Globus, Ruth; Beegle, Janet
To achieve novel science objectives, validation of a rodent habitat on ISS will enable - In-flight analyses during long duration spaceflight- Use of genetically altered animals- Application of modern analytical techniques (e.g. genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics)
Sunil K. Panchal
Full Text Available Rodents are widely used to mimic human diseases to improve understanding of the causes and progression of disease symptoms and to test potential therapeutic interventions. Chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, together known as the metabolic syndrome, are causing increasing morbidity and mortality. To control these diseases, research in rodent models that closely mimic the changes in humans is essential. This review will examine the adequacy of the many rodent models of metabolic syndrome to mimic the causes and progression of the disease in humans. The primary criterion will be whether a rodent model initiates all of the signs, especially obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dysfunction of the heart, blood vessels, liver and kidney, primarily by diet since these are the diet-induced signs in humans with metabolic syndrome. We conclude that the model that comes closest to fulfilling this criterion is the high carbohydrate, high fat-fed male rodent.
Jim B. Parsons
Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.
Liu, Zhu; Yang, Chun-Wen; Xu, Yan-Chun; Jin, Zhi-Min; Ma, Jian-Zhang
Genetic diversity is the base of the species diversity and ecosystem diversity, and also the foundation for biological evolution and species differentiation. Furthermore, genetic diversity is important evidence for evaluation of biological resources of nature. The genetic diversity data from a wide variety of rodents have many complex applications. We summarized the application of rodent prevention, the origin and differentiation including evolutionary history of rodents, the potential adaptation of rodents, the dynamics of population and regulatory mechanisms, and the conservation biology of rodents. Researches in the future should focus on the systematic study on the relationships between population dynamics and genetic diversity, and long-term monitoring of genetic diversity of rodents.
Full Text Available The impacts of colonialism in Africa and Asia have never been compared in a systematic manner for a large sample of countries. This research survey presents the results of a new and thorough assessment of the highly diverse phenomenon - including length ofdomination , violence, partition, proselytization, instrumentalization of ethno-linguistic and religious cleavages, trade, direct investment, settlements, plantations, and migration -organized through a dimensional analysis (political, social, and economic impacts. It is shown that while in some areas, colonial domination has triggered profound changes in economy and social structure, others have remained almost untouched.
Rodgers, Erica M.; Simon, Matthew A.; Antol, Jeffrey; Chai, Patrick R.; Jones, Christopher A.; Klovstad, Jordan J.; Neilan, James H.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Williams, Phillip A.; Bednara, Michael; Guendel, Alex; Hernandez, Joel; Lewis, Weston; Lim, Jeremy; Wilson, Logan; Wusk, Grace
The path from Earth to Mars requires exploration missions to be increasingly Earth-independent as the foundation is laid for a sustained human presence in the following decades. NASA pioneering of Mars will expand the boundaries of human exploration, as a sustainable presence on the surface requires humans to successfully reproduce in a partial gravity environment independent from Earth intervention. Before significant investment is made in capabilities leading to such pioneering efforts, the challenges of multigenerational mammalian reproduction in a partial gravity environment need be investigated. The Multi-generational Independent Colony for Extraterrestrial Habitation, Autonomy, and Behavior health is designed to study these challenges. The proposed concept is a conceptual, long duration, autonomous habitat designed to house rodents in a partial gravity environment with the goal of understanding the effects of partial gravity on mammalian reproduction over multiple generations and how to effectively design such a facility to operate autonomously while keeping the rodents healthy in order to achieve multiple generations. All systems are designed to feed forward directly to full-scale human missions to Mars. This paper presents the baseline design concept formulated after considering challenges in the mission and vehicle architectures such as: vehicle automation, automated crew health management/medical care, unique automated waste disposal and hygiene, handling of deceased crew members, reliable long-duration crew support systems, and radiation protection. This concept was selected from an architectural trade space considering the balance between mission science return and robotic and autonomy capabilities. The baseline design is described in detail including: transportation and facility operation constraints, artificial gravity system design, habitat design, and a full-scale mock-up demonstration of autonomous rodent care facilities. The proposed concept has
In this theoretical article, I argue for a relational stance on learning as a way of reckoning with educational research as part of the settler colonial structure of the United States. Because of my geopolitical location to the United States as a settler colony, I begin by contrasting the stances of anticolonial and decolonial. I then analyze the…
Kapusta, A. B.; Smithwick, M.; Wigley, C. L.
Rodent Research on the International Space Station (ISS) is one of the highest priority science activities being supported by NASA and is planned for up to two flights per year. The first Rodent Research flight, Rodent Research-1 (RR-1) validates the hardware and basic science operations (dissections and tissue preservation). Subsequent flights will add new capabilities to support rodent research on the ISS. RR-1 will validate the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 30 days, video downlink to support animal health checks and scientific analysis, on-orbit dissections, sample preservation in RNA. Later and formalin, sample transfer from formalin to ethanol (hindlimbs), rapid cool-down and subsequent freezing at -80 of tissues and carcasses, sample return and recovery. RR-2, scheduled for SpX-6 (Winter 20142015) will add the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 60 days, RFID chip reader for individual animal identification, water refill and food replenishment, anesthesia and recovery, bone densitometry, blood collection (via cardiac puncture), blood separation via centrifugation, soft tissue fixation in formalin with transfer to ethanol, and delivery of injectable drugs that require frozen storage prior to use. Additional capabilities are also planned for future flights and these include but are not limited to male mice, live animal return, and the development of experiment unique equipment to support science requirements for principal investigators that are selected for flight. In addition to the hardware capabilities to support rodent research the Crew Office has implemented a training program in generic rodent skills for all USOS crew members during their pre-assignment training rotation. This class includes training in general animal handling, euthanasia, injections, and dissections. The dissection portion of this training focuses on the dissection of the spleen, liver, kidney with adrenals, brain, eyes, and hindlimbs. By achieving and
Haldeman, D.L.; Amy, P.S. (Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas (United States))
In microbial ecology, accurate identification based on morphotype is often impossible, so the assumption is often made that colonies of the same morphotype represent the same species or biotype. This study examines the validity of using colony morphology as the selection criterion for calculating ecological indices of the diversity and equitability of recoverable microbial communities. Isolates within sets of microbial colonies were very similar in terms of colony morphology, microscopic appearance, resistance to metals, and response to API-rapid-NFT tests. Resistance to antibiotics was variable within sets. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis distinguished between isolates of the same species or biotype. However, isolates belonging to the same biotype can be selected by morhotype. The researchers conclude colony morphology can provide an accurate basis on which to define recoverable diversity.
van der Westhuizen, Gert J.
The focus of this article is on the role and contribution of policy research in contexts of social transformation. With reference to education transformation policies in post-apartheid South Africa, the argument is developed that research studies vary in their contribution to change, as a function of the paradigmatic assumptions and methodological…
Woodruff, Julie A; Lacey, Eileen A; Bentley, George E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J
The social environment in which an animal lives can profoundly impact its physiology, including glucocorticoid (GC) responses to external stressors. In social, group-living species, individuals may face stressors arising from regular interactions with conspecifics as well as those associated with basic life history needs such as acquiring food or shelter. To explore the relative contributions of these two types of stressors on glucocorticoid physiology in a communally breeding mammal, we characterized baseline GC levels in female colonial tuco-tucos (Ctenomys sociabilis), which are subterranean rodents endemic to southwestern Argentina. Long-term field studies have revealed that while about half of all yearling female C. sociabilis live and breed alone, the remainder live and breed within their natal group. We assessed the effects of this intraspecific variation in social environment on GC physiology by comparing concentrations of baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite (fCM) for (1) lone and group-living yearling females in a free-living population of C. sociabilis and (2) captive yearling female C. sociabilis that had been experimentally assigned to live alone or with conspecifics. In both cases, lone females displayed significantly higher mean baseline fCM concentrations. Data from free-living animals indicated that this outcome arose from differences in circadian patterns of GC production. fCM concentrations for group-living animals declined in the afternoon while fCM in lone individuals did not. These findings suggest that for C. sociabilis, stressors associated with basic life history functions present greater challenges than those arising from interactions with conspecifics. Our study is one of the first to examine GC levels in a plural-breeding mammal in which the effects of group-living are not confounded by differences in reproductive or dominance status, thereby generating important insights into the endocrine consequences of group-living.
Haughton, Cheryl L; Gawriluk, Thomas R; Seifert, Ashley W
African spiny mice (Acomys spp.) are unique precocial rodents that are found in Africa, the Middle East, and southern Asia. They exhibit several interesting life-history characteristics, including precocial development, communal breeding, and a suite of physiologic adaptations to desert life. In addition to these characteristics, African spiny mice are emerging as an important animal model for tissue regeneration research. Furthermore, their important phylogenetic position among murid rodents makes them an interesting model for evolution and development studies. Here we outline the necessary components for maintaining a successful captive breeding colony, including laboratory housing, husbandry, and health monitoring aspects. We also review past and present studies focused on spiny mouse behavior, reproduction, and disease. Last, we briefly summarize various current biomedical research directions using captive-bred spiny mice.
Rodent behavioural tasks are indispensable to advance the understanding of gene x environment interactions in neuropsychiatric disorders and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Yet, the actual translation of rodent data to humans, and thereby the understanding of the pathophysiology of neur
Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.
Herault, Yann; Delabar, Jean M; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Yu, Eugene; Brault, Veronique
Down syndrome is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. To date, a multiplicity of mouse models with Down-syndrome-related features has been developed to understand this complex human chromosomal disorder. These mouse models have been important for determining genotype-phenotype relationships and identification of dosage-sensitive genes involved in the pathophysiology of the condition, and in exploring the impact of the additional chromosome on the whole genome. Mouse models of Down syndrome have also been used to test therapeutic strategies. Here, we provide an overview of research in the last 15 years dedicated to the development and application of rodent models for Down syndrome. We also speculate on possible and probable future directions of research in this fast-moving field. As our understanding of the syndrome improves and genome engineering technologies evolve, it is necessary to coordinate efforts to make all Down syndrome models available to the community, to test therapeutics in models that replicate the whole trisomy and design new animal models to promote further discovery of potential therapeutic targets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Full Text Available Rodents (especially Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus have been the most widely used models in biomedical research for many years. A notable shift has taken place over the last two decades, with mice taking a more and more prominent role in biomedical science compared to rats. This shift was primarily instigated by the availability of a much larger genetic toolbox for mice, particularly embryonic-stem-cell-based targeting technology for gene disruption. With the recent emergence of tools for altering the rat genome, notably genome-editing technologies, the technological gap between the two organisms is closing, and it is becoming more important to consider the physiological, anatomical, biochemical and pharmacological differences between rats and mice when choosing the right model system for a specific biological question. The aim of this short review and accompanying poster is to highlight some of the most important differences, and to discuss their impact on studies of human diseases, with a special focus on neuropsychiatric disorders.
Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen
The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These
Toth, Linda A
The reproducibility of pre-clinical research is an important concern that is now being voiced by constituencies that include the National Institutes of Health, the pharmaceutical industry, Congress, the public and the scientific community. An important facet of performing and publishing well-controlled reproducible pre-clinical research is to stabilize and more completely define the environment of the animal subjects. Scientists who use rodents in research generally recognize the importance of maintaining a stable animal environment. However, despite a theoretical and general awareness of these issues, many may lack a true appreciation of how significantly even seemingly minor variations in the environment can affect research outcomes. The purpose of this article is to help investigators gain a more comprehensive and substantiated understanding of the potentially significant impact of even seemingly minor environmental changes on the animals and the data. An important caveat to this article is that the examples presented were selected from a very large literature, admittedly in order to illustrate certain points. The goal of this article is not to provide an overview of the entire literature on how the environment affects rodents but rather to make preclinical scientists more aware of how these factors can potentially influence the experimental data and contribute to poor reproducibility of research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lim Boo Liat
Full Text Available Rodents yang terdapat di rumah-rumah maupun di lapangan mempunyai peranan penting dalam penyebaran penyakit terhadap manusia dan binatang. Dalam tulisan ini disajikan peninjauan kembali literatur tentang penyakit-penyakit yang ditularkan oleh binatang, seperti : plague, scrub and murine typhus, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, angiostrongyliasis, yang biaya terdapat di Indonesia.
The colonial legacy of English instruction has become especially relevant within the field of TESOL. While it is promising that increasing attention is being paid to the issue of colonialism and its historical and contemporary impact on the teaching of English, educators might be left without a clear sense of how to traverse the precarious path of…
The advances in the application of sterilizing techniques against pest rodents in China are introduced in the paper. The development of chemosterilants, improvements of botanic sterilants, production of new steroid hormone sterilants, introduction of immunosterility and excellent properties of the sterilants are outlined. The "Space Occupation Theory" of sterile techniques is advanced after practice. The botanic sterilants with gossypol and trichosanthin as its main agents were screened and successfully applied in the large area control in the northern forest area of China. The safety of sterilants to non-target animals such as rats, rabbits, dogs, monkeys and chickens was summarized.
Eckart, W U
German malaria research during the colonial period took place between medical and political interests. In the field of zoological and clinical research of malaria Germany was not a pioneer. Nevertheless, Robert Koch forced by impressive Italian results tried to participate in malaria research on the field of acquired malaria immunity and by optimizing the therapeutic doses of quinine in German New Guinea. In the German Cameroons, on the other hand, the fight against malaria was completely dominated by racial and political arguments. The paper tries to shed light on this dichotomy, which turned out to be not very productive.
Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L
Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages.
Full Text Available Rodents, in particular Mus musculus, have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models.
Wang, Yong; Ma, Jianming; Wang, Ying
Using the A* algorithm principle proposed adaptive adjustment heuristic function, to reduce the degree of divergence algorithm; The state transition of the next ant improvement strategies, to improve the diversity of path planning solution; Control the change of the pheromone, to avoid algorithm trapped in local optimal solution; The improved ant colony algorithm makes the robot along an optimal or suboptimal path to arrive at the target.
Betancourt, J.L.; Saavedra, B.
In arid and semi-arid regions of South America, historical evidence for climate and vegetation change is scarce despite its importance for determining reference conditions and rates of natural variability in areas susceptible to modern desertification. Normal lines of evidence, such as pollen stratigraphies from lakes, are either rare or unobtainable in deserts; studies of late Quaternary vegetation history are few and generally inconclusive. This gap in knowledge may be corrected with discovery and development of fossil rodent middens in rocky environments throughout arid South America. These middens, mostly the work of Lagidium, Phyllotis, Abrocoma and Octodontomys, are rich in readily identifiable plant macrofossils, cuticles and pollen, as well as vertebrate and insect remains. In the North American deserts, more than 2,500 woodrat (Neotoma) middens analyzed since 1960 have yielded a detailed history of environmental change during the past 40,000 years. Preliminary work in the pre-puna, Monte and Patagonian Deserts of western Argentina, the Atacama Desert of northern Chile/southern Peru, the Mediterranean matorral of central Chile, and the Puna of the Andean altiplano suggest a similar potential for rodent middens in South America. Here we borrow from the North American experience to synthesize methodologies and approaches, summarize preliminary work, and explore the potential of rodent midden research in South America.
Choi, Sungshin Y.; Cole, Nicolas; Reyes, America; Lai, San-Huei; Klotz, Rebecca; Beegle, Janet E.; Wigley, Cecilia L.; Pletcher, David; Globus, Ruth K.
Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Prior rodent experiments on the Shuttle were limited by the short flight duration. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a new platform for conducting rodent experiments under long duration conditions. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 days (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNAlater at -80C (n2group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses on-orbit were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC) housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between Flight (FLT) and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were processed under optimal conditions in the laboratory. Liver samples dissected on-orbit yielded high quality RNA (RIN8.99+-0.59, n7). Liver samples dissected post-flight from the intact, frozen FLT carcasses yielded RIN of 7.27 +- 0.52 (n6). Additionally, wet weights of various tissues were measured. Adrenal glands and spleen showed no significant differences in FLT compared to GC although thymus and livers weights were significantly greater in FLT compared to GC. Over 3,000 tissue aliquots collected post-flight from the four groups of mice were deposited into the Ames Life Science Data Archives for future Biospecimen
Koebele, Stephanie V; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A
The human menopause transition and aging are each associated with an increase in a variety of health risk factors including, but not limited to, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, stroke, sexual dysfunction, affective disorders, sleep disturbances, and cognitive decline. It is challenging to systematically evaluate the biological underpinnings associated with the menopause transition in the human population. For this reason, rodent models have been invaluable tools for studying the impact of gonadal hormone fluctuations and eventual decline on a variety of body systems. While it is essential to keep in mind that some of the mechanisms associated with aging and the transition into a reproductively senescent state can differ when translating from one species to another, animal models provide researchers with opportunities to gain a fundamental understanding of the key elements underlying reproduction and aging processes, paving the way to explore novel pathways for intervention associated with known health risks. Here, we discuss the utility of several rodent models used in the laboratory for translational menopause research, examining the benefits and drawbacks in helping us to better understand aging and the menopause transition in women. The rodent models discussed are ovary-intact, ovariectomy, and 4-vinylcylohexene diepoxide for the menopause transition. We then describe how these models may be implemented in the laboratory, particularly in the context of cognition. Ultimately, we aim to use these animal models to elucidate novel perspectives and interventions for maintaining a high quality of life in women, and to potentially prevent or postpone the onset of negative health consequences associated with these significant life changes during aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A large variety of rodent behavioral tests are currently being used to evaluate traits such as sensory-motor function, social interactions, anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior, substance dependence and various forms of cognitive function. Most behavioral tests have an inherent complexity, and their use requires consideration of several aspects such as the source of motivation in the test, the interaction between experimenter and animal, sources of variability, the sensory modality required by the animal to solve the task as well as costs and required work effort. Of particular importance is a test’s validity because of its influence on the chance of successful translation of preclinical results to clinical settings. High validity may, however, have to be balanced against practical constraints and there are no behavioral tests with optimal characteristics. The design and development of new behavioral tests is therefore an ongoing effort and there are now well over one hundred tests described in the contemporary literature. Some of them are well established following extensive use, while others are novel and still unproven. The task of choosing a behavioral test for a particular project may therefore be daunting and the aim of the present review is to provide a structured way to evaluate rodent behavioral tests aimed at drug discovery research.
Gulya, E; Gábor Szabó, L; Kelemen, E
The effect of very high haemopoietic cell doses were investigated on the composition of splenic cell colonies/clusters in irradiated animals under xenogeneic circumstances. Differential cluster/colony counts from serial histological sections of the spleen were investigated before, and 9-12 days after transplantation of fetal liver- or adult bone marrow-derived haemopoietic cells following 5.0 to 8.5 Gy total body irradiation. Syngeneic as well as xenogeneic (mouse to rat and rat to mouse) transplantations were carried out. Cluster/colony differentials changed with the increase of the injected cell mass from 10(5) to 10(6) and 10(7) or more, i.e. the overwhelming erythroid pattern became trilinear even with xenogeneic transplants.
Full Text Available The Congo has recently been the subject of much academic research. This article discusses the major trends and developments. It primarily focuses on the Congo crisis of 1960, which was commemorated in 2010 and has been inquired into by many historians, including American, British and Russian ones. A comparison of their conclusions reveals that Flanders has largely come to terms with its colonial past, but that the French-speaking community has a more problematic memory. Belgian academia, by contrast, has left the old controversies about Leopold II and Lumumba behind and embarked on the path of new imperial history. It approaches the Congolese past from new angles and with new paradigms, such as reciprocity, science, exhibition, representation, etc. Congolese academia suffers from the economic problems of the country, but has managed to produce a number of studies, focusing mainly on regions, religion, and resistance. Strikingly, Congolese historians have little criticism of the colonial era.
Full Text Available The Congo has recently been the subject of much academic research. This article discusses the major trends and developments. It primarily focuses on the Congo crisis of 1960, which was commemorated in 2010 and has been inquired into by many historians, including American, British and Russian ones. A comparison of their conclusions reveals that Flanders has largely come to terms with its colonial past, but that the French-speaking community has a more problematic memory. Belgian academia, by contrast, has left the old controversies about Leopold II and Lumumba behind and embarked on the path of new imperial history. It approaches the Congolese past from new angles and with new paradigms, such as reciprocity, science, exhibition, representation, etc. Congolese academia suffers from the economic problems of the country, but has managed to produce a number of studies, focusing mainly on regions, religion, and resistance. Strikingly, Congolese historians have little criticism of the colonial era.
Does it matter that preclinical rodent models are routinely housed below their thermoneutral zone and are thereby cold-stressed? We compile evidence showing that rodents housed below their thermoneutral zone are cold-stressed, hypermetalbolic, hypertensive, sleep-deprived, obesi...
Choi, S. Y.; Chen, Y.- C.; Reyes, A.; Verma, V.; Dinh, M.; Globus, R. K.
Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed to support long duration missions on the International Space Station. After 37 days in microgravity twenty mice were euthanized and frozen on orbit. Upon return to Earth the carcasses were dissected and yielded 32 different types of tissues from each mouse and over 3200 tissue aliquots. Many tissues were distributed to the Space Life and Physical Sciences (SLPS) Biospecimen Sharing Program (BSP) Principal Investigators (PIs) through the Ames Life Science Data Archive (ALSDA). A second round of dissections was performed to collect additional tissues from the remaining carcasses thawed for a second time for additional BSP PIs. Tissues retrieved included vaginal walls, aorta, pelvis, brown adipose tissue, tail, spine and forearms. Although the analyses are still in progress, some of the PIs have reported that the quality of the tissues was acceptable for their study. In a separate experiment we tested the RNA quality of the tissues that were dissected from frozen carcasses that were subjected to euthanasia, freezing, first and second thaw dissections. Timelines simulated the on-orbit RR-1 procedures to assess the quality of the tissues retrieved from the second thaw dissections. We analyzed the RIN values of select tissues including kidney, brain, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Overall the RIN values from the second thaw were lower compared to those from the first by about a half unit; however, the tissues yielded RNA that are acceptable quality for some quantitative gene expression assays. Interestingly, RIN values of brain tissues were 8.4+/-0.6 and 7.9+/-0.7 from first and second round dissections, respectively (n=5). Kidney and WAT yielded RIN values less than 8 but they can still be used for qPCR. BAT yielded higher quality RNA (8.2+/-0.5) than WAT (5.22+/-0.9), possibly due to the high fat content. Together, these
Swanepoel, Corrie M.; Brown, Peter R.; Eiseb, Seth J.; Goodman, Steven M.; Keith, Mark; Kirsten, Frikkie; Leirs, Herwig; Mahlaba, Themb’alilahlwa A. M.; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Malebane, Phanuel; von Maltitz, Emil F.; Massawe, Apia W.; Monadjem, Ara; Mulungu, Loth S.; Singleton, Grant R.; Taylor, Peter J.; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Belmain, Steven R.
Rodent pests are especially problematic in terms of agriculture and public health since they can inflict considerable economic damage associated with their abundance, diversity, generalist feeding habits and high reproductive rates. To quantify rodent pest impacts and identify trends in rodent pest research impacting on small-holder agriculture in the Afro-Malagasy region we did a systematic review of research outputs from 1910 to 2015, by developing an a priori defined set of criteria to allow for replication of the review process. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We reviewed 162 publications, and while rodent pest research was spatially distributed across Africa (32 countries, including Madagascar), there was a disparity in number of studies per country with research biased towards four countries (Tanzania [25%], Nigeria [9%], Ethiopia [9%], Kenya [8%]) accounting for 51% of all rodent pest research in the Afro-Malagasy region. There was a disparity in the research themes addressed by Tanzanian publications compared to publications from the rest of the Afro-Malagasy region where research in Tanzania had a much more applied focus (50%) compared to a more basic research approach (92%) in the rest of the Afro-Malagasy region. We found that pest rodents have a significant negative effect on the Afro-Malagasy small-holder farming communities. Crop losses varied between cropping stages, storage and crops and the highest losses occurred during early cropping stages (46% median loss during seedling stage) and the mature stage (15% median loss). There was a scarcity of studies investigating the effectiveness of various management actions on rodent pest damage and population abundance. Our analysis highlights that there are inadequate empirical studies focused on developing sustainable control methods for rodent pests and rodent pests in the Africa-Malagasy context is generally ignored as a research topic. PMID
Full Text Available Most rodents are small and short-lived, but several lineages have independently evolved long lifespans without a concomitant increase in body mass. Most notably, the two subterranean species naked mole rat (NMR and blind mole rat (BMR which have maximum lifespans of 32 and 21 years respectively. The longevity of these species has sparked interest in the tumor suppression strategies that may have also evolved, because for many rodent species (including mice, rats, guinea pigs, gerbils and hamsters tumors are major source of late-life mortality. Here, we review the recent literature on anticancer mechanisms in long-lived rodents. Both NMR and BMR seem to have developed tumor defenses that rely on extra-cellular signals. However, while the NMR relies on a form of contact inhibition to suppress growth, the BMR evolved a mechanism mediated by the release of interferon and rapid necrotic cell death. Although both organisms ultimately rely on canonical downstream tumor suppressors (pRB and p53 the studies reveal species can evolve different strategies to achieve tumor-resistance. Importantly, studies of these cancer-resistant rodents may benefit human health if such mechanisms can be activated in human cells.
Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a multi-factorial disease characterized by a high heritability and environmental risk factors. In recent years, an increasing number of researchers worldwide have started investigating the ‘two-hit hypothesis’ of schizophrenia predicting that genetic and environmental risk factors (GxE interactively cause the development of the disorder. This work is starting to produce valuable new animal models and reveal novel insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This mini review will focus on recent advancements in the field made by challenging mutant and transgenic rodent models for the schizophrenia candidate gene neuregulin 1 (NRG1 with particular environmental factors. It will outline results obtained from mouse and rat models for various Nrg1 isoforms/isoform types (e.g. transmembrane domain Nrg1, Type II Nrg1, which have been exposed to different forms of stress (acute versus chronic, restraint versus social and housing conditions (standard laboratory versus minimally enriched housing. These studies suggest Nrg1 as a prime candidate for GxE interactions in schizophrenia rodent models and that the use of rodent models will enable a better understanding of GxE interactions and the underlying mechanisms.
Siddalls, Monica; Currier, Timothy A; Pang, Jassia; Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Patterson, Mary M
A zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) housed in a neuroscience laboratory was observed to have numerous feather mites. Subsequently, similar mites were found on other birds in the animal facility and research space. The most abundant mite was a novel, undescribed species in the genus Neocheyletiella. Whereas known Neocheyletiella mites have previously been characterized as skin parasites of various birds worldwide, the species on the zebra finches is unique because it lives and builds nests in the feathers. Infrequent specimens of a 'true' feather mite, a new species of Megninialges, were present also. Although multiple treatments using a pyrethrin spray were effective in eradicating the mites, topical ivermectin later was found to be more efficacious, better tolerated by the birds, and less labor intensive. This case highlights the general dearth of information regarding ectoparasites in zebra finches, even though these are the most frequently used songbirds in biomedical research. The mite epizootic also underscores the diverse pathogens possible in zebra finches that arrive from outside sources and why ongoing health monitoring of finch colonies is warranted.
Harrison, A; Robb, G N; Alagaili, A N; Hastriter, M W; Apanaskevich, D A; Ueckermann, E A; Bennett, N C
The majority of human pathogens are zoonotic and rodents play an important role as reservoirs of many of these infectious agents. In the case of vector-borne pathogens, rodent reservoirs not only act as a source of infection for vectors but also serve as hosts for the vectors themselves, supporting their populations. Current data on rodent-ectoparasite relationships is limited in Saudi Arabia, however, this is needed to assess disease risk and the relative importance of different hosts for the maintenance of vector-borne pathogen cycles. In order to provide baseline data for the region that could be used to assess zoonotic disease risk, we collected and identified 771 ectoparasite specimens (ticks, fleas and mites) from 161 rodents at two wildlife research centres in Saudi Arabia and discuss our results in the context of possible zoonotic disease risk based on the hosts and vectors present.
Nederveen Meerkerk, van E.J.V.
This article delineates new research on the entangled histories of householdlabour, particularly women’s and children’s work, in the Netherlands and its colonies on Java. It offers suggestions for future empirical studies and howwe may disentangle the workings of colonial connections on labour
van der Straeten, Jonas; Hasenöhrl, Ute
In the academic debate on infrastructures in the Global South, there is a broad consensus that (post)colonial legacies present a major challenge for a transition towards more inclusive, sustainable and adapted modes of providing services. Yet, relatively little is known about the emergence and evolution of infrastructures in former colonies. Until a decade ago, most historical studies followed Daniel Headrick's (1981) "tools of empire" thesis, painting-with broad brush strokes-a picture of infrastructures as instruments for advancing the colonial project of exploitation and subordination of non-European peoples and environments. This paper explores new research perspectives beyond this straightforward, 'diffusionist' perspective on technology transfer. In order to do so, it presents and discusses more recent studies which focus on interactive transfer processes as well as mechanisms of appropriation, and which increasingly combine approaches from imperial history, environmental history, and history of technology.There is much to gain from unpacking the changing motives and ideologies behind technology transfer; tracing the often contested and negotiated flows of ideas, technologies and knowledge within multilayered global networks; investigating the manifold ways in which infrastructures reflected and (re)produced colonial spaces and identities; critically reflecting on the utility of large (socio)technical systems (LTS) for the Global South; and approaching infrastructures in the (post)colonial world through entangled histories of technology and the environment. Following David Arnold's (2005) plea for a "more interactive, culturally-nuanced, multi-sited debate" on technology in the non-Western world, the paper offers fresh insights for a broader debate about how infrastructures work within specific parameters of time, place and culture.
Burke, Lydia E. Carol-Ann
In this paper, I describe a methodology that I employed, and resultant methods that I designed, to facilitate a Critical Discourse Analysis exploring perspectives on Western modern science as a school subject discipline in a given Caribbean context. Using specific themes from post-colonial theory, I sought to engage with some of the viewpoints…
Burke, Lydia E. Carol-Ann
In this paper, I describe a methodology that I employed, and resultant methods that I designed, to facilitate a Critical Discourse Analysis exploring perspectives on Western modern science as a school subject discipline in a given Caribbean context. Using specific themes from post-colonial theory, I sought to engage with some of the viewpoints…
Wöhr, Markus; Schwarting, Rainer K W
Mice and rats emit and perceive calls in the ultrasonic range, i.e., above the human hearing threshold of about 20 kHz: so-called ultrasonic vocalizations (USV). Juvenile and adult rats emit 22-kHz USV in aversive situations, such as predator exposure and fighting or during drug withdrawal, whereas 50-kHz USV occur in appetitive situations, such as rough-and-tumble play and mating or in response to drugs of abuse, e.g., amphetamine. Aversive 22-kHz USV and appetitive 50-kHz USV serve distinct communicative functions. Whereas 22-kHz USV induce freezing behavior in the receiver, 50-kHz USV lead to social approach behavior. These opposite behavioral responses are paralleled by distinct patterns of brain activation. Freezing behavior in response to 22-kHz USV is paralleled by increased neuronal activity in brain areas regulating fear and anxiety, such as the amygdala and periaqueductal gray, whereas social approach behavior elicited by 50-kHz USV is accompanied by reduced activity levels in the amygdala but enhanced activity in the nucleus accumbens, a brain area implicated in reward processing. These opposing behavioral responses, together with distinct patterns of brain activation, particularly the bidirectional tonic activation or deactivation of the amygdala elicited by 22-kHz and 50-kHz USV, respectively, concur with a wealth of behavioral and neuroimaging studies in humans involving emotionally salient stimuli, such as fearful and happy facial expressions. Affective ultrasonic communication therefore offers a translational tool for studying the neurobiology underlying socio-affective communication. This is particularly relevant for rodent models of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social and communication deficits, such as autism and schizophrenia.
Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Taylor, Edward W
A targeted needs assessment at our institution revealed that the online system used to train researchers on performing techniques with animals did not provide opportunities to practice skills, introduce learners to animal care staff, nor satisfactorily support researchers' needs to become comfortable with laboratory animal species. To correct these deficiencies, a series of hands-on training sessions, framed theoretically in situated learning, was developed. This theoretical framework asserts that learning for everyday living (in this case, performing laboratory animal techniques) happens when people interact within the community while using the 'tools at hand' (that is, the instruments and jargon of the field). From this perspective, the students work alongside the instructor as apprentices. The instructor creates increasingly challenging learning opportunities as students work toward independently performing techniques. To test our hypothesis that teaching from this perspective improves comfort levels with laboratory animals and promotes collaborative relationships between animal care and research personnel, a mixed-method design involving online surveys (first survey, n = 45; second survey, n = 35) and semistructured interviews (n = 10) was used. Quantitative results revealed that students became more comfortable with laboratory animals and were more likely to contact animal care personnel due to participating in the training program. The qualitative arm of the study identified specific features of the training program that improved comfort levels for students (seeing then doing, working in small groups, learning within a comfortable environment, and building collegial relationships). These results support teaching rodent research techniques from the practical and theoretical approach of situated learning.
Choi, S. Y.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Pletcher, D.; Globus, R. K.
Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL/6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNA later at less than or equal to -80 C (n=2/group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls, housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC), housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. FLT mice appeared more physically active on-orbit than GC, and behavior analysis are in progress. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between FLT and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. RNA was of high quality (RIN greater than 8.5). Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were optimally processed in the laboratory. Liver samples collected from the intact frozen FLT carcasses had RNA RIN of 7.27 +/- 0.52, which was lower than that of the samples processed on-orbit, but similar to those obtained from the control group intact carcasses. Nonetheless, the RNA samples from the intact carcasses were acceptable for the most demanding transcriptomic analyses. Adrenal glands, thymus and spleen (organs associated with stress response) showed no significant difference in weights between FLT and GC. Enzymatic activity was also not significantly different. Over 3,000 tissues collected from the four groups of mice have become available for the Biospecimen Sharing
Full Text Available As the energy conservation and emission reduction and sustainable development have become the hot topics in the world, low carbon issues catch more and more attention. Logistics, which is one of the important economic activities, plays a crucial role in the low carbon development. Logistics leads to some significant issues about consuming energy and carbon emissions. Therefore, reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions has become the inevitable trend for logistics industry. Low carbon logistics is introduced in these situations. In this paper, from the microcosmic aspects, we will bring the low carbon idea in the path optimization issues and change the amount of carbon emissions into carbon emissions cost to establish the path optimization model based on the optimization objectives of the lowest cost of carbon emissions. According to different levels of air pollution, we will establish the double objectives path optimization model with the consideration of carbon emissions cost and economy cost. Use DNA-ant colony algorithm to optimize and simulate the model. The simulation indicates that DNA-ant colony algorithm could find a more reasonable solution for low carbon logistics path optimization problems.
Henk, Henry J; Li, Xiaoyan; Becker, Laura K; Xu, Hairong; Gong, Qi; Deeter, Robert G; Barron, Richard L
To examine the impact of research design on results in two published comparative effectiveness studies. Guidelines for comparative effectiveness research have recommended incorporating disease process in study design. Based on the recommendations, we develop a checklist of considerations and apply the checklist in review of two published studies on comparative effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors. Both studies used similar administrative claims data, but different methods, which resulted in directionally different estimates. Major design differences between the two studies include: whether the timing of intervention in disease process was identified and whether study cohort and outcome assessment period were defined based on this temporal relationship. Disease process and timing of intervention should be incorporated into the design of comparative effectiveness studies.
Full Text Available Energy management control strategy of hybrid electric vehicle has a great influence on the vehicle fuel consumption with electric motors adding to the traditional vehicle power system. As vehicle real driving cycles seem to be uncertain, the dynamic driving cycles will have an impact on control strategy’s energy-saving effect. In order to better adapt the dynamic driving cycles, control strategy should have the ability to recognize the real-time driving cycle and adaptively adjust to the corresponding off-line optimal control parameters. In this paper, four types of representative driving cycles are constructed based on the actual vehicle operating data, and a fuzzy driving cycle recognition algorithm is proposed for online recognizing the type of actual driving cycle. Then, based on the equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy, an ant colony optimization algorithm is utilized to search the optimal control parameters “charge and discharge equivalent factors” for each type of representative driving cycle. At last, the simulation experiments are conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed fuzzy recognition algorithm and the validity of the designed control strategy optimization method.
Evans, Julian C; Votier, Stephen C; Dall, Sasha R X
Despite the fact that many animals live in groups, there is still no clear consensus about the ecological or evolutionary mechanisms underlying colonial living. Recently, research has suggested that colonies may be important as sources of social information. The ready availability of information from conspecifics allows animals to make better decisions about avoiding predators, reducing brood parasitism, migratory phenology, mate choice, habitat choice and foraging. These choices can play a large part in the development and maintenance of colonies. Here we review the types of information provided by colonial animals and examine the different ways in which decision-making in colonies can be enhanced by social information. We discuss what roles information might take in the evolution, formation and maintenance of colonies. In the process, we illustrate that information use permeates all aspects of colonial living.
McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell
and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....
Mei, Xin; Wang, Qian; Wang, Quanfang; Lin, Wenfang
Remote sensing image based on the complexity of the background features, has a wealth of spatial information, how to extract huge amounts of data in the region of interest is a serious problem. Image segmentation refers to certain provisions in accordance with the characteristics of the image into different regions, and it is the key of remote sensing image recognition and information extraction. Reasonably fast image segmentation algorithm is the base of image processing; traditional segmentation methods have a lot of the limitations. Traditional threshold segmentation method in essence is an ergodic process, the low efficiency impacts on its application. The ant colony algorithm is a populationbased evolutionary algorithm heuristic biomimetic, since proposed, it has been successfully applied to the TSP, job-shop scheduling problem, network routing problem, vehicle routing problem, as well as other cluster analysis. Ant colony optimization algorithm is a fast heuristic optimization algorithm, easily integrates with other methods, and it is robust. Improved ant colony algorithm can greatly enhance the speed of image segmentation, while reducing the noise on the image. The research background of this paper is land cover classification experiments according to the SPOT images of Qinling area. The image segmentation based on ant colony algorithm is carried out and compared with traditional methods. Experimental results show that improved the ant colony algorithm can quickly and accurately segment target, and it is an effective method of image segmentation, it also has laid a good foundation of image classification for the follow-up work.
Full Text Available The causes of bee declines remain hotly debated, particularly the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides. In 2013 the UK’s Food & Environment Research Agency made public a study of the impacts of exposure of bumblebee colonies to neonicotinoids. The study concluded that there was no clear relationship between colony performance and pesticide exposure, and the study was subsequently cited by the UK government in a policy paper in support of their vote against a proposed moratorium on some uses of neonicotinoids. Here I present a simple re-analysis of this data set. It demonstrates that these data in fact do show a negative relationship between both colony growth and queen production and the levels of neonicotinoids in the food stores collected by the bees. Indeed, this is the first study describing substantial negative impacts of neonicotinoids on colony performance of any bee species with free-flying bees in a field realistic situation where pesticide exposure is provided only as part of normal farming practices. It strongly suggests that wild bumblebee colonies in farmland can be expected to be adversely affected by exposure to neonicotinoids.
Full Text Available We present a new dataset with 15 indicators for the political, economic and social impact of colonialism. This dataset and our four indices for the impact of colonialism create for the first time the opportunity to compare directly the levels of colonial transformation for a sample of 83 African and Asian countries. Some of our exploratory findings on the interrelation of the dimensions show that in British colonies political domination was in general less direct and less violent. Plantation colonies experienced more investment in infrastructure and more violence during decolonization. The correlations between indicators for economic distortion (trade policy, trade and FDI concentration show that the economic re-direction of some colonies towards a more exclusive exchange with the metropole country was an interdependent process. In general, a more intense political domination came along with a higher level of economic transformation. If an area was transformed economically, however, a social transformation was likely to take place too, but these processes should not be confounded. In areas that were politically united for the first time under colonialism, economic distortion and social transformation were more profound.
Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S
Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne infections worldwide, including Southeast Asia and Northeast Thailand (Isaan), where rodent consumption may be a source of rodent-borne diseases. The behavior of consuming rodents is related to a population's traditions, knowledge, cultural, and household contexts, among other factors. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand during November-December 2011. It aimed to elicit information about rodent consumption among residents of this province, and to identify factors associated with rodent consumption there. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender, large family size, and use of rainwater as the main source of drinking water were positively associated with reported rodent consumption in this province, while having proper knowledge/attitudes towards animal-borne disease was negatively associated. These results provide evidence-base information for further studies, such as participatory ac- tion research, to further explore how people interact with rodents in different contexts. Further research is also needed to characterize risk of zoonotic diseases in relation to rodent consumption.
Burton, Erin N; O'Connor, Erin; Ericsson, Aaron C; Franklin, Craig L
Frequently just prior to or at weaning (approximate age, 6 to 8 wk), puppies in research settings often develop diarrheal disease, which may be due, in part, to an immature and unstable intestinal microbiota that is permissive to opportunistic pathogens. The overall objective of this study was to assess whether fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) increased the transmission of a stable maternal microbiota to pups and decreased the incidence of postweaning diarrhea. Puppies were designated by litter as treated (FMT) or sham-treated. The FMT group received fecal inoculum orally for 5 consecutive days during weaning (at 6 to 8 wk of age). Diarrhea was evaluated according to a published scoring system for 11 d during the weaning period. Fresh feces were collected from dams and puppies at 3 d before weaning and 3, 10, and 24 d after weaning for analysis of the fecal microbiota by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The composition of fecal inoculum refrigerated at 3 to 5 °C was stable for at least 5 d. No diarrhea was reported in either group during the study period, making comparison of treated and control groups problematic. However, 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed microbial variability across time in both groups. Therefore, although the fecal microbiota of neither group of puppies mirrored the dam at any of the designated time points, the data provided fundamental and novel information regarding the dynamic maturation process of the fecal microbiota of puppies after weaning.
Presents information about rodents and lagomorphs, including definitions and the characteristics of these animals. Contains teaching activities such as "Habitats for Hoppers,""Cartoon Gnawers," and "The Great Rodent Expedition." Reproducible handouts for two of the activities are provided. (TW)
Munro, Hannah J; Ogden, Nicholas H; Lindsay, L Robbin; Robertson, Gregory J; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S
The first report of members of the spirochete genus Borrelia in the seabird tick, Ixodes uriae, and seabird colonies occurred during the early 1990s. Since then, Borrelia spp. have been detected in these ticks and seabird colonies around the world. To-date, the primary species detected has been B. garinii, with rare occurrences of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae. During our research on Borrelia and I. uriae in seabird colonies of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we have identified B. bavariensis in I. uriae To our knowledge, B. bavariensis has previously only been found in the Eurasian tick species, I. persulcatus and I. ricinus, and it was believed to be a rodent-specific Borrelia ecotype. We found B. bavariensis within I. uriae from three seabird colonies, over three calendar years. We also reanalyzed B. garinii sequences collected from I. uriae from Eurasian seabird colonies, and determined that sequences from two Russian seabird colonies likely also represent B. bavariensis The Canadian B. bavariensis sequences from I. uriae analysed in this study cluster with previously described sequences from Asia. Overall, this is an important discovery that illustrates and expands the range of hosts and vectors for B. bavariensis and it raises questions regarding the possible mechanisms of pathogen dispersal from Asia to North America.Importance To our knowledge this is the first documentation of B. bavariensis outside Eurasia. Additionally, the bacterium was found in a marine ecosystem involving the seabird tick, I. uriae, and its associated seabird hosts. This indicates the epizootiology of B. bavariensis transmission is much different from what was previously described, with this species previously believed to be a rodent-specific ecotype, and indicates that this pathogen is established, or establishing, much more widely. © Crown copyright 2017.
Nikolaenko S. A.
Full Text Available The article presents a designed circuit diagram of electro-ozonization device and the algorithm of its work, a s well as the results of experimental studies of the system of stabilized ozonation of bee colonies in the wild apiaries of the Krasnodar region and the assessment of quality control
It provides a powerful method of the design of distributed control and optimization for computer scientists that the study of social insect behavior. Research on swarm intelligence to ant colony algorithm as the representative has gradually become a research hotspot. Ant colony algorithm is very useful in real life, such as solving the traveling salesman problem, this paper introduces a solution of complex of the ant colony algorithm TSP, expounds the basic principle and realization process of the algorithm, and trys to use the coding form to be the basic ant colony algorithm applied to solve the traveling salesman problem.%群居性昆虫行为的研究为计算机科学家提供了设计分布式控制和优化算法的有力方法。对以蚁群算法为代表的群集智能的研究已经逐渐成为一个研究热点。蚁群算法在实际的生活中有很大的用处，比如求解旅行商问题，文章介绍了一种求解复杂TSP的蚁群算法，阐述了该算法的基本原理及实现过程，并且在本文中尝试用编码的形式将基本蚁群算法应用到求解旅行商问题中去。
Deng Lei Lei
Full Text Available To realize the management and control of the water-saving irrigation of the path pipeline distribution in field plots, get the terrain information through remote sensing technology and analyze the path and the amount of the water in the field plots by the ant colony algorithm according to the matter of the low generality in most parts in China. The result shows that the rules were put forward with shorter path, smaller cost and the most utilization of water eventually. It can be widely used in most areas which is lack of water and scientific technology.
Liqiang Liu; Yuntao Dai; Jinyu Gao
Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules...
周荣敏; 雷延峰; 申海兵
应用蚁群生成树算法搜索了有34个节点的连接图的生成树，并采用正交设计法和均匀设计法进行了参数优化配置方法研究。结果表明：对于参数较多的蚁群算法，应用正交设计法和均匀设计法进行参数优化配置是一种可行且有效的途径，可有效提高蚁群算法的收敛速度，在求解精度上也有一定优势；充分发挥人类智能与仿生物智能的各自优势是克服单纯靠智能优化方法随机搜索缺点的关键；当蚂蚁数目为100、信息素相对重要性因素为0．3、信息素衰减系数为3．6、信息素挥发系数为0．4、信息素增加强度系数为14时，蚁群生成树算法效果最佳。%The ant colony spanning tree algorithm were used to find the Spanning Tree of the graph which had 34 nodes and the orthogonal design method and the uniform design method were used to optimize its parameters. The results show that for the Ant Colony Algorithm with many parameters,it is a useful and effective way to determine the parameters combination by applying the orthogonal design method and the uniform design method,and it can effectively improve the algorithm convergence and has some advantages in computational accuracy. The key to overcome the shortcomings of only random search relying on intelligent optimization algorithms is to take advantage of the human intelli-gence and bionic intelligence. When the ant numbers is 100,the relative importance of factors of pheromone Beta is 0. 3,the decay coeffi-cient of pheromone Alpha is 3. 6,the evaporation coefficient of pheromone Rho is 0. 4 and the strength coefficient of pheromone Qt is 14,the efficiency of the ant colony spanning tree algorithms is the best.
Subterranean rodents comprise approximately 250 species that spend their entire lives in underground, unventilated tunnels, distributed along all continents except Australia and Antarctica. Subterranean rodents escape from predators and extreme climatic fluctuations in their underground habitats,......, coupled with the reported genetic information, will promote the utilization of subterranean animal models for biological and biomedical research in the fight against aging, cancer, stroke and other realted diseases....
Jensen, Victoria Svop; Porsgaard, Trine; Lykkesfeldt, Jens
was to compare the phenotypic variation in commonly used experimental readouts within obesity and diabetes research, for four of the most frequently used mouse strains: inbred C57BL/6 and BALB/c and outbred NMRI and CD-1 mice. The variation for all readouts was examined by calculating the coefficient...
Hill, William Allen; Brown, Julie Paige
Millions of households in the US own rabbits or rodents, including hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils. Activities such as hunting and camping also involve human interactions with wild rabbits and rodents. In many environments, feral rabbits and rodents live in close proximity to humans, domesticated animals, and other wildlife. Education of rodent and rabbit owners and individuals with occupational or recreational exposures to these species is paramount to reduce the prevalence of zoonoses associated with rabbit and rodent exposure.
Martha L. Stiegman
Full Text Available Ethical standards of conduct in research undertaken at Canadian universities involving humans has been guided by the three federal research funding agencies through the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (or TCPS for short since 1998. The statement was revised for the first time in 2010 and is now commonly referred to as the TCPS2, which includes an entire chapter (Chapter 9 devoted to the subject of research involving First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples of Canada. While the establishment of TCPS2 is an important initial step on the long road towards decolonizing Indigenous research within the academy, our frustrations—which echo those of many colleagues struggling to do research “in a good way” (see, for example, Ball & Janyst 2008; Bull, 2008; Guta et al., 2010 within this framework—highlight the urgent work that remains to be done if university-based researchers are to be enabled by establishment channels to do “ethical” research with Aboriginal peoples. In our (and others’ experience to date, we seem to have been able to do research in a good way, despite, not because of the TCPS2 (see Castleden et al., 2012. The disconnect between the stated goals of TCPS2, and the challenges researchers face when attempting to navigate how individual, rotating members of REBs interpret the TPCS2 and operate within this framework, begs the question: Wherein lies the disconnect? A number of scholars are currently researching this divide (see for example see Guta et al. 2010; Flicker & Worthington, 2011; and Guta et al., 2013. In this editorial, we offer an anecdote to illustrate our experience regarding some of these tensions and then offer reflections about what might need to change for the next iteration of the TCPS.
Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…
Sandra Yaneth Chaparro Cardozo
Full Text Available In the present study a reflection of the colonial baroque ornamentation from education and graphic blocks; analyzing aspects such as creating maps of the Basilica Church Cathedral Santiago de Tunja. This research tests the interpretation of the drawing and construction of ornamental figures of the native nature of the region in the colonies of the city of Tunja, Boyacá churches. This study of the visual reconstruction of the routes that make a group of children on the reinterpretation of the design in the construction of maps of colonial baroque in the creation and graphic composition. Given the importance of aesthetics in the visual language manuals maples ornaments of the cathedral with a look from the pedagogy and education in studies of iconography Erwin Panofsky in understanding the phenomenon of space.
Rinderknecht, Andrés; Blanco, R. Ernesto
The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved skull permits the description of the new South American fossil species of the rodent, Josephoartigasia monesi sp. nov. (family: Dinomyidae; Rodentia: Hystricognathi: Caviomorpha). This species with estimated body mass of nearly 1000 kg is the largest yet recorded. The skull sheds new light on the anatomy of the extinct giant rodents of the Dinomyidae, which are known mostly from isolated teeth and incomplete mandible remains. The fossil derives from San José Formation, Uruguay, usually assigned to the Pliocene–Pleistocene (4–2 Myr ago), and the proposed palaeoenvironment where this rodent lived was characterized as an estuarine or deltaic system with forest communities. PMID:18198140
Van Cuong, Nguyen; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Vo Be, Hien; An, Nguyen Ngoc; Tue, Ngo Tri; Anh, Nguyet Lam; Anh, Pham Hong; Phuc, Nguyen The; Baker, Stephen; Voutilainen, Liina; Jääskeläinen, Anne; Huhtamo, Eili; Utriainen, Mira; Sironen, Tarja; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Chaval, Yannick; Morand, Serge; Bryant, Juliet E
In the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam, rats are commonly traded in wet markets and sold live for food consumption. We investigated seroprevalence to selected groups of rodent-borne viruses among human populations with high levels of animal exposure and among co-located rodent populations. The indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to determine seropositivity to representative reference strains of hantaviruses (Dobrava virus [DOBV], Seoul virus [SEOV]), cowpox virus, arenaviruses (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]), flaviviruses (tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), and rodent parechoviruses (Ljungan virus), using sera from 245 humans living in Dong Thap Province and 275 rodents representing the five common rodent species sold in wet markets and present in peridomestic and farm settings. Combined seropositivity to DOBV and SEOV among the rodents and humans was 6.9% (19/275) and 3.7% (9/245), respectively; 1.1% (3/275) and 4.5% (11/245) to cowpox virus; 5.4% (15/275) and 47.3% (116/245) for TBEV; and exposure to Ljungan virus was 18.8% (46/245) in humans, but 0% in rodents. Very little seroreactivity was observed to LCMV in either rodents (1/275, 0.4%) or humans (2/245, 0.8%). Molecular screening of rodent liver tissues using consensus primers for flaviviruses did not yield any amplicons, whereas molecular screening of rodent lung tissues for hantavirus yielded one hantavirus sequence (SEOV). In summary, these results indicate low to moderate levels of endemic hantavirus circulation, possible circulation of a flavivirus in rodent reservoirs, and the first available data on human exposures to parechoviruses in Vietnam. Although the current evidence suggests only limited exposure of humans to known rodent-borne diseases, further research is warranted to assess public health implications of the rodent trade.
Camilo Tomazini Pedrollo
Full Text Available ABSTRACTHistorically, developed countries have benefited from the biodiversity and traditional knowledge of developing countries. Since the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD was approved, the world-view regarding access to biological resources has changed. This change marked the introduction of legal agreements regarding access to genetic resources, traditional knowledge and benefit sharing, seeking a fair return for owners and local communities. Unfortunately, as with most national laws, these legal devices complicated collection programs and research initiatives, and diminished the emphasis on the discovery of natural products. There remains a lack of discussion on the establishment of a fair international market value for the access to genetic resources. While Brazil still has advantages and opportunities in this arena, the issue sets barriers for research and development. The protective measures are being reviewed in the project bill 7735/2014, which brings improvements, yet it is still controversial. For this short communication we consulted journals, conference proceedings, as well as scientific and journalistic magazines to report some of the disastrous consequences of the implementation of national laws regarding CBD. We suggest a new focus for decision-making policies based on more efficient field inspections, the empowerment of traditional communities and further associated research in order to ensure the claims of CBD as well as to ratify the Nagoya Protocol.
Tartus tegutsenud eksperimentaal-rock-duo Opium Flirt Eestisse jäänud liige Erki Hõbe (paarimees Ervin Trofimov tegutseb Ungaris) annab välja oma teise sooloalbumi nime all Multiphonic Rodent, heliplaadi "Astral Dance" esitluskontsert toimub 5. veebruaril Tallinnas baaris Juuksur
Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Raghavan, Maanasa;
The Capromyidae (hutias) are endemic rodents of the Caribbean and represent a model of dispersal for non-flying mammals in the Greater Antilles. This family has experienced severe extinctions during the Holocene and its phylogenetic affinities with respect to other caviomorph relatives are still...
Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam
This paper investigates how an organization in Sweden, a country normally not considered among the former colonial powers, is still haunted by the specters of a western colonial history. Based on in-depth interviews as well as participant observation in the headquarters of a Swedish multinational...
Davis, Eric M; O'Donnell, Christopher P
Rodent models of sleep apnea have long been used to provide novel insight into the generation and predisposition to apneas as well as to characterize the impact of sleep apnea on cardiovascular, metabolic, and psychological health in humans. Given the significant body of work utilizing rodent models in the field of sleep apnea, the aims of this review are three-fold: first, to review the use of rodents as natural models of sleep apnea; second, to provide an overview of the experimental interventions employed in rodents to simulate sleep apnea; third, to discuss the refinement of rodent models to further our understanding of breathing abnormalities that occur during sleep. Given mounting evidence that sleep apnea impairs cognitive function, reduces quality of life, and exacerbates the course of multiple chronic diseases, rodent models will remain a high priority as a tool to interrogate both the pathophysiology and sequelae of breathing related abnormalities during sleep and to improve approaches to diagnosis and therapy.
@@ A rodent discovered last year in Laos may actually be a survivor of a group believed to have been extinct for 11 million years, an international group of scientists, including a CAS researcher, reported on March 9.
Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J; Eisen, Rebecca J; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Carter, Leon G; Gage, Kenneth L; Tripp, Daniel W; Antolin, Michael F
Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes die-offs of colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). It has been argued that other small rodents are reservoirs for plague, spreading disease during epizootics and maintaining the pathogen in the absence of prairie dogs; yet there is little empirical support for distinct enzootic and epizootic cycles. Between 2004 and 2006, we collected blood from small rodents captured in colonies in northern Colorado before, during, and for up to 2 yr after prairie dog epizootics. We screened 1,603 blood samples for antibodies to Y. pestis, using passive hemagglutination and inhibition tests, and for a subset of samples we cultured blood for the bacterium itself. Of the four species of rodents that were common in colonies, the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) was the only species with consistent evidence of plague infection during epizootics, with 11.1-23.1% of mice seropositive for antibody to Y. pestis during these events. Seropositive grasshopper mice, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were captured the year following epizootics. The appearance of antibodies to Y. pestis in grasshopper mice coincided with periods of high prairie dog mortality; subsequently, antibody prevalence rates declined, with no seropositive individuals captured 2 yr after epizootics. We did not detect plague in any rodents off of colonies, or on colonies prior to epizootics, and found no evidence of persistent Y. pestis infection in blood cultures. Our results suggest that grasshopper mice could be involved in epizootic spread of Y. pestis, and possibly, serve as a short-term reservoir for plague, but provide no evidence that the grasshopper mouse or any small rodent acts as a long-term, enzootic host for Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies.
Olcese, J.; Reuss, S.; Semm, P.
In addition to behavioral evidence for the detection of earth-strength magnetic fields (MF) by rodents, recent investigations have revealed that electrophysiological and biochemical responses to MF occur in the pineal organ and retina of rodents. In addition, ferrimagnetic deposits have been identified in the ethmoidal regions of the rodent skull. These findings point to a new sensory phenomenon, which interfaces with many fields of biology, including neuroscience, psychophysics, behavioral ecology, chronobiology and sensory physiology.
Trankell, Ing-Britt; Ovesen, Jan
Studies of colonial medicine, mostly from former British colonies, have shown that colonial medical interventions mostly benefited the European colonisers and often had very little positive effects on the health of the native populations at large. A common assumption is that this was also the case for French colonial medicine in general, and for colonial medicine in Cambodia in particular, and that the unsatisfactory contemporary state of the medical services in the country may be partly explained by its colonial past. As a way to test this assumption, this paper presents an ethnography of colonial medicine in Cambodia in the first decades of the twentieth century. Documents in the Cambodian National Archives provided the primary sources, and their significance was assessed against the background of the authors' experience of medical anthropological research in contemporary Cambodia. Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality is used as the interpretative frame. Elements of colonial governmentality in the medical field included the promotion of modern medicine through the free dispensing of medicines and medical treatment and rudimentary medical training of members of the local population, as well as compulsory vaccinations and surveillance of the colonial subjects. It is concluded that both the idea of medicine as a 'tool of empire' and that of the colonial physician as a humanitarian hero are equally incomplete as general descriptions, and that specific ethnographies of medical policies and practices should be undertaken for particular colonial settings. This paper provides the first anthropological account of colonial medicine in Cambodia.
Liu, Liqiang; Dai, Yuntao; Gao, Jinyu
Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Full Text Available Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Pannabecker, Thomas L
Desert rodents face a sizeable challenge in maintaining salt and water homeostasis due to their life in an arid environment. A number of their organ systems exhibit functional characteristics that limit water loss above that which occurs in non-desert species under similar conditions. These systems include renal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, nasal, and skin epithelia. The desert rodent kidney preserves body water by producing a highly concentrated urine that reaches a maximum osmolality nearly three times that of the common laboratory rat. The precise mechanism by which urine is concentrated in any mammal is unknown. Insights into the process may be more apparent in species that produce highly concentrated urine. Aquaporin water channels play a fundamental role in water transport in several desert rodent organ systems. The role of aquaporins in facilitating highly effective water preservation in desert rodents is only beginning to be explored. The organ systems of desert rodents and their associated AQPs are described.
Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center
This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.
Yeomans, Donald K.
While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.
Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.
This issue of "The Goldfinch: Iowa History for Young People" focuses upon the Amana Colonies, which were home to many German immigrants in the 19th century, and which retain much of their ethnic heritage today. The articles and activities included in this issue are "Amana Today"; "No Black Buggies in Amana";…
Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek
Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents.
... rodent food sources and nesting sites... Diseases from rodents Diseases directly transmitted by rodents Diseases indirectly transmitted by rodents Cleaning up after rodents Take precautions before and during clean up of ...
A recent book on the Italian rodents is presented. The book treats the ecology of rodents as well as more applied topics like the impact of rodents on human activities and the management and control of rodents populations. Written in Italian.
Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P
In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. Thus, rodent behavioral models can now be developed to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp's theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences.
Huerkamp, Michael J; Benjamin, Kimberly A; Webb, Sonji K; Pullium, Jennifer K
The pinworm Syphacia muris was eradicated from rats after treatment with fenbendazole-medicated chow (150 ppm) and without environmental decontamination for > 54 months. However, this regimen was successful only when the treatment was delivered and efficacy monitoring was done by personnel of the institutional animal resources program. The same pinworm elimination program failed 7 to 24 months after the cessation of treatment in a satellite colony in which animal care, including provision of medicated diet and sample collection for efficacy monitoring, was provided by research personnel. A failure to uniformly deliver adequate therapeutic doses or reinoculation of rats with pinworm eggs from the contaminated environment could not be excluded as causes of the failure. However, there were risk factors, and animal care practices unique to the satellite colony that may have facilitated the re-emergence of pinworms. These risk factors included hand-washing of cages, storage of contact bedding in areas that were not vermin-proof, and animal care provided by personnel having contact with rodents of pet-store origin.
Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Richter, Sebastian; Le Bohec, Celine; Schneider, Werner; Metzner, Claus; Gerum, Richard; Wienecke, Barbara; Fabry, Ben
In polar regions, highly adapted social behavior is crucial for the survival of several species. One prominent example is the huddling behavior of Emperor penguins. To understand how Emperor penguins solve the physical problem of movement in densely packed huddles, we observed an Emperor penguin colony (Atka Bay) with time-lapse imaging and tracked the positions of more than 1400 huddling penguins. The trajectories revealed that Emperor penguins move collectively in a hig...
Full Text Available Microcystis aeruginosa, generally occurring in large colonies under natural conditions, mainly exists as single cells in laboratory cultures. The mechanisms involved in colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa and their roles in algal blooms remain unknown. In this study, based on previous research findings that fluid motion may stimulate the colony formation in green algae, culture experiments were conducted under axenic conditions in a circular water chamber where the flow rate, temperature, light, and nutrients were controlled. The number of cells of Microcystis aeruginosa, the number of cells per colony, and the colonial characteristics in various growth phases were observed and measured. The results indicated that the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa, which was not observed under stagnant conditions, was evident when there was fluid motion, with the number of cells per largest colony reaching 120 and the proportion of the number of cells in colonial form to the total number of cells and the mean number of cells per colony reaching their peak values at a flow rate of 35 cm/s. Based on the analysis of colony formation process, fluid motion stimulates the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa in the lag growth phase, while flushes and disaggregates the colonies in the exponential growth phase. The stimulation effect in the lag growth phase may be attributable to the involvement of fluid motion in a series of physiological processes, including the uptake of trace elements and the synthesis and secretion of polysaccharides. In addition, the experimental groups exhibiting typical colonial characteristics in the lag growth phase were found to have higher cell biomass in the later phase.
You, Zhihong; Pearce, Daniel; Sengupta, Anupam; Giomi, Luca
Bacterial colonies are abundant on living and non-living surfaces, and are known to mediate a broad range of processes in ecology, medicine and industry. Although extensively researched - from single cells up to the population levels - a comprehensive biophysical picture, highlighting the cell-to-colony dynamics, is still lacking. Here, using numerical and analytical models, we study the mechanics of self-organization leading to the colony morphology of cells growing on a substrate with free boundary. We consider hard rods to mimic the growth of rod-shaped non-motile cells, and show that the colony, as a whole, does not form an ordered nematic phase, nor does it result in a purely disordered (isotropic) phase. Instead, different sizes of domains, in which cells are highly aligned at specific orientations, are found. The distribution of the domain sizes follows an exponential relation - indicating the existence of a characteristic length scale that determines the domain size relative to that of the colony. A continuum theory, based on the hydrodynamics of liquid crystals, is built to account for these phenomena, and is applied to describe the buckling transition from a planar to three-dimensional (3D) colony. The theory supports preliminary experiments conducted with different strains of rod shaped bacterial cells, and reveals that the buckling transition can be regulated by varying the cell stiffness and aspect ratio. This work proposes that, in addition to biochemical pathways, the spatio-temporal organization in microbial colonies is significantly tuned by the biomechanical and geometric properties of the microbes in consideration.
Jan Felix Drexler
Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is among the most relevant causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Research is complicated by a lack of accessible small animal models. The systematic investigation of viruses of small mammals could guide efforts to establish such models, while providing insight into viral evolutionary biology. We have assembled the so-far largest collection of small-mammal samples from around the world, qualified to be screened for bloodborne viruses, including sera and organs from 4,770 rodents (41 species; and sera from 2,939 bats (51 species. Three highly divergent rodent hepacivirus clades were detected in 27 (1.8% of 1,465 European bank voles (Myodes glareolus and 10 (1.9% of 518 South African four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio. Bats showed anti-HCV immunoblot reactivities but no virus detection, although the genetic relatedness suggested by the serologic results should have enabled RNA detection using the broadly reactive PCR assays developed for this study. 210 horses and 858 cats and dogs were tested, yielding further horse-associated hepaciviruses but none in dogs or cats. The rodent viruses were equidistant to HCV, exceeding by far the diversity of HCV and the canine/equine hepaciviruses taken together. Five full genomes were sequenced, representing all viral lineages. Salient genome features and distance criteria supported classification of all viruses as hepaciviruses. Quantitative RT-PCR, RNA in-situ hybridisation, and histopathology suggested hepatic tropism with liver inflammation resembling hepatitis C. Recombinant serology for two distinct hepacivirus lineages in 97 bank voles identified seroprevalence rates of 8.3 and 12.4%, respectively. Antibodies in bank vole sera neither cross-reacted with HCV, nor the heterologous bank vole hepacivirus. Co-occurrence of RNA and antibodies was found in 3 of 57 PCR-positive bank vole sera (5.3%. Our data enable new hypotheses regarding HCV evolution and encourage
Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R; Pettis, Jeffery S
Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.
Becker, C; Collignon, R
We studied colonial medical practices and health policies in West Africa, which has faced endemics and epidemics that have affected entire societies. We found that attempts to centralize the organization of colonial medicine, which began in the late 19th Century, were limited until the end of World War I. Research and control programs expanded after 1920, concentrating on epidemics, but largely ignoring many major health problems, such as measles, whooping cough and malnutrition, the importance of which were not recognized until after World War II. This appraisal of colonial medicine highlights the difficulties of introducing modern medicine and its ideas into African societies. There have been various social reactions, resulting in the current duality in which traditional and modern medicine coexist.
Lindholm, Anders; Gehin, Laurent; Bliddal, Marie; Christensen, Josefine; Mauritzen, Alexandra
The aim of the project is to view the different concepts of cannibalism seen in colonial Congo. By analyzing the meaning of cannibalism in Congo in the time span between 1890-1905, we have tried to find a coherence between cannibalism in its definitive and metaphorical form. Additionally we have attempted to determine whether cannibalism was more a myth than fact, and what impact it had on the natives. We have furthermore tried to put cannibalism in relation to contemporary fiction of the tim...
Imajo, Kento; Yoneda, Masato; Kessoku, Takaomi; Ogawa, Yuji; Maeda, Shin; Sumida, Yoshio; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Wada, Koichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi
Research in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has been limited by the availability of suitable models for this disease. A number of rodent models have been described in which the relevant liver pathology develops in an appropriate metabolic context. These models are promising tools for researchers investigating one of the key issues of NASH: not so much why steatosis occurs, but what causes the transition from simple steatosis to the inflammatory, progressive fibrosing condition of steatohepatitis. The different rodent models can be classified into two large groups. The first includes models in which the disease is acquired after dietary or pharmacological manipulation, and the second, genetically modified models in which liver disease develops spontaneously. To date, no single rodent model has encompassed the full spectrum of human disease progression, but individual models can imitate particular characteristics of human disease. Therefore, it is important that researchers choose the appropriate rodent models. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the metabolic abnormalities present in the currently available rodent models of NAFLD, summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the established models and the key findings that have furthered our understanding of the disease's pathogenesis.
李永亮; 王玉富; 向长城
This paper studied a complex vehicle routing problem with time window constraints by simplex ant colony algorithm.This article aims to research not only the shortest distance,but also the application of time as small as possible in the vehicle of transportation.We established function that time and distance influence on searching path,then,we used simplex ACO to solve this problem and get the optimal solu-tion.By describing the status of transportation,we proposed a mathematical model of a two-way transport and logistics simplex ant colony algorithm,and obtained the most economical transport routes.%研究了单纯形蚁群算法解决带时间窗约束条件的车辆路径问题，旨在突出研讨在运输中不仅距离最短，而且使应用的时间尽可能的少。首先建立时间、距离对搜索路径的影响函数，然后用单纯形蚁群算法解出最优路径。简单介绍了运输的现状，提出了物流双向运输的数学模型及单纯形蚁群算法，得出了物流运输最经济的合理路线结论。
项前; 黄波; 李红旮
本文结合二次分配问题(quadratic assignment problem,QAP)的特点,通过分析传统妈K算法在解决QAP问题时收数过快,精度不高的缺点,提出一种以ACS(ant colony system)为基础的改进蚁群算法--信息素迭代东积ACS(ACS with accumulated pheromone by iteration,ACS_API).新方法通过对定义启发式信息和信息素更新规则的改进,扩大了搜索空间,从而进免过早收数,陷入局部最优解中.该算法已应用于QAP标准浏试数据,并通过与另外两种先前提出的改进蚂蚁算法(HAS_QAP,ACO_GIS)的比较分析得出了它在算法精度和执行时间上的优势.
Through analyzing the situation of train sets, an assignment model under the condition of uncertain railroad section was constructed and an ant colony algorithm to solve the combinatorial optimization problem and quantitative formulas of the high-speed passenger trains were proposed. Finally, taking Wuhan-Guangzhou high-speed railway for an example, an optimal program of using high-speed passenger trains was calculated and aworking diagram of the trainsets at a station was drawn. Through verification, this model and algorithm are feasible.%通过对高速铁路动车组运用现状进行分析，建立了高速铁路动车组在不固定区段使用条件下周转优化的指派模型，并提出了解决该组合优化问题的蚁群算法，以及动车组使用数量的公式。最后以武广客专为算例，计算出动车组优化运用方案，并铺画了一个车站相关的动车组周转图。通过验证，本文模型和算法具有可行性。
Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter
Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599
Heart of Darkness, written by the renowned novelist Joseph Conrad, is regarded as“one of the half-dozen greatest novel as”. It has triggered a hot discussion from the perspective of colonialism, feminism and innovative narrative style. This paper aims to explore the colonialism revealed in the novel by showing the greedy nature of the colonizers and the subversion the writer has made against the majority of imperial opinions. The study of the colonialism in Heart of Darkness helps to better understand the heart of western colonialism and the revelations to build a harmonious world among different nations.
Meerburg, B.G.; Brom, F.W.A.; Kijlstra, A.
Because western societies generally see animals as objects of moral concern, demands have been made on the way they are treated, e.g. during animal experimentation. In the case of rodent pests, however, inhumane control methods are often applied. This inconsistency in the human-animal relationship r
Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter
1. Rainfall data were collated for years preceding historical outbreaks of Mastomys rats in East Africa in order to test the hypothesis that such outbreaks occur after long dry periods. 2. Rodent outbreaks were generally not preceded by long dry periods. 3. Population dynamics of Mastomys natalen...
Meerburg, B.G.; Brom, F.W.A.; Kijlstra, A.
Because western societies generally see animals as objects of moral concern, demands have been made on the way they are treated, e.g. during animal experimentation. In the case of rodent pests, however, inhumane control methods are often applied. This inconsistency in the human-animal relationship
Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter
natalensis rats in Tanzania are significantly affected by the distribution of rainfall during the rainy season. 4. All previous rodent outbreaks in Tanzania were preceded by abundant rainfall early in the rainy season, i.e, towards the end of the year. 5. A flow chart is constructed to assess the likelihood...
Soeters, Sebastiaan Robbert
Tamale, the regional capital of Northern Ghana, has been strangely neglected by historians and anthropologists, despite being Ghana’s third largest city. Tamale’s neglect, like the city itself, has colonial origins. The book unpacks the implications for Tamale’s urban character of both its colonial
Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, B.; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.
Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.
British sociology was established as an academic discipline between 1945 and 1965, just as the British Empire was gearing up for a new phase of developmental colonialism backed by the social and other sciences. Many parts of the emerging sociological discipline became entangled with colonialism. Key themes and methods in sociology and the staff of sociology departments emerged from this colonial context. Historians have tended to place postwar British sociology in the context of expanding higher education and the welfare state, and have overlooked this colonial constellation. The article reconstructs this forgotten moment of disciplinary founding and explores three of the factors that promoted colonial sociology: the Colonial Social Science Research Council, the so-called Asquith universities, and the social research institutes in the colonies; and the involvement of sociologists from the London School of Economics in training colonial officials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviors at different developmental stages in Escherichia coli (E. coli lifecycle and developing a new biologically inspired optimization algorithm named bacterial colony optimization (BCO. BCO is based on a lifecycle model that simulates some typical behaviors of E. coli bacteria during their whole lifecycle, including chemotaxis, communication, elimination, reproduction, and migration. A newly created chemotaxis strategy combined with communication mechanism is developed to simplify the bacterial optimization, which is spread over the whole optimization process. However, the other behaviors such as elimination, reproduction, and migration are implemented only when the given conditions are satisfied. Two types of interactive communication schemas: individuals exchange schema and group exchange schema are designed to improve the optimization efficiency. In the simulation studies, a set of 12 benchmark functions belonging to three classes (unimodal, multimodal, and rotated problems are performed, and the performances of the proposed algorithms are compared with five recent evolutionary algorithms to demonstrate the superiority of BCO.
Detailed research on fossil rodents from Pakistan, Turkey, northern Africa and Europe provides a better understanding of the evolutionary history of the Muroidea, especially of the Murinae, Myocricetodontinae and Rhizomyinae. The origin of these rodent groups lies in the Early Miocene of south-weste
Full Text Available Este trabajo propone una aproximación al relato autobiográfico conventual de fines del siglo XVII y principios del XVIII en Hispanoamérica. La lectura crítica del texto escrito por la monja clarisa Úrsula Suárez, en Santiago de Chile, nos permite repensar el lugar de la escritura religiosa femenina durante el período colonial en respuesta a un orden hegemónico que autoriza este tipo de narración, dentro del marco discursivo de los relatos de vida edificante. En este sentido, Relación Autobiográfica se considera el resultado de una práctica de escritura emergente del orden colonial. Mandada a escribir por su director espiritual, la narración autobiográfica implica tanto la delegación de la palabra a la religiosa como el resultado de un mecanismo institucionalizado de selección dentro de la comunidad conventual. Desde el momento en que toma posesión de la escritura, Úrsula se decide a presentar momentos de su historia personal elegidos para configurar la historia de su santidad. La concreción de la labor se expresa mediante una serie de recursos que sirven como un modo de autofiguración en el texto, constituyendo una forma de autoinvención. De allí que la selección de anécdotas, las reiteraciones y omisiones sirvan, por un lado, para ubicar la responsabilidad de la escritura tanto fuera de ella misma como en Dios; por otro, como la expresión de narrar la experiencia mística hispanoamericana de una manera diferente a la tradición peninsular.
Key words: Macrotermes bellicosus, Mounds- building termites, intra-colonial Population, Mounds,. Castes. .... The difference may be due to the efficiency of the sampling method .... SERC (Sokoto Energy Research Centre, Usmanu. Danfodiyo ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control....
Hocker, Samuel E; Eshar, David; Wouda, Raelene M
Cancer incidence in rodent species varies dramatically from a common occurrence in mice and rats to just a limited number of documented cases in chinchillas and degus. This article summarizes common tumors, both benign and malignant, that have been reported to occur in rodents. Outlined are clinical signs, diagnostics, and treatments that have been described for rodents presenting with specific neoplasms.
@@ 1引言 通过考察和研究蚂蚁寻找事物的方法,意大利学者Macro Dorigo等人于1991年提出了蚂蚁系统.该算法具有较好的性能.随后,Macro,Gambardella 又提出了蚁群系统(ACS,Ant Colony System).该算法的性能较蚂蚁系统又有所提高,但是这种改进算法仍有搜索解的速度慢、容易陷入局部最优等缺点.虽然如此,这种算法仍可较好地解决各种组合优化问题,如TSP问题、QAP问题等.并且已经有人将这种算法用于解决网络路由问题以及电路设计中的元件以及线路布局的问题,取得了很好的结果.然而,蚁群算法求解速度慢、容易陷入局部最优的缺点成为限制它应用范围的瓶颈.因此,不断有人提出改进算法.本文将在简单介绍蚁群算法的基础上,分析这种算法在全局更新规则上的不足,并提出一种新的改进算法.
Cox-Muranami, Wesley A; Nelson, Edward L; Li, G P; Bachman, Mark
A new micropallet array platform for adherent cell colony sorting has been developed. The platform consisted of thousands of square plastic pallets, 270 μm by 270 μm on each side, large enough to hold a single colony of cells. Each pallet included a magnetic core, allowing them to be collected with a magnet after being released using a microscope mounted laser system. The micropallets were patterned from 1002F epoxy resist and were fabricated on translucent, gold coated microscope slides. The gold layer was used as seed for electroplating the ferromagnetic cores within every individual pallet. The gold layer also facilitated the release of each micropallet during laser release. This array allows for individual observation, sorting and collection of isolated cell colonies for biological cell colony research. In addition to consistent release and recovery of individual colonies, we demonstrated stable biocompatibility and minimal loss in imaging quality compared to previously developed micropallet arrays.
Petry, John R.
The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…
Alexopoulou Giannakitsa, Kleoniki; Juif, Dácil
Samir Amin (1972) divided the African continent into three "macro-regions of colonial influence" with distinct socio-economic systems and labour practices: Africa of the colonial trade or peasant economy, Africa of the concession-owning companies, and Africa of the labour reserves. We argue that
Blackall, Trevor D.; Wilson, Linda J.; Theobald, Mark R.; Milford, Celia; Nemitz, Eiko; Bull, Jennifer; Bacon, Philip J.; Hamer, Keith C.; Wanless, Sarah; Sutton, Mark A.
Ammonia emissions were measured from two entire seabird colonies with contrasting species assemblages, to ascertain the ammonia volatilisation potentials among seabird species in relation to their nesting behaviour. Emissions were calculated from downwind plume measurements of ammonia concentration using both inverse dispersion and tracer ratio methods. Measured colony emissions ranged 1-90 kg NH3 hour-1, and equated to 16 and 36% volatilization of excreted nitrogen for colonies dominated by ground/burrow nesting and bare rock nesting birds, respectively. The results were applied in a bioenergetics model with a global seabird database. Seabird colonies are found to represent the largest point sources of ammonia globally (up to ~6 Gg NH3 colony-1 year-1). Moreover the largest emissions occur mainly in remote environments with otherwise low NH3 emissions. These ammonia ``hot spots'' explain significant perturbations of the nitrogen cycle in these regions and add ~20% to oceanic ammonia emissions south of latitude 45°S.
Annaliese K. Beery
Full Text Available The neurobiology of stress and the neurobiology of social behavior are deeply intertwined. The social environment interacts with stress on almost every front: social interactions can be potent stressors; they can buffer the response to an external stressor; and social behavior often changes in response to stressful life experience. This review explores mechanistic and behavioral links between stress, anxiety, resilience, and social behavior in rodents, with particular attention to different social contexts. We consider variation between several different rodent species and make connections to research on humans and non-human primates.
Beery, Annaliese K; Kaufer, Daniela
The neurobiology of stress and the neurobiology of social behavior are deeply intertwined. The social environment interacts with stress on almost every front: social interactions can be potent stressors; they can buffer the response to an external stressor; and social behavior often changes in response to stressful life experience. This review explores mechanistic and behavioral links between stress, anxiety, resilience, and social behavior in rodents, with particular attention to different social contexts. We consider variation between several different rodent species and make connections to research on humans and non-human primates.
路径规划是自主式水下潜器(AUV)导航研究的重要课题,AUV可用于未知环境如海洋空间探测.在大范围海洋环境中,应用蚁群优化原理对自主式水下潜器的全局路径规划问题进行了研究.引入栅格建模方法建立了蚁群可视图模型,设计了蚁群信息素更新规则;给出了蚁群全局路径规划的操作步骤;针对蚁群规划路径不平滑问题,设计了切割算予和插点算子.仿真实验结果表明,蚁群全局规划算法非常适合于求解复杂环境中的规划问题,规划时间短、路径平滑,其原型系统可应用于非结构化无人环境监测.%Path planning is an important issue for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) traversing an unknown environment such as a sea floor, a jungle, or the outer celestial planets. For this paper, global path planning using large-scale chart data was studied, and the principles of ant colony optimization (ACO) were applied. This paper introduced the idea of a visibility graph based on the grid workspace model. It also brought a series of pheromone updating rules for the ACO planning algorithm. The operational steps of the ACO algorithm are proposed as a model for a global path planning method for AUV. To mimic the process of smoothing a planned path, a cutting operator and an insertion-point operator were designed. Simulation results demonstrated that the ACO algorithm is suitable for global path planning. The system has many advantages, including that the operating path of the AUV can be quickly optimized, and it is shorter, safer, and smoother. The prototype system successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the concept, proving it can be applied to surveys of unstructured unmanned environments.
Gorbunova, Vera; Bozzella, Michael J; Seluanov, Andrei
After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents.
Mallarino, Ricardo; Hoekstra, Hopi E; Manceau, Marie
For decades, mammalian developmental genetic studies have focused almost entirely on two laboratory models: Mus and Rattus, species that breed readily in the laboratory and for which a wealth of molecular and genetic resources exist. These species alone, however, do not capture the remarkable diversity of morphological, behavioural and physiological traits seen across rodents, a group that represents >40% of all mammal species. Due to new advances in molecular tools and genomic technologies, studying the developmental events underlying natural variation in a wide range of species for a wide range of traits has become increasingly feasible. Here we review several recent studies and discuss how they not only provided technical resources for newly emerging rodent models in developmental genetics but also are instrumental in further encouraging scientists, from a wide range of research fields, to capitalize on the great diversity in development that has evolved among rodents.
Astronaut Norman Thagard changes a tray in the research animal holding facility (RAHF) for rodents at the Ames double rack facility aboard the Spacelab 3 science module in the cargo bay of the shuttle Challenger. Lending a hand is payload specialist Lodewijk van den Berg. Both men are wearing protective clothing and surgical masks for this procedure.
Roberto S. A. Ribeiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The tracheal pulmonary route is used in diverse experimental models for the study of drugs, infectious agents, and diseases. In view of its importance and associated difficulties, the present article proposes to give research groups up-to-date information on techniques to access the tracheal pulmonary pathway of small rodents.
Jacob, J; Ulrich, R G; Freise, J; Schmolz, E
Rodents can harbor and transmit pathogens that can cause severe disease in humans, companion animals and livestock. Such zoonotic pathogens comprise more than two thirds of the currently known human pathogens. The epidemiology of some zoonotic pathogens, such as hantaviruses, can be linked to the population dynamics of the rodent host. In this case, during an outbreak of the rodent host population many human infections may occur. In other rodent-borne zoonotic diseases such phenomena are not known and in many cases the rodent host specificity of a given pathogen is unclear. The monitoring of relevant rodent populations and of the rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens is essential to (1) understand the distribution and epidemiology of pathogens and (2) develop forecasting tools to predict outbreaks of zoonoses. Presently, there are no systematic long-term monitoring programs in place for zoonoses in Germany. Rodent monitoring activities are largely restricted to the plant protection sector, such as for the common vole (Microtus arvalis) and forest-damaging rodents. However, during the last 10-15 years a number of specific research projects have been initiated and run for a few years and Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) monitoring has been implemented in Hamburg and Lower Saxony. Based on close cooperation of federal and state authorities and research institutions these efforts could be utilized to gain information about the distribution and importance of rodent-borne zoonoses. Nevertheless, for the integration of rodent population dynamics and zoonotic disease patterns and especially for developing predictive models, long-term monitoring is urgently required. To establish a systematic long-term monitoring program, existing networks and cooperation need to be used, additional collaborators (e.g., pest control operators) should be included and synergetic effects of different scientific fields should be utilized.
Appropriate algorithm is one of the key technologies which are used in the field of UAV route planning. The basic principle of UAV route planning technology which are based on ant colony algorithm is introduced, and demonstrates the general implemental steps of UAV 2-D path planning problem by using the grid figure modeling. Then through improving algorithm, changing models, multi-UAV route planning, dynamic path planning, the present research situation of UAV route planning is discussed based on ant colony algorithm, indicates that the direction of UAV route planning is more perfect algorithm and real-time path planning under complex conditions.%配置适当的算法是无人机航迹规划的关键技术之一。介绍了一种基于蚁群算法的无人机航迹规划技术的基本原理,并采用网格图建模,演示了无人机二维航迹规划问题的一般实现步骤。然后从改进算法、更换其它模型、多无人机航迹规划、动态航迹规划等四个方面探讨了基于蚁群算法的无人机航迹规划技术的研究现状,并指明了配置更完善的算法实现复杂条件下的实时航迹规划等问题是无人机航迹规划未来的主要研究方向。
随着3G网络的日益普及和云网络集群与分布式并行计算的广泛应用,对网络速度和服务质量提出了更高要求。蚁群算法作为一种生物仿生式的启发算法,通过模拟蚁群间信息素的相互协作与动态更新,实时对网络流量负载进行均衡,并对路由选择进行优化。研究结果和仿真实验表明,该算法在解决网络拥塞瓶颈和集群分布式并行计算中,具有较好的研究价值与发展前景。%As the day-by-day popularization of 3G network and the widespread application of cloud network clusters and distributed parallel computing, it is calling for higher demand on the network speed and quality of service. Ant colony optimization as a bio-inspired algorithm, which can be applied to real-time balance network traffic load and to optimize route choice by simulating the mutual cooperation of ant colony between the pheromone and dynamic updates. The study and simulation results both indicate that ACO used for solving bottlenecks of network congestion and parallel computing of distributed clusters, has better research values and prospects.
Jerry J Bromenshenk
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV (Iridoviridae associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1 bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2 bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3 bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey
Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Henderson, Colin B; Wick, Charles H; Stanford, Michael F; Zulich, Alan W; Jabbour, Rabih E; Deshpande, Samir V; McCubbin, Patrick E; Seccomb, Robert A; Welch, Phillip M; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M; Bilimoria, Shan L; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W; Cramer, Robert A
In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses.
Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.
Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.
Full Text Available Public health in twenty-first century Ghana is mired with several issues ranging from the inadequacy of public health facilities, improper settlement planning, insanitary conditions, and the inadequacy of laws and their implementation. This situation compared to the colonial era is a direct contradiction. Development in the pre-colonial era to the colonial era sought to make the prevention of diseases a priority in the colonial administration. This was begun with the establishment of the health branch in 1909 as a response to the bubonic plague that was fast spreading in the colony. From here public health policies and strategies were enacted to help the diseases prevention cause. Various public health boards, the medical research institute or the laboratory branch, the waste management department, the use of preventive medicine and maintenance of good settlement planning and sanitation were public health measures in the colonial era. This research seeks to analyse the public health system in the colonial era so as to draw basic lessons for twenty-first century Ghana. Archival data and other secondary sources are reviewed and analysed to help draw these lessons. Richard Rose’s lesson-drawing approach was used to draw the lessons.
Ziedins, A C; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Kjemtrup, A M; Chang, C-C
Bartonella spp. are endemic in wild rodents in many parts of the world. A study conducted in two northern California counties (Sonoma and Yolo) sampling California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) and four other rodent species (Peromyscus maniculatus, P. boylii, P. truei and Neotoma fuscipes) led to the isolation of small Gram-negative bacilli which were identified as Bartonella spp. based on colony morphology, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and partial gene sequencing. Overall, Bartonella spp. were isolated from the blood of 71% (32/45) of the ground squirrels and one third (22/66) of the other rodents. PCR-RFLP analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes yielded seven unique profiles, four for the ground squirrels and three for the other rodents. Isolates from each PCR-RFLP profiles were submitted for partial sequencing. Ground squirrel isolates were most closely related to B. washoensis, whereas the other rodent isolates were closest to B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii and B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Two of these three species or subspecies are known zoonotic agents.
This essay examines the history of European empire building and health work in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on four patterns that shed light on the ethics of outside interventions: (1) the epidemiological and bodily harms caused by conquest and economic development; (2) the uneven and inadequate health infrastructures established during the colonial era, including certain iatrogenic consequences; (3) the ethical ambiguities and transgressions of colonial research and treatment campaigns; and (4) the concerted and inadvertent efforts to undermine African healing practices, which were not always commensurable with introduced medical techniques. This kind of historical analysis helps us home in on different kinds of ethical problems that have grown out of past asymmetries of power-between people, professions, states, and institutions-that shape the nature of international health systems to this day.
Dainat, Benjamin; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Neumann, Peter
Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is a condition of honey bees, which has contributed in part to the recent major losses of honey bee colonies in the USA. Here we report the first CCD case from outside of the USA. We suggest that more standardization is needed for the case definition to diagnose CCD and to compare data on a global scale. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Julio L. Betancourt
formadores. Basados en la experiencia Norteamericana entregamos además, un resumen de los métodos existentes para la detección y análisis de dichos depósitos, los sesgos asociados, así como el aporte potencial que su análisis podría representar en futuros estudios paleoecológicos en las zonas áridas y semiáridas de SudaméricaIn arid and semi-arid regions of South America, historical evidence for climate and vegetation change is scarce despite its importance for determining reference conditions and rates of natural variability in areas susceptible to modern desertification. Normal lines of evidence, such as pollen stratigraphies from lakes, are either rare or unobtainable in deserts; studies of late Quaternary vegetation history are few and generally inconclusive. This gap in knowledge may be corrected with discovery and development of fossil rodent middens in rocky environments throughout arid South America. These middens, mostly the work of Lagidium, Phyllotis, Abrocoma and Octodontomys, are rich in readily identifiable plant macrofossils, cuticles and pollen, as well as vertebrate and insect remains. In the North American deserts, more than 2,500 woodrat (Neotoma middens analyzed since 1960 have yielded a detailed history of environmental change during the past 40,000 years. Preliminary work in the pre-puna, Monte and Patagonian Deserts of western Argentina, the Atacama Desert of northern Chile/southern Peru, the Mediterranean matorral of central Chile, and the Puna of the Andean altiplano suggest a similar potential for rodent middens in South America. Here we borrow from the North American experience to synthesize methodologies and approaches, summarize preliminary work, and explore the potential of rodent midden research in South America
Full Text Available Munehiro Kitada,1,2 Yoshio Ogura,2 Daisuke Koya1,2 1Division of Anticipatory Molecular Food Science and Technology, Medical Research Institute, 2Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, novel therapies for the suppression of diabetic nephropathy must be developed. Rodent models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases and testing novel therapies, and many type 1 and type 2 diabetic rodent models have been established for the study of diabetes and diabetic complications. Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic animals are widely used as a model of type 1 diabetes. Akita diabetic mice that have an Ins2+/C96Y mutation and OVE26 mice that overexpress calmodulin in pancreatic β-cells serve as a genetic model of type 1 diabetes. In addition, db/db mice, KK-Ay mice, Zucker diabetic fatty rats, Wistar fatty rats, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats and Goto-Kakizaki rats serve as rodent models of type 2 diabetes. An animal model of diabetic nephropathy should exhibit progressive albuminuria and a decrease in renal function, as well as the characteristic histological changes in the glomeruli and the tubulointerstitial lesions that are observed in cases of human diabetic nephropathy. A rodent model that strongly exhibits all these features of human diabetic nephropathy has not yet been developed. However, the currently available rodent models of diabetes can be useful in the study of diabetic nephropathy by increasing our understanding of the features of each diabetic rodent model. Furthermore, the genetic background and strain of each mouse model result in differences in susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy with albuminuria and the development of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions. Therefore, the validation of an animal model reproducing human diabetic nephropathy will
Li, Hangdao; Li, Yao; Yuan, Lu; Wu, Caihong; Lu, Hongyang; Tong, Shanbao
Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of interest to neuroscience researchers, which offers the assessment of hemodynamic responses throughout the process of neurosurgery and provides an early biomarker for surgical guidance. However, intraoperative CBF imaging has been challenging due to animal's motion and position change during the surgery. In this paper, we presented a design of an operation bench integrated with laser speckle contrast imager which enables monitoring of the CBF intraoperatively. With a specially designed stereotaxic frame and imager, we were able to monitor the CBF changes in both hemispheres during the rodent surgery. The rotatable design of the operation plate and implementation of online image registration allow the technician to move the animal without disturbing the CBF imaging during surgery. The performance of the system was tested by middle cerebral artery occlusion model of rats.
Porter, William P; Horn, Mandy J; Cooper, Dale M; Klein, Hilton J
A rodent biosecurity program that includes periodic evaluation of procedures used in an institution's vivarium can be used to ensure that best practices are in place to prevent a microbial pathogen outbreak. As a result of an ongoing comprehensive biosecurity review within their North American and European production facilities, the authors developed a novel biosecurity auditing process and worksheet that could be useful in other animal care and use operations. The authors encourage other institutions to consider initiating similar audits of their biosecurity programs to protect the health of their laboratory animals.
前B细胞克隆增强因子(PBEF)是B细胞发育过程的一种细胞因子,在最近的研究发现它不仅在肥胖相关的疾病如心血管疾病中发挥作用,还参与炎症过程.但PBEF的生理、病理生理作用研究甚少,有待更多的研究.%PBEF is originally identified as a kind of growth factor for early stage B cells,Recent researches show that PBEF not only plays a role in obesity-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease,but also participates in the progress of infection.PBEF is a new factor in above fields and much reseach needs to be done.
Rodent control in urban areas can result in the inadvertent mortality of non-target species (e.g., bobcats). However, there is little detailed information about rodent control practices of urban residents. Our objective was to evaluate urban rodent control behaviors in two area...
Rodent control in urban areas can result in the inadvertent mortality of non-target species (e.g., bobcats). However, there is little detailed information about rodent control practices of urban residents. Our objective was to evaluate urban rodent control behaviors in two area...
目前,无线Mesh网络正成为无线网络研究中的一个热点.Quality of service (QoS)是无线Mesh网络中的一个非常重要问题,而QoS路由技术是解决这一问题的关键技术之一.本文就蚁群算法进行研究和改进,并将改进后的算法应用于无线Mesh网络QoS路由问题,进而提出了无线Mesh网络QoS路由算法,通过实验证明该算法能够对QoS提供较好的支持.%Currently, the wireless Mesh network is a hot spot of wireless network research. In wireless Mesh network,QoS is an important issue, and QoS routing is the key technology to solve this problem. In this paper, we proposed a wireless Mesh network QoS routing algorithm on Improved ant colony algorithm, and our experimental results shows that it can provide better QoS support.
Schoondermark-van de Ven, E.M.E.; Philipse-Bergmann, I.M.; Logt, J.T.M. van der
In this report prevalence rates of rodent viruses in laboratory animals are presented based on routine serological screening of mouse and rat colonies from European institutes. The prevalences found during the period 2000-2003 are compared with those reported for 1981-1984 and 1990-1993. It is shown
Mulungu, L. S.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out basic ecological research on rodent pests within subsistence-level agricultural communities in Africa. A range of techniques were used to collect baseline ecological knowledge on the temporal and spatial dynamics of rodent populations within rural farming communities in Tanzania, Swaziland and Namibia. These techniques included habitat surveys using removal trapping, capture-mark-recapture grids, and radio tracking of individually tagged animals. We also studied the local communities’ knowledge, attitudes and practices with respect to rodents and their control, the current cost of rodent damage and the costs/benefits of rodent control. Based on these data, a case-control trial was implemented to evaluate an ecologically-based rodent management (EBRM intervention using intensive trapping coordinated at the community level. Results showed that intensive trapping using community based rodent management was cost-beneficial for rural farming communities, and these EBRM strategies are ecologically sustainable. Our research has shown that efficacy is more than 75% when compared to what farmers normally do to reduce rat populations. Farmer training and community cooperation are essential, and expertise in social anthropology to develop appropriate knowledge dissemination platforms must be supported.
Eliminating animal facility light-at-night contamination and its effect on circadian regulation of rodent physiology, tumor growth, and metabolism: a challenge in the relocation of a cancer research laboratory.
Dauchy, Robert T; Dupepe, Lynell M; Ooms, Tara G; Dauchy, Erin M; Hill, Cody R; Mao, Lulu; Belancio, Victoria P; Slakey, Lauren M; Hill, Steven M; Blask, David E
Appropriate laboratory animal facility lighting and lighting protocols are essential for maintaining the health and wellbeing of laboratory animals and ensuring the credible outcome of scientific investigations. Our recent experience in relocating to a new laboratory facility illustrates the importance of these considerations. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that animal room contamination with light-at-night (LAN) of as little as 0.2 lx at rodent eye level during an otherwise normal dark-phase disrupted host circadian rhythms and stimulated the metabolism and proliferation of human cancer xenografts in rats. Here we examined how simple improvements in facility design at our new location completely eliminated dark-phase LAN contamination and restored normal circadian rhythms in nontumor-bearing rats and normal tumor metabolism and growth in host rats bearing tissue-isolated MCF7(SR(-)) human breast tumor xenografts or 7288CTC rodent hepatomas. Reducing LAN contamination in the animal quarters from 24.5 ± 2.5 lx to nondetectable levels (complete darkness) restored normal circadian regulation of rodent arterial blood melatonin, glucose, total fatty and linoleic acid concentrations, tumor uptake of O(2), glucose, total fatty acid and CO(2) production and tumor levels of cAMP, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters, as well as extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, serine-threonine protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, γ-histone 2AX, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
Philips, Thomas; Rothstein, Jeffrey D
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the central nervous system. Patients with ALS develop extensive muscle wasting and atrophy leading to paralysis and death 3 to 5 years after disease onset. The condition may be familial (fALS 10%) or sporadic ALS (sALS, 90%). The large majority of fALS cases are due to genetic mutations in the Superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1, 15% of fALS) and repeat nucleotide expansions in the gene encoding C9ORF72 (∼ 40% to 50% of fALS and ∼ 10% of sALS). Studies suggest that ALS is mediated through aberrant protein homeostasis (i.e., ER stress and autophagy) and/or changes in RNA processing (as in all non-SOD1-mediated ALS). In all of these cases, animal models suggest that the disorder is mediated non-cell autonomously, i.e., not only motor neurons are involved, but glial cells including microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and other neuronal subpopulations are also implicated in the pathogenesis. Provided in this unit is a review of ALS rodent models, including discussion of their relative advantages and disadvantages. Emphasis is placed on correlating the model phenotype with the human condition and the utility of the model for defining the disease process. Information is also presented on RNA processing studies in ALS research, with particular emphasis on the newest ALS rodent models. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Dagle, G E; Winsor, T F; Adee, R R
Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rodent and was disseminated in several organs from one Peromyscus. The ultrastructural appearance of the merozoites and the cyst wall formed by the host cell were studied.
Schulte Fischedick, Frederique B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Arechiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Overgaauw, Paul A M; Kasten, Rickie W; Chomel, Bruno B
Bartonella species are highly endemic among wild rodents in many parts of the world. Blood and/or blood clot cultures from 38 rodents, including 27 Yucatan deer mouse (Peromyscus yucatanicus), 7 Gaumer's spiny pocket mouse (Heteromys gaumeri), 2 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 2 big-eared climbing rats (Ototylomys phyllotis) captured near Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, led to the isolation in 3-4 days of small gram-negative bacilli, which were identified as Bartonella spp. based on colony morphology. DNA extraction and PCR testing were also performed from heart samples of 35 of these 38 rodents. Overall, Bartonella spp. were isolated from the blood/blood clots of 22 (58%) rodents. All Bartonella-positive rodents were Yucatán deer mice from San José Pituch. Sequencing of a fragment of the gltA gene showed that all but one rodent isolates were closest to B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii and one isolate was intermediate between B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Further analysis of concatenated housekeeping genes (gltA, ftsZ, rpoB, and 16S rRNA) suggests that this outlier isolate is a new subspecies within the B. vinsonii genogroup, for which we proposed the name B. vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis.
Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.;
surveys of seabird colonies are needed, due to a lack of information or because the present information probably is outdated. The most immediate threats to the colonial seabirds in western Greenland during the breeding time is hunting and egging. Oil pollution is a minor threat to-day, but will increase...... if offshore areas with oil potential are explored and developed. Tab. 6 gives an overview of each species sensitivity to oil spills and the capacity to recover, as well as a comparison of the western Greenland population numbers to the North Atlantic population numbers. The most significant western Greenland...
Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.
(This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.
Beaulieu-Boon, Hendrika H.
In order to enhance our understanding of the making of colonial identities, the bond to natal land fundamental to the formation of ‘self,’ its impact on immigration/repatriation, and the hegemonic application of the paradigm of Colonialism to highly diverse colonial encounters, this research engages
Beaulieu-Boon, Hendrika H.
In order to enhance our understanding of the making of colonial identities, the bond to natal land fundamental to the formation of ‘self,’ its impact on immigration/repatriation, and the hegemonic application of the paradigm of Colonialism to highly diverse colonial encounters, this research engages
In this article, I reflect on my experiences as an Indigenous woman researcher coming to grips with colonialism through a post-colonialism lens. I also discuss a study which examines the leadership journey of a group of Indigenous Australian women. The research, which includes an auto-ethnographic approach, was guided by an Indigenous worldview…
AIM: To observe the regional distributions and morphological features of nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the rodent digestive system. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections of seven organs (pancreas, stomach, duodenum, esophagus, liver, small intestine and colon) dissected from sprague-dawley (SD) rats and institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were prepared. The regional distributions of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 IR cells were observed by immunohistochemical staining. The morphological ...
Kitada M; Ogura Y; Koya D
Munehiro Kitada,1,2 Yoshio Ogura,2 Daisuke Koya1,2 1Division of Anticipatory Molecular Food Science and Technology, Medical Research Institute, 2Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, novel therapies for the suppression of diabetic nephropathy must be developed. Rodent models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases and test...
Bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology (BARDOT) involves in differentiating elastic scattering pattern of bacterial colony. This elastic light scatter technology has shown promising label-free classification rate. However, there is limited success in certain circumstances where either a growth media or a colony has higher opacity. This situation is due to the physical principles of the current BARDOT which mainly relies on optical patterns generated by transmitted signals. Incoming light is obstructed and cannot be transmitted through the dense bacterial colonies, such as Lactobacillus, Yeast, mold and soil bacteria. Moreover, a blood agar, widely used in clinical field, is an example of an opaque media that does not allow light to be transmitted through. Therefore, in this research, a newly designed reflection type scatterometer is presented. The reflection type scatterometer measures the elastic scattering pattern generated by reflected signal. A theoretical model to study the optical pattern characteristic with respect to bacterial colony morphology is presented. Both theoretical and experiment results show good agreement that the size of backward scattering pattern has positive correlation to colony aspect ratio, a colony elevation to diameter ratio. Four pathogenic bacteria on blood agar, Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus, are tested and measured with proposed instrument. The measured patterns are analyzed with a classification software, and high classification rate can be achieved.
Van Ast, J.M.
The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication
Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout
How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical a
Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout
How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical a
Van Ast, J.M.
The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication
Full Text Available Background: Rodents play an important role as reservoir of some pathogens, and the host of some ectoparasites as well. These ectoparasites can transmit rodents’ pathogens to human or animals. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and infestation load of ectoparasites on rodents in Meshkin-Shahr District, northwestern Iran.Method: Rodents were captured using baited live traps in spring 2014 from Meshkin-Shahr District and were transferred to the laboratory for identification to the species level. Their ectoparasites were collected, mounted and identified.Results: Three rodent species including Meriones persicus (74%, Mus musculus (16.9% and Cricetulus migratorius (9% were identified. Among all rodents, 185 specimens (90.69% were infested with a total of 521 ectoparasites. Overall, 10 arthropods species were collected, including fleas (97.6%, one mite (1.6% and one louse species (0.6% as follows: Xenopsylla nubica, X. astia, X. buxtoni, X. cheopis, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, N. iranus, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus rettigismiti, Ornithonyssus sp and one species of genus Polyplax. The most prevalent ectoparasites species was X. nubica (89%.Conclusion: Nearly all rodent species were infested with Xenopsylla species. Monitoring of ectoparasites on infested rodents is very important for awareness and early warning towards control of arthropod-borne diseases.
Romaniuk, Andrzej A; Shepherd, Alexandra N; Clarke, David V; Sheridan, Alison J; Fraser, Sheena; Bartosiewicz, László; Herman, Jeremy S
Rodents have important effects on contemporary human societies, sometimes providing a source of food but more often as agricultural pests, or as vectors and reservoirs of disease. Skeletal remains of rodents are commonly found in archaeological assemblages from around the world, highlighting their potential importance to ancient human populations. However, there are few studies of the interactions between people and rodents at such sites and most of these are confined to locations where rodents have formed a part of the recent diet. Here we compare the accumulation pattern of rodent remains from four locations within and adjacent to the renowned Neolithic site of Skara Brae, Orkney, showing that those within the settlement itself were the result of deliberate human activity. The accumulation and nature of burnt bones, incorporated over an extended period within deposits of household waste, indicate that rodents were used as a nutritional resource and may have been the subject of early pest control. We, therefore, provide the first evidence for the exploitation or control of rodents by the Neolithic inhabitants of Europe.
Colonial societies revolved around nuclear families. Though they often seemed natural, universal and inevitable, colonial nuclear families were in fact produced through a series of laws and customs that regulated sex and marriage...
Ward, Ryan D
Motivational impairments are increasingly recognized as being critical to functional deficits and decreased quality of life in patients diagnosed with psychiatric disease. Accordingly, much preclinical research has focused on identifying psychological and neurobiological processes which underlie motivation . Inferring motivation from changes in overt behavioural responding in animal models, however, is complicated, and care must be taken to ensure that the observed change is accurately characterized as a change in motivation , and not due to some other, task-related process. This chapter discusses current methods for assessing motivation and related psychological processes in rodents. Using an example from work characterizing the motivational impairments in an animal model of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, we highlight the importance of careful and rigorous experimental dissection of motivation and the related psychological processes when characterizing motivational deficits in rodent models . We suggest that such work is critical to the successful translation of preclinical findings to therapeutic benefits for patients.
Viacheslav Iakovlevich Belokrenitskii
Full Text Available The section examines the colonial history of Asia and Africa, as well as key periods and directions of colonization. The authors analyze the features of the colonial political systems, processes of power distribution, the relationships between colonies and metropolis. Particular attention is paid to the strengthening of Asia and Africa in the final period of colonialism, as well as the impact of the Second World War and a new system of international relations on the process of decolonization.
Moreira, Fabrício A; Gobira, Pedro H; Viana, Thércia G; Vicente, Maria A; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G
Panic disorder (PD) is a subtype of anxiety disorder in which the core phenomenon is the spontaneous occurrence of panic attacks. Although studies with laboratory animals have been instrumental for the understanding of its neurobiology and treatment, few review articles have focused on the validity of the currently used animal models for studying this psychopathology. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to discuss the strengths and limits of these models in terms of face, construct and predictive validity. Based on the hypothesis that panic attacks are related to defensive responses elicited by proximal threat, most animal models measure the escape responses induced by specific stimuli. Some apply electrical or chemical stimulation to brain regions proposed to modulate fear and panic responses, such as the dorsal periaqueductal grey or the medial hypothalamus. Other models focus on the behavioural consequences caused by the exposure of rodents to ultrasound or natural predators. Finally, the elevated T-maze associates a one-way escape response from an open arm with panic attacks. Despite some limitations, animal models are essential for a better understanding of the neurobiology and pharmacology of PD and for discovering more effective treatments.
Schlüns, E A; Wegener, B J; Schlüns, H; Azuma, N; Robson, S K A; Crozier, R H
Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) are dominant ants in open forests from India, Australia, China and Southeast Asia, whose leaf nests are held together with larval silk. The species, together with its sole congener O. longinoda, has been important in research on biological control, communication, territoriality and colony integration. Over most of the range, only one queen has been found per colony, but the occurrence of several queens per nest has been reported for the Australian Northern Territory. The number of males mating with each queen is little known. Here we report on the colony structure of O. smaragdina using published and new microsatellite markers. Worker genotype arrays reflect the occurrence of habitual polygyny (more than one queen per colony) in 18 colonies from Darwin, Northern Australia, with up to five queens inferred per colony. Monogyny (one queen per colony) with occasional polygyny was inferred for 14 colonies from Queensland, Australia, and 20 colonies from Java, Indonesia. Direct genotyping of the sperm carried by 77 Queensland queens and worker genotypic arrays of established colonies yielded similar results, indicating that less than half of the queens mate only once and some mate up to five times. Worker genotype arrays indicated that queens from Java and the Northern Territory also often mate with more than one male, but less often than those from Queensland. A strong isolation-by-distance effect was found for Queensland samples. The variation uncovered means that O. smaragdina is a more versatile study system than previously supposed.
Farraj, Aimen K; Hazari, Mehdi S; Cascio, Wayne E
Extensive research has lead to a growing appreciation that the heart is acutely sensitive to a broad array of toxicants via multiple routes of exposure. These agents are as diverse as the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin and environmental agents including ambient air pollution. Adverse effects in the heart often manifest as a change in the electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG has long been used in the clinic to assess human cardiovascular health. Surface electrocardiographic recordings (i.e., those made from the skin) in humans often help to detect abnormal myocardial impulse formation, conduction, cardiac rhythm disturbances, and altered autonomic regulation of the heart. In toxicology, the ECG provides a collection of end points that may be used to assess both the quality and magnitude of cardiac toxicity. Increasingly over the last two decades, the cardiotoxicity of agents have been characterized using small rodent electrocardiography. Additionally, tremendous insight into possible mechanisms of action of known human cardiotoxicants has been gained. Rat and mouse models offer a number of advantages relative to larger animals including lower cost, less variability, the availability of transgenic models, and a plethora of research tools. Modern day advances in small rodent electrocardiography have enabled assessments in conscious unrestrained animals and improved ECG interpretation. Thus, the incorporation of small rodent electrocardiographic assessments into toxicology studies may facilitate the screening of cardiotoxic potential and the elucidation of mechanisms of action. This review will discuss the utility of the small rodent ECG, various methodologies used to derive ECG data in rats and mice, and various applications in toxicology.
Jeanson, Sophie; Floury, Juliane; Gagnaire, Valérie; Lortal, Sylvie; Thierry, Anne
Bacteria, either indigenous or added, are immobilized in solid foods where they grow as colonies. Since the 80's, relatively few research groups have explored the implications of bacteria growing as colonies and mostly focused on pathogens in large colonies on agar/gelatine media. It is only recently that high resolution imaging techniques and biophysical characterization techniques increased the understanding of the growth of bacterial colonies, for different sizes of colonies, at the microscopic level and even down to the molecular level. This review covers the studies on bacterial colony growth in agar or gelatine media mimicking the food environment and in model cheese. The following conclusions have been brought to light. Firstly, under unfavorable conditions, mimicking food conditions, the immobilization of bacteria always constrains their growth in comparison with planktonic growth and increases the sensibility of bacteria to environmental stresses. Secondly, the spatial distribution describes both the distance between colonies and the size of the colonies as a function of the initial level of population. By studying the literature, we concluded that there systematically exists a threshold that distinguishes micro-colonies (radius macro-colonies (radius >200 μm). Micro-colonies growth resembles planktonic growth and no pH microgradients could be observed. Macro-colonies growth is slower than planktonic growth and pH microgradients could be observed in and around them due to diffusion limitations which occur around, but also inside the macro-colonies. Diffusion limitations of milk proteins have been demonstrated in a model cheese around and in the bacterial colonies. In conclusion, the impact of immobilization is predominant for macro-colonies in comparison with micro-colonies. However, the interaction between the colonies and the food matrix itself remains to be further investigated at the microscopic scale.
YU Ling; LIU Kang; LI Kaishi
Based on the analysis of the basic ant colony optimization and optimum problem in a continuous space,an ant colony optimization (ACO) for continuous problem is constructed and discussed. The algorithm is efficient and beneficial to the study of the ant colony optimization in a continuous space.
retention time suggest that little ruminant-like fibre digestion occurs in the ... gastro-intestinal tract of rodents (Vorontsov, 1962;. Carleton ... and swollen cells superficially. The fornical .... The ways of food specialization and the evolution of the ...
Small interstellar colony probes based on nanotechnology will become possible long before giant multi-generation ships become affordable. A beam generator and magnetic sail can accelerate a one kg probe to .1 c, braking via the interstellar field can decelerate it, and the field in a distant solar system can allow it to maneuver to an extrasolar planet. A heat shield is used for landing and nanobots emerge to build ever-larger robots and construct colony infrastructure. Humans can then be generated from genomes stored as data in computer memory. Technology is evolving towards these capabilities and should reach the required level in fifty years. The plan appears to be affordable, with the principal cost being the beam generator, estimated at $17 billion.
In modern agriculture planting picking, picking fruits and vegetables operating in a complex and arduous, picking robot in the process often need to experience thousands of fruit and vegetable picking point, the face of such a huge workload, picking mobile robot path planning is very important. The to picking robot trajectory as the research ob-ject, takes the shortest length of the motion trajectory as the research target, for each robot joint mechanism motion speed changes, combined with robot motion characteristics, the basic ant colony algorithm of six degree of freedom picking robot path planning. The experimental results show that: the design of the picking robot trajectory optimization technology not only has strong ability of path optimization, smooth motion trajectory, but also has the advantages of strong reliability and good stability.%在现代农业生产中，果蔬采摘作业复杂而繁重，采摘机器人在作业过程中常常需要经历成千上万个果蔬采摘点，面对这样巨大的工作量，采摘机器人移动路径规划显得非常重要。为此，以采摘机器人运动轨迹为研究对象，以其运动轨迹总长最短为研究目标，针对机器人各关节机构运动速度变化情况及机器人运动特性，利用基本蚁群原理对六自由度采摘机器人的路径进行规划。实验结果表明：所设计的采摘机器人轨迹优化技术不但路径优化能力强、运动轨迹平滑，还具有可靠性强及稳定性好的优点。
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodentia is the most diverse order of placental mammals, with extant rodent species representing about half of all placental diversity. In spite of many morphological and molecular studies, the family-level relationships among rodents and the location of the rodent root are still debated. Although various datasets have already been analyzed to solve rodent phylogeny at the family level, these are difficult to combine because they involve different taxa and genes. Results We present here the largest protein-coding dataset used to study rodent relationships. It comprises six nuclear genes, 41 rodent species, and eight outgroups. Our phylogenetic reconstructions strongly support the division of Rodentia into three clades: (1 a "squirrel-related clade", (2 a "mouse-related clade", and (3 Ctenohystrica. Almost all evolutionary relationships within these clades are also highly supported. The primary remaining uncertainty is the position of the root. The application of various models and techniques aimed to remove non-phylogenetic signal was unable to solve the basal rodent trifurcation. Conclusion Sequencing and analyzing a large sequence dataset enabled us to resolve most of the evolutionary relationships among Rodentia. Our findings suggest that the uncertainty regarding the position of the rodent root reflects the rapid rodent radiation that occurred in the Paleocene rather than the presence of conflicting phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic signals in the dataset.
Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.
We present estimates for head and body length (HBL) of fossil rodents. We assembled HBL data and tooth row length data (LTR, UTR) for a large number of extant rodents, and calculated regression lines of HBL on LTR and UTR for all rodents together (all-rodents equation), and for separate taxonomic gr
Daniella E. Chusyd
Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.
Sun, Gwo-Shing; Tou, Janet C; Yu, Diane; Girten, Beverly E; Cohen, Jacob
Rodents have been the most frequently flown animal model used to study physiological responses to the space environment. In support of future of space exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) envisions an animal research program focused on rodents. Therefore, the development of a rodent diet that is suitable for the spaceflight environment including long duration spaceflight is a high priority. Recognizing the importance of nutrition in affecting spaceflight physiological responses and ensuring reliable biomedical and biological science return, NASA developed the nutrient-upgraded rodent food bar (NuRFB) as a standard diet for rodent spaceflight. Depending on future animal habitat hardware and planned spaceflight experiments, modification of the NuRFB or development of a new diet formulation may be needed, particularly for long term spaceflights. Research in this area consists primarily of internal technical reports that are not readily accessible. Therefore, the aims of this contribution are to provide a brief history of the development of rodent spaceflight diets, to review the present diet used in rodent spaceflight studies, and to discuss some of the challenges and potential solutions for diets to be used in future long-term rodent spaceflight studies.
Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.
Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J
Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control.
Seluanov, Andrei; Vaidya, Amita; Gorbunova, Vera
The importance of using primary cells, rather than cancer cell lines, for biological studies is becoming widely recognized. Primary cells are preferred in studies of cell cycle control, apoptosis, and DNA repair, as cancer cells carry mutations in genes involved in these processes. Primary cells cannot be cultured indefinitely due to the onset of replicative senescence or aneuploidization. Hence, new cultures need to be established regularly. The procedure for isolation of rodent embryonic fibroblasts is well established, but isolating adult fibroblast cultures often presents a challenge. Adult rodent fibroblasts isolated from mouse models of human disease may be a preferred control when comparing them to fibroblasts from human patients. Furthermore, adult fibroblasts are the only available material when working with wild rodents where pregnant females cannot be easily obtained. Here we provide a protocol for isolation and culture of adult fibroblasts from rodent skin and lungs. We used this procedure successfully to isolate fibroblasts from over twenty rodent species from laboratory mice and rats to wild rodents such as beaver, porcupine, and squirrel. PMID:20972406
Thiagarajan, Bala; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Cully, Jack F
Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off.
Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F.
Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.
Historical inquiry in art education forms the basis of any research undertaken in the field. It is on this path that we discover ignored moments and personalities and clarify challenging ideas, thus approaching history from multiple perspectives. This historical study attempts to reframe the past of colonial Indian art education within the broader…
Full Text Available Core business is the most important business to the enterprise in diversified business. In this paper, we first introduce the definition and characteristics of the core business and then descript the ant colony clustering algorithm. In order to test the effectiveness of the proposed method, Tianjin Port Logistics Development Co., Ltd. is selected as the research object. Based on the current situation of the development of the company, the core business of the company can be acquired by ant colony clustering algorithm. Thus, the results indicate that the proposed method is an effective way to determine the core business for company.
Malakar, P.K.; Brocklehurst, T.F.; Mackie, A.R.; Wilson, P.D.G.; Zwietering, M.H.; Riet, K. van 't
Fluorescence ratio imaging is a non-invasive technique for studying the formation of microgradients in immobilised bacterial colonies. These gradients can be quantified easily when combined with the gel cassette system designed at the Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK. Colonies of
Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M
The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.
Full Text Available This essay discusses the contributions of post-colonial studies for renewing the contemporary social theory. At first it considers the character of the critique addressed by post-colonial studies to social sciences. After that, it analyses the post-colonial epistemological alternatives, considering three interrelated concepts: entangled modernity, "hybrid" site of enunciation, and decentralized subject. The conclusion is that, in spite of its severity and suspicion among some authors that post-colonial theory can destroy epistemological foundations of social sciences, an important part of post-colonial critique is rather addressed to the theory of modernization. Here, post-colonial positions present affinities with objections, which have already been presented by "conventional" social scientists. Other aspects raised by post-colonial authors do not destabilize, necessarily, social sciences; they can even enrich them.
Nociception and pain is a large field of both neuroscience and medical research. Over time, various tests and models were developed in rodents to provide tools for fundamental and translational research on the topic. Tests using thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli, measures of hyperalgesia and allodynia, models of inflammatory or neuropathic pain, constitute a toolbox available to researchers. These tests and models allowed rapid progress on the anatomo-molecular basis of physiological and pathological pain, even though they have yet to translate into new analgesic drugs. More recently, a growing effort has been put forth trying to assess pain in rats or mice, rather than nociceptive reflexes, or at studying complex states affected by chronic pain. This aids to further improve the translational value of preclinical research in a field with balanced research efforts between fundamental research, preclinical work, and human studies. This review describes classical tests and models of nociception and pain in rodents. It also presents some recent and ongoing developments in nociceptive tests, recent trends for pain evaluation, and raises the question of the appropriateness between tests, models, and procedures.
Carrara, Paolo; Stano, Pasquale; Luisi, Pier Luigi
Current research on the origin of life typically focuses on the self-organisation of molecular components in individual cell-like compartments, thereby bringing about the emergence of self-sustaining minimal cells. This is justified by the fact that single cells are the minimal forms of life. No attempts have been made to investigate the cooperative mechanisms that could derive from the assembly of individual compartments. Here we present a novel experimental approach based on vesicles "colonies" as a model of primitive cell communities. Experiments show that several advantages could have favoured primitive cell colonies when compared with isolated primitive cells. In fact there are two novel unexpected features typical of vesicle colonies, namely solute capture and vesicle fusion, which can be seen as the basic physicochemical mechanisms at the origin of life.
“I Don't Think that Any Peer Review Committee . . . Would Ever ‘Get’ What I Currently Do”: How Institutional Metrics for Success and Merit Risk Perpetuating the (Reproduction of Colonial Relationships in Community-Based Participatory Research Involving Indigenous Peoples in Canada
Full Text Available This article reports on findings from a study that explored how a group of leading health researchers who do Indigenous community-engaged research (n = 20 in Canada envision enacting ethically sound research with Indigenous communities, as well as the concomitant tensions associated with doing so. In particular, we explore how institutional metrics for assessing merit and granting tenure are seen to privilege conventional discourses of productivity and validity in research and, as a result, are largely incongruent with the relational values associated with decolonizing research through community-based participatory health research. Our findings reveal that colonial incursion from the academy risk filtering into such research agendas and create a conflict between relational accountability to community partners and academic accountability to one’s discipline and peers.
施俊; 高正夏; 徐嵚嵛
沉降预测一直是地基工程的一个重点研究项目.软土具有天然含水量高、塑性指数大、黏粒含量高等特殊的工程特性,因此,建立在软土上的地基沉降难以预测,对于工程建设有一定的隐患.支持向量机在解决样本数量小、非线性问题上有其特有的优势.利用人工蜂群算法对支持向量机的参数进行优化后建立SVM模型,对木兰溪防洪工程的沉降问题进行预测,将其预测结果与传统的支持向量机模型以及曲线拟合预测方法结果进行对比.最终证明了ABC-SVM模型在软基沉降预测上的可用性.%The prediction of the settlement is always an important research topic in foundation engineering. Soft soil has engineering features of high moisture content,high plastic exponent and high clay content,so it is hard to predict the settlement of soft soil foundation which is dangerous to the engineering construction. The support vector machines are good at dealing with problems that are nonlinear and have little sample size. We use artificial bee colony to optimize the selection of support vector machines'parameters to build SVM model. And the model is used to predict the settlement of flood control project in Mulan stream. The predicting outcomes are used to comparing with the traditional support vector machines and the curve-fitting method's outcomes. It turns out the usability of the ABC-SVM in the prediction of soft soil foundation.
Andrew H Jheon; Michaela Prochazkova; Michael Sherman; Devanand S Manoli; Nirao M Shah; Lawrence Carbone; Ophir Klein
Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth.
Tung G Phan
Full Text Available The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in
Kinnunen, Paula M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kallio, Eva R; Korthase, Christian; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Palva, Airi; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Suominen, Paula; Ulrich, Rainer G; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli
The genus Orthopoxvirus includes variola (smallpox) virus and zoonotic cowpox virus (CPXV). All orthopoxviruses (OPV) are serologically cross-reactive and cross-protective, and after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, CPXV and other OPV infections represent an emerging threat to human health. In this respect CPXV, with its reservoir in asymptomatically infected wild rodents, is of special importance. In Europe, clinical cowpox has been diagnosed in both humans and animals. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of OPV infections in wild rodents in different parts of Eurasia and to compare the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in detecting OPV DNA in wildlife samples. We investigated 962 wild rodents from Northern Europe (Finland), Central Europe (Germany), and Northern Asia (Siberia, Russia) for the presence of OPV antibodies. According to a CPXV antigen-based immunofluorescence assay, animals from 13 of the 17 locations (76%) showed antibodies. Mean seroprevalence was 33% in Finland (variation between locations 0%-69%), 32% in Germany (0%-43%), and 3.2% (0%-15%) in Siberia. We further screened tissue samples from 513 of the rodents for OPV DNA using up to three real-time PCRs. Three rodents from two German and one Finnish location were OPV DNA positive. The amplicons were 96% to 100% identical to available CPXV sequences. Further, we demonstrated OPV infections as far east as the Baikal region and occurring in hamster and two other rodent species, ones previously unnoticed as possible reservoir hosts. Based on serological and PCR findings, Eurasian wild rodents are frequently but nonpersistently infected with OPVs. Results from three real-time PCR methods were highly concordant. This study extends the geographic range and wildlife species diversity in which OPV (or CPXV) viruses are naturally circulating.
Pires, Gabriel Natan; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy
The effects of acute sleep deprivation on anxiety are the focus of controversy in the literature. While clinical research studies on the effects of sleep deprivation seem to show a consistent increase in acute anxiety, rodent studies have produced inconsistent results, with some experiments pointing to anxiogenesis and others to anxiolysis. Such observations impair the translational applicability of rodent models on the paradigm between sleep deprivation and anxiety. Current studies fail in the very basic principle of biomedical translational research: to provide relevant and reliable knowledge from basic experimental science that can be applied in clinical environments. Possible explanations for the disparity between human and animal studies include the accuracy of both human and rodent research, the ability of current behavioral protocols to truly reflect the anxiety response of rodents to sleep deprivation, and the nature of sleep deprivation-induced anxiety in rodents. Based on these hypotheses, we performed a brief overview of the literature on the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety and propose a research agenda that could lead to a better understanding of the reasons for the discrepancies found in the literature and provide more reliable data on the translational relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety.
Pesquisa em educação: os movimentos sociais e a reconstrução epistemológica num contexto de colonialidade Research on education: social movements and epistemological reconstruction in a context of coloniality
Danilo Romeu Streck
Full Text Available O artigo busca explicitar aspectos da epistemologia que embasam uma ação investigativa coerente com a educação emancipadora na América Latina. O pano de fundo a partir do qual se desenham alternativas para o conhecimento e a transformação da realidade é constituído pelas discussões sobre a colonialidade. A história revela que, junto com a subserviência epistêmica, houve e continua havendo um movimento contra-hegemônico que valoriza não só os saberes autóctones, mas também as distintas formas de conhecer. Adota-se o conceito epistemologias do Sul, de Boaventura de Sousa Santos, para designar as expressões historicamente tornadas invisíveis e que encontram múltiplas maneiras de sobreviver, resistir e expressar-se. Após a retomada histórica de cunho filosófico-epistemológico com o intuito de contribuir para a reconstrução e a ampliação do quadro de referência teórico, discute-se o papel dos movimentos sociais na América Latina como espaço de gênese da educação popular e de formas de pesquisa participativa que podem continuar inspirando práticas investigativas transformadoras. Argumenta-se que os movimentos sociais, em que pese sua heterogeneidade política e ideológica, podem conter potencialidades teóricas capazes de constituir um lugar epistemológico de avaliação crítica das correntes ideológicas do Norte, oportunizar a disputa na interpretação das realidades e impulsionar metodologias de pesquisa participativas e promotoras de cidadania.This article seeks to clarify some epistemological aspects that ground an investigative action consistent with emancipatory education in Latin America. The background from which the knowledge and alternatives for the transformation of reality are drawn consists of discussions of coloniality. History reveals that, along with epistemic servility, there has been a counter-hegemonic movement which values not only autochthones' knowledge but also the different ways of
Krebs, C J; Gaines, M S; Keller, B L; Myers, J H; Tamarin, R H
We conclude that population fluctuations in Microtus in southern Indiana are produced by a syndrome of changes in birth and death rates similar to that found in other species of voles and lemmings. The mechanisms which cause the changes in birth and death rates are demolished by fencing the population so that no dispersal can occur. Dispersal thus seems critical for population regulation in Microtus. Because most dispersal occurs during the increase phase of the population cycle and there is little dispersal during the decline phase, dispersal is not directly related to population density. Hence the quality of dispersing animals must be important, and we have found one case of increased dispersal tendency by one genotype. The failure of population regulation of Microtus in enclosed areas requires an explanation by any hypothesis attempting to explain population cycles in small rodents. It might be suggested that the fence changed the predation pressure on the enclosed populations. However, the fence was only 2 feet (0.6 meter) high and did not stop the entrance of foxes, weasels, shrews, or avian predators. A striking feature was that the habitat in the enclosures quickly recovered from complete devastation by the start of the spring growing season. Obviously the habitat and food quality were sufficient to support Microtus populations of abnormally high densities, and recovery of the habitat was sufficiently quick that the introduction of new animals to these enclosed areas resulted in another population explosion. Finally, hypotheses of population regulation by social stress must account for the finding that Microtus can exist at densities several times greater than normal without "stress" taking an obvious toll. We hypothesize that the prevention of dispersal changes the quality of the populations in the enclosures in comparison to those outside the fence. Voles forced to remain in an overcrowded fenced population do not suffer high mortality rates and continue
Pedersen, Jes Søe
It is no wonder that we are transfixed with fascination when we stand in the midst of an ocean of flowing ants within a single extensive society of one of the invasive species. Normal terms do not fit anymore: this is not just a colony, but a “supercolony.” The iconic supercolonial species...... is the Argentine ant, infamous as a pest and now very well studied, all the way from having its genome sequenced to its global distribution mapped. As the Argentine ant can be the key to understanding other supercolonial and/or invasive ants, it is very timely that Moffett's review (2012) focuses on how we...
Pilar Jaramillo de Zuleta
Full Text Available Lo primero que se observa al recorrer nuestro patrimonio artístico del período colonial, es la abrumadora mayoría del temario religioso; al punto de que muchos -desde luego, los no profesionales- identifican confusamente la colonia con una época entregada a las prácticas piadosas y al culto de las imágenes y productora, por lo tanto, de un arte basado exclusivamente en la representación de estos personajes celestiales.
苏涛; 王庆斌; 孙聪; 李文强
On the basis of the analysis on the general VRP problem, a mathematical model of military logistics delivery routing optimization problem was built, and the ant colony algorithm was used to simulate Txperimental results showed that ant colony algorithm is a fast and effective method of solving military logistics delivery routing optimization problem.%在对一般VRP问题分析的基础上，建立了军事物流配送路径优化问题的数学模型，运用蚁群算法进行了仿真实验，实验结果表明，蚁群算法可以快速有效地解决军事物流配送的路径优化问题。
Cook, Zoe; Franks, Daniel W; Robinson, Elva J H
In socially foraging species resource information can be shared between individuals, increasing foraging success. In ant colonies, nestmate recruitment allows high exploitation rates at known resources however, to maximise foraging efficiency this must be balanced with searching for new resources. Many ant species form colonies inhabiting two or more spatially separated but socially connected nests: this type of organisation is known as polydomy. Polydomous colonies may benefit from increased foraging efficiency by carrying out dispersed-central place foraging. However, decentralisation of the colony may affect recruitment success by limiting interaction between ants based in separate nests. We use an agent-based model which compares the foraging success of monodomous and polydomous colonies in different food environments, incorporating recruitment through pheromone trails and group foraging. In contrast to previous results we show that polydomy is beneficial in some but not all cases. Polydomous colonies discover resources at a higher rate, making them more successful when food is highly dispersed, but their relative success can be lowered by limitations on recruitment success. Monodomous colonies can have higher foraging efficiency than polydomous colonies by exploiting food more rapidly. The results show the importance of interactions between recruitment strategy, colony size, and colony organisation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
张澎; 王鲁达; 胡丹
针对蚁群算法解决一些复杂多维问题的能力不强,容易陷入局部最优,造成算法早熟的情况.为解决上述问题,提出了一种用量子衍生方法的多目标蚁群算法,可用量子遗传算法的全局搜索和蚁群算法的群体智能机制,将蚁群优化与量子遗传算法相结合,用于多维0-1背包问题的求解.与同类算法进行对比分析,实验证明改进算法不仅能更快更精确地逼近Pareto最优前端,并能够维持Pareto最优解分布的均匀性,有效的提高了计算效率和搜索效率,且能弥补蚁群算法的不足.%Ant colony algorithm is not expert in solving some complex mulli - dimensional problems, and tends to sink into partial optimum result leading to precocity of algorithm. This paper provided a new ant colony algorithm for solving knapsack problem. Based on global search of quantum genetic algorithm and swarm intelligence, this algorithm combines ant colony optimization with quantum genetic algorithm. Utilizing this method to solve multi ?dimensional 0 - 1 knapsack problem, compared with similar algorithms, the results indicate that the algorithm can approach Pareto optimal front faster and more exactly, meanwhile sustain balance of Pareto optimum solution distribution. The experiment proves that the algorithm improves efficiency of computing and searching, thus the algorithm can remedy the deficiency of ant colony algorithm.
传统的蚁群算法具有搜索时间长的缺点，在实际应用中受到限制。故该文提出了基于信息素扩散模型的蚁群算法，简化了信息素扩散，并改进了基本蚁群算法的信息素更新方式。最后将该改进算法应用在碰撞检测当中，通过手术中手术器械与人体的碰撞反映的仿真验算，验证了基于信息素扩散模型的蚁群算法在碰撞检测中能提高碰撞的效率和精确度，为实际的应用提供理论依据与指导。% The traditionnal ant colony algorithm has shortcomings of needing too long time when searching, restricted in practi⁃cal application. So the paper puts forward ant colony algorithm based on the pheromone diffusion model, simplifing the phero⁃mone diffusion, and improving the update mode of basic ant colony algorithm pheromone. Finally, this improved algorithm is ap⁃plied in collision detection. Through simulation of the surgical instruments and human collision in surgery, the paper verifies the ant colony algorithm based on the pheromone diffusion model can improve the efficiency of collision and accuracy in collision detection , providing theoretical basis and guidance in actual application.
判读食品质量是否符合国家相关标准的其中一项标准就是进行微生物学检测,微生物学检测包括细菌总数检测、大肠菌群检测以及致病菌检测三项内容.进行菌落总数检测对于食品安全具有重要的意义.本文将结合目前食品菌落总数检测的实际情况,介绍国内外现有的菌落总数快速检测的方法,并分析研究未来食品中菌落总数快速检测的发展方向.希望能为以后的菌落检测工作提供一些帮助.%The quality of food is one of the standards of the state. It is a standard to carry out microbiological examination. Microbiological examination includes three parts, including the total number of bacteria, Escherichia coli group and pathogenic bacteria. The detection of total colony count is very important for food safety. This paper will combine the actual situation of the total number of food bacteria detection, and introduce the method of rapid detection of the total number of colonies at home and abroad, and analyze the development direction of rapid detection of the total number of colonies in the future. Hope to provide some help for the future work of colony detection.
Robinson Crusoe is a classic and popular novel. On the surface,Robinson Crusoe is an adventure story,pure and simple. But from the theory of post-colonial criticism,it reveals an obvious colonialism tendency hidden underneath the storyline. Robinson Crusoe is the very prototype of the empire builder,the pioneer colonist, who settles on the island and colonizes it. He conquers not only the island,but also his native companion. Robinson Crusoe calls for study of its colonial contexts. Indeed,from different aspects of the novel we can see very clearly colonialism characteristic.%《鲁滨逊漂流记》是一部经典小说,深受读者的欢迎。从表面上看这是一部历险小说,故事情节简单明了。然而,如果借用后殖民批评理论去解读,《鲁滨逊漂流记》就折射出了殖民主义的思想。这部小说的主角是一位典型的资产阶级殖民主义者,他定居在荒岛上,并且殖民着这片荒岛。他不但控制着整个荒岛、而且征服了他的同伴。这部小说呼唤殖民内容的研究,事实上从这部小说的每一个方面都能看出殖民主义倾向。
Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...
Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Saitoh, Ryoichi; Tanaka, Shin; Ohsato-Suzuki, Motoko; Ohno, Tamio; Kitajima, Shuji
The life span and survival parameters of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in a breeding colony at CLEA Japan, Inc. were investigated. The average life span of male marmosets was 148.5 ± 6.1 (mean ± SE) months of age (M), which was significantly longer (P marmosets show a slight decline in survival during the first 7-9 years and then a dramatic decrease and another slight decline after 14-16 year of age in survival, i.e., a lifespan curve similar to what is observed in colonies of aging rodents and humans. The sex-associated difference in life span was caused by reproductive burden on the females. The present study reported a longer than expected life span of the marmoset, and a long-lived animal can be a powerful model for senescence and longevity sciences.
谢颖; 李吉兴; 杨忠学; 张岩
To optimize the structural parameters of the 4-pole 7. 5 kW line-start permanent magnet synchro-nous motor, an improved binary genetic ant colony algorithm which combined the advantages of genetic al-gorithm with ant colony algorithm and solved the problem of continuous space optimization was used. The basic idea of binary genetic ant colony algorithm and its features were presented, and the specific imple-mentation method of binary genetic ant colony algorithm in motor optimization design was mainly discussed. Language was used to realize the algorithm and results of simulation and calculation were obtained to prove its global convergence property. Finite element method was used to simulate the optimized electromagnetic design. The result slows that the optimization design of motor based on improved binary genetic ant colony algorithm may effectively improve the starting and running performance of the motor.%针对电机的优化设计问题，采用一种改进的二进制遗传蚁群算法，对一台4极7．5 kW的自起动永磁同步电动机的结构参数进行优化，该算法结合遗传算法和蚁群算法各自的优点，并且能解决连续空间优化问题。介绍了改进二进制遗传蚁群算法的基本思想及其特点，重点论述该算法在电机优化设计中的具体实现方法。采用编程语言实现该算法，通过大量的仿真计算验证算法的全局收敛能力。利用有限元方法对优化后的电磁设计方案进行仿真，结果表明该算法可以使自起动永磁同步电动机得到较好的优化，有可能提高电机的起动性能和运行性能。
Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to collect wild rodents for endoparasites determination in some parts of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran nearby Pakistan and Afghanistan countries.Methods: A total of 100 wild rodents were captured alive with cage traps. Various samples were collected from blood and feces, also impression smear prepared from different organs. The samples were prepared by formalin-ether or stained with Giemsa, after that were examined under microscope.Results: All the caught rodents (47 Tatera indica, 44 Meriones hurriana, 5 Gerbilus nanus and 4 Meriones libycus were studied for endoparasites emphasizing to their zoonotic aspects. Endoparasites including Spirurida,Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana feraterna, Trichuris trichiura, Skerjabino taenia, Trichostrongylus spp, Entamoeba muris, Chilomastix mesnili and Leishmania spp were parasitologically identified.Conclusion: Among 9 genera or species of the identified parasites at least 5 of them have zoonotic and public health importance.
Lodge, Daniel J
Rodent models of human disease are essential to obtain a better understanding of disease pathology, the mechanism of action underlying conventional treatments, as well as for the generation of novel therapeutic approaches. There are a number of rodent models of schizophrenia based on either genetic manipulations, acute or sub-chronic drug administration, or developmental disturbances. The prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent model is a developmental disruption model gaining increased attention because it displays a number of histological, neurophysiological, and behavioral deficits analogous to those observed in schizophrenia patients. This unit describes the procedures required to safely induce the MAM phenotype in rats. In addition, we describe a simple behavioral procedure, amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, which can be utilized to verify the MAM phenotype.
Full Text Available Colonialism, that Loomba calls "the most complex and traumatic relationship in human history" (2005, 8, has left its mark on international relations, social relationships within nations, and the ideologies and imaginaries of virtually all the peoples of the world. Understanding colonialism and its consequences is therefore essential to comprehending the dynamics and conflicts of the contemporary world. This special focus was born out of a desire to bring social psychological studies on colonialism to broader attention.
Lega, J.; Passot, T.
We present numerical simulations of a recent hydrodynamic model describing the growth of bacterial colonies on agar plates. We show that this model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed phase diagrams, which relate a colony shape to the initial quantity of nutrients on the plate and the initial wetness of the agar. We also discuss the principal features resulting from the interplay between hydrodynamic motions and colony growth, as described by our model.
Ingram, Krista K; Pilko, Anna; Heer, Jeffrey; Gordon, Deborah M
1. We estimate colony reproductive success, in numbers of offspring colonies arising from a colony's daughter queens, of colonies of the red harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus. 2. A measure of lifetime reproductive success is essential to understand the relation of ecological factors, phenotype and fitness in a natural population. This was possible for the first time in a natural population of ant colonies using data from long-term study of a population of colonies in south-eastern Arizona, for which ages of all colonies are known from census data collected since 1985. 3. Parentage analyses of microsatellite data from 5 highly polymorphic loci were used to assign offspring colonies to maternal parent colonies in a population of about 265 colonies, ages 1-28 years, sampled in 2010. 4. The estimated population growth rate Ro was 1.69 and generation time was 7.8 years. There was considerable variation among colonies in reproductive success: of 199 possible parent colonies, only 49 (˜ 25%) had offspring colonies on the site. The mean number of offspring colonies per maternal parent colony was 2.94 and ranged from 1 to 8. A parent was identified for the queen of 146 of 247 offspring colonies. There was no evidence for reproductive senescence; fecundity was about the same throughout the 25-30 year lifespan of a colony. 5. There were no trends in the distance or direction of the dispersal of an offspring relative to its maternal parent colony. There was no relationship between the number of gynes produced by a colony in 1 year and the number of offspring colonies subsequently founded by its daughter reproductive females. The results provide the first estimate of a life table for a population of ant colonies and the first estimate of the female component of colony lifetime reproductive success. 6. The results suggest that commonly used measures of reproductive output may not be correlated with realized reproductive success. This is the starting point for future
Becerra, Federico; Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Casinos, Adrià; Vassallo, Aldo Iván
Mammals have developed sophisticated strategies adapting to particular locomotor modes, feeding habits, and social interactions. Many rodent species have acquired a fossorial, semi-fossorial, or even subterranean life-style, converging on morphological, anatomical, and ecological features but diverging in the final arrangement. These ecological variations partially depend on the functional morphology of their digging tools. Muscular and mechanical features (e.g., lever arms relationship) of the bite force were analyzed in three caviomorph rodents with similar body size but different habits and ecological demands of the jaws. In vivo forces were measured at incisors' tip using a strain gauge load cell force transducer whereas theoretical maximal performance values, mechanical advantages, and particular contribution of each adductor muscle were estimated from dissections in specimens of Ctenomys australis (subterranean, solitary), Octodon degus (semi-fossorial, social), and Chinchilla laniger (ground-dweller, colonial). Our results showed that C. australis bites stronger than expected given its small size and C. laniger exhibited the opposite outcome, while O. degus is close to the expected value based on mammalian bite force versus body mass regressions; what might be associated to the chisel-tooth digging behavior and social interactions. Our key finding was that no matter how diverse these rodents' skulls were, no difference was found in the mechanical advantage of the main adductor muscles. Therefore, interspecific differences in the bite force might be primarily due to differences in the muscular development and force, as shown for the subterranean, solitary and territorial C. australis versus the more gracile, ground-dweller, and colonial C. laniger.
Full Text Available Grid computing is a high performance computing used to solve larger scale computational demands. Task scheduling is a major issue in grid computing systems. Scheduling of tasks is the NP hard problem. The heuristic approach provides optimal solution for NP hard problems .The ant colony algorithm provides optimal solution. The existing ant colony algorithm takes more time to schedule the tasks. In this paper ant colony algorithm improved by enhancing pheromone updating rule such that it schedules the tasks efficiently and better resource utilization. The simulation results prove that proposed method reduces the execution time of tasks compared to existing ant colony algorithm.
Cagnacci, F; Bolzoni, L; Rosà, R; Carpi, G; Hauffe, H C; Valent, M; Tagliapietra, V; Kazimirova, M; Koci, J; Stanko, M; Lukan, M; Henttonen, H; Rizzoli, A
Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to eastern and central Europe with broad temporal and spatial variation in infection risk. Although many studies have focused on understanding the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting exposure of humans to TBE, comparatively little research has been devoted to assessing the underlying ecological mechanisms of TBE occurrence in enzootic cycles, and therefore TBE hazard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the main ungulate tick hosts on the pattern of tick infestation in rodents and TBE occurrence in rodents and questing adult ticks. In this empirical study, we considered three areas where endemic human TBE occurs and three control sites having no reported human TBE cases. In these six sites located in Italy and Slovakia, we assessed deer density using the pellet group count-plot sampling technique, collected questing ticks, live-trapped rodents (primarily Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus) and counted ticks feeding on rodents. Both rodents and questing ticks were screened for TBE infection. TBE infection in ticks and rodents was positively associated with the number of co-feeding ticks on rodents and negatively correlated with deer density. We hypothesise that the negative relationship between deer density and TBE occurrence on a local scale (defined by the minimum overlapping area of host species) could be attributed to deer (incompetent hosts) diverting questing ticks from rodents (competent hosts), know as the 'dilution effect hypothesis'. We observed that, after an initial increase, the number of ticks feeding on rodents reached a peak for an intermediate value of estimated deer density and then decreased. Therefore, while at a regional scale, tick host availability has already been shown to be directly correlated with TBE distribution, our results suggest that the interactions between deer, rodents and ticks are much more complex on a local scale, supporting the possibility of a
exceptions, such as the documentary photographs and films of Jette Bang, the visual image transmitted through photography was highly stereotypical: ice and wild nature, peopled by tough sealers and hunters. Documen tary photography and art in general, from Greenland as well as Denmark, usually confirmed......Throughout the nineteenth and most of the twentieth centuries, photography was among the main tools for communicating knowledge about Greenland to the rest of the world, not least to the Danish public. Photography was originally used by Arctic explorers as well as by the colonial system. With few...... this image. Recently, however, new narratives have begun emerging among contemporary artists, many of whom use photography in radically new ways to construct an alter native ‘ethno - aesthetics’, to use Pia Arke’s term. This article discusses three photography books, published almost simultaneously: Pia Arke...
Full Text Available Since 2005, great cormorants have been observed on the Lake Góreckie (Wielkopolski National Park shoreline. The population of these birds occurring within the lake has gradually increased. In autumn 2008, more than 100 individuals were observed. In the period 2009-2012 the number of birds occupying the island periodically exceeded 250 individuals. So far, there is no breeding colony of great cormorants, but the birds have established a roosting colony on the island. In the period 2009-2012 we conducted research on the impact of the colony of great cormorants on the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements in soils beneath the colony and transfer of chemical elements from the colony to a nearby freshwater ecosystem. Our results show that a relatively small and recent colony of great cormorants can significantly affect the chemistry of soil. Compared to a control, the soil beneath the colony was characterized by statistically higher concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. A significant accumulation of nutrients was observed in the topsoil zone (to a depth of about 20 cm. Enrichment of soil in chemical elements has resulted in their further transport to a nearby lake. Compared to the control, the groundwater and surface runoff from the colony area revealed several-fold higher concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The maximum abundance of cormorants in the roosting colony was reflected in the elevated concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the littoral water near the colony. Our study demonstrates that the roosting colony of great cormorants can play a significant role in accelerating the eutrophication of surface waters.
Bolt, J.; Bezemer, D.J.
Long-term growth in developing countries has been explained in four frameworks: 'extractive colonial institutions' (Acemoglu et al., 2001), 'colonial legal origin' (La Porta et al., 2004), 'geography' (Gallup et al., 1998) and 'colonial human capital' (Glaeser et al., 2004). In this paper we test th
Broadbent, Nicola J.; Gaskin, Stephane; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.
In rodents, the novel object recognition task (NOR) has become a benchmark task for assessing recognition memory. Yet, despite its widespread use, a consensus has not developed about which brain structures are important for task performance. We assessed both the anterograde and retrograde effects of hippocampal lesions on performance in the NOR…
Kooij, Taco W.A.
The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P. falciparu
Kooij, Taco W.A.
The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P.
Schmelz, M; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup
The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...... about neurogenic inflammation in human skin, including the involvement of mast cells....
Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.
Reconstructing the body mass of a fossil animal is an essential step toward understanding its palaeoecological role. Length × width (L×W) of the first lower molar (m1) is frequently used as a proxy for body mass in fossil mammals. However, among rodents, Muroidea have no premolar and an elongated m1
Lin, Yu-Hsin; Waddell, Peter J; Penny, David
Complete mitochondrial genomes are reported for a pika (Ochotona collaris) and a vole (Volemys kikuchii) then analysed together with 35 other mitochondrial genomes from mammals. With standard phylogenetic methods the pika joins with the other lagomorph (rabbit) and the vole with the other murid rodents (rat and mouse). In addition, with hedgehog excluded, the seven rodent genomes consistently form a homogeneous group in the unrooted placental tree. Except for uncertainty of the position of tree shrew, the clade Glires (monophyletic rodents plus lagomorphs) is consistently found. The unrooted tree obtained by ProtML (Protein Maximum Likelihood, a program in MOLPHY) is compatible with a reclassification of mammals [Syst. Biol. 48, 1-5 (1999)] which is also supported by other recent studies. However, when this tree is rooted with marsupials plus platypus, the outgroup often joins the lineage leading to the three murid rodents, so the rodents are no longer monophyletic. Apart from misplacing the root, the presence of the outgroups also distorts other parts of the unrooted tree. Either constraining the tree to maintain rodents monophyletic, or omitting murids, maintains the ingroup tree and sees the outgroup join on the edge to Xenarthra, to Afrotheria, or to these two groups together. This emphasises the importance of carrying out both an unrooted and a rooted analysis. It is known from cancer research that murid rodents have reduced activity in some DNA repair mechanisms and this alters their substitution pattern - this may be the case for mitochnodrial DNA as well. Comparing nucleotide compositions may identify taxa that differ in aspects of their DNA repair mechanisms.
Kanika Singhal; Shashank Sahu
... planning.The objective of the algorithm is to minimizes the entire rescue time of all evacuees.The ant colony optimization algorithm is used to solve the complications of shortest route planning. Presented paper gives a comparative overview of various emergency scenarios using ant colony optimization algorithm.
brood. The brood stages include the egg, the larval, and the pupa.27 The brood is dependent on the colony for nourishment and warmth until fully...night for rest and to relocate the colony. The bivouac is what is created when army ants huddle together in a ball instead of building a physical nest
Addresses the much neglected area of Black frontier experience in the Spanish colonies. Concentrates on the role played by Black settlers and one Black township in defending the Spanish frontier in colonial Florida against the threat of growing English settlements to the north. Provides an introduction to the 18th century Southeastern Spanish…
Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We ...
vanderPloeg, Arie J.
Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…
贾翠玲; 王利利; 徐明娜
提出一种适用于灭火机器人避障路径规划的改进蚁群优化算法，采用自适应更新策略的方法规划最佳避障路径，建立了简洁、严谨的蚁群优化算法函数，以达到对灭火机器人避障路径的优化。这种方法能够使灭火机器人在未知环境寻找火源时有效避开障碍物并且使机器人所走路径最短，所用时间最少。经实验证明了该方法的可行性和有效性。%This paper put forward a kind of improved ant colony algorithm used in fire fighting robot path planning of obstacle avoidance. The algorithm using the adaptive updating strategy planed the best obstacle avoidance path. The method established a concise, rigorous ant colony optimization function, which could optimize the path of the robot obstacle avoidance. This method not only made fire -fighting robots in unknown environment when looking for fire avoiding obstacles effectively, but also made the robot have walked shortest path. The simulation and experiment results indicate the feasibility and validity of this algorithm.
贾翠玲; 王利利; 徐明娜
提出一种适用于灭火机器人避障路径规划的改进蚁群优化算法,采用自适应更新策略的方法规划最佳避障路径,建立了简洁、严谨的蚁群优化算法函数,以达到对灭火机器人避障路径的优化.这种方法能够使灭火机器人在未知环境寻找火源时有效避开障碍物并且使机器人所走路径最短,所用时间最少.经实验证明了该方法的可行性和有效性.%This paper put forward a kind of improved ant colony algorithm used in fire fighting robot path planning of obstacle avoidance.The algorithm using the adaptive updating strategy planed the best obstacle avoidance path.The method established a concise,rigorous ant colony optimization function,which could optimize the path of the robot obstacle avoidance.This method not only made fire -fighting robots in unknown environment when looking for fire avoiding obstacles effectively,but also made the robot have walked shortest path.The simulation and experiment results indicate the feasibility and validity of this algorithm.
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....
Leptospira and Toxoplasma infections in rodents and shrews in Mikese area of Morogoro ... Human and other animals such as rodents excluding cats are intermediate hosts of ..... Berdoy, M., Webster, J.P. & Macdonald, D.W. (2000) Fatal attraction in rats ... Rats, Mice and People: Rodent Biology and Management, 543-547.
'Mill's Liberal Project and Defence of Colonialism from a Post-Colonial Perspective. ... on the colonialism of John Stuart Mill read from a post-colonial perspective. ... Mill's views on colonial rule were largely informed by his principle of liberty ...
Lega, J.; Passot, T.
We propose a hydrodynamic model for the evolution of bacterial colonies growing on soft agar plates. This model consists of reaction-diffusion equations for the concentrations of nutrients, water, and bacteria, coupled to a single hydrodynamic equation for the velocity field of the bacteria-water mixture. It captures the dynamics inside the colony as well as on its boundary and allows us to identify a mechanism for collective motion towards fresh nutrients, which, in its modeling aspects, is similar to classical chemotaxis. As shown in numerical simulations, our model reproduces both usual colony shapes and typical hydrodynamic motions, such as the whirls and jets recently observed in wet colonies of Bacillus subtilis. The approach presented here could be extended to different experimental situations and provides a general framework for the use of advection-reaction-diffusion equations in modeling bacterial colonies.
Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.
In both African and Asian colonies until the late 19th century, colonial medicine operated pragmatically to meet the medical needs first of colonial officers and troops, immigrant settlers, and laborers responsible for economic development, then of indigenous populations when their ill health threatened the well-being of the expatriate population. Since the turn of the century, however, the consequences of colonial expansion and development for indigenous people's health had become increasingly apparent, and disease control and public health programs were expanded in this light. These programs increased government surveillance of populations at both community and household levels. As a consequence, colonial states extended institutional oversight and induced dependency through public health measures. Drawing on my own work on colonial Malaya, I illustrate developments in public health and their links to the moral logic of colonialism and its complementarity to the political economy.
Kwiecien, Timothy D; Sy, Christopher; Ding, Yuchuan
Rodent models of ischemic stroke are associated with many issues and limitations, which greatly diminish the translational potential of these studies. Recent studies demonstrate that significant differences exist between rodent and human ischemic stroke. These differences include the physical characteristics of the stroke, as well as changes in the subsequent inflammatory and molecular pathways following the acute ischemic insult. Non-human primate (NHP) models of ischemic stroke, however, are much more similar to humans. In addition to evident anatomical similarities, the physiological responses that NHPs experience during ischemic stroke are much more applicable to the human condition and thus make it an attractive model for future research. The baboon ischemic stroke model, in particular, has been studied extensively in comparison to other NHP models. Here we discuss the major shortcomings associated with rodent ischemic stroke models and provide a comparative overview of baboon ischemic stroke models. Studies have shown that baboons, although more difficult to obtain and handle, are more representative of ischemic events in humans and may have greater translational potential that can offset these deficiencies. There remain critical issues within these baboon stroke studies that need to be addressed in future investigations. The most critical issue revolves around the size and the variability of baboon ischemic stroke. Compared to rodent models, however, issues such as these can be addressed in future studies. Importantly, baboon models avoid many drawbacks associated with rodent models including vascular variability and inconsistent inflammatory responses - issues that are inherent to the species and cannot be avoided.
Smith, Abigail L; Corrow, Dorcas J
For a change to be considered enriching, the change must enhance animal welfare and improve biological functioning of the animals. A review of the literature shows that a consensus on the definition of changes constituting "environmental enrichment" has yet to be reached. For this reason, the results of studies on the effects of rodent enrichment are inconsistent. In many cases, changes have not been shown to be real improvements. However, enrichment is increasingly appreciated as a way to improve the well-being of rodents, providing them with opportunities for species-specific behaviors that might be available to them in the wild. Frequently defined as "change to the environment," enrichment can be as complex as devices (frequently termed "toys") or as simple as the provision of tissues from which mice readily construct nests. Nest making is a learned behavior in rats, and laboratory rats do show preferences for chewable objects in their environment. Rather than attempting a comprehensive review of the entire literature on environmental enrichment and its effects on rodent physiology and behavior, this paper focuses on husbandry and housing alterations that may improve the welfare of laboratory rodents. The effects of beneficial changes in housing and husbandry on rodent well-being and on experimental variability--and thus cost--are discussed. Areas that require more research are suggested. Also suggested are possible inexpensive and effective enrichment schemes for laboratory mice that might include reducing the cage floor space per mouse combined with providing nesting material.
Semple, Bridgette D.; Blomgren, Klas; Gimlin, Kayleen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.
Hypoxic-ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are leading causes of long-term mortality and disability in infants and children. Although several preclinical models using rodents of different ages have been developed, species differences in the timing of key brain maturation events can render comparisons of vulnerability and regenerative capacities difficult to interpret. Traditional models of developmental brain injury have utilized rodents at postnatal day 7–10 as being roughly equivalent to a term human infant, based historically on the measurement of post-mortem brain weights during the 1970s. Here we will examine fundamental brain development processes that occur in both rodents and humans, to delineate a comparable time course of postnatal brain development across species. We consider the timing of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrocyte maturation and age-dependent behaviors that coincide with developmentally regulated molecular and biochemical changes. In general, while the time scale is considerably different, the sequence of key events in brain maturation is largely consistent between humans and rodents. Further, there are distinct parallels in regional vulnerability as well as functional consequences in response to brain injuries. With a focus on developmental hypoxicischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury, this review offers guidelines for researchers when considering the most appropriate rodent age for the developmental stage or process of interest to approximate human brain development. PMID:23583307
Yu Lan; Yan Bo; Yao Baozhen
Core business is the most important business to the enterprise in diversified business. In this paper, we first introduce the definition and characteristics of the core business and then descript the ant colony clustering algorithm. In order to test the effectiveness of the proposed method, Tianjin Port Logistics Development Co., Ltd. is selected as the research object. Based on the current situation of the development of the company, the core business of the company can be acquired by ant c...
AODV protocol is one of the classic routing protocols in wireless Ad hoc network .Aimed at the deficiency of AODV protocol ,an improved AODV routing protocol based on ant colony algorithm has been proposed in this paper .Combined ant colony algorithm with characteristics of Ad hoc network ,applied ant colony algorithm to AODV protocol ,and considered the node load ,path hop ,path delay and other fac‐tors ,the routing construction and routing maintenance policies of AODV protocolhave been improved . Through setting up different network loads and node movement speed in NS 2 platform , the improved AODV protocol has beensimulated .The simulation results show that this protocol has certain advantages compared with AODV protocol in packet delivery fraction ,average end‐to‐end delay ,and normalized rou‐ting overhead and other respects .In the meantime ,the network robustness and anti‐destroying ability are enhanced .%AODV 协议是 Ad hoc 无线自组网中经典路由协议之一；针对 AODV 协议的缺点，提出一种基于蚁群算法改进的 AODV 路由协议；结合蚁群算法与 Ad Hoc 网络的特点，将蚁群算法应用于 AODV 协议，考虑节点负载、路径跳数、路径时延等因素，对 AODV 的路由组建和路由维护策略进行改进；通过在 NS2平台中设置不同的网络负载和不同的节点移动速度，对改进后的 AODV 协议进行模拟，仿真结果表明，该路由协议在分组投递率、平均端到端延时和归一化路由开销等性能上比 AODV 协议具有一定的优势，网络的健壮性和抗毁性得到增强。
柴毅哲; 杨任农; 马明杰; 刘孟强
Aimed at air route planning problems in complex environment,a route planning optimization method without threat based on the fundamental ant colony algorithm is proposed.The use of this method enhances the descriptive ability of the real flight circumstance to improve the effectiveness of route plan-ning by reconstructing the route planning target function and comprehensively analyzing the information of terrain and threat in aircraft flight environment,including the factors such as route distance,time,fuel, cost and threat evasion ,etc.Still,the use of this method can save algorithm time and enhance efficiency of optimization by improving distance heuristic factor to introduce heuristic direction.The simulation results show that the use of this improved ant colony algorithm can save 10% of the optimization time and reduce 10��odd iterative times compared with that of the fundamental ant colony algorithm.%针对复杂环境中飞行器航线规划问题，在基本蚁群算法的基础上，提出一种可规避威胁源的航线规划方法。通过综合分析飞行器飞行环境中的地形信息和威胁信息，考虑航线距离、时耗、能耗、全程费用和威胁规避等因素，重构航线规划目标函数，加强了对飞行器实际飞行环境的描述，从而提高了航线规划的有效性；通过增加目标节点对下一节点的影响来改进状态转移概率，促使蚂蚁向目标方向前进，以节省计算时间，提高优化效率。仿真结果显示，与基本蚁群算法相比，改进算法可以节省10%的优化时间且缩短10多次迭代次数。
Camilo Díaz Pardo
Full Text Available Las epidemias y los aspectos vinculados a la salud de ciudades y comunidades históricas habían sido objeto de análisis por parte de disciplinas como la historia de la medicina y la epidemiología hasta épocas recientes. Pero en la actualidad ha ocurrido un amalgamiento y una confluencia de intereses académicos con estudios históricos y arqueológicos dado el gran potencial para develar respuestas similares transculturales y los orígenes de reacciones mas idiosincrásicas ante la presencia de fenómenos parecidos en el mundo contemporáneo. La ciudad de Cartagena de Indias se constituye en un lugar privilegiado ya que es un microcosmos donde se integraron o se encontraron los elementos humanos que materializaban la sociedad caribeña colonial y donde las epidemias, la salud pública y las respuestas culturales a estos eventos pueden ser analizados bajo nuevas perspectivas que tomen en cuenta las raíces culturales de los diferentes grupos afectados.
Grace Ji-Sun Kim
Full Text Available Today, nations exhibit imperial behaviour but not like the ancient agriculture driven landed empires or the 18-19th century mercantile empires. The land and trade divisions are not as clearly segregated as in the earlier ones, but Imperial nations do exist and do control other nations. Imperialism and colonialism has devastating effects on our world. It has nurtured self-worth through the accumulation of worldly goods for the purposes of serving their own interests and exploiting others for the sole purpose of self-gain. This is devastating not only to human beings but to the whole ecology of the planet. Consumerism drives trade, but consumer buying is now like an unchained beast with tooth and claw causing han for the exploited as well as the resources of the planet. Eco-theologians and feminist theologians examine the devastating effects to help ensure that we are seriously determined to preserve the planet. We will examine ways of rethinking and reimagining our errors and how we can work towards the right direction for a safer, sustainable planet. doi: 10.7833/111-1-15
Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Krych, Lukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris
The gut microbiota (GM) affects numerous human diseases, as well as rodent models for these. We will review this impact and summarize ways to handle this challenge in animal research. The GM is complex, with the largest fractions being the gram-positive phylum Firmicutes and the gram......-negative phylum Bacteroidetes. Other important phyla are the gram-negative phyla Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, and the gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria. GM members influence models for diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, allergies, autoimmunity, cancer, and neuropsychiatric diseases. GM...... characterization of all individual animals and incorporation of their GM composition in data evaluation may therefore be considered in future protocols. Germfree isolator-housed rodents or rodents made virtually germ free by antibiotic cocktails can be used to study diverse microbial influences on disease...
Vehicle routing problem （VRP）, which belongs to NP problems, is a typical combinational optimization problem widely utilized in logistic distribution. Therefore, this paper puts forward an improved ant colony optimization （ACO） algorithm to solve VRP. Thus, a VRP based on ACO algorithm is implemented. Results of the experiment prove the effectiveness of ACO algorithm in solving VRP.%车辆路径问题（VRP）是一类物流配送领域具有广泛应用的组合优化问题，属于NP难题。一种改进的蚁群优化算法可以用于求解VRP。实验结果表明，采用蚁群优化算法能有效求解VRP问题。
Full Text Available Seabirds are colonial vertebrates that despite their great potential for long-range dispersal and colonization are reluctant to establish in novel locations, often recruiting close to their natal colony. The foundation of colonies is therefore a rare event in most seabird species and little is known about the colonization process in this group. The Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea is a pelagic seabird that has recently established three new colonies in Galicia (NE Atlantic thus expanding its distribution range 500 km northwards. This study aimed to describe the establishment and early progress of the new Galician populations and to determine the genetic and morphometric characteristics of the individuals participating in these foundation events. Using 10 microsatellite loci, we tested the predictions supported by different seabird colonization models. Possibly three groups of non-breeders, adding up to around 200 birds, started visiting the Galician colonies in the mid 2000's and some of them eventually laid eggs and reproduced, thus establishing new breeding colonies. The Galician populations showed a high genetic diversity and a frequency of private alleles similar to or even higher than some of the large historical populations. Most individuals were assigned to several Atlantic populations and a few (if any to Mediterranean colonies. Our study suggests that a large and admixed population is settling in Galicia, in agreement with predictions from island metapopulation models of colonization. Multiple source colonies imply that some birds colonizing Galicia were dispersing from very distant colonies (> 1500 km. Long-distance colonizations undertaken by relatively large and admixed groups of colonizers can help to explain the low levels of genetic structure over vast areas that are characteristic of most oceanic seabird species.
Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi
Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses.
Johnson, Matthew D; De León, Yesenia L
Understanding how invasive plants may alter predator avoidance behaviors is important for granivorous rodents because their foraging can trigger ripple effects in trophic webs. Previous research has shown that European beach grass Ammophila arenaria, an invasive species in coastal California, affects the predation of other seeds by the rodents Microtus californicus, Peromyscus maniculatus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis. This may be due to lower perceived predation risk by rodents foraging in close proximity to the cover provided by Ammophila, but this mechanism has not yet been tested. We examined the perceived predation risk of rodents by measuring the 'giving up density' of food left behind in experimental patches of food in areas with and without abundant cover from Ammophila and under varying amount of moonlight. We found strong evidence that giving up density was lower in the thick uniform vegetation on Ammophila-dominated habitat than it was in the more sparsely and diversely vegetated restored habitat. There was also evidence that moonlight affected giving up density and that it mediated the effects of habitat, although with our design we were unable to distinguish the effects of lunar illumination and moon phase. Our findings illustrate that foraging rodents, well known to be risk-averse during moonlit nights, are also affected by the presence of an invasive plant. This result has implications for granivory and perhaps plant demography in invaded and restored coastal habitats. Future research in this system should work to unravel the complex trophic links formed by a non-native invasive plant (i.e., Ammophila) providing cover favored by native rodents, which likely forage on and potentially limit the recruitment of native and non-native plants, some of which have ecosystem consequences of their own.
Matthew D Johnson
Full Text Available Understanding how invasive plants may alter predator avoidance behaviors is important for granivorous rodents because their foraging can trigger ripple effects in trophic webs. Previous research has shown that European beach grass Ammophila arenaria, an invasive species in coastal California, affects the predation of other seeds by the rodents Microtus californicus, Peromyscus maniculatus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis. This may be due to lower perceived predation risk by rodents foraging in close proximity to the cover provided by Ammophila, but this mechanism has not yet been tested. We examined the perceived predation risk of rodents by measuring the 'giving up density' of food left behind in experimental patches of food in areas with and without abundant cover from Ammophila and under varying amount of moonlight. We found strong evidence that giving up density was lower in the thick uniform vegetation on Ammophila-dominated habitat than it was in the more sparsely and diversely vegetated restored habitat. There was also evidence that moonlight affected giving up density and that it mediated the effects of habitat, although with our design we were unable to distinguish the effects of lunar illumination and moon phase. Our findings illustrate that foraging rodents, well known to be risk-averse during moonlit nights, are also affected by the presence of an invasive plant. This result has implications for granivory and perhaps plant demography in invaded and restored coastal habitats. Future research in this system should work to unravel the complex trophic links formed by a non-native invasive plant (i.e., Ammophila providing cover favored by native rodents, which likely forage on and potentially limit the recruitment of native and non-native plants, some of which have ecosystem consequences of their own.
Huang, X; Yang, Z
This review aimed to discuss the conflicting findings from resistin research in rodents and humans as well as recent advances in our understanding of resistin's role in obesity and insulin resistance. A comprehensive review and synthesis of resistin's role in obesity and insulin resistance as well as conflicting findings from resistin research in rodents and humans. In rodents, resistin is increased in high-fat/high-carbohydrate-fed, obese states characterized by impaired glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Resistin plays a causative role in the development of insulin resistance in rodents via 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and AMPK-independent suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) signaling. In contrast to rodents, human resistin is primarily secreted by peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as opposed to white adipocytes. Circulating resistin levels have been positively associated with central/visceral obesity (but not BMI) as well as insulin resistance, while other studies show no such association. Human resistin has a role in pro-inflammatory processes that have been conclusively associated with obesity and insulin resistance. PBMCs, as well as vascular cells, have been identified as the primary targets of resistin's pro-inflammatory activity via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, p50/p65) and other signaling pathways. Mounting evidence reveals a continuing disconnect between resistin's role in rodents and humans due to significant differences between these two species with respect to resistin's gene and protein structure, differential gene regulation, tissue-specific distribution, and insulin resistance induction as well as a paucity of evidence regarding the resistin receptor and downstream signaling mechanisms of action.
Full Text Available Even after years of research on navigation in the Red Honey Ant, Melophorus bagoti, much of its life history remains elusive. Here, we present observations on nest relocation and the reproductive and founding stages of colonies. Nest relocation is possibly aided by trail laying behaviour, which is highly unusual for solitary foraging desert ants. Reproduction occurs in synchronised mating flights, which are probably triggered by rain. Queens may engage in multiple matings, and there is circumstantial evidence that males are chemically attracted to queens. After the mating flight, the queens found new colonies independently and singly. Excavation of these founding colonies reveals first insights into their structure.
Han, Barbara A; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E; Drake, John M
The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States.
Cui, Jie; Tachedjian, Gilda; Wang, Lin-Fa
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) represent past retroviral infections and accordingly can provide an ideal framework to infer virus-host interaction over their evolutionary history. In this study, we target high quality Pol sequences from 7,994 Class I and 8,119 Class II ERVs from 69 mammalian genomes and surprisingly find that retroviruses harbored by bats and rodents combined occupy the major phylogenetic diversity of both classes. By analyzing transmission patterns of 30 well-defined ERV clades, we corroborate the previously published observation that rodents are more competent as originators of mammalian retroviruses and reveal that bats are more capable of receiving retroviruses from non-bat mammalian origins. The powerful retroviral hosting ability of bats is further supported by a detailed analysis revealing that the novel bat gammaretrovirus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum retrovirus, likely originated from tree shrews. Taken together, this study advances our understanding of host-shaped mammalian retroviral evolution in general.
Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C
The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...
Morii, Nobuto; Aiyoshi, Eitarou
The ant colony method is one of heuristic methods capable of solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP), in which a good tour is generated by the artificial ant's probabilistic behavior. However, the generated tour length depends on the parameter describing the ant's behavior, and the best parameters corresponding to the problem to be solved is unknown. In this technical note, the evolutional strategy is presented to find the best parameter of the ant colony by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the parameter space. Numerical simulations for benchmarks demonstrate effectiveness of the evolutional ant colony method.
Dorigo, M; Gambardella, L M
We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the travelling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by using information accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSP graph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generating good solutions to both symmetric and asymmetric instances of the TSP. The method is an example, like simulated annealing, neural networks and evolutionary computation, of the successful use of a natural metaphor to design an optimization algorithm.
The Sign of Four is a detective novel which tells a story about questing the lost treasure and murderer.But now,the colonial ideas which scatter in the text are arousing readers' attention.Reading and analyzing the text closely,the author of this paper draws a conclusion that the novel is a colonial discourse,which implies 'England's colonial govern in India,especially the plunder of wealth and the Englishmen's prejudice towards the India,its people,and the uprising in 1857.
nave bene’o rried out and talc screeningisr- -x , -doj to all of te s rainz of rodent malaria held in our A : ,-W ",2h5ni q uV wn i .’n re. .,cenLI y...hepitocytes. After two hours incubation, 1 ml of MEM with ’C, anti biotics and cortisone is added to each of the ,t re . r,,,-,I r o t o i *!.,1r- S 1- a :I
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients commonly exhibit a variety of comorbid traits including seizures, anxiety, aggressive behavior, gastrointestinal problems, motor deficits, abnormal sensory processing and sleep disturbances for which the cause is unknown. These features impact negatively on daily life and can exaggerate the effects of the core diagnostic traits (social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. Studying endophenotypes relevant to both core and comorbid features of ASD in rodent models can provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying these disorders. Here we review the characterization of endophenotypes in a selection of environmental, genetic and behavioural rodent models of ASD. In addition to exhibiting core ASD-like behaviours, each of these animal models display one or more endophenotypes relevant to comorbid features including altered sensory processing, seizure susceptibility, anxiety-like behaviour and disturbed motor functions, suggesting that these traits are indicators of altered biological pathways in ASD. However, the study of behaviours paralleling comorbid traits in animal models of ASD is an emerging field and further research is needed to assess altered gastrointestinal function, aggression and disorders of sleep onset across models. Future studies should include investigation of these endophenotypes in order to advance our understanding of the etiology of this complex disorder.
Full Text Available Identifying genes and pathways that contribute to differences in neurobehavioural traits is a key goal in psychiatric research. Despite considerable success in identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with behaviour in laboratory rodents, pinpointing the causal variants and genes is more challenging. For a long time, the main obstacle was the size of QTLs, which could encompass tens if not hundreds of genes. However, recent studies have exploited mouse and rat resources that allow mapping of phenotypes to narrow intervals, encompassing only a few genes. Here, we review these studies, showcase the rodent resources they have used and highlight the insights into neurobehavioural traits provided to date. We discuss what we see as the biggest challenge in the field – translating QTLs into biological knowledge by experimentally validating and functionally characterizing candidate genes – and propose that the CRISPR/Cas genome-editing system holds the key to overcoming this obstacle. Finally, we challenge traditional views on inbred versus outbred resources in the light of recent resource and technology developments.
Baud, Amelie; Flint, Jonathan
Identifying genes and pathways that contribute to differences in neurobehavioural traits is a key goal in psychiatric research. Despite considerable success in identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with behaviour in laboratory rodents, pinpointing the causal variants and genes is more challenging. For a long time, the main obstacle was the size of QTLs, which could encompass tens if not hundreds of genes. However, recent studies have exploited mouse and rat resources that allow mapping of phenotypes to narrow intervals, encompassing only a few genes. Here, we review these studies, showcase the rodent resources they have used and highlight the insights into neurobehavioural traits provided to date. We discuss what we see as the biggest challenge in the field - translating QTLs into biological knowledge by experimentally validating and functionally characterizing candidate genes - and propose that the CRISPR/Cas genome-editing system holds the key to overcoming this obstacle. Finally, we challenge traditional views on inbred versus outbred resources in the light of recent resource and technology developments. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Ferkin, Michael H
This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Many terrestrial mammals must be able to distinguish between the myriad of scent marks they encounter in order for them to facilitate or deter direct interactions with their scent donors. I review studies that examine how rodents, mainly meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), respond when they encounter the scent marks of conspecifics and heterospecifics, and how context, as well as the age and condition of senders and receivers, affect their responses. The review uses four broad hypotheses to discuss the response of rodents to scent marks. The four hypotheses are as follows: 1) Scent marks convey accurate information to the receiver about the sender's state and phenotype and genotype. 2) Scent marks are individually distinct. 3) The response of receivers to scent marks is flexible and would be modulated by the cognitive abilities of receivers. 4) Receivers respond to the information contained or conveyed by the scent mark in a manner that will increase their survival and fitness. The studies cited in this review show that scent marks signal accurate information about the sender's phenotype, genotype, and condition, which receivers use to distinguish among the scent marks of different conspecifics and heterospecifics, and by doing so, receivers tailor their response accordingly to increase their survival and fitness. Thus, the four broad hypotheses may serve as guide to increase our understanding of the response of receivers to scent marks and provide a conceptual framework for future research and the development of additional hypotheses.
Eguibar, José R; Cortés, M del Carmen
Animal models are a useful tool because it is possible to perform neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and pharmacological studies throughout their development. The most common models for experimental studies of absence seizures are the GAERS (Genetic Absence Epilepsy rat from Strasbourg) and the WAG/Rij (Wistar Absence Glaxo from Rijswik) rats. In WAG/RU rats it has been demonstrated that the perioral region in the somatosensorial cortex shows a zone with hyperexcitability which is the origin of spike wave discharges (SWD). In fact, this cortical area shows modifications in sodium channels which increase the excitability of cortical neurons; for this reason, local application of phenytoin or lidocaine, which block sodium channels, reduce SWD. Ethosuximide decreases and pentylenetetrazol increases SWD in GAERS and WAG/Rij rats. At the Institute of Physiology in the Benemérita Autonomous University of Puebla we have obtained a myelin mutant rat called "taiep", which is the acronym of tremor, ataxia, immobility episodes, epilepsy, and paralysis. This model shows a SWD with higher frequency during awaking periods; the SWD increases with systemic administration of pentylenetetrazol and decreases with ethosuximide. All these findings in animal models are susceptible to be tested in human beings through magneto- and electro-encephalographic recording techniques to discern the source of this type of epilepsy. Thus, in biomedical research, animal models are useful tools to discern the neural and network alterations responsible for the absence seizures, and allow to design of more specific therapeutic options with fewer side effects.
Shariba Islam Tusiy
Full Text Available This work is related on two well-known algorithm, Improved Cuckoo Search and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm which are inspired from nature. Improved Cuckoo Search (ICS algorithm is based on Lévy flight and behavior of some birds and fruit flies and they have some assumptions and each assumption is highly observed to maintain their characteristics. Besides Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is based on swarm intelligence, which is based on bee colony with the way the bees maintain their life in that colony. Bees’ characteristics are the main part of this algorithm. This is a theoretical result of this topic and a quantitative research paper.
Lebel, Michel; Picard, Frédéric; Ferland, Guylaine; Gaudreau, Pierrette
Rodents are often the species of choice to examine the effect of drugs on survival and on the progression of specific diseased tissues. This statement is also true for research laboratories working in the field of nutrition and aging. In addition to diets that can reduce the life expectancy of rodents, such as diabetogenic or high-fat diets, genetically modified rodents exhibiting different accelerated age-associated diseases also provide important biologic tools to decipher the impact of drugs, nutrients, or phytoactive compounds on their health and life span. This review covers some of the chemicals believed to decelerate the appearance of age-related diseases in different rodent models. Such chemicals include antioxidants, anti-inflammatory molecules, modulators of metabolic sensors, calorie restriction mimetics, and vegetal polyphenolic compounds that affect mitochondrial functions, cellular proliferation or differentiation as well as cell functionality.
...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for...
Hopf, F Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M B
Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction.
Wang, Yang-wei; Sun, Guang-dong; Sun, Jing; Liu, Shu-jun; Wang, Ji; Xu, Xiao-hong; Miao, Li-ning
Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2 diabetes (T2DM), is one of the most common chronic diseases and continues to increase in numbers with large proportion of health care budget being used. Many animal models have been established in order to investigate the mechanisms and pathophysiologic progress of T2DM and find effective treatments for its complications. On the basis of their strains, features, advantages, and disadvantages, various types of animal models of T2DM can be divided into spontaneously diabetic models, artificially induced diabetic models, and transgenic/knockout diabetic models. Among these models, the spontaneous rodent models are used more frequently because many of them can closely describe the characteristic features of T2DM, especially obesity and insulin resistance. In this paper, we aim to investigate the current available spontaneous rodent models for T2DM with regard to their characteristic features, advantages, and disadvantages, and especially to describe appropriate selection and usefulness of different spontaneous rodent models in testing of various new antidiabetic drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23671868
A.stephensi. (X 26,000) 95 During the course of routine EM screening of our colony of A.stephensi for the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms such as...Warhurst, D.C. Antimalarial activity of Ailanthus altissima stem. In: Phytochemical Society of Europe Symposium on biologically active natural
Full Text Available A consideration of Taiwanese cinema during the Japanese colonial period must take into context the unique political history of Taiwan. This paper will first explain the larger current of research related to this political context and situate itself in relation to the observations and findings of others. This paper will then introduce the focus of the author’s research under the theme of this section, "Colony, Empire, and Post-colonialism,” illustrating an argument about the production and the reception of films by the Taiwanese during the colonial period. Lastly, this paper will also note the possibility of "de-colonization from the bottom up" in the “post-war” Taiwanese film market.
Stephen W. Koptie
Full Text Available This paper presents a reflective topical narrative following the research of Irihapeti Ramsden (2003, an Ngai Tahupotiki (Maori nursing instructor of Aotearoa (New Zealand. It is a reflection on the nature of Indigenous inquiry, or what Irihapeti Ramsden recognized as an often melancholic journey of self-discovery. It has been a continuous struggle for Indigenous scholars to understand how, where, and why the injustices of colonization reduced Indigenous peoples to dependent remnants of the self-reliant and independent nations our stories remember. By connecting ideas like Jacques Derrida’s work on Aporias to the intentionality of the Kahswenhtha (Two Row Wampum, my hope is to contextualize one unresolved injustice, the Kanehsatà:ke (Oka conflict. The symbolism of the Two Row Wampum addresses the possible but also the impossible of a new brotherhood between colonial Canada and its Indigenous peoples. Reconciliation will only be possible when Canada honours Indigenous resistance, resentment and rebellion against European myths of prerogative power. Our ancestors sacrificed a great deal, and we must wipe our tears and open our eyes, listen deeply, clear our throats and raise our voices to bear witness to our ancestors’ prayers for enduring hope, liberty and peace.
Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd; Sathasivam, Saratha; Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf
Swarm intelligence is a research area that models the population of the swarm based on natural computation. Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a swarm based metaheuristic algorithm introduced by Karaboga to optimize numerical problem. Pattern-SAT is a pattern reconstruction paradigm that utilized 2SAT logical rule in representing the behavior of the desired pattern. The information of the desired pattern in terms of 2SAT logic is embedded to Hopfield neural network (HNN-P2SAT) and the desired pattern is reconstructed during the retrieval phase. Since the performance of HNN-P2SAT in Pattern-SAT deteriorates when the number of 2SAT clause increased, newly improved ABC is used to reduce the computation burden during the learning phase of HNN-P2SAT (HNN-P2SATABC). The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of Pattern-SAT produced by ABC incorporated with HNN-P2SAT and compare it with conventional standalone HNN. The comparison is examined by using Microsoft Visual Basic C++ 2013 software. The detailed comparison in doing Pattern-SAT is discussed based on global Pattern-SAT, ratio of activated clauses and computation time. The result obtained from computer simulation indicates the beneficial features of HNN-P2SATABC in doing Pattern-SAT. This finding is expected to result in a significant implication on the choice of searching method used to do Pattern-SAT.
Gad, Ulrik Pram
could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines......In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...
Kirkegaard, Julius; Bouillant, Ambre; Marron, Alan; Leptos, Kyriacos; Goldstein, Raymond
Animals are multicellular in nature, but evolved from unicellular organisms. In the closest relatives of animals, the choanoflagellates, the unicellular species Salpincgoeca rosetta has the ability to form colonies, resembling true multicellularity. In this work we use a combination of experiments, theory, and simulations to understand the physical differences that arise from feeding, swimming and navigating as colonies instead of as single cells. We show that the feeding efficiency decreases with colony size for distinct reasons in the small and large Péclet number limits, and we find that swimming as a colony changes the conventional active random walks of microorganism to stochastic helices, but that this does not hinder effective navigation towards chemoattractants.
Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Newman, Aaron M.; Corey, Daniel M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Neff, Norma F.; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Ishizuka, Katherine J.; Palmeri, Karla J.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Keasar, Chen; Fan, H. Christina; Mantalas, Gary L.; Sinha, Rahul; Penland, Lolita; Quake, Stephen R.; Weissman, Irving L.
Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from non-self. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self/non-self and determines “graft” outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly upregulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition. PMID:23888037
Gad, Ulrik Pram
In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...
Dr. Arvinder Kaur
Full Text Available In this paper an overview of the areas where the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO and its variants are applied have been given. Bee System was identified by Sato and Hagiwara in 1997 and the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO was identified by Lucic and Teodorovic in 2001. BCO has emerged as a specialized class of Swarm Intelligence with bees as agents. It is an emerging field for researchers in the field of optimization problems because it provides immense problem solving scope for combinatorial and NP-hard problems. BCO is one of the benchmark systems portraying team work, collaborative work. BCO is a bottom-up approach of modeling where agents form global solution by optimizing the local solution.
Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately from suicide. Some researchers explain this by pointing to social disintegration brought on by rapid social change, but few make the connection to an ongoing colonialism explicit. This paper articulates some of the ways that colonial discourses affect Inupiat young people's self-conceptions, perceived…
Full Text Available We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bacterial colony model. Based on the stability analysis, we derive the conditions for Hopf and Turing bifurcations. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by parameters in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibit a diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, holes and stripes pattern replication, which show that the bacterial colony model is useful in revealing the spatial predation dynamics in the real world.
R Scott Cornman
Full Text Available Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.
Cornman, R Scott; Tarpy, David R; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D
Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.
Guzmán, Camilo; Bagga, Manish; Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka; Abankwa, Daniel
The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin "ColonyArea", which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS) on human glioblastoma cells (T98G). The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists.
Stroeymeyt, N; Joye, P; Keller, L
Collective foraging confers benefits in terms of reduced predation risk and access to social information, but it heightens local competition when resources are limited. In social insects, resource limitation has been suggested as a possible cause for the typical decrease in per capita productivity observed with increasing colony size, a phenomenon known as Michener's paradox. Polydomy (distribution of a colony's brood and workers across multiple nests) is believed to help circumvent this paradox through its positive effect on foraging efficiency, but there is still little supporting evidence for this hypothesis. Here, we show experimentally that polydomy enhances the foraging performance of food-deprived Temnothorax nylanderi ant colonies via several mechanisms. First, polydomy influences task allocation within colonies, resulting in faster retrieval of protein resources. Second, communication between sister nests reduces search times for far away resources. Third, colonies move queens, brood and workers across available nest sites in response to spatial heterogeneities in protein and carbohydrate resources. This suggests that polydomy represents a flexible mechanism for space occupancy, helping ant colonies adjust to the environment. © 2017 The Author(s).
Environmental conditions such as housing and husbandry have a major impact on the laboratory animal throughout its life and will thereby influence the outcome of animal experiments. However, housing systems for laboratory animals have often been designed on the basis of economic and ergonomic aspects. One possible way to improve the living conditions of laboratory animals is to provide opportunities for the animals to perform a species-specific behavioral repertoire. Environmental enrichment should be regarded both as an essential component of the overall animal care program and equally important as nutrition and veterinary care. The key component of an enrichment program is the animal staff, whose members must be motivated and educated. It is critically important to evaluate environmental enrichment in terms of the benefit to the animal by assessing the use of and preference for a certain enrichment, the effect on behavior and the performance of species-typical behavior, and the effect on physiological parameters. At the same time, it is necessary to evaluate the impact on scientific outcome, how the enrichment influences the scientific study, and whether and how the statistical power is affected. The result will depend on the parameter measured, the type of enrichment used, and the animal strain. In this article, goals of enrichment are defined and discussed. Animal behaviors and needs are described, along with the translation of those needs into environmental enrichment programs. Specific types of environmental enrichment are outlined with examples from the literature, and an evaluation of environmental enrichment is provided.
研究了随机需求车辆路径优化问题(VRPSD)，在只允许路由失败一次和允许部分服务的情况下，给出了应用人工蜂群算法(ABC)用于求解该问题的具体方案。并针对需求为二项分布的VRPSD问题做了Matlab仿真试验，结果验证了该算法解决VRPSD的可行性。%This paper studied the vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands(VRPSD),and give specific methods with the application of Artificial Bee Colony algorithm(ABC) to solve the problem occurring in the situation that only one time routing failure and partial service are al owed.Matlab simulation has been done for a type of vehicle routing problem with stochastic demand which fol ows binomial distribution,demonstrating the feasibility of the algorithm to solve VRPSD.
王娴; 台玉红; 张飞
当前装修施工单位各工种技能人员调排不当,导致装修施工工期延迟或浪费。文中以增加多技能员工的有效利用为前提,考虑多技能人力资源约束条件,以工期最优化为目标建立数学模型,采用蚁群算法,MATLAB编程仿真求解。%This paper consider nowadays various types of skilled personnel arrangements are not properly in decoration construction unit,which leads decoration construction period delay or waste,so as to increase multi-skilled workers effective use as a premise to solve the objective time optimization considering the constraints of multi skilled human resources, to build a mathematical model for the goal to optimize the construction period, the use of ant colony algorithm, MATLAB programming simulation.
Huang, Su; Lu, Zhongkang; Huang, Weimin; Seramani, Sankar; Ramasamy, Boominathan; Sekar, Sakthivel; Guan, Cuntai; Bhakoo, Kishore
Image based atlases for rats brain have a significant impact on pre-clinical research. In this project we acquired T1-weighted images from Wistar rodent brains with fine 59μm isotropical resolution for generation of the atlas template image. By applying post-process procedures using a semi-automatic brain extraction method, we delineated the brain tissues from source data. Furthermore, we applied a symmetric group-wise normalization method to generate an optimized template of T1 image of rodent brain, then aligned our template to the Waxholm Space. In addition, we defined several simple and explicit landmarks to corresponding our template with the well known Paxinos stereotaxic reference system. Anchoring at the origin of the Waxholm Space, we applied piece-wise linear transformation method to map the voxels of the template into the coordinates system in Paxinos' stereotoxic coordinates to facilitate the labelling task. We also cross-referenced our data with both published rodent brain atlas and image atlases available online, methodologically labelling the template to produce a Wistar brain atlas identifying more than 130 structures. Particular attention was paid to the cortex and cerebellum, as these areas encompass the most researched aspects of brain functions. Moreover, we adopted the structure hierarchy and naming nomenclature common to various atlases, so that the names and hierarchy structure presented in the atlas are readily recognised for easy use. It is believed the atlas will present a useful tool in rodent brain functional and pharmaceutical studies.
Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis
The gut microbiota (GM) affects numerous human diseases, as well as rodent models for these. We will review this impact and summarize ways to handle this challenge in animal research. The GM is complex, with the largest fractions being the gram-positive phylum Firmicutes and the gram-negative phylum Bacteroidetes. Other important phyla are the gram-negative phyla Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, and the gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria. GM members influence models for diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, allergies, autoimmunity, cancer, and neuropsychiatric diseases. GM characterization of all individual animals and incorporation of their GM composition in data evaluation may therefore be considered in future protocols. Germfree isolator-housed rodents or rodents made virtually germ free by antibiotic cocktails can be used to study diverse microbial influences on disease expression. Through subsequent inoculation with selected strains or cocktails of microbes, new "defined flora" models can yield valuable knowledge on the impact of the GM, and of specific GM members and their interactions, on important disease phenotypes and mechanisms. Rodent husbandry and microbial quality assurance practices will be important to ensure and confirm appropriate and research relevant GM.
Toth, Linda A; Kregel, Kevin; Leon, Lisa; Musch, Timothy I
Efforts to refine the care and use of animals in research have been ongoing for many years and have led to general standardization of rodent models, particularly with regard to animal housing, genetics, and health status. Concurrently, numerous informal practices and recommendations have been promulgated with the laudable intent of promoting general animal wellbeing through so-called enrichment of the cage environment. However, the variety of housing conditions fostered by efforts at environmental enrichment (EE) complicates the goal of establishing standardized or even defined environments for laboratory rodents. Many studies over the years have sought to determine whether or how various enrichment strategies affect the behavior and physiology of laboratory rodents. The findings, conclusions, and interpretations of these studies are mixed, particularly with regard to their application across rodent species, strains, genders, and ages; whether or how they affect the animals and the science; and, in some cases, whether the effects are positive, negative, or neutral in terms of animal wellbeing. Crucial issues related to the application of EE in research settings include its poorly defined effect on the animals, the potential for increased variability in the data, poor definition across labs and in publications, and potential for animal or scientific harm. The complexities, uncertainties, interpretational conundrums, varying conclusions, and lack of consensus in the EE literature warrant careful assessment of the benefits and liabilities associated with implementing such interventions. Reliance on evidence, professional judgment, and performance standards are crucial in the development of EE strategies.
Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Krasnov, Boris; Morick, Danny; Gottlieb, Yuval; Khokhlova, Irina S; Harrus, Shimon
Epidemiological studies worldwide have reported a high prevalence and a great diversity of Bartonella species, both in rodents and their flea parasites. The interaction among Bartonella, wild rodents, and fleas reflects a high degree of adaptation among these organisms. Vertical and horizontal efficient Bartonella transmission pathways within flea communities and from fleas to rodents have been documented in competence studies, suggesting that fleas are key players in the transmission of Bartonella to rodents. Exploration of the ecological traits of rodents and their fleas may shed light on the mechanisms used by bartonellae to become established in these organisms. The present review explores the interrelations within the Bartonella-rodent-flea system. The role of the latter two components is emphasized.
Turnbull, Irene C; Eltoukhy, Ahmed A; Anderson, Daniel G; Costa, Kevin D
An area of active research in the field of cardiac gene therapy aims to achieve high transfection efficiency without eliciting immune or inflammatory reactions. Nanomedicine offers an attractive alternative to traditional viral delivery vehicles because nanoparticle technology can enable safer and more controlled delivery of therapeutic agents. Here we describe the use of lipidoid nanoparticles for delivery of modified mRNA (modRNA) to the myocardium in vivo, with a focus on rodent models that represent a first step toward preclinical studies. Three major procedures are discussed in this chapter: (1) preparation of lipid modRNA nanoparticles, (2) intramyocardial delivery of the lipid modRNA nanoparticles by direct injection with an open chest technique in rats, and (3) intracoronary delivery of the lipid modRNA nanoparticles with open chest and temporary aortic cross clamping in rats.
1. Some details are given of the external morphology of the autozooids and siphonozooids and of their distribution in the colony. It is estimated that a minimum of over 6 meters of nerve net would be required to conduct excitation across an average-size colony during the passage of a wave of luminescence. 2. An account is given of the localization of luminescence in the two types of polyp and of their apparently differing behaviors in colonies collected in summer and winter. 3. In summer colonies the sharp luminous waves induced by electrical stimulation are entirely due to siphonozooids. Under strong stimulation the autozooid calices produce a long lasting glow. 4. Neuroeffector facilitation takes place uniformly throughout the colonial conduction system. Decay of facilitation requires 10-36 seconds, by different tests. There are indications that sensory adaptation in the (hypothetical) net can be local. 5. Local recording shows that the response cycle in small areas of the colony is much shorter, and its frequency response much higher, than indicated by integrative recordings of the wave response as a whole. 6. Individual siphonozooid clusters can flash repetitively in successive waves, fail to participate in every wave and vary in intensity from wave to wave. The increase in light intensity during successive facilitating waves seems due to increase in the activity of individual clusters, not to recruitment of additional clusters. There were indications of individual differences in threshold, adaptation and autoexcitation between clusters. 7. During strong repetitive electrical stimulation there may arise extra siphonozooid waves of augmented brightness, running in the same direction as the "normal" waves ( i.e., centrifugally from the electrode) or in the reverse direction. The colony may then enter an autoexcitatory state ("frenzy"), independent of external stimulation and often involving development of several excitation centers, in which waves of irregular
Valentim, A M; Guedes, S R; Pereira, A M; Antunes, L M
Several questions have been raised in recent years about the euthanasia of laboratory rodents. Euthanasia using inhaled agents is considered to be a suitable aesthetic method for use with a large number of animals simultaneously. Nevertheless, its aversive potential has been criticized in terms of animal welfare. The data available regarding the use of carbon dioxide (CO2), inhaled anaesthetics (such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane and enflurane), as well as carbon monoxide and inert gases are discussed throughout this review. Euthanasia of fetuses and neonates is also addressed. A table listing currently available information to ease access to data regarding euthanasia techniques using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents was compiled. Regarding better animal welfare, there is currently insufficient evidence to advocate banning or replacing CO2 in the euthanasia of rodents; however, there are hints that alternative gases are more humane. The exposure to a volatile anaesthetic gas before loss of consciousness has been proposed by some scientific studies to minimize distress; however, the impact of such a measure is not clear. Areas of inconsistency within the euthanasia literature have been highlighted recently and stem from insufficient knowledge, especially regarding the advantages of the administration of isoflurane or sevoflurane over CO2, or other methods, before loss of consciousness. Alternative methods to minimize distress may include the development of techniques aimed at inducing death in the home cage of animals. Scientific outcomes have to be considered before choosing the most suitable euthanasia method to obtain the best results and accomplish the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).
Sadaow, Lakkhana; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai
Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of 241.5±41.0 for T. papuae, 432.6±48 for T. pseudospiralis, and 528.6±20.6 for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp.
Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.
Full Text Available In this research the system for potentially customer classification is designed by extracting rule based classification from raw data with certain criteria. The searching process uses customer database from a bank with data mining technic by using ant colony optimization. A test based on min_case_per_rule variety and phenomene updating were done on a certain period of time. The result are group of customer class which base on rules built by ant and by modifying the pheromone updating, the area of the case is getting bigger. Prototype of the software is coded with C++ 6 version. The customer database master is created by using Microsoft Access. This paper gives information about potential customer of bank that can be classified by prototype of the software. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pada penelitian untuk sistem klasifikasi potensial customer ini didesain dengan melakukan ekstrak rule berdasarkan klasifikasi dari data mentah dengan kriteria tertentu. Proses pencarian menggunakan database pelanggan dari suatu bank dengan teknik data mining dengan ant colony optimization. Dilakukan percobaan dengan min_case_per_rule variety dan phenomene updating pada periode waktu tertentu. Hasilnya adalah sekelompok class pelanggan yang didasarkan dari rules yang dibangun dengan ant dan dengan dimodifikasi dengan pheromone updating, area permasalahan menjadi lebih melebar. Prototype dari software ini menggunakan C++ versi 6. Database pelanggan dibangun dengan Microsoft Access. Paper ini memberikan informasi mengenai potensi pelanggan dari bank, sehingga dapat diklasifikasikan dengan prototype dari software. Kata kunci: ant colony optimization, classification, min_case_per_rule, term, pheromone updating
Crossley, D A
The order Rodentia is vast, encompassing a large number of species with significant anatomical variations developed during natural adaptation to differing habitats. Many veterinarians have little knowledge of the anatomy of species other than the commoner domestic large herbivores and small carnivores. Clinicians require a basic knowledge of the relevant anatomy of species they are likely to be asked to treat. This article provides sufficient working knowledge of the oral and dental anatomy of those rodents commonly kept as pets to enable veterinarians to interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating suspected dental disease.
) have evolved convergent and divergent traits in many of their morphological, physiological, and/or behavioral characteristics, which facilitate their adaptions to a similar underground burrowing life style. For example, all these three rodents show degenerate visual acuity and advanced sensory systems...... in the dark; they display remarkable tolerance to a living environment with an excess of carbon dioxide and ammonia, but lack of oxygen; they exhibit extraordinarily long lives, and keep a fantastic resistance to cancer and other aging-associated diseases. In this study, we reported the genomic...
In order to solve the problem of parking guidance in modern large scale parking lot more efficiently,a parking lot structure model is built in this paper;the concept of node busy factor is introduced,a constrained mathematical model of the optimal path is mentioned,and the problem of parking guidance to be translated into solving for the optimal path based on the actual situation.Moreover,improved the heuristic function and pheromone update rule of ant colony algorithm,which is used to get the optimal path of the parking guidance.Finally,the best parking space and the guiding paths out of parking lot are given out by the simulation.This solution provides guidance for the parking,and the efficiency of the parking lot usage is improved.%根据停车场实际情况建立了停车场结构模型,引入了节点繁忙因子的概念,提出了带约束的最优路径数学模型,将车位引导问题转化为对网络中最优路径的求解,并对基本蚁群算法的启发函数、信息素更新规则进行改进,将改进后的算法用于停车场车位引导问题中最优路径的求解。最后通过仿真实验找出了最优车位及存取车路线,为进出停车场的车辆提供引导,提高了停车场的使用效率。
In view of the problems of agricultural products in transportation, such as long time and easy to go bad, the distribution path of fruit and vegetable transport vehicles is reasonably planned.Based on the basic ant colony algorithm, an improved algorithm is proposed, which is suitable for solving path planning .The adaptive scheme is proposed to improve the ability of avoiding local optimal solution and the global conver-gence of the algorithm.The simulation results show that the improved algorithm is feasible and efficient .It can achieve the purpose of optimizing the route of transport vehicles, and provide theoretical basis for improving the efficiency of agricultural products transportation, reducing costs and improving income.%针对农产品在运输过程中运输时间长易变质等问题，合理规划果蔬运输车辆的配送路径。在基本蚁群算法的基础上，提出适合求解路径规划的改进型算法，同时提出了自适应调整的方案，提高跳出局部优解的能力以及算法的全局收敛性。仿真试验结果验证了改进型算法的可行性和高效性，从而达到运输车辆路径优化的目的，为提高农产品的运输效率、降低成本、提高收益提供了理论依据。
通过讨论资源受限项目调度问题的约束条件、工序实施模式的函数表达及工序工期与工序成本之间的关系，建立了以项目工期-成本最优化为目标的多工序交叉作业赶工措施（MCAM）控制模型；运用引入精英策略的蚁群算法（ACA）结合串行进度生成机制，以某项目标准层施工为例，最终得到可行项目进度计划，并通过与其他算法比较，证明了ACA求解MCAM模型结果合理，算法高效。%According to the discussion of resource-constrained project scheduling problem constraint conditions, process implementation mode function expression and the relationship between process duration and process cost, the Multi-process Cross-operation Acceleration Measures(MCAM)model is built whose objective is the project duration-cost optimization. Then the feasible project schedule based on some engineering example can be achieved by solving this model with Ant Colony Algorithm(ACA)containing elite strategy and serial schedule generation scheme. The results prove that this cal-culation method for MCAM is reasonable and efficient compared with other method.
赵飞; 吴航; 龚跃
Task scheduling in grid environment is a typical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem,and has been the focus which scholars study intensely in recent years.The traditional Min-Min algorithm has the defects such as long task completing time and poor load balance performs,therefore we propose using ant colony algorithm to solve the problem.According to the nature by which that ants can always frnd the shortest path from the cave to the food source,one task allocation process is abstracted as a path finding procedure of ants allocation and experimental simulation results wene obtained.%网格环境下的任务调度是典型的NP难组合优化问题,是近些年来学者们争相研究的热点.传统的Min-Min算法具有任务完成时间长,负载平衡性差等缺点,因此,本文提出了一种应用蚁群算法解决该问题的方法.利用蚂蚁总能从蚁穴到食物源之间找到最短路径这一自然特性,将任务的一次分配过程抽象为蚂蚁的一次探路过程,最终得到较优的分配结果,并进行了实验仿真模拟,取得了不错的效果.
Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C
Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the "repressilator" network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.
Ginot, Samuel; Hautier, Lionel; Marivaux, Laurent; Vianey-Liaud, Monique
Studies linking postcranial morphology with locomotion in mammals are common. However, such studies are mostly restricted to caviomorphs in rodents. We present here data from various families, belonging to the three main groups of rodents (Sciuroidea, Myodonta, and Ctenohystrica). The aim of this study is to define morphological indicators for the astragalus and calcaneus, which allow for inferences to be made about the locomotor behaviours in rodents. Several specimens were dissected and des...
Zhang Xiaoman; Peng Zhen
This paper discusses English translation strategies of Lun Yu from the perspec-tive of post-colonialism translation theory. Post-colonial translation theory makes research like cultural archaeology on translation practice, and influences translation practice through power difference of power discourse. It researches and interprets the translator’ s conscious and unconscious value orientations and choices of strategy. Under its guidance,a research is made concerning the English translation of Lun Yu,and four strategies,namely,domestication,for-eignization,hybridization and decolonization,are explicitly explained and analyzed.
Gil-Lebrero, Sergio; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Ortiz-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Ruiz, Víctor; Gámiz-López, Victoria; Luna-Rodríguez, Juan Jesús
Bees are very important for terrestrial ecosystems and, above all, for the subsistence of many crops, due to their ability to pollinate flowers. Currently, the honey bee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD). The reasons for CCD are not fully known, and as a result, it is essential to obtain all possible information on the environmental conditions surrounding the beehives. On the other hand, it is important to carry out such information gathering as non-intrusively as possible to avoid modifying the bees’ work conditions and to obtain more reliable data. We designed a wireless-sensor networks meet these requirements. We designed a remote monitoring system (called WBee) based on a hierarchical three-level model formed by the wireless node, a local data server, and a cloud data server. WBee is a low-cost, fully scalable, easily deployable system with regard to the number and types of sensors and the number of hives and their geographical distribution. WBee saves the data in each of the levels if there are failures in communication. In addition, the nodes include a backup battery, which allows for further data acquisition and storage in the event of a power outage. Unlike other systems that monitor a single point of a hive, the system we present monitors and stores the temperature and relative humidity of the beehive in three different spots. Additionally, the hive is continuously weighed on a weighing scale. Real-time weight measurement is an innovation in wireless beehive—monitoring systems. We designed an adaptation board to facilitate the connection of the sensors to the node. Through the Internet, researchers and beekeepers can access the cloud data server to find out the condition of their hives in real time. PMID:28036061
Full Text Available Bees are very important for terrestrial ecosystems and, above all, for the subsistence of many crops, due to their ability to pollinate flowers. Currently, the honey bee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD. The reasons for CCD are not fully known, and as a result, it is essential to obtain all possible information on the environmental conditions surrounding the beehives. On the other hand, it is important to carry out such information gathering as non-intrusively as possible to avoid modifying the bees’ work conditions and to obtain more reliable data. We designed a wireless-sensor networks meet these requirements. We designed a remote monitoring system (called WBee based on a hierarchical three-level model formed by the wireless node, a local data server, and a cloud data server. WBee is a low-cost, fully scalable, easily deployable system with regard to the number and types of sensors and the number of hives and their geographical distribution. WBee saves the data in each of the levels if there are failures in communication. In addition, the nodes include a backup battery, which allows for further data acquisition and storage in the event of a power outage. Unlike other systems that monitor a single point of a hive, the system we present monitors and stores the temperature and relative humidity of the beehive in three different spots. Additionally, the hive is continuously weighed on a weighing scale. Real-time weight measurement is an innovation in wireless beehive—monitoring systems. We designed an adaptation board to facilitate the connection of the sensors to the node. Through the Internet, researchers and beekeepers can access the cloud data server to find out the condition of their hives in real time.
production ([http://www.nass.usda.gov/QuickStats/]). Melon production is based on reported 2002 harvested acreage. c. Apricots, avocados , blueberries...crops are almost totally (90%-100%) dependent on honey bee pollination, including almonds, apples, avocados , blueberries, cranberries, cherries, kiwi...is regularly posted to the website of the Mid-Atlantic Apiculture Research and Extension Consortium (MAAREC), which represents beekeeping
The scheduling of heating furnace has a direct impact on steel productivity in the steel rolling process.Because furnace is a complex industrial process, manual operations is still widely used in the furnace scheduling.For the manual scheduling of heat furnace in steel enterprises, a method for scheduling is proposed for furnace plan control.The scheduling system is established, which is suitable for normal and abnormal operating conditions.The system consists of some modules,including the production plan, the intelligence pre-handled process data, the tracking inside the furnace, the available furnace capacity parameter, the shortest possible date of operation plan and earliest due date of operation plan, the ant colony algorithm, the operation plan made in both the normal operating conditions and the abnornal operating conditions.Finally,heating rate and billet lot number are yielded by scheduling model for control on line.The proposed scheduling method is successfully applied to some steel plant and significant result is obtained.%加热炉的作业效率直接影响企业的最终效益.由于加热炉的复杂性,其作业计划仍然处于手动操作状态.针对加热炉这样一个复杂工业过程,提出一个优化作业计划与调度的编排方法,用于加热炉在正常和异常生产的优化排产.利用最短时间和最早缴期算法进行加热炉正常作业排序.采用蚁群算法搜索异常情况下的最优解,通过跟踪形成作业计划闭环控制,从而实现加热炉作业优化的实时控制.该方法在某钢铁公司进行了实际应用,效果良好.
林勤; 薛云; 林斯达; 何明清
基于多目标优化的双聚类算法能够同时优化均方残差和尺寸等多个相互冲突的目标，更好地挖掘出均方残差较小、尺寸较大的双聚类，提出了一个多目标人工蜂群双聚类算法。该方法首先采用组信息对蜜源进行编码，然后使用2种交叉和1种变异操作分别实现算法的局部搜索和全局搜索，最后根据非劣排序和拥挤距离对外部档案进行修剪。在2套真实的基因表达数据集上进行实验，结果表明：与其他公开算法相比，多目标人工蜂群双聚类算法具有较好的收敛性和种群多样性，同时挖掘出具有显著生物意义的双聚类。%Biclustering algorithms based on multi-objective optimization, which can optimize several objectives sim-ultaneously in conflict with each other, such as the mean squared residue and the size. In order to mine better bi-clusters with lower mean squared residue but larger size, a novel algorithm named Multi-objective Artificial Bee Colony Biclustering is proposed. Firstly, the approach adopts a group based representation for the genes-conditions associations to encode foods, then two different crossovers and a mutation operation are used to realize local search and global search respectively. Consequently, the non-dominated sort and crowding distance are applied to prune external archives. Experiments are performed on two real gene expression datasets, and it is found that compared with competing algorithms, the method has better global astringency and diversity of the population. Besides, it can obtain significantly biological biclusters.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584 males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50% while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26% or other ethnic groups (140, 24%. Most of the respondents (79.5% had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.
Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.
A novel algorithm called Colony Location Algorithm (CLA) is proposed. It mimics the phenomena in biotic conmunity that colonies of species could be located in the places most suitable to their growth. The factors working on the species location such as the nutrient of soil, resource competition between species, growth and decline process, and effect on environment were considered in CLA via the nutrient function, growth and decline rates, environment evaluation and fertilization strategy.CLA was applied to solve the classical assignment problems. The computation results show that CLA can achieve the optimal solution with higher possibility and shorter running time.
Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378
Full Text Available Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna. The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS = 55.8%, followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%, and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%, captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98% and arthropods (2%. Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs, showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.
Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.
NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.
de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre
Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.
Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges. PMID:27583438
Meerburg, B.G.; Singleton, G.R.; Kijlstra, A.
Rodents are the most abundant and diversified order of living mammals in the world. Already since the Middle Ages we know that they can contribute to human disease, as black rats were associated with distribution of plague. However, also in modern times rodents form a threat for public health. In
Meerburg, B.G.; Bonde, M.; Brom, F.W.A.; Endepols, S.; Jensen, A.N.; Leirs, H.; Lodal, J.; Singleton, G.R.; Pelz, H.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Kijlstra, A.
From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production ch
Meerburg, B.G.; Singleton, G.R.; Kijlstra, A.
Rodents are the most abundant and diversified order of living mammals in the world. Already since the Middle Ages we know that they can contribute to human disease, as black rats were associated with distribution of plague. However, also in modern times rodents form a threat for public health. In th
Rodents are the most abundant order of living mammals, distributed on every continent except Antarctic and represent 43 % of all mammalian species. Beside causing food losses and infrastructural damage, rodents can harbour pathogens that may cause serious problems to human and animal health. Unfortu
Leavesley, Silas; Bayraktar, Bülent; Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Hirleman, E. Dan; Bhunia, Arun K.; Robinson, J. Paul; Hassler, Richard; Smith, Linda; Rajwa, Bartek
Traditional biological and chemical methods for pathogen identification require complicated sample preparation for reliable results. Optical scattering technology has been used for identification of bacterial cells in suspension, but with only limited success. Our published reports have demonstrated that scattered light based identification of Listeria colonies growing on solid surfaces is feasible with proper pattern recognition tools. Recently we have extended this technique to classification of other bacterial genera including, Salmonella, Bacillus, and Vibrio. Our approach may be highly applicable to early detection and classification of pathogens in food-processing industry and in healthcare. The unique scattering patterns formed by colonies of different species are created through differences in colony microstructure (on the order of wavelength used), bulk optical properties, and the macroscopic morphology. While it is difficult to model the effect on scatter-signal patterns owing to the microstructural changes, the influence of bulk optical properties and overall shape of colonies can be modeled using geometrical optics. Our latest research shows that it is possible to model the scatter pattern of bacterial colonies using solid-element optical modeling software (TracePro), and theoretically assess changes in macro structure and bulk refractive indices. This study allows predicting the theoretical limits of resolution and sensitivity of our detection and classification methods. Moreover, quantification of changes in macro morphology and bulk refractive index provides an opportunity to study the response of colonies to various reagents and antibiotics.
Full Text Available Small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS may be useful for conducting high-precision, low-disturbance waterbird surveys, but limited data exist on their effectiveness. We evaluated the capacity of a small UAS to census a large (>6,000 nests coastal Common tern (Sterna hirundo colony of which ground surveys are particularly disruptive and time-consuming. We compared aerial photographic tern counts to ground nest counts in 45 plots (5-m radius throughout the colony at three intervals over a nine-day period in order to identify sources of variation and establish a coefficient to estimate nest numbers from UAS surveys. We also compared a full colony ground count to full counts from two UAS surveys conducted the following day. Finally, we compared colony disturbance levels over the course of UAS flights to matched control periods. Linear regressions between aerial and ground counts in plots had very strong correlations in all three comparison periods (R2 = 0.972-0.989, P < 0.001 and regression coefficients ranged from 0.928-0.977 terns/nest. Full colony aerial counts were 93.6% and 94.0%, respectively, of the ground count. Varying visibility of terns with ground cover, weather conditions and image quality, and changing nest attendance rates throughout incubation were likely sources of variation in aerial detection rates. Optimally timed UAS surveys of Common tern colonies following our method should yield population estimates in the 93-96% range of ground counts. Although the terns were initially disturbed by the UAS flying overhead, they rapidly habituated to it. Overall, we found no evidence of sustained disturbance to the colony by the UAS. We encourage colonial waterbird researchers and managers to consider taking advantage of this burgeoning technology.
Bonwitt, Jesse; Kelly, Ann H; Ansumana, Rashid; Agbla, Schadrac; Sahr, Foday; Saez, Almudena Mari; Borchert, Matthias; Kock, Richard; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth
Lassa fever is a zoonotic hemorrhagic illness predominant in areas across Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and southern Mali. The reservoir of Lassa virus is the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), a highly commensal species in West Africa. Primary transmission to humans occurs through direct or indirect contact with rodent body fluids such as urine, feces, saliva, or blood. Our research draws together qualitative and quantitative methods to provide a fuller and more nuanced perspective on these varied points of human-animal contact. In this article, we focus on the hunting, preparation, and consumption of rodents as possible routes of exposure in Bo, Sierra Leone. We found that the consumption of rodents, including the reservoir species, is widespread and does not neatly tally against generational or gender lines. Further, we found that the reasons for rodent consumption are multifactorial, including taste preferences, food security, and opportunistic behavior. We argue that on certain topics, such as rodent consumption, establishing trust with communities, and using qualitative research methods, is key to investigate sensitive issues and situate them in their wider context. To conclude, we recommend ways to refine sensitization campaigns to account for these socio-cultural contexts.
Full Text Available Only a few surveys have ever been carried out of the helminths of the commensal rodents found in the traditional wet markets that play such an important part of daily life in South-east Asia. The potential of rodents as reservoirs of zoonoses including helminths is of great interest since in these markets humans and rodents come into closer contact than in other environments and food may be indirectly contaminated via rodent faeces. Helminths in a total of 98 rats belonging to two species (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus exulans were surveyed in eight traditional wet markets in Udon Thani, Thailand. Thirteen species of helminths were recovered, seven of which are potentially zoo-notic, with an overall prevalence of 89.8 %. Our results show that rodents in wet markets could pose a threat to human health as potential reservoirs of zoonotic helminthiases.
Fabre, Pierre-Henri Fréderic; Hautier, Lionel; Dimitrov, Dimitar Stefanov;
a rodent maximum likelihood phylogeny inferred from a molecular supermatrix. It is based on 11 mitochondrial and nuclear genes that covers 1,265 species, i.e., respectively 56% and 81% of the known specific and generic rodent diversity. The inferred topology recovered all Rodentia clades proposed by recent...... in diversification rates within the major clades: two in Castorimorpha, three in Ctenohystrica, 6 within the squirrel-related clade and 24 in the Myomorpha clade. The majority of these shifts occurred within the most recent familial rodent radiations: the Cricetidae and Muridae clades. Using the topological...... imbalances and the time line we discuss the potential role of different diversification factors that might have shaped the rodents radiation. CONCLUSIONS:The present glimpse on the diversification pattern of rodents can be used for further comparative meta-analyses. Muroid lineages have a greater degree...
Carpenter, Harold F., Jr.
This paper explores the effect of 350 years of Dutch colonial rule upon Indonesian educational policies and the resulting regional inequalities in education. It was Dutch policy not to educate most of the children from the poorer social classes, but to use education to maintain and strengthen the existing social structure. Education was also used…
To examine colonial American press coverage of the British court decision to free American slave James Somerset, a study was conducted to clarify why the decision worked as a victory for British abolitionists but was usually cited even in post-Revolution America in the passage of increasingly oppressive slave legislation. Twenty-three of the…
Levin Chucrel, A.M.
The aim of this Thesis was to study genome-wide gene expression in colonies of A. niger and to relate this to nutrient availability, growth, and secretion. Maltose and xylose were chosen as carbon sources for this study. These compounds result in different sets of extracellular enzymes. In Chapter 2
María Pia López
Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.
Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.
Summarizing his colonial nesting waterbird survey experiences along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in a paper presented to the Colonial Waterbird Group of the Waterbird Society (Portnoy 1978), bird biologist John W. Portnoy stated, “This huge concentration of nesting waterbirds, restricted almost entirely to the wetlands and estuaries of southern Louisiana, is unmatched in all of North America; for example, a 1975 inventory of wading birds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida [Custer and Osborn, in press], tallied 250,000 breeding [waterbirds] of 14 species, in contrast with the 650,000 birds of 15 species just from Sabine Pass to Mobile Bay.” The “650,000 birds” to which Portnoy referred, were tallied by him in a 1976 survey of coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (see below, under “Major Surveys” section). According to the National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-82 (Spendelow and Patton 1988), the percentages of the total U.S. populations of Laughing Gull (11%), Forster's Tern (52%), Royal Tern (16%), Sandwich Tern (77%), and Black Skimmer (44%) which annually nest in Louisiana are significant – perhaps crucially so in the cases of Forster's Tern, Sandwich Tern, and Black Skimmer. Nearly three decades after Spendelow and Patton's determinations above, coastal Louisiana still stands out as the major center of colonial wading bird and seabird nesting in all of the United States. Within those three intervening decades, however, the
The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).
Botías, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Barrios, Laura; Meana, Aránzazu; Higes, Mariano
Nosemosis caused by the microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are among the most common pathologies affecting adult honey bees. N. apis infection has been associated with a reduced lifespan of infected bees and increased winter mortality, and its negative impact on colony strength and productivity has been described in several studies. By contrast, when the effects of nosemosis type C, caused by N. ceranae infection, have been analysed at the colony level, these studies have largely focused on collapse as a response to infection without addressing the potential sub-clinical effects on colony strength and productivity. Given the spread and prevalence of N. ceranae worldwide, we set out here to characterize the sub-clinical and clinical signs of N. ceranae infection on colony strength and productivity. We evaluated the evolution of 50 honey bee colonies naturally infected by Nosema (mainly N. ceranae) over a one year period. Under our experimental conditions, N. ceranae infection was highly pathogenic for honey bee colonies, producing significant reductions in colony size, brood rearing and honey production. These deleterious effects at the colony level may affect beekeeping profitability and have serious consequences on pollination. Further research is necessary to identify possible treatments or beekeeping techniques that will limit the rapid spread of this dangerous emerging disease.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of honey bee worker diversity within the colony on: development, honey productivity, and wintering. Two different levels of diversity within the colony were tested. The appropriate levels of diversity within the colony were obtained by selecting drones for inseminating the queens. Lower genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies headed by a queen inseminated with semen collected from drones originating from a single colony. Higher genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies with queens inseminated with semen from drones of 30 different colonies. Colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers in the colonies had greater levels of functional characteristics. However, apart from the number of dead bees in winter, the genetic diversity level of the workers on the colony development and honey production, did not have a significant influence. There was an averaging effect observed concerning that male component in the colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers - on honey yield, when compared to the non-additive effect of the best drones.
Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup
ial genomes of extant and extinct taxa, and dated major radiation events within Equidae. We have also revealed the phylogenetic origins of hutias, a group of capromyid rodents from the West Indies using museum specimens and a museomic approach, and at the other end of the spectrum, characterized...... the oldest genome ever analysed, that of a 700 thousand year old Pleistocene horse. This thesis illustrates the power of ancient DNA research in revealing the evolutionary trajectory of ancient and contemporary groups....
Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève
Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This preliminary catalog identifies 339 seabird colonies lying along the North Pacific coast of Alaska between Cape Fairweather and Unimak Pass. Information is given...
Imai, Sunao; Naito, Shoichi; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Yamauchi, Akira; Nakamura, Etsuo; Sato, Masaaki; Mitsuda, Yuuichi; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Numata, Yoshito; Fujii, Ikuo; Yamane, Shoji
The measurement of plasma insulin is important for clinical diagnosis of diabetes and for preclinical research of metabolic diseases, especially in rodent models used in drug discovery research for type 2 diabetes. Fasting immunoreactive insulin (F-IRI) concentrations are used to calculate the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R), an index of insulin sensitivity. However, even the most sensitive commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits cannot measure the very low F-IRI concentrations in normal rats and mice. Therefore, we sought to develop a new rodent insulin ELISA with greater sensitivity for low F-IRI concentrations. Despite repeated efforts, high-affinity antibodies could not be generated by immunizing mice with mouse insulin (self-antigen). Therefore, we generated two weak monoclonal antibodies (13G4 and 26B2) that were affinity maturated and used to develop a highly sensitive ELISA. The measurement range of the sandwich ELISA with the affinity maturated antibodies (13G4m1 and 26B2m1) was 1.5 to 30,000 pg/ml, and its detection limit was at least 10 times lower than those of commercially available kits. In conclusion, we describe the development of a new ultrasensitive ELISA suitable for measuring very low plasma insulin concentrations in rodents. This ELISA might be very useful in drug discovery research in diabetes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Baran, Szczepan W; Perret-Gentil, Marcel I; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Miedel, Emily L; Kehler, James
The refinement of surgical techniques represents a key opportunity to improve the welfare of laboratory rodents, while meeting legal and ethical obligations. Current methods used for monitoring intra-abdominal disease progression in rodents usually involve euthanasia at various time-points for end of study, one-time individual tissue collections. Most rodent organ tumour models are developed by the introduction of tumour cells via laparotomy or via ultrasound-guided indirect visualization. Ischaemic rodent models are often generated using laparotomies. This approach requires a high number of rodents, and in some instances introduces high degrees of morbidity and mortality, thereby increasing study variability and expense. Most importantly, most laparotomies do not promote the highest level of rodent welfare. Recent improvements in laparoscopic equipment and techniques have enabled the adaptation of laparoscopy for rodent procedures. Laparoscopy, which is considered the gold standard for many human abdominal procedures, allows for serial biopsy collections from the same animal, results in decreased pain and tissue trauma as well as quicker postsurgical recovery, and preserves immune function in comparison to the same procedures performed by laparotomy. Laparoscopy improves rodent welfare, decreases inter-animal variability, thereby reducing the number of required animals, allows for the replacement of larger species, decreases expense and improves data yield. This review article compares rodent laparotomy and laparoscopic surgical methods, and describes the utilization of laparoscopy for the development of cancer models and assessment of disease progression to improve data collection and animal welfare. In addition, currently available rodent laparoscopic equipment and instrumentation are presented.
Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping ... This increased promotion is creating increasing demand for bee colonies in the ... which can cause genetic mix-up, disease transmissions and failure to
Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Scheel, Troels K H
Flaviviridae. The genetic diversity of the rodent hepaciviruses exceeded that observed for hepaciviruses infecting either humans or non-primates, leading to new insights into the origin, evolution, and host range of hepaciviruses. The presence of genes, encoded proteins, and translation elements homologous......-like viruses were found in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), a small rodent used in laboratories to study viruses, including hantaviruses. We also identified pegiviruses in rodents that are distinct from the pegiviruses found in primates, bats, and horses. These novel viruses may enable the development...
Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji
MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.
Full Text Available This essay analyzes Kif Tebbi, a colonial novel by Luciano Zuccoli, in theoretical and interpretative perspective of the colonial archive. The aim is to problematize and deconstruct the colonial discourse of this writing from the cultural memories' point of view. In particular, the article will discuss two different forms of memory: the sedimentation and connective memory.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony counter is a device intended for medical purposes that...
Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina
With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…
Ball, Stephan J.
The history of colonial education in Africa is examined. The political functions of educating indigenous peoples, conflict between the educational demands of the indigenous population and the colonial governments, and conflict between differing groups within the colonial system (i.e., missionaries and international aid societies) are discussed.…
Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C
The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses.
The paper analyses colonial connections and networks of British consulting engineers. It unravels how consulting engineers operated within different imperial contexts, including settler colonies, Egypt and Crown colonies in West Africa in particular. The paper also examines the close and at times...
in classrooms in the 19th Century has aimed at transmitting a shared past in order to encourage subjects to identify with their nation. In psychology different studies have focused on history textbooks as cultural tools for memory and identity, drawing attention to their role in conveying a social......The interwoven dynamics underpinning national identity and collective memory have received growing interest from different disciplines in light of an increasingly globalized and multicultural world. In this context, history textbooks play an important role inasmuch as the introduction of history...... representation of the nation’s historical past. Along these lines, this paper aims to examine the representation of an especially controversial past, such as colonialism, in Spanish secondary history textbooks in two different periods, in late 70’-early 80’ (just after the loss of the last Spanish colonies...
Jorge Núñez Sánchez
Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza ciertas normas dictadas por la Corona con el propósito de regular la vida urbana a lo largo del período colonial. El artículo centra su estudio en algunas disposiciones que buscaban refrenar el desorden público y mantener el orden y las normas del "buen vivir". Bajo esta perspectiva, se analizan algunas prácticas culturales que se apartaban de estas regulaciones, entre las que se incluyeron los albazos y carnavales. Muchas de estas manifestaciones fueron percibidas por el poder colonial como muestras de primitivismo latente. No obstante, el juego de carnaval, entre otras prácticas, se mantuvo reacio a acatar estas regulaciones.
Frederiksen, Bodil Folke
The article addresses African and Indian newspaper networks in Kenya in the late 1940s in an Indian Ocean perspective. Newspapers were important parts of a printing culture that was sustained by Indian and African nationalist politics and economic enterprise. In this period new intermediary groups...... of African and Indian entrepreneurs, activists and publicists, collaborating around newspaper production, captured fairly large and significant non-European audiences (some papers had print runs of around ten thousand) and engaged them in new ways, incorporating their aspirations, writings and points of view...... in newspapers. They depended on voluntary and political associations and anti-colonial struggles in Kenya and on links to nationalists in India and the passive resistance movement in South Africa. They sidestepped the European-dominated print culture and created an anti-colonial counter-voice. Editors insisted...
Daniels, Karen; Mann, Michael; Charbonneau, Patrick
Hydrodynamic-like flows are observed in biological systems as varied as bacteria, insects, birds, fish, and mammals. Both the phenomenology (e.g. front instabilities, milling motions) and the interaction types (hydrodynamic, direct contact, psychological, excluded-volume) strongly vary between systems, but a question common to all of them is to understand the role of particle-scale fluctuations in controlling large-scale rheological behaviors. We will address these questions through experiments on a new system, Tyrolichus casei (cheese mites), which live in dense, self-mixing colonies composed of a mixture of living mites and inert flour/detritus. In experiments performed in a Hele-Shaw geometry, we observe that the rheology of a colony is strongly dependent on the relative concentration of active and inactive particles. In addition to spreading flows, we also observe that the system can generate convective circulation and auto-compaction.
Full Text Available The research was performed in the area of natural reserve "Dneprovsko-Orelsky" and its adjacent territory – the island Pogorely. We discovered the changes of number of grey heron in colonial settlements, determined the principal factors influencing the formation of spatial structure of island bird communities. The analysis of nest distribution towards tree breeding biotopes was performed and stability of spatial structure of bird colonies was proved. We were tracking the number dynamics of pioneer colony and revealed the principal ecological and anthropogenic factors influencing the fluctuation of its abundance.
Xiao, Jin; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zebeli, Qendrim
Indigestible sugars (iS) have received particular interest in food and nutrition research due to their prebiotic properties and other health benefits in humans and animals. The main aim of this review article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding digestive and health-enhancing properties of iS such as sugar alcohols, oligosacharides, and polysaccharides, in rodents and rabbits. Besides ameliorating gut health, iS ingestion also elicits laxative effects and stimulate intestinal permeability and fluid secretions, thereby shortening digesta transit time and increasing stool mass and quality. In rodents and rabbits, as hindgut fermenters, consumption of iS leads to an improved nutrient digestibility, too. Cecal fermentation of iS reduces luminal pH and extends wall tissue facilitating absorption of key dietary minerals across hindgut. The microbial fermentation of iS also enhances excessive blood nitrogen (N) flowing into the cecum to be used as N source for bacterial growth, enhancing N retention in cecotrophic animals. This review also highlights the impact of iS on improving lipid metabolism, mainly by lowering cholesterol and triglycerides levels in the blood. The paper serves as an index of the current knowledge of iS effects in rodents and rabbits and also identifies gaps of knowledge that need to be addressed by future research.
Full Text Available Indigestible sugars (iS have received particular interest in food and nutrition research due to their prebiotic properties and other health benefits in humans and animals. The main aim of this review article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding digestive and health-enhancing properties of iS such as sugar alcohols, oligosacharides, and polysaccharides, in rodents and rabbits. Besides ameliorating gut health, iS ingestion also elicits laxative effects and stimulate intestinal permeability and fluid secretions, thereby shortening digesta transit time and increasing stool mass and quality. In rodents and rabbits, as hindgut fermenters, consumption of iS leads to an improved nutrient digestibility, too. Cecal fermentation of iS reduces luminal pH and extends wall tissue facilitating absorption of key dietary minerals across hindgut. The microbial fermentation of iS also enhances excessive blood nitrogen (N flowing into the cecum to be used as N source for bacterial growth, enhancing N retention in cecotrophic animals. This review also highlights the impact of iS on improving lipid metabolism, mainly by lowering cholesterol and triglycerides levels in the blood. The paper serves as an index of the current knowledge of iS effects in rodents and rabbits and also identifies gaps of knowledge that need to be addressed by future research.
Gidyk, Darryl C; Deibel, Scott H; Hong, Nancy S; McDonald, Robert J
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of age-related dementia. As such, great effort has been put forth to investigate the etiology, progression, and underlying mechanisms of the disease. Countless studies have been conducted, however, the details of this disease remain largely unknown. Rodent models provide opportunities to investigate certain aspects of AD that cannot be studied in humans. These animal models vary from study to study and have provided some insight, but no real advancements in the prevention or treatment of the disease. In this Hypothesis and Theory paper, we discuss what we perceive as barriers to impactful discovery in rodent AD research and we offer potential solutions for moving forward. Although no single model of AD is capable of providing the solution to the growing epidemic of the disease, we encourage a comprehensive approach that acknowledges the complex etiology of AD with the goal of enhancing the bidirectional translatability from bench to bedside and vice versa.
We explore self-organizing strategies for role assignment in a foraging task carried out by a colony of artificial agents. Our strategies are inspired by various mechanisms of division of labor (polyethism) observed in eusocial insects like ants, termites, or bees. Specifically we instantiate models of caste polyethism and age or temporal polyethism to evaluated the benefits to foraging in a dynamic environment. Our experiment is directly related to the exploration/exploitation trade of in machine learning.
Full Text Available Among the many factors that contribute to bacterial colonization, persistence and development of infection, the ability of microorganisms to form small colony variants (SCVs assumes great significance. Although bacteria require intrinsic virulence factors to cause pathogenesis, some of them regularly evolve mechanisms to evade immune mechanisms, become resistant to antibiotics, and sustain in the human/animal cells to cause chronic infections. This mini review highlights the recent advances in the study of SCVs.
Foucault’s concept of pastoral power is envisioned as a technique of power developed from the medieval period and carried through into modern political rationalities. As such, it is an old power technique – which originated in Christian institutions – in a new political shape, which he coined governmentality. This article uses Foucault’s genealogy of pastoral power and governmentality to discuss the intersection of domination and technology of self in the Greenlandic colonial context and to b...
Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search
CHANG Zhao Rui; LU Liang; MAO De Qiang; PAN Hui Ming; FENG Lian Gui; YANG Xiao Bing; LIU Feng Feng
Objective To investigate the impact of impoundment and active public health interventions on rodent populations and rodent-borne diseases in the Three Gorges reservoir region from 1997 to 2012. Methods Surveillance data from 1997 to 2012 were extracted from the Public Health Surveillance System of The Three Gorges established in 1997. Temporal changes in the incidences of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and leptospirosis, rodent density, pathogen-carrying rates, and their correlations were analyzed. ResultsThe average indoor and outdoor rodent densities decreased overall from 1997 to 2012. The average densities decreased by 47.72% (from 4.38% to 2.29%) and 39.68% (from 4.41% to 2.66%), respectively, after impoundment (2003-2012) compared with before impoundment (1997-2002). The average annual incidence rates of HFRS and leptospirosis were 0.29/100,000 and 0.52/100,000, respectively, and decreased by 85.74% (from 0.68/100,000 to 0.10/100,000) and 95.73% (from 1.47/100,000 to 0.065/100,000), respectively, after impoundment compared with before impoundment. Incidences of HFRS and leptospirosis appear to be positively correlated with rodent density in the reservoir area. Conclusion This study demonstrated that rodent density and incidences of rodent-borne diseases decreased and were maintained at low levels during construction of the Three Gorges dam. Measures that reduce rodent population densities could be effective in controlling rodent-borne diseases during large-scale hydraulic engineering construction.
Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK
Full Text Available For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper chamber. Authentication of honey from the standpoint of the presence of sugar syrup is very complex, because there is no single method by which honey adulteration can be reliably confirmed. Feeding the colonies in spring should result in stronger colonies and hence the collection of more honey in the brood chambers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this has effects also on honey authenticity, and to discover a simple method for detection of honey adulteration. The colonies were fed with candy paste that had added yeast and blue dye, to provide markers for detection of honey adulteration. The strength of the colonies and quantity of honey in the brood chambers were monitored. The results of the analysis of stable isotope and activity of foreign enzymes were compared with the results of yeast quantity and colour of the honey (absorbance, L*, a*, b* parameters. Detection of yeast in the honey samples and presence of colour as a consequence of added dye appear to be appropriate methods to follow honey adulteration, and further studies are ongoing.
Chunsheng Hou; Hadassah Rivkin; Yossi Slabezki; Nor Chejanovsky
The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and ...
Sivier, D. J.
The existence of feudal or totalitarian interplanetary empires has been a favourite theme in Science Fiction. Although the vast distances between the stars make the emergence of an interstellar empire impossible without the creation of a faster than light drive, this is not necessarily true for the other worlds within our solar system. Environmental constraints on the off-world colonies themselves, and repressive, hierarchical and feudalistic social and commercial institutions and customs inherited from the parent cultures on Earth and a tradition of military rule descending from the foundation of these colonies may all work to bring about a new feudal or totalitarian social order on humanity's extraterrestrial colonies. There are encouraging signs that this may not be the case, however. Already the debate over the projected colonisation of Mars is a factor influencing present controversies over repressive institutions and customs. Nevertheless, those wishing for a free, democratic, and politically, socially and technologically innovative and vigorous human society spreading throughout the solar system should not become complacent.
Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.
Lossi, Laura; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Merighi, Adalberto
The anatomical features distinctive to each of the very large array of species used in today's biomedical research must be born in mind when considering the correct choice of animal model(s), particularly when translational research is concerned. In this paper we take into consideration and discuss the most important anatomical and histological features of the commonest species of laboratory rodents (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and gerbil), rabbit, and pig related to their importance for applied research.
Jonathan R. Whitlock
Full Text Available The posterior parietal cortex (PPC participates in a manifold of cognitive functions, including visual attention, working memory, spatial processing and movement planning. Given the vast interconnectivity of PPC with sensory and motor areas, it is not surprising that neuronal recordings show that PPC often encodes mixtures of spatial information as well as the movements required to reach a goal. Recent work sought to discern the relative strength of spatial versus motor signaling in PPC by recording single unit activity in PPC of freely behaving rats during selective changes in either the spatial layout of the local environment or in the pattern of locomotor behaviors executed during navigational tasks. The results revealed unequivocally a predominant sensitivity of PPC neurons to locomotor action structure, with subsets of cells even encoding upcoming movements more than 1 second in advance. In light of these and other recent findings in the field, I propose that one of the key contributions of PPC to navigation is the synthesis of goal-directed behavioral sequences, and that the rodent PPC may serve as an apt system to investigate cellular mechanisms for spatial motor planning as traditionally studied in humans and monkeys.
Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T
Maneuvering safely through the environment is central to survival of almost all species. The ability to do this depends on learning and remembering locations. This capacity is encoded in the brain by two systems: one using cues outside the organism (distal cues), allocentric navigation, and one using self-movement, internal cues and nearby proximal cues, egocentric navigation. Allocentric navigation involves the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and surrounding structures; in humans this system encodes allocentric, semantic, and episodic memory. This form of memory is assessed in laboratory animals in many ways, but the dominant form of assessment is the Morris water maze (MWM). Egocentric navigation involves the dorsal striatum and connected structures; in humans this system encodes routes and integrated paths and, when overlearned, becomes procedural memory. In this article, several allocentric assessment methods for rodents are reviewed and compared with the MWM. MWM advantages (little training required, no food deprivation, ease of testing, rapid and reliable learning, insensitivity to differences in body weight and appetite, absence of nonperformers, control methods for proximal cue learning, and performance effects) and disadvantages (concern about stress, perhaps not as sensitive for working memory) are discussed. Evidence-based design improvements and testing methods are reviewed for both rats and mice. Experimental factors that apply generally to spatial navigation and to MWM specifically are considered. It is concluded that, on balance, the MWM has more advantages than disadvantages and compares favorably with other allocentric navigation tasks.
Kutschka, Ingo; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Sista, Ramachandra; Hendry, Stephen L; Chun, Hyung J; Hoyt, Grant; Kutschka, Werner; Pelletier, Marc P; Quertermous, Tom; Wu, Joseph C; Robbins, Robert C
Acquisition of echocardiographic data from rodents is subject to wide variability due to variations in technique. We hypothesize that a dedicated imaging platform can aid in standardization of technique and improve the quality of images obtained. We constructed a device consisting of a boom-mounted steel platform frame (25 x 35 x 3 cm) on which a transparent polyethylene membrane is mounted. The animal is placed onto the membrane and receives continual inhaled anesthesia via an integrated port. The membrane allows for probe positioning from beneath the animal to obtain standard echo-views in left lateral decubitus or prone positions. The frame can be set at any desired angle ranging from 0 to 360 degrees along either the long or short axis. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5) underwent echocardiography (General Electric, Vivid 7, 14 MHz) using the platform. The device allowed for optimal positioning of animals for a variety of standard echocardiographic measurements. Evaluations among all animals showed minimal variability between two different operators and time points. We tested the feasibility of the device for supporting the assessment of cardiac function in a disease model by evaluating a separate cohort of adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (n = 5) that underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Serial echocardiography demonstrated statistically significant decreases of fractional shortening and ejection fraction (p rats. Future studies will focus on improving this technology to allow for standardized high-throughput echocardiographic analysis in small animal models of disease.
de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F
In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species.
Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa
Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176 ... Mastomys erythroleucus and Arvicanthis dembeensis was recorded on grid 1, the ... Most rodents produce 6–7 young after a gestation period of three weeks.
Skonhoft, Anders; Leirs, Herwig; Andreassen, Harry P
incorporates both density-dependent and density-independent (stochastic) factors. Rodents are controlled by applying poison, and the costs are made up of the cost of poison plus the damage to maize production. We analyse how the present-value costs of maize production are affected by various rodent control...... strategies, by varying the duration and timing of rodenticide application. Our numerical results suggest that it is economically beneficial to control the rodent population. In general, the most cost-effective duration of controlling the rodent population is 3-4 months every year, and especially at the end...... conclusion is highly robust and not much affected by changing prices of maize production....
Conclusion: Rodent genetic background determines the brown remodeling of different white fat depots. This study provides new insights into the role of genetic variation in fat remodeling in susceptibility to metabolic diseases.
Aug 31, 2014 ... Morphometric variation in the forest rodent Malacomys edwardsi in Côte d' ... This genus only occurs in tropical regions of Africa. ... complex, Jacquet et al., 2014). ..... structure matrix indicates that LOTE, BULL, UPDA and.
Fabre, Pierre-Henri Fréderic; Hautier, Lionel; Dimitrov, Dimitar Stefanov
BACKGROUND:Development of phylogenetic methods that do not rely on fossils for the study of evolutionary processes through time have revolutionized the field of evolutionary biology and resulted in an unprecedented expansion of our knowledge about the tree of life. These methods have helped to shed...... a rodent maximum likelihood phylogeny inferred from a molecular supermatrix. It is based on 11 mitochondrial and nuclear genes that covers 1,265 species, i.e., respectively 56% and 81% of the known specific and generic rodent diversity. The inferred topology recovered all Rodentia clades proposed by recent...... of the continents. Our results show that rodents experienced shifts in diversification rate regularly through the Tertiary, but at different periods for each clade. A comparison between the rodent fossil record and our results suggest that extinction led to the loss of diversification signal for most...
See, Phen Chiak; Yew Wong, Kuan; Komarudin, Komarudin
To date, no consensus exists on how to evaluate the performance of a new Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm when solving Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAPs). Different performance measures and problems sets are used by researchers to evaluate their algorithms. This paper is aimed to provide a recapitulation of the relevant issues and suggest some guidelines for assessing the performance of new ACO algorithms.
When South African visual artist William Kentridge accepted the yearly assignment of the German Guggenheim Foundation, he decided for that occasion to thematize the link between Germany and Africa's colonial histories. In particular he decided to highlight the under-researched history of the genocid
When South African visual artist William Kentridge accepted the yearly assignment of the German Guggenheim Foundation, he decided for that occasion to thematize the link between Germany and Africa's colonial histories. In particular he decided to highlight the under-researched history of the genocid
When South African visual artist William Kentridge accepted the yearly assignment of the German Guggenheim Foundation, he decided for that occasion to thematize the link between Germany and Africa's colonial histories. In particular he decided to highlight the under-researched history of the
The central argument of this thesis is that science and practice, as articulated in agricultural science in the Netherlands and its colonies, gradually broke apart. This process is visible in the organisation of agricultural research and education, as well as in the development of three major fields
By the dawn of the 19th century, the Netherlands had established colonies and trading posts across Asia and the rest of the world, linking them directly to international networks of intellectual exchange and production. Drawing on extensive new research, and bringing much new scholarship before Engl
Bruijn, de M.E.; Damen, J.C.M.
This paper discusses the search for hidden post-colonial archives on Africanist research and ways of making these available to scholars and the general public. These are diverse sets of archives: the personal archives of the scholar that are often hidden in 'trunks' at home, and the institutional ar
Papaioannou, K.I.; de Haas, Michiel
A rapidly growing body of research examines how weather variability, anomalies and shocks influence economic and societal outcomes. This study investigates the effects of weather shocks on African smallholder farmers in British colonial Africa and intervenes in the debate on the mediating effect of
Javad Pashaei Barbin
Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Networks have recently attracted a lot of attention in the research community as well as the industry. Quality of Service support for MANETs is an exigent task due to dynamic topology and limited resource. Routing, the act of moving information across network from a source to a destination. Conventional routing algorithms are difficult to be applied to a dynamic network topology, therefore modeling and design an efficient routing protocol in such dynamic networks is an important issue. It is important that MANETs should provide QoS support routing, such as acceptable delay, jitter and energy in the case of multimedia and real time applications. One of the meta-heuristic algorithms which are inspired by the behavior of real ants is called Ant Colony Optimization algorithm. In this paper we propose a new on demand QoS routing algorithm "Ant Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks" based on ant colony. The proposed algorithm will be highly adaptive, efficient and scalable and mainly reduces end-to-end delay in high mobility cases.
Full Text Available Task allocation in multiple agent system has been widely applied many application fields, such as unmanned aerial vehicle, multi-robot system and manufacturing system et al. Therefore, it becomes one of the hot topics in distributed artificial intelligence research field for several years. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel task allocation algorithm in multiple agent systems utilizing ant colony optimization. Firstly, the basic structure of agent organization is described, which include context-aware module, information processing module, the executing module, decision-making and intelligent control module, knowledge base and task table. Based the above agent structure, these module utilize the knowledge in the external environment to process the information in agent communicating. Secondly, we point out that task allocation process in multiple agent systems can be implement by creating the space to the mapping of the multi-agent organization. Thirdly, a modified multiple agent system oriented ant colony optimization algorithm is given, which contain pre-processing steps and the task allocation results are obtained by executing the trust region sqp algorithm in local solver. Finally, performance evaluation is conducted by experiments comparing with Random strategy and Instant optimal strategy, and very positive results are obtained
Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.
Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models...
Favaron, Phelipe O; Carter, Anthony Michael; Ambrosio, Carlos E;
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sigmondontinae, known as "New World rats and mice," is a large subfamily of Cricetidae for which we herein provide the first comprehensive investigation of the placenta. METHODS: Placentas of various gestational ages ranging from early pregnancy to near term were obtained fo...... subfamily of South American rodents. We note, however, that some of these rodents can be captive bred and recommend that future studies focus on the study of time dated pregnancies....
Langel, Jennifer L; Smale, Laura; Esquiva, Gema;
The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsica...... in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical....
Bio-sampling is a function of bio-indication. Bio-indication with honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L) is where the research fields of environmental technology and apiculture overlap. The honeybees are samplers of the environment by collecting unintentionally and simultaneously, along with nectar, pollen, water and honeydew from the flowers or on the leaves, other matter (in bio-indication terms: target matter) and accumulating this in the colony. Collected target matter, in this thesis heavy...
Perry, Clint J; Søvik, Eirik; Myerscough, Mary R; Barron, Andrew B
Many complex factors have been linked to the recent marked increase in honey bee colony failure, including pests and pathogens, agrochemicals, and nutritional stressors. It remains unclear, however, why colonies frequently react to stressors by losing almost their entire adult bee population in a short time, resulting in a colony population collapse. Here we examine the social dynamics underlying such dramatic colony failure. Bees respond to many stressors by foraging earlier in life. We manipulated the demography of experimental colonies to induce precocious foraging in bees and used radio tag tracking to examine the consequences of precocious foraging for their performance. Precocious foragers completed far fewer foraging trips in their life, and had a higher risk of death in their first flights. We constructed a demographic model to explore how this individual reaction of bees to stress might impact colony performance. In the model, when forager death rates were chronically elevated, an increasingly younger forager force caused a positive feedback that dramatically accelerated terminal population decline in the colony. This resulted in a breakdown in division of labor and loss of the adult population, leaving only brood, food, and few adults in the hive. This study explains the social processes that drive rapid depopulation of a colony, and we explore possible strategies to prevent colony failure. Understanding the process of colony failure helps identify the most effective strategies to improve colony resilience.
Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per
Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres...... in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10...... subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses...
Full Text Available Official and/or public archives were a byproduct of colonial rule in Africa. (Archives are a byproduct of administrative governance everywhere. Given the density and diversity of colonial archival records, historians have tended to rely on them for the study of the colonial period. Publications on the use of archives have not captured the perspective of end-users, who often face peculiar challenges in the use of colonial and metropolitan archives. This paper provides an end-user perspective on colonial archives in Nigeria and the United Kingdom. It highlights the challenges of data collection and prospects of optimal use of archival source material. The discussion is of general application to users of colonial archives especially in the former British colonies in Africa.
Bordes, Frédéric; Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge
Rodents are recognized reservoir hosts for many human zoonotic pathogens. The current trends resulting from anthropocene defaunation suggest that in the future they, along with other small mammals, are likely to become the dominant mammals in almost all human-modified environments. Recent intricate studies on bat-borne emerging diseases have highlighted that many gaps exist in our understanding of the zoonotic transmission of rodent-borne pathogens. This has emphasized the need for scientists interested in rodent-borne diseases to integrate rodent ecology into their analysis of rodent-borne pathogen transmission in order to identify in more detail the mechanisms of spillover and chains of transmission. Further studies are required to better understand the true impact of rodent abundance and the importance of pathogen sharing and circulation in multi-host- multi-pathogen communities. We also need to explore in more depth the roles of generalist and abundant species as the potential links between pathogen-sharing, co-infections and disease transmission.
Valsamis, Bridget; Schmid, Susanne
The acoustic startle response is a protective response, elicited by a sudden and intense acoustic stimulus. Facial and skeletal muscles are activated within a few milliseconds, leading to a whole body flinch in rodents(1). Although startle responses are reflexive responses that can be reliably elicited, they are not stereotypic. They can be modulated by emotions such as fear (fear potentiated startle) and joy (joy attenuated startle), by non-associative learning processes such as habituation and sensitization, and by other sensory stimuli through sensory gating processes (prepulse inhibition), turning startle responses into an excellent tool for assessing emotions, learning, and sensory gating, for review see( 2, 3). The primary pathway mediating startle responses is very short and well described, qualifying startle also as an excellent model for studying the underlying mechanisms for behavioural plasticity on a cellular/molecular level(3). We here describe a method for assessing short-term habituation, long-term habituation and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses in rodents. Habituation describes the decrease of the startle response magnitude upon repeated presentation of the same stimulus. Habituation within a testing session is called short-term habituation (STH) and is reversible upon a period of several minutes without stimulation. Habituation between testing sessions is called long-term habituation (LTH)(4). Habituation is stimulus specific(5). Prepulse inhibition is the attenuation of a startle response by a preceding non-startling sensory stimulus(6). The interval between prepulse and startle stimulus can vary from 6 to up to 2000 ms. The prepulse can be any modality, however, acoustic prepulses are the most commonly used. Habituation is a form of non-associative learning. It can also be viewed as a form of sensory filtering, since it reduces the organisms' response to a non-threatening stimulus. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) was originally
Full Text Available This article attempts to add to our understanding of the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies in the little researched period of 1840-1880 when this relation became politicised. This was a direct result of a new notion of citizenship that developed after the 1848 constitution was implemented: many believed that citizens had now become accountable for government policies, that is, as far as they were acquainted with the effects these had abroad. Colonial issues were among the first for which citizens developed new protest forms and demanded that public opinion should be taken more seriously by the government. This means that not only what happened in the colonies influenced the shape and structure of Dutch politics in an important formative stage, but also that sentiments usually connected to the introduction of the Ethical Policy can be traced back much earlier than isoften assumed.
Full Text Available The present article departs from the inherent problems of grasping the voice of the subaltern other in a colonial context. While postcolonial theoreticians have occasionally spoken pessimistically about the possibilities of reconstructing the agency of dominated categories of non-Westerners, recent research on early Southeast Asia has on the contrary envisaged new lines of inquiry through an ingenious use of the extant sources, preferably through interdisciplinary communication. But can we use the colonial archive in order to highlight social history in non-literate societies such as those of eastern Indonesia where the colonial texts do not resonate with the indigenous ones? This article scrutinizes materials from the VOC (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie post in Kupang (1653-1800 in order to find data usable for such a history. It is argued that letters, reports, legal minutes, diaries, etcetera. have a good potential due to the regularity and minute detail of the record.
Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Ratnieks, Francis L W
Trail pheromones do more than simply guide social insect workers from point A to point B. Recent research has revealed additional ways in which they help to regulate colony foraging, often via positive and negative feedback processes that influence the exploitation of the different resources that a colony has knowledge of. Trail pheromones are often complementary or synergistic with other information sources, such as individual memory. Pheromone trails can be composed of two or more pheromones with different functions, and information may be embedded in the trail network geometry. These findings indicate remarkable sophistication in how trail pheromones are used to regulate colony-level behavior, and how trail pheromones are used and deployed at the individual level.
ZHANG Qiang; MAO Jun; DING Fei
It took that the weight minimum and drive efficiency maximal were as double optimizing target,the optimization model had built the drilling string,and the optimization solution was used of the ant colony algorithm to find in progress.Adopted a two-layer search of the continuous space ant colony algorithm with overlapping or variation global ant search operation strategy and conjugated gradient partial ant search operation strategy.The experiment indicates that the spiral drill weight reduces 16.77% and transports the efficiency enhance 7.05% through the optimization design,the ant colony algorithm application on the spiral drill optimized design has provided the basis for the system research screw coal mine machine.
ZHANG Qiang; MAO Jun; DING Fei
It took that the weight minimum and drive efficiency maximal were as double optimizing target, the optimization model had built the drilling string, and the optimization solution was used of the ant colony algorithm to find in progress. Adopted a two-layer search of the continuous space ant colony algorithm with overlapping or variation global ant search operation strategy and conjugated gradient partial ant search operation strat-egy. The experiment indicates that the spiral drill weight reduces 16.77% and transports the efficiency enhance 7.05% through the optimization design, the ant colony algorithm application on the spiral drill optimized design has provided the basis for the system re-search screw coal mine machine.
Full Text Available The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP is an important management problem in the field of physical distribution and logistics. Good vehicle routing can not only increase the profit of logistics but also make logistics management more scientific. The Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP constrained by the capacity of a vehicle is the extension of VRP. Our research applies a two-phase algorithm to address CVRP. It takes the advantages of Simulated Annealing (SA and ant colony optimization for solving the capacitated vehicle routing problem. In the first phase of proposed algorithm, simulated annealing provides a good initial solution for ant colony optimization. In the second phase, Iterative Local Search (ILS method is employed to seeking the close-to-optimal solution in local scope based on the capacity of the vehicle. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to original ant colony optimization and simulated annealing separately reported on partial benchmark problems.
Full Text Available This article attempts to add to our understanding of the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies in the little researched period of 1840-1880 when this relation became politicised. This was a direct result of a new notion of citizenship that developed after the 1848 constitution was implemented: many believed that citizens had now become accountable for government policies, that is, as far as they were acquainted with the effects these had abroad. Colonial issues were among the first for which citizens developed new protest forms and demanded that public opinion should be taken more seriously by the government. This means that not only what happened in the colonies influenced the shape and structure of Dutch politics in an important formative stage, but also that sentiments usually connected to the introduction of the Ethical Policy can be traced back much earlier than isoften assumed.
Guo, Tiantai; Hong, Bo; Kong, Ming; Zhao, Jun
This paper proposes to use ant colony algorithm in the analysis of spectral data of plant leaves to achieve the best classification of different plants within a short time. Intelligent classification is realized according to different components of featured information included in near infrared spectrum data of plants. The near infrared diffusive emission spectrum curves of the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora and Acer saccharum Marsh are acquired, which have 75 leaves respectively, and are divided into two groups. Then, the acquired data are processed using ant colony algorithm and the same kind of leaves can be classified as a class by ant colony clustering algorithm. Finally, the two groups of data are classified into two classes. Experiment results show that the algorithm can distinguish different species up to the percentage of 100%. The classification of plant leaves has important application value in agricultural development, research of species invasion, floriculture etc.
Hascup, Kevin N; Hascup, Erin R
Alterations in neurotransmission have been implicated in numerous neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Unfortunately, few techniques support the measurement of real-time changes in neurotransmitter levels over multiple days, as is essential for ethologic and pharmacodynamic testing. Microdialysis is commonly used for these research paradigms, but its poor temporal and spatial resolution make this technique inadequate for measuring the rapid dynamics (milliseconds to seconds) of fast signaling neurotransmitters, such as glutamate and acetylcholine. Enzymatic microelectrode arrays (biosensors) coupled with electrochemical recording techniques have demonstrated fast temporal resolution (less than 1 s), excellent spatial resolution (micron-scale), low detection limits (≤200 nM), and minimal damage (50 to 100 μm) to surrounding brain tissue. Here we discuss the benefits, methods, and animal welfare considerations of using platinum microelectrodes on a ceramic substrate for enzyme-based electrochemical recording techniques for real-time in vivo neurotransmitter recordings in both anesthetized and awake, freely moving rodents.
Mailhes, J B; Marchetti, F
The objective of this review is to suggest that the advances being made in our understanding of the molecular events surrounding chromosome segregation in non-mammalian and somatic cell models be considered when designing experiments for studying aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells. Accurate chromosome segregation requires the temporal control and unique interactions among a vast array of proteins and cellular organelles. Abnormal function and temporal disarray among these, and others to be inidentified, biochemical reactions and cellular organelles have the potential for predisposing cells to aneuploidy. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that certain chemicals (mainly those that alter microtubule function) can induce aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells, it seems relevant to point out that such data can be influenced by gender, meiotic stage, and time of cell-fixation post-treatment. Additionally, a consensus has not been reached regarding which of several germ cell aneuploidy assays most accurately reflects the human condition. More recent studies have shown that certain kinase, phosphatase, proteasome, and topoisomerase inhibitors can also induce aneuploidy in rodent germ cells. We suggest that molecular approaches be prudently incorporated into mammalian germ cell aneuploidy research in order to eventually understand the causes and mechanisms of human aneuploidy. Such an enormous undertaking would benefit from collaboration among scientists representing several disciplines.
Huang, Yong; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Wu, Lehao; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, WP Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.
Anastomosis is one of the most commonly performed procedure in the clinical environment that involves tubular structures, such as blood vessel, lymphatic vessel, seminal duct and ureter. Suture based anastomosis is still the foundation for most basic surgical training and clinical operation, although alternate techniques have been developed and under development. For those tubular-structure-anastomosis, immediate real-time post-operative evaluation of the surgical outcome is critical to the success of surgery. Previously evaluation is mostly based on surgeons' experience. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography is high-speed, high-resolution noninvasive 3D imaging modality that has been widely used in the biomedical research and clinical study. In this study we used Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography as an evaluation tool for anastomosis of lymphatic vessels, ureter and seminal duct in rodent model. Immediate post-operative and long term surgical site data were collected and analyzed. Critical clinical parameters such as lumen patency, anastomosed site narrowing and suture error detection are provided to surgeons.
Curley, Gerard F; Jerkic, Mirjana; Dixon, Steve; Hogan, Grace; Masterson, Claire; O'Toole, Daniel; Devaney, James; Laffey, John G
Although mesenchymal stem/stromal cells represent a promising therapeutic strategy for acute respiratory distress syndrome, clinical translation faces challenges, including scarcity of bone marrow donors, and reliance on bovine serum during mesenchymal stem/stromal cell proliferation. We wished to compare mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from human umbilical cord, grown in xeno-free conditions, with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from human bone marrow, in a rat model of Escherichia coli pneumonia. In addition, we wished to determine the potential for umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to reduce E. coli-induced oxidant injury. Randomized animal study. University research laboratory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of E. coli (1.5-2 × 10 CFU/kg). "Series 1" compared the effects of freshly thawed cryopreserved umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells with bone marrow-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on physiologic indices of lung injury, cellular infiltration, and E. coli colony counts in bronchoalveolar lavage. "Series 2" examined the effects of cryopreserved umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on survival, as well as measures of injury, inflammation and oxidant stress, including production of reactive oxidative species, reactive oxidative species scavenging by superoxide dismutase-1 and superoxide dismutase-2. In "Series 1," animals subjected to E. coli pneumonia who received umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells had improvements in oxygenation, respiratory static compliance, and wet-to-dry ratios comparable to bone marrow-mesenchymal stem/stromal cell treatment. E. coli colony-forming units in bronchoalveolar lavage were reduced in both cell therapy groups, despite a reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils. In series 2, umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells enhanced animal survival and decreased alveolar protein and proinflammatory
Gothard, D; Dawson, J I; Oreffo, R O C
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide an ideal cell source for bone tissue engineering strategies. However, bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) populations that contain MSCs are highly heterogeneous expressing a wide variety of proliferative and differentiation potentials. Current MSC isolation methods employing magnetic-activated and fluorescent-activated cell sorting can be expensive and time consuming and, in the absence of specific MSC markers, fail to generate homogeneous populations. We have investigated the potential of various colony morphology descriptors to provide correlations with cell growth potential. Density-independent colony forming unit-fibroblastic (CFU-F) capacity is a MSC prerequisite and resultant colonies display an array of shapes and sizes that might be representative of cell function. Parent colonies were initially categorised according to their diameter and cell density and grouped before passage for the subsequent assessment of progeny colonies. Whereas significant morphological differences between distinct parent populations indicated a correlation with immunophenotype, enhanced CFU-F capacity was not observed when individual colonies were isolated according to these morphological parameters. Colony circularity, an alternative morphological measure, displayed a strong correlation with subsequent cell growth potential. The current study indicates the potential of morphological descriptors for predicting cell growth rate and suggests new directions for research into dissection of human BMSC CFU-F populations.
van Engelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Underwood, Robyn M; Pettis, Jeffery
providing guidance to future hypothesis-driven research on the causes of colony mortality.
Dennis van Engelsdorp
across the continent, serving as a reference for comparison with future losses as well as providing guidance to future hypothesis-driven research on the causes of colony mortality.
Full Text Available Medical researcher Kubo Takeshi’s contributions to professional publications, such as Chōsen igakkai zasshi (The Korean medical journal, and more popular magazines, such as Chōsen oyobi Manshū (Korea and Manchuria, reflected many of the prejudicial attitudes that Japanese held toward Koreans during the first decade of colonial rule. His scholarship was based on biological determinist thinking, an approach developed by eighteenth-century European medical researchers to establish race, class, and gender hierarchies. For Kubo this approach provided a means for exploiting scientific inquiry to establish and manage Japanese superiority over Korean subjects in a more stable manner than one based on more malleable cultural differences. A people could adjust its customs or mannerisms to amalgamate with a suzerain culture but could not do so with hereditarily determined features, such as blood type or cranium size, shape, or weight. Practitioners, however, often linked the physical with the cultural by arguing that a people’s physical structure was a product of its cultural heritage. The subjectivity injected into this seemingly objective research methodology abused the lay community’s blind trust in modern science in two ways. First, it employed this inquiry to verify biased observations, rather than to uncover new truths; second, it altered the approach, rather than the conclusions, when this inquiry demonstrated the desired truths to be inaccurate. Biological determinism proved useful in substantiating a Japanese-Korean colonial relationship that acknowledged historically similar origins while arguing for the historically different evolutions of the two peoples.
Ema, Makoto; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa
We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in rodents. The developmental toxicity of ENMs included not only structural abnormalities, but also death, growth retardation, and behavioral and functional abnormalities. Most studies were performed on mice using an injection route of exposure. Teratogenic effects were indicated when multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and TiO2-nanoparticles were administered to mice during early gestation. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in placentas and malformed fetuses and their placentas after prenatal exposure to MWCNTs and SWCNTs, respectively. The pre- and postnatal mortalities and growth retardation in offspring increased after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Histopathological and functional abnormalities were also induced in placentas after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Maternal exposure to ENMs induced behavioral alterations, histopathological and biochemical changes in the central nervous system, increased susceptibility to allergy, transplacental genotoxicity, and vascular, immunological, and reproductive effects in offspring. The size- and developmental stage-dependent placental transfer of ENMs was noted after maternal exposure. Silver accumulated in the visceral yolk sac after being injected with Ag-NPs during early gestation. Although currently available data has provided initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of ENMs, that on the developmental toxicity of ENMs is still very limited. Further studies using well-characterized ENMs, state-of the-art study protocols, and appropriate routes of exposure are required in order to clarify these developmental effects and provide information suitable for risk assessments of ENMs.
Alison A Bockoven
Full Text Available Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.
Bockoven, Alison A; Wilder, Shawn M; Eubanks, Micky D
Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.
Prufrock, Kristen A.; López-Torres, Sergi; Silcox, Mary T.; Boyer, Doug M.
Dental topographic metrics provide quantitative, biologically meaningful data on the three-dimensional (3D) form of teeth. In this study, three dental topographic metrics (Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), relief index (RFI), and orientation patch count rotated (OPCR)) are used to evaluate the presence of dietary niche overlap between North American plesiadapoid primates (Plesiadapidae, Carpolestidae, and Saxonellidae) and early rodents. Calculation of these metrics requires researchers to modify the 3D surface models of the teeth by cropping them to a region of interest and/or orienting them. The current study therefore also examines the error introduced by cropping and orientation, and evaluates the contribution of these metrics to the niche overlap hypothesis. Our results indicate that cropping creates significantly more variation in RFI than DNE. Furthermore, orientation is an even larger source of variation in the calculation of RFI than cropping. Orientation does not strongly influence OPCR values. However, none of these sources of error are significant enough to undermine the extent to which these metrics can speak to the niche overlap hypothesis. The DNE and RFI results suggest that carpolestids and saxonellids had very different molar morphologies from early rodents, and thus these groups were not adapted to consume the same resources. Some plesiadapids show similar levels of occlusal curvature, relief, and complexity to early rodents. The plesiadapid Chiromyoides, which has distinctively low cusps and weak shearing crest development, has molars that are the most rodent-like of all taxa compared. This suggests that Chiromyoides had a dietary niche that overlapped with early rodents and would have been the most likely to be competing over food resources. Results from the plesiadapoid-rodent dental topographic analysis highlight the utility of DNE for detecting more fine-scaled differences in occlusal surface morphology than OPCR, whereas RFI provided valuable
Leite, Ana Mafalda
O ARTIGO DISCUTE, SEGUINDO SEMPRE NAS ENTRELINHAS AS REFLEXÕES DE HOMI BHABHA EM O LOCAL DA CULTURA, OS DIVERSOS MODOS DE DESVELAMENTO DA MEMÓRIA (COLONIAL E PÓS-COLONIAL) NAS NARRATIVAS DE MANUEL RUI (O MANEQUIM E O PIANO) E DE JOÃO PAULO BORGES COELHO (SETENTRIÃO), MOSTRANDO COMO OS ROTEIROS E O DESLOCAMENTO POR NOVOS LUGARES E ESPAÇOS IMPLICAM UM RE-MAPEAMENTO DA NAÇÃO E SIMULTANEAMENTE UM REPENSAR DE VÁRIOS MOMENTOS DA HISTÓRIA. DISCUTE-SE AINDA DE QUE MODO A ESCRITA NARRATIVA DOS AUTORES...
Full Text Available During an investigation on the endoparasites of rodents in Ahvaz, Khuzestan province, south west Iran, a total of 90 rodents including 14 Mus musculus,4 Rattus rattus and 72 R. norvegicus were trapped from different localities of Ahvaz and its suburbs, during 1998- 2000, using live traps. Examination of different tissues, identification of parasite species and serological tests were carried out in School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research. Results showed that the variation among helminth species was wide especially those which arthropods are involve in their life cycles. The most prevalent species of rodents was R. norvegicus in which Trypanosoma lewisi and Trichosomoides crassicauda were the most prevalent species of protozoan and helminth parasites, respectively. Gongylonema monigi, Streptopharagus kuntzi and Rictularia ratti from R.norvegicus and G. neoplasticum from both R.norvegicus and R. rattus are reported for the first time in Iran. Report of Physocephalus sexalatus from R.norvegicus apparently comprises an new host species in the world. The public health importance of zoonotic species are discussed.
Bind, Rebecca H; Minney, Sarah M; Rosenfeld, SaraJane; Hallock, Robert M
Pheromones—chemical signals that can elicit responses in a conspecific—are important in intraspecies communication. Information conveyed by pheromones includes the location of an animal, the presence of food or a threat, sexual attraction, courtship, and dam–pup interactions. These chemical messages remain intact and volatile even when animals, such as rodents, are housed in laboratories rather than their natural environment. Laboratory protocols, such as the cage cleaning and sanitation processes, as well as general housing conditions can alter a rodent's normal production of pheromones in both amount and type and thus may affect behavior. In addition, some procedures induce the release of alarm pheromones that subsequently alter the behavior of other rodents. To prevent pheromonal interference and stress-induced pheromonal release in their research subjects, experimenters should assess current laboratory protocols regarding cage cleaning processes, housing designs, and behavioral assays. Here we discuss how the most commonly used laboratory procedures can alter pheromonal signaling and cause confounding effects. PMID:23562094
Oliveras-Salvá, Marusela; Van Rompuy, Anne-Sophie; Heeman, Bavo; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder whose aetiology is not yet fully understood. In the past ten years, the discovery of genes linked to hereditary forms of the disease has impelled the development of animal models. These should lead to the identification of novel pathways that provide insight into the functionality of the proteins involved and the pathogenesis of the sporadic forms of the disease. In particular, loss-of-function mutations in the parkin and PINK1 (phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1) genes account for most of the cases of familial autosomal recessive parkinsonism. Both parkin and PINK1 knockout rodent models are now available, which display an overall mild phenotype consisting of a mitochondrial dysfunction together with changes in dopamine metabolism and oxidative stress. However, up till now these models fail to reproduce the main hallmarks of Parkinson's disease: the dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra and the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, named Lewy bodies, in the remaining dopaminergic neurons. We here review the most important knockout and knockdown rodent models generated so far for these two recessive Parkinson's disease-causing genes. We critically feature their main characteristics and their impact on the research field, and propose some future directions for the study and modelling of the loss of function of parkin and PINK1 in rodents.
Full Text Available Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI and functional connectivity mapping have become widely used tools in the human neuroimaging community and their use is rapidly spreading into the realm of rodent research as well. One of the many attractive features of rs-fMRI is that it is readily translatable from humans to animals and back again. Changes in functional connectivity observed in human studies can be followed by more invasive animal experiments to determine the neurophysiological basis for the alterations, while exploratory work in animal models can identify possible biomarkers for further investigation in human studies. These types of interwoven human and animal experiments have a potentially large impact on neuroscience and clinical practice. However, impediments exist to the optimal application of rs-fMRI in small animals, some similar to those encountered in humans and some quite different. In this review we identify the most prominent of these barriers, discuss differences between rs-fMRI in rodents and in humans, highlight best practices for animal studies, and review selected applications of rs-fMRI in rodents. Our goal is to facilitate the integration of human and animal work to the benefit of both fields.
Horn, Charles C.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R.; Yates, Bill J.; Andrews, Paul L. R.
The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity–key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236
Charles C Horn
Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.
Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R
The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.
Korobeynikova Larisa A.
Full Text Available The paper presents a new interpretation of globalization within the boundaries of the author’s concept of soft globalization, which exploits a normatively attractive alternative to the concept of the Empire. It is argued here that the conditions of development of contemporary post - colonial world communities do not require any unification in the form of the Empire, but instead the creation of a non repressive mechanism of social regulation - the implementation of a form of soft globalization, a globalization with a mental form are expedient here. Historically, globalization occurred in a strict material(i.e. economical and military form that prompted the conditions for the evolution of civilization as the Empire: a case in which the development of the world occurs under the power of a single dominating state. Imperialistic politics leads to colonial politics formation. The history of the phenomena of civilization shows many instances of Empire globalization. Globalization in the Empire form was already observed at the time of the Roman Empire. At this time processes of development inside the Empire were manifestations of globalization in its highest cultural shape. But ancient Rome was also a social and political experiment that acquired the attributes of a purely material globalization in the end, and historically brought about the irreversible crash of the Roman Empire itself. Contemporary fluctuations referring to the process of globalization can be registered in the US’s attempts of material domination inside this or that existing case of civilization, which causes colonialism appearance. The main idea stressed in the paper is that only a mental globalization could succeed in the end.
Tippett, F E; Padgett, G A; Eyster, G; Blanchard, G; Bell, T
A 5-year-old female Siberian husky that was diagnosed as an essential hypertensive was bred several times over a 5-year period, producing a colony of 39 offspring. Thirty of the 39 animals were subjected to biweekly systemic arterial blood pressure determinations with femoral arterial puncture and were placed into two hypertensive and two normotensive groups based on mean blood pressure: Group 1 (mean blood pressure, 128 +/- 12 mm Hg), Group 2 (mean blood pressure, 121 +/- 3 mm Hg), Group 3 (mean blood pressure, 114 +/- 8 mm Hg), and Group 4 (mean blood pressure, 101 +/- 9 mm Hg). Groups 1, 2, and 3 had mean blood pressures significantly higher than that of Group 4 (p less than 0.05). Ten dogs (representatives from Groups 1, 2, and 3) were subjected to more detailed clinical testing including angiography, echocardiography, ophthalmic examination, plasma catecholamine and renin activity measurements, plasma lead and cadmium determinations, cerebrospinal fluid examination, renal profile, and serum chemistry and hematological analysis. Five unrelated normotensive Siberian huskies were compared with colony dogs by using echocardiography. Groups 1 and 2 showed a clear but statistically insignificant upward trend in left ventricular wall thickness indexed against body weights when compared with that in Group 3 and in the unrelated five normal Siberian dogs. Thus, the only specific difference from group to group in the colony at the termination of this study was the difference in mean blood pressure. Based on these data, it is possible and likely that aging will reveal changes secondary to chronic primary hypertension. The pathogenesis of this hereditary disorder remains unknown.
Full Text Available Foucault’s concept of pastoral power is envisioned as a technique of power developed from the medieval period and carried through into modern political rationalities. As such, it is an old power technique – which originated in Christian institutions – in a new political shape, which he coined governmentality. This article uses Foucault’s genealogy of pastoral power and governmentality to discuss the intersection of domination and technology of self in the Greenlandic colonial context and to bring out the central role of religion in Foucault’s conceptualisation of governmentality.
Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram
This chapter investigates this puzzle of choosing non-sovereignty in a postcolonial setting. Historically, the question of freedom from imperial hegemony has been linked to how Western colonialism involved keeping the colonized in ‘the waiting room of history’ by insisting that they were not yet...... the colonizers leave so that the colonized people could decide for themselves. Many anti-imperial struggles settled for nation-states each acquiring a separate, formal sovereignty-based international status. More recent versions of postcolonialism, inspired by poststructuralism and critical constructivism, have...
Ortoleva, Peter; Tuncay, Kagan; Gannon, Dennis; Meile, Christof
This report summarizes progress in the second year of this project. The objective is to develop methods and software to predict the spatial configuration, properties and temporal evolution of microbial colonies in the subsurface. To accomplish this, we integrate models of intracellular processes, cell-host medium exchange and reaction-transport dynamics on the colony scale. At the conclusion of the project, we aim to have the foundations of a predictive mathematical model and software that captures the three scales of these systems – the intracellular, pore, and colony wide spatial scales. In the second year of the project, we refined our transcriptional regulatory network discovery (TRND) approach that utilizes gene expression data along with phylogenic similarity and gene ontology analyses and applied it successfully to E.coli, human B cells, and Geobacter sulfurreducens. We have developed a new Web interface, GeoGen, which is tailored to the reconstruction of microbial TRNs and solely focuses on Geobacter as one of DOE’s high priority microbes. Our developments are designed such that the frameworks for the TRND and GeoGen can readily be used for other microbes of interest to the DOE. In the context of modeling a single bacterium, we are actively pursuing both steady-state and kinetic approaches. The steady-state approach is based on a flux balance that uses maximizing biomass growth rate as its objective, subjected to various biochemical constraints, for the optimal values of reaction rates and uptake/release of metabolites. For the kinetic approach, we use Karyote, a rigorous cell model developed by us for an earlier DOE grant and the DARPA BioSPICE Project. We are also investigating the interplay between bacterial colonies and environment at both pore and macroscopic scales. The pore scale models use detailed representations for realistic porous media accounting for the distribution of grain size whereas the macroscopic models employ the Darcy-type flow
Fundamentales (Rio Piedras, PR: Editorial Edil, 1996), 93, quoted in Pedro A. Malavet, America’s Colony: the Political and Cultural Conflict between the...Puerto Rico: Culture, Politics, and Identity, 25. 28 Ibid., 25-26. 29 Editorial Group, Puerto Rico Online Encyclopedia (PROE), “Osuna, Juan José...29. 47 Bolívar Pagán, Historia de los partidos políticos puertorriequeños (1898-1956) vol I (San Juan: Libreria Campos , 1959), 160, http
Luisa Durán Rocca
Full Text Available El texto que el lector tiene en sus manos pretende hacer una síntesis del proceso de formación del espacio urbano colonial brasilero, ilustrando el trayecto de una práctica espacial de más de tres siglos, derivada de la milenaria tradición urbana portuguesa. A partir del reconocimiento de la dimensión histórico-artística de la arquitectura y los hechos urbanos2, se asume la indisolubilidad entre la sociedad y el espacio que ésta produce y se conceptúa la urbanización como un proceso social.
Papaioannou, K.I.; Dalrymple-Smith, A.E.
This article explores the relative importance of pre-colonial institutional capacity and the effects of periods of peace and stability on long-term development outcomes in Nigeria. We use data on education, health, and public works at a provincial level from a variety of colonial and Nigerian state
Amiri, Esmaeil; Strand, Micheline K; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R
Western honey bees, Apis mellifera, live in highly eusocial colonies that are each typically headed by a single queen. The queen is the sole reproductive female in a healthy colony, and because long-term colony survival depends on her ability to produce a large number of offspring, queen health is essential for colony success. Honey bees have recently been experiencing considerable declines in colony health. Among a number of biotic and abiotic factors known to impact colony health, disease and queen failure are repeatedly reported as important factors underlying colony losses. Surprisingly, there are relatively few studies on the relationship and interaction between honey bee diseases and queen quality. It is critical to understand the negative impacts of pests and pathogens on queen health, how queen problems might enable disease, and how both factors influence colony health. Here, we review the current literature on queen reproductive potential and the impacts of honey bee parasites and pathogens on queens. We conclude by highlighting gaps in our knowledge on the combination of disease and queen failure to provide a perspective and prioritize further research to mitigate disease, improve queen quality, and ensure colony health.
Kitada, Munehiro; Ogura, Yoshio; Koya, Daisuke
Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, novel therapies for the suppression of diabetic nephropathy must be developed. Rodent models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases and testing novel therapies, and many type 1 and type 2 diabetic rodent models have been established for the study of diabetes and diabetic complications. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animals are widely used as a model of type 1 diabetes. Akita diabetic mice that have an Ins2+/C96Y mutation and OVE26 mice that overexpress calmodulin in pancreatic β-cells serve as a genetic model of type 1 diabetes. In addition, db/db mice, KK-Ay mice, Zucker diabetic fatty rats, Wistar fatty rats, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats and Goto-Kakizaki rats serve as rodent models of type 2 diabetes. An animal model of diabetic nephropathy should exhibit progressive albuminuria and a decrease in renal function, as well as the characteristic histological changes in the glomeruli and the tubulointerstitial lesions that are observed in cases of human diabetic nephropathy. A rodent model that strongly exhibits all these features of human diabetic nephropathy has not yet been developed. However, the currently available rodent models of diabetes can be useful in the study of diabetic nephropathy by increasing our understanding of the features of each diabetic rodent model. Furthermore, the genetic background and strain of each mouse model result in differences in susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy with albuminuria and the development of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions. Therefore, the validation of an animal model reproducing human diabetic nephropathy will significantly facilitate our understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms that contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we focus on rodent models of diabetes and discuss the utility and limitations of these models for the study of diabetic
Erwin, R.M.; Crivelli, Alain J.; Hafner, Heinz; Fasola, Mauro; Erwin, R. Michael; McCrimmon, Donald A.=
The Mediterranean Sea is the largest partially enclosed sea in the world and provides habitat to more than 100 species of waterbirds from the Palearctic-North African-Middle Eastern regions. Even though the Mediterranean suffers from pollution, has little tidal influence, and is oligotrophic, more than half of the western Palearctic populations of numerous waterfowl species winter in the region. Thirty-three species of colonial waterbirds breed along the 46,000 km Mediterranean coastline with nine species considered threatened or endangered, mostly because of wetland loss and degradation. The long history of human activity and scientific investigations in the region has taught some valuable lessons. In the area of colonial waterbird biology and conservation, we have learned important lessons about the value of long-term monitoring and research on selected populations. From marking studies of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) results have been used to derive useful information about metapopulation dynamics. Involvement of both African and European biologists allowed year-round Studies of these species that yielded valuable spin-offs for training in avian and wetland conservation. We have also learned the value of man-made wetlands as feeding and nesting sites for some colonial waterbirds. Careful evaluations of the habitat quality of different types of wetlands are required, as in contaminant levels such as lead shot and pesticides. Wetland conservationists have also learned from some instructive mistakes. Dam construction and agricultural incentive programs sponsored by the European Community, the World Bank, and others from the past have largely ignored impacts on wetlands and wildlife. In some areas, economic ventures such as aquaculture operations and salt mining have not involved waterbird habitat needs in their planning. Research and conservation needs include: (1) establishing regional monitoring programs and
Full Text Available We present an improved ant colony algorithm-based approach to assess the vulnerability of a road network and identify the critical infrastructures. This approach improves computational efficiency and allows for its applications in large-scale road networks. This research involves defining the vulnerability conception, modeling the traffic utility index and the vulnerability of the road network, and identifying the critical infrastructures of the road network. We apply the approach to a simple test road network and a real road network to verify the methodology. The results show that vulnerability is directly related to traffic demand and increases significantly when the demand approaches capacity. The proposed approach reduces the computational burden and may be applied in large-scale road network analysis. It can be used as a decision-supporting tool for identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management.
Villeneuve, Frederic J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.
Technology portfolio selection is a combinatorial optimization problem often faced with a large number of combinations and technology incompatibilities. The main research question addressed in this article is to determine if Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is better suited than Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and Simulated Annealing (SA) for technology portfolio optimization when incompatibility constraints between technologies are present. Convergence rate, capability to find optima, and efficiency in handling of incompatibilities are the three criteria of comparison. The application problem consists of finding the best technology portfolio from 29 aircraft technologies. The results show that ACO and GAs converge faster and find optima more easily than SA, and that ACO can optimize portfolios with technology incompatibilities without using penalty functions. This latter finding paves the way for more use of ACO when the number of constraints increases, such as in the technology and concept selection for complex engineering systems.
Portfolio selection is an important issue for researchers and practitioners. In this paper, under the assumption that security returns are given by experts' evaluations rather than historical data, we discuss the portfolio adjusting problem which takes transaction costs and diversification degree of portfolio into consideration. Uncertain variables are employed to describe the security returns. In the proposed mean-variance-entropy model, the uncertain mean value of the return is used to measure investment return, the uncertain variance of the return is used to measure investment risk, and the entropy is used to measure diversification degree of portfolio. In order to solve the proposed model, a modified artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is designed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Milton Zabrano Perez
Full Text Available El objetivo central de este trabajo consiste en escudriñar cómo fue el proceso de urbanización en Hispanoamérica durante la época colonial, con el propósito de extraer elementos teóricos y metodológicos que sirvan de base en la preparación de un proyecto de investigación centrado en la época colonial de la ciudad de Barranquilla.AbstractThe main objective of this work consists of scrutinizing how the urbanization process was developed in Hispanic America during the colonial times, in order to extract theoretical and methodological elements which are relevant to prepare a research project, focused on colonial times in Barranquilla.
Welsh, J. Q.; Bonaldo, R. M.; Bellwood, D. R.
Coral predation by parrotfishes can cause damage to coral colonies, but research into the dynamics of their feeding scars on Indo-Pacific corals is limited. We monitored feeding scars of the parrotfish Chlorurus microrhinos on massive Porites colonies at Orpheus Island (inshore Great Barrier Reef) over 4 months. Of the 30 marks monitored, 11 were single feeding scars, which all healed completely. The remaining 19 feeding marks consisted of clusters of scars. Eight began to recover, while 11 increased in size by 1,576 ± 252 % (mean ± SE). A logistic regression predicted that a single feeding scar on a Porites colony had a 97 % probability of healing; however, where more than three feeding scars were present, this dropped below 50 %. As excavating parrotfishes in the Indo-Pacific often take multiple focused bites, they may have a significant impact on the growth and mortality of massive Porites colonies at Orpheus Island.
Talpos, John C; de-Wit, Lee; Olley, Joseph; Riordan, Jack; Steckler, Thomas
The rodent has been used to model various aspects of the human visual system, but it is unclear to what extent human visual perception can be modelled in the rodent. Research suggests rodents can perform invariant object recognition tasks in a manner comparable to humans. There is further evidence that rodents also make use of certain grouping cues, but when performing a shape discrimination they have a tendency to rely much more on local image cues than human participants. In the current work, we exploit the fact that humans sometimes discriminate better between whole shapes, rather than the parts from which they are constructed, to ask whether rodents show a classic Configural Superiority Effect. Using touchscreen-equipped operant boxes, rats were trained to discriminate 'part' or 'whole' images based off of those used by J. R. Pomerantz et al. () J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform, 3, 422-435. Here, we show that rats show no advantage for wholes and that they perform better when presented with simpler image parts, a pattern of effect opposite to what was seen in humans when highly comparable stimuli were used. These results add to our understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and rodent visual system, and suggest that the rodent visual system may not compute part whole relationships in a way comparable to humans. These results are significant from both a comparative anatomy perspective, and of particular relevance for those wishing to use rodents to model visuo-perceptual deficits associated with human psychiatric disorders.
Richardson, Troy A.
This essay works to bridge conversations in philosophy of education with decolonial theory. The author considers Margonis' (1999, 2011a, b) use of Rousseau (1979) and Heidegger (1962) in developing an ontological attitude that counters social hierarchies and promotes anti-colonial relations. While affirming this effort, the essay outlines a…
Robert Garrett emigrated from Scotland to Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in 1822. Within a few months of arrival he was posted to the barbaric penal colony in Macquarie Harbour, known as Sarah Island. His descent into alcoholism, medical misadventure and premature death were related to his largely unsupported professional environment and were, in many respects, typical of those subjected to this experience.
van Leeuwen, Bas; Földvári, Peter
Despite a consensus about the main factors influencing economic mobility in Indonesia, such as labor-market opportunities and childhood circumstances, virtually nothing is known about how these factors increased economic standing in the colonial and postcolonial periods. The use of height data as a
colonial urban centres evolved and flourished in the coastal south. However .... By 1966, there were no more British officers in the army and the size of the corps had .... The statistics indicating the North's dominance of both the rank and file of.
van Leeuwen, Bas; Földvári, Peter
Despite a consensus about the main factors influencing economic mobility in Indonesia, such as labor-market opportunities and childhood circumstances, virtually nothing is known about how these factors increased economic standing in the colonial and postcolonial periods. The use of height data as a
Huigen, S.; Kommers, J.H.M.
This book offers a collection of essays about the interpretations of colonial representations, most of them in relation to the Dutch East India Company (VOC). The history of a world wide operating trading company like the VOC offers a great variety of contact histories, ranging from situations of
Barker, Adam J.
The author's fundamental contention is this: Canadian society remains driven by the logic of imperialism and engages in concerted colonial action against Indigenous peoples whose claims to land and self-determination continue to undermine the legitimacy of Canadian authority and hegemony. The imperial ambitions of the Canadian state and its…
Marco A. S. Baptista
Full Text Available Progress in Parkinson’s disease (PD research and therapeutic development is hindered by many challenges, including a need for robust preclinical animal models. Limited availability of these tools is due to technical hurdles, patent issues, licensing restrictions and the high costs associated with generating and distributing these animal models. Furthermore, the lack of standardization of phenotypic characterization and use of varying methodologies has made it difficult to compare outcome measures across laboratories. In response, The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research (MJFF is directly sponsoring the generation, characterization and distribution of preclinical rodent models, enabling increased access to these crucial tools in order to accelerate PD research. To date, MJFF has initiated and funded the generation of 30 different models, which include transgenic or knockout models of PD-relevant genes such as Park1 (also known as Park4 and SNCA, Park8 (LRRK2, Park7 (DJ-1, Park6 (PINK1, Park2 (Parkin, VPS35, EiF4G1 and GBA. The phenotypic characterization of these animals is performed in a uniform and streamlined manner at independent contract research organizations. Finally, MJFF created a central repository at The Jackson Laboratory (JAX that houses both non-MJFF and MJFF-generated preclinical animal models. Funding from MJFF, which subsidizes the costs involved in transfer, rederivation and colony expansion, has directly resulted in over 2500 rodents being distributed to the PD community for research use.
Beevers, Carol; Adamson, Richard H
4-methylimidazole (4-MeI) is formed by the interaction of ammonia with reducing sugars and low levels have been identified as a by-product in coffee, soy sauce, wine, dark beers, soft drinks, and caramel colors. The 4-MeI has been reported to induce alveolar/bronchiolar tumors in mice but not rats. Its mechanism of action is unlikely to be due to genotoxicity as 4-MeI does not induce mutation in Salmonella typhimurium and does not induce micronuclei in rodent peripheral erythrocytes or bone marrow cells. However, the question of whether genetically reactive intermediates could be formed via lung-specific metabolism has not previously been addressed. The 4-MeI was tested for its ability to induce mutation in five standard Ames strains of S. typhimurium using induced rat (F344/N) and mouse (B6C3F1) liver and lung S9 as a source of exogenous metabolism. The chemicals were tested in an OECD 471-compliant bacterial reverse mutation assay, using both plate-incorporation and pre-incubation methodologies, together with 10% S-9 metabolic activation. No induction of mutation (as measured by an increase in revertant colonies) was observed and it was concluded that 4-MeI was not mutagenic in S. typhimurium using either rodent liver or lung S9 for exogenous metabolism.
Trathan, Philip N; Fretwell, Peter T; Stonehouse, Bernard
In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.
Philip N Trathan
Full Text Available In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W, in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952. When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005 that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009 highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.
Criteria for feasibility, health and welfare assessment of requirement to use second and subsequent generations of non-human primates or animals from self-sustaining colonies in research Critères d’évaluation de la faisabilité, de l’incidence sanitaire et des répercussions sur le bien-être animal, relatifs à l'obligation future d'utiliser des primates non humains issus uniquement des animaux de deuxième génération et plus ou des animaux provenant de colonies d'élevage auto-entretenues pour la recherche expérimentale
Full Text Available The European Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires that a feasibility study must be conducted by the European Commission to determine if all sourcing of non-human primates from parents bred in captivity (F2 or from self-sustaining colonies can be achieved. This study should also include an assessment of animal health and welfare. Prior to the initiation of the European Commission’s study, it was considered by EFPIA and FELASA that the criteria to be used in the feasibility, health and welfare assessment should be established by experts to help expedite such a study. This paper identifies those criteria which may be useful in making policy decisions on the confirmation or reconsideration of the timetable for implementation of the F2 requirement. A key requirement before a number of criteria can be assessed is the generation of base-line data relating to the supply and future demand of non-human primates and the health and welfare status of current breeding colonies supplying the European market. Three groups of criteria have been indentified, namely feasibility, science and research and welfare. Within each group, a number of parameters are defined and their rationale for inclusion, together with suggested information points, is discussed.La directive européenne 2010/63/EU sur la protection des animaux utilisés à des fins scientifiques exige qu'une étude de faisabilité soit conduite par la Commission européenne afin de déterminer si l’approvisionnement en primates non-humains à partir de géniteurs élevés en captivité (F2 ou de colonies d'élevage autosuffisantes, peut être possible. Cette étude devra également inclure une évaluation de la santé des animaux et de leur bien-être. Avant le début de cette étude par la Commission européenne, l'EFPIA et FELASA ont estimé que les critères à utiliser pour les évaluations de la faisabilité, de la santé des animaux et du bien
Full Text Available Optimization problems are considered to be one kind of NP hard problems. Usually heuristic approaches are found to provide solutions for NP hard problems. There are a plenty of heuristic algorithmsavailable to solve optimization problems namely: Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization, Bee Colony Optimization, etc. The basic Bee Colony algorithm, a population based search algorithm, is analyzed to be a novel tool for complex optimization problems. The algorithm mimics the food foraging behavior of swarmsof honey bees. This paper deals with a modified fitness function of Bee Colony algorithm. The effect of problem dimensionality on the performance of the algorithms will be investigated. This enhanced Bee Colony Optimization will be evaluated based on the well-known benchmark problems. The testing functions like Rastrigin, Rosenbrock, Ackley, Griewank and Sphere are used to evaluavate the performance of the enhanced Bee Colony algorithm. The simulation will be developed on MATLAB.
Bacillus subtilis colonies show periodic growth on agar plates. The organism has been observed to show several colony morphologies including diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) type, dense branching morphology (DBM), Eden type, and spreading without producing openings. The agar concentration for the periodic growth is higher than that of DBM and lower than that of DLA or Eden type. The nutrient (peptone) concentration for the periodic growth is higher than that of DLA and DBM and lower than that of Eden type. The colony grows towards a place with higher peptone concentration. These findings suggest that the diffusion of nutrient particles, i.e. the concentration gradient of peptone particles at the growing perimeter of a colony, would be essentially involved in the periodic growth. The distance between concentric rings of a colony is constant and intervention between two colonies is not observed, unlike the Liesegang ring.
The paper analyses colonial connections and networks of British consulting engineers. It unravels how consulting engineers operated within different imperial contexts, including settler colonies, Egypt and Crown colonies in West Africa in particular. The paper also examines the close and at times...... strained connections that existed between London's consulting engineers and British engineers stationed overseas in colonial public works departments. By examining the colonial connections of metropolitan engineers, the paper sheds light on a hitherto ignored factor that tied Britain and the colonies...... together during the diaspora of British engineering. It argues that personal connections and relations remained of paramount importance during this period, which has traditionally been described as characterised by growing professionalisation and a subsequent loss of the personal element in British...
Mercier, Aurélien; Garba, Madougou; Bonnabau, Henri; Kane, Mamadou; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Dobigny, Gauthier
A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii was conducted on 766 domestic and peridomestic rodents from 46 trapping sites throughout the city of Niamey, Niger. A low seroprevalence was found over the whole town with only 1.96% of the rodents found seropositive. However, differences between species were important, ranging from less than 2% in truly commensal Mastomys natalensis, Rattus rattus and Mus musculus, while garden-associated Arvicanthis niloticus displayed 9.1% of seropositive individuals. This is in line with previous studies on tropical rodents - that we reviewed here - which altogether show that Toxoplasma seroprevalence in rodent is highly variable, depending on many factors such as locality and/or species. Moreover, although we were not able to decipher statistically between habitat or species effect, such a contrast between Nile grass rats and the other rodent species points towards a potentially important role of environmental toxoplasmic infection. This would deserve to be further scrutinised since intra-city irrigated cultures are extending in Niamey, thus potentially increasing Toxoplasma circulation in this yet semi-arid region. As far as we are aware of, our study is one of the rare surveys of its kind performed in Sub-Saharan Africa and the first one ever conducted in the Sahel. PMID:23828008
Dostál, Lubomír; Kohler, William M; Penner-Hahn, James E; Miller, Richard A; Fierke, Carol A
Resistance to the lethal effects of cellular stressors, including the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd), is characteristic of fibroblast cell lines derived from long-lived bird and rodent species, as well as cell lines from several varieties of long-lived mutant mice. To explore the mechanism of resistance to Cd, we used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy to measure the rate of Cd uptake into primary fibroblasts of 15 rodent species. These data indicate that fibroblasts from long-lived rodent species have slower rates of Cd uptake from the extracellular medium than those from short-lived species. In addition, fibroblasts from short-lived species export more zinc after exposure to extracellular Cd than cells from long-lived species. Lastly, fibroblasts from long-lived rodent species have lower baseline concentrations of two redox-active metals, iron and copper. Our results suggest that evolution of longevity among rodents required adjustment of cellular properties to alter metal homeostasis and to reduce the toxic effects of heavy metals that accumulate over the course of a longer life span.
Hansen, Sabine C; Stolter, Caroline; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens
The vast number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) produced by higher plants has generated many efforts to exploit their potential for pest control. We performed a systematic literature search to retrieve relevant publications, and we evaluated these according to PSM groups to derive information about the potential for developing plant-derived rodent repellents. We screened a total of 54 publications where different compounds or plants were tested regarding rodent behavior/metabolism. In the search for widely applicable products, we recommend multi-species systematic screening of PSMs, especially from the essential oil and terpenoid group, as laboratory experiments have uniformly shown the strongest effects across species. Other groups of compounds might be more suitable for the management of species-specific or sex-specific issues, as the effects of some compounds on particular rodent target species or sex might not be present in non-target species or in both sexes. Although plant metabolites have potential as a tool for ecologically-based rodent management, this review demonstrates inconsistent success across laboratory, enclosure, and field studies, which ultimately has lead to a small number of currently registered PSM-based rodent repellents.
Jansen, Patrick A; Hirsch, Ben T; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Wikelski, Martin; Kays, Roland
The Neotropics have many plant species that seem to be adapted for seed dispersal by megafauna that went extinct in the late Pleistocene. Given the crucial importance of seed dispersal for plant persistence, it remains a mystery how these plants have survived more than 10,000 y without their mutualist dispersers. Here we present support for the hypothesis that secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents has facilitated the persistence of these large-seeded species. We used miniature radio transmitters to track the dispersal of reputedly megafaunal seeds by Central American agoutis, which scatter-hoard seeds in shallow caches in the soil throughout the forest. We found that seeds were initially cached at mostly short distances and then quickly dug up again. However, rather than eating the recovered seeds, agoutis continued to move and recache the seeds, up to 36 times. Agoutis dispersed an estimated 35% of seeds for >100 m. An estimated 14% of the cached seeds survived to the next year, when a new fruit crop became available to the rodents. Serial video-monitoring of cached seeds revealed that the stepwise dispersal was caused by agoutis repeatedly stealing and recaching each other's buried seeds. Although previous studies suggest that rodents are poor dispersers, we demonstrate that communities of rodents can in fact provide highly effective long-distance seed dispersal. Our findings suggest that thieving scatter-hoarding rodents could substitute for extinct megafaunal seed dispersers of tropical large-seeded trees.
Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G
Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans.
Samson-Robert, Olivier; Labrie, Geneviève; Chagnon, Madeleine; Fournier, Valérie
Worldwide occurrences of honey bee colony losses have raised concerns about bee health and the sustainability of pollination-dependent crops. While multiple causal factors have been identified, seed coating with insecticides of the neonicotinoid family has been the focus of much discussion and research. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated the impacts of these insecticides under field conditions or in commercial beekeeping operations. Given that corn-seed coating constitutes the largest single use of neonicotinoid, our study compared honey bee mortality from commercial apiaries located in two different agricultural settings, i.e. corn-dominated areas and corn-free environments, during the corn planting season. Data was collected in 2012 and 2013 from 26 bee yards. Dead honey bees from five hives in each apiary were counted and collected, and samples were analyzed using a multi-residue LC-MS/MS method. Long-term effects on colony development were simulated based on a honey bee population dynamic model. Mortality survey showed that colonies located in a corn-dominated area had daily mortality counts 3.51 times those of colonies from corn crop-free sites. Chemical analyses revealed that honey bees were exposed to various agricultural pesticides during the corn planting season, but were primarily subjected to neonicotinoid compounds (54% of analysed samples contained clothianidin, and 31% contained both clothianidin and thiamethoxam). Performance development simulations performed on hive populations' show that increased mortality during the corn planting season sets back colony development and bears contributions to collapse risk but, most of all, reduces the effectiveness and value of colonies for pollination services. Our results also have implications for the numerous large-scale and worldwide-cultivated crops that currently rely on pre-emptive use of neonicotinoid seed treatments.
Full Text Available Worldwide occurrences of honey bee colony losses have raised concerns about bee health and the sustainability of pollination-dependent crops. While multiple causal factors have been identified, seed coating with insecticides of the neonicotinoid family has been the focus of much discussion and research. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated the impacts of these insecticides under field conditions or in commercial beekeeping operations. Given that corn-seed coating constitutes the largest single use of neonicotinoid, our study compared honey bee mortality from commercial apiaries located in two different agricultural settings, i.e. corn-dominated areas and corn-free environments, during the corn planting season. Data was collected in 2012 and 2013 from 26 bee yards. Dead honey bees from five hives in each apiary were counted and collected, and samples were analyzed using a multi-residue LC-MS/MS method. Long-term effects on colony development were simulated based on a honey bee population dynamic model. Mortality survey showed that colonies located in a corn-dominated area had daily mortality counts 3.51 times those of colonies from corn crop-free sites. Chemical analyses revealed that honey bees were exposed to various agricultural pesticides during the corn planting season, but were primarily subjected to neonicotinoid compounds (54% of analysed samples contained clothianidin, and 31% contained both clothianidin and thiamethoxam. Performance development simulations performed on hive populations’ show that increased mortality during the corn planting season sets back colony development and bears contributions to collapse risk but, most of all, reduces the effectiveness and value of colonies for pollination services. Our results also have implications for the numerous large-scale and worldwide-cultivated crops that currently rely on pre-emptive use of neonicotinoid seed treatments.
El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound hemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and chest and abdominal pain. Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne zoonosis worldwide. Transmission rodents to humans occur by aerosol spread, either from the genus Mastomys rodents' excreta (multimammate rat) or through the close contact with infected patients (nosocomial infection). Other rodents of the genera Rattus, Mus, Lemniscomys, and Praomys are incriminated rodents hosts. Now one may ask do the rodents' ectoparasites play a role in Lassa virus zoonotic transmission. This paper summarized the update knowledge on LHV; hopping it might be useful to the clinicians, nursing staff, laboratories' personals as well as those concerned zoonoses from rodents and rodent control.
Aspengren, Henrik C
By the turn of the twentieth century a distinct 'social domain'--along with its constituent parts, problems and internal dynamics-was turned into a political entity, and a concern for state bureaucracies existed across the industrializing world. Specific motivations for this trend may have varied from location to location, but included arguments for higher industrial productivity and less political discontent, often intertwined with a humanitarian impulse in calls for better housing, expanded public health or improved working conditions. As has been well documented, the politicization of the social domain in early twentieth-century Britain owes much to the consolidation of British sociology as a distinct discipline. Yet while the link between the rise of social politics and sociology has been established with regard to Britain, little has been said about the occurrence of this coupling elsewhere in the twentieth-century British Empire. This article aims to rectify that omission by showing the interplay between newly raised social concerns of the colonial administration in the Bombay Presidency, Western British India, and the establishing of sociological research within the borders of the Presidency around the time of the First World War. The article will explore how the colonial administration in Bombay planned to meet new demands for sociological knowledge in colonial state policy, how sociology was subsequently introduced into the Presidency as a research subject, and how new sociological methods were applied in actual colonial government.
Colony morphology of wild and mutant strains of Aspergillus nidulans at various nutrient and agar levels was investigated. Two types of colony patterning were found for these strains. One type produced uniform colonies at all nutrient and agar levels tested, and the other exhibited morphological change into disordered ramified colonies at low nutrient levels. Both types showed highly condensed compact colonies at high nutrient levels on low agar media that was highly diffusive. Disordered colonies were found to develop with low hyphal extension rates at low nutrient levels. To understand basic pattern selection rules, a colony model with three parameters, i.e., the initial nutrient level and the step length of nutrient random walk as the external parameters, and the frequency of nutrient uptake as an internal parameter, was constructed. At low nutrient levels, with decreasing nutrient uptake frequency under diffusive conditions, the model colony exhibited onsets of disordered ramification. Further, in the growth process of A. nidulans, reduction of hyphal extension rate due to a population effect of hyphae was found when hyphae form three-dimensional dense colonies, as compared to the case in which hyphal growth was restricted into two-dimensional space. A hyphal population effect was introduced in the colony model. Thickening of colony periphery due to the population effect became distinctive as the nutrient diffusion effect was raised at high nutrient levels with low hyphal growth rate. It was considered that colony patterning and onset of disorder were strongly governed by the combination of nutrient diffusion and hyphal growth rate.
John Bull's Other Island is the only play of George Bernard Shaw dealing with the Irish problem.He manages to define and ridicule colonialism in it and satires English colonialist’s intention and nature.This paper studies colonialism in this play through sexual metaphor,to decipher how it works simultaneously as an intimation of the British colonial attitudes and a satire of economicexploitation.
Rud, Søren; Ivarsson, Søren
The main theme of this special volume is the colonial state and its governmental practices. This chapter introduces and contextualizes the contributions by providing a brief induction to recent developments within the study of the colonial state. It then presents the contributions under three per...... perspectives which represent separate yet interrelated themes relevant for the understanding of the colonial state: practices, violence, and agency. Hereby, we also accentuate the value of a non-state-centric approach to the analysis of the colonial state....
The German colonial plans concerning Africa in the era of National Socialism ascribed a central role the sciences. Scientists of all possible fields launched into activities. Especially subjects which were directly related to the practice of colonial policies, e.g. African languages, ethnology, law, economic sciences, and medicine, were developed. There were colonial ambitions at nearly every German university, but there was one which designated to become the centre of colonial sciences: the university of Hamburg. It has to be realized that working in this field of studies protected scientists from being drafted by the army for a long time.
Shi Zhang; Chao-Wei Bao; Hai-Bin Shen
.... An independent component analysis method based on adaptive artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed in this paper, aiming at the problems of slow convergence and low computational precision...
Full Text Available The British and the French differed in both the approach and method adopted in governing their overseas subjects during their colonial enterprise in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This had a tremendous impact on the psyche of the colonized and was a determinant factor in shaping the nature of the relationship between the colonizers and colonized before and after independence. Therefore, this paper seeks to juxtapose the colonial behaviour of two colonial powers, French and British, in two major colonies, Algeria and India.
Full Text Available Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 μm to 900 μm, average speckles area decreased 2-fold and the number of small speckles increased 7-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony.
Turski, W A
In 1983, we reported that intracerebral or systemic administration of cholinergic agents produced seizures and seizure-related brain damage in rodents. During the following 17 years, seizures induced by cholinomimetic drugs became a popular model of epilepsy. Seizures can by produced by cholinergic agonists acting directly at muscarinic receptors or by drugs enhancing cholinergic transmission due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Status epilepticus evoked by pilocarpine in rodents triggers long-lasting changes which can be described as: (I) acute-onset seizures lasting for several hours, (II) a silent period characterized by normalization of electroencephalographic patterns lasting for days, and (III) spontaneous recurrent seizures lasting for life. Therefore, seizures induced by cholinomimetics in rodents are of value for studies of basic mechanisms of epileptogenesis and action of antiepileptic drugs.
Collins, A M; Fell, S; Pearson, H; Toribio, J-A
Lawsonia intracellularis is an intracellular bacterium causing proliferative enteropathy in various animal species, and is considered an economically important pathogen of pigs. Rats and mice have been implicated as external vectors for a wide range of pig pathogens, including L. intracellularis. Previous studies have demonstrated L. intracellularis infection and proliferative enteropathy in rodents, but did not show the duration of shedding or the number of L. intracellularis shed by infected rodents, and therefore the infection risk that rodents pose to pigs. In this study, the number of L. intracellularis shed in the faeces and intestinal mucosa of wild rats trapped on pig farms was determined by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assay. The prevalence of L. intracellularis in wild rats trapped on pig farms with endemic proliferative enteropathy (PE) was very high (≥ 70.6%), and large numbers of L. intracellularis were shed (10(10)/g of faeces) in a small proportion of wild rats. The duration of colonisation in laboratory rats and mice challenged with porcine isolates of L. intracellularis was also shown. Faecal shedding of L. intracellularis persisted for 14-21 days in rats and mice that were mildly affected with histological lesions of PE. The humoral immune response to L. intracellularis persisted for 40 days in both species. This study demonstrates that rodents may be an important reservoir of L. intracellularis on piggeries, and hence rodent control is important in disease eradication programs on pig farms.
Palis, Florencia G; Singleton, Grant; Sumalde, Zenaida; Hossain, Mahabub
Rice production in Vietnam is threatened by rodent pests, with a significant increase in impact reported from 1990 through to the early 21st century. Pre-harvest rice losses are typically 5-10%, with losses of >20% occurring in some years in some regions. Farmers' rodent control practices are generally reactive and rely essentially on chemical and physical methods. Ecologically-based rodent pest management (EBRM) was developed in the late 1990s to manage rodents in rice-based farming systems in Vietnam and other parts of South-East Asia. EBRM combines both cultural and physical rodent management practices such as synchrony of cropping, short 2-week rat campaigns at key periods in key habitats, increasing general hygiene around villages, and use of a community trap-barrier system. Although EBRM has been reported to be economically profitable, the successful adoption of this set of technologies requires community participation. In this paper we address issues relating to the adoption and sustainability of EBRM in lowland irrigated rice fields in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. We particularly explore the social and cultural mechanisms involved in maintaining community participation to further understand the conditions under which EBRM works and does not work. Positive indications of sustained use of community-based EBRM include: a policy pronouncement from the prime minister directing the use of integrated rodent management; the use of existing cooperatives for developing community actions; budgetary allocation from provincial and local governments; diffusion of EBRM to provinces in the south and north that are not involved in farmer participatory field trials; and the adoption of EBRM by a non-governmental organization, World Vision Vietnam, in their area-development programs.
Price, Nicholas; Graur, Dan
It has been claimed that synonymous sites in mammals are under selective constraint. Furthermore, in many studies the selective constraint at such sites in primates was claimed to be more stringent than that in rodents. Given the larger effective population sizes in rodents than in primates, the theoretical expectation is that selection in rodents would be more effective than that in primates. To resolve this contradiction between expectations and observations, we used processed pseudogenes as a model for strict neutral evolution, and estimated selective constraint on synonymous sites using the rate of substitution at pseudosynonymous and pseudononsynonymous sites in pseudogenes as the neutral expectation. After controlling for the effects of GC content, our results were similar to those from previous studies, i.e., synonymous sites in primates exhibited evidence for higher selective constraint that those in rodents. Specifically, our results indicated that in primates up to 24% of synonymous sites could be under purifying selection, while in rodents synonymous sites evolved neutrally. To further control for shifts in GC content, we estimated selective constraint at fourfold degenerate sites using a maximum parsimony approach. This allowed us to estimate selective constraint using mutational patterns that cause a shift in GC content (GT ↔ TG, CT ↔ TC, GA ↔ AG, and CA ↔ AC) and ones that do not (AT ↔ TA and CG ↔ GC). Using this approach, we found that synonymous sites evolve neutrally in both primates and rodents. Apparent deviations from neutrality were caused by a higher rate of C → A and C → T mutations in pseudogenes. Such differences are most likely caused by the shift in GC content experienced by pseudogenes. We conclude that previous estimates according to which 20-40% of synonymous sites in primates were under selective constraint were most likely artifacts of the biased pattern of mutation.
Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G
Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host-pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans.
Riofrío-Lazo, Marjorie; Páez-Rosas, Diego
Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna). The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS) = 55.8%), followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%), and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%), captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98%) and arthropods (2%). Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs), showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.
Full Text Available Comparative research concerning masticatory musculature in squirrel, muskrat and rabbit, take into account the emphasizing and morphofunctional interpretation of the osteomuscular particularities involved in the prehension and mastication processes. The development of the coronoid process on the muskrat and squirrel demonstrates the growing of the force when raising the mandible by increasing the action force attached to the temporal muscle, with insertion on the coronoid process. In comparison with that, in the case of rabbits, both the coronoid process and the temporal muscle are reduced. From a philogenetic point of view, it has been found that the species that have the articular condyle lowered at or under the level of the dental tables (carnivores present a greater pressure force between the dental tables. Analyzing this aspect of the rodents taken into discussion, we noticed the lowering of the articular condyle up to the inferior molars' plane, in the case of squirrels and muskrats, but through obliquity, namely through cranial caudal and dorsoventral movement. This peculiarity is emphasized through the analysis of the angle formed by the axis of the mandible recurved branch (passing through the mandibular condyle with the axis of the horizontal branch of the mandible, where it was noticed that along with the increase in the angle formed by the two axes, which becomes an obtuse 160 degree angle on the squirrel and 130 degrees on the muskrat, there is also a lowering of the articular condyle up to the molar level, while in the case of carnivores, the lowering of the condyle is done without the modification of the angle between the two axes, which measures approximately 90 degrees.
Full Text Available A variety of animal models have been developed for modeling ischemic stroke. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO model has been utilized extensively, especially in rodents. While the MCAO model provides stroke researchers with an excellent platform to investigate the disease, controversial or even paradoxical results are occasionally seen in the literature utilizing this model. Various factors exert important effects on the outcome in this stroke model, including the age and sex of the animal examined. This paper discusses emerging information on the effects of age and sex on ischemic outcomes after MCAO, with an emphasis on mouse models of stroke.
Holley, Daniel C. (Editor); Winget, Charles M. (Editor); Leon, Henry A. (Editor)
A workshop, sponsored by Ames Research Center, was held at San Jose State University, San Jose, California, July 16-17, 1987, to discuss and correlate observations and theories relating to lighting requirements in animal habitats for rodents and nonhuman primates in microgravity (near space). This volume represents the results of the workshop. It contains a summary of the conclusions reached and recommendations for lighting animal housing modules used in microgravity related projects. The recommendations cover various aspects of habitat lighting including engineering standards for intensity, spectral properties, and light cycle controls.
Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.
Miller, Kent L.
A model of a lunar domestic economy is presented which consists of 12 sectors, trading 21 goods and services. Material flow for operations and investments are balanced to minimize shortages and surpluses. Prices are formed by targeting a 15-35% return on assets for industry and a 15% after expenses income for labour. From this data, accounting statements, a 14 × 14 cash flow input/output matrix (consisting of 11 industrial sectors, labour, foreign trade and finance), and macroeconomic analyses are prepared which illuminate the most important links in the lunar economy. From this model conclusions are drawn regarding the matter of how best to lay the basis for sustainable colony growth and prosperity.
Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a very popular metaheuristic for solving computationally hard combinatorial optimization problems. Runtime analysis of ACO with respect to various pseudo-boolean functions and different graph based combinatorial optimization problems has been taken up in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the runtime behavior of an MMAS*(Max-Min Ant System) ACO algorithm on some well known hypergraph covering problems that are NP-Hard. In particular, we have addressed the Minimum Edge Cover problem, the Minimum Vertex Cover problem and the Maximum Weak- Independent Set problem. The influence of pheromone values and heuristic information on the running time is analysed. The results indicate that the heuristic information has greater impact towards improving the expected optimization time as compared to pheromone values. For certain instances of hypergraphs, we show that the MMAS* algorithm gives a constant order expected optimization time when the dominance of heuristic information is ...
One of the most striking examples of bacterial colony patterning occurs in the C-morphotype of Paenibacillus strains. Here, macroscopic chirality results from the interaction of local liquid-crystal ordering of the long bacterial cells with the self-propelled motility driven by the non-reflection-symmetric flagella. This talk will review some of the original experimental data from the Ben-Jacob lab as well as recent insight obtained via genomics. I will then discuss attempts to model and simulate the chiral patterns via solving reaction-diffusion equations on random lattices. At the end, I will introduce the challenges still to be faced in understanding transitions between these patterns and more common branching structures
Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.
The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.
Full Text Available Eight hundred and thirteen European rodents and shrews encompassing seven different species were screened for alphacoronaviruses using PCR detection. Novel alphacoronaviruses were detected in the species Rattus norvegicus, Microtus agrestis, Sorex araneus and Myodes glareolus. These, together with the recently described Lucheng virus found in China, form a distinct rodent/shrew-specific clade within the coronavirus phylogeny. Across a highly conserved region of the viral polymerase gene, the new members of this clade were up to 22% dissimilar at the nucleotide level to the previously described Lucheng virus. As such they might represent distinct species of alphacoronaviruses. These data greatly extend our knowledge of wildlife reservoirs of alphacoronaviruses.
de Souza, William Marciel; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes
This study shows an experimental spillover infection ofSigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV).Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653
Full Text Available The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.