Incidence on Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Marocco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Planting maize under no-tillage is an increasing farming practice for sustainable agriculture and sound environmental management. Although several studies on yield of no-till maize have been done, there is few information about the effect of tillage on fumonisin contamination. The present study was done to determine the effect of notillage and conventional tillage with two rates of nitrogen on fumonisin content in kernels of continuous maize. Average grain contamination with fumonisins B1 and B2 over the years 2004-06 was not significantly different, with mean values of 1682, 1984 and 2504 μg kg-1, respectively. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant toxin found in the samples. No-tillage significantly affected the incidence of fumonisins during the first year of the trial, in which fumonisin content was significantly higher with no-till (2008 μg kg-1 compared with conventional tillage (1355 μg kg-1. However, no-tillage did not significantly affect the incidence of fumonisins in the second and third years of the study. Fumonisin content at the rate of 300 kg N ha-1 was not statistically different compared to that obtained without N fertilization. The interaction between the soil management system and the rate of applied nitrogen was only evident in the second year. Our results indicate that fumonisin contamination was affected by no-tillage only in the first year. Nitrogen fertilization had no significant effect on fumonisin content in any year. The weather conditions during susceptible stages of maize development have probably overridden the effect of nitrogen fertilization.

  7. Effect of periodic fluctuation of soil particle rotation resistance on interface shear behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimian, Babak; Noorzad, Asadollah

    2010-01-01

    The interface behaviour between infinite extended narrow granular layer and bounding structure is numerically investigated using finite element method. The micro-polar (Cosserat) continuum approach within the framework of elasto-plasticity is employed to remove the numerical difficulties caused by strain-softening of materials in classical continuum mechanics. Mechanical properties of cohesionless granular soil are described with Lade's model enhanced with polar terms including Cosserat rotations, curvatures and couple stresses via mean grain diameter as the internal length. The main attention of paper is laid on the influence of spatial periodic fluctuation of rotation resistance of soil particles interlocked with the surface of bounding structure on evolution and location of shear band developed inside granular body. The finite element results demonstrate that the location and evolution of shear localization in granular body is strongly affected by prescribed non-uniform micro-polar kinematic boundary conditions along the interface.

  8. Tillage practices and identity formation in High Plains farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Katherine; Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    farming, recognition and denunciation of other farmers’ practices, and recognition and justification of their own contribute to identity formation. This research contributes to the ongoing discussion of how identity is formed through day-to-day activities in the material world. The plow creates divisions...... landscape. Specifically, they compare conservation tillage wedded to ‘modern’ ideologies of scientific farming with conventional tillage newly linked to beliefs about both organic and traditional farming, and examine how farmers use these different forms of tillage to create their identities. Roadside...... in the High Plains community between organic farmers who continue to rely on this implement in their material engagement with the land and the chemical farmers who distance their practices from the plow as they distinguish themselves as stewards of the soil....

  9. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    to accumulate in the top soil layer and timing of herbicide applications sometimes seems to target the emergence pattern of these weeds poorly. In contrast to the management of most diseases and pests, weed management should be considered in a time frame. The abilities to produce above and below ground...... of weeds. An important component in IWM is to understand and ultimately predict weed emergence patterns in relation to the cropping system and the tillage method applied. A better understanding of the cumulative emergence patterns of weed species in winter crops under different tillage regimes will help......Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend...

  10. Long-term effects of fallow, tillage and manure application on soil organic matter and nitrogen fractions and on sorghum yield under Sudano-Sahelian conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.; Ouattara, B.; Somado, A.E.; Wopereis, M.C.S.; Stroosnijder, L.; Breman, H.

    2005-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) controls the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and is a key factor in soil productivity. Data on SOM quantity and quality are therefore important for agricultural sustainability. In 1990, an experiment was set up at Saria, Burkina Faso on a sandy loam

  11. Mycorrhizal colonization, spore density and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Cerrado soil under no-till and conventional tillage systemsColonização micorrízica, densidade de esporos e diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em solo de Cerrado sob plantio direto e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rodrigues Torres

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The quest for sustainability in agricultural production through conservation management practices such as no-tillage, has favored the biochemical processes of soil, such as soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs, which promote a significant increase in specific surface absorption of the root system of plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the root colonization, spore density and diversity of AMFs in rhizosphere of corn and soybean grown under no-tillage with different cover crops and compared an area conventional tillage and fallow, in Uberaba, state of Minas Gerais. The corn and soybeans were rotated with millet, crotalaria and brachiaria. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with split plots. The experiment was established in 2000, and in 2007 assessed the colonization (COL and spore density (ESP (0.0-0.05m and 0.05-0.10m. In the layer of 0.0-0.10m evaluated the diversity of AMFs. It was found that there was a strong effect of culture on COL and ESP. However, the effect of the covers and management was seen only in 0.0-0.05m. The roots of corn has a higher percentages of COL and ESP compared with soybeans, for the coverage Brachiaria and millet. The mycorrhizal colonization of soybean and maize in Cerrado area was up 80% for soybeans and up 95% for corn. Conventional tillage soil the lowest number of AMFs species in relation to the coverage of millet and Brachiaria in no-till corn and soybeans. The principal components analysis with some chemical, physical and biological factors of soil shows the separation of the areas assessed, and the biological component (COL and ESP in the efficient separation of the areas under cultivation, for the conditions of this study.A busca da sustentabilidade na produção agrícola através de manejos conservacionistas, como o sistema plantio direto, tem favorecido os processos bioquímicos do solo como dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs, os quais promovem um aumento expressivo

  12. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA

  13. Effect of subsoil tillage depth on nutrient accumulation, root distribution, and grain yield in spring maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Cai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A four-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of subsoiling depth on root morphology, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K uptake, and grain yield of spring maize. The results indicated that subsoil tillage promoted root development, increased nutrient accumulation, and increased yield. Compared with conventional soil management (CK, root length, root surface area, and root dry weight at 0–80 cm soil depth under subsoil tillage to 30 cm (T1 and subsoil tillage to 50 cm (T2 were significantly increased, especially the proportions of roots in deeper soil. Root length, surface area, and dry weight differed significantly among three treatments in the order of T2 > T1 > CK at the 12-leaf and early filling stages. The range of variation of root diameter in different soil layers in T2 treatment was the smallest, suggesting that roots were more likely to grow downwards with deeper subsoil tillage in soil. The accumulation of N, P, and K in subsoil tillage treatment was significantly increased, but the proportions of kernel and straw were different. In a comparison of T1 with T2, the grain accumulated more N and P, while K accumulation in kernel and straw varied in different years. Grain yield and biomass were increased by 12.8% and 14.6% on average in subsoil tillage treatments compared to conventional soil treatment. Although no significant differences between different subsoil tillage depths were observed for nutrient accumulation and grain yield, lodging resistance of plants was significantly improved in subsoil tillage to 50 cm, a characteristic that favors a high and stable yield under extreme environments.

  14. The Effect of Conservation Tillage and Cover Crop Residue on Beneficial Arthropods and Weed Seed Predation in Acorn Squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2016-12-01

    Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015. Experimental factors included tillage and cover crop, each with two levels: strip-tillage or full-tillage, and cover crop mulch (rye residue) or no cover crop mulch (unmulched). Arthropod abundance on the crop foliage was not affected by tillage or cover crops. Contrary to expectations, epigeal natural enemies of insects and rates of weed seed removal either did not respond to treatments or were greater in full-tilled plots and plots without mulch. Our study demonstrates the potential importance of weed seed predators in reducing weed seedbanks in vegetable agroecosystems, and suggests that early-season tillage may not be detrimental to epigeal predator assemblages. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla

    2015-10-01

    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  16. [Effects of strip planting and fallow rotation on the soil and water loss and water use efficiency of slope farmland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xian-Qing; Li, Rong; Han, Qing-Fang; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Wang, Wei; Yan, Bo; Yang, Bao-Ping

    2012-08-01

    In order to enhance the soil water-retaining capacity of slope farmland and reduce its soil and water loss, a field study was conducted in 2007-2010 to examine the effects of strip planting and fallow rotation on the soil water regime, soil and water loss characteristics, and water use efficiency of a 10 degrees-15 degrees slope farmland in the arid area of southern Ningxia, Northwest China. Compared with the traditional no-strip planting, strip planting and fallow rotation increased the soil water content in 0-200 cm layer significantly, with an increment of 4.9% -7.0%. Strip planting and fallow rotation pattern could also effectively conserve the soil water in rain season, and obviously improve the soil water regime at crops early growth stages. As compared to no-strip planting, strip planting and fallow rotation increased the soil water content in 0-200 cm layer by 5.4%-8.5%, decreased the surface runoff by 0.7-3.2 m3 x hm(-2), sediment runoff by 0.2-1.9 t x hm(-2), and soil total N loss by 42.1% -73.3%, while improved the crop water use efficiency by 6.1% -24.9% and the precipitation use efficiency by 6.3% -15.3%.

  17. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  18. Effects of Soil Management Practices on Water Erosion under Natural Rainfall Conditions on a Humic Dystrudept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ferreira Chaves de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation and is influenced by rainfall, soil, topography, land use, soil cover and management, and conservation practices. The objective of this study was to quantify water erosion in a Humic Dystrudept in two experiments. In experiment I, treatments consisted of different rates of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage conditions. In experiment II, treatments consisted of a no-tillage in natural rangeland, burned natural rangeland and natural rangeland. Forage turnip, black beans, common vetch, and corn were used in rotation in the treatments with crops in the no-tillage during study period. The treatments with crops and the burned rangeland and natural rangeland were compared to a bare soil control, without cultivation and without fertilization. Increasing fertilization rates increased organic carbon content, soil resistance to disintegration, and the macropore volume of the soil, due to the increase in the dry mass of the crops, resulting in an important reduction in water erosion. The exponential model of the ŷ = ae-bx type satisfactorily described the reduction in water and soil losses in accordance with the increase in fertilization rate and also described the decrease in soil losses in accordance with the increase in dry mass of the crops. Water erosion occurred in the following increasing intensity: in natural rangeland, in cultivated natural rangeland, and in burned natural rangeland. Water erosion had less effect on water losses than on soil losses, regardless of the soil management practices.

  19. Reducing CO2 flux by decreasing tillage in Ohio: overcoming conjecture with data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil could become an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) as global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions continue to grow, but data to support this conjecture are few. Sequestering soil carbon (C) depends upon many factors including soil type, climate, crop, tillage, nitrogen fertili...

  20. The effect of earthworms (.i.Lumbricus rubellus./i.) and simulated tillage on soil organic carbon in a long-term microcosm experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Špaldoňová, A.; Fričová, K.; Bartuška, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 78, November (2014), s. 58-64 ISSN 0038-0717 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1288 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carbon sequestration * earthworms * ergosterol * litter decomposition * microbial respiration * soil processes Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 3.932, year: 2014

  1. Conversion from cropland to short rotation coppice willow and poplar: Accumulation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Stupak, Inge; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Increased demand for bioenergy has intensified the production of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and poplar in temperate zones. We used a combined chronosequence and paired plot approach to study the potential of SRC willow and poplar stands to increase the soil carbon stock compared to stocks of the previous arable land-use. The study focused on well-drained soils. We sampled soil from 30 SRC stands in Denmark and southern Sweden including soils from their adjacent arable fields. The 18 willow and 12 poplar stands formed a chronosequence ranging between 4 and 29 years after conversion. The soil was sampled both with soil cores taken by fixed depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-25, and 25-40 cm and by genetic horizons from soil pits to 1m depth. The aim of the study was to estimate the difference and the ratio between soil carbon contents of the SRC and annual crop land and analyze the results as a chronosequence to examine the effect of age after conversion on the difference. Covariates such as soil type, fertilization type and harvest frequency were also taken into account. Preliminary results suggest an overall increase in carbon stocks over time with average accumulation rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in willow and poplar stands. Poplar stands had higher rates of C gain, probably due to less frequent harvesting. The differences in carbon between the SRC and the paired cropland were initially negative but changed to positive over time, implying loss of carbon after conversion and a later gain in soil carbon with stand age. Pairwise differences ranged from -25 Mg C ha-1 to 37 Mg C ha-1 for the top 40 cm. The carbon stock ratio of the SRC stand to the arable land was estimated to minimize the effect of site-related factors. The results of this analysis suggested that the ratio increased significantly with age after conversion for the top 10 cm of the soil, both for poplar and willow. A slight increase with age was also noticed at the deeper depths, but

  2. Relações entre os tipos e indicadores de acidez do solo em lavouras no sistema plantio direto na região do Planalto do Rio Grande do Sul Relationships among acidity types and indicators in soils under no-tillage system in the Rio Grande do Sul Planalto Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Nicolodi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A recente mudança no sistema de cultivo do solo ocorrida no Brasil, passando do preparo convencional (PC para o sistema plantio direto (SPD, altera o funcionamento do solo. No solo cultivado no SPD, as relações se estabelecem no tempo e são preservadas aumentando a complexidade do funcionamento do sistema, enquanto no PC estas relações são freqüentemente destruídas. Assim, devido à formação de gradientes de acidez, de matéria orgânica e de nutrientes a partir da superfície do solo é possível que se altere a magnitude das relações entre os tipos e os indicadores de acidez e que a camada de 0-20 cm de profundidade não seja a mais adequada para representar o estado de fertilidade de solo no SPD. Por essa razão, este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar as relações entre os tipos de acidez e os seus principais indicadores em duas camadas de solo em lavouras no SPD consolidado na região do Planalto Riograndense. Foram selecionadas seis lavouras, coletando-se, em cada uma, amostras de solo em 20 locais, nas camadas de 0-10 e 0-20 cm de profundidade, para a determinação dos tipos e dos indicadores de acidez. As relações entre os tipos e os indicadores de acidez do solo não se diferenciaram nas camadas avaliadas. Assim, para a região estudada e para o sistema de cultivo utilizado, qualquer das camadas (0-10 ou 0-20 cm pode ser utilizada para fins de recomendação de calagem.The recent shift in soil tillage from conventional to no-tillage systems in Brazil alters the soil system dynamics. In soils cultivated under the no-tillage system the relations are established and preserved over the course of time, which increases the functional complexity of the system, while under the conventional system often destroys these relationships. Some questions have risen about the reliability of sampling the so-called "arable soil layer" (0-20 cm for soil acidity quantification in the no-tillage system due to the formation of

  3. Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller

    trial initiated in 1968 on a coarse sandy soil. The previous trial included spring sown crops undersown (with or without) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as cover crop, two N-rates (90 and 120 kg N ha-1) and different tillage methods (shallow tillage and ploughing autumn or spring). With maize......) previous history of long-term cover cropping, ii) soil tillage methods, iii) N rates and iv) present short-term use of cover cropping in maize. Preliminary results from 2009 – 2011 suggest that leaching after a history of cover cropping tended to be higher than after no history of cover cropping......, but the effect was insignificant. The effect of tillage and previous N rates were also insignificant but the present use of cover crops had a small but significant decreasing effect on leaching compared to no cover cropping. The cover crop was well established in both years but grew less vigorously during autumn...

  4. Optimal Draft requirement for vibratory tillage equipment using Genetic Algorithm Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gowripathi; Chaudhary, Himanshu; Singh, Prem

    2018-03-01

    Agriculture is an important sector of Indian economy. Primary and secondary tillage operations are required for any land preparation process. Conventionally different tractor-drawn implements such as mouldboard plough, disc plough, subsoiler, cultivator and disc harrow, etc. are used for primary and secondary manipulations of soils. Among them, oscillatory tillage equipment is one such type which uses vibratory motion for tillage purpose. Several investigators have reported that the requirement for draft consumption in primary tillage implements is more as compared to oscillating one because they are always in contact with soil. Therefore in this paper, an attempt is made to find out the optimal parameters from the experimental data available in the literature to obtain minimum draft consumption through genetic algorithm technique.

  5. "Vertical mulching" como prática conservacionista para manejo de enxurrada em sistema plantio direto Vertical mulching as a soil conservation practice to manage runoff in no tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eloir Denardin

    2008-12-01

    latitude South, the rainfall characteristics potentially exceed the soil water infiltration rate and produce runoff, at any time of the year, independent of soil use and management system. The additional conservational practices have not been fully adopted in the no-tillage system as it would be required to control the erosion potential due to the soil conditions of these regions. Runoff results in chemically enriched sediments, which poses environmental risks, besides causing economical losses in the agriculture production system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of vertical mulching as a conservation practice to restrict runoff in areas under no-tillage system, by evaluating the sediment enrichment rate based on double soil sampling in fields with presence and absence of the practice of vertical mulching. The double sampling covered representative soils of each plantation and the respective sediments generated by hydric erosion. Soil pH in water, SMP index, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and Al, and organic matter were determined, and the total and base saturation and cation exchange capacity in each sample were calculated. Results indicate that the conservation practice of vertical mulching reduces the degree of chemical enrichment of the sediments and mainly prevents the transport of these sediments away from plantations, minimizing economical losses and environmental risks. The no tillage system, without complementary conservation practices to control runoff, does therefore not represent a soil conservation practice capable of preventing environmental degradation.

  6. Efeito de pastagens de inverno e de verão em características físicas de solo sob plantio direto Effect of annual winter and summer pastures on soil physical characteristics, under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tulio Spera

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Algumas características físicas de solo foram avaliadas após sete anos (1995 a 2001, num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico, em Coxilha, RS, em seis sistemas de produção de grãos integrados com pastagens anuais de inverno e de verão e em floresta subtropical. As culturas, tanto de inverno como de verão, foram estabelecidas sob plantio direto. Mediante contrastes, foram comparados os valores das características físicas do solo em cada sistema nas camadas 0-0,05 e 0,10-0,15m. Nos sistemas I e II e na floresta, a densidade de solo e a resistência à penetração foram maiores na camada superficial em relação à camada mais profunda. No sistema II, porosidade total e microporosidade foram menores na camada superficial. O mesmo comportamento das características foi verificado na floresta subtropical para porosidade total e microporosidade. A floresta apresentou densidade de solo e resistência à penetração menores do que a maioria dos sistemas estudados em ambas as camadas, indicando que o solo, sob manejo antrópico, pode sofrer alterações nas características físicas. Os solos sob diferentes sistemas de produção, integrando lavoura e pecuária, apesar de apresentarem indícios de desestruturação, não atingiram níveis considerados críticos.Soil physical characteristics were evaluated, after seven years (1995 to 2001, on a typical Dystrophic Red Latosol located in Coxilha, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Six systems integrating crop production with livestock and a subtropical forest were evaluated. Both winter and summer crops were seeded under no-tillage. Cropping systems and soil of different sampling depths were compared using the contrast procedure. In the I and II sistems and in the forest, the soil density and the resistance to penetration increased in the top layer (0-0,05m concerning the deeper layer (0,10-0,15m. In the II system, total porosity and microporosity decreased in the surface. In the subtropical forest

  7. Faraday Rotation for SMOS Retrievals of Ocean Salinity and Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nimri, Salem; Le Vine, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Faraday rotation is a change in polarization as radiation propagates from the surface through the ionosphere to the sensor. At L-band (1.4 GHz) this change can be significant and can be important for the remote sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity from space. Consequently, modern L-band radiometers (SMOS, Aquarius and SMOS) are polarimetric to measure Faraday rotation in situ so that a correction can be made. This is done using the ratio of the third and second Stokes parameters. In the case of SMOS this procedure has produced very noisy estimates. An alternate procedure is reported here in which the total electron content is estimated and averaged to reduce noise.

  8. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  9. to Phosphorus Fertilization, Crop Sequence and Tillage Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Manitoba, Canada, to determine the effect of crop rotation, phosphorus (P fertilization and tillage on grain yield and grain concentrations of Cd and Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum L.. Compared to conventional tillage (CT, reduced tillage (RT management decreased grain Cd and increased grain yield and grain Zn in half of the site-years. The type of preceding crops of spring wheat-flax or canola-flax had little influence. Rate and timing of P application had little effect on grain Cd, but increasing P rate tended to decrease grain Zn. No interactive effect was detected among tested factors. Grain Zn was not related to grain Cd, but positively to other nutrients such as Fe, Mn, P, Ca, K, and Mg. Both grain Zn and Fe correlated positively with grain protein content, suggesting protein may represent a sink for micronutrients. The study suggested that the tillage management may have beneficial effects on both grain yield and quality. Phosphorus fertilizer can remain available for subsequent crops and high annual inputs in the crop sequence may decrease crop grain Zn. Understanding the environment is important in determining the impact of agricultural management on agronomic and nutrient traits.

  10. Soil aggregation in a crop-livestock integration system under no-tillage Agregação do solo em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicarlos Damacena de Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grazing intensities can influence soil aggregation, which can be temporarily and permanently affected. The objective of this study was to evaluate the aggregate stability in water at the end of a soybean cycle and during pasture development in a crop-livestock integration system under no-tillage and grazing intensities. The experiment was initiated in 2001, in a dystrophic Red Latosol, after soybean harvest. Treatments consisted of pasture (black oat + Italian ryegrass at heights of 10, 20 and 40 cm, grazed by young cattle, and a control (no grazing, followed by soybean cultivation, in a randomized block design. Soil samples were collected at the end of the soybean cycle (May/2007, during animal grazing (September/2007 and at the end of the grazing cycle (November/2007. The grazing period influences aggregate distribution, since in the September sampling (0-5 cm layer, there was a higher proportion of aggregates > 4.76 mm at all grazing intensities. Soil aggregation is higher in no-tillage crop-livestock integration systems in grazed than in ungrazed areas.As intensidades de pastejo podem influenciar o estado de agregação do solo, que pode sofrer alterações temporárias ou permanentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a estabilidade dos agregados em água ao final do ciclo da soja e durante o desenvolvimento da pastagem em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em plantio direto submetido a intensidades de pastejo. O experimento foi iniciado em 2001, em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, após a colheita da soja. Os tratamentos constaram de alturas de manejo da pastagem (aveia-preta + azevém: 10, 20 e 40 cm, com bovinos jovens, e sem pastejo, seguido do cultivo de soja, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso. Amostras de solo foram retiradas nas camadas de 0 a 5, 5 a 10 e 10 a 20 cm. As amostras foram coletadas ao final do ciclo da soja (maio/2007, em pleno pastejo pelos animais (setembro/2007 e ao final do pastejo (novembro/2007. O tempo

  11. Tillage effects on N2O emissions as influenced by a winter cover crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Mutegi, James; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2011-01-01

    emissions may be more important than the effect on soil C. This study monitored emissions of N2O between September 2008 and May 2009 in three tillage treatments, i.e., conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and direct drilling (DD), all with (+CC) or without (−CC) fodder radish as a winter cover...... application by direct injection N2O emissions were stimulated in all tillage treatments, reaching 250–400 μg N m−2 h−1 except in the CT + CC treatment, where emissions peaked at 900 μg N m−2 h−1. Accumulated emissions ranged from 1.6 to 3.9 kg N2O ha−1. A strong positive interaction between cover crop......Conservation tillage practices are widely used to protect against soil erosion and soil C losses, whereas winter cover crops are used mainly to protect against N losses during autumn and winter. For the greenhouse gas balance of a cropping system the effect of reduced tillage and cover crops on N2O...

  12. Changes in soil quality following poplar short-rotation forestry under different cutting cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Di Bene

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the change of energy concept induced by global warming and fossil fuel depletion together with the advances in agriculture towards a multifunctional and a more sustainable use of rural areas promoted the development of biomass crops. In this regard, Populus is largely utilised in short-rotation forestry (SRF, as it is known to be a fast-growing tree, producing large yields and having a high energy potential. Most studies focused on economic-productive and energetic aspects of Populus plantations, whereas their impact on soil quality and health have been poorly investigated. In this study, the main soil chemical parameters, microbial biomass and activity were assessed aiming at evaluating the impact of Populus SRF under one, two and three-year cutting cycles (T1, T2 and T3 in comparison with an intensive food cropping system (wheat-soybean rotation, WS. In addition, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungal inoculum potential was measured using root colonisation (RC and number of entry points (EP. In the 0-10 cm soil depth, pH, phosphorus (P, total nitrogen (N and soil organic carbon (SOC were significantly affected by the management. In comparison with WS, Populus SRF treatments produced significant pH decreases together with N and SOC increases, these last ones ranging from 11 to 34% and from 21 to 57%, respectively. Under T3 soil pH decreased of 0.25 units, while P, N and SOC increased of 10, 34 and 57%, respectively, in comparison with WS. Microbial biomass and soil respiration under SRF showed also mean increases of 71 and 17%, respectively. Under SRF treatments, Lolium perenne, commonly observed in all field plots, was more than twofold colonised by AM fungi in comparison with WS, while the number of EP, observed on Lactuca sativa used as a test plant, showed values ranging from 8 to 21 times higher. The present study shows the potential of a Populus SRF to improve soil chemical, biochemical and biological quality parameters in

  13. Variabilidade espacial da umidade de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo sob plantio direto Spatial variability of soil water content of a Red-Yellow Latosol under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de M. T. Sampaio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da dependência espacial de atributos do solo é importante para aprimorar as práticas de manejo e de amostragem. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar a variabilidade espacial da umidade de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo sob plantio direto, cultivado com milho, e sua relação com o carbono orgânico total do solo, macroporosidade e microporosidade. A pesquisa foi conduzida em uma área localizada no município de Lavras - MG. Na avaliação dos atributos do solo, foi delineada uma malha experimental com dimensões iguais a 90 x 90 m (0,81 ha de área, com espaçamento entre os pontos de amostragem de 15 x 15 m. Para obter maior detalhamento da dependência espacial dos dados, realizou-se a implantação de mais duas malhas (zoom dentro de um quadrante da grande malha, totalizando 73 pontos de leitura. A umidade do solo em base volume (cm³ cm-3 foi determinada in situ em duas datas, utilizando-se de um equipamento de TDR. Por meio da análise dos dados das duas datas pela Estatística Clássica, observaram-se coeficientes de variação médios para a umidade do solo. Obteve-se um semivariograma com efeito pepita puro quando o solo se apresentou mais úmido, indicando a ausência total de estruturação nestas condições. Já para o solo mais seco, ajustou-se o modelo exponencial ao semivariograma, o qual mostrou moderada dependência espacial e alcance de 75 m. Verificou-se que a associação entre a umidade do solo e o carbono orgânico aumentou na condição de solo mais seco.The study of spatial dependence of soil attributes is important to improve management practices and sampling. This research aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the soil water content of a Red-Yellow Latosol under no-tillage cultivated with maize and its relation to the total organic carbon in soil, macroporosity and microporosity. The experiment was on experimental area located in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, which was

  14. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  15. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  16. Admixture of lime in connection with deep rotary cultivation for short rotation energy forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danfors, B; Stambeck, A; Aasberg, G

    1985-01-01

    Spaghnum soils, which could be used for production of short rotation energy forests (Salix), require lime for the adjustment of the pH-level to obtain production at acceptable levels. It is necessary that the lime is distributed uniformly in the soil profile to a depth of at least 40-50 cm. The investigation has studied three methods of spreading and incorporating lime in the uppermost layer of soil. The first method concerned ploughing of peat soil with a conventional agricultural plough, the second method concerned rotovation with an agricutural rotovator to maximally 20 cm depth. In both cases the lime has been spread with a centrifugal broadcaster before the soil tillage. The third method implied simultaneous spreading of the lime and rotovation of the peat to a depth of maximally 50 cm, JTI has built and construct