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Sample records for rod hot cell

  1. Technical Development of Gamma Scanning for Irradiated Fuel Rod after Upgrade of System in Hot-cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Hee Moon; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Choo, Yong Sun

    2007-06-15

    Non-destructive test system was installed at hot-cell(M1) in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) more than 10 years ago for the diametric measurement and gamma scanning of fuel rod. But this system must be needed to be remodeled for the effective operations. In 2006, the system was upgraded for 3 months. The collimator bench can be movable with horizontal direction(x-direction) by motorized system for sectional gamma scanning and 3-dimensional tomography of fuel rod. So, gamma scanning for fuel rod can be detectable by x, y and rotation directions. It may be possible to obtain the radioactivities with radial and axial directions of pellet. This system is good for the series experiments with several positions. Operation of fuel bench and gamma detection program were linked each other by new program tools. It can control detection and bench moving automatically when gamma inspection of fuel rod is carried out with axial or radial positions. Some of electronic parts were added in PLC panel, and operating panel was re-designed for the remote control. To operate the fuel bench by computer, AD converter and some I/O cards were installed in computer. All of software were developed in Windows-XP system instead of DOS system. Control programs were made by visual-C language. After upgrade of system, DUPIC fuel which was irradiated in HANARO research reactor was detected by gamma scanning. The results were good and operation of gamma scanning showed reduced inspection time and easy control of data on series of detection with axial positions. With consideration of ECT(Eddy Current Test) installation, the computer program and hardware were set up as well. But ECT is not installed yet, so we have to check abnormal situation of program and hardware system. It is planned to install ECT in 2007.

  2. Development of a new bench for puncturing of irradiated fuel rods in STAR hot laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitprez, B.; Silvestre, P.; Valenza, P.; Boulore, A.; David, T.

    2018-01-01

    A new device for puncturing of irradiated fuel rods in commercial power plants has been designed by Fuel Research Department of CEA Cadarache in order to provide experimental data of high precision on fuel pins with various designs. It will replace the current set-up that has been used since 1998 in hot cell 2 of STAR facility with more than 200 rod puncturing experiments. Based on this consistent experimental feedback, the heavy-duty technique of rod perforation by clad punching has been preserved for the new bench. The method of double expansion of rod gases is also retained since it allows upgrading the confidence interval of volumetric results obtained from rod puncturing. Furthermore, many evolutions have been introduced in the new design in order to improve its reliability, to make the maintenance easier by remote handling and to reduce experimental uncertainties. Tightness components have been studied with Sealing Laboratory Maestral at Pierrelatte so as to make them able to work under mixed pressure conditions (from vacuum at 10-5 mbar up to pressure at 50 bars) and to lengthen their lifetime under permanent gamma irradiation in hot cell. Bench ergonomics has been optimized to make its operating by remote handling easier and to secure the critical phases of a puncturing experiment. A high pressure gas line equipped with high precision pressure sensors out of cell can be connected to the bench in cell for calibration purposes. Uncertainty analyses using Monte Carlo calculations have been performed in order to optimize capacity of the different volumes of the apparatus according to volumetric characteristics of the rod to be punctured. At last this device is composed of independent modules which allow puncturing fuel pins out of different geometries (PWR, BWR, VVER). After leak tests of the device and remote handling simulation in a mock-up cell, several punctures of calibrated specimens have been performed in 2016. The bench will be implemented soon in hot

  3. Using Finite Model Analysis and Out of Hot Cell Surrogate Rod Testing to Analyze High Burnup Used Nuclear Fuel Mechanical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL

    2014-07-01

    Based on a series of FEA simulations, the discussions and the conclusions concerning the impact of the interface bonding efficiency to SNF vibration integrity are provided in this report; this includes the moment carrying capacity distribution between pellets and clad, and the impact of cohesion bonding on the flexural rigidity of the surrogate rod system. As progressive de-bonding occurs at the pellet-pellet interfaces and at the pellet-clad interface, the load ratio of the bending moment carrying capacity gradually shifts from the pellets to the clad; the clad starts to carry a significant portion of the bending moment resistance until reaching the full de-bonding state at the pellet-pellet interface regions. This results in localized plastic deformation of the clad at the pellet-pellet-clad interface region; the associated plastic deformations of SS clad leads to a significant degradation in the stiffness of the surrogate rod. For instance, the flexural rigidity was reduced by 39% from the perfect bond state to the de-bonded state at the pellet-pellet interfaces.

  4. Deformation Behavior of Powder Metallurgy Connecting Rod Preform During Hot Forging Based on Hot Compression and Finite Element Method Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengxian; Yi, Jianhong; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Powder-forged connecting rod with a complex geometry shape always has a problem with nonuniform density distribution. Moreover, the physical property of preform plays a critical role for optimizing the connecting rod quality. The flow behavior of a Fe-3Cu-0.5C (wt pct) alloy with a relative density of 0.8 manufactured by powder metallurgy (P/M, Fe-Cu-C) was studied using isothermal compression tests. The material constitutive equation, power dissipation ( η) maps, and hot processing maps of the P/M Fe-Cu-C alloy were established. Then, the hot forging process of the connecting rod preforms was simulated using the material constitutive model based on finite element method simulation. The calculated results agree well with the experimental ones. The results show that the flow stress increases with decreasing temperature and increasing strain rate. The activation energy of the P/M Fe-Cu-C alloy with a relative density of 0.8 is 188.42 kJ/mol. The optimum temperature at the strain of 0.4 for good hot workability of sintered Fe-Cu-C alloy ranges from 1333 K to 1380 K (1060 °C to 1107 °C). The relative density of the hot-forged connecting rod at the central part changed significantly compared with that at the big end and that at the small end. These present theoretical and experimental investigations can provide a methodology for accurately predicting the densification behavior of the P/M connecting rod preform during hot forging, and they help to optimize the processing parameters.

  5. RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH-SPEED HOT EXTRUSION OF BIMETALLIC ROD PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kachanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes of high-speed shaping changes and especially high-speed hot extrusion create efficient conditions for treatment of weakly plastic and poorly deformable materials which are widely used in tool making facilities. Due to the fact that high-speed stamping provides accurate billets with increased mechanical properties, it can be used as a technological process for manufacturing rod parts of die tooling operating under conditions of increased loads and wear. The purpose of the given paper is to carry out experimental investigations on the possibility to obtain a bimetallic rod tool where structural steel is considered as a basis of the tool and a working cavity is made of high-alloyed tool steel with its saving up to 90 %. A scheme of loading and geometry of conjugated surfaces of the composite billet have been developed in the paper. Technology for obtaining bimetallic rod parts of die tooling with deformation at speed of vд = 70–80 m/s and composite billet temperature of Т = (1150±20 ºС has been experimentally tested with formation of a compound due to plastic flow of two billet parts on contact surface with removal of surface oxide films. Microstructures of the bimetallic compounds obtained with the help of high-speed hot extrusion method for compositions of structural and high-alloy steels have been investigated and their high quality has been proved during the investigations. Dependences of micro-hardness distribution have been established outbound two steel contact plane in the zone of connection that are characterized by a minimum micro-hardness value in the connection joint. Availability of more plastic zone in the contact plane contributes to reduction of residual stresses due to their relaxation in this zone and higher joint strength.

  6. Auer rod-like inclusions in non blast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Alexandra; Chebrek, Safia; Lefrand, Hélène; Chesnais, Anne-Laure; Granier, Guillaume; Zerazhi, Hacène; André-Kerneïs, Elisabeth

    2017-11-21

    We report a 69-year-old adult case with a monoclonal gammopathy incidentally discovered, associated with a moderate thrombocytopenia of 90 G/L. Study of blood smear revealed the presence of tumor cells presenting Auer rod-like inclusions, although there were not blast cells. Blood cytology as well as immunophenotyping allowed us to make the diagnosis of malignant hemopathy.

  7. [Hot rods in the ICU : What is the antibiotic mileage of your renal replacement therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielstein, J T; Kruse, A K; Anderson, N; Vaitiekunas, H; Scherneck, S

    2017-05-08

    We would neither be disappointed nor upset if the gas mileage on the sticker of a car didn't match our personal, real-life fuel consumption. Depending on our daily route to work, our style of accelerating and the number of passengers in our carpool, the gas mileage will vary. As soon as the falcon wing door of our car is closed and entrance to the ICU is granted, we tend to forget all of this, even though another hot rod is waiting there for us. Renal replacement therapy is like a car; it fulfills goals, such as the removal of uremic toxins and accumulated fluids, but it also "consumes" (removes) antibiotics. Unlike catecholamines, where we have the mean arterial pressure on our ICU dashboard, we do not have a gauge to measure antibiotic "consumption", i.e. elimination by renal replacement therapy. This manuscript describes the principles and basic knowledge to improve dosing of antibiotics in critically ill patients undergoing renal replacement therapy. As in modern cars, we briefly touch on hybrid therapies combining renal replacement therapy with extracorporeal lung support or adsorbent technologies that remove cytokines or bacteria. Further, the importance of considering body size and body composition is addressed, especially for choosing the right initial dose of antibiotics. Lastly we point out the dire need to increase the availability of timely and affordable therapeutic drug monitoring on the most commonly used antiinfectives, ideally using point-of-care devices at the bedside.

  8. Age-related decrease in rod bipolar cell density of the human retina ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During normal ageing, the rods (and other neurones) undergo a significant decrease in density in the human retina from the fourth decade of life onward. Since the rods synapse with the rod bipolar cells in the outer plexiform layer, a decline in rod density (mainly due to death) may ultimately cause an associated decline of ...

  9. Optimization of the Hot Forging Processing Parameters for Powder Metallurgy Fe-Cu-C Connecting Rods Based on Finite Element Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengxian; Yi, Jianhong; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Powder forged connecting rods have the problem of non-uniform density distributions because of their complex geometric shape. The densification behaviors of powder metallurgy (PM) connecting rod preforms during hot forging processes play a significant role in optimizing the connecting rod quality. The deformation behaviors of a connecting rod preform, a Fe-3Cu-0.5C (wt pct) alloy compacted and sintered by the powder metallurgy route (PM Fe-Cu-C), were investigated using the finite element method, while damage and friction behaviors of the material were considered in the complicated forging process. The calculated results agree well with the experimental results. The relationship between the processing parameters of hot forging and the relative density of the connecting rod was revealed. The results showed that the relative density of the hot forged connecting rod at the central shank changed significantly compared with the relative density at the big end and at the small end. Moreover, the relative density of the connecting rod was sensitive to the processing parameters such as the forging velocity and the initial density of the preform. The optimum forging processing parameters were determined and presented by using an orthogonal design method. This work suggests that the processing parameters can be optimized to prepare a connecting rod with uniform density distribution and can help to better meet the requirements of the connecting rod industry.

  10. Functional allocation of synaptic contacts in microcircuits from rods via rod bipolar to AII amacrine cells in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yoshihiko; Omi, Naoko

    2013-10-15

    Retinal microcircuits for night vision at the absolute threshold are required to relay a single-photon rod signal reliably to ganglion cells via rod bipolar (RB) cells and AII amacrine cells. To assess the noise reduction of intercellular signal transmission in this rod-specific pathway, we quantified its synaptic connectivity by 3D reconstruction of a series of electron micrographs. In most cases (94%), each rod made ribbon synaptic contacts onto two adjacent RB cells. Conversely, each RB cell was contacted by 25 rods. Each RB axon terminal contacted four or five AII amacrine cells via 53 ribbon synapses. Thus, the signal from one rod may be represented as 106 replicates at two RB axons. Moreover, the two adjacent RB cells contacted two to four AII amacrine cells in common, where the signals relayed by two RB cells were reunited. In more detail, over 50% of each RB output was directed predominantly to a single, preferred AII amacrine cell, although each RB cell also separately contacted another one to three AII amacrine cells. Most of the replicate signals at two RB axons were collected on a few AII amacrine cells via reunions, dominant connections, and electrical coupling by AII-AII gap junctions. Thus the original signal may be reliably represented by signal amplification with focal accumulation without gathering unnecessary noise from a wide surrounding area. This allocation of RB-AII synaptic contacts may serve as the structural basis for the physiological properties of the AII single-photon response that include high amplification, local adaptation, and regenerative acceleration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The rod pathway of the microbat retina has bistratified rod bipolar cells and tristratified AII amacrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Brigitte; Butz, Elisabeth; Peichl, Leo; Haverkamp, Silke

    2013-01-16

    We studied the retinal rod pathway of Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina, frugivorous microbats of the phyllostomid family. Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) immunolabeling revealed abundant rod bipolar cells (RBCs) with axon terminals in the innermost sublamina of the inner plexiform layer (IPL), which is typical for mammals. Extraordinarily, the RBC axons showed additional synaptic contacts in a second sublamina further out in the IPL. Dye injections of PKCα-prelabeled RBCs of C. perspicillata confirmed the bistratified axon morphology. The functional partition of the IPL into ON and OFF sublayers was shown by using antibodies against vesicular glutamate transporter 1 [labeling all ON and OFF bipolar cell (BC) axon terminals] and G-protein γ13 (labeling all ON BCs). The ON sublayer occupied 75% of the IPL thickness, including both strata of the RBC axons. RBC output onto putative AII amacrine cells (ACs), the crucial interneurons of the rod pathway, was identified by calretinin, PKCα, and CtBP2 triple immunolabeling. Dye injections of calretinin-prelabeled ACs revealed tristratification of the AII ACs corresponding to the bistratified RBCs. Triple immunolabeling for PKCα, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), and either GABA(C) or CtBP2 indicated GABAergic feedback onto RBCs via NOS-immunoreactive ACs. AII output analysis showed glycineric synapses with glycine receptor α1 expression between AII cells and OFF cone BCs and connexin 36-labeled gap junctions between AII cells and ON cone BCs. We conclude that microbats have a well developed rod pathway with great similarities to that of other mammals, but with an unusual IPL stratification pattern of RBCs and AIIs.

  12. HIGH-SPEED HOT EXTRUSION IN HIGH TEMPERATURE MECHANICAL TREATMENT MODE OF BIMETALLIC ROD PARTS OF THE STAMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kachanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes of high-speed shaping change and especially high-speed hot extrusion create efficient conditions for treatment of low plastic and difficult-to-form materials which are widely used in tool making production. Due to the fact that high-speed stamping provides accurate billets with increased mechanical properties, it can be used as a technological process for manufacturing rod parts of die tooling operating under the increased loads and high wear. The purpose of the paper is to carry out experimental investigation of the possibility to obtain bimetallic rod stamping tooling by high-speed hot extrusion in high-temperature mode treatment in order to save die steels and improve the quality of the products obtained. Microstructures of the bimetallic compounds obtained with the help of high-speed hot extrusion method for compositions of structural and high-alloy steels have been investigated and their high quality has been proved during the investigations. Dependences of micro-hardness distribution have been established outbound two steel contact plane in the zone of connection that are characterized by a minimum micro-hardness value in the connection joint. Availability of more plastic zone in the contact plane contributes to reduction of residual stresses due to their relaxation in this zone and higher joint strength. 

  13. Rod progenitor cells in the mature zebrafish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ann C; Scholz, Tamera; Fadool, James M

    2008-01-01

    The zebrafish is an excellent model organism in which to study the retina's response to photoreceptor degeneration and/or acute injury. While much has been learned about the retinal stem and progenitor cells that mediate the damage response, several questions remain that cannot be addressed by acute models of injury. The development of genetic models, such as the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, should further efforts to understand the nature of the signals that promote rod progenitor proliferation and differentiation following photoreceptor loss. This in turn may help to refine future approaches in higher vertebrates aimed at enhancing retinal progenitor cell activity for therapeutic purposes.

  14. Simultaneous contribution of two rod pathways to AII amacrine and cone bipolar cell light responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, E Brady; Li, Wei; Massey, Stephen C

    2005-03-01

    Rod signals traverse several synapses en route to cone bipolar cells. In one pathway, rods communicate directly with cones via gap junctions. In a second pathway, signals flow rods-rod bipolars-AII amacrines-cone bipolars. The relative contribution of each pathway to retinal function is not well understood. Here we have examined this question from the perspective of the AII amacrine. AIIs form bidirectional electrical synapses with on cone bipolars. Consequently, as on cone bipolars are activated by outer plexiform inputs, they too should contribute to the AII response. Rod bipolar inputs to AIIs were blocked by AMPA receptor antagonists, revealing a smaller, non-AMPA component of the light response. This small residual response did not reverse between -70 and +70 mV and was blocked by carbenoxolone, suggesting that the current arose in on cone bipolars and was transmitted to AIIs via gap junctions. The residual component was evident for stimuli 2 log units below cone threshold and was prolonged for bright stimuli, demonstrating that it was rod driven. Because the rod bipolar-AII pathway was blocked, the rod-driven residual current likely was generated via the rod-cone pathway activation of on cone bipolars. Thus for a large range of intensities, rod signals reach the inner retina by both rod bipolar-AII and rod-cone coupling pathways.

  15. Sealed source dismantling hot cell - startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Ferreira, Robson de Jesus, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.br, E-mail: rojefer@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos radioativos

    2013-07-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in many applications of nuclear technology and at the end of the useful life, most sources become radioactive waste. In Brazil, this waste is received by the Institutes of the National Nuclear Energy Commission and kept under centralized storage. The Waste Management Department at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute is the main storage center, having received around 20,000 disused sources. A hot cell was designed and constructed to manage Co-60 spent sealed sources with activity up to 3.7 10{sup 1}0 Bq and other sources with equivalent activities. In the hot cell the sources are withdraw from their original shielding and transferred to a standard shielding for further disposal off. The original shielding disassembling is made outside the hot cell and after opening, it is transferred inside the hot cell and the sealed source is removed remotely. The source is checked in relation to external contamination and its activity is checked. After this, the source is positioned in the standard shielding located inside an overpack at the bottom of the hot cell. This paper describes some pre-operational tests carried out in it, that include: opening and closing doors and locks, checking of all electrical and pneumatic controls, the original shielding movement inside the hot-cell, dose rate measurements outside the hot-cell, insertion of the sealed sources inside the activity meter chamber, transferring the sealed source to the standard shielding, movement of the overpack with the standard shielding to outside of the hot-cell and plugging of the standard shielding. (author)

  16. Fuzzy logic modeling and control of steel rod quenching after hot rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorleo, G.; Memola Capece Minutolo, F.; Sergi, V.

    1997-10-01

    Reinforced concrete rod produced by European Community countries must comply with standards that establish minimum strength and tensile properties along with other technological and geometrical characteristics; however, possible variability within the assigned limits is not specified. Consequently, a number of manufacturing methods are now used, with the result that over time the mechanical properties of these products vary widely. Increased competition has led to the development of new procedures incorporating both process and quality control. One example is a process based on the heat treatment undergone by the metal bars leaving the final stand of the rolling mill train. In this way, the mechanical and technological properties can be graduated, thereby enhancing strength (particularly yield point) without altering the deformability of the material. This procedure does away with the need to alter the chemical composition of the steel used to manufacture the rods. Process adjustment still relies on the experience of the production manager, however. This paper examines the possibility of applying fuzzy logic computer techniques to the heat treatment process in order to render it more rational and independent of operator unreliability.

  17. WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walterskirchen, K.M.

    1997-03-31

    WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years.

  18. Synaptogenesis and synaptic protein localization in the postnatal development of rod bipolar cell dendrites in mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassov, Ivan A; Wang, Weiwei; Dunn, Felice A

    2017-05-25

    Retinal responses to photons originate in rod photoreceptors and are transmitted to the ganglion cell output of the retina through the primary rod bipolar pathway. At the first synapse of this pathway, input from multiple rods is pooled into individual rod bipolar cells. This architecture is called convergence. Convergence serves to improve sensitivity of rod vision when photons are sparse. Establishment of convergence depends on the development of a proper complement of dendritic tips and transduction proteins in rod bipolar cells. How the dendrites of rod bipolar cells develop and contact the appropriate number of rods is unknown. To answer this question we visualized individual rod bipolar cells in mouse retina during postnatal development and quantified the number of dendritic tips, as well as the expression of transduction proteins within dendrites. Our findings show that the number of dendritic tips in rod bipolar cells increases monotonically during development. The number of tips at P21, P30, and P82 exceeds the previously reported rod convergence ratios, and the majority of these tips are proximal to a presynaptic rod release site, suggesting more rods provide input to a rod bipolar cell. We also show that dendritic transduction cascade members mGluR6 and TRPM1 appear in tips with different timelines. These finding suggest that (a) rod bipolar cell dendrites elaborate without pruning during development, (b) the convergence ratio between rods and rod bipolar cells may be higher than previously reported, and (c) mGluR6 and TRPM1 are trafficked independently during development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Deafferented Adult Rod Bipolar Cells Create New Synapses with Photoreceptors to Restore Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Corinne; Hovhannisyan, Anahit; Weiser, Sydney; Kung, Jennifer; Lee, Seungjun; Lee, Dae Yeong; Huie, Philip; Dalal, Roopa; Palanker, Daniel; Sher, Alexander

    2017-04-26

    Upon degeneration of photoreceptors in the adult retina, interneurons, including bipolar cells, exhibit a plastic response leading to their aberrant rewiring. Photoreceptor reintroduction has been suggested as a potential approach to sight restoration, but the ability of deafferented bipolar cells to establish functional synapses with photoreceptors is poorly understood. Here we use photocoagulation to selectively destroy photoreceptors in adult rabbits while preserving the inner retina. We find that rods and cones shift into the ablation zone over several weeks, reducing the blind spot at scotopic and photopic luminances. During recovery, rod and cone bipolar cells exhibit markedly different responses to deafferentation. Rod bipolar cells extend their dendrites to form new synapses with healthy photoreceptors outside the lesion, thereby restoring visual function in the deafferented retina. Secretagogin-positive cone bipolar cells did not exhibit such obvious dendritic restructuring. These findings are encouraging to the idea of photoreceptor reintroduction for vision restoration in patients blinded by retinal degeneration. At the same time, they draw attention to the postsynaptic side of photoreceptor reintroduction; various bipolar cell types, representing different visual pathways, vary in their response to the photoreceptor loss and in their consequent dendritic restructuring.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Loss of photoreceptors during retinal degeneration results in permanent visual impairment. Strategies for vision restoration based on the reintroduction of photoreceptors inherently rely on the ability of the remaining retinal neurons to correctly synapse with new photoreceptors. We show that deafferented bipolar cells in the adult mammalian retina can reconnect to rods and cones and restore retinal sensitivity at scotopic and photopic luminances. Rod bipolar cells extend their dendrites to form new synapses with healthy rod photoreceptors. These findings support the

  20. Rate equation model of phototransduction into the membranous disks of mouse rod cells

    CERN Document Server

    Takamoto, Rei; Awazu, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to investigate the rod phototransduction process in the mouse. In particular, we explored the biochemical reactions of several chemical components that contribute to the signaling process into/around the membranous disks in the outer segments of the rod cells. We constructed a rate equation model incorporating the molecular crowding effects of rhodopsin according to experimental results, which may hinder the diffusion of molecules on the disk mem- brane. The present model could effectively reproduce and explain the mechanisms of the following phenomena observed in experiments. First, the activations and relaxation of the wild-type mouse rod cell progressed more slowly than those of mutant cells containing half the amount of rhodopsin on the disk membrane. Second, the strong photoactivated state of the cell was sustained for a longer period when the light stimuli were strong. Finally, the lifetime of photoactivation exhibited a logarithmic increase with increasing light streng...

  1. Verification survey of buildings 200 hot cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholeen, C.M.

    1996-03-01

    At the start of this D&D project, the decontamination goals were set at (1) reducing the stack emissions to 10% of the 1991 emissions; (2) reducing the exposure rate in each cell to < 1 mR/h; and (3) reducing the removable contamination to none detectable. Since the contamination can be fixed with paint, the other two goals were given priority. The estimate of the 1995 emissions from K-3 was 20% of the 1991 emissions estimate. However, the 1996 estimates are {approximately}9% of the 1991 emissions estimate. Since in 1991 the K-3 emissions were only 1/2% of the emissions from M-1, even the 20% reduction has little effect on the project reduction. The total emissions have been reduce to {approximately}2 1/4% of the 1991 emissions from the 5 hot cells that were decontaminated. The emissions and exposure rates are presented in Table I below. Cells A-1 and M-1 exceed the exposure rate criteria. For the other cells, the general exposure rate in the middle of the cell meets the criteria. However, near the prefilters, the exposure rates increase. Cell M-1 has extensive floor contamination that penetrated to a 6 inch depth. At 30 cm above the floor, the exposure rate through the lead blanket is 50 mR/h. A more detailed list of acceptance criteria were specified before the final verification survey. Table ii compares the maximum survey results on the wall or floor surface of each cell to these criteria. Cells M-1 and A-1 frequently fail to meet these criteria.

  2. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-Negative Rods Causing Bacteremia in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Averbuch, Diana; Tridello, Gloria; Hoek, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background: This intercontinental study aimed to study gram-negative rod (GNR) resistance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: GNR bacteremias occurring during 6 months post-HSCT (February 2014-May 2015) were prospectively collected, and analyzed for rates and risk factors ...

  4. Receptive field properties of rod-driven horizontal cells in the skate retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The large receptive fields of retinal horizontal cells result primarily from extensive intercellular coupling via gap (electrical) junctions; thus, the extent of the receptive field provides an index of the degree to which the cells are electrically coupled. For rod-driven horizontal cells in the dark-adapted skate retina, a space constant of 1.18 +/- 0.15 mm (SD) was obtained from measurements with a moving slit stimulus, and a comparable value (1.43 +/- 0.55 mm) was obtained with variation in spot diameter. These values, and the extensive spread of a fluorescent dye (Lucifer Yellow) from the site of injection to neighboring cells, indicate that the horizontal cells of the all-rod retina of skate are well coupled electrically. Neither the receptive field properties nor the gap-junctional features of skate horizontal cells were influenced by the adaptive state of the retina: (a) the receptive field organization was unaffected by light adaptation, (b) similar dye coupling was seen in both dark- and light-adapted retinae, and (c) no significant differences were found in the gap-junctional particle densities measured in dark- and light-adapted retinas, i.e., 3,184 +/- 286/microns 2 (n = 8) and 3,073 +/- 494/microns 2 (n = 11), respectively. Moreover, the receptive fields of skate horizontal cells were not altered by either dopamine, glycine, GABA, or the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. We conclude that the rod-driven horizontal cells of the skate retina are tightly coupled to one another, and that the coupling is not affected by photic and pharmacological conditions that are known to modulate intercellular coupling between cone-driven horizontal cells in other species. PMID:1359000

  5. Mouse ganglion-cell photoreceptors are driven by the most sensitive rod pathway and by both types of cones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Weng

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (iprgcs are depolarized by light by two mechanisms: directly, through activation of their photopigment melanopsin; and indirectly through synaptic circuits driven by rods and cones. To learn more about the rod and cone circuits driving ipRGCs, we made multielectrode array (MEA and patch-clamp recordings in wildtype and genetically modified mice. Rod-driven ON inputs to ipRGCs proved to be as sensitive as any reaching the conventional ganglion cells. These signals presumably pass in part through the primary rod pathway, involving rod bipolar cells and AII amacrine cells coupled to ON cone bipolar cells through gap junctions. Consistent with this interpretation, the sensitive rod ON input to ipRGCs was eliminated by pharmacological or genetic disruption of gap junctions, as previously reported for conventional ganglion cells. A presumptive cone input was also detectable as a brisk, synaptically mediated ON response that persisted after disruption of rod ON pathways. This was roughly three log units less sensitive than the rod input. Spectral analysis revealed that both types of cones, the M- and S-cones, contribute to this response and that both cone types drive ON responses. This contrasts with the blue-OFF, yellow-ON chromatic opponency reported in primate ipRGCs. The cone-mediated response was surprisingly persistent during steady illumination, echoing the tonic nature of both the rod input to ipRGCs and their intrinsic, melanopsin-based phototransduction. These synaptic inputs greatly expand the dynamic range and spectral bandpass of the non-image-forming visual functions for which ipRGCs provide the principal retinal input.

  6. Microglial NADPH oxidase activation mediates rod cell death in the retinal degeneration in rd mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, H; Ding, M; Chen, X-X; Lu, Q

    2014-09-05

    Accumulating evidence supports that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase contributes to microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in the CNS neurodegenerative diseases. Several studies, including ours, suggest that microglial activation is involved in the retinal degeneration in the animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In the present study, we investigated the activation of NADPH oxidase in the rod degeneration in rd mice and further explored its role in the microglia-mediated photoreceptor apoptosis. Expression of gp91phox protein, a major subunit of NAPDH oxidase in the whole retina of rd mice at postnatal days (P) 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 was assessed by western blot analysis. Location of gp91phox in the rd retina at each age group and its cellular source were studied by immunohistochemical analysis and double labeling respectively. The generation of superoxide radicals in the rd retinas was demonstrated by intraperitoneal injection of hydroethidine. Apocynin was applied intraperitoneally in the rd mice from P8 to P14 to inhibit the activity of NAPDH oxidase and the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was measured before and after apocynin treatment. Our results demonstrated that during the rod degenerative process, the expression of gp91phox started to increase in the outer part of rd retina at P10 and reached a peak at P14. Double labeling of gp91phox with CD11b showed co-localization of gp91phox in the retinal microglial cells. Increasing generation of superoxide radicals visualized by hydroethidine was noted at P8 and reached a peak at P14. Apocynin markedly reduced the production of superoxide radicals and preserved the rod cells. The results suggested that NADPH oxidase might play an important role in the rod degeneration in the rd mice. Inhibition of NAPDH oxidase could be a possible approach to treat RP in the early degenerative stage. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W

    2005-12-15

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  8. Polypeptide-b-Poly(Phenyl Isocyanide) Hybrid Rod-Rod Copolymers: One-Pot Synthesis, Self-Assembly, and Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Yu; He, Ya-Guang; Chen, Wei-Wei; Liu, Na; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Ding, Yun-Sheng; Yin, Jun; Wu, Zong-Quan

    2015-08-01

    Hybrid rod-rod diblock copolymers, poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate)-poly(4-cyano-benzoic acid 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexyl ester) (PBLG-PPI), with determined chirality are facilely synthesized through sequential copolymerization of γ-benzyl-L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride (BLG-NCA) and phenyl isocyanide monomers bearing chiral menthyl pendants using a Ni(cod)(bpy) complex as the catalyst in one-pot. Circular dichroism and absorption spectra reveal that each block of the block copolymers possesses a stable helical conformation with controlled helicity in solution due to the induction of chiral pendants. The two diastereomeric polymers self-assemble into helical nanofibrils with opposite handedness due to the different chiral induction of the L- and D-menthyl pendants, confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Deprotection of the benzyl groups of the PBLG segment affords biocompatible amphiphilic diblock copolymers, poly(L-glutamic acid)-poly(4-cyano-benzoic acid 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexyl ester) (PLGA-PPI), that can self-assemble into well-defined micelles by cosolvent induced aggregation. Very interestingly, a chiral rhodamine chromophores RhB(D) can be selectively encapsulated into the chiral polymeric micelles, which is efficiently internalized into living cells when directly monitored with a confocal microscope. This contribution will be useful for developing novel rod-rod biocompatible hybrid block copolymers with a controlled helicity, and may also provide unique chiral materials for potential bio-medical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Voltage-gated Na channels in AII amacrine cells accelerate scotopic light responses mediated by the rod bipolar cell pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miao; Jarsky, Tim; Murphy, Gabe J; Rieke, Fred; Singer, Joshua H

    2010-03-31

    During night (i.e., scotopic) vision in mammals, rod photoreceptor output is conveyed to ganglion cells (GCs), the output cells of the retina, by a specialized neural circuit comprising rod bipolar (RB) and AII amacrine cells. Here, we examined how intrinsic postsynaptic conductances in AIIs contribute to transmission of rod-derived signals. Using paired recordings from synaptically coupled RBs and AIIs, we found that a voltage-gated Na conductance in AII amacrines accelerated EPSPs arising from RB synaptic input. EPSPs also could be amplified by the Na conductance when AIIs were hyperpolarized below resting membrane potential, thereby increasing the availability of Na channels. AII amacrines are coupled electrically, and coupled AII amacrines likely receive common input from individual RBs. Na channel-mediated effects on EPSPs, however, appeared to occur at the single-cell rather than the AII network level. By recording light-evoked synaptic currents from GCs, we determined that the Na channel-dependent acceleration, but not amplification, of RB output by AII amacrines is reflected in the dynamics of AII synaptic output to retinal ganglion cells: synaptic inputs to both ON and OFF GCs are slowed equivalently, although not attenuated in amplitude, when Na channels in AIIs are blocked. Thus, during scotopic vision, Na conductances in AIIs serve to accelerate RB output.

  10. Molecular cell biology and immunobiology of mammalian rod/ring structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcamo, Wendy C; Calise, S John; von Mühlen, Carlos A; Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward K L

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide biosynthesis is a highly regulated process necessary for cell growth and replication. Cytoplasmic structures in mammalian cells, provisionally described as rods and rings (RR), were identified by human autoantibodies and recently shown to include two key enzymes of the CTP/GTP biosynthetic pathways, cytidine triphosphate synthetase (CTPS) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Several studies have described CTPS filaments in mammalian cells, Drosophila, yeast, and bacteria. Other studies have identified IMPDH filaments in mammalian cells. Similarities among these studies point to a common evolutionarily conserved cytoplasmic structure composed of a subset of nucleotide biosynthetic enzymes. These structures appear to be a conserved metabolic response to decreased intracellular GTP and/or CTP pools. Antibodies to RR were found to develop in some hepatitis C patients treated with interferon-α and ribavirin. Additionally, the presence of anti-RR antibodies was correlated with poor treatment outcome. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress analysis for wall structure in mobile hot cell design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan, E-mail: hannan@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Rahman, Anwar Abdul, E-mail: anwar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Mohd Arif, E-mail: arif@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Mamat, Mohd Rizal; Azman, Azraf; Hasan, Hasni [Prototype and Plant Development Centre, Technical Services Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) in order to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) such as teletherapy heads and irradiators. At present, there are only two units of MHC in the world, in South Africa and China. Malaysian Mobile Hot cell is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design in order to fulfil the safety requirement in operation of MHC. This paper discusses the loading analysis effect from the sand to the MHC wall structure.

  12. Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells of swine into rod photoreceptors and their integration into the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yongqing; Fernandez de Castro, Juan; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Roberts, R Michael; Kaplan, Henry J; Dean, Douglas C

    2011-06-01

    Absence of a regenerative pathway for damaged retina following injury or disease has led to experiments using stem cell transplantation for retinal repair, and encouraging results have been obtained in rodents. The swine eye is a closer anatomical and physiological match to the human eye, but embryonic stem cells have not been isolated from pig, and photoreceptor differentiation has not been demonstrated with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of swine. Here, we subjected iPSCs of swine to a rod photoreceptor differentiation protocol consisting of floating culture as embryoid bodies followed by differentiation in adherent culture. Real-time PCR and immunostaining of differentiated cells demonstrated loss of expression of the pluripotent genes POU5F1, NANOG, and SOX2 and induction of rod photoreceptor genes RCVRN, NRL, RHO, and ROM1. While these differentiated cells displayed neuronal morphology, culturing on a Matrigel substratum triggered a further morphological change resulting in concentration of rhodopsin (RHO) and rod outer segment-specific membrane protein 1 in outer segment-like projections resembling those on primary cultures of rod photoreceptors. The differentiated cells were transplanted into the subretinal space of pigs treated with iodoacetic acid to eliminate rod photoreceptors. Three weeks after transplantation, engrafted RHO+ cells were evident in the outer nuclear layer where photoreceptors normally reside. A portion of these transplanted cells had generated projections resembling outer segments. These results demonstrate that iPSCs of swine can differentiate into photoreceptors in culture, and these cells can integrate into the damaged swine neural retina, thus, laying a foundation for future studies using the pig as a model for retinal stem cell transplantation. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Differential function of Gγ13 in rod bipolar and ON cone bipolar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Hariharasubramanian; Dhingra, Anuradha; Tummala, Shanti R; Fina, Marie E; Li, Jian J; Lyubarsky, Arkady; Vardi, Noga

    2015-01-01

    Key points The G-protein-mediated metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) signalling cascade is critical for light responses in all retinal ON bipolar cells. The present study evaluates the role of G-protein subunit Gγ13 in ON bipolar cells by deleting the mouse Gng13 gene. Gγ13 is a partner of Gβ3 in all types of retinal ON bipolar cells, and contributes to generating the light response. Gγ13 also contributes to maintenance because, in its absence, the light response decreases with age. Three independent functionality assessments (i.e. light response as measured by electroretinogram b-waves, localization of GTPase activating proteins and deterioration of the light response with age) show that the contribution of Gγ13 is much greater in rod bipolar cells than in ON cone bipolar cells. Our data also suggest that the contribution of Gγ13 to coupling mGluR6 to its effector is smaller than its contribution to maintaining GTPase activating protein localization. Abstract Heterotrimeric G-proteins (comprising Gα and Gβγ subunits) are critical for coupling of metabotropic receptors to their downstream effectors. In the retina, glutamate released from photoreceptors in the dark activates metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) receptors in ON bipolar cells; this leads to activation of Go, closure of transient receptor potential melastatin 1 channels and hyperpolarization of these cells. Go comprises Gαo, Gβ3 and a Gγ. The best Gγ candidate is Gγ13, although functional data to support this are lacking. Thus, we tested Gγ13 function by generating Gng13−/− knockout (KO) mice, recording electroretinograms (ERG) and performing immunocytochemical staining. The amplitude of scotopic ERG b-waves in KO mice was lower than in wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, in both KO and WT mice, the ERG b-wave decreased with age; this decrease was much more pronounced in KO mice. By contrast, the photopic ERG b-waves in KO mice were hardly affected at any age. In KO mice

  14. Photoirradiation study of gold nanospheres and rods in Vero and Hela cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gananathan, Poorani; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Elanchezhiyan, Manickan

    2014-03-01

    Photoirradiation effect of gold nanospheres in conjucation with green light and rods in conjugation with red light corresponds to their absorption wavelength range found to be appreciable. In this present work concentration of nanomaterial and light dose were optimized. Gold nanospheres were synthesized by reduction technique using Sodium Borohydrate as reducing agent and Trisodium Citrate as capping agent. Au nanorods having 680-900nm absorption were synthesized using reduction techniques with CTAB and BDAC polymers. From UV-Vis absorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy the size of nanoparticles were confirmed. 30nm Gold nanospheres and green light source of 530nm wavelength with power 30mW were applied to Vero and Hela cell lines shows higher toxicity for Hela cells. Nanorods were applied and irradiated with 680nm wavelength light source with light intensity 45mW. Post irradiation effect for 24hrs, 48hrs confirms cell proliferation in normal rate in viable cells. The morphological changes in irradiated spot leads to apoptotoic cell death was confirmed with microscopic imaging. The LD50 value was also calculated.

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Long Ti-6Al-4V Rods Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting Out of a Deep Powder Bed and the Effect of Subsequent Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S. L.; Tang, H. P.; Ning, Y. P.; Liu, N.; StJohn, D. H.; Qian, M.

    2015-09-01

    An array of eight long Ti-6Al-4V rods (diameter: 12 mm; height: 300 mm) have been additively manufactured, vertically and perpendicular to the powder bed, by selective electron beam melting (SEBM). The purpose was to identify and understand the challenges of fabricating Ti-6Al-4V samples or parts from a deep powder bed (more than 200-mm deep) by SEBM and the necessity of applying post heat treatment. The resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of these Ti-6Al-4V rods were characterized along their building ( i.e., axial) direction by dividing each rod into three segments (top, middle, and bottom), both before ( i.e., as-built) and after hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The as-built microstructure of each rod was inhomogeneous; it was coarsest in the top segment, which showed a near equilibrium α- β lamellar structure, and finest in the bottom segment, which featured a non-equilibrium mixed structure. The tensile properties varied along the rod axis, especially the ductility, but all tensile properties met the requirements specified by ASTM F3001-14. HIP increased the relative density from 99.03 pct of the theoretical density (TD) to 99.90 pct TD and homogenized the microstructure thereby leading to highly consistent tensile properties along the rod axis. The temperature of the stainless steel substrate used in the powder bed was monitored. The as-built inhomogeneous microstructure is attributed to the temperature gradient in the deep powder bed. Post heat treatment is thus necessary for Ti-6Al-4V samples or parts manufactured from a deep powder bed by SEBM. This differs from the additive manufacturing of small samples or parts from a shallow powder bed (less than 100-mm deep) by SEBM.

  16. Mechanical stability of talin rod controls cell migration and substrate sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rolle Rahikainen; Magdaléna von Essen; Markus Schaefer; Lei Qi; Latifeh Azizi; Conor Kelly; Teemu O Ihalainen; Bernhard Wehrle-Haller; Martin Bastmeyer; Cai Huang; Vesa P Hytönen

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, by utilizing computationally designed mutations, we demonstrate that stepwise destabilization of the talin rod R3 subdomain decreases cellular traction force generation, which affects talin...

  17. Safety analysis report for Hot-Cell irradiated specimen cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, D. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    For the examination of spent fuels and radioactive materials by using scanning electron microscope, a irradiated specimen cask is needed to transport the specimen from the hot-cell to the shielded glove box in which the scanning electron microscope is installed. This cask should be easy to handle and transport, has safe to maintain the shielding safety of operators as well as the thermal and structural integrities under prescribed load conditions by the regulations as requirements. Also the cask should be assured that docked perfectly maintaining shielding integrity with the interfaces of hot-cell and shield glove box. Accordingly, the main features of cask were analyzed with functional capabilities, and the integrities of cask under required load conditions were evaluated. Therefore, it was verified that the cask is suitable to use at the outside transport as well as Post Irradiated Examination Facility in KAERI. 9 refs., 50 figs., 14 tabs. (Author)

  18. Metrology Determination in hot cell of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Sung Ho; Min, D.K.; Kim, E.K.; Hwang, Y.H.; Lee, H.G.; You, G.S.; Koo, G.S.; Koo, D.S.; Hong, S.B

    1999-03-01

    The defects and dimensional changes of irradiated fuel rods are due to several causes during the operation of reactor. The severity of dimensional changes might bring trouble in reactor operation. The dimensional data such as diameter changes and length changes of irradiated fuel rods are invaluable to designs of fuel rods and integrity evaluation of fuel rods. In this report, the standard gauges for measuring the dimensional changes of fuel rods are manufactured. The development of profilometry examination technology enabled motor control system using personal computer to measure diameter on each occasion 0.01 mm in length of irradiated fuel rods. By programming the process of profilometry examination, the measuring data of the dimensional changes can be stored and analyzed with personal computer. (Author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs.

  19. Relative contributions of rod and cone bipolar cell inputs to AII amacrine cell light responses in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ji-Jie; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Gao, Fan; Bramblett, Debra E; Paul, David L; Wu, Samuel M

    2007-04-15

    AII amacrine cells (AIIACs) are crucial relay stations for rod-mediated signals in the mammalian retina and they receive synaptic inputs from depolarizing and hyperpolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs and HBCs) as well as from other amacrine cells. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp technique in conjunction with pharmacological tools, we found that the light-evoked current response of AIIACs in the mouse retina is almost completely mediated by two DBC synaptic inputs: a 6,7-dinitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX)-resistant component mediated by cone DBCs (DBC(C)s) through an electrical synapse, and a DNQX-sensitive component mediated by rod DBCs (DBC(R)s). This scheme is supported by AIIAC current responses recorded from two knockout mice. The dynamic range of the AIIAC light response in the Bhlhb4-/- mouse (which lacks DBC(R)s) resembles that of the DNQX-resistant component, and that of the connexin36 (Cx36)-/- mouse resembles the DNQX-sensitive component. By comparing the light responses of the DBC(C)s with the DNQX-resistant AIIAC component, and light responses of the DBC(R)s with the DNQX-sensitive AIIAC component, we obtained the input-output relations of the DBC(C)-->AIIAC electrical synapse and the DBC(R)-->AIIAC chemical synapse. Similar to other glutamatergic chemical synapses in the retina, the DBC(R)-->AIIAC synapse is non-linear. Its highest voltage gain (approximately 5) is found near the dark membrane potential, and it saturates for presynaptic signals larger than 5.5 mV. The DBC(C)-->AIIAC electrical synapse is approximately linear (voltage gain of 0.92), consistent with the linear junctional conductance found in retinal electrical synapses. Moreover, relative DBC(R) and DBC(C) contributions to the AIIAC response at various light intensity levels are determined.

  20. Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and rod cell structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchette, L D; Sherry, D M; Brush, R S; Chan, M; Wen, Y; Wang, J; Ash, John D; Anderson, Robert E; Mandal, N A

    2014-01-01

    The gene encoding Elongation of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids-4 (ELOVL4) is mutated in patients with autosomal dominant Stargardt's Macular Dystrophy Type 3 (STDG3). ELOVL4 catalyzes the initial condensation step in the elongation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) containing more than 26 carbons (26C) to very long chain PUFA (VLC-PUFA; C28 and greater). To investigate the role of VLC-PUFA in rod photoreceptors, we generated mice with rod-specific deletion of Elovl4 (RcKO). The mosaic deletion of rod-expressed ELOVL4 protein resulted in a 36 % lower amount of VLC-PUFA in the retinal phosphatidylcholine (PC) fraction compared to retinas from wild-type mice. However, this reduction was not sufficient to cause rod dysfunction at 7 months or photoreceptor degeneration at 9 or 15 months.

  1. Rodding Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above-the-knee splint or lightweight plaster or fiberglass splint instead. Bracing may be used after the ... level. Potential Complications Complications from rodding surgery include risks related to:  General anesthesia,  Fractures during the procedure,  ...

  2. Standard guide for general design considerations for hot cell equipment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this guide is to provide general design and operating considerations for the safe and dependable operation of remotely operated hot cell equipment. Hot cell equipment is hardware used to handle, process, or analyze nuclear or radioactive material in a shielded room. The equipment is placed behind radiation shield walls and cannot be directly accessed by the operators or by maintenance personnel because of the radiation exposure hazards. Therefore, the equipment is operated remotely, either with or without the aid of viewing. 1.1.2 This guide may apply to equipment in other radioactive remotely operated facilities such as suited entry repair areas, canyons or caves, but does not apply to equipment used in commercial power reactors. 1.1.3 This guide does not apply to equipment used in gloveboxes. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This guide is intended for persons who are tasked with the planning, design, procurement, fabrication, installation, or testing of equipment used in rem...

  3. The TRPM1 Channel Is Required for Development of the Rod ON Bipolar Cell-AII Amacrine Cell Pathway in the Retinal Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Takashi; Chaya, Taro; Tamalu, Fuminobu; Shimada, Mariko; Fujimaki-Aoba, Kayo; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Shu-Ichi; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2017-10-11

    Neurotransmission plays an essential role in neural circuit formation in the central nervous system (CNS). Although neurotransmission has been recently clarified as a key modulator of retinal circuit development, the roles of individual synaptic transmissions are not yet fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of neurotransmission from photoreceptor cells to ON bipolar cells in development using mutant mouse lines of both sexes in which this transmission is abrogated. We found that deletion of the ON bipolar cation channel TRPM1 results in the abnormal contraction of rod bipolar terminals and a decreased number of their synaptic connections with amacrine cells. In contrast, these histological alterations were not caused by a disruption of total glutamate transmission due to loss of the ON bipolar glutamate receptor mGluR6 or the photoreceptor glutamate transporter VGluT1. In addition, TRPM1 deficiency led to the reduction of total dendritic length, branch numbers, and cell body size in AII amacrine cells. Activated Goα, known to close the TRPM1 channel, interacted with TRPM1 and induced the contraction of rod bipolar terminals. Furthermore, overexpression of Channelrhodopsin-2 partially rescued rod bipolar cell development in the TRPM1(-/-) retina, whereas the rescue effect by a constitutively closed form of TRPM1 was lower than that by the native form. Our results suggest that TRPM1 channel opening is essential for rod bipolar pathway establishment in development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurotransmission has been recognized recently as a key modulator of retinal circuit development in the CNS. However, the roles of individual synaptic transmissions are not yet fully understood. In the current study, we focused on neurotransmission between rod photoreceptor cells and rod bipolar cells in the retina. We used genetically modified mouse models which abrogate each step of neurotransmission: presynaptic glutamate release, postsynaptic glutamate

  4. Localization of Core Planar Cell Polarity Proteins, PRICKLEs, in Ameloblasts of Rat Incisors: Possible Regulation of Enamel Rod Decussation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Sumio; Kawamoto, Tadafumi

    2015-04-28

    To confirm the possible involvement of planar cell polarity proteins in odontogenesis, one group of core proteins, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, PRICKLE3, and PRICKLE4, was examined in enamel epithelial cells and ameloblasts by immunofluorescence microscopy. PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 showed similar localization in the proliferation and secretory zones of the incisor. Immunoreactive dots and short rods in ameloblasts and stratum intermedium cells were evident in the proliferation to differentiation zone, but in the secretion zone, cytoplasmic dots decreased and the distal terminal web was positive for PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2. PRICKLE3 and PRICKLE4 showed cytoplasmic labeling in ameloblasts and other enamel epithelial cells. Double labeling of PRICKLE2 with VANGL1, which is another planar cell polarity protein, showed partial co-localization. To examine the transport route of PRICKLE proteins, PRICKLE1 localization was examined after injection of a microtubule-disrupting reagent, colchicine, and was compared with CX43, which is a membrane protein transported as vesicles via microtubules. The results confirmed the retention of immunoreactive dots for PRICKLE1 in the cytoplasm of secretory ameloblasts of colchicine-injected animals, but fewer dots were observed in control animals. These results suggest that PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 are transported as vesicles to the junctional area, and are involved in pattern formation of distal junctional complexes and terminal webs of ameloblasts, further implying a role in the formed enamel rod arrangement.

  5. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. The authors find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i layer while it is being cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. They present data concerning these surface treatments, and correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. The authors also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell efficiency data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer was added to complete the partial devices. No light trapping layer was used to increase the device Jsc. Their preliminary investigations have yielded efficiencies of up to 6.8% for a cell with a 4000 {Angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10% after a 900 hour light soak. The authors suggest avenues for further improvement of their devices.

  6. Hot laboratory in Saclay. Equipment and radio-metallurgy technique of the hot lab in Saclay. Description of hot cell for handling of plutonium salts. Installation of an hot cell; Laboratoire a tres haute activite de Saclay. Equipement et techniques radiometallurgiques du laboratoire a haute activite de Saclay. Description de cellules pour manipulation de sels de plutonium. Amenagement d'une cellule du laboratoire de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R.; Blin, J.; Cherel, G.; Duvaux, Y.; Cherel, G.; Mustelier, J.P.; Bussy, P.; Gondal, G.; Bloch, J.; Faugeras, P.; Raggenbass, A.; Raggenbass, P.; Fufresne, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Describes the conception and installation of the hot laboratory in Saclay (CEA, France). The construction ended in 1958. The main aim of this laboratory is to examine fuel rods of EL2 and EL3 as well as nuclear fuel studies. It is placed in between both reactors. In a first part, the functioning and specifications of the hot lab are given. The different hot cells are described with details of the ventilation and filtration system as well as the waste material and effluents disposal. The different safety measures are explained: description of the radiation protection, decontamination room and personnel monitoring. The remote handling equipment is composed of cutting and welding machine controlled with manipulators. Periscopes are used for sight control of the operation. In a second part, it describes the equipment of the hot lab. The unit for an accurate measurement of the density of irradiated uranium is equipped with an high precision balance and a thermostat. The equipment used for the working of irradiated uranium is described and the time length of each operation is given. There is also an installation for metallographic studies which is equipped with a manipulation bench for polishing and cleaning surfaces and a metallographic microscope. X-ray examination of uranium pellets will also be made and results will be compared with those of metallography. The last part describes the hot cells used for the manipulation of plutonium salts. The plutonium comes from the reprocessing plant and arrived as a nitric solution. Thus these cells are used to study the preparation of plutonium fluorides from nitric solution. The successive operations needed are explained: filtration, decontamination and extraction with TBP, purification on ion exchangers and finally formation of the plutonium fluorides. Particular attention has been given to the description of the specifications of the different gloveboxes and remote handling equipment used in the different reaction steps and

  7. 48 CFR 952.225-70 - Subcontracting for nuclear hot cell services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontracting for nuclear....225-70 Subcontracting for nuclear hot cell services. As prescribed in 925.7004, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts: Subcontracting for Nuclear Hot Cell Services (MAR 1993) (a...

  8. Biological shielding test of hot cells with high active source 60Co (300 TBq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švrčula, P.; Zoul, D.; Zimina, M.; Petříčková, A.; Adamíková, T.; Schulc, M.; Srba, O.

    2017-11-01

    This article describes a method for testing of the efficiency of the biological shielding of the hot cell facility, which were constructed as a part of the project SUSEN. Ten hot cells and one semi-hot cell are present in the facility Radiochemistry II. The shielding is made from steel plates. In order to demonstrate sufficient efficiency of the biological shielding of the hot cells and a correspondence between measured and contractual values at selected points. The test was done using sealed high activity 60Co sources. The results are also used as a proof of the optimization of radiation protection for the workplace of this type. The results confirm significant optimization of radiation protection at the workplace. The dose received by a staff do not exceed one tens of annual limit during active service. Obtained results fulfill general requirements of radiation protection and will be used for further active service of hot cells facility.

  9. Characterization report for Building 301 Hot Cell Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    During the period from October, 1997, through March, 1998, ANL-E Health Physics conducted a pre-D and D characterization of Building 301, referred to as the Hot Cell Facility. While primary emphasis was placed on radiological evaluation, the presence of non-nuclear hazardous and toxic material was also included in the scope of the characterization. This is one of the early buildings on the ANL-E site, and was heavily used in the 1950`s and 1960`s for various nuclear reaction and reactor design studies. Some degree of cleanup and contamination fixation was done in the 1970`s, so that the building could be used with a minimum of risk of personnel contamination. Work records are largely nonexistent for the early history of the building, so that any assumptions about extent and type of contamination had to be kept very open in the survey planning process. The primary contaminant was found to be painted-over Cs-137 embedded in the concrete floors, although a variety of other nuclides consistent with the work said to have been performed were found in smaller quantities. Due to leaks and drips through the floor, a relatively modest amount of soil contamination was found in the service trench under the building, not penetrating deeply. Two contaminated, disconnected drain lines leaving the building could not be traced by site records, and remain a problem for remediation. The D and D Characterization Plan was fulfilled.

  10. Classification of Mouse Retinal Bipolar Cells: Type-Specific Connectivity with Special Reference to Rod-Driven AII Amacrine Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yoshihiko; Omi, Naoko

    2017-01-01

    We confirmed the classification of 15 morphological types of mouse bipolar cells by serial section transmission electron microscopy and characterized each type by identifying chemical synapses and gap junctions at axon terminals. Although whether the previous type 5 cells consist of two or three types was uncertain, they are here clustered into three types based on the vertical distribution of axonal ribbons. Next, while two groups of rod bipolar (RB) cells, RB1, and RB2, were previously proposed, we clarify that a half of RB1 cells have the intermediate characteristics, suggesting that these two groups comprise a single RB type. After validation of bipolar cell types, we examined their relationship with amacrine cells then particularly with AII amacrine cells. We found a strong correlation between the number of amacrine cell synaptic contacts and the number of bipolar cell axonal ribbons. Formation of bipolar cell output at each ribbon synapse may be effectively regulated by a few nearby inhibitory inputs of amacrine cells which are chosen from among many amacrine cell types. We also found that almost all types of ON cone bipolar cells frequently have a minor group of midway ribbons along the axon passing through the OFF sublamina as well as a major group of terminal ribbons in the ON sublamina. AII amacrine cells are connected to five of six OFF bipolar cell types via conventional chemical synapses and seven of eight ON (cone) bipolar cell types via electrical synapses (gap junctions). However, the number of synapses is dependent on bipolar cell types. Type 2 cells have 69% of the total number of OFF bipolar chemical synaptic contacts with AII amacrine cells and type 6 cells have 46% of the total area of ON bipolar gap junctions with AII amacrine cells. Both type 2 and 6 cells gain the greatest access to AII amacrine cell signals also share those signals with other types of bipolar cells via networked gap junctions. These findings imply that the most sensitive

  11. Rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS in response to stress in a live retinal explant system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Lavinia

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to oxidative stress, which is a strong contributory factor to many ocular diseases. In this study, the removal of trophic factors is used as a model system to investigate the effects of stress in the retina. The aims were to determine if both rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS when they are deprived of trophic factor support and to demonstrate if the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzymes are responsible for this ROS production. METHODS: Retinas were explanted from mice aged between postnatal days 8-10 and cultured overnight. The following morning, confocal microscopy combined with various fluorescent probes was used to detect the production of ROS. Each time peanut agglutinin (PNA), a cone photoreceptor marker, was used to facilitate orientation of the retina. Dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123) were used to determine which cells produce ROS. Subsequently, western blots of retinal serial sections were used to detect the presence of Noxs in the different retinal layers. The Nox inhibitor apocynin was then tested to determine if it altered the production of ROS within these cells. RESULTS: Live retinal explants, viewed at high magnifications using confocal microscopy, displayed an increase in the fluorescent products of dihydroethidium and DHR123 upon serum removal when compared to controls. DHR123 fluorescence, once oxidized, localized to mitochondria and was found in the same focal plane as the PNA staining. This showed that cones and rods produced ROS when stressed. Retinal serial sectioning established that the photoreceptor layer expressed Nox4, dual oxidase (Duox) 1, and Duox2 at varying levels. Finally, the Nox inhibitor apocynin decreased the burst stimulated by the stress of serum removal. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal microscopy and PNA staining allowed differentiation of cell types within the outermost layers of the retina, demonstrating

  12. Switching between transient and sustained signalling at the rod bipolar-AII amacrine cell synapse of the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellman, Josefin; Zenisek, David; Nawy, Scott

    2009-06-01

    At conventional synapses, invasion of an action potential into the presynaptic terminal produces a rapid Ca(2+) influx and ultimately the release of synaptic vesicles. However, retinal rod bipolar cells (RBCs) generally do not produce action potentials, and the rate of depolarization of the axon terminal is instead governed by the rate of rise of the light response, which can be quite slow. Using paired whole-cell recordings, we measured the behaviour of the RBC-AII amacrine cell synapse while simulating light-induced depolarizations either by slowly ramping the RBC voltage or by depolarizing the RBC with the mGluR6 receptor antagonist (R,S)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG). Both voltage ramps and CPPG evoked slow activation of presynaptic Ca(2+) currents and severely attenuated the early, transient component of the AII EPSC compared with voltage steps. We also found that the duration of the transient component was limited in time, and this limitation could not be explained by vesicle depletion, inhibitory feedback, or proton inhibition. Limiting the duration of the fast transient insures the availability of readily releasable vesicles to support a second, sustained component of release. The mGluR6 pathway modulator cGMP sped the rate of RBC depolarization in response to puffs of CPPG and consequently potentiated the transient component of the EPSC at the expense of the sustained component. We conclude that the rod bipolar cell is capable of both transient and sustained signalling, and modulation of the mGluR6 pathway by cGMP allows the RBC to switch between these two time courses of transmitter release.

  13. Poly(acrylic acid)-regulated Synthesis of Rod-Like Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Yao, Chenxue; Cui, Zhengyang; Luo, Dandan; Lee, In-Seop; Yao, Juming; Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-05-06

    Calcium carbonate, especially with nanostructure, has been considered as a good candidate material for bone regeneration due to its excellent biodegradability and osteoconductivity. In this study, rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles (Rod-CC NPs) with desired water dispersibility were achieved with the regulation of poly (acrylic acid). Characterization results revealed that the Rod-CC NPs had an average length of 240 nm, a width of 90 nm with an average aspect ratio of 2.60 and a negative ζ-potential of -22.25 ± 0.35 mV. The degradation study illustrated the nanoparticles degraded 23% at pH 7.4 and 45% at pH 5.6 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution within three months. When cultured with MC3T3-E1 cells, the Rod-CC NPs exhibited a positive effect on the proliferation of osteoblast cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays together with the osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression observations demonstrated the nanoparticles could induce the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Our study developed well-dispersed rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles which have great potential to be used in bone regeneration.

  14. Poly(acrylic acid-regulated Synthesis of Rod-Like Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, especially with nanostructure, has been considered as a good candidate material for bone regeneration due to its excellent biodegradability and osteoconductivity. In this study, rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles (Rod-CC NPs with desired water dispersibility were achieved with the regulation of poly (acrylic acid. Characterization results revealed that the Rod-CC NPs had an average length of 240 nm, a width of 90 nm with an average aspect ratio of 2.60 and a negative ζ-potential of −22.25 ± 0.35 mV. The degradation study illustrated the nanoparticles degraded 23% at pH 7.4 and 45% at pH 5.6 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS solution within three months. When cultured with MC3T3-E1 cells, the Rod-CC NPs exhibited a positive effect on the proliferation of osteoblast cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity assays together with the osteocalcin (OCN and bone sialoprotein (BSP expression observations demonstrated the nanoparticles could induce the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Our study developed well-dispersed rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles which have great potential to be used in bone regeneration.

  15. Photoreceptor cell death, proliferation and formation of hybrid rod/S-cone photoreceptors in the degenerating STK38L mutant retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes I Berta

    Full Text Available A homozygous mutation in STK38L in dogs impairs the late phase of photoreceptor development, and is followed by photoreceptor cell death (TUNEL and proliferation (PCNA, PHH3 events that occur independently in different cells between 7-14 weeks of age. During this period, the outer nuclear layer (ONL cell number is unchanged. The dividing cells are of photoreceptor origin, have rod opsin labeling, and do not label with markers specific for macrophages/microglia (CD18 or Müller cells (glutamine synthetase, PAX6. Nestin labeling is absent from the ONL although it labels the peripheral retina and ciliary marginal zone equally in normals and mutants. Cell proliferation is associated with increased cyclin A1 and LATS1 mRNA expression, but CRX protein expression is unchanged. Coincident with photoreceptor proliferation is a change in the photoreceptor population. Prior to cell death the photoreceptor mosaic is composed of L/M- and S-cones, and rods. After proliferation, both cone types remain, but the majority of rods are now hybrid photoreceptors that express rod opsin and, to a lesser extent, cone S-opsin, and lack NR2E3 expression. The hybrid photoreceptors renew their outer segments diffusely, a characteristic of cones. The results indicate the capacity for terminally differentiated, albeit mutant, photoreceptors to divide with mutations in this novel retinal degeneration gene.

  16. Single-nanowire, low-bandgap hot carrier solar cells with tunable open-circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, Steven; Burke, Adam; Chen, I.-Ju; Anttu, Nicklas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Fahlvik, Sofia; Bremner, Stephen; Conibeer, Gavin; Thelander, Claes; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Linke, Heiner

    2017-10-01

    Compared to traditional pn-junction photovoltaics, hot carrier solar cells offer potentially higher efficiency by extracting work from the kinetic energy of photogenerated ‘hot carriers’ before they cool to the lattice temperature. Hot carrier solar cells have been demonstrated in high-bandgap ferroelectric insulators and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, but so far not in low-bandgap materials, where the potential efficiency gain is highest. Recently, a high open-circuit voltage was demonstrated in an illuminated wurtzite InAs nanowire with a low bandgap of 0.39 eV, and was interpreted in terms of a photothermoelectric effect. Here, we point out that this device is a hot carrier solar cell and discuss its performance in those terms. In the demonstrated devices, InP heterostructures are used as energy filters in order to thermoelectrically harvest the energy of hot electrons photogenerated in InAs absorber segments. The obtained photovoltage depends on the heterostructure design of the energy filter and is therefore tunable. By using a high-resistance, thermionic barrier, an open-circuit voltage is obtained that is in excess of the Shockley-Queisser limit. These results provide generalizable insight into how to realize high voltage hot carrier solar cells in low-bandgap materials, and therefore are a step towards the demonstration of higher efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  17. Single-nanowire, low-bandgap hot carrier solar cells with tunable open-circuit voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, Steven; Burke, Adam; Chen, I-Ju; Anttu, Nicklas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Fahlvik, Sofia; Bremner, Stephen; Conibeer, Gavin; Thelander, Claes; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Linke, Heiner

    2017-10-27

    Compared to traditional pn-junction photovoltaics, hot carrier solar cells offer potentially higher efficiency by extracting work from the kinetic energy of photogenerated 'hot carriers' before they cool to the lattice temperature. Hot carrier solar cells have been demonstrated in high-bandgap ferroelectric insulators and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, but so far not in low-bandgap materials, where the potential efficiency gain is highest. Recently, a high open-circuit voltage was demonstrated in an illuminated wurtzite InAs nanowire with a low bandgap of 0.39 eV, and was interpreted in terms of a photothermoelectric effect. Here, we point out that this device is a hot carrier solar cell and discuss its performance in those terms. In the demonstrated devices, InP heterostructures are used as energy filters in order to thermoelectrically harvest the energy of hot electrons photogenerated in InAs absorber segments. The obtained photovoltage depends on the heterostructure design of the energy filter and is therefore tunable. By using a high-resistance, thermionic barrier, an open-circuit voltage is obtained that is in excess of the Shockley-Queisser limit. These results provide generalizable insight into how to realize high voltage hot carrier solar cells in low-bandgap materials, and therefore are a step towards the demonstration of higher efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  18. Functional properties of spontaneous IPSCs and glycine receptors in rod amacrine (AII) cells in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Silje Bakken; Veruki, Margaret Lin; Hartveit, Espen

    2006-09-15

    AII amacrine cells play a crucial role in retinal signal transmission under scotopic conditions. We have used rat retinal slices to investigate the functional properties of inhibitory glycine receptors on AII cells by recording spontaneous IPSCs (spIPSCs) in whole cells and glycine-evoked responses in outside-out patches. Glycinergic spIPSCs displayed fast kinetics with an average 10-90% rise time of approximately 500 mus, and a decay phase best fitted by a double-exponential function with tau(fast) approximately 4.8 ms (97.5% amplitude contribution) and tau(slow) approximately 33 ms. Decay kinetics were voltage dependent. Ultrafast application of brief ( approximately 2-5 ms) pulses of glycine (3 mm) to patches, evoked responses with fast deactivation kinetics best fitted with a double-exponential function with tau(fast) approximately 4.6 ms (85% amplitude contribution) and tau(slow) approximately 17 ms. Double-pulse experiments indicated recovery from desensitization after a 100-ms pulse of glycine with a double-exponential time course (tau(fast) approximately 71 ms and tau(slow) approximately 1713 ms). Non-stationary noise analysis of spIPSCs and patch responses, and directly observed channel gating yielded similar single-channel conductances ( approximately 41 to approximately 47 pS). In addition, single-channel gating occurred at approximately 83 pS. These results suggest that the fast glycinergic spIPSCs in AII cells are probably mediated by alpha1beta heteromeric receptors with a contribution from alpha1 homomeric receptors. We hypothesize that glycinergic synaptic input may target the arboreal dendrites of AII cells, and could serve to shunt excitatory input from rod bipolar cells and transiently uncouple the transcellular current through electrical synapses between AII cells and between AII cells and ON-cone bipolar cells.

  19. DQO Summary Report for 324 and 327 Building Hot Cells D4 Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Lee

    2006-02-06

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report provides the results of the DQO process conducted for waste characterization activities for the 324 and 327 Building hot cells decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities. This DQO summary report addresses the systems and processes related to the hot cells, air locks, vaults, tanks, piping, basins, air plenums, air ducts, filters, an adjacent elements that have high dose rates, high contamination levels, and/or suspect transuranic waste, which will require nonstandard D4 techniques.

  20. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII is expressed in rod bipolar cells and alters signaling at the rod bipolar to AII-amacrine cell synapse in the mammalian retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthussery, T; Gayet-Primo, J; Taylor, W R

    2011-11-01

    Mutation of the gene encoding carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CAVIII) results in motor coordination deficits in mice and humans, due to loss of this protein in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Recent studies have indicated that the CAVIII gene, Car8, is also expressed in rod bipolar cells (RBCs), a critical glutamatergic neuron for scotopic vision. We investigated the localization of CAVIII in the mouse and macaque retina, and utilized the wdl mouse, which has a null mutation in the Car8 gene, to determine how the loss of CAVIII affects retinal signaling. CAVIII immunoreactivity was observed in RBCs, with particularly high staining intensity in the axon terminals. In addition, weaker staining was observed in a subset of cone bipolar cells and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic amacrine cells. Light-evoked current and voltage responses of RBCs were not altered in the wdl mutant. However, light-evoked current responses from the AII-amacrine cell, a postsynaptic partner at the RBC ribbon synapse, were significantly larger, and more prolonged than in control mice. These changes could not be attributed to alterations in calcium current activation or inactivation, or to changes in the density of RBCs. Furthermore, no gross synaptic alterations were evident in the wdl mutant at the light or ultrastructural level. These data provide evidence that the CAVIII protein, which is highly conserved in vertebrates, is selectively expressed within neural circuits, and may be important for modulating retinal neurotransmission. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Age-related decrease in rod bipolar cell density of the human retina ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    Retinal bipolar cells situated in the inner nuclear layer are predominantly involved in mediating the transfer of signals from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. Their synapses are located both at the level of the outer and inner plexiform layers. In the former, their dendritic processes synapse with photoreceptors in the ...

  2. Genome-wide screening of Escherichia coli genes involved in execution and promotion of cell-to-cell transfer of non-conjugative plasmids: rodZ (yfgA) is essential for plasmid acceptance in recipient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurono, Naomi; Matsuda, Ayako; Etchuya, Rika; Sobue, Rina; Sasaki, Yumi; Ito, Miki; Ando, Tsuyako; Maeda, Sumio

    2012-04-27

    Acquisition of new genetic traits by horizontal gene transfer is a bacterial strategy for adaptation to the environment. We previously showed that Escherichia coli can transmit non-conjugative plasmids laterally in a co-culture containing strains with and without the plasmid. In this study, using the Keio collection, a comprehensive library of E. coli knock-out mutants for non-essential genes, we screened for genes responsible for the execution and promotion of cell-to-cell plasmid transfer in recipient cells. By stepwise screening of 'transfer-down' mutants, two essential genes and six promoting genes were obtained. One of the essential genes was priA, which is involved in DNA replication. This priA mutant was also unable to be transformed by artificial transformation methods, probably due to the deficiency of the plasmid maintenance function. The other essential gene was rodZ (yfgA), a gene involved in the regulation of rod-shaped structure of E. coli cells. This rodZ mutant was transformable by all three methods of artificial transformation tested, suggesting that this gene is essential for cell-to-cell plasmid transfer but not for artificial transformation. These are the first data that suggest that rodZ plays an essential role in DNA acquisition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  4. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  5. Functional NMDA receptors are expressed by both AII and A17 amacrine cells in the rod pathway of the mammalian retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yifan; Tencerová, Barbora; Hartveit, Espen; Veruki, Margaret L

    2016-01-01

    At many glutamatergic synapses, non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and NMDA receptors are coexpressed postsynaptically. In the mammalian retina, glutamatergic rod bipolar cells are presynaptic to two rod amacrine cells (AII and A17) that constitute dyad postsynaptic partners opposite each presynaptic active zone. Whereas there is strong evidence for expression of non-NMDA receptors by both AII and A17 amacrines, the expression of NMDA receptors by the pre- and postsynaptic neurons in this microcircuit has not been resolved. In this study, using patch-clamp recording from visually identified cells in rat retinal slices, we investigated the expression and functional properties of NMDA receptors in these cells with a combination of pharmacological and biophysical methods. Pressure application of NMDA did not evoke a response in rod bipolar cells, but for both AII and A17 amacrines, NMDA evoked responses that were blocked by a competitive antagonist (CPP) applied extracellularly and an open channel blocker (MK-801) applied intracellularly. NMDA-evoked responses also displayed strong Mg(2+)-dependent voltage block and were independent of gap junction coupling. With low-frequency application (60-s intervals), NMDA-evoked responses remained stable for up to 50 min, but with higher-frequency stimulation (10- to 20-s intervals), NMDA responses were strongly and reversibly suppressed. We observed strong potentiation when NMDA was applied in nominally Ca(2+)-free extracellular solution, potentially reflecting Ca(2+)-dependent NMDA receptor inactivation. These results indicate that expression of functional (i.e., conductance-increasing) NMDA receptors is common to both AII and A17 amacrine cells and suggest that these receptors could play an important role for synaptic signaling, integration, or plasticity in the rod pathway. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Reversible electron-hole separation in a hot carrier solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Heiner

    Hot-carrier solar cells are envisioned to utilize energy filtering to extract power from photogenerated electron-hole pairs before they thermalize with the lattice, and thus potentially offer higher power conversion efficiency compared to conventional, single absorber solar cells. The efficiency of hot-carrier solar cells can be expected to strongly depend on the details of the energy filtering process, a relationship which to date has not been satisfactorily explored. Here, we establish the conditions under which electron-hole separation in hot-carrier solar cells can occur reversibly, that is, at maximum energy conversion efficiency. We find that, under specific conditions, the energy conversion efficiency of a hot-carrier solar cell can exceed the Carnot limit set by the intra-device temperature gradient alone, due to the additional contribution of the quasi-Fermi level splitting in the absorber. To achieve this, we consider a highly selective energy filter such as a quantum dot embedded into a one-dimensional conductor. We also establish that the open-circuit voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell is not limited by the band gap of the absorber, due to the additional thermoelectric contribution to the voltage. Additionally, we find that a hot-carrier solar cell can be operated in reverse as a thermally driven solid-state light emitter. In addition this theoretical analysis, I will also report on first experimental results in a nanowire-based energy filter device. Ref: S Limpert, S Bremner, and H Linke, New J. Phys 17, 095004 (2015)

  7. 324 and 325 Building hot cell cleanout program: Decontamination of C-Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y.B.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1989-10-01

    During FY 1989 the decontamination of C-Cell of Hanford's 324 Building was completed as part of the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The decontamination effort was completed using a series of remote and contact decontamination techniques. Initial radiation readings in C-Cell averaged 50 rad/hr and were reduced remotely to less than 200 mrad/hr using an alkaline foam cleaner followed by a 5000-psi water flush. Contact decontamination was then permissible using ultra high-pressure water, at 36,000 psi, further reducing the average radiation level in the cell to less than 86 mrem/hr. The approach used in decontaminating C-Cell resulted in a savings in radiation exposure of 87% and a cost savings of 39% compared to a hands-on procedure used in A-Cell, 324 Building in 1987. The radiation dose and the costs to achieve a 244-fold reduction in radiation contamination were 1.65 mrem per ft{sup 2} and $96 per ft{sup 2} of cell surface area. 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Review of tritium confinement and atmosphere detritiation system in hot cells complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzello, Claudio [TESI Sas, Servizi di ingegneria per la chimica, la sicurezza e l' ambiente, Via Bolzano 28 00198, Roma (Italy); Borgognoni, Fabio; Pinna, Tonio [ENEA, Dip. Fusione Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [ENEA, Dip. Fusione Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)], E-mail: tosti@frascati.enea.it

    2010-01-15

    The tritium confinement strategy adopted during the past years in the ITER hot cell building is compared to the safety requirements given by the standard ISO-17873 'Nuclear facilities - criteria for the design and operation of ventilation systems for nuclear installations other than nuclear reactors'. In fact, this is the reference safety guideline recommended by French licensing authorities. Several features of the considered design of the hot cell building are not in agreement with these guidelines. Main discrepancies concern the zoning of the hot cell complex, the flow rates of ventilation, and the possibility to recycle the room atmosphere and to detritiate the effluent air. These aspects are discussed together with some proposed modifications of the design.

  9. Phase diagrams and morphological evolution in wrapping of rod-shaped elastic nanoparticles by cell membrane: A two-dimensional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is essential for biomedical diagnostics, therapeutics, and nanotoxicity. Here, we perform a theoretical analysis to investigate the phase diagram and morphological evolution of an elastic rod-shaped nanoparticle wrapped by a lipid membrane in two dimensions. We show that there exist five possible wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the shape and size of the particle, adhesion energy, membrane tension, and bending rigidity ratio between the particle and membrane. While symmetric morphologies are observed in the early and late stages of wrapping, in between a soft rod-shaped nanoparticle undergoes a dramatic symmetry breaking morphological change while stiff and rigid nanoparticles experience a sharp reorientation. These results are of interest to the study of a range of phenomena including viral budding, exocytosis, as well as endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.

  10. Clinical Effects of Novel Nanoscaled Core Decompression Rods Combined with Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Treatment of Early Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is one of the most common diseases in orthopedics. In this study, we investigated the clinical effects of novel nanoscaled core decompression rods combined with mesenchymal stem cells on the treatment of the ONFH. 12 adult patients with early ONFH (at the stage of Ficat II received the treatment using the implantation of novel nanoscaled core decompression rods combined with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. The grade of the patients’ hip was scored by Harris marking system before and after the surgery, and then paired t-test was done. We assessed the curative efficiency based on the change of the patients before and after the surgery. In particular, the survival rate of femoral head was assessed at 12 months after the surgery. The results demonstrated that according to the standard of Harris Scoring, the average grade of hip joint before the surgery was 54.16 ± 4.23 points while average grade of hip joint at 12 months after the surgery was 85.28 ± 3.65 points. So, the implantation of the novel nanoscaled core decompression rods combined with mesenchymal stem cells had satisfactory clinical effects, suggesting that this implantation should be effective to treat early ONFH.

  11. Next Generation Solar Cells Based on Graded Bandgap Device Structures Utilising Rod-Type Nano-Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current solar cells under research and development utilise mainly one absorber layer limiting the photon harvesting capabilities. In order to develop next generation solar cells, research should move towards effective photon harvesting methods utilising low-cost solar energy materials. This will lead to reduce the $W−1 figure for direct solar energy conversion to electrical energy. In this work, a graded bandgap solar cell has been designed to absorb all photons from the UV, visible and IR regions. In addition, impurity PV effect and impact ionisation have been incorporated to enhance charge carrier creation within the same device. This new design has been experimentally tested using the most researched MOCVD grown GaAs/AlGaAs system, in order to confirm its validity. Devices with high Voc ~ 1175 mV and the highest possible FF ~ (0.85–0.87 have been produced, increasing the conversion efficiency to ~20% within only two growth runs. These devices were also experimentally tested for the existence of impurity PV effect and impact ionisation. The devices are PV active in complete darkness producing over 800 mV, Voc indicating the harvesting of IR radiation from the surroundings through impurity PV effect. The quantum efficiency measurements show over 140% signal confirming the contribution to PV action from impact ionisation. Since the concept is successfully proven, the low-cost and scalable electrodeposited semiconducting layers are used to produce graded bandgap solar cell structures. The utilisation of nano- and micro-rod type materials in graded bandgap devices are also presented and discussed in this paper. Preliminary work on glass/FTO/n-ZnS/n-CdS/n-CdTe/Au graded bandgap devices show 10%–12% efficient devices indicating extremely high Jsc values ~48 mA·cm−2, showing the high potential of these devices in achieving higher efficiencies. The detailed results on these low-cost and novel graded bandgap devices are presented in a separate

  12. Hot topics in alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexey; Zenyuk, Iryna V.; Arges, Christopher G.; Chatenet, Marian

    2018-01-01

    The tremendous progress from the first discovery of fuel cell principles by Sir William Robert Grove in 1839 [1] and independent observation of electricity generated in electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and air by a Swiss scientist Christian F. Shoenbein [2] to the recent breakthroughs in the fuel cell field resulted in the appearance of this clean energy technology around us. Indeed, fuel cell technology undoubtedly has entered into our life with the first introduction of Toyota Mirai Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) by Toyota Motor Co. in December of 2014 [3,4]. This FCV is commercially available and can be purchased in several countries. However, its sticker price of 57,500 substantially limits the number of customers that can purchase it. There are numerous factors that contribute to the high cost of fuel cell stack, however the price of platinum and platinum alloys is the main contributor [5].

  13. Haptic shared control improves hot cell remote handling despite controller inaccuracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, J.; Abbink, D. A.; Koning, J. F.; Boessenkool, H.; Wildenbeest, J. G. W.; Heemskerk, C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    A promising solution to improve task performance in ITER hot cell remote handling is the use of haptic shared control. Haptic shared control can assist the human operator along a safe and optimal path with continuous guiding forces from an intelligent autonomous controller. Previous research tested

  14. A CNC milling machine in NRG's Hot Cell Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjoa, G.L.; Thoor, C.M.E.; Boekhout, P.f. Van

    2001-07-01

    Preparations are in progress to install a new milling machine in the NRG's hot cells facility in the course of this year. The milling machine is CNC controlled and adapted for use in a hot cell environment. Special arrangements are made to comply for this purpose. Since a number of components are not fully resistant to radiation, the machine is wheeled allowing it to be removed from the hot cell if not needed. Some technical specifications from the various manufacturers will be discussed which finally lead to the selected supplier. Primary, this only concerns the flexibility of the total equipment to adapt for remote control and not the general technical aspects of the equipment. The machine will be used mainly to manufacture mechanical testing samples form irradiated materials, obtained from both welding experiments and other irradiated components. Special auxiliary tools are made for this purpose to facilitate the machining of the samples. Next the convenience to program the system for machining mechanical testing samples to meet the specified requirements is also important. Before installing the equipment in the hot cell a try out is performed to evaluate the system. (Author)

  15. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H.W.

    1998-10-01

    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  16. Tie rod insertion test

    CERN Multimedia

    B. LEVESY

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting coil is inserted in the outer vaccum tank and supported by a set of tie rods. These tie rods are made of titanium alloy. This test reproduce the final insertion of the tie rods inside the outer vacuum tank.

  17. A novel culture method reveals unique neural stem/progenitors in mature porcine iris tissues that differentiate into neuronal and rod photoreceptor-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Lars N; Lea, Daniel; Matsushita, Tamami; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Taketani, Shigeru; Araki, Masasuke

    2017-11-15

    Iris neural stem/progenitor cells from mature porcine eyes were investigated using a new protocol for tissue culture, which consists of dispase treatment and Matrigel embedding. We used a number of culture conditions and found an intense differentiation of neuronal cells from both the iris pigmented epithelial (IPE) cells and the stroma tissue cells. Rod photoreceptor-like cells were also observed but mostly in a later stage of culture. Neuronal differentiation does not require any additives such as fetal bovine serum or FGF2, although FGF2 and IGF2 appeared to promote neural differentiation in the IPE cultures. Furthermore, the stroma-derived cells were able to be maintained in vitro indefinitely. The evolutionary similarity between humans and domestic pigs highlight the potential for this methodology in the modeling of human diseases and characterizing human ocular stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dendritic cell-based vaccine efficacy: aiming for hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Andrea Pizzurro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many approaches for cancer immunotherapy have targeted dendritic cells (DC, directly or indirectly, for the induction of antitumor immune responses. DC-based vaccines have been developed using a wide variety of ex vivo DC culture conditions, antigen source and loading strategies, maturation agents and routes of vaccination. Adjuvants are used to activate innate immune cells at the vaccine injection site, to promote antigen transport to the draining lymph nodes (LNs and to model adaptive immune responses. Despite years of effort, the effective induction of strong and durable antitumor T cell responses in vaccinated patients remains a challenge. The study of vaccine interactions with other immune cells in the LNs and, more recently, in the injection site has opened new doors for understanding antitumor effector T cell licensing and function. In this review, we will briefly discuss the relevant sites and up-to-date facts regarding possible targets for antitumor vaccine refinement. We will focus on the processes taking place at the injection site, adjuvant combinations and their role in DC-based vaccines LN homing and modeling vaccine-induced immune responses capable of controlling tumor growth and generating immune memory.

  19. Electron-phonon energy transfer in hot-carrier solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Luque López, Antonio; Martí Vega, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Hot-carrier solar cells may yield very high efficiency if the heat transfer from electrons to phonons is low enough. In this paper we calculate this heat transfer for the two inelastic mechanisms known to limit the electric conductivity: the multi-valley scattering in non-polar semiconductors and the coupling of electrons to longitudinal optical phonons in polar semiconductors. Heat transfer is ruled by matrix elements deduced from electric conductivity measurements. The cell power extracted ...

  20. Hot Start to European Pluripotent Stem Cell Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Paul A; Steeg, Rachel; Kreisel, Beate; Allsopp, Timothy E

    2017-07-01

    Achieving consistency in standards of access to and quality of human induced pluripotent stem cells has lagged behind their use. In Europe, a network of academic and industrial partners has been established to overcome this challenge. The experience reveals the devil in the detail of worthy ambitions informing future efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hot gas flow cell for optical measurements on reactive gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff

    2013-01-01

    was validated for high resolution measurements at temperatures of up to 800 K (527 degrees C) in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) regions (190-20 000 nm). Verification of the gas temperature in the cell is provided by a thermocouple and emission/transmission measurements in the IR and UV regions. High......-resolution measurements are presented for the absorption cross-section of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the UV range up to 773 K (500 degrees C)...

  2. Chemical and biological properties of hot water extract from delipidated cells of Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Yokosawa, A; Arai, H; Nagai, H; Kurita, K

    1976-09-01

    A water-soluble fraction was isolated from delipidated cells of Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG by extraction with hot water. Chemical analyses revealed that the above fraction presumably consisted of a peptidoglycan containing 5-10% of nucleic acids. When it was injected into guinea pigs with Freund's incomplete adjuvant plus egg white albumin as antigen, an increase of circulating antibody was observed as shown by the augmented titers of precipitin and hemagglutinin. The results of skin test and corneal reaction indicated that the fraction mentioned above induced delayed hypersensitivity to egg white albumin. Footpad reaction in mice demonstrated that the above fraction induced delayed hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells. It was confirmed in addition that the adjuvant activity of this fraction was not due to the presence of nucleic acids. This adjuvant-active fraction was designated as HSA (hot-water soluble adjuvant.

  3. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully.

  4. Investigation of stainless steel clad fuel rod failures and fuel performance in the Connecticut Yankee Reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasupathi, V.; Klingensmith, R. W.

    1981-11-01

    Significant levels of fuel rod failures were observed in the batch 8 fuel assemblies of the Connecticut Yankee reactor. Failure of 304 stainless steel cladding in a PWR environment was not expected. Therefore a detailed poolside and hot cell examination program was conducted to determine the cause of failure and identify differences between batch 8 fuel and previous batches which had operated without failures. Hot cell work conducted consisted of detailed nondestructive and destructive examination of fuel rods from batches 7 and 8. The results indicate that the batch 8 failure mechanism was stress corrosion cracking initiating on the clad outer surface. The sources of cladding stresses are believed to be (a) fuel pellet chips wedged in the cladding gap, (b) swelling of highly nondensifying batch 8 fuel and (c) potentially harmful effects of a power change event that occurred near the end of the second cycle of irradiation for batch 8.

  5. Synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 flower-rod and application in CdSe/CdS co-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing

    2014-12-01

    A hierarchical double-layered TiO2 flower-rod structure composed of three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 flowers and one-dimensional (1D) nanorods on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass has been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The possible formation mechanism of the hierarchical architecture is also proposed. When used in CdSe/CdS quantum dots co-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), the 1D ordered rutile nanorods at bottom can accelerate the electron transfer rate by providing direct electrical pathway for photogenerated electrons, while the 3D flowers formed on the top of nanorods can increase the adsorption of QDs due to the enlarged areas, and can also be used as a scattering layer. The performance of the CdSe/CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 13.46 mA cm-2, and a open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.42 V, with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.31% under one sun illumination (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm-2), which is greatly higher than that of CdSe/CdS/TiO2 nanorod solar cell (1.63%).

  6. Evaluation of modular robot system for maintenance tasks in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagala, Prithvi Sekhar, E-mail: ps.pagala@upm.es [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Ferre, Manuel, E-mail: m.ferre@upm.es [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Orona, Luis, E-mail: l.orona@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Modular robot deployment inside hot cell for remote manipulation evaluated. •Flexible and adaptable system for variety of tasks presented. •Uses in large workspaces and evolving requirements shown. -- Abstract: This work assesses the use of a modular robot system to perform maintenance and inspection tasks such as, remote flexible inspection, manipulation and cooperation with deployed systems inside the hot cell. A flexible modular solution for the inclusion in maintenance operations is presented. The proposed heterogeneous modular robotic system is evaluated using simulations of the prototype across selected robot configuration to perform tasks. Results obtained show the advantages and ability of the modular robot to perform the necessary tasks as well as its ability to adapt and evolve depending on the need. The simulation test case inside hot cell shows modular robot configuration, a two modular arm to perform tele-operation tasks in the workspace and a wheeled platform for inspection collaborating to perform tasks. The advantage of using re-configurable modular robot over conventional robot platforms is shown.

  7. The impact of silicon solar cell architecture and cell interconnection on energy yield in hot & sunny climates

    KAUST Repository

    Haschke, Jan

    2017-03-23

    Extensive knowledge of the dependence of solar cell and module performance on temperature and irradiance is essential for their optimal application in the field. Here we study such dependencies in the most common high-efficiency silicon solar cell architectures, including so-called Aluminum back-surface-field (BSF), passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC), passivated emitter rear totally diffused (PERT), and silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. We compare measured temperature coefficients (TC) of the different electrical parameters with values collected from commercial module data sheets. While similar TC values of the open-circuit voltage and the short circuit current density are obtained for cells and modules of a given technology, we systematically find that the TC under maximum power-point (MPP) conditions is lower in the modules. We attribute this discrepancy to additional series resistance in the modules from solar cell interconnections. This detrimental effect can be reduced by using a cell design that exhibits a high characteristic load resistance (defined by its voltage-over-current ratio at MPP), such as the SHJ architecture. We calculate the energy yield for moderate and hot climate conditions for each cell architecture, taking into account ohmic cell-to-module losses caused by cell interconnections. Our calculations allow us to conclude that maximizing energy production in hot and sunny environments requires not only a high open-circuit voltage, but also a minimal series-to-load-resistance ratio.

  8. Why Rods and Cocci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bacteria exhibit a wide variety of shapes but the commonly studied species of bacteria are generally either spherical in shape which are called cocci (singular coccus) or have a cylindrical shape and are called rods or bacilli (singular bacillus). In reality rods and cocci are the ends of a continuum. Sonle of the cocci are.

  9. Conceptual design of the hot cell facility universal docking station at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, A., E-mail: alexis.dammann@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Benchikhoune, M.; Friconneau, J.P.; Ivanov, V. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lemee, A. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue Rene Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France); Martins, J.P. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Tamassy, G. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue Rene Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France)

    2011-10-15

    Between main shutdowns of the ITER machine, in-vessel components and Iter Remote Maintenance System (IRMS) are transferred between the Tokamak complex and the Hot Cell Facility using different types of sealed casks. Transfer Casks have different physical interfaces with the Vacuum Vessel, which need to be the same at the docking stations of the HCF. It means that in-vessel components and IRMS are cleaned in the same cells, which is in fact not convenient. Furthermore, logistic studies showed that the use rate of the cells is very inhomogeneous. In order to have dedicated cell for decontamination of Remote Handling tools, in order to increase the operability efficiency and to removes the hot cell docking operation from the critical path, the concept of a universal docking station has been investigated. Based on an existing design, the work was focused on a review of requirements, the re-design and the integration within the HCF layout. The universal docking station has been proposed and is now integrated in HCF design.

  10. Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Associated with Tantalum Rod Implantation and Vascularized Iliac Grafting for the Treatment of End-Stage Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tantalum rod implantation with vascularized iliac grafting has been reported to be an effective method for the treatment of young patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH to avert the need for total hip arthroplasty (THA. However, there have been unsatisfactory success rates for end-stage ONFH. The authors describe a modified technique using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs associated with porous tantalum rod implantation combined with vascularized iliac grafting for the treatment of end-stage ONFH. A total of 24 patients (31 hips with end-stage ONFH were treated with surgery; ARCO IIIc stage was observed in 19 hips and ARCO IV stage was observed in 12 hips. All patients were followed for a mean time of 64.35 ± 13.03 months (range 26–78. Operations on only five hips were converted to THA. The joint-preserving success rate of the entire group was 89.47% for ARCO stage IIIc and 75% for ARCO stage IV. The mean Harris hip score of the 31 hips improved significantly from 38.74 ± 5.88 points (range 22–50 to 77.23 ± 14.75 points (range 33–95. This intervention was safe and effective in delaying or avoiding total hip replacement for end-stage ONFH.

  11. Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Associated with Tantalum Rod Implantation and Vascularized Iliac Grafting for the Treatment of End-Stage Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dewei; Liu, Baoyi; Wang, Benjie; Yang, Lei; Xie, Hui; Huang, Shibo; Zhang, Yao; Wei, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Tantalum rod implantation with vascularized iliac grafting has been reported to be an effective method for the treatment of young patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) to avert the need for total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, there have been unsatisfactory success rates for end-stage ONFH. The authors describe a modified technique using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) associated with porous tantalum rod implantation combined with vascularized iliac grafting for the treatment of end-stage ONFH. A total of 24 patients (31 hips) with end-stage ONFH were treated with surgery; ARCO IIIc stage was observed in 19 hips and ARCO IV stage was observed in 12 hips. All patients were followed for a mean time of 64.35 ± 13.03 months (range 26–78). Operations on only five hips were converted to THA. The joint-preserving success rate of the entire group was 89.47% for ARCO stage IIIc and 75% for ARCO stage IV. The mean Harris hip score of the 31 hips improved significantly from 38.74 ± 5.88 points (range 22–50) to 77.23 ± 14.75 points (range 33–95). This intervention was safe and effective in delaying or avoiding total hip replacement for end-stage ONFH. PMID:25802840

  12. Control rod testing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.R.; Ashman, C.M.

    1987-06-02

    A control rod testing apparatus is described comprising: a first guide means having a vertical cylindrical opening for grossly guiding a control rod; a second guide means having a vertical cylindrical opening for grossly guiding a control rod. The first and second guide means are supported at axially spaced locations with the openings coaxial; and a substantially cylindrical subassembly having a vertical cylindrical opening therethrough. The subassembly is trapped coaxial with and between the first and second guide means, and the subassembly radially floats with respect to the first and second guide means.

  13. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA`s hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R&D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required.

  14. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Polycrystalline Silicon : From Gas Molecule To Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, P. A. T. T.

    2002-10-01

    Although the effort to investigate the use of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, has increased, their contribution to the total energy consumption remains insignificant. The conversion of solar energy into electricity through solar cells is one of the most promising techniques, but the use of these cells is limited by the high cost of electricity. The major contributions to these costs are the material and manufacturing costs. Over the past decades, the development of silicon based thin film solar cells has received much attention, because the fabrication costs are low. A promising material for use in thin film solar cells is polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si:H). A relatively new technique to deposit poly-Si:H is Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hot-Wire CVD), in which the reactant gases are catalytically decomposed at the surface of a hot filament, mainly tungsten and tantalum. The main advantages of Hot-Wire CVD over PE-CVD are absence of ion bombardment, high deposition rate, low equipment cost and high gas utilization. This thesis deals with the full spectrum of deposition, characterization and application of poly-Si:H thin films, i.e. from gas molecule to solar cell. Studies on the decomposition of silane on the filament showed that the process is catalytic of nature and that silane is decomposed into Si and 4H. The dominant gas phase reaction is the reaction of Si and H with silane, resulting in SiH3, Si2H6, Si3H6 and H2SiSiH2. The film growth precursors are Si, SiH3 and Si2H4. Also, XPS results on used tantalum and tungsten filaments are discussed. The position dependent measurements show larger silicon contents at the ends of the tungsten filament, as compared to the middle, due to a lower filament temperature. This effect is insignificant for a tantalum filament. Deposition time dependent measurements show an increase in silicon content of the tungsten filament with time, while the silicon content on the tantalum filament saturates

  15. Axial Rod Coupling Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David R

    2003-01-01

    .... The axial rod and coupling has been designed to withstand external survival loads ( 8.3 kN (1,870 lb) for Ring 5), and to maintain its length to within 7 microns after disassembly and reassembly...

  16. Investigation of the basic physics of high efficiency semiconductor hot carrier solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, R. R.; Wang, W. B.; Mohaidat, J. M.; Cavicchia, M. A.; Raisky, O. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this research program is to investigate potential semiconductor materials and their multi-band-gap MQW (multiple quantum wells) structures for high efficiency solar cells for aerospace and commercial applications. The absorption and PL (photoluminescence) spectra, the carrier dynamics, and band structures have been investigated for semiconductors of InP, GaP, GaInP, and InGaAsP/InP MQW structures, and for semiconductors of GaAs and AlGaAs by previous measurements. The barrier potential design criteria for achieving maximum energy conversion efficiency, and the resonant tunneling time as a function of barrier width in high efficiency MQW solar cell structures have also been investigated in the first two years. Based on previous carrier dynamics measurements and the time-dependent short circuit current density calculations, an InAs/InGaAs - InGaAs/GaAs - GaAs/AlGaAs MQW solar cell structure with 15 bandgaps has been designed. The absorption and PL spectra in InGaAsP/InP bulk and MQW structures were measured at room temperature and 77 K with different pump wavelength and intensity, to search for resonant states that may affect the solar cell activities. Time-resolved IR absorption for InGaAsP/InP bulk and MQW structures has been measured by femtosecond visible-pump and IR-probe absorption spectroscopy. This, with the absorption and PL measurements, will be helpful to understand the basic physics and device performance in multi-bandgap InAs/InGaAs - InGaAs/InP - InP/InGaP MQW solar cells. In particular, the lifetime of the photoexcited hot electrons is an important parameter for the device operation of InGaAsP/InP MQW solar cells working in the resonant tunneling conditions. Lastly, time evolution of the hot electron relaxation in GaAs has been measured in the temperature range of 4 K through 288 K using femtosecond pump-IR-probe absorption technique. The temperature dependence of the hot electron relaxation time in the X valley has been measured.

  17. Onset of Hot Tearing in Ternary Mg-Al-Sr Alloy Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G.; Haygood, I.; Kou, S.

    2010-08-01

    Ternary Mg-Al-Sr alloys are the base of a few new creep-resistant, lightweight Mg alloys for automobiles. Hot tearing of Mg-Al-Sr alloys was studied by constrained rod casting (CRC) in a steel mold equipped with a load cell and a thermocouple. The alloys investigated included, in order of decreasing hot tearing susceptibility, Mg-4Al-1.5Sr, Mg-6Al-1.5Sr, Mg-8Al-1.5Sr, and Mg-8Al-3Sr. Two different molds were used, one for 8.7-mm-diameter rods and the other 7.9 mm. The cooling rate was varied by varying mold preheating from 523 K (250 °C) to 658 K (385 °C) and mold insulation. The load curve showed a clear peak when hot tearing occurred in all but Mg-8Al-3Sr due to its high resistance to hot tearing. From the peak and the cooling curve, the temperature at which hot tearing occurred was determined and found to decrease with increasing Al content from 4 to 8 pct. For a specific alloy, the hot tearing onset temperature did not change significantly with the rod diameter or mold preheating, at least within the experimental conditions used. The Scheil solidification model was used to estimate the fraction solid at the onset of hot tearing. It was found that hot tearing occurred near the end of primary solidification L → α (Mg) and that the fraction solid at which hot tearing occurred decreased with increasing Al content. The validity of the Scheil model was discussed.

  18. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Berning, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand and more accurately measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, our group has recently proposed to apply hot wire anemometry in the fuel cell's anode outlet. It was theoretically shown that the electrical signal obtained from the hot wire sensor...... can be directly converted into the fuel cell water balance. In this work an ex-situ experimental investigation is performed to examine the effect of the wire diameter and the outlet pipe diameter on the voltage signal. For a laboratory fuel cell where the mass flow rate the anode outlet is small......, it is found important to use a small output pipe diameter to obtain a sufficiently strong convection effect and hence clear voltage readings. Depending on the hot wire diameter and the inner pipe diameter, the resulting values for the exponent of the Reynolds number Re in the determination of the Nusselt...

  19. Transcription-factor occupancy at HOT regions quantitatively predicts RNA polymerase recruitment in five human cell lines.

    KAUST Repository

    Foley, Joseph W

    2013-10-20

    BACKGROUND: High-occupancy target (HOT) regions are compact genome loci occupied by many different transcription factors (TFs). HOT regions were initially defined in invertebrate model organisms, and we here show that they are a ubiquitous feature of the human gene-regulation landscape. RESULTS: We identified HOT regions by a comprehensive analysis of ChIP-seq data from 96 DNA-associated proteins in 5 human cell lines. Most HOT regions co-localize with RNA polymerase II binding sites, but many are not near the promoters of annotated genes. At HOT promoters, TF occupancy is strongly predictive of transcription preinitiation complex recruitment and moderately predictive of initiating Pol II recruitment, but only weakly predictive of elongating Pol II and RNA transcript abundance. TF occupancy varies quantitatively within human HOT regions; we used this variation to discover novel associations between TFs. The sequence motif associated with any given TF\\'s direct DNA binding is somewhat predictive of its empirical occupancy, but a great deal of occupancy occurs at sites without the TF\\'s motif, implying indirect recruitment by another TF whose motif is present. CONCLUSIONS: Mammalian HOT regions are regulatory hubs that integrate the signals from diverse regulatory pathways to quantitatively tune the promoter for RNA polymerase II recruitment.

  20. Infrared characterization of hot spots in solar cells with high precision due to signal treatment processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, A.; Jouglar, J.; Mergui, M.; Jourlin, Y.; Bouille, A.; Vuillermoz, P.L.; Laugier, A. [Institute National des Sciences Appliquees, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere-UMR, Villeurbanne (France)

    1998-02-27

    In this paper we show how to improve greatly the resolution of IR thermography by using two different signal treatment methods: a static treatment and a dynamical treatment. This signal processing allows the study of 100 cm{sup 2} cells under low-forward or reverse-polarization conditions. Static and dynamical methods have both good resolutions: static has the advantage of being fast, and dynamical method does not need any reference image nor cooling system. We have shown that IR thermography is an interesting method for investigating shunts in solar cells. Thermal maps and I-V characterization of the hot spots show that the origin and the behavior of the shunts are varied and their influence on the efficiency is probably more important than what is usually thought

  1. Rapid establishment of the European Bank for induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (EBiSC) - the Hot Start experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Sousa, Paul A.; Steeg, Rachel; Wachter, Elisabeth; Bruce, Kevin; King, Jason; Hoeve, Marieke; Khadun, Shalinee; McConnachie, George; Holder, Julie; Kurtz, Andreas; Seltmann, Stefanie; Dewender, Johannes; Reimann, Sascha; Stacey, Glyn; O'Shea, Orla; Chapman, Charlotte; Healy, Lyn; Zimmermann, Heiko; Bolton, Bryan; Rawat, Trisha; Atkin, Isobel; Veiga, Anna; Kuebler, Bernd; Serano, Blanca Miranda; Saric, Tomo; Hescheler, Jürgen; Brüstle, Oliver; Peitz, Michael; Thiele, Cornelia; Geijsen, Niels; Holst, Bjørn; Clausen, Christian; Lako, Majlinda; Armstrong, Lyle; Gupta, Shailesh K.; Kvist, Alexander J.; Hicks, Ryan; Jonebring, Anna; Brolén, Gabriella; Ebneth, Andreas; Cabrera-Socorro, Alfredo; Foerch, Patrik; Geraerts, Martine; Stummann, Tina C.; Harmon, Shawn; George, Carol; Streeter, Ian; Clarke, Laura; Parkinson, Helen; Harrison, Peter W.; Faulconbridge, Adam; Cherubin, Luca; Burdett, Tony; Trigueros, Cesar; Patel, Minal J.; Lucas, Christa; Hardy, Barry; Predan, Rok; Dokler, Joh; Brajnik, Maja; Keminer, Oliver; Pless, Ole; Gribbon, Philip; Claussen, Carsten; Ringwald, Annette; Kreisel, Beate; Courtney, Aidan; Allsopp, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    A fast track “Hot Start” process was implemented to launch the European Bank for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (EBiSC) to provide early release of a range of established control and disease linked human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines. Established practice amongst consortium members was

  2. Control Rod Driveline Reactivity Feedback Model for Liquid Metal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Min; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Chang, Won-Pyo; Cho, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Bum

    2008-01-15

    The thermal expansion of the control rod drivelines (CRDL) is one important passive mitigator under all unprotected accident conditions in the metal and oxide cores. When the CRDL are washed by hot sodium in the coolant outlet plenum, the CRDL thermally expands and causes the control rods to be inserted further down into the active core region, providing a negative reactivity feedback. Since the control rods are attached to the top of the vessel head and the core attaches to the bottom of the reactor vessel (RV), the expansion of the vessel wall as it heats will either lower the core or raise the control rods supports. This contrary thermal expansion of the reactor vessel wall pulls the control rods out of the core somewhat, providing a positive reactivity feedback. However this is not a safety factor early in a transient because its time constant is relatively large. The total elongated length is calculated by subtracting the vessel expansion from the CRDL expansion to determine the net control rod expansion into the core. The system-wide safety analysis code SSC-K includes the CRDL/RV reactivity feedback model in which control rod and vessel expansions are calculated using single-nod temperatures for the vessel and CRDL masses. The KALIMER design has the upper internal structures (UIS) in which the CRDLs are positioned outside the structure where they are exposed to the mixed sodium temperature exiting the core. A new method to determine the CRDL expansion is suggested. Two dimensional hot pool thermal hydraulic model (HP2D) originally developed for the analysis of the stratification phenomena in the hot pool is utilized for a detailed heat transfer between the CRDL mass and the hot pool coolant. However, the reactor vessel wall temperature is still calculated by a simple lumped model.

  3. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, E.

    2007-09-15

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  4. The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, A., E-mail: alberto.valero@cern.c [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Hernandez, Y.; Higon, E. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Sanchis, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Solans, C. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Torres, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Valls, J.A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-11

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

  5. Monopolar fuel cell stack coupled together without use of top or bottom cover plates or tie rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A monopolar fuel cell stack comprises a plurality of sealed unit cells coupled together. Each unit cell comprises two outer cathodes adjacent to corresponding membrane electrode assemblies and a center anode plate. An inlet and outlet manifold are coupled to the anode plate and communicate with a channel therein. Fuel flows from the inlet manifold through the channel in contact with the anode plate and flows out through the outlet manifold. The inlet and outlet manifolds are arranged to couple to the inlet and outlet manifolds respectively of an adjacent one of the plurality of unit cells to permit fuel flow in common into all of the inlet manifolds of the plurality of the unit cells when coupled together in a stack and out of all of the outlet manifolds of the plurality of unit cells when coupled together in a stack.

  6. Spectroscopic study of a diffusion-bonded sapphire cell for hot metal vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Naota; Sato, Takumi; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Hatakeyama, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Characteristics of a diffusion-bonded sapphire cell for optical experiments with hot metal vapors were investigated. The sapphire cell consisted of sapphire-crystal plates and a borosilicate-glass tube, which were bonded to each other by diffusion bonding without any binders or glues. The glass tube was attached to a vacuum manifold using the standard method applied in glass processing, filled with a small amount of Rb metal by chasing with a torch, and then sealed. The cell was baked at high temperatures, and optical experiments were then performed using rubidium atoms at room temperature. The sapphire cell was found to be vacuum tight, at least up to 350°C, and the sapphire walls remained clear over all temperatures. From the optical experiments, the generation of a background gas was indicated after baking at 200°C. The background gas pressure was low enough to avoid pressure broadening of absorption lines but high enough to cause velocity-changing collisions of Rb atoms. The generated gas pressure decreased at higher temperatures, probably due to chemical reactions.

  7. Hot-carrier solar cells using low-dimensional quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Daiki; Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    We propose a high-conversion-efficiency solar cell (SC) utilizing the hot carrier (HC) population in an intermediate-band (IB) of a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) structure. The bandgap of the host semiconductor in this device plays an important role as an energy-selective barrier for HCs in the QDSLs. According to theoretical calculation using the detailed balance model with an air mass 1.5 spectrum, the optimum IB energy is determined by a trade-off relation between the number of HCs with energy exceeding the conduction-band edge and the number of photons absorbed by the valence band−IB transition. Utilizing experimental data of HC temperature in InAs/GaAs QDSLs, the maximum conversion efficiency under maximum concentration (45 900 suns) has been demonstrated to increase by 12.6% as compared with that for a single-junction GaAs SC.

  8. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, D. A.; Baily, C. E.; Malewitz, T. J.; Medvedev, P. G.; Porter, D. L.; Hilton, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during the heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.

  9. RGD-conjugated rod-like viral nanoparticles on 2D scaffold improved bone differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Viral nanoparticles have uniform and well-defined nano-structures and can be produced in large quantities. Several plant viral nanoparticles have been tested in biomedical applications due to the lack of mammalian cell infectivity. We are particularly interested in using Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, which has been demonstrated to enhance bone tissue regeneration, as a tuneable nanoscale building block for biomaterials development. Unmodified TMV particles have been shown to accelerate osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells by synergistically upregulating BMP2 and IBSP expression with dexamethasone. However, the lack of affinity to mammalian cell surface resulted in low initial cell adhesion. In this study, to increase cell binding capacity of TMV based material the chemical functionalization of TMV with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD peptide was explored. An azide-derivatized RGD peptide was clicked to tyrosine residues on TMV outer surface via an efficient copper(I catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. The ligand spacing is calculated to be 2-4 nm, which could offer a polyvalent ligand clustering effect for enhanced cell receptor signalling, further promoting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  10. RGD-conjugated rod-like viral nanoparticles on 2D scaffold improved bone differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Pongkwan, Sitasuwan; Lee, L.; Li, Kai; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-05-01

    Viral nanoparticles have uniform and well-defined nano-structures and can be produced in large quantities. Several plant viral nanoparticles have been tested in biomedical applications due to the lack of mammalian cell infectivity. We are particularly interested in using Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which has been demonstrated to enhance bone tissue regeneration, as a tuneable nanoscale building block for biomaterials development. Unmodified TMV particles have been shown to accelerate osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells by synergistically upregulating BMP2 and IBSP expression with dexamethasone. However, the lack of affinity to mammalian cell surface resulted in low initial cell adhesion. In this study, to increase cell binding capacity of TMV based material the chemical functionalization of TMV with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide was explored. An azide-derivatized RGD peptide was “clicked” to tyrosine residues on TMV outer surface via an efficient copper(I) catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. The ligand spacing is calculated to be 2-4 nm, which could offer a polyvalent ligand clustering effect for enhanced cell receptor signalling, further promoting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  11. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance of a Commercial Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel. Our research group...... is currently developing a novel technique to obtain an ad-hoc and real time electrical signal of the fuel cell water balance by employing hot wire anemometry. In this work, the hot wire sensor is placed in the anode outlet of a commercial air-cooled fuel cell stack by Ballard Power Systems, and the voltage......Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom backup units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce...

  12. Hot Cell Installation and Demonstration of the Severe Accident Test Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Zachary M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) capable of examining the oxidation kinetics and accident response of irradiated fuel and cladding materials for design basis accident (DBA) and beyond design basis accident (BDBA) scenarios has been successfully installed and demonstrated in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL), a hot cell facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The two test station modules provide various temperature profiles, steam, and the thermal shock conditions necessary for integral loss of coolant accident (LOCA) testing, defueled oxidation quench testing and high temperature BDBA testing. The installation of the SATS system restores the domestic capability to examine postulated and extended LOCA conditions on spent fuel and cladding and provides a platform for evaluation of advanced fuel and accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding concepts. This document reports on the successful in-cell demonstration testing of unirradiated Zircaloy-4. It also contains descriptions of the integral test facility capabilities, installation activities, and out-of-cell benchmark testing to calibrate and optimize the system.

  13. 3-D rod ejection analysis using a conservative methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Ho; Park, Jin Woo; Park, Guen Tae; Um, Kil Sup; Ryu, Seok Hee; Lee, Jae Il; Choi, Tong Soo [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The point kinetics model which simplifies the core phenomena and physical specifications is used for the conventional rod ejection accident analysis. The point kinetics model is convenient to assume conservative core parameters but this simplification loses large amount of safety margin. The CHASER system couples the three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, the sub-channel analysis code THALES and the fuel performance analysis code FROST. The validation study for the CHASER system is addressed using the NEACRP three-dimensional PWR core transient benchmark problem. A series of conservative rod ejection analyses for the APR1400 type plant is performed for both hot full power (HFP) and hot zero power (HZP) conditions to determine the most limiting cases. The conservative rod ejection analysis methodology is designed to properly consider important phenomena and physical parameters.

  14. Tandem solar cells deposited using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, M. K.

    2003-05-01

    In this thesis, the application of the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique for the deposition of silicon thin films is described. The HWCVD technique is based on the dissociation of silicon-containing gasses at the catalytic surface of a hot filament. Advantages of this technique are the high deposition rate, the low equipment costs, and the scalability. The main goal of this thesis is the optimization of the material properties of both hydrogenated amorphous silicon and microcrystalline silicon, so that these materials can be incorporated as the absorbing layers in tandem solar cells. Firstly, the influence of specific deposition parameters on the material quality of hydrogenated amorphous silicon was investigated. With the use of tantalum filaments, the deposition temperature could be decreased to moderate temperatures, while the (electronic) properties of the amorphous silicon were improved. However, at these low filament temperatures the silicide formation at the filaments was enhanced, resulting in a decrease in the deposition rate and a deterioration of the material quality over time. For extensive silicide formation, even epitaxial growth on crystalline wafers was observed. By preheating the filaments at elevated temperature before deposition, the influence of silicide formation could be minimized, which resulted in an improvement in the reproducibility of the material quality. Solar cells, in which the absorbing layer was made at moderate temperature, had high open-circuit voltages and high fill factors. The best n-i-p structured cell on plain stainless steel had an initial efficiency of 7.2 %. The incorporation of amorphous silicon in p-i-n structured cells with a textured front contact resulted in a higher short-circuit current density and a higher efficiency. Occasionally, many n-i-p structured cells showed shunting problems. The number of working cells was directly correlated to the age of the filaments. The presence of silicides on the

  15. Broadband Vibration Attenuation Using Hybrid Periodic Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asiri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of a broadband vibration isolator. It is a table-like system formed by four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates. The rods consist of an assembly of periodic cells, each cell being composed of a short rod and piezoelectric inserts. By actively controlling the piezoelectric elements, it is shown that the periodic rods can efficiently attenuate the propagation of vibration from the upper plate to the lower one within critical frequency bands and consequently minimize the effects of transmission of undesirable vibration and sound radiation. In such a system, longitudinal waves can propagate from the vibration source in the upper plate to the lower one along the rods only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is efficiently attenuated within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The spectral width of these bands can be tuned according to the nature of the external excitation. The theory governing the operation of this class of vibration isolator is presented and their tunable filtering characteristics are demonstrated experimentally as functions of their design parameters. This concept can be employed in many applications to control the wave propagation and the force transmission of longitudinal vibrations both in the spectral and spatial domains in an attempt to stop/attenuate the propagation of undesirable disturbances.

  16. Importance of Electrode Hot-Pressing Conditions for the Catalyst Performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Larsen, Mikkel Juul

    2015-01-01

    The catalyst performance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) depends on not only the choice of materials, but also on the electrode structure and in particular on the interface between the components. In this work, we demonstrate that the hot-pressing conditions used during electrode...

  17. Hot-compress: A new postdeposition treatment for ZnO-based flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque Choudhury, Mohammad Shamimul, E-mail: shamimul129@gmail.com [Department of Frontier Material, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, b154/a, College Road, Chittagong 4203 (Bangladesh); Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo [Department of Frontier Material, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A new postdeposition treatment named hot-compress is introduced. • Hot-compression gives homogeneous compact layer ZnO photoanode. • I-V and EIS analysis data confirms the efficacy of this method. • Charge transport resistance was reduced by the application of hot-compression. - Abstract: This article introduces a new postdeposition treatment named hot-compress for flexible zinc oxide–base dye-sensitized solar cells. This postdeposition treatment includes the application of compression pressure at an elevated temperature. The optimum compression pressure of 130 Ma at an optimum compression temperature of 70 °C heating gives better photovoltaic performance compared to the conventional cells. The aptness of this method was confirmed by investigating scanning electron microscopy image, X-ray diffraction, current-voltage and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of the prepared cells. Proper heating during compression lowers the charge transport resistance, longer the electron lifetime of the device. As a result, the overall power conversion efficiency of the device was improved about 45% compared to the conventional room temperature compressed cell.

  18. Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.

    2013-02-01

    A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. REACTOR CONTROL ROD OPERATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.

    1961-12-12

    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  20. A new general and rapid method for investigating hot corrosion: preliminary tests on electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, T.R. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Volkovich, V.A. [Dept. of Rare Metals, Ural State Technical Univ. - UPI, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    With the increase and improvement in corrosion resistant alloys, coatings and surface treatments, the ability to test and predict their long-term behaviour to oxidation under hot corrosion conditions, within a reasonable time period, becomes diminished. Peroxide and superoxide ions are the most active oxidisers and we have established a means for generating them in significant concentrations in molten carbonates. This thus has the potential for enabling accelerated hot corrosion studies and we here describe the technique and report preliminary studies on the nickel and nickel oxide electrodes used in molten carbonate fuel cells. Further applications are expected to follow. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of LPD-TiO2 compact layer in ZnO nano-rods photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jung-Jie; Wu, Chih-Kan; Hsu, Chun-Fa

    2017-12-01

    A titanium oxide (TiO2) compact layer was used to enhance the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) by reducing the electrical loss from recombination at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/electrolyte interface and by improving the electrical contact between ITO and the zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rod photoelectrode. The TiO2 compact layer was deposited on ITO glass using the liquid phase deposition (LPD) method. DSSCs fabricated with and without the LPD-TiO2 compact layer were compared. In addition, various thicknesses of the LPD-TiO2 compact layer were evaluated. The light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of the DSSC increased from 0.43 to 0.75% by incorporating the LPD-TiO2 compact layer. Experimental results demonstrated that the LPD method is a promising alternative to the conventional TiO2 compact layer technology for the production of high-performance DSSCs.

  2. Heterologous expression of hydrophobins RodA and RodB from Aspergillus fumigatus in host Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Højgaard; Borodina, Irina; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    proteins with the signal sequence of alfa-mating factor from Saccharomyces cerevisia known to work well for protein secretion from P. pastoris and the pPICZB plasmids had proteins cloned with their native signal sequences. The plasmids were linearized, transformed into P. pastoris strain X33...... and transformants were selected by zeocin resistance. The presence of the RodA and RodB genes in the transformants was confirmed by colony PCR. The expression of RodA and RodB genes was induced by growing cells in culture flasks for three days in buffered complex methanol medium as protein production was dependent...

  3. CFD analysis of rewetting vertical nuclear fuel rod by dispersed fluid jet impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Debbarma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of cooling assessment in hot vertical fuel rod is carryout using ANSYS 14.0 – CFX Solver. Rewetting is the process of re-establishment of coolants with hot surfaces. Numerical validation exercise carried out with number of turbulence and shear stress turbulence model fairly predict the experimental data and used for further investigation. In the present paper, dispersed fluid is simulating with CFX solver to investigate the flow boiling process in emergency cooling of vertical fuel rod. When coolants come in contact on the hot surface this may not initiated the wetting patch. However, this paper introduces the unique jet impingement direction to remove the heat from the hot surface. In this report, the rewetting temperature and wetting delay also described during in progress of wetting front movement in hot vertical rod.

  4. Radioprotective Effects of Sulfurcontaining Mineral Water of Ramsar Hot Spring with High Natural Background Radiation on Mouse Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We intend to study the inhibitory effect of sulfur compound in Ramsar hot spring mineral on tumor-genesis ability of high natural background radiation. Objective: The radioprotective effect of sulfur compounds was previously shown on radiation-induced chromosomal aberration, micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells and human peripheral lymphocyte. Ramsar is known for having the highest level of natural background radiation on Earth. This study was performed to show the radioprotective effect of sulfur-containing Ramsar mineral water on mouse bone marrow cells. Method: Mice were fed three types of water (drinking water, Ramsar radioactive water containing sulfur and Ramsar radioactive water whose sulfur was removed. Ten days after feeding, mice were irradiated by gamma rays (0, 2 and 4 Gy. 48 and 72 hours after irradiating, mice were killed and femurs were removed. Frequency of micronuclei was determined in bone marrow erythrocytes. Results: A significant reduction was shown in the rate of micronuclei polychromatic erythrocyte in sulfur-containing hot spring water compared to sulfur-free water in hot spring mineral water. Gamma irradiation induced significant increases in micronuclei polychromatic erythrocyte (MNPCE and decreases in polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCEs/ PCEs+NCEs (P < 0.001 in sulfur-containing hot spring water compared to sulfur-free hot spring mineral water. Also, apparently there was a significant difference between drinking water and sulfur-containing hot spring water in micronuclei polychromatic erythrocyte and polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte+ normochromatic erythrocyte ratio. Conclusion: The results indicate that sulfur-containing mineral water could result in a significant reduction in radiation-induced micronuclei representing the radioprotective effect of sulfur compounds.

  5. Closure of the concrete supercontainer in hot cell under thermal load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craeye, Bart, E-mail: bart.craeye@artesis.b [Artesis Univerity College of Antwerp, Applied Engineering and Technology, Antwerp (Belgium); De Schutter, Geert [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 904, 9052 Ghent (Belgium); Wacquier, William; Van Humbeeck, Hughes [ONDRAF/NIRAS, Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (Belgium); Van Cotthem, Alain [Tractebel Development Engineering, Consulting Company (Belgium); Areias, Lou [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: We model the behaviour of the supercontainer for the disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel assemblies during fabrication at ground surface. We study the early-age cracking behaviour of the buffer and evaluate the crack creating mechanisms. In case accurate measures are taken, cracking of the buffer can be avoided. - Abstract: For the final disposal of long-lived, heat-emitting vitrified high-level waste (HLW) in a clayey host rock, an intensive study is conducted to investigate the early-age behaviour of concrete supercontainers. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is taken as the reference concrete type as it facilitates the casting process in combination with an improved homogeneity compared to the traditional concrete compositions. A laboratory characterization program is conducted to obtain the relevant thermal, mechanical and maturity-related properties of the SCC. These obtained data are implemented into the material database of the finite element tool HEAT to study the behaviour of the concrete layers during the different construction stages of the supercontainer: (i) Stage 1: Fabrication of the concrete buffer inside a stainless steel envelope. No early-age cracking is expected in case accurate measures are taken to reduce the thermal gradient between the outer surface and the middle of the buffer, e.g. by providing insulation and excluding wind. (ii) Stages 2-4: Emplacement of the carbon steel overpack containing the HLW canisters, filling the remaining annular gap with cementitious filler and closure by fitting the lid under thermal load. The construction stages (2-4) for the closure of the supercontainer are executed in hot cell. In this study, the crack creating mechanism and the behaviour of the concrete supercontainer during these construction stages in hot cell are investigated. In case precautionary measures are taken, such as reducing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the overpack, prolonging the preceding cooling

  6. Tandem solar cells deposited using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.K. van

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, the application of the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique for the deposition of silicon thin films is described. The HWCVD technique is based on the dissociation of silicon-containing gasses at the catalytic surface of a hot filament. Advantages of this technique

  7. Lithium and boron analysis by LA-ICP-MS results from a bowed PWR rod with contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puranen Anders

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously published investigation of an irradiated fuel rod from the Ringhals 2 PWR, which was bowed to contact with an adjacent rod, identified a significant but highly localised thinning of the clad wall and increased corrosion. Rod fretting was deemed unlikely due to the adhering oxide covering the surfaces. Local overheating in itself was also deemed insufficient to account for the accelerated corrosion. Instead, an enhanced concentration of lithium due to conditions of local boiling was hypothesised to explain the accelerated corrosion. Studsvik has developed a hot cell coupled LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer equipment that enables a flexible means of isotopic analysis of irradiated fuel and other highly active surfaces. In this work, the equipment was used to investigate the distribution of lithium (7Li and boron (11B in the outer oxide at the bow contact area. Depth profiling in the clad oxide at the opposite side of the rod to the point of contact, which is considered to have experienced normal operating conditions and which has a typical oxide thickness, evidenced levels of ∼10–20 ppm 7Li and a 11B content reaching hundreds of ppm in the outer parts of the oxide, largely in agreement with the expected range of Li and B clad oxide concentrations from previous studies. In the contact area, the 11B content was similar to the reference condition at the opposite side. The 7Li content in the outermost oxide closest to the contact was, however, found to be strongly elevated, reaching several hundred ppm. The considerable and highly localised increase in lithium content at the area of enhanced corrosion thus offers strong evidence for a case of lithium induced breakaway corrosion during power operation, when rod-to-rod contact and high enough surface heat flux results in a very local increase in lithium concentration.

  8. Haptic shared control improves hot cell remote handling despite controller inaccuracies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhout, J. van, E-mail: J.vanOosterhout@differ.nl [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of 3mE, BioMechanical Engineering Department, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Abbink, D.A. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of 3mE, BioMechanical Engineering Department, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Koning, J.F. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology B.V., Jonckerweg 12, 2201 DZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Boessenkool, H. [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Wildenbeest, J.G.W. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of 3mE, BioMechanical Engineering Department, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Heemskerk Innovative Technology B.V., Jonckerweg 12, 2201 DZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Heemskerk, C.J.M. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology B.V., Jonckerweg 12, 2201 DZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: Haptic shared control is generally based upon perfect environment information. A realistic implementation holds model errors with respect to the environment. Operators were aided with inaccurate guiding forces during a peg-in-hole task. The results showed that small guiding inaccuracies still aid the operator. -- Abstract: A promising solution to improve task performance in ITER hot cell remote handling is the use of haptic shared control. Haptic shared control can assist the human operator along a safe and optimal path with continuous guiding forces from an intelligent autonomous controller. Previous research tested such controllers with accurate knowledge of the environment (giving flawless guiding forces), while in a practical implementation guidance forces will sometimes be flawed due to inaccurate models or sensor information. This research investigated the effect of zero and small (7.5 mm) errors on task performance compared to normal (unguided) operation. In a human factors experiment subjects performed a three dimensional virtual reality peg-in-hole type task (30 mm diameter; 0.1 mm clearance), with and without potentially flawed haptic shared control. The results showed that the presence of guiding forces, despite of small guiding errors, still improved task performance with respect to unguided operations.

  9. Standard guide for mechanical drive systems for remote operation in hot cell facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this standard is to provide general guidelines for the design, selection, quality assurance, installation, operation, and maintenance of mechanical drive systems used in remote hot cell environments. The term mechanical drive systems used herein, encompasses all individual components used for imparting motion to equipment systems, subsystems, assemblies, and other components. It also includes complete positioning systems and individual units that provide motive power and any position indicators necessary to monitor the motion. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This standard is intended to be applicable to equipment used under one or more of the following conditions: 1.2.1.1 The materials handled or processed constitute a significant radiation hazard to man or to the environment. 1.2.1.2 The equipment will generally be used over a long-term life cycle (for example, in excess of two years), but equipment intended for use over a shorter life cycle is not excluded. 1.2.1.3 The ...

  10. Hot Cell Liners Category of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is an agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Hot Cell Liners category; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and the justification to reclassify the five containers as LLW rather than TRU waste.

  11. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sugimoto, Noriaki [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, Yuya [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corp., 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2015-09-28

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs.

  12. Development of Modified Ring Tensile Test Technique for Fuel Cladding in Hot Cell (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Sik; Ahn, S. B.; Oh, W. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Choo, Y. S

    2005-12-15

    The modified ring tensile test technique was proposed in order to evaluate mechanical properties of fuel cladding under hoop loading condition in hot cell. The hoop loading grip for the modified ring tensile test is designed such that a constant specimen curvature is maintained during deformation, and the gage section of ring specimen is located at the top of the half-cylinder({phi}8.08 mm). The interface between the outer surface of the half-cylinder and the inner surface of the ring specimen was lubricated by graphite lubricant(Molykote P37) in order to minimize the friction between this contact surface. The ring specimen design for ring tensile test is conducted to limit deformation within the gauge section and to maximize uniformity of strain distribution. The dimensions of the ring specimen are 5 mm in ring width, 3 mm in gage length, 2 mm in width of the gage section and 1 mm in radius of the shoulder part. The specially designed precision grinding machine was developed to machine the gage section at the ring segment with 5 mm in length, and the optimum machining conditions are determined. From the comparisons between the test results in this study and the other researcher's test results, we ensure that the proposed ring tensile test technique is suitable to evaluate the mechanical properties of fuel cladding in hoop direction quantitatively.

  13. Hot Wire CVD for thin film triple junction cells and for ultrafast deposition of the SiN passivation layer on polycrystalline Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, R.E.I.; Franken, R.H.; Goldbach, H.D.; Houweling, Z.S.; Li, H. B. T.; Rath, J.K.; Schuttauf, J.A.; Stolk, R.L.; Verlaan, V.; van der Werf, C.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We present recent progress on hot-wire deposited thin film solar cells and applications of silicon nitride. The cell efficiency reached for μc-Si:H n–i–p solar cells on textured Ag/ZnO presently is 8.5%, in line with the state-of-the-art level for μc-Si:H n–i–p's for any method of deposition. Such

  14. Exosomes surf on filopodia to enter cells at endocytic hot spots, traffic within endosomes, and are targeted to the ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusermann, Wolf; Hean, Justin; Trojer, Dominic; Steib, Emmanuelle; von Bueren, Stefan; Graff-Meyer, Alexandra; Genoud, Christel; Martin, Katrin; Pizzato, Nicolas; Voshol, Johannes; Morrissey, David V; Andaloussi, Samir E L; Wood, Matthew J; Meisner-Kober, Nicole C

    2016-04-25

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released by virtually all cells, which act as intercellular messengers by transfer of protein, lipid, and RNA cargo. Their quantitative efficiency, routes of cell uptake, and subcellular fate within recipient cells remain elusive. We quantitatively characterize exosome cell uptake, which saturates with dose and time and reaches near 100% transduction efficiency at picomolar concentrations. Highly reminiscent of pathogenic bacteria and viruses, exosomes are recruited as single vesicles to the cell body by surfing on filopodia as well as filopodia grabbing and pulling motions to reach endocytic hot spots at the filopodial base. After internalization, exosomes shuttle within endocytic vesicles to scan the endoplasmic reticulum before being sorted into the lysosome as their final intracellular destination. Our data quantify and explain the efficiency of exosome internalization by recipient cells, establish a new parallel between exosome and virus host cell interaction, and suggest unanticipated routes of subcellular cargo delivery. © 2016 Heusermann et al.

  15. Cone rod dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian P

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cone rod dystrophies (CRDs (prevalence 1/40,000 are inherited retinal dystrophies that belong to the group of pigmentary retinopathies. CRDs are characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination, predominantly localized to the macular region. In contrast to typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP, also called the rod cone dystrophies (RCDs resulting from the primary loss in rod photoreceptors and later followed by the secondary loss in cone photoreceptors, CRDs reflect the opposite sequence of events. CRD is characterized by primary cone involvement, or, sometimes, by concomitant loss of both cones and rods that explains the predominant symptoms of CRDs: decreased visual acuity, color vision defects, photoaversion and decreased sensitivity in the central visual field, later followed by progressive loss in peripheral vision and night blindness. The clinical course of CRDs is generally more severe and rapid than that of RCDs, leading to earlier legal blindness and disability. At end stage, however, CRDs do not differ from RCDs. CRDs are most frequently non syndromic, but they may also be part of several syndromes, such as Bardet Biedl syndrome and Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7 (SCA7. Non syndromic CRDs are genetically heterogeneous (ten cloned genes and three loci have been identified so far. The four major causative genes involved in the pathogenesis of CRDs are ABCA4 (which causes Stargardt disease and also 30 to 60% of autosomal recessive CRDs, CRX and GUCY2D (which are responsible for many reported cases of autosomal dominant CRDs, and RPGR (which causes about 2/3 of X-linked RP and also an undetermined percentage of X-linked CRDs. It is likely that highly deleterious mutations in genes that otherwise cause RP or macular dystrophy may also lead to CRDs. The diagnosis of CRDs is based on clinical history, fundus examination and electroretinogram. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, genetic counseling is

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GRC and AR have identified the following roles and responsibilities necessary to accomplish the hot fire objective of this task.  AR will be responsible for...

  17. Modeling and characterization of double resonant tunneling diodes for application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Julian, Anatole; Bernard, Cyril; Miyashita, Naoya; Gibelli, Francois; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemolles, Jean-Francois

    2017-02-01

    Double resonant tunneling barriers are considered for an application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells. Experimental symmetric and asymmetric double resonant tunneling barriers are realized by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. The negative differential resistance signal is enhanced for asymmetric heterostructures, and remains unchanged between low- and room-temperatures. Within Tsu-Esaki description of the tunnel current, this observation can be explained by the voltage dependence of the tunnel transmission amplitude, which presents a resonance under finite bias for asymmetric structures. This effect is notably discussed with respect to series resistance. Different parameters related to the electronic transmission of the structure and the influence of these parameters on the current voltage characteristic are investigated, bringing insights on critical processes to optimize in double resonant tunneling barriers applied to hot carrier solar cells.

  18. Crane system with remote actuation mechanism for use in argon compartment in ACPF hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Kwang, E-mail: leejk@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Byung-Suk; Yu, Seung-Nam; Kim, Kiho; Cho, Il-je

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Novel crane system with a remote actuation mechanism for feasible maintenance under limited space conditions is proposed. • Linear drive systems are implemented for accurate positioning. • Modular design concepts for easy maintenance are introduced. • The motion controller and the off-the-shelf camera controller are integrated to provide more efficient operation. - Abstract: The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has recently been successfully renovated. One of the highlights of this renovation project was the installation of a small argon compartment within the atmospheric hot cell of the facility. Even though a crane system was considered necessary for the remote handling of the processing equipment inside the argon compartment, no suitable commercial cranes were available. This was because a limited amount of space had been reserved for the installation of the crane. Moreover, a master-slave manipulator (MSM), the only available means of maintenance of the crane, was unable to reach it in the limited workspace. To address the difficulties in the design of this crane, in this study, a remote actuation mechanism is devised where the mechanical and electrical parts of the crane system are separated, positioned far away from each other, and connected through power transmission shafts. This approach has two main advantages. First, the electrical parts can be placed inside the workspace of the MSM, hence allowing for remote maintenance. Second, the space occupied by the electrical parts and their cables, which are separate from the crane in the proposed design, can be considered and exploited in designing the mechanical parts of the crane. This enables the construction of a short, special crane in order to maximize the workspace. Furthermore, the mechanical parts for the MSM located outside the workspace are designed to possess a high safety margin to ensure durability

  19. Semiconductor Quantum Rods as Single Molecule FluorescentBiological Labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Boussert, Benjamine; Koski, Kristie; Gerion, Daniele; Manna, Liberato; Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-05-29

    In recent years, semiconductor quantum dots have beenapplied with great advantage in a wide range of biological imagingapplications. The continuing developments in the synthesis of nanoscalematerials and specifically in the area of colloidal semiconductornanocrystals have created an opportunity to generate a next generation ofbiological labels with complementary or in some cases enhanced propertiescompared to colloidal quantum dots. In this paper, we report thedevelopment of rod shaped semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum rods) asnew fluorescent biological labels. We have engineered biocompatiblequantum rods by surface silanization and have applied them fornon-specific cell tracking as well as specific cellular targeting. Theproperties of quantum rods as demonstrated here are enhanced sensitivityand greater resistance for degradation as compared to quantum dots.Quantum rods have many potential applications as biological labels insituations where their properties offer advantages over quantumdots.

  20. Genetically heterogeneous mice show age-related vision deficits not related to increased rod cell L-type calcium channel function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Bruce A; Miller, Richard A; Roberts, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Visual performance declines over time in humans and 2-18 months outbred Long-Evans (LE) rats; vision is maintained in inbred 2-18 months C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Increased rod L-type calcium channel (LTCC) function predicts visual decline in LE rats but does not occur in B6 mice. Genetic diversity may contribute to rod LTCC function escalation time. To test this hypothesis, 4 and 18 months genetically heterogeneous UM-HET3 mice were studied. Rod LTCC function (manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and ocular anatomy (MRI, optical coherence tomography) were measured in vivo. Light-evoked subretinal space and choroid thickness changes were measured (diffusion-weighted MRI). Visual performance declined over time in the absence of (1) increased rod LTCC function; (2) changes in light-dependent expansion of the subretinal space and choroidal thickness; and (3) retinal thinning. Aging changed anterior and vitreous chambers' axial length and decreased light-stimulated choroidal expansion. Species differences appear to contribute to the LTCC function differences. Aging-related declines in vision in the UM-HET3 mice deserve more attention than they have received so far. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  2. Method of targeted delivery of laser beam to isolated retinal rods by fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Nigel; Bessarab, Dmitri; Jones, C Michael; Krivitsky, Leonid

    2011-11-01

    A method of controllable light delivery to retinal rod cells using an optical fiber is described. Photo-induced current of the living rod cells was measured with the suction electrode technique. The approach was tested with measurements relating the spatial distribution of the light intensity to photo-induced current. In addition, the ion current responses of rod cells to polarized light at two different orientation geometries of the cells were studied.

  3. Ceramide-Enriched Membrane Domains in Red Blood Cells and the Mechanism ofSphingomyelinase-Induced Hot-Cold Hemolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes, Ruth; Lopez, David; Sot, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Hot-cold hemolysis is the phenomenon whereby red blood cells, preincubated at 37 °C in the presence of certain agents, undergo rapid hemolysis when transferred to 4 °C. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. PlcHR2, a phospholipase C/sphingomyelinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa......) but also in goat erythrocytes, which lack PC. However, in horse erythrocytes, with a large proportion of PC and almost no SM, hot-cold hemolysis induced by PlcHR2 is not observed. Fluorescence microscopy observations confirm the formation of ceramide-enriched domains as a result of PlcHR2 activity. After......-cold hemolysis. Differential scanning calorimetry of erytrocyte membranes treated with PlcHR2 demonstrates the presence of ceramide-rich domains that are rigid at 4 °C but fluid at 37 °C. Ceramidase treatment causes the disapperance of the calorimetric signal assigned to ceramide-rich domains. Finally...

  4. Slip-cast and hot-solution infiltrated porous yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) supported tubular fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifi, Amir Reza; Paulson, Scott; Torabi, Alireza; Shinbine, Alyssa; Tucker, Michael C.; Birss, Viola; Etsell, Thomas H.; Sarkar, Partha

    2014-11-01

    Hot solution infiltration was investigated as a flexible and rapid method to incorporate anode and cathode components into fully sintered, porous ceramic tubular templates for use as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Composed of either a porous 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or 5 wt% NiO-YSZ support structure, a thin Ni-YSZ anode functional layer and an outer ca. 10 μm dense YSZ electrolyte, closed end tubes were first hot solution (ca. 100 °C) infiltrated on the inside with NiO-SDC (Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9) to serve as the anode. Cathodes were either LSM (nominally La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ) infiltrated into a thin porous YSZ layer on the outer electrolyte surface, or an LSCF-GDC composite (Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ) on a thin GDC buffer layer. Although hot solution infiltration of the Ni, Ce and Sm salts into the anode support structure did not result in complete penetration (with the Ni contents in the tube wall ranging between 4 and 10 vol.%), well-sealed full cells produced power densities as high as 275, 196 and 153 mW cm-2 at 800, 750 and 700 °C, respectively. Hot solution infiltration of active SOFC electrode materials is thus shown to be a very flexible approach for the evaluation of their performance.

  5. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance in a Proton Exchange membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Hussain, Nabeel; Berning, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) remains a critical problem for their durability, cost, and performance. Because the anode side of this fuel cell has the tendency to become dehydrated, measuring the water balance can be an important diagnosis tool during fuel cell...... operation. The water balance indicates how much of the product water leaves at the anode side versus the cathode side. Previous methods of determining the fuel cell water balance often relied on condensing the water in the exhaust gas streams and weighing the accumulated mass which is a time consuming...... process that has limited accuracy. Currently, our group is developing a novel method to accurately determine the water balance in a PEMFC in real time by employing hot-wire anemometry. The amount of heat transferred from the wire to the anode exhaust stream can be translated into a voltage signal which...

  6. Submerged RadBall® deployments in Hanford Site hot cells containing 137CsCl capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Coleman, J Rusty; Stanley, Steven; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark; Thomas, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    The overall objective of this study was to demonstrate that a new technology, known as RadBall®, could locate submerged radiological hazards. RadBall® is a novel, passive, radiation detection device that provides a 3-D visualization of radiation from areas where measurements have not been previously possible due to lack of access or extremely high radiation doses. This technology has been under development during recent years, and all of its previous tests have included dry deployments. This study involved, for the first time, underwater RadBall® deployments in hot cells containing 137CsCl capsules at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. RadBall® can be used to characterize a contaminated room, hot cell, or glovebox by providing the locations of the radiation sources and hazards, identifying the radionuclides present within the cell, and determining the radiation sources' strength (e.g., intensities or dose rates). These parameters have been previously determined for dry deployments; however, only the location of radiation sources and hazards can be determined for an underwater RadBall® deployment. The results from this study include 3-D images representing the location of the radiation sources within the Hanford Site cells. Due to RadBall®'s unique deployability and non-electrical nature, this technology shows significant promise for future characterization of radiation hazards prior to and during the decommissioning of contaminated nuclear facilities.

  7. A comparative study on the morphology of P3HT:PCBM solar cells with the addition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles by spin and rod coating methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenluan; Nguyen, Ngoc A.; Murray, Roy; Xin, Jiyuan; Mackay, Michael E.

    2017-09-01

    Our previous study presented up to 20% power conversion efficiency (PCE) enhancement of poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells under the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) self-assembly (SA) effect by spin coating. Fe3O4 NPs (about 11 nm hydrodynamic diameter) form a thin layer at the top interface of the light absorbing active layer, which results in the generation of PCBM rich region improving the charge transport (Zhang et al. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 160:126-133, 2017). In order to investigate the feasibility of this Fe3O4 NPs SA effect under large-scale production condition, a smooth rod was implemented to mimic roll-to-roll coating technique and yield active layers having about the same thickness as the spin-coated ones. Small angle neutron scattering and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction were employed finding out similar morphologies of the active layers by these two coating techniques. However, rod-coated solar cell's PCE decreases with the addition of Fe3O4 NPs compared with the one without them. This is because PCBM rich region is not created at the top interface of the active layer due to the absence of Fe3O4 NPs, which is attributed to the weak convective flow and low diffusion rate. Moreover, in the rod-coated solar cells, the presence of Fe3O4 NPs causes decrease in P3HT crystallinity, thus the charge transport and the device performance. Our study confirms the role of spin coating in the Fe3O4 NPs SA effect and enables researchers to explore this finding in other polymer nanocomposite systems.

  8. Hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule of SA 533 cl. 1 reactor pressure vessel (1st test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Jung, Y. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Baik, S. J.; Oh, W. H.; Soong, W. S.; Hong, K. P

    2000-08-01

    The post-irradiated examinations such as impact test, tensile test, composition analysis and etc. were conducted to monitor and to evaluate the radiation-induced changes, so called radiation embrittlement, in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials. Those data should be applied to confirm safety as well as reliability of reactor pressure vessel. The scopes and contents of hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule are as follows; - Capsule transportation, cutting, dismantling and classification - Shim block and Dosimeter cutting and dismantling - Impact test - Tensile test - Composition analysis by EPMA - SEM observation on the fractured surface - Hardness test - Radwaste treatment.

  9. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste...... in hot wire anemometry is the description of the Nusselt number as function of the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number, and in the current application it can be shown it is essential to employ a power-law equation instead of the commonly employed Churchill Bernstein equation. It will be shown...

  10. The new hot rods of the physics world

    CERN Document Server

    Katsouleas, T C

    2003-01-01

    From zero to 200 MeV in less than a millimetre in a wake-field accelerator. Particle accelerators are the largest pieces of equipment that physicists have to help them unravel nature's secrets. Take the 27 km circumference of the Large Hadron Collider under construction at CERN in Geneva or the 3 km linear accelerator at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in the US. These machines accelerate particles to energies above 1010 eV and then collide them to explore fundamental questions in high-energy physics. However, as successful as they are in tackling problems such as the origin of mass and the asymmetry between matter and antimatter, accelerators cannot keep achieving higher and higher energies. Most accelerators use radio-frequency waves confined in metallic cavities to give particles a kick in energy each time they pass through the cavity. However, the acceleration gradients that these machines can achieve are limited, and the only way to reach higher energies is to build bigger accelerators with more c...

  11. Investigation on Mechanical Properties’ Anisotropy of Rod Units in Lattice Structures Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chenchen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lattice structure with high strength and low mass using selective laser melting (SLM has been a hot topic. However, there are some problems in the fabrication of lattice structure by SLM. Rod unit is the basic component of lattice structure and its performance affects the whole structure. It is necessary to investigate the influence of selective laser melting on rod unit’s mechanical properties. A series of rod units with different inclination angle and diameter were fabricated by SLM in this research. And the mechanical properties of these units were measured by tensile test. The results show that the rod units with different diameters and inclination angles have good mechanical properties and show no difference. It is a good news for lattice structure designing for there is no necessary to consider the mechanical properties’ anisotropy of rod units.

  12. Identification of the hot-spot areas for sickle cell disease using cord blood screening at a district hospital: an Indian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Sujata; Sahu, Pushpansu; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Negi, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), a genetic disorder often reported late, can be identified early in life, and hot-spot areas may be identified to conduct genetic epidemiology studies. This study was undertaken to estimate prevalence and to identify hot spot area for SCD in Kalahandi district, by screening cord blood of neonates delivered at the district hospital as first-hand information. Kalahandi District Hospital selected for the study is predominated by tribal population with higher prevalence ...

  13. Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey.

  14. Surveillance and radiological protection in the Hot Cell laboratory; Vigilancia y proteccion radiologica en el Laboratorio de Celdas Calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, J.M.; Torre, J. De la; Garcia C, M.A. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The Hot Cells Laboratory (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are an installation that was designed for the management at distance of 10,000 Curies of Co-60 or other radioactive materials with different values in activity. The management of such materials in the installation, implies to analyze and to determine the doses that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of protection measures and appropriate radiological safety so that is completed the specified by the ALARA concept. In this work it is carried out an evaluation of the doses to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of results is made with the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that carried out in the installation. (Author)

  15. FY15 Status Report: CIRFT Testing of Spent Nuclear Fuel Rods from Boiler Water Reactor Limerick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiang, Hao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a systematic study of used nuclear fuel (UNF, also known as spent nuclear fuel [SNF]) integrity under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 2013. Under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsorship, ORNL completed four benchmark tests, four static tests, and twelve dynamic or cycle tests on H. B. Robinson (HBR) high burn-up (HBU) fuel. The clad of the HBR fuels was made of Zircaloy-4. Testing was continued in fiscal year (FY) 2014 using Department of Energy (DOE) funds. The additional CIRFT was conducted on three HBR rods (R3, R4, and R5) in which two specimens failed and one specimen was tested to over 2.23 10⁷ cycles without failing. The data analysis on all the HBR UNF rods demonstrated that it is necessary to characterize the fatigue life of the UNF rods in terms of (1) the curvature amplitude and (2) the maximum absolute of curvature extremes. The maximum extremes are significant because they signify the maximum of tensile stress for the outer fiber of the bending rod. CIRFT testing has also addressed a large variation in hydrogen content on the HBR rods. While the load amplitude is the dominant factor that controls the fatigue life of bending rods, the hydrogen content also has an important effect on the lifetime attained at each load range tested. In FY 15, ten SNF rod segments from BWR Limerick were tested using ORNL CIRFT, with one under static and nine dynamic loading conditions. Under static unidirectional loading, a moment of 85 N·m was obtained at maximum curvature 4.0 m⁻¹. The specimen did not show any sign of failure in three repeated loading cycles to almost same maximum curvature. Ten cyclic tests were conducted with amplitude varying from 15.2 to 7.1 N·m. Failure was observed in nine of the tested rod specimens. The cycles to failure were

  16. The Third ATLAS ROD Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Poggioli, L.

    A new-style Workshop After two successful ATLAS ROD Workshops dedicated to the ROD hardware and held at the Geneva University in 1998 and in 2000, a new style Workshop took place at LAPP in Annecy on November 14-15, 2002. This time the Workshop was fully dedicated to the ROD-TDAQ integration and software in view of the near future integration activities of the final RODs for the detector assembly and commissioning. More precisely, the aim of this workshop was to get from the sub-detectors the parameters needed for T-DAQ, as well as status and plans from ROD builders. On the other hand, what was decided and assumed had to be stated (like EB decisions and URDs), and also support plans. The Workshop gathered about 70 participants from all ATLAS sub-detectors and the T-DAQ community. The quite dense agenda allowed nevertheless for many lively discussions, and for a dinner in the old town of Annecy. The Sessions The Workshop was organized in five main sessions: Assumptions and recommendations Sub-de...

  17. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk factors Not all women who go through menopause have hot flashes, and it's not clear why some women do have them. Factors that may increase your risk include: Smoking. Women who smoke are more likely to get hot flashes. Obesity. A high body mass index (BMI) is associated ...

  18. Hot flushes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without thermoregulatory homeostatic mechanisms, such as sweating, being triggered. Small fluctuations in core body. Abstract. Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are considered to be the cardinal symptoms of menopause, and are experienced by most women. The physiology of hot flushes is not ...

  19. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  20. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request...... that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab...... is low (for instance during the night), taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas...

  1. Optimized Packing Density of Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-injection for Thin Film Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jørgen

    the organic ligands by an antimony salt; however the efficiency is 1.4% for a cell annealed in Se-atmosphere. In our work, we try to limit the carbon amount in the film by synthesizing larger nanoparticles. The bigger the particles are the smaller surface-to-volume ratio they have, which might decrease......, but to maintain good control of the nanocrystal formation during the synthesis, it is necessary to have organic ligands on the surface of the particles. These ligands are often long alkyl chains that potentially limit the quality of the film and degrade its electronic properties. For nanocrystal solution...... the amount of ligands necessary to stabilize the particles in solution. Today, CZTS nanoparticles synthesized through the so-called hot-injection method vary between 2 nm and 60 nm in diameter. In our group, we have synthesized particles larger than 200 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allows us...

  2. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...... of delivering hot water for the household and returning the coldest fluid back to SOFC heat recovery heat-exchanger. A model of the SOFC system is developed to determine the energy required to meet the hourly average electric load of the residence. The model evaluates the amount of heat generated and the amount...... of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...

  3. Prediction of Hot Spots at Myeloid Cell Leukemia-1-Inhibitors Interface using Energy Estimation and Alanine Scanning Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Parthiban; Singaravelu, Kalaimathy

    2018-01-18

    Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that plays central role in apoptosis regulation. Also, Mcl1 has the potency to resist apoptotic cues resulting in up-regulation and cancer cell protection. A molecular probe that has the potential to specifically target Mcl1, and thereby provoke its down-regulatory activity is very essential. The aim of the current study is to probe the internal conformational dynamics of protein motions and potential binding mechanism in response to a series of picomolar range Mcl1 inhibitors using explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Subsequently, the domain cross-correlation and principal component analysis was performed on the snapshots obtained from the MD simulations. Our results showed significant differences in the internal conformational dynamics of Mcl1 w.r.t binding affinity values of inhibitors. Further, the binding free energy estimation -using three different samples- was performed on the MD simulations, which revealed the predicted energies (ΔGmmgbsa) were in good correlation with the experimental values (ΔGexpt). Also, the energies obtained using all sampling models were efficiently ranked. Subsequently, the decomposition energy analysis highlighted the major energy-contributing residues at the Mcl1 binding pocket. Computational alanine scanning performed on high energy-contributing residues predicted the hot spot residues. The dihedral angle analysis using MD snapshots on the predicted hot spot residue exhibited consistency in side chain conformational motion that ultimately led to contribute strong binding affinity values. The findings from the present study might provide valuable guidelines for the design of novel Mcl1 inhibitors that might significantly improve the specificity for new-generation chemotherapeutic agents.

  4. Periodicity effects of axial waves in elastic compound rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R. B.; Sorokin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase-closure Prin......Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase...

  5. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell for a pre-humidified hydrogen stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Shakhshir, Saher Al

    2016-01-01

    In a recent publication it has been shown how the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell can be determined employing hot wire anemometry. The hot wire sensor has to be placed into the anode outlet pipe of the operating fuel cell, and the voltage signal E that is read from the sensor....... Finally, it will be shown how previously developed dew point diagrams for the anode side in a fuel cell can be corrected for a humidified hydrogen inlet stream....... has to be divided by a pre-determined voltage signal E0 that has been obtained for a stream of dry hydrogen where the molar flow rate corresponds to a total current I of the fuel cell stack and a stoichiometric flow ratio, ξ. Because the last two properties are usually continuously known in fuel cell...

  6. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters Read Out Driver (ROD) system

    CERN Document Server

    Henry-Coüannier, F

    2000-01-01

    The electronic Readout chain for the Liquid Argon calorimeters of the ATLAS detector is briefly presented. Special attention is given to the Read Out Drivers (ROD) which will receive the triggered data from approximately 200,000 calorimeter cells at a 100 kHz event rate. In the ROD boards the energy will be computed for each cell from discrete samples of the waveform using optimal filtering algorithms running in fast digital signal processors. The monitoring of the calorimeter data will also be performed at the ROD level. Performances expected in ATLAS which have been evaluated from simulation studies are presented. A demonstrator system currently under construction is described and performances of the Processing Units (DSP daughter boards) are presented. 4 Refs.

  7. Effects of cold-damp and hot-damp environment on VEGF and IL-1 expression in joint cartilage cells in adjuvant arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun-Jing; Jiang, De-xun; An, Na; Shen, Hong-bo; Hu, Yin-qi

    2012-06-01

    To study the effects of environmental factors on the degree of injury and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in cartilage cells of the joint in a rat model of adjuvant arthritis (AA). SD rats aged 10 months were randomly divided into 4 groups that varied by temperature and humidity housing conditions and induction of AA: a control group, a model group, a cold-damp group, and a hot-damp group. All groups except the control group were induced with AA. After 4 w, VEGF and IL-1 expression in cartilage cells of ankle joints of hind limbs were observed. Mean area, optical density, and numbers of VEGF- and IL-1-positive cells in the model group, the cold-damp group, and the hot-damp group were significantly higher than that of the control group (all P damp group and the hot-damp group were significantly higher than that of the model group (all P damp group were significantly higher than that of the cold-damp group. Bone in the hot-damp and cold-damp groups was severely injured. Environmental factors such as high humidity combined with either high or low temperature increase the severity of damage and expression of VEGF and IL-1 in cartilage cells of joints in rats induced with AA.

  8. Hot Soak

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwater, H.

    2005-01-01

    The DVD is documentation of Hot Soak, as performed at the Queen’s Hotel, Penzance, Cornwall in an en suite bathroom, for Tract: Live Art Festival, 2006, curated by Art Surgery/ Newlyn Art Gallery. Hot Soak was originally made for home, London, 2005. This piece marries an everyday environment (bathroom) with extraordinary materials (ice cubes/ dress bleeding red into water) creating the surreal. Sontag’s understanding of camp as a love of the unnatural, artifice and exaggeration, can be ci...

  9. Viscum Album Var Hot Water Extract Mediates Anti-cancer Effects through G1 Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in SK-Hep1 Human Hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Cruz, Joseph Flores; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lumbera, Wenchie Marie Lara; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Viscum album var (VAV) also known as mistletoe, has long been categorized as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In addition to its immunomodulating activities, mistletoe has also been used in the treatment of chronic hepatic disorders in China and Korea. There are numerous reports showing that VAV possesses anti-cancer effects, however influence on human hepatocarcinoma has never been elucidated. In the present study, hot water extracts of VAV was evaluated for its potential anti-cancer effect in vitro. SK-Hep1 cells were treated with VAV (50-400 ug/ml) for both 24 and 48 hours then cell viability was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the proportion of SK-Hep1 in the different stages of cell cycle. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were conducted to measure expression of cell cycle arrest related genes and proteins respectively. VAV dose dependently inhibited the proliferation of SK-Hep1 cells without any cytotoxicity with normal Chang liver cell (CCL-13). Flow cytometry analysis showed that VAV extract inhibited the cell cycle of SK-Hep1 cells via G1 phase arrest. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis both revealed that cyclin dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and cyclin D1 gene expression were significantly down regulated while p21 was upregulated dose dependently by VAV treatment. Combined down regulation of Cdk2, Cyclin D1 and up regulation of p21 can result in cell death. These results indicate that VAV showed evidence of anti-cancer activity through G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SK-Hep1 cells.

  10. Control rods in LMFBRs: a physics assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and Ta and Eu rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B/sub 4/C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.

  11. Rod and lamellar growth of eutectic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trepczyńska-Łent

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents adaptation problem of lamellar growth of eutectic. The formation of rod eutectic microstructure was investigated systematically. A new rod eutectic configuration was observed in which the rods form with elliptical cylindrical shape. A new interpretation of the eutectic growth theory was proposed.

  12. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    In continuation of an earlier study of propagation of solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods, numerical investigations of blowup, reflection, and fission at continuous and discontinuous variation of the cross section for the rod and reflection at the end of the rod are presented. The results...

  13. Rapid establishment of the European Bank for induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (EBiSC) - the Hot Start experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Paul A; Steeg, Rachel; Wachter, Elisabeth; Bruce, Kevin; King, Jason; Hoeve, Marieke; Khadun, Shalinee; McConnachie, George; Holder, Julie; Kurtz, Andreas; Seltmann, Stefanie; Dewender, Johannes; Reimann, Sascha; Stacey, Glyn; O'Shea, Orla; Chapman, Charlotte; Healy, Lyn; Zimmermann, Heiko; Bolton, Bryan; Rawat, Trisha; Atkin, Isobel; Veiga, Anna; Kuebler, Bernd; Serano, Blanca Miranda; Saric, Tomo; Hescheler, Jürgen; Brüstle, Oliver; Peitz, Michael; Thiele, Cornelia; Geijsen, Niels; Holst, Bjørn; Clausen, Christian; Lako, Majlinda; Armstrong, Lyle; Gupta, Shailesh K; Kvist, Alexander J; Hicks, Ryan; Jonebring, Anna; Brolén, Gabriella; Ebneth, Andreas; Cabrera-Socorro, Alfredo; Foerch, Patrik; Geraerts, Martine; Stummann, Tina C; Harmon, Shawn; George, Carol; Streeter, Ian; Clarke, Laura; Parkinson, Helen; Harrison, Peter W; Faulconbridge, Adam; Cherubin, Luca; Burdett, Tony; Trigueros, Cesar; Patel, Minal J; Lucas, Christa; Hardy, Barry; Predan, Rok; Dokler, Joh; Brajnik, Maja; Keminer, Oliver; Pless, Ole; Gribbon, Philip; Claussen, Carsten; Ringwald, Annette; Kreisel, Beate; Courtney, Aidan; Allsopp, Timothy E

    2017-04-01

    A fast track "Hot Start" process was implemented to launch the European Bank for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (EBiSC) to provide early release of a range of established control and disease linked human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines. Established practice amongst consortium members was surveyed to arrive at harmonised and publically accessible Standard Operations Procedures (SOPs) for tissue procurement, bio-sample tracking, iPSC expansion, cryopreservation, qualification and distribution to the research community. These were implemented to create a quality managed foundational collection of lines and associated data made available for distribution. Here we report on the successful outcome of this experience and work flow for banking and facilitating access to an otherwise disparate European resource, with lessons to benefit the international research community. ETOC: The report focuses on the EBiSC experience of rapidly establishing an operational capacity to procure, bank and distribute a foundational collection of established hiPSC lines. It validates the feasibility and defines the challenges of harnessing and integrating the capability and productivity of centres across Europe using commonly available resources currently in the field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dose levels in the hot cells area ININ; Niveles de dosis en el area de celdas calientes-ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, J. De la; Ramirez, J.M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Solis, M.L. [UAEM, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jto@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The Laboratory of Hot Cells (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) is an institution, it is an area where radioactive material is managed with different activity values, in function of its original design for 10,000 curies of Co-60. Managing this materials in the installation, it implies to measure and to analyze the dose levels that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of appropriate measures of radiological protection and radiological safety, so that that is completed settled down by the concept ALARA. In this work they are carried out mensurations of the levels of the dose to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of the obtained results is made comparing them with the effective international norms as well as the application of the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that are carry out in the installation. (Author)

  15. Improvement of the efficiency of triple junction n–i–p solar cells with hot-wire CVD proto- and microcrystalline silicon absorber layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, R.L.; Li, H. B. T.; Franken, R.H.; Schuttauf, J.A.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2008-01-01

    Hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) was applied for the deposition of intrinsic protocrystalline (proto-Si:H) and microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) absorber layers in thin film solar cells. For a single junction μc-Si:H n–i–p cell on a Ag/ZnO textured back reflector (TBR) with a 2.0 μm

  16. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  17. Hot wire CVD deposition of nanocrystalline silicon solar cells on rough substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H. B. T.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    In silicon thin film solar cell technology, frequently rough or textured substrates are used to scatter the light and enhance its absorption. The important issue of the influence of substrate roughness on silicon nanocrystal growth has been investigated through a series of nc-Si:H single junction

  18. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Polycrystalline Silicon : From Gas Molecule To Solar Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, P.A.T.T. van

    2002-01-01

    Although the effort to investigate the use of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, has increased, their contribution to the total energy consumption remains insignificant. The conversion of solar energy into electricity through solar cells is one of the most promising techniques,

  19. p53 selectively regulates developmental apoptosis of rod photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Vuong

    Full Text Available Retinal cells become post-mitotic early during post-natal development. It is likely that p53, a well-known cell cycle regulator, is involved in regulating the genesis, differentiation and death of retinal cells. Furthermore, retinal cells are under constant oxidative stress that can result in DNA damage, due to the extremely high level of metabolic activity associated with phototransduction. If not repaired, this damage may result in p53-dependent cell death and ensuing vision loss. In this study, the role of p53 during retinal development and in the post-mitotic retina is investigated. A previously described super p53 transgenic mouse that expresses an extra copy of the mouse p53 gene driven by its endogenous promoter is utilized. Another transgenic mouse (HIP that expresses the p53 gene in rod and cone photoreceptors driven by the human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein promoter was generated. The electroretinogram (ERG of the super p53 mouse exhibited reduced rod-driven scotopic a and b wave and cone-driven photopic b wave responses. This deficit resulted from a reduced number of rod photoreceptors and inner nuclear layer cells. However, the reduced photopic signal arose only from lost inner retinal neurons, as cone numbers did not change. Furthermore, cell loss was non-progressive and resulted from increased apoptosis during retinal developmental as determined by TUNEL staining. In contrast, the continuous and specific expression of p53 in rod and cone photoreceptors in the mature retinas of HIP mice led to the selective loss of both rods and cones. These findings strongly support a role for p53 in regulating developmental apoptosis in the retina and suggest a potential role, either direct or indirect, for p53 in the degenerative photoreceptor loss associated with human blinding disorders.

  20. Exploiting rod technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    ROD development was proceeding apace until recent budgetary decisions caused funding support for ROD development to be drastically reduced. The funding which was originally provided by DARPA and the Balanced Technology Initiative (BTI) Office has been cut back to zero from $800K. To determine the aeroballistic coefficients of a candidate dart, ARDEC is currently supporting development out of its own 6.2 funds at about $100K. ARDEC has made slow progress toward achieving this end because of failures in the original dart during testing. It appears that the next dart design to be tested will diverge from the original concept visualized by DARPA and Science and Technology Associates (STA). STA, the design engineer, takes exception to these changes on the basis of inappropriate test conditions and insufficient testing. At this time, the full resolution of this issue will be difficult because of the current management structure, which separates the developer (ARDEC) from the designer (STA).

  1. Magnetically labeled cells with surface-modified fe3 o4 spherical and rod-shaped magnetic nanoparticles for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sara; Correia, Clara R; Mano, João F

    2015-04-22

    Magnetically targeted cells with internalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) could allow the success of cell transplantation and cell-based therapies, overcoming low cell retention that occurs when delivering cells by intravenous or local injection. Upon magnetization, these cells could then accumulate and stimulate the regeneration of the tissue in situ. Magnetic targeting of cells requires a detailed knowledge between interactions of engineered nanomaterials and cells, in particular the influence of shape and surface functionalization of MNPs. For the first time, cellular internalization of amino surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles of two different shapes (nanospheres or nanorods) is studied. MNPs show high cellular uptake and labeled cells could exhibit a strong reaction with external magnetic fields. Compared to nanorods, nanospheres show better internalization efficiency, and labeled cells exhibit strong transportation reaction with external magnetic fields. Contiguous viable cell-sheets are developed by magnetic-force-based tissue engineering. The results confirm that the developed magnetic-responsive nano-biomaterials have potential applicability in tissue engineering or cellular therapies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-Injection for Thin Film Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jørgen

    microscopy (SEM) as well as other surface characterization techniques. Our first photovoltaic device consisting of soda lime glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO has been built from doctor blading of approx. 20 nm Cu2ZnSnS4 NPs in octanethiol, and annealed in Se-atmosphere. It had an efficiency of 1.4%.......The kesterite material, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTS), shows great promise as the absorber layer for future thin film solar cells. Solution processing allows for comparatively fast and inexpensive fabrication, and holds the record efficiency in the kesterite family. However, for nanoparticle (NP...

  3. Fuel rod assembly to manifold attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donck, Harry A.; Veca, Anthony R.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel element is formed with a plurality of fuel rod assemblies detachably connected to an overhead support with each of the fuel rod assemblies having a gas tight seal with the support to allow internal fission gaseous products to flow without leakage from the fuel rod assemblies into a vent manifold passageway system on the support. The upper ends of the fuel rod assemblies are located at vertically extending openings in the support and upper threaded members are threaded to the fuel rod assemblies to connect the latter to the support. The preferred threaded members are cap nuts having a dome wall encircling an upper threaded end on the fuel rod assembly and having an upper sealing surface for sealing contact with the support. Another and lower seal is achieved by abutting a sealing surface on each fuel rod assembly with the support. A deformable portion on the cap nut locks the latter against inadvertent turning off the fuel rod assembly. Orienting means on the fuel rod and support primarily locates the fuel rods azimuthally for reception of a deforming tool for the cap nut. A cross port in the fuel rod end plug discharges into a sealed annulus within the support, which serves as a circumferential chamber, connecting the manifold gas passageways in the support.

  4. Development of burnup dependent fuel rod model in COBRA-TF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mine Ozdemir

    predictions. After confirming that the new fuel thermal conductivity model in CTF worked and provided consistent results with FRAPTRAN predictions for a single fuel rod configuration, the same type of analysis was carried out for a bigger system which is the 4x4 PWR bundle consisting of 15 fuel pins and one control guide tube. Steady- state calculations at Hot Full Power (HFP) conditions for control guide tube out (unrodded) were performed using the 4x4 PWR array with CTF/TORT-TD coupled code system. Fuel centerline, surface and average temperatures predicted by CTF/TORT-TD with and without the new fuel thermal conductivity model were compared against CTF/TORT-TD/FRAPTRAN predictions to demonstrate the improvement in fuel centerline predictions when new model was used. In addition to that constant and CTF dynamic gap conductance model were used with the new thermal conductivity model to show the performance of the CTF dynamic gap conductance model and its impact on fuel centerline and surface temperatures. Finally, a Rod Ejection Accident (REA) scenario using the same 4x4 PWR array was run both at Hot Zero Power (HZP) and Hot Full Power (HFP) condition, starting at a position where half of the control rod is inserted. This scenario was run using CTF/TORT-TD coupled code system with and without the new fuel thermal conductivity model. The purpose of this transient analysis was to show the impact of thermal conductivity degradation (TCD) on feedback effects, specifically Doppler Reactivity Coefficient (DRC) and, eventually, total core reactivity.

  5. Late-Onset Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma into a Hot Thyroid Nodule: An Uncommon Finding Not to Be Overlooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Foppiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 74-year-old man with a four-year history of right nephrectomy for clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC who was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. On ultrasound (US, a 5 cm solid isohypoechoic nodule with intranodular vascularization was found in the left thyroid lobe. The nodule was deemed autonomous on T99mc thyroid scan. Methimazole was started and serum thyroid hormone levels quickly normalized; euthyroidism was maintained with a very low dosage of antithyroid drug. Over time, compressive symptoms and local pain occurred and US revealed growth of the nodule. Total thyroidectomy was performed and the combined histological and immunohistochemical evaluation deemed the nodule compatible with metastasis of CCRC; on 2-year follow-up, no tumor relapse was ascertained. In patients with a history of cancer, a thyroid nodule, even if hyperfunctioning, must be suspected of being a metastasis and investigated. Hot nodules, which are largely benign, may be vulnerable to metastatic colonization owing to their rich vascularization. In these cases, surgery may be curative.

  6. Hot spots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nia, Amir M; Gassanov, Natig; Er, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    ..., several reddened skin lesions were observed. The obvious ''hot spots'' were located on both sides in the groin and above the bladder, with extension to the genital region, compli- cating the ability to catheterize the patient (Figure 1). The rest of the body surface was not affected, and no infectious source for the skin lesions was evident. After suc...

  7. On the lightweighting of automobile engine components : forming sheet metal connecting rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, P. P.; Kasture, R. N.; Kore, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing the inertia of the reciprocating engine components can lead to significant savings on fuel. A lighter connecting rod (for the same functionality and performance) with a lower material input would be an advantage to the user (customer) and the manufacturer alike. Light materials will make the connecting rod much more expensive compared to those made from steel. Non-ferrous metals are amenable to cold forging of engine components to achieve lightweighting. Alternately, one can make a hollow connecting rod formed from steel sheet, thereby making it lighter, and with many advantages over the conventionally hot forged product. The present paper describes the process of forming a connecting rod from sheet metal. Cold forming (as opposed to high energy needs, lower tool life and the need for greater number of operations and finishing processes in hot forming) would be expected to reduce the cost of manufacture by cold forming. Work hardening during forming is also expected to enhance the in-service performance of the connecting rod.

  8. Evaluation of the Shielding Performance for the Hot-cell built in 100-MeV Isotope Beam-line of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Min; Park, Sung Kyun; Min, Yi Sub; Cho, Yong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study describes the structure of the hot-cell constructed in KOMAC for radioisotope production and evaluates the shielding performance for the hot-cell via the radiation shielding ability test. Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) is currently operating 20-MeV and 100-MeV beam-line one by on. Additional 100-MeV beam-line and target room (TR101) are planned for the purpose of the radioisotope production in this year. The initial goal of the radioisotope production is to produce the radioactive isotopes, Sr-82 or Cu-67, used widely for the diagnosis and treatment of the cancer. In order to produce these radioisotopes mentioned, the proton beam with the energy between 70-MeV and 100- MeV at a beam current of 300 μA is irradiated into a solid target made of ZnO or RbCl. After the irradiation of the proton beam during approximately 100 hours, the radioisotope Sr-82 with the radioactivity amount of about 3.8 Ci or the Cu-67 with the amount of about 2.7 Ci will be produced. Radioisotopes produced though this process should be conveyed from the TR101 target room to the PR101 processing room and then in order to be delivered into the place for the next process step, a hot-cell is necessary. Result of the shielding performance evaluation of the hot-cell for producing radioisotopes shows the necessity of the shield reinforcement using lead material at side of the lead glass window.

  9. A Multi-Stage Wear Model for Grid-to-Rod Fretting of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The wear of fuel rod cladding against the supporting structures in the cores of pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWRs) is an important and potentially costly tribological issue. Grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF), as it is known, involves not only time-varying contact conditions, but also elevated temperatures, flowing hot water, aqueous tribo-corrosion, and the embrittling effects of neutron fluences. The multi-stage, closed-form analytical model described in this paper relies on published out-of-reactor wear and corrosion data and a set of simplifying assumptions to portray the conversion of frictional work into wear depth. The cladding material of interest is a zirconium-based alloy called Zircaloy-4, and the grid support is made of a harder and more wear-resistant material. Focus is on the wear of the cladding. The model involves an incubation stage, a surface oxide wear stage, and a base alloy wear stage. The wear coefficient, which is a measure of the efficiency of conversion of frictional work into wear damage, can change to reflect the evolving metallurgical condition of the alloy. Wear coefficients for Zircaloy-4 and for a polyphase zirconia layer were back-calculated for a range of times required to wear to a critical depth. Inputs for the model, like the friction coefficient, are taken from the tribology literature in lieu of in-reactor tribological data. Concepts of classical fretting were used as a basis, but are modified to enable the model to accommodate the complexities of the PWR environment. Factors like grid spring relaxation, pre-oxidation of the cladding, multiple oxide phases, gap formation, impact, and hydrogen embrittlement are part of the problem definition but uncertainties in their relative roles limits the ability to validate the model. Sample calculations of wear depth versus time in the cladding illustrate how GTRF wear might occur in a discontinuous fashion during months-long reactor operating cycles. A means to account for grid/rod gaps

  10. Compact Hybrid Laser Rod and Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, George E. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid fiber rod includes a fiber core and inner and outer cladding layers. The core is doped with an active element. The inner cladding layer surrounds the core, and has a refractive index substantially equal to that of the core. The outer cladding layer surrounds the inner cladding layer, and has a refractive index less than that of the core and inner cladding layer. The core length is about 30 to 2000 times the core diameter. A hybrid fiber rod laser system includes an oscillator laser, modulating device, the rod, and pump laser diode(s) energizing the rod from opposite ends. The rod acts as a waveguide for pump radiation but allows for free-space propagation of laser radiation. The rod may be used in a laser resonator. The core length is less than about twice the Rayleigh range. Degradation from single-mode to multi-mode beam propagation is thus avoided.

  11. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  12. Rod-shaped microglia morphology is associated with aging in 2 human autopsy series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachstetter, Adam D; Ighodaro, Eseosa T; Hassoun, Yasmin; Aldeiri, Danah; Neltner, Janna H; Patel, Ela; Abner, Erin L; Nelson, Peter T

    2017-04-01

    A subtype of microglia is defined by the morphological appearance of the cells as rod shaped. Little is known about this intriguing cell type, as there are only a few case reports describing rod-shaped microglia in the neuropathological literature. Rod-shaped microglia were shown recently to account for a substantial proportion of the microglia cells in the hippocampus of both demented and cognitively intact aged individuals. We hypothesized that aging could be a defining feature in the occurrence of rod-shaped microglia. To test this hypothesis, 2 independent series of autopsy cases (total n = 168 cases), which covered the adult lifespan from 20 to 100+ years old, were included in the study. The presence or absence of rod-shaped microglia was scored on IBA1 immunohistochemically stained slides for the hippocampus and cortex. We found that age was one of the strongest determinants for the presence of rod-shaped microglia in the hippocampus and the cortex. We found no association with the presence of rod-shaped microglia and a self-reported history of a TBI. Alzheimer's disease-related pathology was found to influence the presence of rod-shaped microglia, but only in the parietal cortex and not in the hippocampus or temporal cortex. Future studies are warranted to determine the functional relevance of rod-shaped microglia in supporting the health of neurons in the aged brain, and the signaling processes that regulate the formation of rod-shaped microglia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1β-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Kobata, Kenji; Wada, Masahiro

    2012-04-26

    Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protease digestion.The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850 μg/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25 μg dry matter per millilitre) of the extract inhibited IL-1β-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1β-activated cell proliferation. We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1β-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

  14. Nonionic, water self-dispersible "hairy-rod" poly(p-phenylene)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer/carbon nanotube conjugates for targeted cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Merve; Colak, Demet Goen; Akin, Mehriban; Cianga, Ioan; Kukut, Manolya; Medine, E Ilker; Can, Mustafa; Sakarya, Serhan; Unak, Perihan; Timur, Suna; Yagci, Yusuf

    2012-09-10

    The generation and fabrication of nanoscopic structures are of critical technological importance for future implementations in areas such as nanodevices and nanotechnology, biosensing, bioimaging, cancer targeting, and drug delivery. Applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biological fields have been impeded by the incapability of their visualization using conventional methods. Therefore, fluorescence labeling of CNTs with various probes under physiological conditions has become a significant issue for their utilization in biological processes. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and additional fluorophore-free approach for cancer cell-imaging and diagnosis by combining multiwalled CNTs with a well-known conjugated polymer, namely, poly(p-phenylene) (PP). In this approach, PP decorated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was noncovalently (π-π stacking) linked to acid-treated CNTs. The obtained water self-dispersible, stable, and biocompatible f-CNT/PP-g-PEG conjugates were then bioconjugated to estrogen-specific antibody (anti-ER) via -COOH functionalities present on the side-walls of CNTs. The resulting conjugates were used as an efficient fluorescent probe for targeted imaging of estrogen receptor overexpressed cancer cells, such as MCF-7. In vitro studies and fluorescence microscopy data show that these conjugates can specifically bind to MCF-7 cells with high efficiency. The represented results imply that CNT-based materials could easily be fabricated by the described approach and used as an efficient "fluorescent probe" for targeting and imaging, thereby providing many new possibilities for various applications in biomedical sensing and diagnosis.

  15. Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu; Norris, Jennifer L.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Williams, David R.; Carroll, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The rod photoreceptors are implicated in a number of devastating retinal diseases. However, routine imaging of these cells has remained elusive, even with the advent of adaptive optics imaging. Here, we present the first in vivo images of the contiguous rod photoreceptor mosaic in nine healthy human subjects. The images were collected with three different confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopes at two different institutions, using 680 and 775 nm superluminescent diodes for illumination. Estimates of photoreceptor density and rod:cone ratios in the 5°–15° retinal eccentricity range are consistent with histological findings, confirming our ability to resolve the rod mosaic by averaging multiple registered images, without the need for additional image processing. In one subject, we were able to identify the emergence of the first rods at approximately 190 μm from the foveal center, in agreement with previous histological studies. The rod and cone photoreceptor mosaics appear in focus at different retinal depths, with the rod mosaic best focus (i.e., brightest and sharpest) being at least 10 μm shallower than the cones at retinal eccentricities larger than 8°. This study represents an important step in bringing high-resolution imaging to bear on the study of rod disorders. PMID:21750765

  16. Electric Field Driven Self-Assembly of Colloidal Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Jaime; Chaudhary, Kundan; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve; Lewis, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    The ability to assemble anisotropic colloidal building blocks into ordered configurations is of both scientific and technological importance. We are studying how electric field-induced interactions guide the self-assembly of these blocks into well aligned microstructures. Specifically, we present observations of the assembly of colloidal silica rods (L/D ˜ 4) within planar electrode cells as a function of different electric field parameters. Results from video microscopy and image analysis demonstrate that aligned microstructures form due to the competition between equilibrium interactions of induced dipoles and non-equilibrium processes (i.e., electro-osmosis). Under the appropriate electric field conditions (˜ kHZ AC fields), aligned colloidal rod fluids form over large areas on the electrode surface. The superposition of a DC electric field to this aligned colloidal rod fluid initiates their condensation into a vertically oriented crystalline phase. Ongoing work is now focused on exploring how temporal changes to electric fields influence colloidal rod dynamics and, hence, the assembly kinetics of aligned colloidal monolayers.

  17. Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a PWR control rod ejection accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasichnyk, I.; Perin, Y.; Velkov, K. [Gesellschaft flier Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Boltzmannstasse 14, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The paper describes the results of the quantitative Uncertainty and Sensitivity (U/S) Analysis of a Rod Ejection Accident (REA) which is simulated by the coupled system code ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX applying the GRS tool for U/S analysis SUSA/XSUSA. For the present study, a UOX/MOX mixed core loading based on a generic PWR is modeled. A control rod ejection is calculated for two reactor states: Hot Zero Power (HZP) and 30% of nominal power. The worst cases for the rod ejection are determined by steady-state neutronic simulations taking into account the maximum reactivity insertion in the system and the power peaking factor. For the U/S analysis 378 uncertain parameters are identified and quantified (thermal-hydraulic initial and boundary conditions, input parameters and variations of the two-group cross sections). Results for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are presented for safety important global and local parameters. (authors)

  18. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  19. Tipping Time of a Quantum Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrikar, Onkar

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of a quantum rod, pivoted at its lower end on an impenetrable floor and restricted to moving in the vertical plane under the gravitational potential, is studied analytically under the approximation that the rod is initially localized to a "small-enough" neighbourhood around the point of classical unstable equilibrium. It is shown…

  20. Computing Temperatures In Optically Pumped Laser Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, Usamah O.

    1991-01-01

    Computer program presents new model solving temperature-distribution problem for laser rods of finite length and calculates both radial and axial components of temperature distributions in these rods. Contains several self-checking schemes to prevent over-writing of memory blocks and to provide simple tracing of information in case of trouble. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  1. Self-contact for rods on cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H.M. van der Heijden; M.A. Peletier (Mark); R. Planqué (Robert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe study self-contact phenomena in elastic rods that are constrained to lie on a cylinder. By choosing a particular set of variables to describe the rod centerline the variational setting is made particularly simple: the strain energy is a second-order functional of a single scalar

  2. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  3. Interaction sites of DivIVA and RodA from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris eSieger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elongation growth in actinobacteria is localized at the cell poles. This is in contrast to many classical model organisms where insertion of new cell wall material is localized around the lateral site. We previously described a role of RodA from Corynebacterium glutamicum in apical cell growth and morphogenesis. Deletion of rodA had drastic effects on morphology and growth, likely a result from misregulation of penicillin-binding proteins and cell wall precursor delivery. We identified the interaction of RodA with the polar scaffold protein DivIVA, thus explaining subcellular localization of RodA to the cell poles. In this study, we describe this interaction in detail and map the interaction sites of DivIVA and RodA. A single amino acid residue in the N-terminal domain of DivIVA was found to be crucial for the interaction with RodA. The interaction site of RodA was mapped to its cytoplasmic, C-terminal domain, in a region encompassing the last 10 AAs. Deletion of these 10 amino acids significantly decreased the interaction efficiency with DivIVA. Our results corroborate the interaction of DivIVA and RodA, underscoring the important role of DivIVA as a spatial organizer of the elongation machinery in Corynebacterineae.

  4. Micropattern array with gradient size (µPAGS) plastic surfaces fabricated by PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) mold-based hot embossing technique for investigation of cell-surface interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Jin; Park, Ju Young; Cha, Kyoung Je; Rhie, Jong-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dong Sung

    2012-12-01

    Recently, it was found that the variations of physical environment significantly affect cell behaviors including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Through a plastic surface with controlled mechanical properties such as stiffness, one can change the orientation and migration of cells in a particular direction, thereby determining cell behaviors. In this study, we demonstrate a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold-based hot embossing technique for rapid, simple and low-cost replication of polystyrene (PS) surfaces having micropatterns. The PDMS mold was fabricated by UV-photolithography followed by PDMS casting; the elastomeric properties of PDMS enabled us to obtain conformal contact of the PDMS mold to a PS surface and to create high transcription quality of micropatterns on the PS surface. Two different types of circular micropillar and microwell arrays were successfully replicated on the PS surfaces based on the suggested technique. The micropatterns were designed to have various diameters (2-150 µm), spacings (2-160 µm) and heights (1.4, 2.4, 8.2 and 14.9 µm), so as to generate the gradient of physical properties on the surface. Experimental parametric studies indicated that (1) the embossing temperature became a critical processing parameter as the aspect ratio of micropattern increased and (2) the PDMS mold-based hot embossing could successfully replicate micropatterns, even having an aspect ratio of 2.7 for micropattern diameter of 6 µm, with an optimal processing condition (embossing pressure and temperature of 0.4 MPa and 130 °C, respectively) in this study. We carried out cell experiments with adipose-derived stem cells on the replicated PS surface with the height of 1.4 µm to investigate cellular behaviors in response to the micropattern array with gradient size. Cellular experiment results showed that the micropillar-arrayed surface improved cell proliferation as compared with the microwell-arrayed surface. We could also estimate the

  5. Estimation of irradiated control rod worth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvayanni, M., E-mail: melina@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Catsaros, N. [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Antonopoulos-Domis, M. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    When depleted control rods are planned to be used in new core configurations, their worth has to be accurately predicted in order to deduce key design and safety parameters such as the available shutdown margin. In this work a methodology is suggested for the derivation of the distributed absorbing capacity of a depleted rod, useful in the case that the level of detail that is known about the irradiation history of the control rod does not allow an accurate calculation of the absorber's burnup. The suggested methodology is based on measurements of the rod's worth carried out in the former core configuration and on corresponding calculations based on the original (before first irradiation) absorber concentration. The methodology is formulated for the general case of the multi-group theory; it is successfully tested for the one-group approximation, for a depleted control rod of the Greek Research Reactor, containing five neutron absorbers. The computations reproduce satisfactorily the irradiated rod worth measurements, practically eliminating the discrepancy of the total rod worth, compared to the computations based on the nominal absorber densities.

  6. Control Rod Malfunction at the NRAD Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Maddock

    2010-05-01

    The neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a training, research, and isotope (TRIGA) reactor located at the INL. The reactor is normally shut down by the insertion of three control rods that drop into the core when power is removed from electromagnets. During a routine shutdown, indicator lights on the console showed that one of the control rods was not inserted. It was initially thought that the indicator lights were in error because of a limit switch that was out of adjustment. Through further testing, it was determined that the control rod did not drop when the scram switch was initially pressed. The control rod anomaly led to a six month shutdown of the reactor and an in depth investigation of the reactor protective system. The investigation looked into: scram switch operation, console modifications, and control rod drive mechanisms. A number of latent issues were discovered and corrected during the investigation. The cause of the control rod malfunction was found to be a buildup of corrosion in the control rod drive mechanism. The investigation resulted in modifications to equipment, changes to both operation and maintenance procedures, and additional training. No reoccurrences of the problem have been observed since corrective actions were implemented.

  7. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F

    2017-02-01

    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  8. Induced Current Measurement of Rod Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    The longitudinal normal modes of vibration of rods are similar to the modes seen in pipes open at both ends. A maximum of particle displacement exists at both ends and an integral number (n) of half wavelengths fit into the rod length. The frequencies fn of the normal modes is given by Eq. (1), where L is the rod length and V is the wave velocity: fn = nV/2L. Many methods have been used to measure the velocity of these waves. The Kundt's tube method commonly used in student labs will not be discussed here. A simpler related method has been described by Nicklin.2 Kluk3 measured velocities in a wide range of materials using a frequency counter and microphone to study sounds produced by impacts. Several earlier methods4,5 used phonograph cartridges complete with needles to detect vibrations in excited rods. A recent interesting experiment6 used wave-induced changes in magnetization produced in an iron rod by striking one end. The travel time, measured as the impulsive wave reflects back and forth, gave the wave velocity for the iron rod. In the method described here, a small magnet is attached to the rod with epoxy, and vibrations are detected using the current induced in a few loops of wire. The experiment is simple and yields very accurate velocity values.

  9. Reconstruction of rod self-aggregates of natural bacteriochlorophylls-c from Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Sunao; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Bacteriochlorophyll(BChl)s-c were extracted, isolated and purified from cultured cells of a green photosynthetic bacterium, Chloroflexus (Cfl.) aurantiacus. Their self-aggregates were prepared from a hydrophobic hexane-based solution and the obtained self-aggregate solids were examined by electronic absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM). Visible/near-infrared absorption and CD spectra of the BChl-c self-aggregates were very similar to those in cells of Cfl. aurantiacus. AFM analysis indicated that some self-aggregates had rods with a 5-nm diameter and a 3.5-μm length at longest. The rod diameter was identical to that reported for natural chlorosomal rods of Cfl. aurantiacus. Rod self-aggregates of naturally occurring BChls-c with a 5-nm diameter were first reconstructed here in vitro.

  10. ZnO Nano-Rod Devices for Intradermal Delivery and Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Tapas R; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakansha; Zheng, Minrui; Junginger, Hans; Goh, Wei Jiang; Lee, Choon Keong; Zou, Shui; Alonso, Sylvie; Czarny, Bertrand; Storm, Gert; Sow, Chorng Haur; Lee, Chengkuo; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2017-06-15

    Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these methods are invasive and/or affect the skin integrity. Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips. The nano-rods' length and diameter were found to depend on the temperature, time, quality of sputtered silicon chips, etc. Vertically aligned ZnO nano-rods with lengths of 30-35 µm and diameters of 200-300 nm were selected for in vitro human skin permeation studies using Franz cells with Albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) absorbed on the nano-rods. Fluorescence and confocal studies on the skin samples showed FITC penetration through the skin along the channels formed by the nano-rods. Bradford protein assay on the collected fluid samples indicated a significant quantity of Albumin-FITC in the first 12 h. Low antibody titres were observed with immunisation on Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen coated on the nano-rod chips. Nonetheless, due to the reduced dimensions of the nano-rods, our device offers the additional advantage of excluding the simultaneous entrance of microbial pathogens. Taken together, these results showed that ZnO nano-rods hold the potential for a safe, non-invasive, and painless intradermal drug delivery.

  11. Rod Outer Segment Development Influences AAV-Mediated Photoreceptor Transduction After Subretinal Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Lolita; Ma, Shan; Cheng, Shun-Yun; Gao, Guangping; Punzo, Claudio

    2017-06-01

    Vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are currently the preferred tools for delivering genes to photoreceptors (PR) in small and large animals. AAVs have been applied successfully in various models of PR dystrophies. However, unknown barriers still limit AAV's efficient application in several forms of severe PR degenerations due to insufficient transgene expression and/or treated cells at the time of injection. Optimizations of PR gene therapy strategies will likely benefit from the identification of the cellular factors that influence PR transduction. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that the AAV transduction profile of PRs differs significantly between neonatal and adult mouse retinas after subretinal injection. This phenomenon may provide clues to identify host factors that influence the efficiency of AAV-mediated PR transduction. This study demonstrates that rod outer segments are critical modulators of efficient AAV-mediated rod transduction. During retinal development, rod transduction correlated temporally and spatially with the differentiation order of PRs when vectors were introduced subretinally but not when introduced intravitreally. All subretinally injected vectors had an initial preference to transduce cones in the absence of formed rod outer segments and then displayed a preference for rods as the cells matured, independently of the expression cassette or AAV serotype. Consistent with this observation, altered development of rod outer segments was associated with a strong reduction of rod transduction and an increase in the percentage of transduced cones by 2- to 2.8-fold. A similar increase of cone transduction was observed in the adult retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) retina compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest that the loss of rod outer segments in diseased retinas could markedly affect gene transfer efficiency of AAV vectors by limiting the ability of AAVs to infect dying rods efficiently. This information could be

  12. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEIDEL CM; JAIN J; OWENS JW

    2009-02-23

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

  13. Bijels stabilized using rod-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijnen, Niek; Cai, Dongyu; Clegg, Paul S

    2015-06-14

    Bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsion gels, in short 'bijels', rely on a trapped layer of colloidal particles for their stability. These structures have traditionally been created using spherical colloidal particles. Here we show for the first time the use of rod-shape particles to stabilize bijels. We show that domain size decreases more rapidly with particle concentration in the case of rods compared to spheres. Large-scale analysis and detailed examination of images show that the packing fraction of rods is much higher than expected, in part, due to the role of 'flippers'.

  14. Differential output of the high-sensitivity rod photoreceptor: AII amacrine pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, Artemis; Trexler, E Brady

    2008-04-10

    In the mammalian retina, the scotopic threshold of ganglion cells is in part dependent on how rod inputs are summed by their presynaptic cone bipolar cells. For ON cone bipolar cells, there are two anatomical routes for rod signals: 1) cone photoreceptors receive inputs via gap junctions with the surrounding, more numerous rods; and 2) ON cone bipolar cells receive highly convergent input via gap junctions with AII amacrine cells, which each receive input from hundreds of rods. Rod-cone coupling is thought to be utilized at higher photon fluxes relative to the AII-ON cone bipolar pathway due to the impedance mismatch of a single small rod driving a larger cone. Furthermore, it is widely held that the convergence of high-gain chemical synapses onto AIIs confers the highest sensitivity to ON cone bipolar cells and ganglion cells. A lack of coupling between one or more types of ON cone bipolar cells and AIIs would obviate this high-sensitivity pathway and explain the existence of ganglion cells with elevated scotopic thresholds. To investigate this possibility, we examined Neurobiotin and glycine diffusion from AIIs to bipolar cells and found that approximately one-fifth of ON cone bipolar cells are not coupled to AIIs. Unlike AII-AII coupling, which changes with ambient background intensity, the fraction of noncoupled ON cone bipolar cells was unaltered by dark or light adaptation. These data suggest that one of five morphologically distinct ON cone bipolar cell types is not coupled to AIIs and suggest that AII-ON cone bipolar coupling is modulated differently from AII-AII coupling. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1β-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Yuusuke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1β (IL-1β-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850 μg/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25 μg dry matter per millilitre of the extract inhibited IL-1β-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1β-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1β-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

  16. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I

    2001-01-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs. (3 refs).

  17. Hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case-control study in a northwest area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Ping; Nie, Guo-Ji; Chen, Meng-Jie; Yaz, Tajigul Yiminni; Guli, Arzi; Wuxur, Arzigul; Huang, Qing-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jing

    2017-12-01

    This study was trying to investigate the association of hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Hotan, a northwest area of China with high risk of esophageal squmous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study was designed. For the study, 167 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were selected from Hotan during 2014 to 2015, and 167 community-based controls were selected from the same area, matched with age and sex. Information involved of temperature of food and beverage intake was obtained by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between temperature of food and beverage intake and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The temperature of the food and beverage consumed by the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly higher than the controls. High temperature of tea, water, and food intake significantly increased the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by more than 2-fold, with adjusted odds ratio 2.23 (1.45-2.90), 2.13 (1.53-2.66), and 2.98 (1.89-4.12). Intake of food and beverage with high temperature was positively associated with the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Northwestern China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The rod as an instrument of discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Luiz Torres; Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP

    2013-01-01

    Both in biblical literature as in ancient extrabiblical literature, the use of the rod appears primarily related to the capacity or to the authority of the one who holds it. It is, above all, an instrument of power. This article investigates the implications of using the rod as a tool of correction and discipline, taking into account the symbolism, culture and literary tradition associated with the use of that instrument of discipline for correction and transformation of those subjected to it...

  19. High Power Performance of Rod Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Michieletto, Mattia; Kristensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W.......An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W....

  20. IMPACT CONICAL ROD ON HARD LIMITER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulitin G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem is considered of longitudinal impact conical rod in article. A recommendation on the use of the approximate method of calculation is based on an analysis of the influence of design parameters on the value of the main oscillation frequency. There was obtained an equation of the displacement and stress of the rod. Engineering dependence has been proposed to determine the maximum force in the impact section.

  1. Microelectrophoresis of Silica Rods Using Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobility and the zeta potential (ζ) of fluorescently labeled colloidal silica rods, with an aspect ratio of 3.8 and 6.1, were determined with microelectrophoresis measurements using confocal microscopy. In the case where the colloidal particles all move at the same speed parallel to the direction of the electric field, we record a xyz-stack over the whole depth of the capillary. This method is faster and more robust compared to taking xyt-series at different depths inside the capillary to obtain the parabolic flow profile, as was done in previous work from our group. In some cases, rodlike particles do not move all at the same speed in the electric field, but exhibit a velocity that depends on the angle between the long axis of the rod and the electric field. We measured the orientation-dependent velocity of individual silica rods during electrophoresis as a function of κa, where κ–1 is the double layer thickness and a is the radius of the rod associated with the diameter. Thus, we determined the anisotropic electrophoretic mobility of the silica rods with different sized double layers. The size of the double layer was tuned by suspending silica rods in different solvents at different electrolyte concentrations. We compared these results with theoretical predictions. We show that even at already relatively high κa when the Smoluchowski limiting law is assumed to be valid (κa > 10), an orientation dependent velocity was measured. Furthermore, we observed that at decreasing values of κa the anisotropy in the electrophoretic mobility of the rods increases. However, in low polar solvents with κa mobility of the rods decreased. We argue that this decrease is due to end effects, which was already predicted theoretically. When end effects are not taken into account, this will lead to strong underestimation of the experimentally determined zeta potential. PMID:28045541

  2. High power breakdown testing of a photonic band-gap accelerator structure with elliptical rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Munroe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved single-cell photonic band-gap (PBG structure with an inner row of elliptical rods (PBG-E was tested with high power at a 60 Hz repetition rate at X-band (11.424 GHz, achieving a gradient of 128  MV/m at a breakdown probability of 3.6×10^{-3} per pulse per meter at a pulse length of 150 ns. The tested standing-wave structure was a single high-gradient cell with an inner row of elliptical rods and an outer row of round rods; the elliptical rods reduce the peak surface magnetic field by 20% and reduce the temperature rise of the rods during the pulse by several tens of degrees, while maintaining good damping and suppression of high order modes. When compared with a single-cell standing-wave undamped disk-loaded waveguide structure with the same iris geometry under test at the same conditions, the PBG-E structure yielded the same breakdown rate within measurement error. The PBG-E structure showed a greatly reduced breakdown rate compared with earlier tests of a PBG structure with round rods, presumably due to the reduced magnetic fields at the elliptical rods vs the fields at the round rods, as well as use of an improved testing methodology. A post-testing autopsy of the PBG-E structure showed some damage on the surfaces exposed to the highest surface magnetic and electric fields. Despite these changes in surface appearance, no significant change in the breakdown rate was observed in testing. These results demonstrate that PBG structures, when designed with reduced surface magnetic fields and operated to avoid extremely high pulsed heating, can operate at breakdown probabilities comparable to undamped disk-loaded waveguide structures and are thus viable for high-gradient accelerator applications.

  3. Kinematics and load-sharing of an anterior thoracolumbar spinal reconstruction construct with PEEK rods: An in vitro biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruozhou; Huang, Zhiping; Liu, Xiang; Tong, Jie; Ji, Wei; Liu, Sheting; Zhu, Qingan

    2016-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone rod constructs provide adequate spinal stability. Kinematics and load sharing of anterior thoracolumbar reconstruction with polyetheretherketone rods under preload remains unknown. Eight human cadaveric specimens (T11-L3) were subjected to a pure moment of 5.0Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation, and flexion-extension with a compressive preload of 300N. An anterior reconstruction of L1 corpectomy was conducted with a surrogate bone graft and anterior rod constructs (polyetheretherketone or titanium rods). An axial load-cell was built in the surrogate bone graft to measure the compressive force in the graft. Range of motion, neutral zone and compressive force in the graft were compared between constructs. The polyetheretherketone rod construct resulted in more motion than the titanium rod construct, particularly in extension (P=0.011) and axial rotation (P=0.001), but less motion than the intact in all directions except in axial rotation. There was no difference in range of motion or neutral zone between constructs in flexion-extension under preload. The polyetheretherketone rod construct kept the graft compressed 52N which was similar to the titanium rod construct (63N), but allowed the graft compressed more under the preload (203N vs. 123N, P=0.003). The compressive forces fluctuated in flexion-extension without preload, but increased in flexion and decreased in extension under preload. The polyetheretherketone rod construct allowed more motion compared to the titanium rod construct, but provided stability in flexion and lateral bending without preload, and flexion and extension under preload. The anterior graft shared higher load under preload, particularly for the polyetheretherketone rod construct. The results of this study suggest that rigidity of rods in the anterior reconstruction affects kinematic behavior and load sharing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  5. International symposium on fuel rod simulators: development and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, R.W. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod simulator operation and performance; simulator design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod simulators and fuel rod simulators for cladding investigations; fuel rod simulator components and inspection; and simulator analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.

  6. Thermal-Hydraulic Effect of Pattern of Wire-wrap Spacer in 19-pin Rod Bundle for SFR Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been considered the most promising reactor type for future and prototype gen-IV SFR has been developed actively in Korea, thermal-hydraulic aspects of the SFR fuel assembly have the important role for the reactor safety analysis. In PGSFR fuel assembly, 271 pins of fuel rods are tightly packed in triangular array inside hexagonal duct, and wire is wound helically per each fuel rod with regular pattern to assure the gap between rods and prevent the collision, which is called wire-wrapped spacer. Due to helical shape of the wire-wrapped spacer, flow inside duct can have stronger turbulent characteristics and thermal mixing effect. However, many studies showed the possible wake from swirl flow inside subchannel, which cause local hot spot. To prevent the wake flow and improve thermal mixing, new pattern of wire wrap spacer was suggested. To evaluate the effect of wire wrap spacer pattern, CFD analysis was performed for 19-pin rod bundle with comparison of conventional and U-pattern wire wrap spacer. To prevent the wake due to same direction of swirl flow, 7-rod unit pattern of wire spacer, which are arranged to have different rotational direction of wire with adjacent rods and center rod without wire wrap was proposed. From simulation results, swirl flow across gap conflicts its rotation direction causing wake flow from the regular pattern of the conventional one, which generates local hot spot near cladding. With U-pattern of wire wrap spacer, heat transfer in subchannel can be enhanced with evenly distributed cross flow without compensating pressure loss. From the results, the pattern of wire wrap spacer can influence the both heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop, with flow structures generated by wire wrap spacer.

  7. ZnO Nano-Rod Devices for Intradermal Delivery and Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas R. Nayak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these methods are invasive and/or affect the skin integrity. Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide (ZnO nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips. The nano-rods’ length and diameter were found to depend on the temperature, time, quality of sputtered silicon chips, etc. Vertically aligned ZnO nano-rods with lengths of 30–35 µm and diameters of 200–300 nm were selected for in vitro human skin permeation studies using Franz cells with Albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC absorbed on the nano-rods. Fluorescence and confocal studies on the skin samples showed FITC penetration through the skin along the channels formed by the nano-rods. Bradford protein assay on the collected fluid samples indicated a significant quantity of Albumin-FITC in the first 12 h. Low antibody titres were observed with immunisation on Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA antigen coated on the nano-rod chips. Nonetheless, due to the reduced dimensions of the nano-rods, our device offers the additional advantage of excluding the simultaneous entrance of microbial pathogens. Taken together, these results showed that ZnO nano-rods hold the potential for a safe, non-invasive, and painless intradermal drug delivery.

  8. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  9. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  10. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  11. Landing Gear Components Noise Study - PIV and Hot-Wire Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Daniel J.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Price, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    PIV and hot-wire measurements of the wake flow from rods and bars are presented. The test models include rods of different diameters and cross sections and a rod juxtaposed to a plate. The latter is representative of the latch door that is attached to an aircraft landing gear when the gear is deployed, while the single and multiple rod configurations tested are representative of some of the various struts and cables configuration present on an aircraft landing gear. The test set up is described and the flow measurements are presented. The effect of model surface treatment and freestream turbulence on the spanwise coherence of the vortex shedding is studied for several rod and bar configurations.

  12. Recent Advances in the Study of Bipolar/Rod-Shaped Microglia and their Roles in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngan Pan Bennett Au

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders. However, studies relating to bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are very limited, largely due to the lack of appropriate in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Recent studies have reported the formation of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia trains in in vivo models of CNS injury, including diffuse brain injury, focal transient ischemia, optic nerve transection and laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT. These bipolar/rod-shaped microglia formed end-to-end alignments in close proximity to the adjacent injured axons, but they showed no interactions with blood vessels or other types of glial cell. Recent studies have also reported on a highly reproducible in vitro culture model system to enrich bipolar/rod-shaped microglia that acts as a powerful tool with which to characterize this form of microglia. The molecular aspects of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are of great interest in the field of CNS repair. This review article focuses on studies relating to the morphology and transformation of microglia into the bipolar/rod-shaped form, along with the differential gene expression and spatial distribution of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia in normal and pathological CNSs. The spatial arrangement of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia is crucial in the reorganization and remodeling of neuronal and synaptic circuitry following CNS injuries. Finally, we

  13. Recent Advances in the Study of Bipolar/Rod-Shaped Microglia and their Roles in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ngan Pan Bennett; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders. However, studies relating to bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are very limited, largely due to the lack of appropriate in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Recent studies have reported the formation of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia trains in in vivo models of CNS injury, including diffuse brain injury, focal transient ischemia, optic nerve transection and laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT). These bipolar/rod-shaped microglia formed end-to-end alignments in close proximity to the adjacent injured axons, but they showed no interactions with blood vessels or other types of glial cell. Recent studies have also reported on a highly reproducible in vitro culture model system to enrich bipolar/rod-shaped microglia that acts as a powerful tool with which to characterize this form of microglia. The molecular aspects of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are of great interest in the field of CNS repair. This review article focuses on studies relating to the morphology and transformation of microglia into the bipolar/rod-shaped form, along with the differential gene expression and spatial distribution of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia in normal and pathological CNSs. The spatial arrangement of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia is crucial in the reorganization and remodeling of neuronal and synaptic circuitry following CNS injuries. Finally, we discuss the

  14. Identification of the hot-spot areas for sickle cell disease using cord blood screening at a district hospital: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sujata; Sahu, Pushpansu; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Negi, Sapna

    2015-10-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), a genetic disorder often reported late, can be identified early in life, and hot-spot areas may be identified to conduct genetic epidemiology studies. This study was undertaken to estimate prevalence and to identify hot spot area for SCD in Kalahandi district, by screening cord blood of neonates delivered at the district hospital as first-hand information. Kalahandi District Hospital selected for the study is predominated by tribal population with higher prevalence of SCD as compared to other parts of Odisha. Cord blood screening of SCD was carried out on 761 newborn samples of which 13 were screened to be homozygous for SCD. Information on area of parent's residence was also collected. Madanpur Rampur area was found to be with the highest prevalence of SCD (10.52 %) and the gene distribution did not follow Hardy-Weinberg Equation indicating un-natural selection. The approach of conducting neonatal screening in a district hospital for identification of SCD is feasible and appropriate for prioritizing area for the implementation of large-scale screening and planning control measures thereof.

  15. Multiple rod-cone and cone-rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L; Loew, Ellis R; Sanders, Kate L; Fisher, Robert N; Hart, Nathan S; Hunt, David M; Partridge, Julian C; Gower, David J

    2016-01-27

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor 'transmutation'. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

  17. Friction measuring device for control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tomomi.

    1994-03-18

    In the present invention, judgment for friction of control rods conducted upon periodical inspection of a BWR type power plant is conducted by automatic analysis and evaluation by digitalizing data of an operation pressure and an differential pressure of control rods. That is, a differential pressure detection means detects a pressure and a differential pressure of driving water of a control rod driving source. A data processing device conducts digital analysis and store data from the differential pressure detection means, as well as compares the data with set values to automatically judge the friction of the control rod to diagnose abnormality based on the changing trend of the analyzed data. According to the device of the present invention, data measured for the friction of a great number of control rods can be analyzed and judged automatically in a short period of time. Accordingly, evaluation can be conducted accurately even by less skilled operators. Further, when an abnormality is detected, the diagnosis thereof is conducted, so that the operation is simplified and an operator's burden upon inspection can be mitigated. (I.S.).

  18. Wetting of a partially immersed compliant rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chung-Yuen; Jagota, Anand

    2016-11-01

    The force on a solid rod partially immersed in a liquid is commonly used to determine the liquid-vapor surface tension by equating the measured force required to remove the rod from the liquid to the vertical component of the liquid-vapor surface tension. Here, we study how this process is affected when the rod is compliant. For equilibrium, we enforce force and configurational energy balance, including contributions from elastic energy. We show that, in general, the contact angle does not equal that given by Young's equation. If surface stresses are tensile, the strain in the immersed part of the rod is found to be compressive and to depend only on the solid-liquid surface stress. The strain in the dry part of the rod can be either tensile or compressive, depending on a combination of parameters that we identify. We also provide results for compliant plates partially immersed in a liquid under plane strain and plane stress. Our results can be used to extract solid surface stresses from such experiments.

  19. Bent Telescopic Rods in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R Jay; Paloski, Michael D; Sponseller, Paul D; Leet, Arabella I

    2016-09-01

    Telescopic rods require alignment of 2 rods to enable lengthening. A telescopic rod converts functionally into a solid rod if either rod bends, preventing proper engagement. Our goal was to characterize implant bending as a mode of failure of telescopic rods used in the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta in children. We conducted a retrospective review of our osteogenesis imperfecta database for patients treated with intramedullary telescopic rods at our institution from 1992 through 2010 and identified 12 patients with bent rods. The 6 boys and 6 girls had an average age at the time of initial surgery of 3.1 years (range, 1.8 to 8.3 y) and a total of 51 telescoping rods. Clinic notes, operative reports, and radiographs were reviewed. The rods were analyzed for amount of lengthening, characteristics of bending, presence of cut out, or disengagement from an anchor point. Bends in the rods were characterized by their location on the implant component. The bent and straight rods were compared. Data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test (statistical significance set at P≤0.05). Of the 51 telescoping rods, 17 constructs (33%) bent. The average interval between surgery and rod bending was 4.0 years (range, 0.9 to 8.2 y). Before bending, 11 of 17 telescoping rods had routine follow-up radiographs for review. In 10 of the rods, bending was present when early signs of rod failure were first detected. Rod bending did not seem to be related to rod size. There was no area on the rod itself that seemed more susceptible to bending. Rod bending can be an early sign of impending rod failure. When rod bending is first noted, it may predispose the rod to other subsequent failures such as loss of proximal and distal fixation and cut out. Rod bending should be viewed as an indicator for closer monitoring of the patient and discussions regarding future need for rod exchange. Level III-retrospective review.

  20. Color dissociation artifacts in double Maddox rod cyclodeviation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, K; Arnoldi, K; Brown, M H

    1994-12-01

    The double Maddox rod test, based on a red Maddox rod in front of one eye and a clear Maddox rod in front of the other, is used to measure cyclodeviation, typically in patients with superior oblique muscle pareses. Discrepant results between the double Maddox rod test and other torsion measures, and reports of "paradoxic" cyclodeviation in the normal eye of some patients with superior oblique paresis, suggest the two-color format of the double Maddox rod test may produce artifactual torsion measures. Forty patients with superior oblique paresis were tested twice using the double Maddox rod test, reversing the red and white Maddox rods between eyes for the second test, and 18 were tested further with same-color red or clear Maddox rods in front of both eyes. With the standard double Maddox rod test, 33 (83%) of 40 patients localized their cyclodeviation to the eye viewing through the red Maddox rod, irrespective of laterality of the paresis or fixation preference. In all 33 patients, laterality of the perceived torsion changed between eyes when testing was repeated with red and white Maddox rods interchanged between eyes. With same-color Maddox rods before both eyes, 17 (94%) of 18 patients localized extorsion to the paretic eye. There was 7.6:1 ratio of luminance transmission and a 1.6:1 ratio of grating spatial frequency bandpass in the plano meridian between the clear and red Maddox rods, which appear to be responsible for the double Maddox rod test artifact. The traditional double Maddox rod test may produce artifactual cyclodeviation measurements. An alternative version of the test, based on same-color Maddox rods in front of both eyes, is proposed. The relatively high spatial frequency bandpass characteristics of the plano meridian of the Maddox rod (as high as 20/25 Snellen equivalent resolution through the clear Maddox rod) also suggests double Maddox rod testing should be conducted in a dark room to avoid biases from visual environment cues.

  1. Analysis of the burnup of the control rods with the COREMASTER-Presto code; Analisis del quemado de barras de control con el codigo COREMASTER-PRESTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, J.L.; Alonso, G.; Perusquia, R.; Montes, J.L.; Hernandez, H. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jlhm@nuclear.inin-mx

    2003-07-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of the COREMASTER-Presto code, to evaluate generically the burnt of the control bars in the Laguna Verde reactors plant (CLV) is made. It was found that the code only reports burnt values of the control rods in MWD/TM, in spite of having with a second order polynomial model, for the conversion to remainder of the Boron-10 (B-10). It was observed that said model is adequate only for burnt smaller to 45,000 MWD/TM. To evaluate the burnt of the control rods it was reproduced the balance cycle of 18 months for the CLV, executing Cm-Presto during 13 consecutive cycles. First without rod burnt, taking this as the base case. Later on, cases with 1, 2 and up to 13 cycles with rod burnt were generated. When comparing results it was observed that the control rods pattern it loses reactivity lineally with the burnt one. By each 10 G Wd/T of burnt of the nucleus it is decreased the reactivity of the pattern rods {approx} 1 pcm in hot condition and of {approx} 20 pcm in cold condition. When burning three cycles those rods more burnt reached the 13,900 MWD/TM, equivalent to 36% of B-10 reduction, near value to 34% proposed by aging in the one lost study of B-10. It was observed that Cm-Presto it doesn't burn the superior node of the control rods when these are completely extracted. A one big lost of B-10, of the order of 50%, it represents only a decrease of 11% of the reactivity value of the rod. One can affirm that even when it is strongly decreased the content of B-10, the rod is continue considering as a black absorber, that is to say, thermal neutron that enters in the neutron rod that is absorbed. (Author)

  2. Investigation of the basic physics of high efficiency semiconductor hot carrier solar cell. Annual status report, 31 May 1994-30 May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, R.R.; Wang, W.B.; Mohaidat, J.M.; Cavicchia, M.A.; Raisky, O.Y.

    1995-05-01

    The main purpose of this research program is to investigate potential semiconductor materials and their multi-band-gap MQW (multiple quantum wells) structures for high efficiency solar cells for aerospace and commercial applications. The absorption and PL (photoluminescence) spectra, the carrier dynamics, and band structures have been investigated for semiconductors of InP, GaP, GaInP, and InGaAsP/InP MQW structures, and for semiconductors of GaAs and AlGaAs by previous measurements. The barrier potential design criteria for achieving maximum energy conversion efficiency, and the resonant tunneling time as a function of barrier width in high efficiency MQW solar cell structures have also been investigated in the first two years. Based on previous carrier dynamics measurements and the time-dependent short circuit current density calculations, an InAs/InGaAs - InGaAs/GaAs - GaAs/AlGaAs MQW solar cell structure with 15 bandgaps has been designed. The absorption and PL spectra in InGaAsP/InP bulk and MQW structures were measured at room temperature and 77 K with different pump wavelength and intensity, to search for resonant states that may affect the solar cell activities. Time-resolved IR absorption for InGaAsP/InP bulk and MQW structures has been measured by femtosecond visible-pump and IR-probe absorption spectroscopy. This, with the absorption and PL measurements, will be helpful to understand the basic physics and device performance in multi-bandgap InAs/InGaAs - InGaAs/InP - InP/InGaP MQW solar cells. In particular, the lifetime of the photoexcited hot electrons is an important parameter for the device operation of InGaAsP/InP MQW solar cells working in the resonant tunneling conditions. Lastly, time evolution of the hot electron relaxation in GaAs has been measured in the temperature range of 4 K through 288 K using femtosecond pump-IR-probe absorption technique.

  3. Hot air treatment reduces postharvest decay and delays softening of cherry tomato by regulating gene expression and activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingying; Zhou, Dandan; Wang, Zhenjie; Tu, Sicong; Shao, Xingfeng; Peng, Jing; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang

    2017-09-25

    Fruit softening facilitates pathogen infection and postharvest decay, leading to the reduction of shelf-life. Hot air (HA) treatment at 38 °C for 12 h is effective in reducing postharvest disease and chilling injury of tomato fruit. To explore the effect and mechanism of HA treatment on reducing postharvest decay and softening of cherry tomato, fruit at the mature green stage were treated with HA and then stored at 20 °C for 15 days. Changes in natural decay incidence, firmness, cell wall compositions, activities and gene expression of cell wall-degrading enzymes of cherry tomatoes were assessed. HA treatment reduced natural decay incidence, postponed the firmness decline, inhibited the respiration rate and ethylene production, and retarded pectin solubilization and cellulose degradation of cherry tomatoes. Enzymatic activities and gene expression of pectin methylesterase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and β-galactosidase were inhibited by HA treatment. In addition, the gene expression of LeEXP1 was reduced, while LeEXT was up-regulated after HA treatment. Our findings suggested that HA treatment could inhibit cell wall degradation and postpone softening of cherry tomatoes by regulating gene expression and activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes, resulting in the reduction of postharvest decay. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Longitudinal Waves in Rod-Type Piezoelectric Phononic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phononic crystals can be used to control elastic waves due to their frequency bands. This paper analyzes the passive and active control as well as the dispersion properties of longitudinal waves in rod-type piezoelectric phononic crystals over large frequency ranges. Based on the Love rod theory for modeling the longitudinal wave motions in the constituent rods and the method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM for deriving the member transfer matrices of the constituent rods, a modified transfer matrix method (MTMM is proposed for the analysis of dispersion curves by combining with the Floquet–Bloch principle and for the calculation of transmission spectra. Numerical examples are provided to validate the proposed MTMM for analyzing the band structures in both low and high frequency ranges. The passive control of longitudinal-wave band structures is studied by discussing the influences of the electrode’s thickness, the Poisson’s effect and the elastic rod inserts in the unit cell. The influences of electrical boundaries (including electric-open, applied electric capacity, electric-short and applied feedback control conditions on the band structures are investigated to illustrate the active control scheme. From the calculated comprehensive frequency spectra over a large frequency range, the dispersion properties of the characteristic longitudinal waves in rod-type piezoelectric phononic crystals are summarized.

  5. Evaluation of the reduction of boron-10 in the control rods in the BWR of the Laguna Verde Central, through steady state calculations; Evaluacion de la reduccion del Boro-10 en las barras de control en los BWR de la CLV, mediante calculos en estado estacionario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes T, J.L.; Perusquia, R.; Hernandez, J.L.; Ramirez S, J.R. [Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    One of the more important aspects related with the safety and economy in the operation of a nuclear power reactor, it is without a doubt the control of the reactivity. During the normal operation of a reactor of boiling water (BWR-Boiling Water Reactor), the control of the reactivity in the nucleus it is strongly determined by the efficiency of the control rods. In the case of the Laguna Verde Nuclear power station (CNLV) the nucleus of the reactors has 109 control rods grouped in 4 sets. The CNLV at the moment uses the CCC method (Control Cell Core) in the design of the cycle. With this method only the A2 group is used for the control of the reactivity at full power. With the purpose of quantifying the effect of the decrease of the burnable poison (B{sub 4}C) of the control rods and in particular to the effect due to the postulated lost of 10% of Boron 10, it was carried out a series of calculations of the nucleus in stationary state by means of the system of HELIOS/CM-PRESTO codes. In this work the main derived results of these 3D simulations(three dimensions) of the reactors of the CNLV are presented. It was analyzed the one behavior of the infinite neutron multiplication factor (K{sub infinite}), at fuel assemble cell level used in an equilibrium cycle for the CNLV. It was also analyzed the effect in the shutdown margin (ShutDown Margin- SDM) in cold condition CZP (Cold Zero Power). Its are also included those results of the ARI cases (All Rods In) and SRO (Strong Rod Out). From the cases in condition HFP (Hot Full Power) the behavior of the effective multiplication factor (K{sub eff}) is presented. (Author)

  6. Three-dimensional architecture of murine rod cilium revealed by cryo-EM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensel, Theodore G; Gilliam, Jared C

    2015-01-01

    The connecting cilium of the rod photoreceptor is a tubular structure that bridges two adjacent cellular compartments, the inner segment, the major site of biosynthesis and energy metabolism, and the outer segment, a highly specialized ciliary structure responsible for phototransduction. The connecting cilium allows for active processes of protein sorting and transport to occur between them. Mutations affecting the cargo, their transporters, and the structural components of the primary cilium and basal body lead to aberrant trafficking and photoreceptor cell death. Understanding the overall design of the cilium, its architectural organization, and the function of varied protein complexes within the structural hierarchy of the cilium requires techniques for visualizing their native three-dimensional structures at high magnification. Here we describe methods for isolating retinas from mice, purifying fragments of rod cells that include much of the inner segment and the rod photoreceptor cilia, vitrifying the cell fragments, and determining their structures by cryo-electron tomography.

  7. Electrical responses of rods in the retina of Bufo marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetto, L.; Pasino, E.; Torre, V.

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular responses to flashes and steps of light have been recorded from the outer segment and the cell body of rods in the retina of the Bufo marinus. The identification of the origin of recorded responses has been confirmed by intracellular marking. 2. Responses to flashes delivered in darkness or superimposed on a background were analysed. Responses recorded from outer segments conform to the principle of `spectral univariance'. The shape of the response is not affected by enlarging the spot diameter from 150 to 1000 μm. 3. The membrane potential measured in darkness at the outer segments varied from -15 to -25 mV. Injection of steady hyperpolarizing currents increases the size of the response to light; depolarizing currents reduce the response. The mean value of the input resistance is 97 ± 30 MΩ in darkness and increases by 20-30% during illumination. 4. The responses obtained from the cell body of rods have the same shape, time course and spectral sensitivity of those recorded at the outer segment. Injection of steady current at the cell body produces different effects than at the outer segment: hyperpolarizing currents reduce the amplitude of the response to light; depolarizing currents increase the response. 5. The experimental data are fitted according to a model similar to that used to describe the responses of turtle cones (Baylor & Hodgkin, 1974; Baylor, Hodgkin & Lamb, 1974a, b). 6. The model reproduces the electrical responses of the rod outer segment to a variety of stimuli: (a) brief flashes and steps of light in dark adapted conditions; (b) bright flashes superimposed on background illuminations; (c) pairs of flashes delivered at different time intervals. Responses to hyperpolarizing steps of current are also reproduced by the model. ImagesABCD PMID:406383

  8. Spontaneous formation of stringlike clusters and smectic sheets for colloidal rods confined in thin wedgelike gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hideatsu; Maeda, Yoshiko

    2013-08-20

    Monodispersed colloidal rods of β-FeOOH with sizes ranging from 270 to 580 nm in length and 50 to 80 nm in width were synthesized. Narrow wedgelike gaps (0 to 700 nm in height) were formed around the inner bottom edge of the suspension glass cells. Optical microscopic observations revealed the formation of stringlike clusters of the rods and smectic sheets (by spontaneous side-by-side clustering of the strings) in the isotropic phase of the rod suspensions confined in narrow gaps; the electrolyte (HCl) concentrations of the suspensions are 5-40 mM, at which inter-rod interactions are attractive. The strings exhibit different colors that were used to investigate the structures of the strings with the help of interference color theory for thin films. The results are as follows. (1) The rods, lying flat on the gap bottom, are connected side-by-side and stacked upward to form stringlike clusters with different thicknesses depending on the gap height. (2) The stacking numbers (N(sr)) of the rods are estimated to be 1-5. With N(sr) increasing from 2 to 5, the volume fractions (ϕ) of the rods in the strings increased typically from 0.25-0.3 to 0.35-0.42 to reach limiting values (close to the ϕ values of the rods in the bulk smectic phase). (3) Unexpected low-ϕ strings are found in regions with an intermediate height in the gaps. These behaviors of ϕ may be caused by thermal fluctuations of the strings.

  9. TRUEX hot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  10. Sensitivity study of control rod depletion coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Blomberg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This report investigates the sensitivity of the control rod depletion coefficients, Sg, to different input parameters and how this affects the accumulated 10B depletion, β. Currently the coefficients are generated with PHOENIX4, but the geometries can be more accurately simulated in McScram. McScram is used to calculate Control Rod Worth, which in turn is used to calculate Nuclear End Of Life, and Sg cannot be generated in the current version of McScram. Therefore, it is also analyzed whether...

  11. Pattern selection dynamics in rod eutectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Melis

    The cooperative or diffusively coupled growth of multiple phases during solidification is one of the most widely observed and generally important classes of phase transformations in materials. Technologically, low melting temperature and small freezing range contribute to excellent casting fluidity and fine composite structures give rise to favorable properties. Both of these features contribute to the wide application of eutectic alloys in the casting, welding, and soldering of engineered components. Despite the broad-based technological importance, many fundamental questions regarding eutectic solidification remain unanswered, severely limiting our ability to employ computational methods in the prediction of microstructure for the effective design of new materials and processes. At the core of the most persistent questions, lie problems involving multicomponent thermodynamics, solid-liquid and solid-solid interfacial phenomena, morphological stability, chemical and thermal diffusion, and nucleation phenomena. In the current study, pattern selection dynamics in rod eutectics are investigated using systematic directional solidification experiments and phase field simulations. Directional solidification of a succinonitrile-camphor (SCN-DC) transparent alloy in thin slab geometries of various thicknesses reveals two main points. First, a velocity is indentified at which a transition in array basis vectors is observed in specimens with many rows of rods (i.e. bulk). This transition amounts to a 90 degree rotation of the rod array, shifting from alignment of 1st nearest neighbors to alignment of 2nd nearest neighbors along the slide wall. Second, significant array distortion is observed with decreasing slide thickness, delta, which ultimately leads to a single-row (quasi-3D) morphology where delta/lambda is on the order of unity. In our analysis of these observations, we use a geometrical model to describe the rod arrangement as a function of slide thickness, providing

  12. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of single-rod, dual-rod, and dual-rod with transverse connector in anterior thoracolumbar instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Chandan G; Magnetta, Michael; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Demmer, Matthew; Iyamah, Kingsley Abode; Lim, Tae-Hong; Torner, James C; Hitchon, Patrick W

    2012-04-01

    After thoracolumbar corpectomy, standard anterolateral instrumentation may consist of dual rods with cross-connectors. However, when the vertebral bodies are small or involved with disease, only 1 rod may be possible. To compare the biomechanics of an in vitro L1 corpectomy model using 1 rod, 2 rods, or 2 rods with 2 cross-connectors. Eight fresh frozen human cadaveric spines were potted from T9 to L3. Pure moments of 1.5, 3, and 4.5 Nm were applied, and the motion of the spine was measured using 3 infrared cameras. Loads were applied in flexion and extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation. Each spine was first tested in the intact state. After performing an L1 corpectomy and replacement with a carbon fiber reinforced polymer cage, 3 constructs were tested: single rod (1R), dual rod (2R), and dual rod with 2 transverse connectors (CC). Analysis of variance suggests significant main effects of load (P < .0001), axis (P = .022), construct (P =.0019), and individual spine (P < .0001). Overall, the single-rod construct is significantly less rigid than the intact spine in axial rotation. There is no significant difference between the intact spine and either the dual-rod construct or the dual-rod cross-connector construct. In our in vitro model of anterior spinal stabilization after corpectomy and grafting, a single-rod construct is significantly less rigid than the intact spine. Addition of a second rod returns the rigidity of the spine to the intact state. A dual-rod cross-connector construct is significantly more rigid than a single-rod construct.

  13. Manufacture of NiAl-based rods for plasma centrifugal spraying using mechanochemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logacheva, A. I.; Gusakov, M. S.; Sentyurina, Zh. A.; Logachev, I. A.; Kandyba, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative technology is proposed for the production of NiAl-Co-Cr-Hf-Al2O3 alloy rods. It includes the fabrication of a powder by mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) followed by hot isostatic pressing in forming tool. The processes of MCS of the intermetallic alloy in a planetary mill and an attritor are studied. The products of synthesis in various mixers are compared. The microstructure and the properties of compacted samples are studied: their ultimate compressive strength is 1390-1480 MPa at a plasticity of 8.5-8.8%. Spherical granules with a target size of 20-200 μm are fabricated by plasma centrifugal spraying of the rod workpiece formed by the proposed technology.

  14. Static in situ test of the axial power shaping rod and shim safety control rod mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soberano, F T; Gannon, J A; Parlee, K A

    1982-08-01

    There are eight Axial Power Shaping Rods (APSRs) and 61 Shim Safety Control Rods (SSCRs) within the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor core. This report describes the test results for all eight APSRs and three SSCRs. The tests were performed in situ from the Control Rod Drive (CRD) system logic cabinets and the transformer cabinets located in the cable spreading room. The tests were intended to determine the condition of the Absolute Position Indicators (APIs), the stator thermocouples, and the stators, and to assess each components' survival of the TMI-2 accident.

  15. Oligo(naphthylene–ethynylene) Molecular Rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Jacob Roland; Ning, Yanxiao; Shen, Cai

    2013-01-01

    of palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira reactions between naphthyl halides and acetylenes. The triazene functionality was used as a protected iodine precursor to allow linear extension of the molecular rods during the synthe-ses. The carboxylic acid groups in the target molecules were protected as esters during...

  16. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aditsania, Annisa, E-mail: annisaaditsania@gmail.com [Department of Computational Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi, E-mail: silvyarahmawati@gmail.com; Sukarno, Pudjo, E-mail: psukarno@gmail.com [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Soewono, Edy, E-mail: esoewono@math.itb.ac.id [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  17. A neuronal circuit for colour vision based on rod-cone opponency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesch, Maximilian; Meister, Markus

    2016-04-14

    In bright light, cone-photoreceptors are active and colour vision derives from a comparison of signals in cones with different visual pigments. This comparison begins in the retina, where certain retinal ganglion cells have 'colour-opponent' visual responses-excited by light of one colour and suppressed by another colour. In dim light, rod-photoreceptors are active, but colour vision is impossible because they all use the same visual pigment. Instead, the rod signals are thought to splice into retinal circuits at various points, in synergy with the cone signals. Here we report a new circuit for colour vision that challenges these expectations. A genetically identified type of mouse retinal ganglion cell called JAMB (J-RGC), was found to have colour-opponent responses, OFF to ultraviolet (UV) light and ON to green light. Although the mouse retina contains a green-sensitive cone, the ON response instead originates in rods. Rods and cones both contribute to the response over several decades of light intensity. Remarkably, the rod signal in this circuit is antagonistic to that from cones. For rodents, this UV-green channel may play a role in social communication, as suggested by spectral measurements from the environment. In the human retina, all of the components for this circuit exist as well, and its function can explain certain experiences of colour in dim lights, such as a 'blue shift' in twilight. The discovery of this genetically defined pathway will enable new targeted studies of colour processing in the brain.

  18. Articulated rods – a novel class of molecular rods based on oligospiroketals (OSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Wessig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new type of molecular rods consisting of two (or more rigid units linked by a flexible joint. Consequently we called these constructs articulated rods (ARs. The syntheses of ARs were carried out by a flexible and modular approach providing access to a number of compounds with various functionalizations in terminal positions. First applications were presented with pyrene, cinnamoyl and anthracenyl labelled ARs.

  19. Sucker rod string design of the pumping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Hua Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing design of sucker rod string mainly focuses on the simplifying assumptions that rod string was exposed to simple tension loading. And its goal was to have equal modified stress at the top of each taper. The improved rod design was to have the same degree of safety at each section, and it used a dynamic force distribution that was proportional along the whole string. However, the available procedures did not provide the desired accuracy of its pertinent analysis, and the operators could not identify the specific phenomena that occur in CBM wells. In this paper, the mathematical models of rod loads and string length were developed based on the cyclic nature of rod string loading; the fatigue endurance method is used to design the single rod string; and the tapered rod string is designed to have an equal equivalent stress at the top of each section. Its application characteristics are demonstrated by the example of CBM wells in Ordos Basin. The interpretations of results show that the previous design gave the single rods a larger diameter and the top rods in the string a greater percent than the proposed method. The calculation should concern about inertial, vibration and friction forces to illustrate the elastic force waves travelling in the rod material with the speed of sound. The single string should be designed using fatigue endurance ratings due to asymmetric pulsating tension of rod loading; and the tapered string should involve a balanced design by setting the fatigue endurance at each section equal. A shorter stroke length gives a greater rod taper percentage and an increased load capacity results to an enhanced rod diameter. The rod diameter increases with the pump size and load capacity for the single string, and the rod taper percentage of the top rod strings increases with plunger diameter for the tapered string. The proposed research improves efficiency of the pumping system, assures good operating conditions, and reduces

  20. Dependence of control rod worth on fuel burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savva, P., E-mail: savvapan@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PoB 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Varvayanni, M., E-mail: melina@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PoB 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Catsaros, N., E-mail: nicos@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PoB 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: Diffusion and MC calculations for rod worth dependence on burnup and Xe in reactors. One-step rod withdrawal/insertion are used for rod worth estimation. The study showed that when Xe is present the rods worth is significantly reduced. Rod worth variation with burnup depends on rod position in core. Rod worth obtained with MC code is higher than that obtained from deterministic. - Abstract: One important parameter in the design and the analysis of a nuclear reactor core is the reactivity worth of the control rods, i.e. their efficiency to absorb excess reactivity. The control rod worth is affected by parameters such as the fuel burnup in the rod vicinity, the Xe concentration in the core, the operational time of the rod and its position in the core. In the present work, two different computational approaches, a deterministic and a stochastic one, were used for the determination of the rods worth dependence on the fuel burnup level and the Xe concentration level in a conceptual, symmetric reactor core, based on the MTR fuel assemblies used in the Greek Research Reactor (GRR-1). For the deterministic approach the neutronics code system composed by the SCALE modules NITAWL and XSDRN and the diffusion code CITATION was used, while for the stochastic one the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI was applied. The study showed that when Xe is present in the core, the rods worth is significantly reduced, while the rod worth variation with increasing burnup depends on the rods position in the core grid. The rod worth obtained with the use of the Monte Carlo code is higher than the one obtained from the deterministic code.

  1. Distributed Mode Filtering Rod Fiber Amplifier With Improved Mode Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Broeng, Jes

    2012-01-01

    We report 216W of average output power from a photonic crystal rod fiber amplifier. We demonstrate 44% power improvement before onset of the mode instability by operating the rod fiber in a leaky guiding regime.......We report 216W of average output power from a photonic crystal rod fiber amplifier. We demonstrate 44% power improvement before onset of the mode instability by operating the rod fiber in a leaky guiding regime....

  2. Sucker rod string design of the pumping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Hua Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing design of sucker rod string mainly focuses on the simplifying assumptions that rod string was exposed to simple tension loading. And its goal was to have equal modified stress at the top of each taper. The improved rod design was to have the same degree of safety at each section, and it used a dynamic force distribution that was proportional along the whole string. However, the available procedures did not provide the desired accuracy of its pertinent analysis, and the operators could not identify the specific phenomena that occur in CBM wells. In this paper, the mathematical models of rod loads and string length were developed based on the cyclic nature of rod string loading; the fatigue endurance method is used to design the single rod string; and the tapered rod string is designed to have an equal equivalent stress at the top of each section. Its application characteristics are demonstrated by the example of CBM wells in Ordos Basin. The interpretations of results show that the previous design gave the single rods a larger diameter and the top rods in the string a greater percent than the proposed method. The calculation should concern about inertial, vibration and friction forces to illustrate the elastic force waves travelling in the rod material with the speed of sound. The single string should be designed using fatigue endurance ratings due to asymmetric pulsating tension of rod loading; and the tapered string should involve a balanced design by setting the fatigue endurance at each section equal. A shorter stroke length gives a greater rod taper percentage and an increased load capacity results to an enhanced rod diameter. The rod diameter increases with the pump size and load capacity for the single string, and the rod taper percentage of the top rod strings increases with plunger diameter for the tapered string. The proposed research improves efficiency of the pumping system, assures good operating conditions, and reduces

  3. ROD INTERNAL PRESSURE QUANTIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS USING FRAPCON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State University, University Park; Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The discharge rod internal pressure (RIP) and cladding hoop stress (CHS) distributions are quantified forWatts BarNuclearUnit 1 (WBN1) fuel rods by modeling core cycle design data, intercycle assembly movements, operation data (including modeling significant trips and downpowers), and as-built fuel enrichments and densities of each fuel rod in FRAPCON-3.5. An alternate model for the amount of helium released from zirconium diboride (ZrB2) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) layers is derived and applied to FRAPCON output data to quantify the RIP and CHS for these fuel rods. SCALE/Polaris is used to quantify fuel rod-specific spectral quantities and the amount of gaseous fission products produced in the fuel for use in FRAPCON inputs. Fuel rods with ZrB2 IFBA layers (i.e., IFBA rods) are determined to have RIP predictions that are elevated when compared to fuel rod without IFBA layers (i.e., standard rods) despite the fact that IFBA rods often have reduced fill pressures and annular fuel blankets. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) are prepared from the distribution of RIP predictions for all standard and IFBA rods. The provided CDFs allow for the determination of the portion of WBN1 fuel rods that exceed a specified RIP limit. Lastly, improvements to the computational methodology of FRAPCON are proposed.

  4. Measurement of the Speed of Sound in a Metal Rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Ng, Yee-kong; Wu, Kam-wah

    2000-01-01

    Suggests two improved methods to measure the speed of sound in a metal rod. One employs a fast timer to measure the time required for a compression pulse to travel along the rod from end to end, and a second uses a microphone to measure the frequency of the fundamental mode of a freely suspending singing rod. (Author/ASK)

  5. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India...

  6. Applying hot wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Al Shakhshir, Saher

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately determine the water balance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell it has recently been suggested to employ constant temperature anemometry (CTA), a frequently used method to measure the velocity of a fluid stream. CTA relies on convective heat transfer around a heated wire...... the equations required to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the resulting voltage signal as function of the fuel cell water balance. The most critical and least understood part is the determination of the Nusselt number to calculate the heat transfer between the wire and the gas stream. Different...... for all current densities. Therefore, only one curve-fit equation will be required. The voltage curve E0 is an arbitrary calibration curve, and this can be conveniently chosen to be the voltage signal for a dry hydrogen stream at a given temperature and various flow rates which can be easily measured....

  7. On the Vortex Sound from Rotating Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, E. Y.

    1947-01-01

    The motion of different bodies imersed in liquid or gaseous media is accompanied by characteristic sound which is excited by the formation of unstable surfaces of separation behind the body, usually disintegrating into a system of discrete vortices(such as the Karman vortex street due to the flow about an infintely long rod, etc.).In the noise from fans,pumps,and similar machtnery, vortexnQif3eI?Yequently predominates. The purpose of this work is to elucidate certain questions of the dependence ofthis sound upon the aerodynamic parameters and the tip speed of the rotating rods,or blades. Although scme material is given below,insufficientto calculate the first rough approximation to the solution of this question,such as the mechanics of vortex formation,never the less certain conclusions maybe found of practical application for the reduction of noise from rotating blades.

  8. Composites reinforcement by rods a SAS study

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, V; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W; Richter, D; Straube, E

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical properties of composites are governed by size, shape and dispersion degree of so-called reinforcing particles. Polymeric fillers based on thermodynamically driven microphase separation of block copolymers offer the opportunity to study a model system of controlled rod-like filler particles. We chose a triblock copolymer (PBPSPB) and carried out SAS measurements with both X-rays and neutrons, in order to characterize separately the hard phase and the cross-linked PB matrix. The properties of the material depend strongly on the way that stress is carried and transferred between the soft matrix and the hard fibers. The failure of the strain-amplification concept and the change of topological contributions to the free energy and scattering factor have to be addressed. In this respect the composite shows a similarity to a two-network system, i.e. interpenetrating rubber and rod-like filler networks. (orig.)

  9. Rod Driven Frequency Entrainment and Resonance Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Salchow

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A controversy exists on photic driving in the human visual cortex evoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Frequency entrainment and resonance phenomena are reported for frequencies higher than 12 Hz in some studies while missing in others. We hypothesized that this might be due to different experimental conditions, since both high and low intensity light stimulation were used. However, most studies do not report radiometric measurements, which makes it impossible to categorize the stimulation according to photopic, mesopic, and scotopic vision. Low intensity light stimulation might lead to scotopic vision, where rod perception dominates. In this study, we investigated photic driving for rod-dominated visual input under scotopic conditions. Twelve healthy volunteers were stimulated with low intensity light flashes at 20 stimulation frequencies, leading to rod activation only. The frequencies were multiples of the individual alpha frequency (α of each volunteer in the range from 0.40–2.30*α. 306-channel whole head magnetoencephalography recordings were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatiotemporal domains with the Topographic Matching Pursuit algorithm. We found resonance phenomena and frequency entrainment for stimulations at or close to the individual alpha frequency (0.90–1.10*α and half of the alpha frequency (0.40–0.55*α. No signs of resonance and frequency entrainment phenomena were revealed around 2.00*α. Instead, on-responses at the beginning and off-responses at the end of each stimulation train were observed for the first time in a photic driving experiment at frequencies of 1.30–2.30*α, indicating that the flicker fusion threshold was reached. All results, the resonance and entrainment as well as the fusion effects, provide evidence for rod-dominated photic driving in the visual cortex.

  10. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1957-08-20

    An electromagnetic device for moving an object in a linear path by increments is described. The device is specifically adapted for moving a neutron absorbing control rod into and out of the core of a reactor and consists essentially of an extension member made of magnetic material connected to one end of the control rod and mechanically flexible to grip the walls of a sleeve member when flexed, a magnetic sleeve member coaxial with and slidable between limit stops along the flexible extension, electromagnetic coils substantially centrally located with respect to the flexible extension to flex the extension member into gripping engagement with the sleeve member when ener gized, moving electromagnets at each end of the sleeve to attract the sleeve when energized, and a second gripping electromagnet positioned along the flexible extension at a distance from the previously mentioned electromagnets for gripping the extension member when energized. In use, the second gripping electromagnet is deenergized, the first gripping electromagnet is energized to fix the extension member in the sleeve, and one of the moving electromagnets is energized to attract the sleeve member toward it, thereby moving the control rod.

  11. Experimental studies and performance analyses on polyurethane and nitrile rubber rod seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, M.; Temiz, V.; Kamburoǧlu, E.

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the friction and leakage properties of rod seals made of polyethylene and nitrile rubber with different design geometries, under various pressure and lubricating oil viscosity conditions, in order to make assumptions about their general sealing characteristics and their pros and cons under certain working conditions that involve a range of fluid pressures. The test specimens consist of commercial rod seals of various designs and materials and were mounted on a hard chrome coated shaft subject to reciprocating motion. The test rig is capable of measuring friction force by means of strain measurements on a load cell transmitting the linear motion of a screw shaft to the test shaft. The test results of the reciprocating rod seal samples were evaluated according to leakage amount and friction resistance as a function of materials, design geometries and fluid pressures as well as the lubricating oil viscosity.

  12. The orphan nuclear hormone receptor ERRβ controls rod photoreceptor survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Akishi; Peng, Guang-Hua; Poth, Erin M.; Lee, Daniel A.; Chen, Jichao; Alexis, Uel; de Melo, Jimmy; Chen, Shiming; Blackshaw, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Mutation of rod photoreceptor-enriched transcription factors is a major cause of inherited blindness. We identified the orphan nuclear hormone receptor estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) as selectively expressed in rod photoreceptors. Overexpression of ERRβ induces expression of rod-specific genes in retinas of wild-type as well as Nrl−/− mice, which lack rod photoreceptors. Mutation of ERRβ results in dysfunction and degeneration of rods, whereas inverse agonists of ERRβ trigger rapid rod degeneration, which is rescued by constitutively active mutants of ERRβ. ERRβ coordinates expression of multiple genes that are rate-limiting regulators of ATP generation and consumption in photoreceptors. Furthermore, enhancing ERRβ activity rescues photoreceptor defects that result from loss of the photoreceptor-specific transcription factor Crx. Our findings demonstrate that ERRβ is a critical regulator of rod photoreceptor function and survival, and suggest that ERRβ agonists may be useful in the treatment of certain retinal dystrophies. PMID:20534447

  13. Between a Map and a Data Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W. L.; Rui, H.; Strub, R. F.; Vollmer, B.

    2015-12-01

    A "Digital Divide" has long stood between how NASA and other satellite-derived data are typically archived (time-step arrays or "maps") and how hydrology and other point-time series oriented communities prefer to access those data. In essence, the desired method of data access is orthogonal to the way the data are archived. Our approach to bridging the Divide is part of a larger NASA-supported "data rods" project to enhance access to and use of NASA and other data by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS) and the larger hydrology community. Our main objective was to determine a way to reorganize data that is optimal for these communities. Two related objectives were to optimally reorganize data in a way that (1) is operational and fits in and leverages the existing Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) operational environment and (2) addresses the scaling up of data sets available as time series from those archived at the GES DISC to potentially include those from other Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data archives. Through several prototype efforts and lessons learned, we arrived at a non-database solution that satisfied our objectives/constraints. We describe, in this presentation, how we implemented the operational production of pre-generated data rods and, considering the tradeoffs between length of time series (or number of time steps), resources needed, and performance, how we implemented the operational production of on-the-fly ("virtual") data rods. For the virtual data rods, we leveraged a number of existing resources, including the NASA Giovanni Cache and NetCDF Operators (NCO) and used data cubes processed in parallel. Our current benchmark performance for virtual generation of data rods is about a year's worth of time series for hourly data (~9,000 time steps) in ~90 seconds. Our approach is a specific

  14. Outcomes of support rod usage in loop stoma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Ian; Russell, Michael; Nassar, Natasha; Gladman, Marc A

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, support rods have been used when creating loop stomas in the hope of preventing retraction. However, their effectiveness has not been clearly established. This study aimed to investigate the rate of stoma rod usage and its impact on stoma retraction and complication rates. A prospective cohort of 515 consecutive patients who underwent loop ileostomy/colostomy formation at a tertiary referral colorectal unit in Sydney, Australia were studied. Mortality and unplanned return to theatre rates were calculated. The primary outcome measure of interest was stoma retraction, occurring within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcome measures included early stoma complications. The 10-year temporal trends for rod usage, stoma retraction, and complications were examined. Mortality occurred in 23 patients (4.1 %) and unplanned return to theatre in 4 patients (0.8 %). Stoma retraction occurred in four patients (0.78 %), all without rods. However, the rate of retraction was similar, irrespective of whether rods were used (P = 0.12). There was a significant decline in the use of rods during the study period (P stoma retraction rates. Early complications occurred in 94/432 patients (21.8 %) and were more likely to occur in patients with rods (64/223 versus 30/209 without rods, P Stoma retraction is a rare complication and its incidence is not significantly affected by the use of support rods. Further, complications are common post-operatively, and the rate appears higher when rods are used. The routine use of rods warrants judicious application. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO THE LITERATURE?: It remains unclear whether support rods prevent stoma retraction. This study, the largest to date, confirms that stoma retraction is a rare complication and is not significantly affected by the use of rods. Consequently, routine rod usage cannot be recommended, particularly as it is associated with increased stoma complications.

  15. Determination of the turbulence integral model parameters for a case of a coolant angular flow in regular rod-bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayaskhalanov, M. V.; Vlasov, M. N.; Korsun, A. S.; Merinov, I. G.; Philippov, M. Ph

    2017-11-01

    Research results of “k-ε” turbulence integral model (TIM) parameters dependence on the angle of a coolant flow in regular smooth cylindrical rod-bundle are presented. TIM is intended for the definition of efficient impulse and heat transport coefficients in the averaged equations of a heat and mass transfer in the regular rod structures in an anisotropic porous media approximation. The TIM equations are received by volume-averaging of the “k-ε” turbulence model equations on periodic cell of rod-bundle. The water flow across rod-bundle under angles from 15 to 75 degrees was simulated by means of an ANSYS CFX code. Dependence of the TIM parameters on flow angle was as a result received.

  16. Sucker-rod pumping handbook production engineering fundamentals and long-stroke rod pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Takacs, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Sucker-Rod Pumping Handbook presents the latest information on the most common form of production enhancement in today's oil industry, making up roughly two-thirds of the producing oilwell operations in the world. The book begins with an introduction to the main features of sucker rod pumping and an explanation and comparison of lift methods. It goes on to provide the technical and practical knowledge needed to introduce the new and practicing production engineer and operator to the equipment, technology, and applications required to maintain optimum operating conditions.

  17. Pushing the limits of photoreception in twilight conditions: The rod-like cone retina of the deep-sea pearlsides

    KAUST Repository

    Busserolles, Fanny de

    2017-11-09

    Most vertebrates have a duplex retina comprising two photoreceptor types, rods for dim-light (scotopic) vision and cones for bright-light (photopic) and color vision. However, deep-sea fishes are only active in dim-light conditions; hence, most species have lost their cones in favor of a simplex retina composed exclusively of rods. Although the pearlsides, Maurolicus spp., have such a pure rod retina, their behavior is at odds with this simplex visual system. Contrary to other deep-sea fishes, pearlsides are mostly active during dusk and dawn close to the surface, where light levels are intermediate (twilight or mesopic) and require the use of both rod and cone photoreceptors. This study elucidates this paradox by demonstrating that the pearlside retina does not have rod photoreceptors only; instead, it is composed almost exclusively of transmuted cone photoreceptors. These transmuted cells combine the morphological characteristics of a rod photoreceptor with a cone opsin and a cone phototransduction cascade to form a unique photoreceptor type, a rod-like cone, specifically tuned to the light conditions of the pearlsides\\' habitat (blue-shifted light at mesopic intensities). Combining properties of both rods and cones into a single cell type, instead of using two photoreceptor types that do not function at their full potential under mesopic conditions, is likely to be the most efficient and economical solution to optimize visual performance. These results challenge the standing paradigm of the function and evolution of the vertebrate duplex retina and emphasize the need for a more comprehensive evaluation of visual systems in general.

  18. Models for the Configuration and Integrity of Partially Oxidized Fuel Rod Cladding at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Models were designed to resolve deficiencies in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations of the configuration and integrity of hot, partially oxidized cladding. These models are expected to improve the calculations of several important aspects of fuel rod behavior. First, an improved mapping was established from a compilation of PIE results from severe fuel damage tests of the configuration of melted metallic cladding that is retained by an oxide layer. The improved mapping accounts for the relocation of melted cladding in the circumferential direction. Then, rules based on PIE results were established for calculating the effect of cladding that has relocated from above on the oxidation and integrity of the lower intact cladding upon which it solidifies. Next, three different methods were identified for calculating the extent of dissolution of the oxidic part of the cladding due to its contact with the metallic part. The extent of dissolution effects the stress and thus the integrity of the oxidic part of the cladding. Then, an empirical equation was presented for calculating the stress in the oxidic part of the cladding and evaluating its integrity based on this calculated stress. This empirical equation replaces the current criterion for loss of integrity which is based on temperature and extent of oxidation. Finally, a new rule based on theoretical and experimental results was established for identifying the regions of a fuel rod with oxidation of both the inside and outside surfaces of the cladding. The implementation of these models is expected to eliminate the tendency of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to overpredict the extent of oxidation of the upper part of fuel rods and to underpredict the extent of oxidation of the lower part of fuel rods and the part with a high concentration of relocated material. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled, Improvements in Modeling of Cladding Oxidation and Meltdown.

  19. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  20. Rod strain after pedicle subtraction osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrchen, Poul Martin; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Dahl, Benny

    2016-01-01

    Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) can provide major sagittal correction for adult spinal deformity, sometimes achieving correction greater than 308. Surgeons have reported failure rates up to 30% within 2 years, increasing to 46% after 4 to 5 years (SDC Figure 1, http://links.lww.com/BRS/B87......). Revision following failure is difficult on the patient. PSO has achieved positive outcomes, but when used to correct posture in older patients with spinal deformity and fixed sagittal imbalance, rod breakage often leads to multiple surgical revisions. These complications must be avoided....

  1. Rodded shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A top mounted nuclear reactor diverse rodded shutdown system utilizing gas fed into a pressure bearing bellows region sealed at the upper extremity to an armature. The armature is attached to a neutron absorber assembly by a series of shafts and connecting means. The armature is held in an uppermost position by an electromagnet assembly or by pressurized gas in a second embodiment. Deenergizing the electromagnet assembly, or venting the pressurized gas, causes the armature to fall by the force of gravity, thereby lowering the attached absorber assembly into the reactor core.

  2. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  3. Nonlinear localized elastoplastic waves in a rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, V. I.; Leonteva, A. V.; Malkhanov, A. O.

    2017-11-01

    It has been shown that longitudinal nonlinear stationary elastic-plastic waves can be formed in a rod. Waves can be both periodic and solitary (solitons), which is determined by the index of strain hardening of the material.The velocity of propagation of such waves is less than the speed of the elastic shear wave. Along with classical solitons, so-called “embedded solitons” can be formed, that is, double solitons, one of which with a smaller amplitude and widthis located inside the other with a larger amplitude and width.

  4. Uspon silovatelja: etnicitet, rod i nasilje

    OpenAIRE

    Mežnarić, Silva

    1993-01-01

    Članak raspravlja o uporabi silovanja kao politike u slučajevima kada se, do tragičnih posljedica, ukrštaju nasilje, rod i etnicitet. Prvo se ispituje kampanja srbijanskih medija 1990. na Kosovu protiv Albanaca kao silovatelja; zatim se analizira upotreba silovanja u prinudnom etničkom čišćenju prilikom srpske agresije na Bosnu, 1992-1993. Pokazuje se da je kampanja na Kosovu bila predigra stvarnom silovanju u Bosni. U oba je slučaja silovanje poslužilo u ograđivanju teritorija i definiranju ...

  5. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...... the solitary waves numerically. It is demonstrated that the waves behave almost like solitons in agreement with the fact that the improved Boussinesq equations are nearly integrable. Thus three conservation theorems can be derived from the equations. A new subsonic quasibreather is found in the case of a cubic...

  6. Distinct signature of altered homeostasis in aging rod photoreceptors: implications for retinal diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Parapuram

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced age contributes to clinical manifestations of many retinopathies and represents a major risk factor for age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in the elderly. Rod photoreceptors are especially vulnerable to genetic defects and changes in microenvironment, and are among the first neurons to die in normal aging and in many retinal degenerative diseases. The molecular mechanisms underlying rod photoreceptor vulnerability and potential biomarkers of the aging process in this highly specialized cell type are unknown.To discover aging-associated adaptations that may influence rod function, we have generated gene expression profiles of purified rod photoreceptors from mouse retina at young adult to early stages of aging (1.5, 5, and 12 month old mice. We identified 375 genes that showed differential expression in rods from 5 and 12 month old mouse retina compared to that of 1.5 month old retina. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments validated expression change for a majority of the 25 genes that were examined. Macroanalysis of differentially expressed genes using gene class testing and protein interaction networks revealed overrepresentation of cellular pathways that are potentially photoreceptor-specific (angiogenesis and lipid/retinoid metabolism, in addition to age-related pathways previously described in several tissue types (oxidative phosphorylation, stress and immune response.Our study suggests a progressive shift in cellular homeostasis that may underlie aging-associated functional decline in rod photoreceptors and contribute to a more permissive state for pathological processes involved in retinal diseases.

  7. Rod microglia: elongation, alignment, and coupling to form trains across the somatosensory cortex after experimental diffuse brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziebell Jenna M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since their discovery, the morphology of microglia has been interpreted to mirror their function, with ramified microglia constantly surveying the micro-environment and rapidly activating when changes occur. In 1899, Franz Nissl discovered what we now recognize as a distinct microglial activation state, microglial rod cells (Stäbchenzellen, which he observed adjacent to neurons. These rod-shaped microglia are typically found in human autopsy cases of paralysis of the insane, a disease of the pre-penicillin era, and best known today from HIV-1-infected brains. Microglial rod cells have been implicated in cortical ‘synaptic stripping’ but their exact role has remained unclear. This is due at least in part to a scarcity of experimental models. Now we have noted these rod microglia after experimental diffuse brain injury in brain regions that have an associated sensory sensitivity. Here, we describe the time course, location, and surrounding architecture associated with rod microglia following experimental diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods Rats were subjected to a moderate midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI, which resulted in transient suppression of their righting reflex (6 to 10 min. Multiple immunohistochemistry protocols targeting microglia with Iba1 and other known microglia markers were undertaken to identify the morphological activation of microglia. Additionally, labeling with Iba1 and cell markers for neurons and astrocytes identified the architecture that surrounds these rod cells. Results We identified an abundance of Iba1-positive microglia with rod morphology in the primary sensory barrel fields (S1BF. Although present for at least 4 weeks post mFPI, they developed over the first week, peaking at 7 days post-injury. In the absence of contusion, Iba1-positive microglia appear to elongate with their processes extending from the apical and basal ends. These cells then abut one another and lay adjacent

  8. COMPUTER MODEL OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN OPTICALLY PUMPED LASER RODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, U. O.

    1994-01-01

    Managing the thermal energy that accumulates within a solid-state laser material under active pumping is of critical importance in the design of laser systems. Earlier models that calculated the temperature distribution in laser rods were single dimensional and assumed laser rods of infinite length. This program presents a new model which solves the temperature distribution problem for finite dimensional laser rods and calculates both the radial and axial components of temperature distribution in these rods. The modeled rod is either side-pumped or end-pumped by a continuous or a single pulse pump beam. (At the present time, the model cannot handle a multiple pulsed pump source.) The optical axis is assumed to be along the axis of the rod. The program also assumes that it is possible to cool different surfaces of the rod at different rates. The user defines the laser rod material characteristics, determines the types of cooling and pumping to be modeled, and selects the time frame desired via the input file. The program contains several self checking schemes to prevent overwriting memory blocks and to provide simple tracing of information in case of trouble. Output for the program consists of 1) an echo of the input file, 2) diffusion properties, radius and length, and time for each data block, 3) the radial increments from the center of the laser rod to the outer edge of the laser rod, and 4) the axial increments from the front of the laser rod to the other end of the rod. This program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN77 and implemented on a Tandon AT with a 287 math coprocessor. The program can also run on a VAX 750 mini-computer. It has a memory requirement of about 147 KB and was developed in 1989.

  9. Grey Rod Test in HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Westinghouse/KAERI/KNF agreed to perform an irradiation test in the HANARO reactor to obtain irradiation data on the new grey rods that will be part of an AP1000 system. As a preliminary test, two samples containing pure Ag (Reference) and Ag-In-Cd materials provided by Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) were inserted in a KNF irradiation capsule of 07M-13N. The specimens were irradiated for 95.19days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of the HANARO of a 30MW thermal output to have a fast neutron fluence of 1.11x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV). This report provides all the test conditions and data obtained during the irradiation test of the grey rods in HANARO requested by Westinghouse. The test was prepared according to the meeting minutes (June 26, 2007) and the on-going subject test was stopped midway by the request of Westinghouse.

  10. Steam by-pass reciprocating rod pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, B. [Weatherford, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This article presented the design details of Weatherford's steam by-pass reciprocating rod rod pump which was designed to work under specific well conditions and individual applications, including Imperial Oil's Cold Lake bitumen recovery project located 230 km northeast of Edmonton, Alberta. Imperial Oil uses a cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) process to enhance bitumen recovery from the Clearwater oil sand reservoir. A typical wellbore reach can be up to 700 m and 80 degrees deviation at a target depth of 455 m TVD. These long well bore reaches along with high bottomhole angles and high produced fluid viscosities complicate the design of the artificial lift, which is essentially a modified conventional API pump. The hold-down section is a friction ring design incorporating stainless steel friction rings to provide positive holding force. The steam by-pass coupling is a reduced-diameter tube fitting between the API pump and the friction ring hold-down section. Three stages of the Imperial Cold Lake operation were described, namely the steam injection stage, soak phase stage and production stage. Typically, the steam by-pass pump is suspended in the tubing for the entire cycle. This presentation reviewed the operating steps of the pump, whose average run time in the field is about 15 months, depending on the potential for scaling or sand influx. tab., figs.

  11. Push rod for moving mine cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtokman, I.G.; Apukhtin, A.S.; Dudnik, M.Z.; Remizov, I.P.; Shakhtar, P.S.

    1981-01-01

    In the operation of the known pushrods for haulage of cars on horizontal shafts, it becomes necessary to slow down the moving cars. In normal working modes, braking of the cars is guaranteed by counter engagement of the linear motors. However when emergency situations develop, for example if there is some lack of voltage in the network, it becomes necessary to brake the cars which this device cannot guarantee. The purpose of the invention is to brake the cars with disconnection of power. The goal is achieved because the push rod containing a frame with inductors attached to it installed on the sides of the rail path opposite each other, in which the cabs of the cars fill the role of the rotor, the support stands are connected to the inductors by means of springs, and the frame with inductors is hinged to the support stand and has mechanism for regulating the gap between the inductors and the cars, made in the form of rollers attached to the frame for interaction with the outer sidewalls of the car is equipped with friction elements installed on the frame and electromagnets with spring-rods installed on the support stands arranged with the possibility of interacting with the frame, and each friction element is arranged with the possibility of interacting with the rollers.

  12. Application of polyimide actuator rod seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, A. W.; Gay, B. F.; Robinson, E. D.; Srinath, S. K.; Nelson, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    Development of polyimide two-stage hydraulic actuator rod seals for application in high-performance aircraft was accomplished. The significant portion of the effort was concentrated on optimization of the chevron and K-section second-stage seal geometries to satisfy the requirements for operation at 450 K (350 F) with dynamic pressure loads varying between 200 psig steady-state and 1500 psig impulse cycling. Particular significance was placed on reducing seal gland dimension by efficiently utilizing the fatigue allowables of polyimide materials. Other objectives included investigation of pressure balancing techniques for first-stage polyimide rod seals for 4000 psig 450 K(350 F) environment and fabrication of a modular retainer for the two-stage combination. Seals were fabricated in 0.0254 m (1.0in.) and 0.0635 m (2.5in.) sizes and tested for structural integrity, frictional resistance, and endurance life. Test results showed that carefully designed second stages using polyimides could be made to satisfy the dynamic return pressure requirements of applications in high-performance aircraft. High wear under full system pressure indicated that further research is necessary to obtain an acceptable first-stage design. The modular retainer was successfully tested and showed potential for new actuator applications.

  13. On the Wave Stresses in the Rods of Anvil Hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With operating anvil hammers, there are rigid impacts of die tools, and as a result, almost instantaneous impact stops of the falling parts of hammer. Such operating conditions lead to the accelerated breakdowns of rods because of significant wave stresses arising in them. Common differential and integral methods to estimate wave stresses are widespread in engineering practice. However, to use them a researcher has to possess certain skills and special software. We consider the method for estimating the wave stresses in the rods of anvil hammers based on Laplace transforms (LT of wave equation. The article shows a procedure to set up and solve differential wave equations by operator method. These equations describe the wave propagation process of strains and stresses in the rods of anvil hammers with rigid impact and taking into account a damping rod connection with the head of hammer. The method takes into consideration an influence of both piston and rod weights and of mechanical and geometrical characteristics of rod on the stress value in the placement of rod in hammer head. Results analysis shows that a sufficiently efficient method for practical improving the durability of rods is the method of damping impact load on the rod through setting the damping devices in the form either of elastic "pad" of one or another design or of hydraulic shock absorbers in the placement of its connection with the hammer head. In this case there is a change of the wave front, it becomes flatter. It is shown that the stresses in the rod are proportional to the amount of wave stresses because of the own impact of rod and piston, which make a total weight of the system. Effect of piston weight on the stresses value at the rod during impact is directly proportional to the ratio of its weight to the rod weight. The geometric parameters of rod and the speed of the falling parts before the impact also influence on the value of stresses in the rod.The represented

  14. Vortex patterns in a superconducting-ferromagnetic rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaguera, Antonio R. de C, E-mail: antonio.romaguera@df.ufrpe.b [Departamento de Fi' sica, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, 52171-900 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Doria, Mauro M. [Departamento de Fi' sica dos Solidos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Peeters, Francois M. [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2010-10-01

    A superconducting rod with a magnetic moment on top develops vortices obtained here through 3D calculations of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. The inhomogeneity of the applied field brings new properties to the vortex patterns that vary according to the rod thickness. We find that for thin rods (disks) the vortex patterns are similar to those obtained in presence of a homogeneous magnetic field instead because they consist of giant vortex states. For thick rods novel patterns are obtained as vortices are curve lines in space that exit through the lateral surface.

  15. TileCal ROD Hardware and Software Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Castelo, J; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; Higón, E; Iglesias, C; Munar, A; Poveda, J; Ruiz-Martínez, A; Salvachúa, B; Solans, C; Valls, J A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present the specific hardware and firmware requirements and modifications to operate the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LiArg) ROD motherboard in the Hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) environment. Although the use of the board is similar for both calorimeters there are still some differences in the operation of the front-end associated to both detectors which make the use of the same board incompatible. We review the evolution of the design of the ROD from the early prototype stages (ROD based on commercial and Demonstrator boards) to the production phases (ROD final board based on the LiArg design), with emphasis on the different operation modes for the TileCal detector. We start with a short review of the TileCal ROD system functionality and then we detail the different ROD hardware requirements for options, the baseline (ROD Demo board) and the final (ROD final high density board). We also summarize the performance parameters of the ROD motherboard based on the final high density option and s...

  16. Conjugal transfer of the pathogenicity island ROD21 in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis depends on environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai

    Full Text Available Unstable pathogenicity islands are chromosomal elements that can be transferred from one bacterium to another. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis is a pathogenic bacterium containing such unstable pathogenicity islands. One of them, denominated ROD21, is 26.5 kb in size and capable of excising from the chromosome in certain culture conditions, as well as during bacterial infection of phagocytic cells. In this study we have evaluated whether ROD21 can be effectively transferred from one bacterium to another. We generated a donor and several recipient strains of S. Enteritidis to carry out transfer assays in liquid LB medium. These assays showed that ROD21 is effectively transferred from donor to recipient strains of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. When Escherichia coli was used as the recipient strain, ROD21 transfer failed to be observed. Subsequently, we showed that a conjugative process was required for the transfer of the island and that changes in temperature and pH increased the transfer frequency between Salmonella strains. Our data indicate that ROD21 is an unstable pathogenicity island that can be transferred by conjugation in a species-specific manner between Salmonellae. Further, ROD21 transfer frequency increases in response to environmental changes, such as pH and temperature.

  17. Hot-pressed geopolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mohammad; Maheri, Mahmoud R.

    2017-01-01

    /FA, duration of hot-pressing and sodium concentration are studied. Together with detailed experimental studies, our results reveal that the most dominant factor is the induced pressure. The main results indicated that the highest compressive strength of the geopolymer (134 MPa) could be obtained by employing...... the hot pressing, temperature and duration of 41.4 MPa, 350 °C and 20 min, respectively. The microstructure of the hot-pressed specimens showed more developed geopolymer matrix compared with conventional ones leading to higher compressive strength in much shortest time. The improved mechanical properties...

  18. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youngju; Jung, Jaehwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, Hyunjoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Yongkeun

    2014-05-01

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from -70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth.

  19. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, HyunJoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun

    2014-05-28

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from -70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth.

  20. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Lessens Light-Induced Rod Photoreceptor Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kei; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Izawa, Hiroshi; Inoue, Yuki; Kuse, Yoshiki; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-12-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB is known to have neuroprotective effects against various neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PDGF-BB can be neuroprotective against light-induced photoreceptor damage in mice. Mice were exposed to 8000-lux luminance for 3 hours to induce phototoxicity. Two hours before light exposure, the experimental mice were injected with PDGF-BB intravitreally, and the control mice were injected with phosphate-buffered saline. The light-exposed PDGF-BB-injected mice and saline-injected mice were evaluated electroretinographically and histologically. The site and expression levels of PDGFR-β and PDGF-BB were determined by immunostaining and Western blotting, respectively. The effect of PDGF-BB on light-induced cone and rod photoreceptor damage was also evaluated in vitro in 661W cells, a murine cone photoreceptor cell line, and in primary retinal cell cultures. An intravitreal injection of PDGF-BB significantly reduced the decrease in the amplitudes of the electroretinograms (ERGs) and the thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) induced by the light exposure. It also reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the ONL. PDGFR-β was expressed in the rod outer segments (OSs) but not the cone OSs. The levels of PDGF-BB and PDGFR-β were decreased after light irradiation. In addition, PDGF-BB had protective effects against light-induced damage to cells of rod photoreceptors but had no effect on the 661W cells in vitro. These findings indicate that PDGF-BB reduces the degree of light-induced retinal damage by activating PDGFR-β in rod photoreceptors. These findings suggest that PDGF-BB could play a role in the prevention of degeneration in eyes susceptible to phototoxicity.

  1. Rod photoreceptors express GPR55 in the adult vervet monkey retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bouskila

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids exert their actions mainly through two receptors, the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R and cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R. In recent years, the G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 was suggested as a cannabinoid receptor based on its activation by anandamide and tetrahydrocannabinol. Yet, its formal classification is still a matter of debate. CB1R and CB2R expression patterns are well described for rodent and monkey retinas. In the monkey retina, CB1R has been localized in its neural (cone photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells and CB2R in glial components (Müller cells. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of GPR55 in the monkey retina by using confocal microscopy. Our results show that GPR55 is strictly localized in the photoreceptor layer of the extrafoveal portion of the retina. Co-immunolabeling of GPR55 with rhodopsin, the photosensitive pigment in rods, revealed a clear overlap of expression throughout the rod structure with most prominent staining in the inner segments. Additionally, double-label of GPR55 with calbindin, a specific marker for cone photoreceptors in the primate retina, allowed us to exclude expression of GPR55 in cones. The labeling of GPR55 in rods was further assessed with a 3D visualization in the XZ and YZ planes thus confirming its exclusive expression in rods. These results provide data on the distribution of GPR55 in the monkey retina, different than CB1R and CB2R. The presence of GPR55 in rods suggests a function of this receptor in scotopic vision that needs to be demonstrated.

  2. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  3. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hot, heavy meals and don’t use the oven. Monitor medications: Find out if the person’s medications ... nia.nih.gov Photo: By High Contrast (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 de ( http://creativecommons.org/ ...

  4. MHC-IIB filament assembly and cellular localization are governed by the rod net charge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rosenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Actin-dependent myosin II molecular motors form an integral part of the cell cytoskeleton. Myosin II molecules contain a long coiled-coil rod that mediates filament assembly required for myosin II to exert its full activity. The exact mechanisms orchestrating filament assembly are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examine mechanisms controlling filament assembly of non-muscle myosin IIB heavy chain (MHC-IIB. We show that in vitro the entire C-terminus region of net positive charge, found in myosin II rods, is important for self-assembly of MHC-IIB fragments. In contrast, no particular sequences in the rod region with net negative charge were identified as important for self-assembly, yet a minimal area from this region is necessary. Proper paracrystal formation by MHC-IIB fragments requires the 196aa charge periodicity along the entire coiled-coil region. In vivo, in contrast to self-assembly in vitro, negatively-charged regions of the coiled-coil were found to play an important role by controlling the intracellular localization of native MHC-IIB. The entire positively-charged region is also important for intracellular localization of native MHC-IIB. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A correct distribution of positive and negative charges along myosin II rod is a necessary component in proper filament assembly and intracellular localization of MHC-IIB.

  5. Nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilibin, Konstantin

    1988-01-01

    A temperature responsive, self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly 10. The upper end 18 of a lower drive line 17 fits within the lower end of an upper drive line 12. The lower end (not shown) of the lower drive line 17 is connected to a neutron absorber. During normal temperature conditions the lower drive line 17 is supported by detent means 22,26. When an overtemperature condition occurs thermal actuation means 34 urges ring 26 upwardly sufficiently to allow balls 22 to move radially outwardly thereby allowing lower drive line 17 to move downwardly toward the core of the nuclear reactor resulting in automatic reduction of the reactor powder.

  6. Tunable attractions directing nonequilibrium states in dispersions of hard rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, M.P.B. van; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of attractive interactions on the phase behavior of colloidal hard rods has been studied by the addition of nonadsorbing polymer. In these rod-polymer mixtures, four pathways of phase separation can be distinguished: nucleation and growth, spinodal decomposition, aggregation, and

  7. Switch isotropic/anisotropic wettability via dual-scale rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is the first time to demonstrate the comparison of isotropic/anisotropic wettability between dual-scale micro-nano-rods and single-scale micro-rods. Inspired by the natural structures of rice leaf, a series of micro-nano-rods and micro-rods with different geometric parameters were fabricated using micro-fabrication technology. Experimental measured apparent contact angles and advancing and receding contact angles from orthogonal orientations were characterized. The difference of contact angles from orthogonal orientation on dual-scale rods was much smaller than those on single-scale rods in both static and dynamic situation. It indicated that the dual-scale micro-nano-rods showed isotropic wettability, while single-scale micro-rods showed anisotropic wettability. The switch of isotropic/anisotropic wettability could be illustrated by different wetting state and contact line moving. It offers a facial way to switch isotropic/anisotropic wettability of the surface via dual-scale or single-scale structure.

  8. Numerical investigation of flow past a row of rectangular rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ul. Islam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of uniform flow past a row of rectangular rods with aspect ratio defined as R = width/height = 0.5 is performed using the Lattice Boltzmann method. For this study the Reynolds number (Re is fixed at 150, while spacings between the rods (g are taken in the range from 1 to 6. Depending on g, the flow is classified into four patterns: flip-flopping, nearly unsteady-inphase, modulated inphase-antiphase non-synchronized and synchronized. Sudden jumps in physical parameters were observed, attaining either maximum or minimum values, with the change in flow patterns. The mean drag coefficient (Cdmean of middle rod is higher than the second and fourth rod for flip-flopping pattern while in case of nearly unsteady-inphase the middle rod attains minimum drag coefficient. It is also found that the Strouhal number (St of first, second and fifth rod decreases as g increases while that of other two have mixed trend. The results further show that there exist secondary interaction frequencies together with primary vortex shedding frequency due to jet in the gap between rods for 1 ⩽ g ⩽ 3. For the average values of Cdmean and St, an empirical relation is also given as a function of gap spacing. This relation shows that the average values of Cdmean and St approach to those of single rectangular rod with increment in g.

  9. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation

  10. Rapid calibaration of the control rod of miniature neutron source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An innovative method of combining the well-known computer codes WIMS and CITATION in an interactive Windows environment to calculate the control rod worth and generate the calibration data/curve of single-contr-ol rod miniature source reactor (MNSR) types has been developed and tested. In the scheme, once ...

  11. Ultrasonic detection of cracks in uniaxial glass fibre rods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available propagation in the rods. The authors attempt to model the excitation and transmission of waves along undamaged as well as damaged rods in order to predict the received signals, and we compare the model results with experimental data. Specially developed...

  12. 49 CFR 236.794 - Rod, up-and-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rod, up-and-down. 236.794 Section 236.794 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., up-and-down. A rod used for connecting the semaphore arm to the operating mechanism of a signal. ...

  13. Damage development in rod-on-rod impact test on 1100 pure aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, G.; Bonora, N.; Bourne, N.; Ruggiero, A.; Testa, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stress triaxiality plays a major role in the nucleation and growth of ductile damage in metals and alloys. Although, the mechanisms responsible for ductile failure are the same at low and high strain rate, in impact dynamics, in addition to time resolved stress triaxiality and plastic strain accumulation, pressure also contributes to establish the condition for ductile failure to occur. In this work, ductile damage development in 1100 commercially pure aluminum was investigated by means of rod-on-rod (ROR) impact tests. Based on numerical simulations, using a continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model that accounts for the role of pressure on damage parameters and stochastic variability of such parameters, the impact velocity for no damage, incipient and fully developed damage were estimated. ROR tests at selected velocities were performed and damage distribution and extent were investigated by sectioning of soft recovered samples. Comparison between numerical simulations and experimental results is presented and discussed.

  14. Interfacial colloidal rod dynamics: Coefficients, simulations, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuguang; Bevan, Michael A.

    2017-08-01

    Colloidal rod diffusion near a wall is modeled and simulated based on a constrained Stokesian dynamic model of chains-of-spheres. By modeling colloidal rods as chains-of-spheres, complete diffusion tensors are computed for colloidal rods in bulk media and near interfaces, including hydrodynamic interactions, translation-rotation coupling, and all diffusion modes in the particle and lab frames. Simulated trajectories based on the chain-of-spheres diffusion tensor are quantified in terms of typical experimental quantities such as mean squared positional and angular displacements as well as autocorrelation functions. Theoretical expressions are reported to predict measured average diffusivities as well as the crossover from short-time anisotropic translational diffusion along the rod's major axis to isotropic diffusion. Diffusion modes are quantified in terms of closed form empirical fits to model results to aid their use in interpretation and prediction of experiments involving colloidal rod diffusion in interfacial and confined systems.

  15. RODMOD: a code for control rod positioning. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.

    1978-11-01

    The report documents a computer code which has been implemented to position control rods according to a prescribed schedule during the calculation of a reactor history. Control rods may be represented explicitly with or without internal black absorber conditions in selected energy groups, or fractional insertion may be done, or both, in a problem. There is provision for control rod follower, movement of materials through a series of zones in a closed loop, and shutdown rod insertion and subsequent removal to allow the reactor history calculation to be continued. This code is incorporated in the system containing the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics and the BURNER exposure codes for routine use. The implemented automated procedures cause the prescribed control rod insertion schedule to be applied without the access of additional user input data during the calculation of a reactor operating history.

  16. Study of the anti-sand sucker rod pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hangxin; Lv, Bingxin; Xi, Wenkui; Yi, Peng

    2017-06-01

    In order to solve the problem of sand stuck in the sucker rod pump, an anti-sand sucker rod pump is designed. The anti-sand sucker rod pump includes the conventional sucker rod pump and the swirl flow device. The sand particles can be separated from the oil in the swirl flow device, so the plunger of the sucker rod pump cannot be stuck. The motion equation of the sand particles in oil is deduced. The virtual model of the swirl flow device is built in GAMBIT software. And simulation of solid-liquid two phase flow is simulated in software FLUENT. The simulation results show that the swirl flow device can realize the sand particles separation from the oil completely. So the pump can have the effect of anti-sands.

  17. Buckling of a thin rod under cylindrical constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay; Su, Tianxiang; Wicks, Nathan; Pabon, Jahir; Bertoldi, Katia; Reis, Pedro

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the buckling and post-buckling behavior of a thin elastic rod, under cylindrical constraint, with distributed loading. Our precision model experiments consist of injecting a custom-fabricated rod into a transparent glass pipe. Under imposed velocity (leading to frictional axial loading), a portion of the initially straight rod first buckles into a sinusoidal mode and eventually undergoes a secondary instability into a helical configuration. The buckling and post-buckling behavior is found to be highly dependent on the system's geometry, namely the injected rod length and the aspect ratio of the rod to pipe diameter, as well as material parameters. We quantify the critical loads for this sequence of instabilities, contrast our results with numerical experiments and rationalize the observed behavior through scaling arguments.

  18. Dynamic behavior of upper hydraulic drive control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaotian [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: lixiaotian@tsinghua.edu.cn; He Shuyan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-12-15

    A 200 MW nuclear heating reactor (NHR) was developed based on the 5 MW testing heating reactor (THR-5). In order to improve its features, the INET was used to optimize its structure design. One task was to design the upper hydraulic drive control rod, which is located at the upper part of the reactor core, so that the fuel rod in each corner of the bundle will not be removed as they are in the THR-5. A program based on the method of characteristics was run to investigate the dynamic behavior of the upper hydraulic control rod drive system. The steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the control rod were studied. The influence of the reactor temperature and structure parameters on the operation reliability was investigated. Finally the optimal design parameters of the upper hydraulic drive control rod were obtained.

  19. Transcriptional Regulation of Rod Photoreceptor Homeostasis Revealed by In Vivo NRL Targetome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hong; Kim, Douglas S.; Klocke, Bernward; Johnson, Kory R.; Cui, Kairong; Gotoh, Norimoto; Zang, Chongzhi; Gregorski, Janina; Gieser, Linn; Peng, Weiqun; Fann, Yang; Seifert, Martin; Zhao, Keji; Swaroop, Anand

    2012-01-01

    A stringent control of homeostasis is critical for functional maintenance and survival of neurons. In the mammalian retina, the basic motif leucine zipper transcription factor NRL determines rod versus cone photoreceptor cell fate and activates the expression of many rod-specific genes. Here, we report an integrated analysis of NRL-centered gene regulatory network by coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP–Seq) data from Illumina and ABI platforms with global expression profiling and in vivo knockdown studies. We identified approximately 300 direct NRL target genes. Of these, 22 NRL targets are associated with human retinal dystrophies, whereas 95 mapped to regions of as yet uncloned retinal disease loci. In silico analysis of NRL ChIP–Seq peak sequences revealed an enrichment of distinct sets of transcription factor binding sites. Specifically, we discovered that genes involved in photoreceptor function include binding sites for both NRL and homeodomain protein CRX. Evaluation of 26 ChIP–Seq regions validated their enhancer functions in reporter assays. In vivo knockdown of 16 NRL target genes resulted in death or abnormal morphology of rod photoreceptors, suggesting their importance in maintaining retinal function. We also identified histone demethylase Kdm5b as a novel secondary node in NRL transcriptional hierarchy. Exon array analysis of flow-sorted photoreceptors in which Kdm5b was knocked down by shRNA indicated its role in regulating rod-expressed genes. Our studies identify candidate genes for retinal dystrophies, define cis-regulatory module(s) for photoreceptor-expressed genes and provide a framework for decoding transcriptional regulatory networks that dictate rod homeostasis. PMID:22511886

  20. Cytocompatibility, degradation, mechanical property retention and ion release profiles for phosphate glass fibre reinforced composite rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfel, R M; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Palmer, G; Sottile, V; Rudd, C D

    2013-05-01

    Fibre reinforced composites have recently received much attention as potential bone fracture fixation applications. Bioresorbable composites based on poly lactic acid (PLA) and phosphate based glass fibre were investigated according to ion release, degradation, biocompatibility and mechanical retention profiles. The phosphate based glass fibres used in this study had the composition of 40P2O5-24MgO-16CaO-16Na2O-4Fe2O3 in mol% (P40). The degradation and ion release profiles for the composites showed similar trends with the amount of sodium and orthophosphate ions released being greater than the other cations and anions investigated. This was attributed to low Dietzal's field strength for the Na(+) in comparison with Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) and breakdown of longer chain polyphosphates into orthophosphate ions. P40 composites exhibited good biocompatibility to human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which was suggested to be due to the low degradation rate of P40 fibres. After 63 days immersion in PBS at 37 °C, the P40 composite rods lost ~1.1% of mass. The wet flexural, shear and compressive strengths for P40 UD rods were ~70%, ~80% and ~50% of their initial dry values after 3 days of degradation, whereas the flexural modulus, shear and compressive strengths were ~70%, ~80%, and ~65% respectively. Subsequently, the mechanical properties remained stable for the duration of the study at 63 days. The initial decrease in mechanical properties was attributed to a combination of the plasticisation effect of water and degradation of the fibre-matrix interface, with the subsequent linear behaviour being attributed to the chemical durability of P40 fibres. P40 composite rods showed low degradation and ion release rates, good biocompatibility and maintained mechanical properties similar to cortical bone for the duration of the study. Therefore, P40 composite rods have huge potential as resorbable intramedullary nails or rods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rhodopsin expression level affects rod outer segment morphology and photoresponse kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint L Makino

    Full Text Available The retinal rod outer segment is a sensory cilium that is specialized for the conversion of light into an electrical signal. Within the cilium, up to several thousand membranous disks contain as many as a billion copies of rhodopsin for efficient photon capture. Disks are continually turned over, requiring the daily synthesis of a prodigious amount of rhodopsin. To promote axial diffusion in the aqueous cytoplasm, the disks have one or more incisures. Across vertebrates, the range of disk diameters spans an order of magnitude, and the number and length of the incisures vary considerably, but the mechanisms controlling disk architecture are not well understood. The finding that transgenic mice overexpressing rhodopsin have enlarged disks lacking an incisure prompted us to test whether lowered rhodopsin levels constrain disk assembly.The structure and function of rods from hemizygous rhodopsin knockout (R+/- mice with decreased rhodopsin expression were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and single cell recording. R+/- rods were structurally altered in three ways: disk shape changed from circular to elliptical, disk surface area decreased, and the single incisure lengthened to divide the disk into two sections. Photocurrent responses to flashes recovered more rapidly than normal. A spatially resolved model of phototransduction indicated that changes in the packing densities of rhodopsin and other transduction proteins were responsible. The decrease in aqueous outer segment volume and the lengthened incisure had only minor effects on photon response amplitude and kinetics.Rhodopsin availability limits disk assembly and outer segment girth in normal rods. The incisure may buffer the supply of structural proteins needed to form larger disks. Decreased rhodopsin level accelerated photoresponse kinetics by increasing the rates of molecular collisions on the membrane. Faster responses, together with fewer rhodopsins, combine to lower overall

  2. Transcriptional regulation of rod photoreceptor homeostasis revealed by in vivo NRL targetome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Hao

    Full Text Available A stringent control of homeostasis is critical for functional maintenance and survival of neurons. In the mammalian retina, the basic motif leucine zipper transcription factor NRL determines rod versus cone photoreceptor cell fate and activates the expression of many rod-specific genes. Here, we report an integrated analysis of NRL-centered gene regulatory network by coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq data from Illumina and ABI platforms with global expression profiling and in vivo knockdown studies. We identified approximately 300 direct NRL target genes. Of these, 22 NRL targets are associated with human retinal dystrophies, whereas 95 mapped to regions of as yet uncloned retinal disease loci. In silico analysis of NRL ChIP-Seq peak sequences revealed an enrichment of distinct sets of transcription factor binding sites. Specifically, we discovered that genes involved in photoreceptor function include binding sites for both NRL and homeodomain protein CRX. Evaluation of 26 ChIP-Seq regions validated their enhancer functions in reporter assays. In vivo knockdown of 16 NRL target genes resulted in death or abnormal morphology of rod photoreceptors, suggesting their importance in maintaining retinal function. We also identified histone demethylase Kdm5b as a novel secondary node in NRL transcriptional hierarchy. Exon array analysis of flow-sorted photoreceptors in which Kdm5b was knocked down by shRNA indicated its role in regulating rod-expressed genes. Our studies identify candidate genes for retinal dystrophies, define cis-regulatory module(s for photoreceptor-expressed genes and provide a framework for decoding transcriptional regulatory networks that dictate rod homeostasis.

  3. Anisotropy in CdSe quantum rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liang-shi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The size-dependent optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn much attention in the past decade, and have been very well understood for spherical ones. The advent of the synthetic methods to make rod-like CdSe nanocrystals with wurtzite structure has offered us a new opportunity to study their properties as functions of their shape. This dissertation includes three main parts: synthesis of CdSe nanorods with tightly controlled widths and lengths, their optical and dielectric properties, and their large-scale assembly, all of which are either directly or indirectly caused by the uniaxial crystallographic structure of wurtzite CdSe. The hexagonal wurtzite structure is believed to be the primary reason for the growth of CdSe nanorods. It represents itself in the kinetic stabilization of the rod-like particles over the spherical ones in the presence of phosphonic acids. By varying the composition of the surfactant mixture used for synthesis we have achieved tight control of the widths and lengths of the nanorods. The synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanorods enables us to systematically study their size-dependent properties. For example, room temperature single particle fluorescence spectroscopy has shown that nanorods emit linearly polarized photoluminescence. Theoretical calculations have shown that it is due to the crossing between the two highest occupied electronic levels with increasing aspect ratio. We also measured the permanent electric dipole moment of the nanorods with transient electric birefringence technique. Experimental results on nanorods with different sizes show that the dipole moment is linear to the particle volume, indicating that it originates from the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal lattice. The elongation of the nanocrystals also results in the anisotropic inter-particle interaction. One of the consequences is the formation of liquid crystalline phases when the nanorods are dispersed in solvent to a high enough

  4. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  5. Dynamics of entangled rod-coil block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Muzhou; Timachova, Ksenia; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Likhtman, Alexei E.; Olsen, Bradley D.

    2014-03-01

    Polymer science is exploring advanced materials which combine functional domains such as proteins and semiconducting polymers with traditional flexible polymers onto the same molecule. While many studies have focused on equilibrium structure-property relationships, little is known about how the conformational restrictions of rigid domains affect dynamical phenomena such as mechanical properties, processing pathways, and self-assembly kinetics. We have recently introduced a reptation theory for entangled rod-coil block copolymers as a model for this wider class of functional polymeric materials. The theory hypothesizes that the motion of rod-coils is slowed relative to rod and coil homopolymers because of a mismatch between the curvature of the rod and coil entanglement tubes. This effect leads to activated reptation and arm retraction as two relaxation mechanisms that govern the short and long rod regimes, respectively. These results were verified by tracer diffusion measurements using molecular dynamics simulation and forced Rayleigh scattering in both the rod-coil diblock and coil-rod-coil triblock configurations. The tracer diffusion results were then compared to experimental self-diffusion measurements which require a consideration of the motion of the surrounding chains.

  6. Numerical simulation of the sucker-rod pumping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldrich Joel Romero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sucker rod pump is an artificial lift method frequently applied in onshore petroleum wells. This system can be described using a numerical simulation based on the behavior of a rod string. In the past, the elastic behavior of the rod string made it difficult to model the system. However, since the 1960s and with the advent of digital computers, it has been modeled numerically. The rod string be-haves like a slender bar, and thus, the propagation of elastic waves along the bar can be represented by a one-dimensional equation. Gibbs (1963 presented a mathematical model based on the wave equation, which is described on the basis of the analysis of forces on the rod string and is incorporated into a boundary value problem involving partial differential equations. The use of the finite differ-ence method allows for a numerical solution by the discretization of the wave equation developed in the mathematical formulation with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. This work presents a methodology for implementing an academic computer code that allows simulation of the upstroke and downstroke motion of the rod string described by the wave equation under ideal operating conditions, assuming a harmonic motion of the rod at one end and downhole pump at the other end. The goal of this study is to generate the downhole dynamometer card, an important and consolidated tool that controls the pump system by diagnosing oper-ational conditions of the downhole pump.

  7. Solar-powered hot-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    Hot-water system requires no external power except solar energy. System is completely self-controlling. It includes solar-powered pump, solar-thermally and hydrothermally operated valves, and storage tank filled with open-celled foam, to maintain thermal stratification in stored water.

  8. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  9. Thermal-recovery of modal instability in rod fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Laurila, Marko; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the temporal dynamics of Modal instabilities (MI) in ROD fiber amplifiers using a 100 μm core rod fiber in a single-pass amplifier configuration, and we achieve ~200W of extracted output power before the onset of MI. Above the MI threshold, we investigate the temporal dynamics of b...... and thermally annealed between each test series. We find that the MI threshold degrades as it is reached multiple times, but is recovered by thermal annealing. We also find that the test history of the rods affects the temporal dynamics....

  10. Plasmonic rod dimers as elementary planar chiral meta-atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Chigrin, Dmitry N

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic response of metallic rod dimers is theoretically calculated for arbitrary planar arrangement of rods in the dimer. It is shown that dimers without an in-plane symmetry axis exhibit elliptical dichroism and act as "atoms" in planar chiral metamaterials. Due to a very simple geometry of the rod dimer, such planar metamaterials are much easier in fabrication than conventional split-ring or gammadion-type structures, and lend themselves to a simple analytical treatment based on coupled dipole model. Dependencies of metamaterial's directional asymmetry on the dimer's geometry are established analytically and confirmed in numerical simulations.

  11. Review of FFTF and CRBRP control rod systems designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitterle, T. A.; Lagally, H. O.

    1977-10-04

    The evolution of the primary control rod system design for FFTF and CRBR, beginning with the initial choice of the basic concepts, is described. The significant component and systems tests are reviewed together with the test results which referenced the development of the CRBR primary control rod system design. Modifications to the concepts and detail designs of the FFTF control rod system were required principally to satisfy the requirements of CRBR, and at the same time incorporating design refinements shown desirable by the tests.

  12. TRUEX hot demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  13. Fluorometer with a quartz-rod waveguide-integrating sphere configuration to measure evanescent-field luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fluorometer was designed to measure evanescent-field luminescence. A quartz-rod waveguide (d = 2 mm) was installed coaxally inside a cylindrical flow-through cell (id = 2.3 mm, od = 6.3 mm, l = 116 mm). An excitation beam from a UV LED or a miniature xenon flashlamp was focused by a ball lens and ...

  14. Results of Post Irradiation Examinations of VVER Leaky Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, D.; Perepelkin, S.; Polenok, V.; Zhitelev, V.; Mayorshina, G. [Head of Fuel Research Department, JSC ' SSC RIAR' , 433510, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk region (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    The most important requirement imposed on fuel elements is to maintain integrity of fuel rod claddings under operation, storage and transportation, since it is directly related to the operational safety. However, failed rod claddings are sometimes observed under reactor operation. Identification and unloading of fuel assemblies with leaky rods from VVER is available only at the time of planned preventive maintenance. An unscheduled reactor shutdown due to the excess of coolant activity limit as well as a preterm unloading of the fuel assembly cause economic damage to nuclear plant. Therefore, models and calculation codes were developed to forecast coolant contamination and failed fuel rod behavior. Criteria based on calculations were set to determine the admissible number of the failed rods in core and the opportunity to continue the reactor operation or pre-term unloading of the fuel assembly with the failed rods. Nevertheless, to prevent the fuel rod failure (for unfailing operation) it is necessary to reveal disadvantages of the design, fabrication method and fuel operation conditions, and to eliminate defects. The most complete and significant information about spent fuel assemblies may be received following the post irradiation material examinations. In order to reveal failure origins and mechanism of changes in VVER fuel and failed rod cladding condition depending on the operation, the examinations of 12 VVER-1000 fuel assemblies and 3 VVER-440 fuel assemblies, operated under normal conditions up to the fuel burnup 13..47 MWd/kgU were carried out. To evaluate the rod cladding condition, reveal defects and determine their parameters, the ultrasonic control of cladding integrity, surface visual inspection, eddy current defectoscopy, measurement of geometrical parameters were applied. In separate cases we used the metallography, measured the hydrogen percentage and carried out the mechanical tests of o-ring samples. The pellet condition was evaluated in

  15. Rod photoreceptors express GPR55 in the adult vervet monkey retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Casanova, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids exert their actions mainly through two receptors, the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) and cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R). In recent years, the G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was suggested as a cannabinoid receptor based on its activation by anandamide and tetrahydrocannabinol...... components (Müller cells). The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of GPR55 in the monkey retina by using confocal microscopy. Our results show that GPR55 is strictly localized in the photoreceptor layer of the extrafoveal portion of the retina. Co-immunolabeling of GPR55 with rhodopsin......, the photosensitive pigment in rods, revealed a clear overlap of expression throughout the rod structure with most prominent staining in the inner segments. Additionally, double-label of GPR55 with calbindin, a specific marker for cone photoreceptors in the primate retina, allowed us to exclude expression of GPR55...

  16. Azcatl-CRP: An ant colony-based system for searching full power control rod patterns in BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Juan Jose [Dpto. Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, Salazar, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx; Requena, Ignacio [Dpto. Ciencias Computacion e I.A. ETSII Informatica, University of Granada, C. Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es

    2006-01-15

    We show a new system named AZCATL-CRP to design full power control rod patterns in BWRs. Azcatl-CRP uses an ant colony system and a reactor core simulator for this purpose. Transition and equilibrium cycles of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) reactor core in Mexico were used to test Azcatl-CRP. LVNPP has 109 control rods grouped in four sequences and currently uses control cell core (CCC) strategy in its fuel reload design. With CCC method only one sequence is employed for reactivity control at full power operation. Several operation scenarios are considered, including core water flow variation throughout the cycle, target different axial power distributions and Haling conditions. Azcatl-CRP designs control rod patterns (CRP) taking into account safety aspects such as k {sub eff} core value and thermal limits. Axial power distributions are also adjusted to a predetermined power shape.

  17. High-yield production of hydrophobins RodA and RodB from Aspergillus fumigatus in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Højgaard; Borodina, Irina; Moresco, Jacob Lange

    2011-01-01

    broth. Protein bands of expected sizes were detected by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, and the identity was further confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Both proteins were purified using his-affinity chromatography, and the high level of purity was verified by silver-stained SDS-PAGE. Recombinant Rod...... RodA showed a similar ability to emulsify air in water, while recombinant RodB could also emulsify oil in water better than the control protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). This is to our knowledge the first successful expression of hydrophobins from A. fumigatus in a eukaryote host, which makes...

  18. Experience with hot catchpots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1945-02-02

    The first part of this report was actually a letter regarding the question, ''could the hot circulating pump be omitted when processing pitch at 700 atm.'' It had been stated that the hot circulation pump could be omitted if the quantity of cold letdown was correspondingly increased. The latest experiences with the catchpot at Poelitz showed the following. When running pitch, tar, or petroleum in the liquid-phase stalls, frequent trouble with the hot catchpot was encountered due to the coking. This coking was caused by irregular letdown yield, which could not be avoided due to small temperature fluctuations in the stall. This caused interruption of the uniform flow in the hot catchpot and the deposition of the solids contained in the letdown, largely catalyst solids, due to the asphalt content. Coking of the product was initiated by this concentration of catalyst solids. A perforated double jacket was inserted in the conical part of the catchpot through which about 3000 m/sup 3/ per hour of cold gas was blown in continuously. By this agitation and cooling in the lowest part of the catchpot, catalyst deposits were prevented from forming and the product received a continuous added supply of hydrogen. Another letter was given discussing the same question and an alternate solution. This second letter described Welheim's design for the hot catchpot. It featured introduction of 5000 to 6000 m/sup 3//hr of cold circulating gas into the lower part of the catchpot, and withdrawal of letdown from a point above the gas inlet. The advantages were continued agitation and cooling of the sludge and constant retention of some cold sludge in the catchpot (which evened out throughput and content fluctuations)

  19. Synthesis of homochiral tris-indanyl molecular rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Niels Due; Funder, Erik Daa; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2014-01-01

    Homochiral tris-indanyl molecular rods designed for supramolecular surface self-assembly were synthesized. The chiral indanol moiety was constructed via a Ti-mediated alkyne trimerization. Further manipulations resulted in a homochiral indanol monomer. This was employed as the precursor for succe......Homochiral tris-indanyl molecular rods designed for supramolecular surface self-assembly were synthesized. The chiral indanol moiety was constructed via a Ti-mediated alkyne trimerization. Further manipulations resulted in a homochiral indanol monomer. This was employed as the precursor...... for successive Sonogashira and Ohira-Bestman reactions towards the homochiral tris-indanyl molecular rods. The molecular rods will be applied for scanning tunnelling microscopy studies of their surface self-assembly and chirality....

  20. Motion simulation of hydraulic driven safety rod using FSI method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jaeho; Kim, Sanghaun; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Hydraulic driven safety rod which is one of them is being developed by Division for Reactor Mechanical Engineering, KAERI. In this paper the motion of this rod is simulated by fluid structure interaction (FSI) method before manufacturing for design verification and pump sizing. A newly designed hydraulic driven safety rod which is one of reactivity control mechanism is simulated using FSI method for design verification and pump sizing. The simulation is done in CFD domain with UDF. The pressure drop is changed slightly by flow rates. It means that the pressure drop is mainly determined by weight of moving part. The simulated velocity of piston is linearly proportional to flow rates so the pump can be sized easily according to the rising and drop time requirement of the safety rod using the simulation results.

  1. Vibrations of post-buckled rods: The singular inextensible limit

    KAUST Repository

    Neukirch, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    The small-amplitude in-plane vibrations of an elastic rod clamped at both extremities are studied. The rod is modeled as an extensible, shearable, planar Kirchhoff elastic rod under large displacements and rotations, and the vibration frequencies are computed both analytically and numerically as a function of the loading. Of particular interest is the variation of mode frequencies as the load is increased through the buckling threshold. While for some modes there are no qualitative changes in the mode frequencies, other frequencies experience rapid variations after the buckling threshold, the thinner the rod, the more abrupt the variations. Eventually, a mismatch for half of the frequencies at buckling arises between the zero thickness limit of the extensible model and the inextensible model. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The ATLAS LARG ROD G-Links Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Hubaut, F; Repain, P; Rossel, F; Vincent, D

    2004-01-01

    In this note is described the water cooling system that will be implemented on the ROD boards of the liquid argon calorimeter detectors in order to guarantee a proper behavior of the optical reception of the data.

  3. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li; Yan, Hong Young; Wang, Tzi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2) revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292) and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290) tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  4. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2 revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292 and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290 tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  5. Oscillation of a rigid rod in the special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Paiva, F M

    2012-01-01

    In the special relativity, a rigid rod slides upon itself, with one extremity oscillating harmonically. We discovered restrictions in the amplitude of the motion and in the length of the rod, essential to eliminate unphysical solutions. ------- Cxe la speciala relativeco, rigida stango movigxas sur si mem, kun unu fino oscilante harmonie. Ni malkovris limigajn kondicxojn pri la amplitudo de movado kaj pri la longo de stango, necesegaj por elimini ne-fizikajn solvojn.

  6. CHF prediction in rod bundles using round tube data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Wallen F.; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Pereira, Cláubia; Costa, Antonella L., E-mail: wallenfds@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The present work concerns the use of 1995 CHF table for uniformly heated round tubes, developed jointly by Canadian and Russian researchers, for the prediction of critical heat fluxes in rod bundles geometries. Comparisons between measured and calculated critical heat fluxes indicate that this table could be applied to rod bundles provided that a suitable correction factor is employed. The tolerance limits associated with the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) are evaluated by using statistical analysis. (author)

  7. Apparatus for injection casting metallic nuclear energy fuel rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bobby R.; Tracy, Donald B.; Griffiths, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Molds for making metallic nuclear fuel rods are provided which present reduced risks to the environment by reducing radioactive waste. In one embodiment, the mold is consumable with the fuel rod, and in another embodiment, part of the mold can be re-used. Several molds can be arranged together in a cascaded manner, if desired, or several long cavities can be integrated in a monolithic multiple cavity re-usable mold.

  8. Colloidal rods and spheres in partially miscible binary liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Hijnen, Niek

    2013-01-01

    Different scenarios for assembling rod-like and spherical colloidal particles using binary mixtures of partially miscible liquids were investigated experimentally. Suitable rod-like colloids were developed first. The subsequent studies of colloids in binary liquids consisted, on one hand, of systems where particles were partially wetted by both phases and, on the other hand, of systems where particles were completely wetted by the minority phase. A simple method to prepare l...

  9. Estimating modal instability threshold for photonic crystal rod fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Laurila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-analytic numerical model to estimate the transverse modal instability (TMI) threshold for photonic crystal rod amplifiers. The model includes thermally induced waveguide perturbations in the fiber cross section modeled with finite element simulations, and the relative intensity ...... noise (RIN) of the seed laser, which seeds mode coupling between the fundamental and higher order mode. The TMI threshold is predicted to ~370 W – 440 W depending on RIN for the distributed modal filtering rod fiber....

  10. Metamaterial perfect absorber based hot electron photodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Valentine, Jason

    2014-06-11

    While the nonradiative decay of surface plasmons was once thought to be only a parasitic process that limits the performance of plasmonic devices, it has recently been shown that it can be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors. Unfortunately, the quantum efficiency of hot electron devices remains low due to poor electron injection and in some cases low optical absorption. Here, we demonstrate how metamaterial perfect absorbers can be used to achieve near-unity optical absorption using ultrathin plasmonic nanostructures with thicknesses of 15 nm, smaller than the hot electron diffusion length. By integrating the metamaterial with a silicon substrate, we experimentally demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional hot electron photodetector with a photoresponsivity that is among the highest yet reported. We also show how the spectral bandwidth and polarization-sensitivity can be manipulated through engineering the geometry of the metamaterial unit cell. These perfect absorber photodetectors could open a pathway for enhancing hot electron based photovoltaic, sensing, and photocatalysis systems.

  11. RodZ and PgsA Play Intertwined Roles in Membrane Homeostasis of Bacillus subtilis and Resistance to Weak Organic Acid Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beilen, Johan; Blohmke, Christoph J; Folkerts, Hendrik; de Boer, Richard; Zakrzewska, Anna; Kulik, Wim; Vaz, Fred M; Brul, Stanley; Ter Beek, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Weak organic acids like sorbic and acetic acid are widely used to prevent growth of spoilage organisms such as Bacilli. To identify genes involved in weak acid stress tolerance we screened a transposon mutant library of Bacillus subtilis for sorbic acid sensitivity. Mutants of the rodZ (ymfM) gene were found to be hypersensitive to the lipophilic weak organic acid. RodZ is involved in determining the cell's rod-shape and believed to interact with the bacterial actin-like MreB cytoskeleton. Since rodZ lies upstream in the genome of the essential gene pgsA (phosphatidylglycerol phosphate synthase) we hypothesized that expression of the latter might also be affected in rodZ mutants and hence contribute to the phenotype observed. We show that both genes are co-transcribed and that both the rodZ::mini-Tn10 mutant and a conditional pgsA mutant, under conditions of minimal pgsA expression, were sensitive to sorbic and acetic acid. Both strains displayed a severely altered membrane composition. Compared to the wild-type strain, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin levels were lowered and the average acyl chain length was elongated. Induction of rodZ expression from a plasmid in our transposon mutant led to no recovery of weak acid susceptibility comparable to wild-type levels. However, pgsA overexpression in the same mutant partly restored sorbic acid susceptibility and fully restored acetic acid sensitivity. A construct containing both rodZ and pgsA as on the genome led to some restored growth as well. We propose that RodZ and PgsA play intertwined roles in membrane homeostasis and tolerance to weak organic acid stress.

  12. Performance of the NRX shut-off rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, R.E.

    1965-08-15

    A new type of shut-off rod of electromechanical design was developed by the American Machine and Foundry Company for use in the NRX reactor following the accident of 1952. The new rods were installed in May, 1956, as part of the control system conversion program which was completed in 1958. Some problems were encountered with limit switch adjustment but minor modifications in design led to much improved operation. he performance of the rods also improved as more experience was gained in the maintenance and adjustment of the various headgear components. Each headgear is now overhauled once a year on a routine basis. The present design of shut-off rod is considered to be very satisfactory. There has only been one occasion when a shut-off rod has failed to come fully down on a trip. Rods have failed to operate correctly on five other occasions but these occurred during shutdown periods or when the reactor was being shutdown manually. (author)

  13. Toggle rod stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in 14 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, A; Grierson, J; Moores, A P

    2012-05-01

    To describe the surgical technique and to report outcomes in cats with coxofemoral luxation treated with open reduction and toggle rod stabilisation. Retrospective study of cats with coxofemoral luxation stabilised via the toggle rod method. Short-term follow-up included clinical examination and radiographs. Long-term follow-up was via owner questionnaire. Fourteen cats were included. All of the cats had reported unilateral craniodorsal hip luxation. Nine cats (64·3%) had additional orthopaedic injuries. Luxations were stabilised with a 3·2-mm toggle rod (2·7-mm toggle rod in one cat) and two loops of four-metric polydioxanone (five-metric polydioxanone in one cat and three loops of four-metric polydioxanone in two cats). Success rate, in terms of maintenance of reduction, was 86%. Reluxation occurred in two cats (14%), both of which had multiple limb injuries. Eleven owner questionnaires (mean follow-up time 15·5 months) reported a functional outcome of "very good" to "excellent". Although the diameter of the pelvic canal was reduced by the presence of the toggle rod (mean narrowing 16.2%), none of the cats had defaecatory issues. Toggle rod stabilisation is an effective method for the treatment of coxofemoral luxation in cats. Injuries to multiple limbs may be a risk factor for reluxation. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Vibrational Power Flow Analysis of Rods and Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlever, James Christopher; Bernhard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method to model vibrational power flow and predict the resulting energy density levels in uniform rods and beams is investigated. This method models the flow of vibrational power in a manner analogous to the flow of thermal power in a heat conduction problem. The classical displacement solutions for harmonically excited, hysteretically damped rods and beams are used to derive expressions for the vibrational power flow and energy density in the rod and beam. Under certain conditions, the power flow in these two structural elements will be shown to be proportional to the energy density gradient. Using the relationship between power flow and energy density, an energy balance on differential control volumes in the rod and beam leads to a Poisson's equation which models the energy density distribution in the rod and beam. Coupling the energy density and power flow solutions for rods and beams is also discussed. It is shown that the resonant behavior of finite structures complicates the coupling of solutions, especially when the excitations are single frequency inputs. Two coupling formulations are discussed, the first based on the receptance method, and the second on the travelling wave approach used in Statistical Energy Analysis. The receptance method is the more computationally intensive but is capable of analyzing single frequency excitation cases. The traveling wave approach gives a good approximation of the frequency average of energy density and power flow in coupled systems, and thus, is an efficient technique for use with broadband frequency excitation.

  15. Commissioning of a passive rod scanner at INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Fabio da Silva; Oliveira, Carlos A.; Palheiros, Franklin, E-mail: carlossilva@inb.gov.br, E-mail: franklin@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Engenharia do Combustivel; Fernandez, Pablo Jesus Piñer, E-mail: pineiro@tecnatom.es [Tecnatom, San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    For the 21st reload for Angra 1, a shift from Standard to Advanced fuel design will be introduced, where the fuel assemblies under the new design will contain fuel rods with axial blanket, in line with ELETRONUCLEAR's requirement for a higher energy efficient reactor fuel. Additionally, fuel rods for Angra 2 and 3, using gadolinium type burnable poison, have to be submitted to inspections due to the demand for the same type of inspection, which cannot be certified at INB currently. In keeping with CNEN regulations, every fuel-assembly component must be inspected and certified by a qualified method. Nevertheless, INB lacks the means to perform the certification-required inspection aimed at determining the uranium enrichment and presence of gadolinium pellets inside the closed rods. Hence, the use is necessary of a scanner capable of inspecting differently enriched fuel rods and/or gadolinium pellets (axial blanket). This work aims to present the recent Passive Rod Scanner installed at INB with most advance technology in the area, making possible to completely fulfill Angra 1, 2 and 3 rods inspection at INB Resende site. (author)

  16. Cx36 expression in the AII-mediated rod pathway is activity dependent in the developing rabbit retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hung-Ya; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2016-05-01

    Gap junctions are composed of connexin 36 (Cx36) and play a critical role in the rod photoreceptor signaling pathways of the vertebrate retina. Despite the fact that their connection and modulation in various rod pathways have been extensively studied in adult animals, little is known about the contribution and regulation of gap junctions to the development of the AII amacrine cell (AC)-mediated rod pathway. Using immunohistochemistry and microinjection, this study demonstrates a steady increase in relative Cx36 protein expression in both plexiform layers of the rabbit retina at around the time of eye opening. However, immediately after eye opening, most Cx36 immunoreactive AII ACs show no gap junction coupling pattern to neighboring cells and it is not until the third postnatal week that AII cells begin to exhibit an adult-like tracer-coupling pattern. Moreover, studies using dark-rearing and AMPA receptor blockade during postnatal development both revealed that relative levels of Cx36 immunoreactivity in AII ACs were increased when neural activity was inhibited. Our findings suggest that Cx36 expression in the AII-mediated rod pathway is activity dependent in the developing rabbit retina. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Rod internal pressure quantification and distribution analysis using Frapcon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL; Wieselquist, William A [ORNL; Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State University, University Park

    2015-09-01

    This report documents work performed supporting the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) under work breakdown structure element 1.02.08.10, ST Analysis. In particular, this report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT- 15OR0810036, Quantify effects of power uncertainty on fuel assembly characteristics, within work package FT-15OR081003 ST Analysis-ORNL. This research was also supported by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (http://www.casl.gov), an Energy Innovation Hub (http://www.energy.gov/hubs) for Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Reactors under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. The discharge rod internal pressure (RIP) and cladding hoop stress (CHS) distributions are quantified for Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) fuel rods by modeling core cycle design data, operation data (including modeling significant trips and downpowers), and as-built fuel enrichments and densities of each fuel rod in FRAPCON-3.5. A methodology is developed which tracks inter-cycle assembly movements and assembly batch fabrication information to build individual FRAPCON inputs for each evaluated WBN1 fuel rod. An alternate model for the amount of helium released from the zirconium diboride (ZrB2) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) layer is derived and applied to FRAPCON output data to quantify the RIP and CHS for these types of fuel rods. SCALE/Polaris is used to quantify fuel rodspecific spectral quantities and the amount of gaseous fission products produced in the fuel for use in FRAPCON inputs. Fuel rods with ZrB2 IFBA layers (i.e., IFBA rods) are determined to have RIP predictions that are elevated when compared to fuel rod without IFBA layers (i.e., standard rods) despite the fact that IFBA rods often have reduced fill pressures and annular fuel pellets. The primary contributor to elevated RIP predictions at burnups less than and greater than 30 GWd

  18. 75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Investigation No. 731-TA-961 concerning carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Trinidad and... value. Caribbean Ispat Ltd., a Trinidadian producer and exporter of wire rod now known as Mittal Steel...

  19. The hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Frank S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  20. Characterization of control rod worths and fuel rod power peaking factors in the university of Utah TRIGA Mark I reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alroumi Fawaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Control rod reactivity (worths for the three control rods and fuel rod power peaking factors in the University of Utah research reactor (100 kW TRIGA Mark I are characterized using the AGENT code system and the results described in this paper. These values are compared to the MCNP6 and existing experimental measurements. In addition, the eigenvalue, neutron spatial flux distributions and reaction rates are analyzed and discussed. The AGENT code system is widely benchmarked for various reactor types and complexities in their geometric arrangements of the assemblies and reactor core material distributions. Thus, it is used as a base methodology to evaluate neutronics variables of the research reactor at the University of Utah. With its much shorter computation time than MCNP6, AGENT provides agreement with the MCNP6 within a 0.5 % difference for the eigenvalue and a maximum difference of 10% in the power peaking factor values. Differential and integral control rod worths obtained by AGENT show well agreement with MCNP6 and the theoretical model. However, regulating the control rod worth is somewhat overestimated by both MCNP6 and AGENT models when compared to the experimental/theoretical values. In comparison to MCNP6, the total control rod worths and shutdown margin obtained with AGENT show better agreement to the experimental values.

  1. Slow hot carrier cooling in cesium lead iodide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Ripolles, Teresa S.; Even, Jacky; Ogomi, Yuhei; Nishinaka, Koji; Izuishi, Takuya; Nakazawa, Naoki; Zhang, Yaohong; Ding, Chao; Liu, Feng; Toyoda, Taro; Yoshino, Kenji; Minemoto, Takashi; Katayama, Kenji; Hayase, Shuzi

    2017-10-01

    Lead halide perovskites are attracting a great deal of interest for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs, and lasers because of their unique properties. In solar cells, heat dissipation by hot carriers results in a major energy loss channel responsible for the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. Hot carrier solar cells offer the possibility to overcome this limit and achieve energy conversion efficiency as high as 66% by extracting hot carriers. Therefore, fundamental studies on hot carrier relaxation dynamics in lead halide perovskites are important. Here, we elucidated the hot carrier cooling dynamics in all-inorganic cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3) perovskite using transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe that the hot carrier cooling rate in CsPbI3 decreases as the fluence of the pump light increases and the cooling is as slow as a few 10 ps when the photoexcited carrier density is 7 × 1018 cm-3, which is attributed to phonon bottleneck for high photoexcited carrier densities. Our findings suggest that CsPbI3 has a potential for hot carrier solar cell applications.

  2. Consistent neutron-physical and thermal-physical calculations of fuel rods of VVER type reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhomirov Georgy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For modeling the isotopic composition of fuel, and maximum temperatures at different moments of time, one can use different algorithms and codes. In connection with the development of new types of fuel assemblies and progress in computer technology, the task makes important to increase accuracy in modeling of the above characteristics of fuel assemblies during the operation. Calculations of neutronphysical characteristics of fuel rods are mainly based on models using averaged temperature, thermal conductivity factors, and heat power density. In this paper, complex approach is presented, based on modern algorithms, methods and codes to solve separate tasks of thermal conductivity, neutron transport, and nuclide transformation kinetics. It allows to perform neutron-physical and thermal-physical calculation of the reactor with detailed temperature distribution, with account of temperature-depending thermal conductivity and other characteristics. It was applied to studies of fuel cell of the VVER-1000 reactor. When developing new algorithms and programs, which should improve the accuracy of modeling the isotopic composition and maximum temperature in the fuel rod, it is necessary to have a set of test tasks for verification. The proposed approach can be used for development of such verification base for testing calculation of fuel rods of VVER type reactors

  3. Strategy for Fuel Rod Receipt, Characterization, Sample Allocation for the Demonstration Sister Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Warmann, Stephan A. [Portage, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    , inert gas backfilling, and transfer to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for multi-year storage. To document the initial condition of the used fuel prior to emplacement in a storage system, “sister ” fuel rods will be harvested and sent to a national laboratory for characterization and archival purposes. This report supports the demonstration by describing how sister rods will be shipped and received at a national laboratory, and recommending basic nondestructive and destructive analyses to assure the fuel rods are adequately characterized for UFDC work. For this report, a hub-and-spoke model is proposed, with one location serving as the hub for fuel rod receipt and characterization. In this model, fuel and/or clad would be sent to other locations when capabilities at the hub were inadequate or nonexistent. This model has been proposed to reduce DOE-NE’s obligation for waste cleanup and decontamination of equipment.

  4. Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Enhances Rod Survival in the S334ter-line3 Retinitis Pigmentosa Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-A Shin

    Full Text Available Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP is one of the most common forms of inherited visual loss with the initial degeneration of rod photoreceptors, followed by a progressive cone photoreceptor deterioration. Coinciding with this visual loss, the extracellular matrix (ECM is reorganized, which alters matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity levels. A potential pathological role of MMPs, MMP-9 in particular, involves an excitotoxicity-mediated physiological response. In the current study, we examine the MMP-9 and MMP-2 expression levels in the rhodopsin S334ter-line3 RP rat model and investigate the impact of treatment with SB-3CT, a specific MMP-9 and MMP-2 inhibitor, on rod cell survival was tested. Retinal MMP-9 and MMP-2 expression levels were quantified by immunoblot analysis from S334ter-line3 rats compared to controls. Gelatinolytic activities of MMP-9 and MMP-2 by zymography were examined. The geometry of rod death was further evaluated using Voronoi analysis. Our results revealed that MMP-9 was elevated while MMP-2 was relatively unchanged when S334ter-line 3 retinas were compared to controls. With SB-3CT treatment, we observed gelatinolytic activity of both MMPs was decreased and diminished clustering associated with rod death, in addition to a robust preservation of rod photoreceptors. These results demonstrate that up-regulation of MMP-9 in retinas of S334ter-line3 are associated with rod death. The application of SB-3CT dramatically interferes with mechanisms leading to apoptosis in an MMP-9-dependent manner. Future studies will determine the feasibility of using SB-3CT as a potential therapeutic strategy to slow progression of vision loss in genetic inherited forms of human RP.

  5. Hot tearing susceptibility of aluminum alloys using CRCM-Horizontal mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Akhyar

    Full Text Available Hot tearing is one of the common defects in casting products. Hot tearing susceptibility (HTS is evaluated using three casting temperatures: 710, 760 and 810 °C. Four aluminum alloys were obtained from the melting of two ingots and casted into constrained rod casting modified-horizontal (CRCM-H molds. The HTS equation was developed to evaluate the hot tearing tendency of metal by the length of bars, tear categories, and tear position. This experiment investigated the effect of various casting temperatures on hot tearing tendency. Hot tearing frequently occurred on the sprue end while only a few tears were found on the ball end and mid bar. The HTS index maximum was 55 at a casting temperature of 760 °C in Alloy 2 and the HTS index minimum was 3 at a casting temperature of 760 °C in Alloy 1. Footprint charts were used with axis values that represent the hot tear susceptibility index on cast-samples. Keywords: Hot tearing, Casting temperature, Footprint chart, CRCM-H

  6. Plasmonic-cavity model for radiating nano-rod antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the analytical solution of nano-rod antennas utilizing a cylindrical harmonics expansion. By treating the metallic nano-rods as plasmonic cavities, we derive closed-form expressions for both the internal and the radiated fields, as well as the resonant condition and the ......In this paper, we propose the analytical solution of nano-rod antennas utilizing a cylindrical harmonics expansion. By treating the metallic nano-rods as plasmonic cavities, we derive closed-form expressions for both the internal and the radiated fields, as well as the resonant condition...... and the radiation efficiency. With our theoretical model, we show that besides the plasmonic resonances, efficient radiation takes advantage of (a) rendering a large value of the rods' radius and (b) a central-fed profile, through which the radiation efficiency can reach up to 70% and even higher in a wide...... frequency band. Our theoretical expressions and conclusions are general and pave the way for engineering and further optimization of optical antenna systems and their radiation patterns....

  7. On Cherenkov light production by irradiated nuclear fuel rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, E.; Grape, S.; Jacobsson Svärd, S.; Jansson, P.; Andersson Sundén, E.

    2017-06-01

    Safeguards verification of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage is frequently done by measuring the Cherenkov light in the surrounding water produced due to radioactive decays of fission products in the fuel. This paper accounts for the physical processes behind the Cherenkov light production caused by a single fuel rod in wet storage, and simulations are presented that investigate to what extent various properties of the rod affect the Cherenkov light production. The results show that the fuel properties have a noticeable effect on the Cherenkov light production, and thus that the prediction models for Cherenkov light production which are used in the safeguards verifications could potentially be improved by considering these properties. It is concluded that the dominating source of the Cherenkov light is gamma-ray interactions with electrons in the surrounding water. Electrons created from beta decay may also exit the fuel and produce Cherenkov light, and e.g. Y-90 was identified as a possible contributor to significant levels of the measurable Cherenkov light in long-cooled fuel. The results also show that the cylindrical, elongated fuel rod geometry results in a non-isotropic Cherenkov light production, and the light component parallel to the rod's axis exhibits a dependence on gamma-ray energy that differs from the total intensity, which is of importance since the typical safeguards measurement situation observes the vertical light component. It is also concluded that the radial distributions of the radiation sources in a fuel rod will affect the Cherenkov light production.

  8. Control rod worth calculations using deterministic and stochastic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvayanni, M. [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Savva, P., E-mail: melina@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Catsaros, N. [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    Knowledge of the efficiency of a control rod to absorb excess reactivity in a nuclear reactor, i.e. knowledge of its reactivity worth, is very important from many points of view. These include the analysis and the assessment of the shutdown margin of new core configurations (upgrade, conversion, refuelling, etc.) as well as several operational needs, such as calibration of the control rods, e.g. in case that reactivity insertion experiments are planned. The control rod worth can be assessed either experimentally or theoretically, mainly through the utilization of neutronic codes. In the present work two different theoretical approaches, i.e. a deterministic and a stochastic one are used for the estimation of the integral and the differential worth of two control rods utilized in the Greek Research Reactor (GRR-1). For the deterministic approach the neutronics code system SCALE (modules NITAWL/XSDRNPM) and CITATION is used, while the stochastic one is made using the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI. Both approaches follow the procedure of reactivity insertion steps and their results are tested against measurements conducted in the reactor. The goal of this work is to examine the capability of a deterministic code system to reliably simulate the worth of a control rod, based also on comparisons with the detailed Monte Carlo simulation, while various options are tested with respect to the deterministic results' reliability.

  9. Nonlinear stiffness profiles of external fixators constructed with composite rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly R; Kraus, Karl H; Kowaleski, Michael P

    2006-12-01

    To determine if composite connecting rods confer nonlinear stiffness characteristics on unilateral and bilateral external skeletal fixators (ESF) in cranial-caudal bending and axial loading. Mechanical testing performed on models. Six models of 6-pin ESF constructs composed of birch dowels, a commercial ESF system, and composite connecting rods. Unilateral and bilateral ESF configurations were assembled using either specially designed composite titanium and silicone (composite group) or solid titanium (solid group) connecting rods. Mechanical testing was performed in axial loading and 4-point cranial-caudal bending. Stiffness was determined at a low and high-load range, and was considered increasing and nonlinear if the stiffness at high loads was greater than at low loads. The stiffness of the solid group was linear in all testing modes and configurations. Bilateral composite fixators had a nonlinear increasing stiffness in axial loading and cranial-caudal bending. Unilateral composite fixators had a nonlinear increasing stiffness in axial loading, but not cranial-caudal bending. Solid connecting rods conferred a higher stiffness in all testing modes and configurations. Composite connecting rods resulted in nonlinear increasing axial and bending stiffness in bilateral fixators, and in axial load in unilateral fixators. Conventional ESF can be constructed so that the stiffness increases as load increases. This provides the surgeon with additional options to control the local mechanical environment of a healing fracture, which may be used to enhance fracture healing.

  10. Quasi-static and dynamic response of viscoelastic helical rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Beytullah; Fırat Çalim, Faruk; Tütüncü, Naki

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the dynamic behaviour of cylindrical helical rods made of linear viscoelastic materials are investigated in the Laplace domain. The governing equations for naturally twisted and curved spatial rods obtained using the Timoshenko beam theory are rewritten for cylindrical helical rods. The curvature of the rod axis, effect of rotary inertia, and shear and axial deformations are considered in the formulation. The material of the rod is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and linear viscoelastic. In the viscoelastic material case, according to the correspondence principle, the material constants are replaced with their complex counterparts in the Laplace domain. Ordinary differential equations in scalar form obtained in the Laplace domain are solved numerically using the complementary functions method to calculate the dynamic stiffness matrix of the problem. In the solutions, the Kelvin model is employed. The solutions obtained are transformed to the real space using the Durbin's numerical inverse Laplace transform method. Numerical results for quasi-static and dynamic response of viscoelastic models are presented in the form of graphics.

  11. Combustion of solid carbon rods in zero and normal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuckler, C. M.; Kohl, F. J.; Miller, R. A.; Stearns, C. A.; De Witt, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of carbon combustion, normal and zero gravity experiments were conducted in which spectroscopic carbon rods were resistance ignited and burned in an oxygen environment. Direct mass spectrometric sampling was used in the normal gravity tests to measure gas phase concentrations. The gas sampling probe was positioned near the circumference of the horizontally mounted carbon rods, either at the top or at angles of 45 or 90 deg from the top, and yielded concentration profiles of CO2, CO, and O2 as a function of distance from the carbon surface. The experimental concentrations were compared to those predicted by a stagnant film model. Zero gravity droptower tests were conducted in order to assess the effect of convection on the normal gravity combustion process. The ratio of flame diameter to rod diameter as a function of time for oxygen pressures of 5, 10, 15, and 20 psia was obtained for three different diameter rods. It was found that this ratio was inversely proportional to both the oxygen pressure and the rod diameter.

  12. Fault pseudotachylyte: a coseismic lightning rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, E. C.; Conder, J. A.; MathanaSekaran, N.; Geissman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    of melt during the formation of a pseudotachylite vein. The increase in melt temperature is the most important factor affecting electrical conductivity in the fault plane. When the melt temperature rises from 1300 to 2000K, its electrical conductivity increases about 80 times. This implies that once a continuous pseudotachylite sheet-like vein is formed during an earthquake, the vein has a much higher electrical conductivity than its host-rock. The dramatic increase in electrical conductivity along the pseudotachylite plane might be synchronous with the generation of the coseismic electrical current. Thus, regardless of its origin, any electrical current produced during an earthquake will travel along the pseudotachylite plane which acts as a lightning rod. The magnetization of a solid due to an electrical current results from Biot-Savart law which states that an electrical current generates a magnetic field. The solidification of the pseudotachylite vein does not happen at once but proceeds from the margin inwards as an electrical current may still pass through the conducting pseudotachylite. Therefore, the host-rock of the pseudotachylite vein or its solidified margin can be magnetized by a coseismic current.

  13. Analysis of Explanted Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods From Seven UK Spinal Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Thomas J; Smith, Simon L; Rushton, Paul R P; Bowey, Andrew J; Gibson, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of explanted MAGnetic Expansion Control (MAGEC) growing rods. To analyze explanted MAGEC rods used in management of early onset scoliosis and identify the mode of failure in such cases. Magnetically controlled growing rods are increasingly used as the option of choice for early onset scoliosis. However, being more complex than conventional growing rods they are perhaps more likely to succumb to multifarious failure modes. In addition, metallosis has been reported around failed MAGEC rods. Explanted MAGEC rods from seven UK spinal centers were obtained for independent analysis. Thirty-four MAGEC rods, from 18 children, explanted for reasons including failure of rod lengthening and maximum rod distraction reached, were cut open to allow internal components to be evaluated and assessed. Externally, all MAGEC rods showed localized marks, which were termed "growth marks" as they indicated growth of the rod in vivo, on the extending bar component. After cutting open, titanium wear debris was found inside all 34 (100%) MAGEC rods. Ninety-one percent (31/34) of MAGEC rods showed measurable wear of the extending bar, towards the magnet end. Substantial damage to the radial bearing was seen inside 74% (25/34) of MAGEC rods while O-ring seal failure was seen in 53% (18/34) of cases. In 44% (15/34) of MAGEC rods the drive pin was fractured but this was felt to be an effect of rod failure, not a cause. The combination of high volumes of titanium wear debris alongside O-ring seal damage likely accounts for the metallosis reported clinically around some MAGEC rods. Based on this explant data, a failure mechanism in MAGEC rods due to the natural off axis loading in the spine was proposed. This is the largest data set reporting a complete analysis of explanted MAGEC rods to date. 4.

  14. Preparation of nanometer-scale rod array of hydroxyapatite crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Satoshi; Li, Yaqi; Tsuru, Kanji; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Fujii, Eiji; Kawabata, Koji

    2009-07-01

    Fabrication of nano- or micro-structured scaffolds to mimic structural and three-dimensional details of natural bone or teeth has been the subject of much interest, and this study proposes a new strategy for self-assembling one-dimensional hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods into organized superstructures. A nanometer-scale rod array of HAp having preferred orientation to the c-axis was successfully prepared simply by soaking calcium-containing silicate glass substrates in Na(2)HPO(4) aqueous solution at 80 degrees C for various periods. Those HAp rods grew perpendicularly to the glass surface, and the crystallites covered the glass surface uniformly, resulting in a "dental enamel-like" rod array structure consisting of "pine-leaf-like" structure units.

  15. Simulations of optical sensors fabricated from metallic rods couplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Balakrishanan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 3K7 and Lawson Health Research Institute, 268, Grosvenor Street, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    We have developed the optical sensing mechanism of photonic couplers fabricated from the periodically arranged metallic rods. The metallic rod lattice is embedded between two dielectric material waveguides. This structure is called metallic coupler. Using the transfer matrix method, expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients of electromagnetic wave propagating in waveguides have been obtained. We found that for certain energies, the electromagnetic wave is totally reflected from the coupler. Similarly, for a certain energy range the light is totally transmitted. It has also been found that by changing the periodicity of the metallic rods, the transmitted energy can be reflected. The periodicity of the metallic lattice can be modified by applying an external stress or pressure. In other words, the system can be used as stress and pressure sensors. The present findings can be used to make new types photonic sensors.

  16. Characterisation of Plasma Filled Rod Pinch electron beam diode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Bland, Simon; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    The plasma filled rod pinch diode (aka PFRP) offers a small radiographic spot size and a high brightness source. It operates in a very similar to plasma opening switches and dense plasma focus devices - with a plasma prefill, supplied via a number of simple coaxial plasma guns, being snowploughed along a thin rod cathode, before detaching at the end. The aim of this study is to model the PFRP and understand the factors that affect its performance, potentially improving future output. Given the dependence on the PFRP on the prefill, we are making detailed measurements of the density (1015-1018 cm-3), velocity, ionisation and temperature of the plasma emitted from a plasma gun/set of plasma guns. This will then be used to provide initial conditions to the Gorgon 3D MHD code, and the dynamics of the entire rod pinch process studied.

  17. An experimental study on mechanical properties of GFRP braid-pultruded composite rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a conventional textile braiding machine was modified and added to a pultrusion line in order to produce glass fiber reinforced composite rods by braiding-pultrusion technique. Braid-pultruded (BP rods were produced with three braid roving linear densities and also with three different braid angles. To study the influence of overbraiding on mechanical properties of pultruded rods, unidirectional (UD rods, without braided fabric, were produced, as well. All rod types were subjected to tensile, bending and torsion tests. The experimental results showed that BP rods have considerably higher shear modulus, but lower tensile modulus and flexural rigidity than those of UD pultruded rods, when fiber volume fraction is kept constant. Moreover, rods produced with higher braid roving linear densities had better torsional, but lower tensile and flexural properties. The highest shear modulus was observed in BP rods with braid angle of 45°.

  18. Hot skull: Malignant or feminine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J.C.; Isslet, J.W. van; Buul, M.M.C. van; Oei, H.Y.; Rijk, P.P. van

    1987-07-01

    Diffusely increased uptake in the calvarium on bone scintigraphy (a hot skull) is often present in patients with bone metastases and metabolic diseases. Excluding these known facts the prevalence of the hot skull and its relation with malignancy and, more specifically, with breast carcinoma have been studied in 673 patients. In women, the hot skull is clearly related to malignancy and to a lesser extent to breast carcinoma. However, another remarkable feature of the hot skull is its predominance in women in general (compared to men) and, therefore, the data suggest that the hot skull can also represent a normal variant of the female skull. We conclude that the hot skull has no clinical value in screening protocols.

  19. New models of droplet deposition and entrainment for prediction of CHF in cylindrical rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibin, E-mail: hb-zhang@xjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom); Hewitt, G.F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • New models of droplet deposition and entrainment in rod bundles is developed. • A new phenomenological model to predict the CHF in rod bundles is described. • The present model is well able to predict CHF in rod bundles. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a new set of model of droplet deposition and entrainment in cylindrical rod bundles based on the previously proposed model for annuli (effectively a “one-rod” bundle) (2016a). These models make it possible to evaluate the differences of the rates of droplet deposition and entrainment for the respective rods and for the outer tube by taking into account the geometrical characteristics of the rod bundles. Using these models, a phenomenological model to predict the CHF (critical heat flux) for upward annular flow in vertical rod bundles is described. The performance of the model is tested against the experimental data of Becker et al. (1964) for CHF in 3-rod and 7-rod bundles. These data include tests in which only the rods were heated and data for simultaneous uniform and non-uniform heating of the rods and the outer tube. It was shown that the predicted CHFs by the present model agree well with the experimental data and with the experimental observation that dryout occurred first on the outer rods in 7-rod bundles. It is expected that the methodology used will be generally applicable in the prediction of CHF in rod bundles.

  20. Characterization of dominant giant rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria from a low tide zone of the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhaojie; Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Yiran; Pan, Hongmiao; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2017-08-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of Gram-negative bacteria that synthesize magnetic crystals, enabling them to navigate in relation to magnetic field lines. Morphologies of magnetotactic bacteria include spirillum, coccoid, rod, vibrio, and multicellular morphotypes. The coccid shape is generally the most abundant morphotype among magnetotactic bacteria. Here we describe a species of giant rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria (designated QR-1) collected from sediment in the low tide zone of Huiquan Bay (Yellow Sea, China). This morphotype accounted for 90% of the magnetotactic bacteria collected, and the only taxonomic group which was detected in the sampling site. Microscopy analysis revealed that QR-1 cells averaged (6.71±1.03)×(1.54±0.20) μm in size, and contained in each cell 42-146 magnetosomes that are arranged in a bundle formed one to four chains along the long axis of the cell. The QR-1 cells displayed axial magnetotaxis with an average velocity of 70±28 μm/s. Transmission electron microscopy based analysis showed that QR-1 cells had two tufts of flagella at each end. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that QR-1 together with three other rod-shaped uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria are clustered into a deep branch of Alphaproteobacteria.

  1. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system. The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles. Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone. This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged, even as the planet

  2. Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Danilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai

  3. Adaptations in rod outer segment disc membranes in response to environmental lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Tatini; Senapati, Subhadip; Parmar, Vipul M; Sahu, Bhubanananda; Maeda, Akiko; Park, Paul S-H

    2017-10-01

    The light-sensing rod photoreceptor cell exhibits several adaptations in response to the lighting environment. While adaptations to short-term changes in lighting conditions have been examined in depth, adaptations to long-term changes in lighting conditions are less understood. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the structure of rod outer segment disc membranes, the site of photon absorption by the pigment rhodopsin, to better understand how photoreceptor cells respond to long-term lighting changes. Structural properties of the disc membrane changed in response to housing mice in constant dark or light conditions and these adaptive changes required output from the phototransduction cascade initiated by rhodopsin. Among these were changes in the packing density of rhodopsin in the membrane, which was independent of rhodopsin synthesis and specifically affected scotopic visual function as assessed by electroretinography. Studies here support the concept of photostasis, which maintains optimal photoreceptor cell function with implications in retinal degenerations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The improvement of control rod in experimental fast reactor JOYO. The development of a sodium bonded type control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soga, T.; Miyakawa, S.; Mitsugi, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai Engineering Center, Irradiation Center, Irradiation and Administration Section, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Currently, the lifetime of control rods in JOYO is limited by Absorber-Cladding Mechanical Interaction (ACMI) due to swelling of B{sub 4}C(boron carbide) pellets accelerated by relocation of pellet fragments. A sodium bonded type control rod was developed which improves the thermal conductivity by means of charging sodium into the gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding and by utilizing a shroud which wraps the pellet fragments in a thin tube. This new design will be able to enlarge the gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding, without heating B{sub 4}C or fragment relocation, thus extending the life of the control rod. The sodium bonded type will be fabricated as the ninth reload control rods in JOYO. (1) The specification of a sodium bonded type control rod was determined with the wide gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding. In the design simulation, main component temperature were below the maximum limit. And the local heating by helium bubble generated from B{sub 4}C in the sodium gap, was not a serious problem in the analysis which was considered. (2) A structural design for the sodium entrance into the pin was determined. A formula was developed which the limit for sodium charging given physical dimension of the structure and sodium property. Result from sodium out-pile experiments validated the theoretical formula. (3) The analysis of ACMI indicated a lifetime extension of the sodium bonded type by 4.6% in comparison with lifetime of the helium bonded type of 1.6%. This is due to the boron10 burn-up rate being three times higher in the sodium bonded type than in the helium bonded type. To achieve a target burn-up 10% in the future, it will be necessary to modify design based on irradiation data which will be obtained by practical use of the sodium bonded control rods in JOYO. (4) The effects due to Absorber-Cladding Chemical Interaction (ACCI) were reduced by controlling the cladding temperature and chromium coating to the cladding's inner surface. It was confirmed

  5. Microstructure analysis and comparison of tungsten alloy rod and [001] oriented columnar-grained tungsten rod ballistic penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappu, S.; Kennedy, C.; Murr, L.E. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Magness, L.S. [US Army Research Lab., Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Kapoor, D. [US Army Armament, Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) penetrator rods (93% W particles in a matrix of 4.9% Ni and 2.1% Fe) were compared with [001] columnar-grained W penetrator rods in the as-fabricated condition, and after penetration into thick targets at impact velocities of 1 and 1.5 km s{sup -1}, respectively. Light metallography and transmission electron microscopy revealed the initial W microstructures to be similar arrangements of predominantly a left angle 111 right angle /2 screw dislocations. The in-target (deformed) microstructures were characterized by recovered and elongated sub-grains having misorientations ranging from 1 to 5 . (orig.) 22 refs.

  6. The Evolutionary Linguist's Divining-rod: Restrictive Theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    The Evolutionary Linguist's Divining-rod: Restrictive Theory 51 course, to be complemented by a theory which characterizes – in an equally constrained way – the products of adaptation by natural selection. Indeed, on certain theories of evolutionary processes an entity is considered an exaptation if it lacks the properties of ...

  7. Boiling water reactor radiation shielded Control Rod Drive Housing Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baversten, B.; Linden, M.J. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Operations, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Control Rod Drive (CRD) mechanisms are located in the area below the reactor vessel in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Specifically, these CRDs are located between the bottom of the reactor vessel and above an interlocking structure of steel bars and rods, herein identified as CRD Housing Supports. The CRD Housing Supports are designed to limit the travel of a Control Rod and Control Rod Drive in the event that the CRD vessel attachement went to fail, allowing the CRD to be ejected from the vessel. By limiting the travel of the ejected CRD, the supports prevent a nuclear overpower excursion that could occur as a result of the ejected CRD. The Housing Support structure must be disassembled in order to remove CRDs for replacement or maintenance. The disassembly task can require a significant amount of outage time and personnel radiation exposure dependent on the number and location of the CRDs to be changed out. This paper presents a way to minimize personal radiation exposure through the re-design of the Housing Support structure. The following paragraphs also delineate a method of avoiding the awkward, manual, handling of the structure under the reactor vessel during a CRD change out.

  8. Porous tantalum rods for treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z H; Guo, W S; Li, Z R; Cheng, L M; Zhang, Q D; Yue, D B; Shi, Z C; Wang, B L; Sun, W; Zhang, N F

    2014-10-20

    This study evaluated the outcomes of using porous tantalum rods for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). We performed core decompression and inserted porous tantalum implants in 149 patients (168 consecutive hips) with ONFH. Hips had large (65), medium (64), or small (39) lesions; 63 lesions were lateral, 68 were central, and 35 were medial. Conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA) was the end point of this survey. A total of 130 cases (138 hips) were followed. The mean follow-up time was 38.46 ± 5.76 months; 43 hips (31%) were converted to or needed THA. Of the 43 hips requiring THA, 33 had large lesions, including 1 medial, 3 central, and 29 lateral lesions; 9 had medium, lateral lesions, and 1 hip had a small, lateral lesion. Bone grafting was used in 59 hips, with 3 hips failing; 40 of 79 hips without bone grafts failed. The sum distances between the tops of the rods and the lateral lesion boundaries (SDTL, mm) were measured in anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. In the failure and spared groups, the average SDTLs were 7.65 ± 2.759 and 0.83 ± 2.286 mm, respectively. The survival of porous tantalum rods used for treating early-stage ONFH was affected by the size and location of the lesion, whether or not a bone graft was used, as well as the distance between top of the rod and the lateral boundary of the lesion.

  9. Effect of Cuisenaire Rods' approach on students' interest in decimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the effectiveness of Cuisenaire Rods' approach in arousing students' interest in decimal fractions. Two research questions were posed and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A sample of 200 JS3 students from a randomly selected schools in Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State, served ...

  10. Mathematical model of an integrated circuit cooling through cylindrical rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán-Prieto Luis Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in integrated circuits development is to propose alternatives to handle the extreme heat generated by high frequency of electrons moving in a reduced space that cause overheating and reduce the lifespan of the device. The use of cooling fins offers an alternative to enhance the heat transfer using combined a conduction-convection systems. Mathematical model of such process is important for parametric design and also to gain information about temperature distribution along the surface of the transistor. In this paper, we aim to obtain the equations for heat transfer along the chip and the fin by performing energy balance and heat transfer by conduction from the chip to the rod, followed by dissipation to the surrounding by convection. Newton's law of cooling and Fourier law were used to obtain the equations that describe the profile temperature in the rod and the surface of the chip. Ordinary differential equations were obtained and the respective analytical solutions were derived after consideration of boundary conditions. The temperature along the rod decreased considerably from the initial temperature (in contatct with the chip surface. This indicates the benefit of using a cilindrical rod to distribute the heat generated in the chip.

  11. Phase behaviour of rod-like colloid + flexible polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Stroobants, A.

    The effect of non-adsorbing, flexible polymer on the isotropic-nematic transition in dispersions of rod-like colloids is investigated. A widening of the biphasic gap is observed, in combination with a marked polymer partitioning between the coexisting phases. Under certain conditions, areas of

  12. Prosthetic Hand For Holding Rods, Tools, And Handles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Prosthetic hand with quick-grip/quick-release lever broadens range of specialized functions available to lower-arm amputee by providing improved capabilities for gripping rods, tools, handles, and like. Includes two stationary lower fingers opposed by one pivoting upper finger. Lever operates in conjunction with attached bracket.

  13. Alignment of rod-shaped gold particles by electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zande, B.M.I. van der; Koper, G.J.M.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1999-01-01

    The electro-optical response of colloidal dispersions of rod-shaped gold particles is studied for various aspect ratios (2.6 < L/d < 49; d = 15 nm) by monitoring the absorbance spectra in the visible wavelength regime. The absorbance spectra strongly depend on the degree of orientational order of

  14. Estimation and control in HTGR fuel rod fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, D J; Bailey, M J

    1980-01-01

    A control algorithm has been derived for a HTGR Fuel Rod Fabrication Process utilizing the method of Box and Jenkins. The estimator is a Kalman filter and is compared with a Least Square estimator and a standard control chart. The effects of system delays are presented.

  15. On the resonant behavior of longitudinally vibrating accreting rods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available subjected to longitudinal vibrations. This problem is described it terms of the linear classical, Rayleigh-Love and Rayleigh-Bishop models. It is assumed that the rod is fixed at one end and free at the other end and its length is increasing. For solution...

  16. Longitudinal vibrations of a Rayleigh-Bishop rod

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, IA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, for analyzing the longitudinal vibrations of a conic rod, the authors used the Rayleigh–Bishop model, which generalizes the Rayleigh model and takes into account both lateral displacements and the shear stress in the transverse cross...

  17. Cross-correlated imaging of distributed mode filtering rod fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Barankov, Roman; Jørgensen, Mette Marie

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the modal properties of an 85μm core distributed mode filtering rod fiber using cross-correlated (C2) imaging. We evaluate suppression of higher-order modes (HOMs) under severely misaligned mode excitation and identify a single-mode regime where HOMs are suppressed by more than 20dB....

  18. The Rod and Bottle System: A Problem in Statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Iain

    2005-11-01

    The rod and bottle system (sometimes called the "wine butler"), shown in Fig. 1, is a common statics demonstration in the introductory level physics course. One is immediately attracted to it by the craftsmanship in wood. Thomas Carlyle wrote, "Two men I honour, and no third. The scholar and the craftsman."2 This paper presents an analytic treatment of the system.

  19. Rigid rod spaced fullerene as building block for nanoclusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using phenylacetylene based rigid-rod linkers (PhA), we have successfully synthesized two fullerene derivatives, C60-PhA and C60-PhA-C60. The absorption spectral features of C60, as well as that of the phenylacetylene moiety are retained in the monomeric forms of these fullerene derivatives, ruling out the possibility ...

  20. Hemispherical-rod microlens as a variant fractional Fourier transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, D; Brenner, K H; Dragoman, M; Bähr, J; Krackhardt, U

    1998-10-01

    It is shown that a hemispherical-rod microlens can act as a fractional Fourier transform device with a continuously varying degree of fractionality. It is believed to be the first proposed device to perform such a task; its most immediate applications include optical tomography.

  1. Nonlinear optical properties of rigid-rod polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Mark S.; Wang, Ying

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to integrate enhanced third order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, especially high x(exp (3)) (greater than 10(exp -8) esu), into Maxdem's novel conjugated rigid-rod polymers while retaining their desirable processing, mechanical, and thermal properties. This work primarily involved synthetic approaches to optimized materials.

  2. Fabrication of control rods for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sease, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a research-type nuclear reactor that was designed and built in the early 1960s and has been in continuous operation since its initial criticality in 1965. Under current plans, the HFIR is expected to continue in operation until 2035. This report updates ORNL/TM-9365, Fabrication Procedure for HFIR Control Plates, which was mainly prepared in the early 1970's but was not issued until 1984, and reflects process changes, lessons learned in the latest control rod fabrication campaign, and suggested process improvements to be considered in future campaigns. Most of the personnel involved with the initial development of the processes and in part campaigns have retired or will retire soon. Because their unlikely availability in future campaigns, emphasis has been placed on providing some explanation of why the processes were selected and some discussions about the importance of controlling critical process parameters. Contained in this report is a description of the function of control rods in the reactor, the brief history of the development of control rod fabrication processes, and a description of procedures used in the fabrication of control rods. A listing of the controlled documents and procedures used in the last fabrication campaigns is referenced in Appendix A.

  3. A Rod-Sparing Retinopathy in Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia S. Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a continuum of disorders characterized by systemic and ocular findings. Retinal abnormalities typically present as diffuse photoreceptor degeneration. Here, we report a novel case that suggests a rod-sparing variant of Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

  4. Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SCADOP: Phenomenological modeling of dryout in nuclear fuel rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Arnab, E-mail: arnie@barc.gov.in; Chandraker, D.K., E-mail: dineshkc@barc.gov.in; Vijayan, P.K., E-mail: vijayanp@barc.gov.in

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Phenomenological model for annular flow dryout is presented. • The model evaluates initial entrained fraction using a new methodology. • The history effect in annular flow is predicted and validated. • Rod bundle dryout is predicted using subchannel methodology. • Model is validated against experimental dryout data in tubes and rod bundles. - Abstract: Analysis and prediction of dryout is of important consequence to safety of nuclear fuel clusters of boiling water type of reactors. Traditionally, experimental correlations are used for dryout predictions. Since these correlations are based on operating parameters and do not aim to model the underlying phenomena, there has been a proliferation of the correlations, each catering to some specific bundle geometry under a specific set of operating conditions. Moreover, such experiments are extremely costly. In general, changes in tested bundle geometry for improvement in thermal-hydraulic performance would require re-experimentation. Understanding and modeling the basic processes leading to dryout in flow boiling thus has great incentive. Such a model has the ability to predict dryout in any rod bundle geometry, unlike the operating parameter based correlation approach. Thus more informed experiments can be carried out. A good model can, reduce the number of experiments required during the iterations in bundle design. In this paper, a phenomenological model as indicated above is presented. The model incorporates a new methodology to estimate the Initial Entrained Fraction (IEF), i.e., entrained fraction at the onset of annular flow. The incorporation of this new methodology is important since IEF is often assumed ad-hoc and sometimes also used as a parameter to tune the model predictions to experimental data. It is highlighted that IEF may be low under certain conditions against the general perception of a high IEF due to influence of churn flow. It is shown that the same phenomenological model is

  6. COST IMPACT OF ROD CONSOLIDATION ON THE VIABILITY ASSESSMENT DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Lancaster

    1999-03-29

    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars.

  7. Biosynthesis of Zinc Oxide Nano-rods Using Xanthomonas campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra sadat Mahdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: one dimensional nanocrystals especially nano-rods have attracted a great deal of attention due to their unique properties and wide applications in industry. Chemical and physical methods which are currently used to produce zinc oxide nano- rods, often leave toxic chemicals on surface of nanoparticles limiting their applications for health and medical purposes. Therefore, biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles has been considered as an environmentally friendly process and a potential alternative to chemical and physical methods. Materials and methods: Nano-rods of zinc oxide were produced by Xanthomonas campestris using zinc nitrate hexa hydrate as substrate, in a shaker incubator at 37 ° C and pH 7. The powder produced was then calcined at 600 ° C for 2 hours after drying. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX and UV–vis spectroscopy. Results: FTIR analysis was used to identify functional groups involved in the biosynthesis of ZnO NPs. The peak observed at 563 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching vibrations of ZnO NPs. XRD analysis revealed that the hexagonal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized were pure and crystalline in nature. The morphology and size of the powder were investigated using SEM analysis and the results showed that ZnO nano-rods have a diameter ranging from 122–200 nm with an average length about 300 nm. EDX analysis was performed for determination of the elemental composition and purity of samples. The recorded EDX spectrum revealed the high purity of the synthesized ZnO nano-rods without detection of any impurities. The absorption peak at 376 nm indicating the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles was further confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Discussion and conclusion: The current research work describes a low-cost, unreported, nontoxic, simple, safe and eco-friendly method for the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle using xanthomonas campestris as the reducing

  8. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical Development of Hot Laboratories. From April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report describes activities, in fiscal year 1994, of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) which belong to the Department of Hot laboratories. In the RFEF, Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of PWR fuel rods irradiated in the Takahama Unit 3, a BWR fuel assembly irradiated in the Fukusima Daini Unit have been performed. Also, PIEs of ATR fuel assemblies and segment fuel assemblies irradiated in the Fugen Reactor have been carried out. To support R and D works in JAERI, refabrication of segmented fuel rods have been done using irradiated LWR fuel rods for pulse irradiation in the NSRR and re-irradiation tests in the JMTR. PIEs have been performed on high burnup fuel rods from the Halden reactor and TMI-2 debris samples. For the RHL, PIEs have been performed on segment fuels irradiated in the NSRR, fuels and materials for HTTR, standard fuels for JRR-3M and materials for nuclear fusion reactor. In addition, a monitoring test of fuel elements in accordance with the surveillance program of the Magnox reactor of the Japan Atomic Power Corporation have been continued. In the WASTEF, leaching tests on TRU in simulated glass forms and a low flow rate tests on glass waste forms have been carried out. The examinations of alpha damage acceleration for the Synroc waste forms have also been performed. (author).

  9. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of hot laboratories. From April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report describes activities, in fiscal year 1996, of the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF), the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) and the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) which belong to the Department of Hot laboratories. In the RFEF, Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of PWR fuel assemblies irradiated in the Takahama Unit 3, a BWR fuel assembly irradiated in the Fukusima Daini Unit have been performed. Also, PIEs of assembly materials irradiated in the Fugen Reactor have been carried out. To support R and D works in JAERI, refabrication of segmented fuel rods have been done using irradiated LWR fuel rods for pulse irradiation in the NSRR and re-irradiation tests in the JMTR. PIEs have been performed on high burnup fuel rods and ROX fuel rods. For the RHL, PIEs have been performed on segment fuels irradiated in the NSRR, fuels and materials for HTTR, standard fuels for JRR-3M and materials for nuclear fusion reactor. In addition, a monitoring test of fuel elements in accordance with the surveillance program of the Magnox reactor of the Japan Atomic Power Corporation has been continued. In the WASTEF, leaching tests on TRU in simulated glass forms and a low flow rate tests on glass waste forms have been carried out. The examinations of alpha damage acceleration for the Synroc waste forms have also been performed. (author)

  10. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    . With this additional information, the criteria can, for the first time, be used to their full potential.The purpose of this paper is to first give an introduction to a stress/strain simulation procedure that can be used in any foundry. Then, some results how to predict the hot cracking tendency in a casting are shown......The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  11. Hot Spot Mutation in TP53 (R248Q Causes Oncogenic Gain-of-Function Phenotypes in a Breast Cancer Cell Line Derived from an African American patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Shtraizent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available African American (AA breast cancer patients often have triple negative breast cancer (TNBC that contains mutations in the TP53 gene. The point mutations at amino acid residues R273 and R248 both result in oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF phenotypes. Expression of mutant p53 (mtp53 R273H associates with increased cell elasticity, survival under serum deprivation conditions, and increased Poly (ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1 on the chromatin in the AA-derived TNBC breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468. We hypothesized that GOF mtp53 R248Q expression could stimulate a similar phenotype in the AA-derived TNBC cell line HCC70. To test this hypothesis we depleted the R248Q protein in the HCC70 cell line using shRNA-mediated knockdown. Using impedance-based real-time analysis we correlated the expression of mtp53 R248Q with increased cell deformability. We also documented that depletion of mtp53 R248Q increased PARP1 in the cytoplasm and decreased PARP1 on the chromatin. We conclude that in the AA-derived TNBC HCC70 cells mtp53 R248Q expression results in a causative tumor associated phenotype. This study supports using the biological markers of high expression of mtp53 R273H or R248Q as additional diagnostics for TNBC resistant subtypes often found in the AA community. Each mtp53 protein must be considered separately and this work adds R248Q to the increasing list of p53 mutations that can be used for diagnostics and drug targeting. Here we report that when R248Q mtp53 proteins are expressed in TNBC, then targeting the gain-of-function pathways may improve treatment efficacy.

  12. Fretting wear behavior of Cr-coated fuel rod for accident-tolerant fuel in flowing fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Gil; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Fretting wear test of the Cr-coated fuel clading candidate have been performed in the flowing fluid condition in order to verify the reliability of Cr-coated layer on zirconium-based fuel cladding. Rod wear volume at each grid spring and dimple is dramaically increased with GTR gap even though each wear scar is not evenly distributed within a 1x1 grid cell.

  13. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " hot spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "hot spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "hot spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary processes at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "hot spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the mysteries of this class of remote and active

  14. Correlated and uncorrelated invisible temporal white noise alters mesopic rod signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathibelagal, Amithavikram R; Feigl, Beatrix; Kremers, Jan; Zele, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    We determined how rod signaling at mesopic light levels is altered by extrinsic temporal white noise that is correlated or uncorrelated with the activity of one (magnocellular, parvocellular, or koniocellular) postreceptoral pathway. Rod and cone photoreceptor excitations were independently controlled using a four-primary photostimulator. Psychometric (Weibull) functions were measured for incremental rod pulses (50 to 250 ms) in the presence (or absence; control) of perceptually invisible subthreshold extrinsic noise. Uncorrelated (rod) noise facilitates rod detection. Correlated postreceptoral pathway noise produces differential changes in rod detection thresholds and decreases the slope of the psychometric functions. We demonstrate that invisible extrinsic noise changes rod-signaling characteristics within the three retinogeniculate pathways at mesopic illumination depending on the temporal profile of the rod stimulus and the extrinsic noise type.

  15. Burnout data for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts, annuli and rod clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Hernborg, Gunnar; Bode, Manfred; Eriksson, O.

    1965-07-01

    The present report contains the tables of the burnout data obtained for flow in vertical channels at the Heat Engineering Laboratory of AB Atomenergi in Sweden. The data covers measurements in round ducts, annuli, 3-rod and 7-rod clusters.

  16. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... in combination with 14 t-RFLP profiles revealed a high abundance of clones clustering together with sequences from the nonthermophilic I.1b group of Crenarchaeota. The archaeal diversity in one solfatara was high; 26 different RFLP patterns were found using double digestion of the PCR products with restriction......Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...

  17. Tantalum rod implantation for femoral head osteonecrosis: survivorship analysis and determination of prognostic factors for total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaosheng; Yan, Liang; Zhou, Shiguo; Su, Xiuyun; Cao, Yuncen; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Shubin

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the moderate survival data of porous tantalum rod implants for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Additionally, some independent prognostic factors for conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA) were identified. The porous tantalum rod population was obtained from a prospective, consecutive group of patients treated for Steinberg stage I and II osteonecrosis from April 2009 through July 2011. The historical core decompression and impaction of bone filling particle subjects underwent surgery from April 2007 through March 2009. Surgical data including time of surgery, blood loss, and cell transfusions were recorded. Post-operative values were measured for hospitalization length as well as days requiring a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. Primary outcomes were Harris hip score and survivorship analysis. Demographics and baseline characteristics included age, sex, etiology, bilateral disease, associated chronic systemic disease, Steinberg stage, Harris hip score, accompanied with bone marrow edema of femoral head, and osteonecrotic lesion size. Demographic/baseline characteristics were similar between two groups. At the post-operative follow-up of 62 months, Harris hip scores were significantly increased (P tantalum rod implant group was significantly greater than that in the control group (P = 0.0426). With an average follow-up of 48 months (range, 38-62 months), the tantalum rod group had an 84.6 % survival rate. With an average follow-up of 72 months (range, 67-85 months), the control group had a 63.3 % survival rate. A comparison of Kaplan-Meier curves showed significantly higher cumulative survival rates (P = 0.048) for hips with implantation of the porous tantalum rod (74.1 % at 62 months) than for those with impaction composite bone material (49.9 % at 62 months). The Cox proportional-hazard model revealed that implantation of tantalum rod (P = 0.012), bone marrow

  18. 78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine... countervailing duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Brazil and the...

  19. Really Hot Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Spectacular VLT Photos Unveil Mysterious Nebulae Summary Quite a few of the most beautiful objects in the Universe are still shrouded in mystery. Even though most of the nebulae of gas and dust in our vicinity are now rather well understood, there are some which continue to puzzle astronomers. This is the case of a small number of unusual nebulae that appear to be the subject of strong heating - in astronomical terminology, they present an amazingly "high degree of excitation". This is because they contain significant amounts of ions, i.e., atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons. Depending on the atoms involved and the number of electrons lost, this process bears witness to the strength of the radiation or to the impact of energetic particles. But what are the sources of that excitation? Could it be energetic stars or perhaps some kind of exotic objects inside these nebulae? How do these peculiar objects fit into the current picture of universal evolution? New observations of a number of such unusual nebulae have recently been obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). In a dedicated search for the origin of their individual characteristics, a team of astronomers - mostly from the Institute of Astrophysics & Geophysics in Liège (Belgium) [1] - have secured the first detailed, highly revealing images of four highly ionized nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds, two small satellite galaxies of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, only a few hundred thousand light-years away. In three nebulae, they succeeded in identifying the sources of energetic radiation and to eludicate their exceptional properties: some of the hottest, most massive stars ever seen, some of which are double. With masses of more than 20 times that of the Sun and surface temperatures above 90 000 degrees, these stars are truly extreme. PR Photo 09a/03: Nebula around the hot star AB7 in the SMC. PR Photo 09b/03: Nebula near the hot Wolf-Rayet star BAT99

  20. Elevated cAMP improves signal-to-noise ratio in amphibian rod photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, Luba A; Nikolaeva, Darya A; Fedotkina, Tamara V; Govardovskii, Victor I; Firsov, Michael L

    2017-07-03

    The absolute sensitivity of vertebrate retinas is set by a background noise, called dark noise, which originates from several different cell types and is generated by different molecular mechanisms. The major share of dark noise is produced by photoreceptors and consists of two components, discrete and continuous. Discrete noise is generated by spontaneous thermal activations of visual pigment. These events are undistinguishable from real single-photon responses (SPRs) and might be considered an equivalent of the signal. Continuous noise is produced by spontaneous fluctuations of the catalytic activity of the cGMP phosphodiesterase. This masks both SPR and spontaneous SPR-like responses. Circadian rhythms affect photoreceptors, among other systems by periodically increasing intracellular cAMP levels ([cAMP]in), which increases the size and changes the shape of SPRs. Here, we show that forskolin, a tool that increases [cAMP]in, affects the magnitude and frequency spectrum of the continuous and discrete components of dark noise in photoreceptors. By changing both components of rod signaling, the signal and the noise, cAMP is able to increase the photoreceptor signal-to-noise ratio by twofold. We propose that this results in a substantial improvement of signal detection, without compromising noise rejection, at the rod bipolar cell synapse. © 2017 Astakhova et al.

  1. Preliminary report for the license of a hot cell that will be use in the technology development for the obtention of Mo-99; Informe preliminar para la licencia de una celda caliente que se utilizara en el desarrollo de la tecnologia para la obtencion de Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucugauchi, L.A.; Millan S, S.; Lopez M, A.E.; Lopez C, R; Sanchez M, V.; Reynoso V, R.; Vera, A

    1991-05-15

    A preliminary report for the license of a hot cell that will be used in the development of the technology for the obtaining of Mo-99 is presented. The following topics are also included: objective of the project, technical description, description of the prototype cell, handling of radioactive wastes, lists of equipment that will be used, risk analysis, curricula, quality assurance plan and an annex with the report on handling of radioactive wastes presented to the PAGD-IAEA. (Author)

  2. Gold Rods Irradiated with Ultrasound for Combination of Hyperthermia and Cancer Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Andre; Austerlitz, Carlos; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis; Campos, Diana; Andrade, Jeyce; Peixoto, Christina; Aguiar, Jaciana; Nascimento, Silene; Silva, Teresinha G; Haranas, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze feasibility (in vitro and in vivo) the use of hyperthermia produced by gold rods irradiated with ultrasound and their combination with chemotherapy with doxorubicin. initially was determined the cell viability and Hsp70 levels after treatment by gold rods irradiated with ultrasound (GR+U) in cell culture. The pretreatment with GR+U combined with doxorubicin (DOX) was evaluated from IC 50 , caspase-3 expression and mechanisms of cell death by electron microscopy. For evaluate the in vivo effects was used solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) Tumor. The animals received three treatments with the combination of GR+U+DOX over 16 days. The cell viability was completely inhibited after 40 min of treatment with GR+U and significant increases the expression of HSP70 was only observed after 10 min of treatment. GR+U+DOX presented significant reduction of IC 50 representing 50.7%, 76.5% 45.2% and 46.6% for cell lines K562, NCI-H292, Hep-2 and MCF-7 respectively. GR+U+DOX presented significant reduction of IC 50 representing 50.7%, 76.5% 45.2% and 46.6% for cell lines K562, NCI-H292, Hep-2 and MCF-7 respectively. The caspase-3 level and ultraestructural analysis showed that treatment with GR+U+DOX enhances induction of apoptosis. Pretreatment with GR+U combined with doxorubicin (1 mg) showed 87% inhibition against SEC. and no showed cardiotoxic effect. The combined treatment of GR+U and DOX exhibit synergistic characteristics observed by increasing the efficiency of doxorubicin.

  3. Control rod system useable for fuel handling in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Francis R.

    1976-11-30

    A control rod and its associated drive are used to elevate a complete stack of fuel blocks to a position above the core of a gas-cooled nuclear reactor. A fuel-handling machine grasps the control rod and the drive is unlatched from the rod. The stack and rod are transferred out of the reactor, or to a new location in the reactor, by the fuel-handling machine.

  4. Linear motion device and method for inserting and withdrawing control rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    Disclosed is a linear motion device and more specifically a control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) for inserting and withdrawing control rods into a reactor core. The CRDM and method disclosed is capable of independently and sequentially positioning two sets of control rods with a single motor stator and rotor. The CRDM disclosed can control more than one control rod lead screw without incurring a substantial increase in the size of the mechanism.

  5. 49 CFR 230.96 - Main, side, and valve motion rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... bore of main rod bearings shall not exceed pin diameters more than 3/32 inch at front or back end. The total lost motion at both ends shall not exceed 5/32 inch. (g) Side rod bearings. The bore of side rod.... The total amount of side motion of each rod on its crank pin shall not exceed 1/4 inch. (e) Oil and...

  6. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  7. Hot-Dipped Metal Films as Epitaxial Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Multistep process forms semiconductor devices on macrocrystalline films of cadmium or zinc. Solar-cell fabrication processes use hot-dipped macrocrystalline films on low-cost sheet-metal base as substrates for epitaxy. Epitaxial layers formed by variety of methods of alternative sequence paths. Solar cells made economically by forming desired surface substance directly on metal film by chemical reactions.

  8. Crossover between activated reptation and arm retraction mechanisms in entangled rod-coil block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Muzhou; Likhtman, Alexei E.; Olsen, Bradley D.

    2015-11-01

    Using a coarse-grained slip-spring model, the dynamics of rod-coil block copolymers is explored over a wide parameter space to fully capture the crossover between the short rod (activated reptation) and long rod (arm retraction) limits. An analytical, closed-form expression for curvilinear diffusion by activated reptation was derived by separating the drag into individual components for the rod and coil block. Curvilinear diffusion in the intermediate rod regime, where both mechanisms are important, was then found to be faster than predicted when both mechanisms are independently combined. The discrepancy in the crossover regime arises because the rod-coil copolymer's exploration of space is not accurately described by either a coil homopolymer (assumed by activated reptation) or a rod homopolymer (assumed by arm retraction). This effect is explored by tracking the rod orientation as the polymer reptates, confirming that the polymer reptates along a path that becomes more rodlike as the rod fraction is increased. Thus, activated reptation under-predicts diffusion because the rod can choose reptation paths that are more extended than the coil homopolymer by renewal of the entanglement tube from the ends. Arm retraction under-predicts diffusion because minor rotations of the rod allow some motion before full retractions of the coil block. Finally, more familiar 3-dimensional center-of-mass diffusion measurements are related to the curvilinear diffusion analysis because the ratio of these two quantities varies smoothly between the coil and rod homopolymer limits as the reptation path becomes more extended.

  9. 78 FR 71565 - Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...'') published a notice of initiation of the antidumping duty investigation of steel threaded rod from India.\\1... later than December 20, 2013. \\1\\ See Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand: Initiation of...

  10. 78 FR 44532 - Steel Threaded Rod From India: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Threaded Rod From India: Initiation of Countervailing Duty... (``CVD'') petition concerning imports of steel threaded rod from India, filed in proper form by All...., (collectively hereinafter ``Petitioners'').\\1\\ Petitioners are domestic producers of steel threaded rod. On July...

  11. 77 FR 59892 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final... mm to 5.0 mm. \\1\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary... on said entries.\\4\\ \\2\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico: Initiation of Anti...

  12. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea... contained in USITC Publication 4154 (May 2010), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, Korea...

  13. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: matias.urrea@iberdrola.es [Iberdrola Generacion S.A. Valencia (Spain). C.N. Cofrentes; Curiel, M., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Teconologicos, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Spain) of Control Rods PCC/24 Friction Test Procedure. In order to perform this, a Control Rod Friction Test System has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The PCC/24 Procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a CRD (Control Rod Drive) movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time.(author)

  14. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes nuclear power plant (Spain) of control rods Pcc/24 friction test procedure. In order to perform this, a control rod friction test system has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The Pcc/24 procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a control rod drive movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time. (Author)

  15. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. David Swank

    2007-02-01

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISp. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant’s absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500°C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test non-uranium containing materials and therefore is particularly suited for testing potential cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated Data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed.

  16. Neptune's 'Hot' South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    These thermal images show a 'hot' south pole on the planet Neptune. These warmer temperatures provide an avenue for methane to escape out of the deep atmosphere. The images were obtained with the Very Large Telescope in Chile, using an imager/spectrometer for mid-infrared wavelengths on Sept. 1 and 2, 2006. The telescope is operated by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (known as ESO). Scientists say Neptune's south pole is 'hotter' than anywhere else on the planet by about 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). The average temperature on Neptune is about minus 200 degrees Celsius (minus 392 degrees Fahrenheit). The upper left image samples temperatures near the top of Neptune's troposphere (near 100 millibar pressure, which is one-tenth the Earth atmospheric pressure at sea level). The hottest temperatures are indicated at the lower part of the image, at Neptune's south pole (see the graphic at the upper right). The lower two images, taken 6.3 hours apart, sample temperatures at higher altitudes in Neptune's stratosphere. They do show generally warmer temperatures near, but not at, the south pole. They also show a distinct warm area which can be seen in the lower left image and rotated completely around the back of the planet and returned to the earth-facing hemisphere in the lower right image.

  17. Solutions for Hot Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  18. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1β-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi Yuusuke; Mano Hiroshi; Nakatani Sachie; Shimizu Jun; Kobata Kenji; Wada Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic...

  19. Development of external coupling for calculation of the control rod worth in terms of burn-up for a WWER-1000 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noori-Kalkhoran, Omid, E-mail: o_noori@yahoo.com [Reactor Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yarizadeh-Beneh, Mehdi [Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahangari, Rohollah [Reactor Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Calculation of control rod worth in term of burn-up. • Calculation of differential and integral control rod worth. • Developing an external couple. • Modification of thermal-hydraulic profiles in calculations. - Abstract: One of the main problems relating to operation of a nuclear reactor is its safety and controlling system. The most widely used control systems for thermal reactors are neutron absorbent rods. In this study a code based method has been developed for calculation of integral and differential control rod worth in terms of burn-up for a WWER-1000 nuclear reactor. External coupling of WIMSD-5B, PARCS V2.7 and COBRA-EN has been used for this purpose. WIMSD-5B has been used for cell calculation and handling burn-up of the core in various days. PARCS V2.7 has been used for neutronic calculation of core and critical boron concentration search. Thermal-hydraulic calculation has been performed by COBRA-EN. An external coupling algorithm has been developed by MATLAB to couple and transfer suitable data between these codes in each step. Steady-State Power Picking Factors (PPFs) of the core and control rod worth for different control rod groups have been calculated from Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) to 289.7 Effective Full Power Days (EFPDs) in some steps. Results have been compared with the results of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The results show a good agreement and confirm the ability of developed coupling in calculation of control rod worth in terms of burn-up.

  20. Analysis of NEA-NSC PWR Uncontrolled Control Rod Withdrawal at Zero Power Benchmark Cases with NODAL3 Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagor Malem Sembiring

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-house coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic (N/T-H code of BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, NODAL3, based on the few-group neutron diffusion equation in 3-dimensional geometry using the polynomial nodal method, has been verified with static and transient PWR benchmark cases. This paper reports the verification of NODAL3 code in the NEA-NSC PWR uncontrolled control rods withdrawal at zero power benchmark. The objective of this paper is to determine the accuracy of NODAL3 code in solving the continuously slow and fast reactivity insertions due to single and group of control rod bank withdrawn while the power and temperature increment are limited by the Doppler coefficient. The benchmark is chosen since many organizations participated using various methods and approximations, so the calculation results of NODAL3 can be compared to other codes’ results. The calculated parameters are performed for the steady-state, transient core averaged, and transient hot pellet results. The influence of radial and axial nodes number was investigated for all cases. The results of NODAL3 code are in very good agreement with the reference solutions if the radial and axial nodes number is 2 × 2 and 2 × 18 (total axial layers, respectively.

  1. Hot workability of magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwembela, Aaron Absalom

    For the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9.OAl-0.7Zn-0.13Mn) die cast specimens were subjected to torsion testing at 150, 180, 240, 300, 420 and 450°C at 0.05 0.5 and 5.0 s--1 The as-cast specimens exhibited hot shortness at 360°C and above; however in that domain, after prior thermomechanical processing (TMP) at 300°C, they showed much improved properties (which were reported along with as-cast properties at 300°C and below). For AZ31-Mn (Mg-3.2Al-1-1Zn-0.34Mn), AZ31 (Mg-2-8Al-0-88Zn-0.01Mn), AZ63 (Mg-5-5Al-2.7Zn-0.34Mn) and ZK60 (Mg-5.7Zn-0.65Zr-O-O1A]), the specimens were subjected to hot torsion testing in the range 180 to 450°C and 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 s--1. In the temperature range below 300°C flow curves rise to a peak with failure occurring immediately thereafter. Above 300°C the flow curves exhibited a peak and a gradual decline towards steady state. The temperature and strain rate dependence of the strength is described by a sinh-Arrhenius equation with QHW between 125 and 144 kJ/mol; this indicates control by climb in comparison with creep in the range 200--400°C. The alloy strength and activation energy declined in the order AZ63, AZ31-Mn AZ91, AZ31 and ZK60, while ductility increased with decreasing strength. In working of Mg alloys from 150 to 450°C, the flow curves harden to a peak and work soften to a steady state regime above 300°C. At temperatures below 300°C, twinning is observed initially to bring grains into more suitable slip orientations. At high T a substructure develops due to basal and prismatic slip, Forming cells of augmented misorientation first near the grain boundaries and later towards the grain cores. Near the peak, new grains appear along the old boundaries (mantle) as a result of dynamic recrystallization DRX but not in the core of the initial grains. As T rises, the new grains are larger and the mantle broader, enhanced DRX results in higher ductility. At intermediate T, shear bands form through alignment of mantle zones resulting in

  2. Differentiation and Structure in Sulfolobus islandicus Rod-Shaped Virus Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bautista

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, molecular surveys of viral diversity have revealed that viruses are the most diverse and abundant biological entities on Earth. In culture, however, most viral isolates that infect microbes are represented by a few variants isolated on type strains, limiting our ability to study how natural variation affects virus-host interactions in the laboratory. We screened a set of 137 hot spring samples for viruses that infect a geographically diverse panel of the hyperthemophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus. We isolated and characterized eight SIRVs (Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped viruses from two different regions within Yellowstone National Park (USA. Comparative genomics revealed that all SIRV sequenced isolates share 30 core genes that represent 50–60% of the genome. The core genome phylogeny, as well as the distribution of variable genes (shared by some but not all SIRVs and the signatures of host-virus interactions recorded on the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats repeat-spacer arrays of S. islandicus hosts, identify different SIRV lineages, each associated with a different geographic location. Moreover, our studies reveal that SIRV core genes do not appear to be under diversifying selection and thus we predict that the abundant and diverse variable genes govern the coevolutionary arms race between SIRVs and their hosts.

  3. Towards an understanding of hot carrier cooling mechanisms in multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conibeer, Gavin; Zhang, Yi; Bremner, Stephen P.; Shrestha, Santosh

    2017-09-01

    Multiple quantum wells have been shown significantly reduced hot carrier cooling rates compared to bulk material and are thus a promising candidate for hot carrier solar cell absorbers. However, the mechanism(s) by which hot carrier cooling is restricted is not clear. A systematic study of carrier cooling rates in GaAs/AlAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with either varying barrier thickness or varying well thickness is presented in this paper. These allow an investigation as to whether the mechanisms of either a modification in hot carrier diffusion or a localisation of phonons emitted by hot carriers are primarily responsible for reduced carrier cooling rates. With the conclusion that for the structures investigated the situation is rather more complex with both carrier mobility to modify hot carrier diffusion, different diffusion rates for electrons and holes and reflection and localisation of phonons to enhance phonon bottleneck all playing their parts in modulating phonon reabsorption and hot carrier behaviour.

  4. Kinematic Analysis of Continuum Robot Consisted of Driven Flexible Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhong Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic analysis of a continuum bionic robot with three flexible actuation rods. Since the motion of the end-effector is actuated by the deformation of the rods, the robot structure is with high elasticity and good compliance and the kinematic analysis of the robot requires special treatment. We propose a kinematic model based on the geometry with constant curvature. The analysis consists of two independent mappings: a general mapping for the kinematics of all robots and a specific mapping for this kind of robots. Both of those mappings are developed for the single section and for the multisections. We aim at providing a guide for kinematic analysis of the similar manipulators through this paper.

  5. High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J.; Deguil-Robin, N.; Manek-Hönninger, I.; Salin, F.; Röser, F.; Liem, A.; Schreiber, T.; Nolte, S.; Zellmer, H.; Tünnermann, A.; Broeng, J.; Petersson, A.; Jakobsen, C.

    2005-02-01

    We report on a novel ytterbium-doped fiber design that combines the advantages of rod and fiber gain media. The fiber design has outer dimensions of a rod laser, meaning a diameter in the range of a few millimeters and a length of just a few tens of centimeters, and includes two important waveguide structures, one for pump radiation and one for laser radiation. We obtained 120-W output power in single-mode beam quality from a 48-cm-long fiber cane that corresponds to an extracted power of 250 W/m. The fiber has significantly reduced nonlinearity, which therefore allows for scalability in the performance of a high-peak-power fiber laser and amplifier system.

  6. Fuel rod crud deposition: effects of heat load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Facundo

    1999-05-15

    Anomalous diameter changes have been observed on the fuel rods of the in-pile test assembly IFA-585. These diameter changes are described in the HWR-407 [1], where it is suggested that crud deposition is their cause. The present report continues the study of the causes of crud deposition on the fuel rods, by analysing its dependence with the heat load. It is observed that crud deposition is less favoured on the cladding at axial positions of pellet-pellet interfaces, and that this is directly correlated with the fact that heat flux is lower at pellet-pellet interfaces. A finite element model is built to analyse the heat flux on the cladding at the surroundings of pellet-pellet interfaces. Also, an empirical formula is derived for the dependence of crud deposition rate with heat loading, taking into account the differences in heat flux on the surroundings of pellet-pellet interfaces (author) (ml)

  7. Measurement of secondary flow vortices on a rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, V.

    1988-02-01

    Secondary flow vortices in infinite rod bundles have been predicted by a number of theoretical analyses. Nevertheless experimental verification was difficult, since the magnitude of the secondary velocities appeared to be less than the accuracy of the experimental techniques used. Only indications of the maximum velocity magnitude have been available but no report on successful direct measurement is known to the author. At ECN, laser Doppler velocimetry is successfully used for measurement of secondary flow vortices in two regular subchannels of a triangularly arranged bare rod bundle with pitch-to-diameter ratio P/D-1.3 under the Reynolds number conditions 60,000 and 175,000. One single secondary vortex, having the average tangential velocity slightly less than 0.1% of the mean bulk velocity, is resolved per minimum symmetry sector of the bundle geometry. Ensemble averages are made to obtain quantitative description of the vortex and to form a data base for comparison with calculations.

  8. High-power dual-rod Yb:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, Eric C.; Beach, Raymond J.; Mitchell, Scott C.; Skidmore, Jay A.; Emanuel, Mark A.; Sutton, Steven B.; Payne, Stephen A.; Avizonis, Petras V.; Monroe, Robert S.; Harris, Dennis G.

    2000-06-01

    We describe a diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser that produces 1080 W of power cw with 27.5% optical optical efficiency and 532 W Q -switched with M{sup 2}=2.2 and 17% optical-optical efficiency. The laser uses two composite Yb:YAG rods separated by a 90 degree sign quartz rotator for bifocusing compensation. A microlensed diode array end pumps each rod, using a hollow lens duct for pump delivery. By changing resonator parameters we can adjust the fundamental mode size and the output beam quality. Using a flattened Gaussian intensity profile to calculate the mode-fill efficiency and clipping losses, we compare experimental data with modeled output power versus beam quality. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  9. Hot semiworks Redox studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, T.F.; Tomlinson, R.E.

    1954-01-27

    The separations Hot Semiworks at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation was built in order to: (1) develop optimum conditions for the economic operation of the Redox and TBP plants, (2) procure engineering design data which would allow the specification of process equipment required for new processes such as Purex, (3) provide facilities for the study of future process and engineering problems on a semiworks scale employing radioactive process solutions, and (4) provide facilities for immediate trouble shooting for urgent separations plant problems. The initial operation of this facility was designed to develop conditions for the economic operation of the Redox Plant. These studies, covering a period from November, 1952 to October, 1953, are described in this report. The Redox process is used at Hanford for the separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products and from each other. The basis of the process is the preferential extraction of uranium and plutonium nitrates from an aqueous phase of high salting strength into an organic solvent (methyl isobutyl ketone) to effect the separation from fission products. This operation is conducted continuously in columns, packed with Raschig rings, through which the phases are passed counter-currently. Uranium and plutonium are separated by converting the plutonium to a lower valence state, in which form it is preferentially extracted back into an aqueous phase of high salting strength in a second column. Uranium is then returned to an aqueous phase of low salting strength in a third column. The products are further decontaminated in similar additional cycles. A detailed description of the process is given in the Redox Technical Manual.

  10. The Attenuation of Torsional Strain Wave in a PMMA Rod

    OpenAIRE

    田辺, 裕治; 前川, 一郎; 半田, 晋一; 原, 利昭; Tanabe, Yuji; Maekawa, Ichiro; Handa, Shinichi; Hara, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    In order to clarify the strain attenuation during shear wave propagation, impact torsion experiments are carried out using a PMMA rod specimen. The strain pulses measured by strain gages are complicated due to the superposition of many reflected and transmitted waves from the supported end of the specimen. To obtain data from such pulses for determining a viscoelastic model, a method which modifies the pulse form is developed taking into account wave propagation behavior in the experimental s...

  11. Pinch-off of rods by bulk diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagesen, L.K.; Johnson, A.E.; Fife, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of a rod embedded in a matrix undergoing pinching by interfacial-energy-driven bulk diffusion is determined near the point of pinching. We find a self-similar solution that gives a unique temporal power law and interfacial shape prior to pinching and self-similar solutions after pi......, and thus provide estimates of the time required for capillarity-driven break-up of microstructures from the detachment of secondary dendrite arms to polymer blends....

  12. Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-06-01

    The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers.

  13. Critical Power in 7-Rod Tight Lattice Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has recently becomes of great concern. The RMWR is expected to promote the effective utilization of uranium recourse. The RMWR is based on water-cooled reactor technology, with achieved under lower core water volume and water flow rate. In comparison with the current light water reactors whose water-to-fuel volume ratio is about 2-3, in the RMWR, this value is reduced to less than 0.5. Thereby, there is a need to research its cooling characteristics. Experimental research on critical power in tight lattice bundle that simulates the RMWR has been carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The bundle consists one center rod and six peripheral rods. The 7 rods are arranged on a 14.3mm equilateral triangular pitch. Each rod is 13mm in outside diameter. An axial 12-step power distribution is employed to simulate the complicate heating condition in RMWR. Experiments are carried out under G=100-1400kg/m2s, Pex=2-8.5MPa. Effects of mass velocity, inlet temperature, pressure, radial peaking factor and axial peaking factor on critical power and critical quality are discussed. Compared with axial uniform heating condition, the axial non-uniform heating condition causes an obvious decrease in critical quality. Arai correlation, which is the only correlation that has been optimized for tight lattice condition, is verified with the present experimental data. The correlation is found to be able to give reasonable prediction only around RMWR nominal operating condition.

  14. Transmission efficiency measurement at the FNAL 4-rod RFQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, J. P. [Fermilab; Garcia, F. G. [Fermilab; Ostiguy, J. F. [Fermilab; Saini, A. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab; Mustapha, B. [Argonne; Ostroumov, P. [Argonne

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents measurements of the beam transmission performed on the 4-rod RFQ currently under operation at Fermilab. The beam current has been measured at the RFQ exit as a function of the magnetic field strength in the two LEBT solenoids. This measurement is compared with scans performed on the FermiGrid with the beam dynamics code TRACK. A particular attention is given to the impact, on the RFQ beam transmission, of the space-charge neutralization in the LEBT.

  15. THE CALCULATION OF MULTICOMPONENT ROD SYSTEMS BY DECOMPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Raspopov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For decomposition of two- and three-dimensional rod systems the effective algorithm of dividing a system into blocks and the appropriate technique of coding for states of each from subsystems are developed. It is shown that the structure of multi-dimensional models can be set by means of space matrices based on the research of topological properties of the system graph.

  16. Features of electric drive sucker rod pumps for oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatullin, F. A.; Khakimyanov, M. I.; Khusainov, F. F.

    2018-01-01

    This article is about modes of operation of electric drives of downhole sucker rod pumps. Downhole oil production processes are very energy intensive. Oil fields contain many oil wells; many of them operate in inefficient modes with significant additional losses. Authors propose technical solutions to improve energy performance of a pump unit drives: counterweight balancing, reducing of electric motor power, replacing induction motors with permanent magnet motors, replacing balancer drives with chain drives, using of variable frequency drives.

  17. First Test Results of the 4-ROD Crab Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Ambattu, P; Burt, G; Calaga, R; Capatina, O; Calatroni, S; Ciapala, E; Doherty, D; Ferreira, L; Jensen, E; Hall, B; Lingwood, C; Maesen, P; Mongelluzzo, A; Renaglia, T; Therasse, M

    2013-01-01

    The first compact prototype crab cavity with the 4rod geometry has undergone surface treatment and cold testing. Due to the complex geometry and unique fabrication procedure, RF validation of the field at beyond the nominal operating voltage at a sufficiently high Q0 is an important pre-requisite. Preliminary results of the first cold tests are presented along with cavity performance at different stages of the cavity processing is described.

  18. DNA and origin region segregation are not affected by the transition from rod to sphere after inhibition of Escherichia coli MreB by A22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karczmarek, Aneta; Martinez-Arteaga, Rocio; Alexeeva, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial actin homologue MreB forms a helix underneath the cytoplasmic membrane and was shown to be essential in the morphogenesis of the rod-shaped cells. Additionally, MreB was implicated to be involved in DNA segregation. However, in our hands the mreBCD deletion strain (PA340-678) grew w...

  19. Characterization of Emericella nidulans RodA and DewA hydrophobin mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Pedersen, Mona Højgaard

    Hydrophobins are small amphiphilic proteins containing an eight cysteine pattern only found in filamentous fungi. They are involved in the attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic structures and the formation of aerial structures. Five Emericella nidulans mutant strains were examined to study the two...... hydrophobins RodA and DewA. Individual knock-out mutants rodAΔ, dewAΔ and the double deletion strain rodAΔdewAΔ were constructed. Furthermore, two strains containing a point mutation in the first of the cysteines of RodA (rodA-C57G), where one was coupled to the dewA deletion, were included. The reference...

  20. Modal properties of the flexural vibrating package of rods linked by spacer grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modelling and modal analysis of the large package of identical parallel rods linked by transverse springs (spacer grids placed on several level spacings. The rod discretization by finite element method is based on Rayleigh beam theory. For the cyclic and central symmetric package of rods (such as fuel rods in nuclear fuel assembly the system decomposition on the identical revolved rod segments was applied. A modal synthesis method with condensation is used for modelling of the whole system. The presented method is the first step for modelling the nuclear fuel assembly vibration caused by excitation determined by the support plate motion of the reactor core.

  1. The decay of hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs.

  2. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Tian; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, XiaoYong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  3. [Structural characteristics and biocompatibility of a new nano-Ta-Ti alloy rod fabricated by laser melting technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lin; Jiang, Jianming; Yang, Yong; Chen, Changjun; Qu, Dongbin

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the structural characteristics and biocompatibility of a novel nano-Ta-Ti alloy rod for its potential application in internal fixation. Ta coating of a Ti alloy rod with nano-Ta (tantalum) powder was performed using laser melting with symmetrical grooves repleted with nano-Ta powder along the whole length. The microstructure of the cross section of Ta-Ti alloy rod, pore diameter and components of the coating were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The influence of this nano-Ta-Ti alloy on proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells was evaluated by MTT cytotoxicity test and ALP activity test. Under scanning electron microscope, the Ta-coating surface presented with a gross porous (200-300 µm) structure with dense fusion between Ta particles, and no new element was produced after laser melting. Biocompatibility evaluation showed that Ti alloys with and without Ta coating both promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells, but the coated alloy showed better performance and obviously promoted the differentiation of the osteoblasts. Alloying between Ta and Ti can be accomplished successfully by laser melting technique, and the alloy obtained has ideal surface structure and good biocompatibility.

  4. Activation and deactivation of vibronic channels in intact phycocyanin rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganou, C.; David, L.; Meinke, R.; Adir, N.; Maultzsch, J.; Mkandawire, M.; Pouhè, D.; Thomsen, C.

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the excitation modes of the light-harvesting protein phycocyanin (PC) from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus in the crystalline state using UV and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the absence of a hydrogen out-of-plane wagging (HOOP) mode in the PC trimer, which suggests that the HOOP mode is activated in the intact PC rod, while it is not active in the PC trimer. Furthermore, in the PC trimer an intense mode at 984 cm-1 is assigned to the C-C stretching vibration while the mode at 454 cm-1 is likely due to ethyl group torsion. In contrast, in the similar chromophore phytochromobilin the C5,10,15-D wag mode at 622 cm-1 does not come from a downshift of the HOOP. Additionally, the absence of modes between 1200 and 1300 cm-1 rules out functional monomerization. A correlation between phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin (PEB) suggests that the PCB cofactors of the PC trimer appear in a conformation similar to that of PEB. The conformation of the PC rod is consistent with that of the allophycocyanin (APC) trimer, and thus excitonic flow is facilitated between these two independent light-harvesting compounds. This excitonic flow from the PC rod to APC appears to be modulated by the vibration channels during HOOP wagging, C = C stretching, and the N-H rocking in-plan vibration.

  5. Model of ASTM Flammability Test in Microgravity: Iron Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Theodore A; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is extensive qualitative results from burning metallic materials in a NASA/ASTM flammability test system in normal gravity. However, this data was shown to be inconclusive for applications involving oxygen-enriched atmospheres under microgravity conditions by conducting tests using the 2.2-second Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Drop Tower. Data from neither type of test has been reduced to fundamental kinetic and dynamic systems parameters. This paper reports the initial model analysis for burning iron rods under microgravity conditions using data obtained at the LERC tower and modeling the burning system after ignition. Under the conditions of the test the burning mass regresses up the rod to be detached upon deceleration at the end of the drop. The model describes the burning system as a semi-batch, well-mixed reactor with product accumulation only. This model is consistent with the 2.0-second duration of the test. Transient temperature and pressure measurements are made on the chamber volume. The rod solid-liquid interface melting rate is obtained from film records. The model consists of a set of 17 non-linear, first-order differential equations which are solved using MATLAB. This analysis confirms that a first-order rate, in oxygen concentration, is consistent for the iron-oxygen kinetic reaction. An apparent activation energy of 246.8 kJ/mol is consistent for this model.

  6. A measurement of a control rod drop using an LVDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Ho; Huh, Hyung; Yu, Je-Yong; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2010-03-01

    A control element drive mechanism is a reactor regulating system, which is to insert, withdraw, or maintain a control rod containing neutron-absorbing material within a reactor core to control the reactivity of the reactor. The ball-screw type CEDM for the small and medium research reactor has a spring-hydraulic damper to reduce the impact force due to the free drop of the CEDM. This paper describes the experimental results to obtain the drop characteristics of the CEDM. The tests are performed by using a full-scale structure except the control element assembly, and a drop time and displacement after an impact are measured by using an LVDT. The influences of the rod weight and the drop height on the drop behavior are also estimated on the basis of test results. In case of the longest stroke, the drop time of the control rod is within 4.5 seconds to meet the design requirement. The behavior after the impact shows a general damping motion of the spring-damper system, and the maximum displacement is measured as 15.6 mm.

  7. Role of Iron in the Preservation of Phototrophic Cells: An Example from a Modern Thermophilic Community at Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, M. N.; Cady, S. L.; Jahnke, L. L.; Pierson, B. K.

    2006-12-01

    Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) are widespread Precambrian sedimentary deposits, the least metamorphosed of which often contain hematite and magnetite among the major oxide mineral species. Hypotheses developed to explain the origin of BIFs differ with regard to the mechanisms by which Fe2+ would have been oxidized to mixed ferric (Fe3+) mineral assemblages. The classical scenario is that oxidation occurred biotically, albeit indirectly, as a result of the photosynthetic production of oxygen by cyanobacteria. It has also been suggested that Fe2+ oxidation could have occurred by abiotic photochemical oxidation or by direct oxidation via the metabolism of anoxygenic phototrophs and chemolithotrophs. Our prior investigation of a modern iron-depositing thermal spring using microelectrodes indicates that cyanobacterial microbial mats have a significant physiological impact on Fe2+ oxidation via photosynthetic oxygen production and CO2 fixation. Recent compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses of lipid biomarkers by our group reveals that anoxygenic phototrophs (e.g., Chloroflexus) do not oxidize Fe2+, but that they grow photoheterotrophically utilizing the cyanobacterial photosynthate. Evidence for a microbial role in the deposition of BIFs has been sought in the occurrence of microfossils in these structures. Microfossils are typically found preserved in the chert layers of BIFs. Though it has been argued that iron does not preserve cells well, our conventional TEM examination of iron-mineralized cyanobacterial cells has led us to hypothesize that iron can preserve the cellular fidelity of at least one phototroph and generate carbonaceous microfossils via permineralization. We have also used high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to characterize the microfossils and iron oxides located within and on the outside of such cells. Our extensive set of investigations with regard to deciphering the role of

  8. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-13

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4 nm-sized SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) of high crystallinity, synthesized via the hot-bubbling method, were incorporated with the commercial TiO2 (P25) particles to fabricate the photo-anodes. The optimal percentage of the doped SnO2 NCs was found at ~7.5% (SnO2/TiO2, w/w), and the fabricated DSSC delivers a power conversion efficiency up to 6.7%, which is 1.52 times of the P25 based DSSCs. The ultra-small SnO2 NCs offer three benefits, (1) the incorporation of SnO2 NCs enlarges surface areas of the photo-anode films, and higher dye-loading amounts were achieved; (2) the high charge mobility provided by SnO2 was confirmed to accelerate the electron transport, and the photo-electron recombination was suppressed by the highly-crystallized NCs; (3) the conduction band minimum (CBM) of the SnO2 NCs was uplifted due to the quantum size effects, and this was found to alleviate the decrement in the open-circuit voltage. This work highlights great contributions of the SnO2 NCs to the improvement of the photovoltaic performances in the DSSCs.

  9. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S

    1999-06-01

    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 {mu}m, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 {mu}m and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 {mu}m. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 {mu}m at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 {mu}m at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Brightness in human rod vision depends on slow neural adaptation to quantum statistics of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Michael E; Rieke, Fred

    2016-11-01

    In human rod-mediated vision, threshold for small, brief flashes rises in proportion to the square root of adapting luminance at all but the lowest and highest adapting intensities. A classical signal detection theory from Rose (1942, 1948) and de Vries (1943) attributed this rise to the perceptual masking of weak flashes by Poisson fluctuations in photon absorptions from the adapting field. However, previous work by Brown and Rudd (1998) demonstrated that the square-root law also holds for suprathreshold brightness judgments, a finding that supports an alternative explanation of the square-root sensitivity changes as a consequence of physiological adaptation (i.e., neural gain control). Here, we employ a dichoptic matching technique to investigate the properties of this brightness gain control. We show that the brightness gain control: 1) affects the brightness of high-intensity suprathreshold flashes for which assumptions of the de Vries-Rose theory are strongly violated; 2) exhibits a long time course of 100-200 s; and 3) is subject to modulation by temporal contrast noise when the mean adapting luminance is held constant. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the square-root law results from a slow neural adaptation to statistical noise in the rod pool. We suggest that such adaptation may function to reduce the probability of spurious ganglion cell spiking activity due to photon fluctuation noise as the ambient illumination level is increased.

  11. Block liposomes from curvature-stabilizing lipids: connected nanotubes, -rods, or -spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidovska, Alexandra; Ewert, Kai K; Quispe, Joel; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2009-03-03

    We report on the discovery of block liposomes, a new class of chain-melted (liquid) vesicles, with membranes comprised of mixtures of the membrane-curvature-stabilizing multivalent lipid MVLBG2 of colossal charge +16 e and neutral 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC). In a narrow MVLBG2 composition range (8-10 mol%), cryo-TEM revealed block liposomes consisting of distinctly shaped, yet connected, nanoscale spheres, pears, tubes, or rods. Unlike typical liposome systems, where spherical vesicles, tubular vesicles, and cylindrical micelles are separated on the macroscopic scale, within a block liposome, shapes are separated on the nanometer scale. Diblock (pear-tube) and triblock (pear-tube-pear) liposomes contain nanotubes with inner lumen diameter of 10-50 nm. Diblock (sphere-rod) liposomes were found to contain micellar nanorods approximately 4 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length, analogous to cytoskeletal filaments of eukaryotic cells. Block liposomes may find a range of applications in chemical and nucleic acid delivery and as building blocks in the design of templates for hierarchical structures.

  12. Analysis of Subchannel and Rod Bundle PSBT Experiments with CATHARE 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of CATHARE 3 against PWR subchannel and rod bundle tests of the PSBT benchmark. Noticeable measurements were the following: void fraction in single subchannel and rod bundle, multiple liquid temperatures at subchannel exit in rod bundle, and DNB power and location in rod bundle. All these results were obtained both in steady and transient conditions. Void fraction values are satisfactory predicted by CATHARE 3 in single subchannels with the pipe module. More dispersed predictions of void values are obtained in rod bundles with the CATHARE 3 3D module at subchannel scale. Single-phase liquid mixing tests and DNB tests in rod bundle are also analyzed. After calibrating the mixing in liquid single phase with specific tests, DNB tests using void mixing give mitigated results, perhaps linked to inappropriate use of CHF lookup tables in such rod bundles with many spacers.

  13. Overexpression of guanylate cyclase activating protein 2 in rod photoreceptors in vivo leads to morphological changes at the synaptic ribbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López-del Hoyo

    Full Text Available Guanylate cyclase activating proteins are EF-hand containing proteins that confer calcium sensitivity to retinal guanylate cyclase at the outer segment discs of photoreceptor cells. By making the rate of cGMP synthesis dependent on the free intracellular calcium levels set by illumination, GCAPs play a fundamental role in the recovery of the light response and light adaptation. The main isoforms GCAP1 and GCAP2 also localize to the synaptic terminal, where their function is not known. Based on the reported interaction of GCAP2 with Ribeye, the major component of synaptic ribbons, it was proposed that GCAP2 could mediate the synaptic ribbon dynamic changes that happen in response to light. We here present a thorough ultrastructural analysis of rod synaptic terminals in loss-of-function (GCAP1/GCAP2 double knockout and gain-of-function (transgenic overexpression mouse models of GCAP2. Rod synaptic ribbons in GCAPs-/- mice did not differ from wildtype ribbons when mice were raised in constant darkness, indicating that GCAPs are not required for ribbon early assembly or maturation. Transgenic overexpression of GCAP2 in rods led to a shortening of synaptic ribbons, and to a higher than normal percentage of club-shaped and spherical ribbon morphologies. Restoration of GCAP2 expression in the GCAPs-/- background (GCAP2 expression in the absence of endogenous GCAP1 had the striking result of shortening ribbon length to a much higher degree than overexpression of GCAP2 in the wildtype background, as well as reducing the thickness of the outer plexiform layer without affecting the number of rod photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that preservation of the GCAP1 to GCAP2 relative levels is relevant for maintaining the integrity of the synaptic terminal. Our demonstration of GCAP2 immunolocalization at synaptic ribbons at the ultrastructural level would support a role of GCAPs at mediating the effect of light on morphological remodeling changes of

  14. Neptune's Wandering Hot Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Fletcher, Leigh; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Geballe, Tom; Hammel, Heidi; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Encrenaz, Therese; Hofstadter, Mark; Mousis, Olivier; Fuse, Tetsuharu

    2010-05-01

    Images of stratospheric emission from Neptune obtained in 2006 at ESO's Very Large Telescope (Orton et al., 2007, A&A 473, L5) revealed a near-polar hot spot near 70 deg. S latitude that was detectable in different filters sampling both methane (~7-micron) and ethane (~12-micron) emission from Neptune's stratosphere. Such a feature was not present in 2003 Keck and 2005 Gemini North observations: these showed only a general warming trend towards Neptune's pole that was longitudinally homogeneous. Because of the paucity of longitudinal sampling in the 2003, 2005 and 2006 images, it was not clear whether the failure to see this phenomenon in 2003 and 2005 was simply the result of insufficient longitudinal sampling or whether the phenomenon was truly variable in time. To unravel these two possibilities, we proposed for time on large telescopes that were capable of resolving Neptune at these wavelengths. We were granted time at Gemini South in 2007 using T-Recs, Subaru time in 2008 using the COMICS instrument and VLT time in 2008 and 2009 using VISIR. Two serendipitous T-Recs images of Neptune were also obtained in 2007 using a broad-band N (8-14 micron) filter, whose radiance is dominated by 12-micron ethane emission, and whose primary purpose was navigation of N-band spectroscopy. The feature was re-observed (i) in 2007 in the T-Recs N-band filter and (ii) in 2008 with COMICS in a 12.5-micron image. Unfortunately, none of the telescope time granted was sufficient to sample all longitudes over the 12-hour period of this latitude, and so no definitive separation of the two possibilities was obtained. However, considering the ensemble of images as a random sample of longitudes, it is likely that the phenomenon is ephemeral in time, as it was observed only twice among 9 independent observing epochs. We will continue to request observations to sample all longitudes systematically, but our current sample argues that the phenomenon is truly ephemera, because we most likely

  15. Phase boundary of hot dense fluid hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kenji; Ichimaru, Kota; Einaga, Mari; Kawaguchi, Sho; Shimizu, Katsuya; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2015-11-09

    We investigated the phase transformation of hot dense fluid hydrogen using static high-pressure laser-heating experiments in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The results show anomalies in the heating efficiency that are likely to be attributed to the phase transition from a diatomic to monoatomic fluid hydrogen (plasma phase transition) in the pressure range between 82 and 106 GPa. This study imposes tighter constraints on the location of the hydrogen plasma phase transition boundary and suggests higher critical point than that predicted by the theoretical calculations.

  16. Magnetic controlled growth rods versus conventional growing rod systems in the treatment of early onset scoliosis: a cost comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolton, Daniel; Richards, Joanna; Nnadi, Colin

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the cost differences between a conventional growth rod system (CGRS) and magnetic controlled growth rods (MCGR) in treating early onset scoliosis (EOS) over a projected 5 year period. We hypothesise that the high initial outlay for MCGR would be recouped from fewer admissions and surgical procedures over the lifetime of the implant. The costs of all aspects of treatment for 14 patients undergoing conversion from CGRS to MGRS were collected over a 3 year period. The costs of all aspects of each treatment including clinic visits, hospital stay, theatre and complications were calculated and projected over the lifetime of each device. The initial outlay for insertion for MCGR was £12,913 more than the CGRS. There were significant cost savings for each lengthening which projected over the 5 year lifetime amounted to a cost saving of over £8,000 per patient. Magnetic controlled growth rods reduce the need for multiple invasive procedures in the management of EOS. The implant has a significant projected cost saving in comparison to CGRS.

  17. 29 CFR 1915.14 - Hot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot work. 1915.14 Section 1915.14 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.14 Hot work. (a) Hot work requiring testing by a Marine Chemist or Coast Guard authorized person. (1) The employer shall ensure that hot work is not performed in...

  18. Thermus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., isolated from a hot spring sediment sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Ming, Hong; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, En-Min; Park, Dong-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Wadaan, Mohammed A M; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIM 77409T, was isolated from the Niujie hot spring in the Eryuan county of Dali, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped and colonies were yellow and circular. The strain grew at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 50-70°C (optimum, 60-65°C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-8 and the DNA G+C content was 66.4 mol%. Major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0.The polar lipids consisted of one aminophospholipid, one phospholipid and two glycolipids. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain YIM 77409T formed a cluster with Thermus scotoductus DSM 8553T, Thermus antranikianii DSM 12462T, Thermus caliditerrae YIM 77925T and Thermus tengchongensis YIM 77924T, with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to T. scotoductus DSM 8553T (97.57%). However, DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strain YIM 77409T should be viewed as a representative of a novel species, as there was only 30.6 ± 1.6% reassociation with T. scotoductus DSM 8553T. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as the genotypic data, it is proposed that strain YIM 77409T represents a novel species of the genus Thermus, with the name Thermus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov. The type strain is YIM 77409T ( = DSM 25898T = KCTC 32024T).

  19. Permeabilidade a quente de refratários para revestimento de cubas eletrolíticas Hot permeability of refractories for aluminum electrolytic cells lining at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Miyaji

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria do alumínio primário, um dos principais responsáveis pela deterioração do revestimento refratário nas cubas de redução eletrolítica é o ataque por banho criolítico com alta concentração de NaF, que penetra e reage com o refratário podendo, em condições extremas, causar a parada prematura de operação da cuba e grandes prejuízos econômicos. Baseando-se nos mais recentes estudos de caracterização de refratários para cubas, uma boa correlação tem sido encontrada entre a resistência à corrosão e a permeabilidade, a qual é calculada pela equação de Forchheimer para a obtenção das constantes k1 Darciana (efeito viscoso e k2 não Darciana (efeito inercial. Entretanto, na maioria das situações, as medidas da permeabilidade têm sido efetuadas à temperatura ambiente, embora o refratário em uso esteja a superior temperatura. Este trabalho visa avaliar como esta permeabilidade se altera em temperaturas de até 700 ºC buscando, assim, uma melhor correlação dos resultados com as condições reais de operação. Pretende-se também, investigar essa propriedade em refratários empregados no revestimento de cadinhos para o transporte de alumínio líquido, com o intuito de verificar a aplicabilidade da permeametria como uma ferramenta de caracterização desses materiais cujo interesse de aplicação e desenvolvimento tem sido cada vez maior.In the aluminium primary industry, one of the main causes for electrolytic cells lining deterioration is the chemical attack by high NaF content cryolitic bath, that penetrates and reacts with the refractory, shortening the cell’s service life and resulting great economic losses. Based on the most recent studies on characterization of alumino-silicate refractories for aluminum cell linings, a good correlation has been found between its chemical attack by molten fluorides and the permeability, which is calculated by Forchheimer’s equation in order to obtain the Darcian

  20. Reduction of intradiscal pressure by the use of polycarbonate-urethane rods as compared to titanium rods in posterior thoracolumbar spinal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Eva; Roth, Alex K; Arts, Jacobus J; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W; Willems, Paul C

    2017-08-21

    Loss of sagittal alignment and balance in adult spinal deformity can cause severe pain, disability and progressive neurological deficit. When conservative treatment has failed, spinal fusion using rigid instrumentation is currently the salvage treatment to stop further curve progression. However, fusion surgery is associated with high revision rates due to instrumentation failure and proximal junctional failure, especially if patients also suffer from osteoporosis. To address these drawbacks, a less rigid rod construct is proposed, which is hypothesized to provide a more gradual transition of force and load distribution over spinal segments in comparison to stiff titanium rods. In this study, the effect of variation in rod stiffness on the intradiscal pressure (IDP) of fixed spinal segments during flexion-compression loading was assessed. An ex vivo multisegment (porcine) flexion-compression spine test comparing rigid titanium rods with more flexible polycarbonate-urethane (PCU) rods was used. An increase in peak IDP was found for both the titanium and PCU instrumentation groups as compared to the uninstrumented controls. The peak IDP for the spines instrumented with the PCU rods was significantly lower in comparison to the titanium instrumentation group. These results demonstrated the differences in mechanical load transfer characteristics between PCU and titanium rod constructs when subjected to flexion-compression loading. The concept of stabilization with a less rigid rod may be an alternative to fusion with rigid instrumentation, with the aim of decreasing mechanical stress on the instrumented segments and the possible benefit of a decrease in the incidence of screw pullout.

  1. The effects of Hot Pepper Extract and Capsaicin on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Sheng, Chu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on adipogenesis were examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖ for 3 hrs. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on lipolysis were examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with hot pepper extract or capsaicinCFP ranging from 0.1 to 10㎎/㎖ to examine the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenesis than hot pepper extract. 2. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenic differentiation than hot pepper extract. 3. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin increased glycerol release at the concentration of 0.1㎎/㎖. There was no difference in lipolytic activity between hot pepper extract and

  2. 78 FR 60850 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the... certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR 55805 (August 30, 2002). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year...

  3. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results... duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico.\\1\\ This review covers.... \\1\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

  4. 77 FR 66954 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of... on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico. The period of review is October 1... certain alloy steel wire rod. The product is currently classified under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  5. 78 FR 28190 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of... carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico. The period of review (POR) is October 1... (the Act). \\1\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of...

  6. Hot Jupiter Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, George B.; Arras, Phil; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2011-02-01

    The upper atmospheres of close-in gas giant exoplanets ("hot Jupiters") are subjected to intense heating and tidal forces from their parent stars. The atomic (H) and ionized (H+) hydrogen layers are sufficiently rarefied that magnetic pressure may dominate gas pressure for expected planetary magnetic field strength. We examine the structure of the magnetosphere using a 3D isothermal magnetohydrodynamic model that includes a static "dead zone" near the magnetic equator containing gas confined by the magnetic field, a "wind zone" outside the magnetic equator in which thermal pressure gradients and the magneto-centrifugal-tidal effect give rise to a transonic outflow, and a region near the poles where sufficiently strong tidal forces may suppress transonic outflow. Using dipole field geometry, we estimate the size of the dead zone to be several to tens of planetary radii for a range of parameters. Tides decrease the size of the dead zone, while allowing the gas density to increase outward where the effective gravity is outward. In the wind zone, the rapid decrease of density beyond the sonic point leads to smaller densities relative to the neighboring dead zone, which is in hydrostatic equilibrium. To understand the appropriate base conditions for the 3D isothermal model, we compute a simple 1D thermal model in which photoelectric heating from the stellar Lyman continuum is balanced by collisionally excited Lyα cooling. This 1D model exhibits a H layer with temperature T ~= 5000-10,000 K down to a pressure P ~ 10-100 nbar. Using the 3D isothermal model, we compute maps of the H column density as well as the Lyα transmission spectra for parameters appropriate for HD 209458b. Line-integrated transit depths sime5%-10% can be achieved for the above base conditions, in agreement with the results of Koskinen et al. A deep, warm H layer results in a higher mass-loss rate relative to that for a more shallow layer, roughly in proportion to the base pressure. Strong magnetic

  7. Construction of an external electrode for determination of electrochemical corrosion potential in normal operational conditions of an BWR type reactor for hot cells; Construccion de un electrodo externo para determinacion del potencial de corrosion electroquimico en condiciones normales de operacion de un reactor tipo BWR para celdas calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar T, J.A.; Rivera M, H.; Hernandez C, R. [Departamento de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The behavior of the corrosion processes at high temperature requires of external devices that being capable to resist a temperature of 288 Centigrade and a pressure of 80 Kg/cm{sup 2}, to give stable and reproducible results of some variable and resisting physically and chemically the radiation. The external electrode of Ag/AgCl fulfils all the requirements in the determination of the electrochemical corrosion potential under normal operational conditions of a BWR type reactor in hot cells. (Author)

  8. Multiple rod–cone and cone–rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: Evidence from visual opsin gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoe, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L.; Loew, Ellis R.; Sanders, Kate L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Partridge, Julian C.; Gower, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor ‘transmutation’. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels.

  9. Multiple rod–cone and cone–rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Filipa L.; Loew, Ellis R.; Sanders, Kate L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Partridge, Julian C.

    2016-01-01

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor ‘transmutation’. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels. PMID:26817768

  10. Rhodopsin mutant P23H destabilizes rod photoreceptor disk membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haeri

    Full Text Available Mutations in rhodopsin cause retinitis pigmentosa in humans and retinal degeneration in a multitude of other animals. We utilized high-resolution live imaging of the large rod photoreceptors from transgenic frogs (Xenopus to compare the properties of fluorescently tagged rhodopsin, Rho-EGFP, and Rho(P23H-EGFP. The mutant was abnormally distributed both in the inner and outer segments (OS, accumulating in the OS to a concentration of ∼0.1% compared to endogenous opsin. Rho(P23H-EGFP formed dense fluorescent foci, with concentrations of mutant protein up to ten times higher than other regions. Wild-type transgenic Rho-EGFP did not concentrate in OS foci when co-expressed in the same rod with Rho(P23H-EGFP. Outer segment regions containing fluorescent foci were refractory to fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, while foci in the inner segment exhibited recovery kinetics similar to OS regions without foci and Rho-EGFP. The Rho(P23H-EGFP foci were often in older, more distal OS disks. Electron micrographs of OS revealed abnormal disk membranes, with the regular disk bilayers broken into vesiculotubular structures. Furthermore, we observed similar OS disturbances in transgenic mice expressing Rho(P23H, suggesting such structures are a general consequence of mutant expression. Together these results show that mutant opsin disrupts OS disks, destabilizing the outer segment possibly via the formation of aggregates. This may render rods susceptible to mechanical injury or compromise OS function, contributing to photoreceptor loss.

  11. Rewetting of a low superheated rod with saturated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo, O.; Reyes, R.; Wayner, P.C. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The study of the rewetting of a superheated surface has application in several technological fields. It is related to the control mechanism for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in nuclear reactors. An adsorption model as the precursory mechanism for rewetting of a superheated surface is extended from its application to non-polar liquids to a polar fluid, and modeling calculations are compared with experimental data found in the literature. The adsorption model is based on interfacial forces acting at the tip of the rewetting front, the three-phase region. In this region, solid, liquid and vapor interfaces generate a contact angle that depends on the degree of superheat and describes the velocity of rewetting. The contact angle is a function of interfacial forces calculated through the disjoining pressure of the adsorbed film precursory of the rewetting. The influences of van der Waals and electrostatic intermolecular forces in the film thickness are analyzed. The authors find that the order of magnitude of the film thickness in the controlling region is of a few angstroms: thus, only van der Waals intermolecular forces define the interactions. For the prediction of the velocity of rewetting the temperature profile along the rod's surface is required and a one-dimensional and a two-dimensional heat conduction balances are solved. The thermophysical properties in the adsorption model are predicted by ASPEN PLUS data bank and from ASME steam tables. Variations of the predicted values have a strong influence on the results. The surface boundary condition on the rod contains an evaporative heat transfer coefficient that is calculated from the fitted experimental rewetting velocities and the two-dimensional temperature field in the rod. Using this calculation scheme the values of the evaporative heat transfer coefficient are obtained in the normal range of values. Therefore the adsorption model gives results that are consistent with experimental observations.

  12. Rod monochromacy and the coevolution of cetacean retinal opsins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Meredith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans have a long history of commitment to a fully aquatic lifestyle that extends back to the Eocene. Extant species have evolved a spectacular array of adaptations in conjunction with their deployment into a diverse array of aquatic habitats. Sensory systems are among those that have experienced radical transformations in the evolutionary history of this clade. In the case of vision, previous studies have demonstrated important changes in the genes encoding rod opsin (RH1, short-wavelength sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1, and long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS in selected cetaceans, but have not examined the full complement of opsin genes across the complete range of cetacean families. Here, we report protein-coding sequences for RH1 and both color opsin genes (SWS1, LWS from representatives of all extant cetacean families. We examine competing hypotheses pertaining to the timing of blue shifts in RH1 relative to SWS1 inactivation in the early history of Cetacea, and we test the hypothesis that some cetaceans are rod monochomats. Molecular evolutionary analyses contradict the "coastal" hypothesis, wherein SWS1 was pseudogenized in the common ancestor of Cetacea, and instead suggest that RH1 was blue-shifted in the common ancestor of Cetacea before SWS1 was independently knocked out in baleen whales (Mysticeti and in toothed whales (Odontoceti. Further, molecular evidence implies that LWS was inactivated convergently on at least five occasions in Cetacea: (1 Balaenidae (bowhead and right whales, (2 Balaenopteroidea (rorquals plus gray whale, (3 Mesoplodon bidens (Sowerby's beaked whale, (4 Physeter macrocephalus (giant sperm whale, and (5 Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale. All of these cetaceans are known to dive to depths of at least 100 m where the underwater light field is dim and dominated by blue light. The knockout of both SWS1 and LWS in multiple cetacean lineages renders these taxa rod monochromats, a condition previously unknown among

  13. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  14. Electrically reconfigurable optical metamaterials based on orientationally ordered dispersions of metal nano-rods in dielectric fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Andrii B.; Xiang, Jie; Nastishin, Yuriy A.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2010-08-01

    Optical metamaterials capture the imagination with potential applications such as sub-wave imaging, invisibility cloaking and solar energy collection. The challenge is to learn how to construct and reconfigure a metamaterial with a spatially varying refractive index. We describe an approach based on colloidal dispersion of metal nano-rods in a dielectric fluid placed in a non-uniform electric field. Because of the dielectrophoretic effect, the nano-rods accumulate in the regions with the maximum field and align along the field lines. High concentration of nano-rods lowers the effective local refractive index of the dispersion. The nano-rods are much smaller than the wavelength of light. We illustrate the approach with a dispersion of gold nanorods (length 40-70 nm, diameter 10-20 nm) in toluene, using flat and cylindrical cells. In the first case, the electric field is created by two mutually perpendicular electrodes, in the second case, it is created by two coaxial electrodes. When the field is applied, the initially isotropic dispersion of nanorods transforms into birefringent orientationally ordered structures with the director following the electric field lines. We describe how the optical properties of the field-induced structures are controlled by dichroism and birefringence of the dispersion and determine the spatial variation of the field-induced optical phase retardation. In cylindrical capillaries, the index gradient bends lights around the central electrode, thus reducing its visibility. Our approach can be used as a starting point for the development of self-assembled and reconfigurable optical metamaterials with optical properties controlled by the dielectrophoretic effect on submicron scales.

  15. Optimization for Limitation and Condition for operation (LCO) of Rod Drop Accidents in Hanul Nuclear Power Plants Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Lee, Seung-Chan; Sung, Je-Joong; Lee, Hye-min; Hong, Sun-Kwan; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper is to evaluate a reactor safety when the plant is eliminated the manual trip by quadrant power tilt ratio (QPTR) of technical specification value, 1.09 during the dropped rod assembly event for Hanul 1 and 2 units. Dropped rod assembly does not cause reactor trip per the current design methodology by elimination of NFRT but manually trip in 2 hours by technical specification and eventually it reduces the plant power availability. The plant availability can improve and prevent unnecessary plant transient by eliminating the manual reactor trip in 2 hours by QPTR after rod drop. A fuel safety in case that the plant eliminates the manual reactor trip by QPTR can be achieved through the operating data analysis of related event experiences using LCO of the improved technical specification. In order to keep the hot channel factors within limits compatible with the design criteria, reactor operation in the event of quadrant power tilt should be reduced to certain limit of reactor power. The power reduction in the event of quadrant power tilt have been determined under the principle that the limit value of quadrant power tilt ratio increases as reactor power decreases. Time limits for various operational circumstances with a radial power tilt are incorporated in order to prevent the core from a non uniform depletion. The 50% power reduction if the power tilt ratio exceeds 1.02 is a consequence of this methodology. We confirm that fuel damage will be prevented and fuel safety will be assured if the plants reduce reactor power to 50% during dropped rod assembly events.

  16. Breaking of rod-shaped model material during compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kulaviak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The breakage of a model anisometric dry granular material caused by uniaxial compression was studied. The bed of uniform rod-like pasta particles (8 mm long, aspect ratio 1:8 was compressed (Gamlen Tablet Press and their size distribution was measured after each run (Dynamic Image Analysing. The compression dynamics was recorded and the effect of several parameters was tested (rate of compression, volume of granular bed, pressure magnitude and mode of application. Besides the experiments, numerical modelling of the compressed breakable material was performed as well, employing the DEM approach (Discrete Element Method. The comparison between the data and the model looks promising.

  17. Elasticity of the Rod-Shaped Gram-Negative Eubacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulbitch, A.; Quinn, B.; Pink, D.

    2000-12-01

    We report a theoretical calculation of the elasticity of the peptidoglycan network, the only stress-bearing part of rod-shaped Gram-negative eubacteria. The peptidoglycan network consists of elastic peptides and inextensible glycan strands, and it has been proposed that the latter form zigzag filaments along the circumference of the cylindrical bacterial shell. The zigzag geometry of the glycan strands gives rise to nonlinear elastic behavior. The four elastic moduli of the peptidoglycan network depend on its stressed state. For a bacterium under physiological conditions the elasticity is proportional to the bacterial turgor pressure. Our results are in good agreement with recent measurements.

  18. Breaking of rod-shaped model material during compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Kulaviak; Vera, Penkavova; Marek, Ruzicka; Miroslav, Puncochar; Petr, Zamostny; Zdenek, Grof; Frantisek, Stepanek; Marek, Schongut; Jaromir, Havlica

    2017-06-01

    The breakage of a model anisometric dry granular material caused by uniaxial compression was studied. The bed of uniform rod-like pasta particles (8 mm long, aspect ratio 1:8) was compressed (Gamlen Tablet Press) and their size distribution was measured after each run (Dynamic Image Analysing). The compression dynamics was recorded and the effect of several parameters was tested (rate of compression, volume of granular bed, pressure magnitude and mode of application). Besides the experiments, numerical modelling of the compressed breakable material was performed as well, employing the DEM approach (Discrete Element Method). The comparison between the data and the model looks promising.

  19. Modelling Defect Cavities Formed in Inverse Three-Dimensional Rod-Connected Diamond Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Taverne, M P C; Zheng, X; Liu, S; Chen, L -F; Lopez-Garcia, M; Rarity, J G

    2016-01-01

    Defect cavities in 3D photonic crystal can trap and store light in the smallest volumes allowable in dielectric materials, enhancing non-linearities and cavity QED effects. Here, we study inverse rod-connected diamond (RCD) crystals containing point defect cavities using plane-wave expansion and finite-difference time domain methods. By optimizing the dimensions of the crystal, wide photonic band gaps are obtained. Mid-bandgap resonances can then be engineered by introducing point defects in the crystal. We investigate a variety of single spherical defects at different locations in the unit cell focusing on high-refractive-index contrast (3.3:1) inverse RCD structures; quality factors (Q-factors) and mode volumes of the resonant cavity modes are calculated. By choosing a symmetric arrangement, consisting of a single sphere defect located at the center of a tetrahedral arrangement, small mode volumes are obtained.

  20. Effects of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin on biofilm formation in Proteus mirabilis rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2013-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis rods are one of the most commonly isolated species of the Proteus genus from human infections, mainly those from the urinary tract and wounds. They are often related to biofilm structure formation. The bacterial cells of the biofilm are less susceptible to routinely used antimicrobials, making the treatment more difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the influence of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin on biofilm formation on the polyvinyl chloride surface by 42 P. mirabilis strains isolated from urine, purulence, wound swab and bedsore samples. It has been shown that ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin at concentrations equal to 1/4, 1/2 and 1 times their MIC values for particular Proteus spp. strains decrease their ability to form biofilms. Moreover, ciprofloxacin at concentrations equal to 1/4, 1/2 and 1 times their MIC values for particular P. mirabilis strains reduces biofilm formation more efficiently than ceftazidime at the corresponding concentration values.