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Sample records for rocks initial results

  1. Diel cycling of zinc in a stream impacted by acid rock drainage: Initial results from a new in situ Zn analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.P.; Nimick, D.A.; Gammons, C.H.; Wanty, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that many trace metals undergo dramatic diel (24-h) cycles in near neutral pH streams with metal concentrations reproducibly changing up to 500% during the diel period (Nimick et al., 2003). To examine diel zinc cycles in streams affected by acid rock drainage, we have developed a novel instrument, the Zn-DigiScan, to continuously monitor in situ zinc concentrations in near real-time. Initial results from a 3-day deployment at Fisher Creek, Montana have demonstrated the ability of the Zn-DigiScan to record diel Zn cycling at levels below 100 ??g/l. Longer deployments of this instrument could be used to examine the effects of episodic events such as rainstorms and snowmelt pulses on zinc loading in streams affected by acid rock drainage. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  2. Strength Assessment of Broken Rock Postgrouting Reinforcement Based on Initial Broken Rock Quality and Grouting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfa Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate postgrouting rock mass strength growth is important for engineering design. In this paper, using self-developed indoor pressure-grouting devices, 19 groups of test cubic blocks were made of the different water cement ratio grouting into the broken rock of three kinds of particle sizes. The shear strength parameters of each group under different conditions were tested. Then this paper presents a quantitative calculation method for predicting the strength growth of grouted broken rock. Relational equations were developed to investigate the relationship between the growth rates of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, absolute value of uniaxial tensile strength (AUTS, internal friction angle, and cohesion for post- to pregrouting broken rock based on Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. From previous test data, the empirical equation between the growth rate of UCS and the ratio of the initial rock mass UCS to the grout concretion UCS has been determined. The equations of the growth rates of the internal friction coefficient and UCS for grouting broken rock with rock mass rating (RMR and its increment have been established. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results. These observations are important for engineered design of grouting reinforcement for broken rock mass.

  3. Initial response of a rock penetrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longcope, D.B.; Grady, D.E.

    1977-12-01

    An analysis based on elastic rod theory is given for the early-time axisymmetric response of pointed penetrators. Results of measurements by laser interferometry of the back surface particle velocity of laboratory scale penetrators impacted by sandstone targets are presented. Values of the initial pressure on the penetrator tip are determined which give good agreement between the analytical and experimental results. These initial tip pressures are found to be approximated by the stress-particle velocity Hugoniot for the target material

  4. Initial settlements of rock fills on soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Truls Martens

    2012-01-01

    Rock fills that hit the seabed will remold the underlying material. If this material is a clay with sufficiently low shear strength, it will adopt rheological properties, causing flow through the rock fill, and contributing to the initial settlements of the rock fill in addition to conventional consolidation theory. The settlements of the rocks depend upon the height of the rock fill and how the rocks have been laid out. This is due to the viscosity of the clay, and the fact that clay is thix...

  5. Evaluation of strength and failure of brittle rock containing initial cracks under lithospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhao; Qi, Chengzhi; Shao, Zhushan; Ma, Chao

    2018-02-01

    Natural brittle rock contains numerous randomly distributed microcracks. Crack initiation, growth, and coalescence play a predominant role in evaluation for the strength and failure of brittle rocks. A new analytical method is proposed to predict the strength and failure of brittle rocks containing initial microcracks. The formulation of this method is based on an improved wing crack model and a suggested micro-macro relation. In this improved wing crack model, the parameter of crack angle is especially introduced as a variable, and the analytical stress-crack relation considering crack angle effect is obtained. Coupling the proposed stress-crack relation and the suggested micro-macro relation describing the relation between crack growth and axial strain, the stress-strain constitutive relation is obtained to predict the rock strength and failure. Considering different initial microcrack sizes, friction coefficients and confining pressures, effects of crack angle on tensile wedge force acting on initial crack interface are studied, and effects of crack angle on stress-strain constitutive relation of rocks are also analyzed. The strength and crack initiation stress under different crack angles are discussed, and the value of most disadvantaged angle triggering crack initiation and rock failure is founded. The analytical results are similar to the published study results. Rationality of this proposed analytical method is verified.

  6. Experimental Study of Bilinear Initiating System Based on Hard Rock Pile Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusong Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to use industrial explosives to excavate hard rock and achieve suitable blasting effect due to the low energy utilization rate resulting in large rocks and short blasting footage. Thus, improving the utilization ratio of the explosive energy is important. In this study, a novel bilinear initiation system based on hard rock blasting was proposed to improve the blasting effects. Furthermore, on the basis of the detonation wave collision theory, frontal collision, oblique reflection, and Mach reflection during detonation wave propagation were studied. The results show that the maximum detonation pressure at the Mach reflection point where the incident angle is 46.9° is three times larger than the value of the explosive complete detonation. Then, in order to analyze the crack propagation in different initiation forms, a rock fracture test slot was designed, and the results show that bilinear initiating system can change the energy distribution of explosives. Finally, field experiment was implemented at the hard rock pile blasting engineering, and experimental results show that the present system possesses high explosive energy utilization ratio and low rock fragments size. The results of this study can be used to improve the efficiency in hard rock blasting.

  7. Comparison of Crack Initiation, Propagation and Coalescence Behavior of Concrete and Rock Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2017-04-01

    There are many previously studies carried out to identify crack initiation, propagation and coalescence behavior of different type of rocks. Most of these studies aimed to understand and predict the probable instabilities on different engineering structures such as mining galleries or tunnels. For this purpose, in these studies relatively smaller natural rock and synthetic rock-like models were prepared and then the required laboratory tests were performed to obtain their strength parameters. By using results provided from these models, researchers predicted the rock mass behavior under different conditions. However, in the most of these studies, rock materials and models were considered as contains none or very few discontinuities and structural flaws. It is well known that rock masses naturally are extremely complex with respect to their discontinuities conditions and thus it is sometimes very difficult to understand and model their physical and mechanical behavior. In addition, some vuggy rock materials such as basalts and limestones also contain voids and gaps having various geometric properties. Providing that the failure behavior of these type of rocks controlled by the crack initiation, propagation and coalescence formed from their natural voids and gaps, the effect of these voids and gaps over failure behavior of rocks should be investigated. Intact rocks are generally preferred due to relatively easy side of their homogeneous characteristics in numerical modelling phases. However, it is very hard to extract intact samples from vuggy rocks because of their complex pore sizes and distributions. In this study, the feasibility of concrete samples to model and mimic the failure behavior vuggy rocks was investigated. For this purpose, concrete samples were prepared at a mixture of %65 cement dust and %35 water and their physical and mechanical properties were determined by laboratory experiments. The obtained physical and mechanical properties were used to

  8. Applicability of initial stress measurement methods to Horonobe Siliceous rocks and initial stress state around Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Hiroyuki; Niunoya, Sumio; Matsui, Hiroya; Fujii, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Understanding initial stress condition in deep underground is important for such construction as rock cavern for geological disposal of HLW and underground power plant. Neogene sedimentary rock is widely distributed in Japan. There are only a few studies of initial stress measurement in Neogene sedimentary rock mass in Japan due to difficulty of measurement. Evaluation of initial stress condition around Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project was carried out in order to understand initial stress condition and applicability of AE, DSCA and hydraulic fracturing (HF) methods to Neogene sedimentary rock. Initial stress values obtained from AE method is smaller than overburden pressure due to time dependency of Kaizer effect. It would be difficult to use AE method as initial stress measurement method for Horonobe Siliceous rocks. Principal stress values by DSCA are similar to those by HF tests. Directions of maximum horizontal principal stresses are approximately in E-W and corresponded to HF results. In HF, rod type and wire-line type systems were compared. Workability of rod type was much better than wire-line type. However, re-opening pressure were not able to be precisely measured in case of rod type system due to the large compliance of the packers and rods. Horizontal maximum and minimum principal stresses increase linearly in HF results. Deviatoric stress is acting at shallow depth. Initial stress condition approaches hydrostatic condition with depth. Direction of maximum horizontal principal stress was in E-W direction which was similar to tectonic movement around Horonobe URL by triangular surveying. (author)

  9. I. Some results from a field investigation of thermo-mechanical loading of a rock mass when heaters are emplaced in the rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, M.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of a field experiment to monitor the response of a rock mass to thermomechanical loading from electrically heated canisters emplaced in the rock at a depth of 340 m. Measurements made to date of temperature, displacement, and stress fields indicate that heat is transferred through the rock mainly by conduction; discontinuities within the rock mass have a minimal effect on the heat flow. Displacements within the rock from thermal expansion are shown to be much less than those predicted by linear thermoelastic theory. A plausible, though not complete, reason for these reduced displacements is the absorption of the initial rock expansions into discontinuities within the rock mass. Difficulties have been experienced in obtaining reliable stress measurement data using borehole deformation gauges to monitor changes in rock stress. Some data have been obtained and are being analyzed. Rock decrepitation in the heater boreholes is discussed

  10. Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    A series of analytical tests was conducted on a suite of granitic rock samples from the Daya Bay region of southeast China. The objective of these analyses was to determine key rock properties that would affect the suitability of this location for the siting of a neutrino oscillation experiment. This report contains the results of chemical analyses, rock property measurements, and a calculation of the mean atomic weight

  11. Plasma Discharge Initiation of Explosives in Rock Blasting Application: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jae-Ou; Jeong, Young-Jun; Shmelev, V M; Denicaev, A A; Poutchkov, V M; Ravi, V

    2006-01-01

    A plasma discharge initiation system for the explosive volumetric combustion charge was designed, investigated and developed for practical application. Laboratory scale experiments were carried out before conducting the large scale field tests. The resultant explosions gave rise to less noise, insignificant seismic vibrations and good specific explosive consumption for rock blasting. Importantly, the technique was found to be safe and environmentally friendly

  12. Fracture Initiation of an Inhomogeneous Shale Rock under a Pressurized Supercritical CO2 Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advantages of good fracture performance and the application of carbon capture and storage (CCS, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 is considered a promising alternative for hydraulic fracturing. However, the fracture initiation mechanism and its propagation under pressurized SC-CO2 jet are still unknown. To address these problems, a fluid–structure interaction (FSI-based numerical simulation model along with a user-defined code was used to investigate the fracture initiation in an inhomogeneous shale rock. The mechanism of fracturing under the effect of SC-CO2 jet was explored, and the effects of various influencing factors were analyzed and discussed. The results indicated that higher velocity jets of SC-CO2 not only caused hydraulic-fracturing ring, but also resulted in the increase of stress in the shale rock. It was found that, with the increase of perforation pressure, more cracks initiated at the tip. In contrast, the length of cracks at the root decreased. The length-to-diameter ratio and the aperture ratio distinctly affected the pressurization of SC-CO2 jet, and contributed to the non-linear distribution and various maximum values of the stress in shale rock. The results proved that Weibull probability distribution was appropriate for analysis of the fracture initiation. The studied parameters explain the distribution of weak elements, and they affect the stress field in shale rock.

  13. The determination of initial ratio of strontium isotope in rocks and its geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Junlong; Zhao Puyun; Lin Xiulan

    1989-04-01

    The method to determine the initial ratio of strontium isotopes existed in rocks of poor rubidium and rich strontium and main carrier minerals is introduced. The initial ratio obtained from this method is equivalent to that acquired by Rb-Sr isochrone. Based on this result, information on regional rock genesis and mineralization regularities can be provided. It has great significance in the research on activities of ancient continental margin and material sources as well as their evolution. The migration of rock, and ore-forming materials, matallogenetic mechanism and its distribution in the space and time evolution are studied by using these data. In conclusion, the determination of strontium isotopes has broad prospects in the geological research

  14. Soil erosion and effluent particle size distribution under different initial conditions and rock fragment coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Brovelli, A.; Heng, B. C. P.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the presence of rock fragments on the soil surface and the soil's initial characteristics (moisture content, surface roughness, bulk density, etc.) are key factors influencing soil erosion dynamics and sediment delivery. In addition, the interaction of these factors increases the complexity of soil erosion patterns and makes predictions more difficult. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the effect of soil initial conditions and rock fragment coverage on soil erosion yields and effluent particle size distribution and (ii) to evaluate to what extent the rock fragment coverage controls this relationship. Three laboratory flume experiments with constant precipitation rate of 74 mm/h on a loamy soil parcel with a 2% slope were performed. Experiments with duration of 2 h were conducted using the 6-m × 2-m EPFL erosion flume. During each experiment two conditions were considered, a bare soil and a rock fragment-protected (with 40% coverage) soil. The initial soil surface state was varied between the three experiments, from a freshly re-ploughed and almost dry condition to a compacted soil with a well-developed shield layer and high moisture content. Experiments were designed so that rain splash was the primary driver of soil erosion. Results showed that the amount of eroded mass was highly controlled by the initial soil conditions and whether the steady-state equilibrium was un-, partially- or fully- developed during the previous event. Additionally, results revealed that sediment yields and particle size composition in the initial part of an erosion event are more sensitive to the erosion history than the long-time behaviour. This latter appears to be mainly controlled by rainfall intensity. If steady-state was achieved for a previous event, then the next event consistently produced concentrations for each size class that peaked rapidly, and then declined gradually to steady-state equilibrium. If steady state was not obtained, then

  15. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2004. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report presents Posiva Oy's results of the rock mechanical monitoring programme from the year 2004. Monitoring programme was established for long time monitoring of modifications in the bedrock during the excavation of the ONKALO underground research facility stated in Olkiluoto island. This is the first annual report where rock mechanical research work has being reported also from the monitoring point of view. Rock mechanical research work consists of both GPS measurements and microseismic measurements carried out in Olkiluoto island. Both measurements have been performed during several years even before monitoring programme was established. GPS measurements have been carried out since 1995 and microseismic network has operated since 2002. There have been no significant changes in observations when studying rock mechanical results from the year 2004 and comparing them to results from the previous years. Therefore it can be said, that so far ONKALO has barely had any effect on rock mechanics in Olkiluoto. Report has been composed from the annual reports of GPS measurements.(orig.)

  16. Creep in rock salt with temperature. Testing methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Berest, P.

    1985-01-01

    The growing interest shown in the delayed behaviour of rocks at elevated temperature has led the Solid Mechanics Laboratory to develop specific equipment designed for creep tests. The design and dimensioning of these units offer the possibility of investigating a wide range of materials. The article describes the test facilities used (uni-axial and tri-axial creep units) and presents the experimental results obtained on samples of Bresse salt [fr

  17. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2012. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Siren, T.

    2014-01-01

    The rock mechanics monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The rock mechanics monitoring programme 2012 consisted of seismic measurements, GPS measurements, surface levelling measurements and temperature measurements at Olkiluoto and vicinity and displacement measurements, temperature measurements and visual tunnel observations carried out in the ONKALO. The Posiva's microseismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 22 triaxial sensors. Six stations are in the ONKALO. In spite of few breaks the network operated continuously and well during 2012. The number of located events was much smaller in 2012 than during the previous years due to the interruption of the excavation. Altogether 337 events were located in the Olkiluoto area of which about half (181) were explosions. Two excavation induced earthquakes were observed at -420 m level and were associated with a known tunnel crosscutting fracture. According to the seismic monitoring the rock mass has been stable in 2012. The local GPS network consists of 19 stations. The whole network was measured twice in 2012. Most of the inner network baselines showed very small motions as in the previous years: 80 % of change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/a. Roughly one third of the change rates are statistically significant. One baseline was also measured using electronic distance measurements (EDM) and the results fitted well to the times series. The surface levelling network currently consists of 87 fixed measuring points. During 2012 only measuring loops VLJ, ONKALO and Olkiluoto Strait were measured. The results indicated that vertical deformations were small compared to 2011 results. The largest deformations around 0.6 mm upwards existed above the VLJ-repository. The displacement measurements in 2012 consisted of the extensometer measurements in the technical rooms of the ONKALO. Readings were taken continuously once a hour by a

  18. Results of Rb-Sr dating of metamorphic rocks of crystalline complexes of Male Karpaty Mts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, P.Kh.; Cambel, B.; Veselsky, J.

    1983-01-01

    The paper follows up on a recently published paper on Rb-Sr isochrone dating of granitoid rocks of the Male Karpaty Mts. Data are given on comparative statistical analysis of isochrones obtained for the Bratislava and Modra massifs (isochrone of the latter is complemented with the analyses of two new samples) and the results of age determination of metasedimentary rocks of the Pezinok-Pernek zone and the Bratislava area by the Rb-Sr isochrone. Regression analysis shows that there is no statistically significant difference between the age of the Bratislava massif (347+-4 m.y.) and the Modra massif (326+-22 m.y.) and between their initial ratios 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (i.e., they are synchronous, having the same magma source) which makes it possible to calculate uniform value for age. Whole-rock samples of metamorphic and crystalline schists (gneisses) of the Male Karpaty Mts. also determine the isochrone corresponding to the age 387+-38 m.y. (2σ) and initial ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)=0.7100+-0.00O8 (2σ). Rb-Sr isotope analyses of several pairs of biotite-crystalline schist (from which biotite was separated) point out that redistribution of Sr isotopes among the mineral phases of rocks takes place during the periplutonic metamorphism, while the whole-rock samples remain chemically closed systems. (author)

  19. Reconstruction of crustal blocks of California on the basis of initial strontium isotopic compositions of Mesozoic granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Ronald Wayne; Peterman, Zell E.

    1978-01-01

    Initial 87Sr/ 86 Sr was determined for samples of Mesozoic granitic rocks in the vicinity of the Garlock fault zone in California. These data along with similar data from the Sierra Nevada and along the San Andreas fault system permit a reconstruction of basement rocks offset by the Cenozoic lateral faulting along both the San Andreas and Garlock fault systems. The location of the line of initial 87Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7060 can be related to the edge of the Precambrian continental crust in the western United States. Our model explains the present configuration of the edge of Precambrian continental crust as the result of two stages of rifting that occurred about 1,250 to 800 m.y. ago, during Belt sedimentation, and about 600 to 350 m.y. ago, prior to and during the development of the Cordilleran geosyncline and to left-lateral translation along a locus of disturbance identified in the central Mojave Desert. The variations in Rb, Sr, and initial 87Sr/ 86 Sr of the Mesozoic granitic rocks are interpreted as due to variations in composition and age of the source materials of the granitic rocks. The variations of Rb, Sr, and initial 87Sr/ 86 Sr in Mesozoic granitic rocks, the sedimentation history during the late Precambrian and Paleozoic, and the geographic position of loci of Mesozoic magmatism in the western United States are related to the development of the continental margin and different types of lithosphere during rifting.

  20. Rb-Sr ages and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of late paleozoic granitic rocks from northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Ken; Ishihara, Shunso; Ulriksen, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron ages were determined on three suites of so-called Paleozoic granitic rocks from northern coastal Chile. The granitic rocks from the Valparaiso and Ci Funcho areas are dated as 296.3 +- 5.4 Ma and 262.2 +- 4.6 Ma, respectively, which are in accord with geologically estimated age. The rocks from the Chanaral area is dated as 212.8 +- 8.6 Ma, which is correlated close to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary age. A K-Ar age of 196 +- 6 Ma was obtained on biotite in granite from Esmeralda between Ci Funcho and Chanaral. These age results demonstrate that no Precambrian plutonism occurred in the studied area, and that so-called Paleozoic granitic rocks in the Ci Funcho-Chanaral area are divided into Permian and early Mesozoic in age. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the ilmenite-series granitic rocks from the coastal region are 0.70641 (Valparaiso), 0.70635 (Ci Funcho) and 0.70455 (Chanaral). These relatively low ratios deny substantial crustal contribution to the granitoids. The initial ratios of magnetite-series granitoids from porphyry- and manto-type mineralized areas (Chiquicamata, El Salvador and Tocopilla) are as low as 0.70344 to 0.70464. (author)

  1. VNIR spectral modeling of Mars analogue rocks: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, L.; Roush, T.; Pedrazzi, G.; Sgavetti, M.

    Knowledge regarding the surface composition of Mars and other bodies of the inner solar system is fundamental to understanding of their origin, evolution, and internal structures. Technological improvements of remote sensors and associated implications for planetary studies have encouraged increased laboratory and field spectroscopy research to model the spectral behavior of terrestrial analogues for planetary surfaces. This approach has proven useful during Martian surface and orbital missions, and petrologic studies of Martian SNC meteorites. Thermal emission data were used to suggest two lithologies occurring on Mars surface: basalt with abundant plagioclase and clinopyroxene and andesite, dominated by plagioclase and volcanic glass [1,2]. Weathered basalt has been suggested as an alternative to the andesite interpretation [3,4]. Orbital VNIR spectral imaging data also suggest the crust is dominantly basaltic, chiefly feldspar and pyroxene [5,6]. A few outcrops of ancient crust have higher concentrations of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, and have been interpreted as cumulates [6]. Based upon these orbital observations future lander/rover missions can be expected to encounter particulate soils, rocks, and rock outcrops. Approaches to qualitative and quantitative analysis of remotely-acquired spectra have been successfully used to infer the presence and abundance of minerals and to discover compositionally associated spectral trends [7-9]. Both empirical [10] and mathematical [e.g. 11-13] methods have been applied, typically with full compositional knowledge, to chiefly particulate samples and as a result cannot be considered as objective techniques for predicting the compositional information, especially for understanding the spectral behavior of rocks. Extending the compositional modeling efforts to include more rocks and developing objective criteria in the modeling are the next required steps. This is the focus of the present investigation. We present results of

  2. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013, rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.

    2014-10-01

    The rock mechanics monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The rock mechanics monitoring programme 2013 consisted of seismic measurements, GPS measurements, surface levelling measurements and temperature measurements at Olkiluoto and vicinity and displacement measurements, temperature measurements and visual tunnel observations made in the ONKALO. The Posiva's microseismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 21 triaxial sensors. Five stations are in the ONKALO. In spite of few breaks the network operated continuously and well during 2013. The number of located events (436) was slightly more than in 2012, but much less than in 2011. Nearly half of the observed explosions (237) in 2013 occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (137). One small induced earthquake (M L = -1.8) was detected at the depth of 429 m and was probably associated with smaller branches of the brittle fracture zone (OL-BFZ045). According to the seismic monitoring the rock mass has been stable in 2013. The local GPS network consists of 18 stations. Six new stations were set up for permanent tracking during 2013 and in total 12 permanent stations are now operating continuously. Manual measurements were carried out twice in 2013. Most of the inner network baselines showed very small motions as in the previous years: 75% of change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates are statistically significant. The surface levelling network currently consists of 87 fixed measuring points. During 2013 all the measuring loops were measured. The results indicated local subsidence area in the ONKALO loop and the rising area in the VLJ loop. Mean deformation rate has been +0.05 mm/y. Only elevation of one benchmark in the GPS station loop has changed more than one millimetre. The continuous displacement measurements in the technical rooms of

  3. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013, rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. (ed.) [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    The rock mechanics monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The rock mechanics monitoring programme 2013 consisted of seismic measurements, GPS measurements, surface levelling measurements and temperature measurements at Olkiluoto and vicinity and displacement measurements, temperature measurements and visual tunnel observations made in the ONKALO. The Posiva's microseismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 21 triaxial sensors. Five stations are in the ONKALO. In spite of few breaks the network operated continuously and well during 2013. The number of located events (436) was slightly more than in 2012, but much less than in 2011. Nearly half of the observed explosions (237) in 2013 occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (137). One small induced earthquake (M{sub L} = -1.8) was detected at the depth of 429 m and was probably associated with smaller branches of the brittle fracture zone (OL-BFZ045). According to the seismic monitoring the rock mass has been stable in 2013. The local GPS network consists of 18 stations. Six new stations were set up for permanent tracking during 2013 and in total 12 permanent stations are now operating continuously. Manual measurements were carried out twice in 2013. Most of the inner network baselines showed very small motions as in the previous years: 75% of change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates are statistically significant. The surface levelling network currently consists of 87 fixed measuring points. During 2013 all the measuring loops were measured. The results indicated local subsidence area in the ONKALO loop and the rising area in the VLJ loop. Mean deformation rate has been +0.05 mm/y. Only elevation of one benchmark in the GPS station loop has changed more than one millimetre. The continuous displacement measurements in the technical rooms

  4. Assessing initial conditions for chloride transport across low-permeability argillaceous rocks, Wellenberg, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waber, H.N.; Hobbs, M.Y.; Frape, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Information about fluid evolution and solute transport in a low-permeability metamorphic rock sequence has been obtained by comparing chloride concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of pore water, groundwater, and fluid inclusions. The similarity of δ 37 Cl values in fluid inclusions and groundwater suggests a closed-system evolution during the metamorphic overprint, and signatures established at this time appear to form the initial conditions for chloride transport after exhumation of the rock sequence. (authors)

  5. Assessing initial conditions for chloride transport across low-permeability argillaceous rocks, Wellenberg, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waber, H.N. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Hobbs, M.Y. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), 22 St. Clair Avenue East, M4T 2S3 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Information about fluid evolution and solute transport in a low-permeability metamorphic rock sequence has been obtained by comparing chloride concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of pore water, groundwater, and fluid inclusions. The similarity of δ{sup 37}Cl values in fluid inclusions and groundwater suggests a closed-system evolution during the metamorphic overprint, and signatures established at this time appear to form the initial conditions for chloride transport after exhumation of the rock sequence. (authors)

  6. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Rock Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M [ed.; Siren, T

    2011-12-15

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 the permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010.

  7. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Rock Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Siren, T.

    2011-12-01

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 the permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010

  8. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajduś Antoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  9. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajduś, Antoni; Cała, Marek; Tajduś, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  10. The results of the investigations on rock mechanics in HDB-9-11 boreholes and update of the rock mechanical model around the Horonobe URL construction area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Hiroyuki; Niunoya, Sumio; Matsui, Hiroya

    2008-09-01

    Horonobe URL (Underground Research Laboratory) Project is conducted at Horonobe-cho, Teshio-gun, Hokkaido. This research report shows the result of the rock mechanical investigations which have been carried out from 2004 to 2005 as a part of the project. The objectives of the rock mechanical investigation are as follows: To obtain the data which were necessary for construction design of URL. To confirm the distribution of rock mechanical properties in and around URL construction area. The results of the investigations are summarized as follows: 1) Variation and values of depth direction of physical and mechanical properties in the laboratory construction area corresponded approximately to the results obtained from the rock mechanical investigations of HDB-1-8. 2) The major redesign had been not had about physical and mechanical properties in the laboratory construction area being able to divide into three zones and length of its own zone in updating rock mechanical model. 3) From the results of initial stress measured by hydraulic fracturing, the results that the direction of the maximum principle stress is E-W was no different from results obtained from the investigations of HDB-1-8, but the magnitude correlation among maximum, minimum principle stress and overburden pressure measured around G.L.-927 m showed different trends compared with the results of HDB-1-8. 4) Diatomaceous mudstone was yielded under isotropic compression. Cam-clay model as constitutive law of diatomaceous mudstone should be used for tunnel excavation analysis. 5) Uniaxial compression strength of rock saturated under saline water is larger than that of saturated under freshwater. Poisson's ratio of rock saturated under saline water is smaller than that of saturated under saline water. 6) The effective confining pressure increases with the equivalent opening width and permeability decreases. 7) The value of principle stress obtained from DSCA method is larger than that obtained from hydraulic

  11. Aquarius: The Instrument and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, David M Le; Lagerloef, G.S.E.; Ruf, C.; Wentz, F.; Yueh, S.; Piepmeier, J.; Lindstrom, E.; Dinnat, E.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius was launched on June 10, 2011 aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory and the instrument has been operating continuously since the initial turned-on was completed on August 25. The initial observed antenna temperatures were close to predicted and the first salinity map was released in September. In order to map the ocean salinity field, Aquarius includes several special features such as the inclusion of a scatterometer to provide a roughness correction, measurement of the third Stokes parameter to correct for Faraday rotation, and fast sampling to mitigate the effects of RFI. This paper provides an overview of the instrument and an example of initial results. Details are covered in subsequent papers in the session on Aquarius

  12. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  13. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2005. Rock Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, S.

    2006-08-01

    Programme of Monitoring (Posiva 2003 b) was introduced to study Olkiluoto investigation are both during and following the excavation of underground test facility, ONKALO. Programme consists of four main headings: rock mechanics, hydrology and hydrogeology, geochemistry and other types of disturbance. Monitoring programme in year 2005 consist of three fields of research: microseismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling. This report presents Posiva's rock mechanical monitoring programme results from the year 2005. Report has been composed from annual reports of microseismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling by Sanna Riikonen. In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during the year 2005. Also the changes in the structure and the operation procedure of the network are described. The network has operated nearly continuously. The total duration of network failures has been about 8 hours. Altogether 2159 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in reported time period. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -2.1to ML = 1.6 (ML = magnitude in local Richter's scale). Most of them are explosions. Three of the observed events are be classified as microearthquakes. Evidence of activity that would has influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not found. The GPS based deformation studies has been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. Twenty GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.22 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. The local velocity components are small but

  14. Initial assessment of the thermal stresses around a radioactive waste depository in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.P.; Bourke, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The disposal of heat emitting radioactive waste into hard rock should result in temperature rises and thermal gradients over distances of several hundred metres for several centuries. The consequent constrained thermal expansion of the rock would induce stresses which have important implications for possible water-borne leakage of radionuclides and for depository design. These problems are assessed by considering a simplified mathematical model for which analytic solutions to the temperature and stress fields are derived. (author)

  15. 3D Simulation of Multiple Simultaneous Hydraulic Fractures with Different Initial Lengths in Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Rayudu, N. M.; Singh, G.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is widely used technique for extracting shale gas. During this process, fractures with various initial lengths are induced in rock mass with hydraulic pressure. Understanding the mechanism of propagation and interaction between these induced hydraulic cracks is critical for optimizing the fracking process. In this work, numerical results are presented for investigating the effect of in-situ parameters and fluid properties on growth and interaction of multi simultaneous hydraulic fractures. A fully coupled 3D fracture simulator, TOUGH- GFEM is used for simulating the effect of different vital parameters, including in-situ stress, initial fracture length, fracture spacing, fluid viscosity and flow rate on induced hydraulic fractures growth. This TOUGH-GFEM simulator is based on 3D finite volume method (FVM) and partition of unity element method (PUM). Displacement correlation method (DCM) is used for calculating multi - mode (Mode I, II, III) stress intensity factors. Maximum principal stress criteria is used for crack propagation. Key words: hydraulic fracturing, TOUGH, partition of unity element method , displacement correlation method, 3D fracturing simulator

  16. Development and Initial Validation of a Rock Climbing Craving Questionnaire (RCCQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Roderique-Davies

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual similarities have been identified between experiences of extreme sports athletes and those with drug and behavioral addictions. Evidence suggests rock climbers experience craving and other withdrawal-like states when abstinent from their sport. However, no studies have attempted to quantitatively measure the craving experienced by participants of any extreme sports. Such a measure could allow a greater understanding of the craving experienced by extreme sports athletes and a comparison of these across sports (e.g., surfing and activities (e.g., drug-use. Therefore, using validated craving measures as a template, the aim of the two studies outlined here was to design and preliminarily validate a subjective multidimensional inventory that could be used to measure craving in the sports of rock-climbing and mountaineering (“RCCQ”. The aim of the first study was to investigate the factor structure of a preliminary measure of craving. Climbers (n = 407 completed the RCCQ. A 3-factor model explained 53.65% of the total variance in item scores. All three factors comprised five items each, which were conceptually labeled as “urge to climb” “negative reinforcement” and “positive reinforcement.” The aim of the second study was to validate the 15-item 3-factor RCCQ resulting from Study 1 using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Climbers (n = 254 completed the questionnaire under a climbing-related cue condition or a cue-neutral condition. CFA revealed a good model fit and that all individual parameter estimates were significant and standard errors were within reasonable limits once item 13 was removed from Factor 1. Study 1 supports the multi-dimensional nature of rock climbing craving and shows parallels with substance-related craving in reflecting intention and positive (desire and negative (withdrawal reinforcement. Study 2 confirms this factor structure and gives initial validation to the measure with evidence that these

  17. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current I p was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 MA on 14 December 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, elongation κ=1:6-2.2 and triangularity δ=0:2-0.4, were achieved in inner wall limited, and single null and double null diverted configurations. The coaxial helicity injection (CHI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) experiments were also initiated. CHI current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With the injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using 12 antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5x10 13 cm 3 , increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal β, β T , to 10%. The NBI system commenced operation in September 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (P NBI =2:8 MW) show good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to β T ∼18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA. (author)

  18. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current I p was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, κ=1.6-2.2 and δ=0.2-0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5x10 13 cm -3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, β T to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operation in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (P NBI =2.8MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to β T ∼18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA. (author)

  19. Overview of the Initial NSTX Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current Ip was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, k = 1.6 ± 2.2 and d = 0.2 ± 0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5 x 1013 cm-3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, bT to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operation in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (PNBI = 2.8 MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to bT = 18 % at a plasma current of 1.1 MA

  20. Angiographic assessment of initial balloon angioplasty results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Geoffrey A; Sullivan, Kevin L; Halpern, Ethan J; Parker, Laurence; Beck, Margaret; Bonn, Joseph; Levin, David C

    2004-10-01

    To determine the influence of three factors involved in the angiographic assessment of balloon angioplasty-interobserver variability, operator bias, and the definition used to determine success-on the primary (technical) results of angioplasty in the peripheral arteries. Percent stenosis in 107 lesions in lower-extremity arteries was graded by three independent, experienced vascular radiologists ("observers") before and after balloon angioplasty and their estimates were compared with the initial interpretations reported by the physician performing the procedure ("operator") and an automated quantitative computer analysis. Observer variability was measured with use of intraclass correlation coefficients and SD. Differences among the operator, observers, and the computer were analyzed with use of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and analysis of variance. For each evaluator, the results in this series of lesions were interpreted with three different definitions of success. Estimation of residual stenosis varied by an average range of 22.76% with an average SD of 8.99. The intraclass correlation coefficients averaged 0.59 for residual stenosis after angioplasty for the three observers but decreased to 0.36 when the operator was included as the fourth evaluator. There was good to very good agreement among the three independent observers and the computer, but poor correlation with the operator (P definition of success was used. Significant differences among the operator, the three observers, and the computer were not present when the definition of success was based on less than 50% residual stenosis. Observer variability and bias in the subjective evaluation of peripheral angioplasty can have a significant influence on the reported initial success rates. This effect can be largely eliminated with the use of residual stenosis of less than 50% to define success. Otherwise, meaningful evaluation of angioplasty results will require independent panels of evaluators or

  1. Homestake surface-underground scintillators: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E.J.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    The first 70 tons of the 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) have been operating since Jan. 1985 at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, S.D. A total of 4 x 10(4) high-energy muons (E sub mu is approx. 2.7 TeV at the surface) have been detected. The remainder of the detector is scheduled to be in operation by the Fall of 1985. In addition, a surface air shower array is under construction. The first 27 surface counters, spaced out over an area of 270' x 500', began running in June, 1985. The LASD performance, the potential of the combined shower array and underground muon experiment for detecting point sources, and the initial results of a search for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 are discussed

  2. Biologically-initiated rock crust on sandstone: Mechanical and hydraulic properties and resistance to erosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, M.; Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillová, Jana; Falteisek, L.; Řihošek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 278, FEB 1 (2017), s. 298-313 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-19459S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : biofilm * biocrust * biologically-initiated rock crust * sandstone protection * case hardening Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; DB - Geology ; Mineralogy (USMH-B) OBOR OECD: Geology; Geology (USMH-B) Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  3. Initial results from MARmara SuperSITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal; Favali, Paolo; Douglas, John; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Geli, Louis; Ergintav, Semih; Oguz Ozel, Asım; Tan, Onur; Gurbuz, Cemil; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    MARSite Project was initiated in November 2012 under the EC/FP-7 framework as an initiative towards establishment of new directions in seismic hazard assessment through focused earth observation in Marmara Region. Within MARSite, collection of the first comprehensive data set of fluids composition around the Sea of Marmara has been accomplished and first insight in the geochemical features of the fluids are expelled from tectonic structures around the Sea of Marmara. GPS time series and velocity fields are periodically updated and a project proposal has been prepared for Supersite initiative to take SAR data and integrate the results with in-situ data sets, which is accepted by the scientific committee of GEOSS. In the meantime, special focus was given to develop the processing algorithms, starting from low level atmospheric correction to high level modeling routines. Considerable progress has been made in the novel design of a multiparameter borehole system consisting of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor also incorporating 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. Borehole and surface array locations and borehole bedrock depth of 137 m has been identified. A modeling scheme for the scenario earthquake simulation has been set up in order to realize processing of real-time high-rate GPS data and simulating of scenario earthquakes. The probability of occurrence for the fault segmentation in the Marmara region were calculated using the Poisson, BPT and BPT with a stress interaction models for time intervals of 5-10-30 and 50 years. High resolution seismic reflection and multibeam data in the easternmost Cinarcik basin obtained during the cruise MARMARA 2013 carried out onboard the CNR R/V Urania ship provided information on diffuse gravitational failures. An in situ multi-parameter observational system for landslide monitoring, including displacement, rainfall and seismic

  4. Experimental Estimation Of Energy Damping During Free Rocking Of Unreinforced Masonry Walls. First Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, Luigi; Masiani, Renato; Benedetti, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing experimental program on unreinforced masonry walls undergoing free rocking. Aim of the laboratory campaign is the estimation of kinetic energy damping exhibited by walls released with non-zero initial conditions of motion. Such energy damping is necessary for dynamic modelling of unreinforced masonry local mechanisms. After a brief review of the literature on this topic, the main features of the laboratory tests are presented. The program involves the experimental investigation of several parameters: 1) unit material (brick or tuff), 2) wall aspect ratio (ranging between 14.5 and 7.1), 3) restraint condition (two-sided or one-sided rocking), and 4) depth of the contact surface between facade and transverse walls (one-sided rocking only). All walls are single wythe and the mortar is pozzuolanic. The campaign is still in progress. However, it is possible to present the results on most of the mechanical properties of mortar and bricks. Moreover, a few time histories are reported, already indicating the need to correct some of the assumptions frequent in the literature

  5. The results of cutting disks testing for rock destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoreshok Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the rational order of disk tools placement on the working body is necessary to know the maximum amount of rock, destroyed by the disk tool in benching cutting mode depending on the tool geometry parameters, physical and mechanical parameters of rocks. The article contains the definition of rational parameters of cutting disk tools as well as power and energy parameters of the destruction process by cutting disks and by executive body of the coal cutter. The rational geometric parameters of cutting discs are specified. It was found that each step of cutting with a minimum depth of penetration has its own maximum height of bench outcrop. The dependence of the volumes of large items destroyed by the disk tool on the cutting step height was determined. The existence of the cyclic alternation of destruction phases, regardless the fracture parameters, the height of the ledge outcrop, and tools like free cutting geometry were found. In contrast to the free cutting in benching mode of destruction two large fragments of rocks in one cycle were observed. Consequently, the cyclical nature of the destruction process in the benching mode will be characterized by two chips and crushing, and this cycling repeats throughout the destruction process with the same parameters of destruction.

  6. Results of using engineering and technological measures for rock burst prevention. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, A P; Nechaev, A V; Khmara, O I

    1980-01-01

    The paper evaluates methods for rock burst forecasting and rock burst prevention used in the Donbass, Kuzbass, Karaganda and Pechora basins. Forecasting methods are based on measuring the initial velocity of gas flow from test boreholes and/or quantity ratio of drillings leaving a test borehole and monitoring seismoacoustic signals. Number of working faces at which each of the methods for rock burst forecasting is used is given. Methods for rock burst prevention are comparatively evaluated: explosive fracturing of rocks in seam roof or seam floor, fluid injection (water and surfactants), drilling destressing boreholes, cutting destressing slots using cutting machines or water jets, mining protective coal seams first for reducing rock burst hazard in protected coal seams, using narrow web coal cutter loaders, remote control of coal cutters at working faces with extremely high rock burst hazard, using mining schemes which reduce rock burst hazards (e.g. long pillar mining system). From 1976 to 1979 number of rock bursts in underground coal mines in the USSR decreased by 5 times in comparison to the period 1961 to 1965. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  7. Initial results from the RHEPP module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjes, H.C.; Penn, K.J.; Reed, K.W.; McClenahan, C.R.; Laderach, G.E.; Wavrik, R.W.; Adcock, J.L.; Butler, M.E.; Mann, G.A.; Pena, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Several potential applications such as medical waste treatment, chemical waste treatment, food treatment, and flue gas cleanup have been identified for high average power electron beam systems. In the RHEPP (Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power) project, the technology for such a system is being developed. The RHEPP module consists of a magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an e-beam diode load. It has been designed to operate continuously, delivering 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60-ns FWHM, 2.5-MV, 2.9-kJ pulses. The module is presently under construction with the first phase scheduled for completion in the summer of 1992. In the first phase, four of ten adder stages are being built so that testing can begin with a 1-MV, 160-kW diode with the balance of the power from the compressor diverted to a resistive load. A description of the system and test results from the initial stages of the compressor will be presented

  8. Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Dearborn, D.; Jones, T.; Barnett, B.; Yakuma, S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Micrometeorites are constantly arriving at the Earth's surface, however, they are quickly diluted by the natural and anthropogenic back-ground dust. The successful collection of micromete-orites requires either the employment of a separation technique (e.g. using magnets to separate metal-bearing micrometeorites from deepsea sediments [e.g. 1,2] and dissolved pre-historic limestones and salts [e.g. 3,4]), or an approach that limits contamination by terrestrial dust (e.g. collecting from ice, snow and well water in polar regions - locations where the terrestrial dust flux is so low that micrometeorites repre-sent the major dust component [e.g. 5-7]). We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Is-lands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. Collecting at this location exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background; Kwajalein is >1000 miles from the nearest continent and for much of the year, trade winds blow from the northeast at 15 to 20 knots providing a continuous stream of oceanic aerosol for sampling. By collecting directly from the atmosphere, the terrestrial age of the particles, and hence weathering they experience, is minimal. We therefore anticipate that the Kwajalein col-lection may include particles that are highly susceptible to weathering and either not preserved well or not found at all in other collections. In addition, this collection method allows for particle arrival times to be constrained so that collections can be timed to correlate with celestial events (e.g. meteor showers). Here we describe the collections and their preparation and report on the initial results.

  9. 76 FR 41238 - Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3959-000] Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Rock Wind Power Project, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  10. 75 FR 37430 - Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1470-000] Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  11. 75 FR 42744 - Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1637-000] Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  12. 75 FR 42743 - Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1673-000] Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  13. 76 FR 69720 - NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-295-000] NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  14. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2009. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Hakala, M.

    2010-09-01

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and additionally extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. The number of seismic stations has increased gradually being in 2009 altogether 14. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semi-regional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale. The smaller target area is s called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. All the expected excavation induced events assumingly occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes 10 seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The seismic network has operated continuously in 2009 and during the year altogether 1256 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area. Most of them (1161) are explosions that occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (1135 events)

  15. The rock art of Mwana wa Chentcherere II rock shelter, Malawi : a site-specific study of girls' initiation rock art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zubieta, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Mwana wa Chentcherere II, or Chentcherere Rock Shelter II, the name by which it was more generally known when it was excavated in 1972, is one of the largest rock painting sites in Malawi. It has been a national monument since 1972 and has been the subject of extensive archaeological research. This

  16. Modeling of rock friction 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieterich, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Direct shear experiments on ground surfaces of a granodiorite from Raymond, California, at normal stresses of approx.6 MPa demonstrate that competing time, displacement, and velocity, effects control rock friction. It is proposed that the strength of the population of points of contacts between sliding surfaces determines frictional strength and that the population of contacts changes continuously with displacements. Previous experiments demonstrate that the strength of the contacts increases with the age of the contacts. The present experiments establish that a characteristic displacement, proportional to surface roughness, is required to change the population of contacts. Hence during slip the average age of the points of contact and therefore frictional strength decrease as slip velocity increases. Displacement weakening and consequently the potential for unstable slip occur whenever displacement reduces the average age of the contacts. In addition to this velocity dependency, which arises from displacement dependency and time dependency, the experiments also show a competing but transient increase in friction whenever slip velocity increases. Creep of the sliding surface at stresses below that for steady state slip also observed. Constitutive relationships are developed that permit quantitative simulation of the friction versus displacement data as a function of surface roughness and for different time and velocity histories. Unstable slip in experiments is controlled by these constitutive effects and by the stiffness of the experimental system. It is argued that analogous properties control earthquake instability

  17. Calculation of craters resulting from impact rupture of rock mass using pulse hydrodynamic problem formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodilov, LV; Rasputina, TB

    2018-03-01

    A liquid–solid hydrodynamic model is used to determine shapes and sizes of craters generated by impact rupture of rocks. Near the impact location, rock is modeled by an ideal incompressible liquid, in the distance—by an absolute solid. The calculated data are compared with the experimental results obtained under impact treatment of marble by a wedge-shaped tool.

  18. Arase: mission overview and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Takashima, T.; Asamura, K.; Wang, S. Y.; Kazama, Y.; Kasahara, S.; Yokota, S.; Mitani, T.; Higashio, N.; Kasahara, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Yagitani, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Kojima, H.; Kazuo, S.; Seki, K.; Hori, T.; Shoji, M.; Teramoto, M.; Chang, T. F.; Kurita, S.; Matsuda, S.; Keika, K.; Miyashita, Y.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Kadokura, A.; Kataoka, R.; Ono, T.

    2017-12-01

    Geospace Exploation Project; ERG addresses what mechanisms cause acceleration, transportation and loss of MeV electrons of the radiation belts and evolutions of space storms. Cross-energy and cross-regional couplings are key concepts for the project. In order to address questions, the project has been organized by three research teams; satellite observations, ground-based observations, and modeling/data-analysis studies, and interdisciplinary research are realized for comprehensive understanding of geospace. The Arase (ERG) satellite had been developed and 9 science instruments are developed and provided from JAXA, universities and instituted in Japan and Taiwan. The Arase satellite was successfully launched on December 20, 2016. After the initial operation including maneuvers, Arase has started normal observations since March, 2017. Until now, Arase has observed several geomagnetic storms driven by coronal hole streams and CMEs, and several interesting features are observed associated with geomagnetic disturbances. The six particle instruments; LEP-e/LEP-i/MEP-e/MEP-i/HEP/XEP have shown large enhancement as well as loss of wide energy electrons and ions and variations as well as changes of pitch angle and energy spectrum. The two field/wave instruments: PWE and MGF observed several kinds of plasma waves such as chorus, hiss, EMIC as well as large scale electric and magnetic field variations. And newly developed S-WPIA has been operated to identify micro-process of wave-particle interactions. Since conjugate observations between Arase and ground-based observations are essential for comprehensive understanding of geospace, we organized several campaign observations that include both satellite and ground-based observations. The project has collaborated with the international projects, EISCAT, SuperDARN and other ground-based observations, and various data are obtained from such international collaborations. Moreover, multi-point satellite observations by

  19. REXEBTS, design and initial commissioning results

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F; Jonson, B; Liljeby, L; Nyman, G H; Rensfelt, K G; Skeppstedt, Ö; Wolf, B

    2001-01-01

    The REXEDIS is an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed particularly for charge breeding of rare and short-lived isotopes produced at ISOLDE for the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator. Bunches of singly charged radioactive ions are injected into the EBIS and charge bred to a charge-to-mass ratio of approximately 1/4 and thereafter extracted and injected into a short LINAC. This novel concept, employing a Penning trap to bunch and cool the ions from an on-line mass separator prior to charge breeding in an EBIS, results in an efficient and compact system. In this article the final REXEBIS design is presented together with results from the first tests. (19 refs).

  20. ERNIE performance with TSA portals Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labov, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    This project extends the “Enhanced Radiological Nuclear Inspection and Evaluation” (ERNIE) system developed with CBP and DNDO to improve performance of PVT-based Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs). ERNIE was designed to be used with any RPM system. The first implementation was with the SAIC (Leidos) RPM-8 systems. In this project, we are demonstrating how effective the ERNIE approach can be when applied to the VM250 TSA portals used in NSDD programs. Part of the challenge in adapting ERNIE to handle VM250 portals is the lack of gamma spectral information. We report here on the first results showing how the ERNIE analysis can improve analysis of measurements with the VM250 RPMs.

  1. Influence of the rock heterogeneity on the results of gamma-gamma logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umiastowski, K.; Buniak, M.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the grain size of granular rock and that of the empty holes size of porous rock on the results of gamma-gamma measurements was investigated. Monte-Carlo calculations and experiments were performed to establish this influence. For the grain (or empty holes) size greater than about 10mm the significant influence on the results of density measurements was found if a 137 Cs source was used. This effect is greater for the dry rock than for the water-saturated one. Formulae enabling the correct density value to be found, if the grain size is known, were proposed. (author)

  2. Breast tomosynthesis in clinical practice: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teertstra, Hendrik J.; Loo, Claudette E.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Muller, Sara H.; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A.; Tinteren, Harm van; Rutgers, Emiel J.T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential value of tomosynthesis in women with an abnormal screening mammogram or with clinical symptoms. Mammography and tomosynthesis investigations of 513 woman with an abnormal screening mammogram or with clinical symptoms were prospectively classified according to the ACR BI-RADS criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of both techniques for the detection of cancer were calculated. In 112 newly detected cancers, tomosynthesis and mammography were each false-negative in 8 cases (7%). In the false-negative mammography cases, the tumor was detected with ultrasound (n=4), MRI (n=2), by recall after breast tomosynthesis interpretation (n=1), and after prophylactic mastectomy (n=1). Combining the results of mammography and tomosynthesis detected 109 cancers. Therefore in three patients, both mammography and tomosynthesis missed the carcinoma. The sensitivity of both techniques for the detection of breast cancer was 92.9%, and the specificity of mammography and tomosynthesis was 86.1 and 84.4%, respectively. Tomosynthesis can be used as an additional technique to mammography in patients referred with an abnormal screening mammogram or with clinical symptoms. Additional lesions detected by tomosynthesis, however, are also likely to be detected by other techniques used in the clinical work-up of these patients. (orig.)

  3. Initial growth of maize in response to application of rock phosphate, vermicompost and endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high energy requirement and demand for non-renewable resources for the production of chemical fertilizers, added also to the environmental impact caused by the use of such products, it is important to intensify research on bio-based agricultural inputs. The use of nitrogen-fixing endophytic and phosphate solubilizing bacteria can provide these nutrients to the plants from the air and poorly soluble phosphorus sources, such as phosphate rock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrition and initial growth of maize (Zea mays L. in response to the inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and rock phosphate solubilizing endophytic bacteria, in single or mixed formulation, applied with vermicompost. The treatments containing bacteria, both diazotrophic and phosphate solubilizing, when compared to controls, showed higher levels of leaf nitrogen and phosphorus in maize, as well as higher growth characteristics. The application of vermicompost showed synergistic effect when combined with endophytic bacteria. Thus, the innovation of the combination of the studied factors may contribute to the early development of maize.

  4. Blocking Modification of Eukaryotic Initiation 5A2 Antagonizes Cervical Carcinoma via Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK Signal Transduction Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiamei; Chu, Zhangtao; Liu, Dongli

    2017-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death for female worldwide. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 belongs to the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A family and is proposed to be a key factor involved in the development of diverse cancers. In the current study, a series of in vivo and in vitro investigations were performed to characterize the role of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in oncogenesis and metastasis of cervical carcinoma. The expression status of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in 15 cervical carcinoma patients was quantified. Then, the effect of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown on in vivo tumorigenicity ability, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell mobility of HeLa cells was measured. To uncover the mechanism driving the function of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma, expression of members within RhoA/ROCK pathway was detected, and the results were further verified with an RhoA overexpression modification. The level of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 in cervical carcinoma samples was significantly higher than that in paired paratumor tissues ( P cycle arrest ( P ROCK I, and ROCK II were downregulated. The above-mentioned changes in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 knockdown cells were alleviated by the overexpression of RhoA. The major findings outlined in the current study confirmed the potential of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 as a promising prognosis predictor and therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma treatment. Also, our data inferred that eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 might function in carcinogenesis of cervical carcinoma through an RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner.

  5. First attempt to study rock glaciers in New Zealand using the Schmidt-hammer - framework and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Lambiel, Christophe; Sattler, Katrin; Büche, Thomas; Springer, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Although not uncommon within the dryer eastern parts of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, comparatively few previous studies have previously focused on rock glacier dynamics and spatial distribution. Neither investigations of their chronological constraints nor any studies on actual rock glacier velocities have yet been carried out. Rock glaciers and periglacial processes still largely constitute a largely unexplored albeit potentially valuable field of research in the Southern Alps. The high-altitude valley head of Irishman Stream in the Ben Ohau Range between Lakes Ohau and Pukaki, roughly 30 km southeast of the Main Divide, contains a few morphologically intact rock glaciers and some appear to be active features (Sattler et al. 2016). Previous work focusing on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines in the valley head below the rock glaciers (Kaplan et al. 2010) provided 10Be-ages that could be utilised as fixed points for SHD (Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating). Apart from detailed Schmidt-hammer sampling on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines, two altitudinal transects from the toe to their apex have been measured in detail on selected rock glaciers. On each of the multiple ridges of the rock glacier surface three sites of 50 boulders have been sampled with one impact each by the hammer (an N-type electronic SilverSchmidt by Proceq). Apart from getting some age constraints of these periglacial features in comparison to the well-dated moraines, the Schmidt-hammer measurements also had the aim to provide some insight into their genetic development resulting in a quite complex morphology of the rock glaciers and partial interaction with some of the moraines. Both altitudinal transects reveal a clear and continuous trend of increasing means (i.e. less weathered/younger exposure ages) towards their apex. The values for the individual ridges show, however, a transitional character with adjacent ridges albeit the abovementioned trend not statistically

  6. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2006. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.

    2007-07-01

    Posiva Oy has operated a local microseismic at Olkiluto network since February 2002. During the monitoring in 2006, altogether 2041 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in the reported time period. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -1.1 to 3.1 (ML = magnitude in local Richter's scale). Most of the events are construction-related explosions but two of them are recorded as microearthquakes. Evidence of seismic activity that would have influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not been observed. The observed earthquakes that occurred in 2006 were small, with a magnitude of ML -0.6 and ML= -0.9. The earthquakes relate to small movements in brittle deformation zones OL-BFZ043 and OL-BFZ034. Estimated peak slip values of the earthquakes are 14 μm and 4 μm and the source radiuses 11 and 8 meters, respectively. The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. Since then, altogether 22 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto. According to the time series of the GPS results, 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.22 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined (maximum velocity is -0.23 mm/a ± 0.023 mm/a) (orig.)

  7. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2007. Rock Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.; Hakala, M.

    2008-06-01

    Posiva Oy has operated a local microseismic at Olkiluoto network since February 2002. During the monitoring in 2007, altogether 2207 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in the reported time period. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -2.1 to 1.5 (ML = magnitude in local Richter's scale). All these events are explosions. Evidence of seismic activity that would have influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not been observed. One recorded event was a microearthquake of magnitude ML 1.9, which occurred in Laitila, approximately 40 km from Olkiluoto. The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. Since then, altogether 24 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto. According to the time series of the GPS results, 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.20 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined (maximum velocity is -0.21 mm/a ± 0.02 mm/a) In order to monitor vertical movements at Olkiluoto, precise leveling campaigns of the GPS stations were started in the area in autumn 2003. Since then, leveling campaigns have taken place in 2005 and 2007, including the leveling of the existing GPS network and line from Olkiluoto Island to Lapijoki at the main land. Additional smaller leveling campaigns took place in 2006. The campaign in autumn 2007 consisted of the levellings of all measured and undestroyed points of the earlier campaigns. Compared to the mean theoretical land uplift, the nodal bench mark near the crossing of Olkiluodontie and Satamatie had risen in four years 2.6 mm more than the nodal bench

  8. Mars Science Laboratory: Mission, Landing Site, and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John; Blake, D.; Crisp, J.; Edgett, K.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D.; Mahaffy, P.; Malin, M.; Meyer, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R.

    2012-10-01

    Scheduled to land on August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will conduct an investigation of modern and ancient environments. Recent mission results will be discussed. Curiosity has a lifetime of at least one Mars year ( 23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. The MSL science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere; an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity; focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color; an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry; a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals; an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith; a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables; and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation. The 155-km diameter Gale Crater was chosen as Curiosity’s field site based on several attributes: an interior mound of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mound show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Gale’s regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments, represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars.

  9. Current results of an arachnological survey of some sandstone rock sites in Bohemia (so-called "rock cities"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Růžička, Vlastimil

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider fauna of the Adrspach-Teplice rockswas investigated. Some records on spider fauna of other nine sandstone rock areas are included. The phenomenon of "rock cities" manifests itself in three aspects: (1 In the bottom parts are microclimatically cold spaces, frequently hosting northern ot mountain species of invertebrates, which here have an azonal occurence. (2 the sun exposed tops of rocks can host thermophilous species. (3 Some species are limited to the surface of rocks and boulders. These are referred to as lithophilous or lithobiont species.

  10. Behaviour of rock-like oxide fuels under reactivity-initiated accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuyuki, Kusagaya; Takehiko, Nakamura; Makio, Yoshinaga; Hiroshi, Akie; Toshiyuki, Yamashita; Hiroshi, Uetsuka

    2002-01-01

    Pulse irradiation tests of three types of un-irradiated rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel - yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) single phase, YSZ and spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) homogeneous mixture and particle-dispersed YSZ/spinel - were conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor to investigate the fuel behaviour under reactivity-initiated accident conditions. The ROX fuels failed at fuel volumetric enthalpies above 10 GJ/m 3 , which was comparable to that of un-irradiated UO 2 fuel. The failure mode of the ROX fuels, however, was quite different from that of the UO 2 fuel. The ROX fuels failed with fuel pellet melting and a part of the molten fuel was released out to the surrounding coolant water. In spite of the release, no significant mechanical energy generation due to fuel/coolant thermal interaction was observed in the tested enthalpy range below∼12 GJ/m 3 . The YSZ type and homogenous YSZ/spinel type ROX fuels failed by cladding burst when their temperatures peaked, while the particle-dispersed YSZ/spinel type ROX fuel seemed to have failed by cladding local melting. (author)

  11. Method, equipment and results of determination of element composition of the Venus rock by the Vega-2 space probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Moskaleva, L.P.; Shcheglov, O.P.

    1985-01-01

    Venus rock composition was determined by X-ray radiometric method in the northeast site of the Aphrodita terra. The experiment was performed on the Vega-2 spacecraft. Composition of Venus rock proved to be close to the composition of the anorthosite-norite-troctolite rocks widespread in the lunar highland crust. The descriptions of the method, instrumentation and results of determining the composition of rocks in landing site of Vega-2 spacecraft are given

  12. Excavation damage and disturbance in crystalline rock - results from experiments and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, Goeran

    2008-11-01

    SKB plans to submit the application to site and construct the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2010. One important basis for the application is the results of the safety assessments, for which one particular dataset is the axial hydraulic properties along the underground openings used to calculate the transport resistance for radionuclide transport in the event that the canister is impaired. SKB initiated a project (Zuse) to be run over the period 2007-2009 to: - establish the current knowledge base on excavation damage and disturbance with particular focus on the axial hydraulic properties along the underground openings; - provide a basis for the requirements and compliance criteria for the excavation damaged and disturbed zone; - devise methods and instruments to infer or measure the excavation damage and disturbance at different times during the repository construction and operation before closure; - propose demonstration tests for which the methods are used in situ to qualify appropriate data for use in the safety reports. This report presents the results of the first stage of the Zuse project. Previous major experiments and studies in Canada, Finland, Japan, Sweden and Switzerland on spalling, excavation damage and disturbance was compiled and evaluated to provide the SR-Site report with a defendable database on the properties for the excavation damage and disturbance. In preparation for the SR-Site report, a number of sensitivity studies were conducted in which reasonable ranges of values for spalling and damage were selected in combination with an impaired backfill. The report here describes the construction of the repository in eleven steps and for each of these steps, the potential evolution of THMCB (Thermal, Mechanical, Hydraulic and Chemical/ Biological) processes are reviewed. In this work it was found that descriptions of the chemical and microbiological evolution connected with excavation damage and disturbance was lacking. The preliminary

  13. Assessment of characteristic failure envelopes for intact rock using results from triaxial tests

    OpenAIRE

    Muralha, J.; Lamas, L.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents contributions to the statistical study of the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown strength criteria, in order to assess the characteristic failure envelopes for intact rock, based on the results of several sets of triaxial tests performed by LNEC. 10p DBB/NMMR

  14. Outline and results of study on excavation response of rock mass around shaft in shaft excavation effects project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Kozo; Matsui, Hiroya; Sato, Toshinori

    1993-01-01

    A shaft, with a diameter of 6 m and a depth of 150 m, has been newly excavated in sedimentary rock and excavation response of rock mass around the shaft has been measured and analyzed. Excavation response has been evaluated based on the results of measurement of rock mass movement, such as displacement and strain, and change of rock property, such as deformability and permeability. This study indicates that rock property has been changed with in about 1 m from the shaft wall, and rock mass movement and property change has been influenced by rock facies, fracture and re-distributed stress. The relation between property change and these factors is remained to be evaluated in future study. (author)

  15. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Early Jurassic Yeba Formation volcanic rocks in southern Tibet: Initiation of back-arc rifting and crustal accretion in the southern Lhasa Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Youqing; Zhao, Zhidan; Niu, Yaoling; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Liu, Dong; Wang, Qing; Hou, Zengqian; Mo, Xuanxue; Wei, Jiuchuan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the geological history of the Lhasa Terrane prior to the India-Asia collision ( 55 ± 10 Ma) is essential for improved models of syn-collisional and post-collisional processes in the southern Lhasa Terrane. The Miocene ( 18-10 Ma) adakitic magmatism with economically significant porphyry-type mineralization has been interpreted as resulting from partial melting of the Jurassic juvenile crust, but how this juvenile crust was accreted remains poorly known. For this reason, we carried out a detailed study on the volcanic rocks of the Yeba Formation (YF) with the results offering insights into the ways in which the juvenile crust may be accreted in the southern Lhasa Terrane in the Jurassic. The YF volcanic rocks are compositionally bimodal, comprising basalt/basaltic andesite and dacite/rhyolite dated at 183-174 Ma. All these rocks have an arc-like signature with enriched large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Ba and U) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti). They also have depleted whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions, pointing to significant mantle isotopic contributions. Modeling results of trace elements and isotopes are most consistent with the basalts being derived from a mantle source metasomatized by varying enrichment of subduction components. The silicic volcanic rocks show the characteristics of transitional I-S type granites, and are best interpreted as resulting from re-melting of a mixed source of juvenile amphibole-rich lower crust with reworked crustal materials resembling metagraywackes. Importantly, our results indicate northward Neo-Tethyan seafloor subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane with the YF volcanism being caused by the initiation of back-arc rifting. The back-arc setting is a likely site for juvenile crustal accretion in the southern Lhasa Terrane.

  16. Self-healing of excavation-disturbed rocks in the near field of underground cavities - exemplary measurements in rock salt and interpretation of preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, K.; Schwarzianeck, P.; Rothfuchs, T.

    2001-01-01

    Excavation disturbed zones develop in all kinds of rock as a consequence of the opening of cavities. Such zones are characterized by a change in hydraulic behaviour which can form a problem with regard to the sealing of waste disposal areas. Rocks showing a plastic behaviour, like rock salt, have the potential of healing when the stress state which was disturbed by excavation returns to an advantageous state. If healing can reliably be predicted, the excavation disturbed zone may not form a long-term safety issue in rock salt. Investigations of permeability and stress state around lined and open excavations have been performed in order to relate hydraulic behaviour to stress state. First results which are presented here are promising. (authors)

  17. Excavation damage and disturbance in crystalline rock - results from experiments and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran (Conrox AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    SKB plans to submit the application to site and construct the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2010. One important basis for the application is the results of the safety assessments, for which one particular dataset is the axial hydraulic properties along the underground openings used to calculate the transport resistance for radionuclide transport in the event that the canister is impaired. SKB initiated a project (Zuse) to be run over the period 2007-2009 to: - establish the current knowledge base on excavation damage and disturbance with particular focus on the axial hydraulic properties along the underground openings; - provide a basis for the requirements and compliance criteria for the excavation damaged and disturbed zone; - devise methods and instruments to infer or measure the excavation damage and disturbance at different times during the repository construction and operation before closure; - propose demonstration tests for which the methods are used in situ to qualify appropriate data for use in the safety reports. This report presents the results of the first stage of the Zuse project. Previous major experiments and studies in Canada, Finland, Japan, Sweden and Switzerland on spalling, excavation damage and disturbance was compiled and evaluated to provide the SR-Site report with a defendable database on the properties for the excavation damage and disturbance. In preparation for the SR-Site report, a number of sensitivity studies were conducted in which reasonable ranges of values for spalling and damage were selected in combination with an impaired backfill. The report here describes the construction of the repository in eleven steps and for each of these steps, the potential evolution of THMCB (Thermal, Mechanical, Hydraulic and Chemical/ Biological) processes are reviewed. In this work it was found that descriptions of the chemical and microbiological evolution connected with excavation damage and disturbance was lacking. The preliminary

  18. Technogenic Rock Dumps Physical Properties' Prognosis via Results of the Structure Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of internal structure of the technogenic rock dumps (gob dumps is required condition for estimation of using ones as filtration massifs for treatment of mine wastewater. Internal structure of gob piles greatly depends on dumping technology to applying restrictions for use them as filtration massifs. Numerical modelling of gob dumps allows adequately estimate them physical parameters, as a filtration coefficient, density, etc. The gob dumps numerical modelling results given in this article, in particular was examined grain size distribution of determined fractions depend on dump height. Shown, that filtration coefficient is in a nonlinear dependence on amount of several fractions of rock in gob dump. The numerical model adequacy both the gob structure and the dependence of filtration coefficient from gob height acknowledged equality of calculated and real filtration coefficient values. The results of this research can be apply to peripheral dumping technology.

  19. Study on improved procedure for determination of three dimensional distributions of the initial rock stresses. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Yoshiaki

    2004-02-01

    In the fiscal year of 2003, our committee achieved the following work items during the contract period, from September 3rd, 2003 to February 13th, 2004. The more accurate numerical data with respect to the geological/geometrical conditions including the fault were provided from Tono Geoscience Center and the numerical models by Finite Element Method (FEM), Finite Difference Method (FDM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) were built taking those strata data into account. For small region modeling by FEM, three layers models, Shoumasama model and Tono-Shoumasama model, as well as Tono Mine model, were constructed, and each strain state at the far field boundary was determined. In order to get better agreement in local stress states with the measured values, a far field strain state was determined to the modified model in which material properties of upper granite and lower granite are different. In intermediate region modeling by FDM, actual strata data was taken into account, whereas strata boundary was assumed to be horizontal in former modeling, and far field stress field was analyzed. Intermediate region modeling by BEM was also carried out and far field stress state was determined. In wide region modeling by FEM, the fault was build in the model and fault slip was taken into account, and evaluation of strain state at the far field boundary was carried out for inhomogeneous rock including fault. It was proposed to output three-dimensional distribution of the maximum shear stress coefficients in order to advance three-dimensional modeling. It will make clear effect of shape, scale and property of the fault on stress state characteristic. This report describes minutely the results of the studies mentioned above. (author)

  20. Acoustic emission of quasi-isotropic rock samples initiated by temperature gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vasin, R.N.; Nikitin, A. N.; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Rudajev, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2006), s. 815-823 ISSN 1069-3513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : seismoacoustic emission * rock sample * temperature gradient Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.092, year: 2006

  1. Clay club initiative: self-healing of fractures in clay-rich host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.; Cuss, R.J.; Reeves, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity of fractures in argillaceous rocks to self-heal (or become, with the passage of time, less conductive to groundwater) is often cited as a primary factor favouring the choice of such materials as host rocks for deep disposal. The underlying processes which contribute to self-healing can be broadly subdivided into: (a) mechanical and hydro-mechanical processes linked to the change in the stress field, movement of pore water, swelling, softening, plastic deformation and creep, and (b) geochemical processes linked to chemical alterations, transport in aqueous solution and the precipitation of minerals. Since chemical alteration can cause profound changes to the mechanical properties of argillaceous rocks, it is often difficult to draw a firm line between these two subdivisions. Based on the deliberations of the recent Cluster Conference in Luxembourg, there would appear to be some support for the use of the term 'self-sealing' for processes affecting fracture conductivity in argillaceous rock that are largely mechanical or hydro-mechanical in their origin. There are four main areas in which the self-healing capacity of the host rock becomes relevant to repository design and performance assessment: - potential for radionuclide transport within the excavation damage zone (EDZ); - design and performance of repository sealing systems; - potential impact of gas migration; - long-term performance considering erosional unloading, seismicity and fault reactivation. The presence of an EDZ is acknowledged to be a particularly important issue in performance assessment. Interconnection of fractures in the EDZ could lead to the development of a preferential flow path extending along the emplacement holes, access tunnels and shafts of a repository towards overlying aquifers and the biosphere. In the preliminary French Safety Analyses, for example, the treatment of scenarios relating to early seal failure have highlighted the hydraulic role of the damaged zone as a

  2. Comprehensive Interpretation of the Laboratory Experiments Results to Construct Model of the Polish Shale Gas Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzyna, Jadwiga A.; Krakowska, Paulina I.; Puskarczyk, Edyta; Wawrzyniak-Guz, Kamila; Zych, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    More than 70 rock samples from so-called sweet spots, i.e. the Ordovician Sa Formation and Silurian Ja Member of Pa Formation from the Baltic Basin (North Poland) were examined in the laboratory to determine bulk and grain density, total and effective/dynamic porosity, absolute permeability, pore diameters size, total surface area, and natural radioactivity. Results of the pyrolysis, i.e., TOC (Total Organic Carbon) together with S1 and S2 - parameters used to determine the hydrocarbon generation potential of rocks, were also considered. Elemental composition from chemical analyses and mineral composition from XRD measurements were also included. SCAL analysis, NMR experiments, Pressure Decay Permeability measurements together with water immersion porosimetry and adsorption/ desorption of nitrogen vapors method were carried out along with the comprehensive interpretation of the outcomes. Simple and multiple linear statistical regressions were used to recognize mutual relationships between parameters. Observed correlations and in some cases big dispersion of data and discrepancies in the property values obtained from different methods were the basis for building shale gas rock model for well logging interpretation. The model was verified by the result of the Monte Carlo modelling of spectral neutron-gamma log response in comparison with GEM log results.

  3. The effect of secondary apatite on the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio determination in granitic rocks: a case study of the Tadamigawa pluton, northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasugi, Y.; Ichino, K.; Tanioka, Y.; Wakaki, S.; Tsuboi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    Apatite is a major accessory mineral in igneous rocks. Because Rb contents in apatite are very low, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of magmatic apatite are useful to estimate the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (SrI) of igneous rocks. Secondary post-magmatic event such as hydrothermal alteration may also crystallize secondary apatite, which may inhibit the estimation of SrI of igneous rocks. In this study, we examine the effects of secondary apatite on the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio determination of granitic rocks by using acid leaching technique. Leached apatite samples were first separated from the whole rock powder as a heavy mineral fraction by heavy liquid technique, and the heavy mineral fraction was then leached by 3 M HNO3. The isotopic ratios of Sr and the concentrations of Rb and Sr were analyzed by TIMS and ICP-MS at Kochi Core Center, respectively. The Tadamigawa Older-stage granites, which locate in the Taishaku Mountains at the northeastern part of Japan, intrude into the Ashio Jurassic complex, and the ages of these rocks are late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The U-Pb ages of zircon and the K-Ar ages of biotite for these rocks are c. 100 Ma [1, 2]. Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age of the pluton is 96.5 ± 1.3 Ma (SrI = 0.70534 ± 0.00003) and it is concordant with other radiometric ages. Rb-Sr mineral isochron ages range from 84.4 to 97.3 Ma and these ages are relatively younger than the Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age. The difference among radiometric ages may reflect the difference of the closure temperature in each isotopic system. The Tadamigawa Older-stage granites have SrI for Rb-Sr mineral isochron range from 0.7053 to 0.7061 and are very similar to that (0.70534) for Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron. These may suggest that the Tadamigawa Older-stage granites are generated from same parental magma. However, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the leached apatite samples were 0.70544-0.70856 and are relatively higher than SrI obtained from the Rb-Sr mineral isochrons (0.7053-0.7061). This result

  4. Mechanical Aqueous Alteration Dominates Textures of Gale Crater Rocks: Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Minitti, Michelle; Edgett, Kenneth; McBride, Marie; Stack, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    lusters, set in gray, fine sand; and dark gray, well-cemented, and fine grained, with rare pebble-sized clasts. The latter also exhibits pores or vugs that may have resulted from removal of these larger coasts. Pebbly sandstones: This texture is characterized by a poorly-cemented, poorly sorted matrix of coarse sand to granules with a variety of colors and lusters. Whereas two endmembers in this class (Bardin Bluffs and Altar Mountain) have a similar fine-grained matrix, they exhibit different populations and proportions of granules to cm-sized pebbles. Bardin Bluffs displays a fining upwards texture and grain-to-grain contact; the stratigraphically lower Altar Mountain does not. Massive and Vuggy rocks: These two classes are gray and fine-grained. Many of these rocks occur in a sedimentary context, suggesting that differences in grain characteristics and relationships stem from variations in cementation and/or weathering history. In general, most rock textures indicate fluvial or possibly lacustrine sediments; MAHLI has not unambiguously identified eolian or igneous rock textures, although some pebble-sized clasts may have an igneous provenance and some might derive from impact melt.

  5. Theoretical and numerical studies of crack initiation and propagation in rock masses under freezing pressure and far-field stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshui Kang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-bearing rocks exposed to freezing temperature can be subjected to freeze–thaw cycles leading to crack initiation and propagation, which are the main causes of frost damage to rocks. Based on the Griffith theory of brittle fracture mechanics, the crack initiation criterion, propagation direction, and crack length under freezing pressure and far-field stress are analyzed. Furthermore, a calculation method is proposed for the stress intensity factor (SIF of the crack tip under non-uniformly distributed freezing pressure. The formulae for the crack/fracture propagation direction and length of the wing crack under freezing pressure are obtained, and the mechanism for coalescence of adjacent cracks is investigated. In addition, the necessary conditions for different coalescence modes of cracks are studied. Using the topology theory, a new algorithm for frost crack propagation is proposed, which has the capability to define the crack growth path and identify and update the cracked elements. A model that incorporates multiple cracks is built by ANSYS and then imported into FLAC3D. The SIFs are then calculated using a FISH procedure, and the growth path of the freezing cracks after several calculation steps is demonstrated using the new algorithm. The proposed method can be applied to rocks containing fillings such as detritus and slurry.

  6. A transformation for predicting mechanical changes resulting from time-dependent microcracking in plutonic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    A transformation for a simple phenomenological model of microcracking is proposed. It relates the evolution of microcrack size in an elastic solid (plutonic rock) under different temporal macro- and microstresses. In this model, for a rock property that changes as a result of microcracking, both the calculated and the experimentally determined evolution of that property for a given stress history can be used to determine the evolution of that property (for the same range) for any other stress history. For example, the transformation can be used to extrapolate the short-term extent of microcracking due to thermally induced stresses to time scales too long for experimental determination. This is of interest in assessing the long-term behaviour of rock surrounding a high level nuclear waste vault, where thermally induced microcracking may take tens of thousands of years to develop. Experimental strategies are suggested for validation of the phenomenological model. Where results are obtained from the corresponding mathematical models, the transformation facilitates the efficient calculation of functions that depend only on the state of microcrack size once the functions have been calculated for any convenient stress history

  7. A coupled mechanical-hydrological investigation of crystalline rocks: Annual technical progress report, proposed test matrix, and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastian, R.J.; Voss, C.F.; Apted, M.J.; Shotwell, L.R.

    1988-02-01

    This report reviews the Fracture Flow Behavior in Rock Study being performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study's objective is to determine the feasibility of predicting mechanical-hydrological behavior of natural rock fractures by accurately characterizing fracture surface topography and mineralization. A laboratory-scale facility is currently being used to ensure optimum control of variables. Devising a technique to study small-scale samples is the first step to understanding the complex coupled processes encountered in geomechanics and hydrology. The major accomplishments during fiscal year 1987 were initial development of the innovative testing method, identification of appropriate specimens, substantial renovation to the facility, completion of several sets of experiments, and procurement of hardware components for a laser-imaging device used to characterize fracture surfaces. A complete set of preliminary results and findings is presented in this report. These results, gathered from a basalt core with a natural fracture, have demonstrated that the methodology is valid, and definite trends in the data are readily apparent. 10 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  8. Initial results from the Tokapole-II poloidal divertor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, A.P.; Dexter, R.N.; Groebner, R.J.; Holly, D.J.; Lipschultz, B.; Phillips, M.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The latest in a series of internal-ring devices, called Tokapole II, has recently begun operation at the University of Wisconsin. Its purpose is to permit the study of the production and confinement of hot, dense plasmas in either a toroidal octupole (with or without toroidal field) or a tokamak with a four-node poloidal divertor. The characteristics of the device and the results of its initial operation are described here. Quantitative measurements of impurity concentration and radiated power have been made. Poloidal divertor equilibria of square and dee shapes have been produced, and an axisymmetric instability has been observed with the inverse dee. Electron cyclotron resonance heating is used to initiate the breakdown near the axis and to control the initial influx of impurities. A 2-MW RF source at the second harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency is available and has been used to double the ion temperature when operated at low power with an unoptimized antenna. Initial results of operation as a pure octupole with poloidal Ohmic heating suggest a tokamak-like scaling of density (n proportional to Bsub(p)) and confinement time (tau proportional to n). (author)

  9. Radioactive waste storage in mined caverns in crystalline rock: results of field investigations at Stripa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    It is generally agreed that the most practicable method of isolating nuclear wastes from the biosphere is by deep burial in suitable geologic formations. Such burial achieves a high degree of physical isolation but raises questions concerning the rate at which some of these wastes may return to the biosphere through transport by groundwater. Any suitable repository site will be disturbed first by excavation and second by the thermal pulse caused by the radioactive decay of the wastes. To assess the effectiveness of geologic isolation it is necessary to develop the capability of predicting the response of a rock mass to such a thermal pulse. Ultimately, this requires field measurements below the surface in media representative of those likely to be encountered at an actual repository. Access to a granitic rock mass adjacent to a defunct iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden, at a depth of about 350 m below surface has provided a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive suite of hydrological and thermo-mechanical experiments under such conditions. The results of these field tests have shown the importance of geologic structure and the functional dependence of the thermo-mechanical properties on temperature in developing a valid predictive model. The results have also demonstrated the vital importance of carrying out large-scale investigations in a field test facility

  10. Do corporate environmental initiatives lead to results in SMEs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    , it is relevant to study the situation between these two stages in order to identify to which extent corporate environmental initiatives actually lead to results and reductions. The research is based on data collected by surveys of industrial companies in Denmark in 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011. They information...... with previous research demonstrating that companies generally are re-active in their attitude when perceiving stakeholder influence on taking environmental initiative and mainly respond to influence from stakeholders representing authorities, owners or employees. However, the size of the company may have...... a negative influence in some situations. That is, it seems to be easier for smaller companies to achieve an improvement compared to medium-sized companies....

  11. Cabo Verde telemedicine program: initial results of nationwide implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Dasho, Erion; Merrell, Ronald C; Lopes, Miguel; Azevedo, Vanda; Bekteshi, Flamur; Osmani, Kalterina L; Qesteri, Orland; Kucani, Julian; Lecaj, Ismet

    2014-11-01

    Telemedicine and e-health have been suggested as one solution for closing the health disparity gap between the developed world and the developing world. Yet evidence is lacking from current successful programs in the developing world and, in particular, from sub-Saharan Africa. The primary objective of our study was to present the preliminary results of our efforts in building the Integrated Telemedicine and e-Health Program for Cabo Verde (ITeHP-CV), with an emphasis on initial utilization and results. This is a prospective study of data collected while we worked to establish a fully functional, integrated national telemedicine network and virtual education network in Cabo Verde. We used the International Virtual e-Hospital Foundation strategic approach known as "initiate-build-operate-transfer" over a 26-month period (November 2011-December 2013). We describe herein the five main pillars of this process that have been implemented: (1) capacity building; (2) network development and deployment of equipment; (3) implementation of clinical telemedicine; (4) implementation of activities related to continuing medical education, delivered from within the country and from abroad; and (5) establishment and use of the electronic virtual library. Based on comprehensive technical and medical assessment of the country's needs, 10 fully functional telemedicine centers in all nine inhabited islands of the Republic of Cabo Verde have been established. RESULTS are presented under the five main pillars of capacity building, network deployment, implementation of clinical telemedicine, implementation of continuing medical education activities, and establishment of the electronic virtual library. The ITeHP-CV has been successfully launched, and the initial results are encouraging. The continuity of the program and sustainability are primary goals once the program is transferred fully to the Ministry of Health of Cabo Verde. A long-term follow-up study is required in order to ensure

  12. Initial results from the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Kasuya, N.

    2001-01-01

    A new spherical tokamak TST-2 was constructed at the University of Tokyo and started operation in September 1999. Reliable plasma initiation is achieved with typically 1 kW of ECH power at 2.45 GHz. Plasma currents of up to 90 kA and toroidal fields of up to 0.2 T have been achieved during the initial experimental campaign. The ion temperature is typically 100 eV. Internal reconnection events (IREs) are often observed. The internal magnetic field measured at r/a=2/3 indicated growth of fluctuations up to the 4 th harmonic, suggesting the existence of modes with several different mode numbers. In the presence of a toroidal field and a vertically oriented mirror field, noninductively driven currents of order 1 kA were observed with 1 kW of ECH power. The driven current increased with decreasing filling pressure, down to 3x10 -6 torr. A study of high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) excitation and propagation has begun. Initial results indicate highly efficient wave launching. (author)

  13. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status

  14. The results of experimental studies of VLF-ULF electromagnetic emission by rock samples due to mechanical action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilov, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on electromagnetic emissions excitation (the electric component of electromagnetic fields) by rock samples due to different forms of mechanical stress applications. It was shown that samples generate electric impulses with different spectra when the impact action, gradual loading or dynamic friction is applied. It was ascertained that level and spectral compositions of signals, generated by rock samples, change with an increasing number of hits. It was found that strong electromagnetic signals, generated while rock samples were fracturing, were accompanied by repetitive weak but perceptible variations in the electric field intensity in short frequency ranges.

  15. Initial results of uranium prospecting in Baluchistan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmer, C.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium prospecting in Baluchistan, SE-Iran, led to the discovery of uranium occurrences at the northern rim of the undrained Jaz Murian Depression. All known uranium occurrences are epigenetic local enrichments of no economic significance which originate from mobilization of uranium from Tertiary acidic magmatic rocks. The great extent of both the uranium source and the host areas indicate significant uranium mobilization and a possible economic potential for the area as a uranium province in the future. (orig.) [de

  16. Preliminary results from initial in-pile debris bed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    An accident in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) in which molten core material is suddenly quenched with subcooled liquid sodium could result in extensive fragmentation and dispersal of fuel as subcritical beds of frozen particulate debris within the reactor vessel. Since this debris will continue to generate power due to decay of retained fission products, containment of the debris is threatened if the generated heat is not removed. Therefore, the initial safety question is the capacity which debris beds may have for transfer of the decay heat to overlying liquid sodium by natural processes--i.e., without the aid of forced circulation of the coolant. Up to the present time, all experiments on debris bed behavior either have used substitute materials (e.g., sand and water) or have employed actual materials, but atypical heating methods. Increased confidence in the applicability of debris bed simulations is afforded if the heat is generated within the fuel component of the appropriate fast reactor materials. The initial series of in-pile tests reported on herein constitutes the first experiments in which the internal heating mode has been produced in particulate oxide fuel immersed in liquid sodium. Fission heating of the fully-enriched UO 2 in the experiment while it is contained within Sandia Laboratories Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR), operating in its steady-state mode, approximates the decay heating of debris. Preliminary results are discussed

  17. The results of experimental studies of VLF–ULF electromagnetic emission by rock samples due to mechanical action

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Panfilov

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on electromagnetic emission excitation (electric component of electromagnetic field) by rock samples due to different forms of mechanical stress applications. It was shown that samples generate electric impulses with different spectra when the impact action, gradual loading or dynamic friction is applied. It was ascertained that level and spectral compositions of signals, generated by rock samples, cha...

  18. Initial CGE Model Results Summary Exogenous and Endogenous Variables Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The following discussion presents initial results of tests of the most recent version of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of this is to test and assess the model’s behavioral properties. The test evaluated whether the predicted impacts are reasonable from a qualitative perspective. This issue is whether the predicted change, be it an increase or decrease in other model variables, is consistent with prior economic intuition and expectations about the predicted change. One of the purposes of this effort is to determine whether model changes are needed in order to improve its behavior qualitatively and quantitatively.

  19. LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program and initial test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlestein, L.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Bloom, G.R.; McCormack, J.D.; Rahn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program is described. The LACE program is being performed at the Hanford Engineer Development Laboratory (operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company) and the initial tests are sponsored by EPRI. The objectives of the LACE program are: to demonstrate, at large-scale, inherent radioactive aerosol retention behavior for postulated high consequence LWR accident situations; and to provide a data base to be used for aerosol behavior . Test results from the first phase of the LACE program are presented and discussed. Three large-scale scoping tests, simulating a containment bypass accident sequence, demonstrated the extent of agglomeration and deposition of aerosols occurring in the pipe pathway and vented auxiliary building under realistic accident conditions. Parameters varied during the scoping tests were aerosol type and steam condensation

  20. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J A; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppmMSL relative humidity observation provides good dataHighest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75.

  1. Comparison of Magnetic and Moessbauer Results Obtained for Palaeozoic Rocks of Hornsund, Southern Spitsbergen, Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlachta, K.; Galazka-Friedman, J.; Michalski, K.; Brzozka, K.; Gorka, B.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis was performed as a part of the palaeomagnetic project focused on the reconstruction of the palaeogeographic position of the Svalbard Archipelago and adjacent crustal units (European Arctic) in the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. Three rock formations | Cambrian, Devonian and Carboniferous were sampled in the area of Hornsund, southern Spitsbergen. The main aim of the presented study is to identify ferromagnetic minerals (sensu lato) - the carriers of the natural remanent magnetisation in the investigated rocks. A wide range of magnetic methods were used: the Lowrie tests, unblocking temperatures determinations and the measurement of coercivity spectra as well as the Moessbauer studies. In Devonian and Carboniferous samples all applied methods indicate the domination of the hematite natural remanent magnetisation carrier. In Cambrian rocks magnetic measurements reveal a mixture of ferromagnetic (sensu lato) minerals with varying coercivities and unblocking temperatures. The Moessbauer data improve the identification, suggesting that in Cambrian rocks the carrier of the dominating natural remanent magnetisation component is maghemite. (authors)

  2. Implementation of a quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics: feasibility and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien; Beele, Hilde; Dumont, Isabelle; Félix, Patricia; Lauwers, Patrick; Lavens, Astrid; Matricali, Giovanni A; Randon, Caren; Weber, Eric; Van Casteren, Viviane; Nobels, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe the implementation and initial results of an audit-feedback quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics. Using self-developed software and questionnaires, diabetic foot clinics collected data in 2005, 2008 and 2011, covering characteristics, history and ulcer severity, management and outcome of the first 52 patients presenting with a Wagner grade ≥ 2 diabetic foot ulcer or acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy that year. Quality improvement was encouraged by meetings and by anonymous benchmarking of diabetic foot clinics. The first audit-feedback cycle was a pilot study. Subsequent audits, with a modified methodology, had increasing rates of participation and data completeness. Over 85% of diabetic foot clinics participated and 3372 unique patients were sampled between 2005 and 2011 (3312 with a diabetic foot ulcer and 111 with acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy). Median age was 70 years, median diabetes duration was 14 years and 64% were men. Of all diabetic foot ulcers, 51% were plantar and 29% were both ischaemic and deeply infected. Ulcer healing rate at 6 months significantly increased from 49% to 54% between 2008 and 2011. Management of diabetic foot ulcers varied between diabetic foot clinics: 88% of plantar mid-foot ulcers were off-loaded (P10-P90: 64-100%), and 42% of ischaemic limbs were revascularized (P10-P90: 22-69%) in 2011. A unique, nationwide quality improvement initiative was established among diabetic foot clinics, covering ulcer healing, lower limb amputation and many other aspects of diabetic foot care. Data completeness increased, thanks in part to questionnaire revision. Benchmarking remains challenging, given the many possible indicators and limited sample size. The optimized questionnaire allows future quality of care monitoring in diabetic foot clinics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Acid neutralizing capacity and leachate results for igneous rocks, with associated carbon contents of derived soils, Animas River AML site, Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Stanton, Mark R.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Burchell,

    2009-01-01

    Mine planning efforts have historically overlooked the possible acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) that local igneous rocks can provide to help neutralize acidmine drainage. As a result, limestone has been traditionally hauled to mine sites for use in neutralizing acid drainage. Local igneous rocks, when used as part of mine life-cycle planning and acid mitigation strategy, may reduce the need to transport limestone to mine sites because these rocks can contain acid neutralizing minerals. Igneous hydrothermal events often introduce moderately altered mineral assemblages peripheral to more intensely altered rocks that host metal-bearing veins and ore bodies. These less altered rocks can contain ANC minerals (calcite-chlorite-epidote) and are referred to as a propylitic assemblage. In addition, the carbon contents of soils in areas of new mining or those areas undergoing restoration have been historically unknown. Soil organic carbon is an important constituent to characterize as a soil recovery benchmark that can be referred to during mine cycle planning and restoration. This study addresses the mineralogy, ANC, and leachate chemistry of propylitic volcanic rocks that host polymetallic mineralization in the Animas River watershed near the historical Silverton, Colorado, mining area. Acid titration tests on volcanic rocks containing calcite (2 – 20 wt %) and chlorite (6 – 25 wt %), have ANC ranging from 4 – 146 kg/ton CaCO3 equivalence. Results from a 6-month duration, kinetic reaction vessel test containing layered pyritic mine waste and underlying ANC volcanic rock (saturated with deionized water) indicate that acid generating mine waste (pH 2.4) has not overwhelmed the ANC of propylitic volcanic rocks (pH 5.8). Sequential leachate laboratory experiments evaluated the concentration of metals liberated during leaching. Leachate concentrations of Cu-Zn-As-Pb for ANC volcanic rock are one-to-three orders of magnitude lower when compared to leached solution from

  4. Initial Results from Lunar Electromagnetic Sounding with ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua, H.; Fatemi, S.; Poppe, A. R.; Delory, G. T.; Grimm, R. E.; De Pater, I.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding constrains conducting layers of the lunar interior by observing variations in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field. Here, we focus our analysis on the time domain transfer function method locating transient events observed by two magnetometers near the Moon. We analyze ARTEMIS and Apollo magnetometer data. This analysis assumes the induced field responds undisturbed in a vacuum. In actuality, the dynamic plasma environment interacts with the induced field. Our models indicate distortion but not confinement occurs in the nightside wake cavity. Moreover, within the deep wake, near-vacuum region, distortion of the induced dipole fields due to the interaction with the wake is minimal depending on the magnitude of the induced field, the geometry of the upstream fields, and the upstream plasma parameters such as particle densities, solar wind velocity, and temperatures. Our results indicate the assumption of a vacuum dipolar response is reasonable within this minimally disturbed zone. We then interpret the ATEMIS magnetic field signal through a geophysical forward model capturing the induced response based on prescribed electrical conductivity models. We demonstrate our forward model passes benchmarking analyses and solves the magnetic induction response for any input signal as well as any 2 or 3 dimensional conductivity profile. We locate data windows according to the following criteria: (1) probe locations such that the wake probe is within 500km altitude within the wake cavity and minimally disturbed zone, and the second probe is in the free streaming solar wind; (2) a transient event consisting of an abrupt change in the magnetic field occurs enabling the observation of induction; (3) cross correlation analysis reveals the magnetic field signals are well correlated between the two probes and distances observed. Here we present initial ARTEMIS results providing further insight into the lunar interior structure. This method and modeling results

  5. Initial water quantification results using neutron computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A. K.; Shi, L.; Brenizer, J. S.; Mench, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron computed tomography is an important imaging tool in the field of non-destructive testing and in fundamental research for many engineering applications. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, such as hydrogen, but can penetrate many heavy materials. Thus, neutron computed tomography is useful in obtaining important three-dimensional information about a sample's interior structure and material properties that other traditional methods cannot provide. The neutron computed tomography system at the Pennsylvania State University's Radiation Science and Engineering Center is being utilized to develop a water quantification technique for investigation of water distribution in fuel cells under normal conditions. A hollow aluminum cylinder test sample filled with a known volume of water was constructed for purposes of testing the quantification technique. Transmission images of the test sample at different angles were easily acquired through the synthesis of a dedicated image acquisition computer driving a rotary table controller and an in-house developed synchronization software package. After data acquisition, Octopus (version 8.2) and VGStudio Max (version 1.2) were used to perform cross-sectional and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sample, respectively. The initial reconstructions and water quantification results are presented.

  6. Initial results from the NSTX Real-Time Velocity diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    A new diagnostic for fast measurements of plasma rotation through active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) was installed on NSTX. The diagnostic infers toroidal rotation from carbon ions undergoing charge-exchange with neutrals from a heating Neutral Beam (NB). Each of the 4 channels, distributed along the outer major radius, includes active views intercepting the NB and background views missing the beam. Estimated uncertainties in the measured velocity are system. Signals are acquired on 2 CCD detectors, each controlled by a dedicated PC. Spectra are fitted in real-time through a C++ processing code and velocities are made available to the Plasma Control System for future implementation of feedback on velocity. Results from the initial operation during the 2011 run are discussed, emphasizing the fast dynamics of toroidal rotation, e . g . during L-H mode transition and breaking caused by instabilities and by externally-imposed magnetic perturbations. Work supported by USDOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  8. Initial water quantification results using neutron computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.K. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States)], E-mail: axh174@psu.edu; Shi, L.; Brenizer, J.S.; Mench, M.M. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    2009-06-21

    Neutron computed tomography is an important imaging tool in the field of non-destructive testing and in fundamental research for many engineering applications. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, such as hydrogen, but can penetrate many heavy materials. Thus, neutron computed tomography is useful in obtaining important three-dimensional information about a sample's interior structure and material properties that other traditional methods cannot provide. The neutron computed tomography system at Pennsylvania State University's Radiation Science and Engineering Center is being utilized to develop a water quantification technique for investigation of water distribution in fuel cells under normal conditions. A hollow aluminum cylinder test sample filled with a known volume of water was constructed for purposes of testing the quantification technique. Transmission images of the test sample at different angles were easily acquired through the synthesis of a dedicated image acquisition computer driving a rotary table controller and an in-house developed synchronization software package. After data acquisition, Octopus (version 8.2) and VGStudio Max (version 1.2) were used to perform cross-sectional and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sample, respectively. The initial reconstructions and water quantification results are presented.

  9. Application of Terahertz Radiation to Soil Measurements: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Volker; Augustin, Sven; Gebbers, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Developing soil sensors with the possibility of continuous online measurement is a major challenge in soil science. Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation may provide the opportunity for the measurement of organic material density, water content and other soil parameters at different soil depths. Penetration depth and information content is important for a functional soil sensor. Therefore, we present initial research on the analysis of absorption coefficients of four different soil samples by means of THz transmission measurements. An optimized soil sample holder to determine absorption coefficients was used. This setup improves data acquisition because interface reflections can be neglected. Frequencies of 340 GHz to 360 GHz and 1.627 THz to 2.523 THz provided information about an existing frequency dependency. The results demonstrate the potential of this THz approach for both soil analysis and imaging of buried objects. Therefore, the THz approach allows different soil samples to be distinguished according to their different absorption properties so that relations among soil parameters may be established in future. PMID:22163737

  10. NICER observations of highly magnetized neutron stars: Initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Nynka, Melania; Kaspi, Victoria; Harding, Alice; Guver, Tolga; Lewandowska, Natalia; Majid, Walid; Ho, Wynn C. G.; NICER Team

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) was launched on June 3, 2017, and attached to the International Space Station. The large effective area of NICER in soft X-rays makes it a powerful tool not only for its primary science objective (diagnostics of the nuclear equation state) but also for studying neutron stars of various classes. As one of the NICER science working groups, the Magnetars and Magnetospheres (M&M) team coordinates monitoring and target of opportunity (ToO) observations of magnetized neutron stars, including magnetars, high-B pulsars, X-ray dim isolated neutron stars, and young rotation-powered pulsars. The M&M working group has performed simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the Crab and Vela pulsars, ToO observations of the active anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61, and a monitoring campaign for the transient magnetar SGR 0501+4516. Here we summarize the current status and initial results of the M&M group.

  11. Initial Results from the New Stress Map of Texas Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Modern techniques for characterizing tectonic stress orientation and relative magnitude have been successfully used for more than 35 years. Nevertheless, large areas of North America lack high spatial resolution maps of stress orientation, magnitude, and faulting regime. In Texas, for example, data are foundational elements of attempts to characterize tectonic driving forces, understand hazards associated with induced seismicity, and optimize production of oil, gas, and geothermal resources. This year, we launched the Texas Stress Map project to characterize tectonic stress patterns at higher spatial resolution across Texas and nearby areas. Following a successful effort just completed in Oklahoma, we will evaluate borehole breakouts, drilling-induced tensile fractures, shear wave anisotropy, and earthquake data. The principal data source will be FMI (fullbore formation microimager), UBI (ultrasonic borehole imager), cross-dipole sonic, density, and caliper logs provided by private industry. Earthquake moment tensor solutions from the U.S. Geological Survey, Saint Louis University and other sources will also be used. Our initial focus is on the Permian Basin and Barnett Shale petroleum plays due to the availability of data, but we will expand our analysis across the state as the project progresses. In addition, we hope to eventually apply the higher spatial resolution data coverage to understanding tectonic and geodynamic characteristics of the southwestern United States and northeastern Mexico. Here we present early results from our work to constrain stress orientations and faulting regime in and near Texas, and we also provide a roadmap for the ongoing research.

  12. Initial results from the fast imaging solar spectrograph (FISS)

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This collection of papers describes the instrument and initial results obtained from the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS),  one of the post-focus instruments of the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The FISS primarily aims at investigating structures and dynamics of  chromospheric features. This instrument is a dual-band Echelle spectrograph optimized for the simultaneous recording of the H I 656.3 nm band and the Ca II 854.2 nm band. The imaging is done with the fast raster scan realized by the linear motion of a two-mirror scanner, and its quality is determined by the performance of the adaptive optics of the telescope.    These papers illustrate the capability of the early FISS observations in the study of chromospheric features. Since the imaging quality has been improved a lot with the advance of the adaptive optics, one can obtain much better data with the current FISS observations.        This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers working in...

  13. Preliminary results on variations of radon concentration associated with rock deformation in a uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoya, Massimo; Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Pasquale, Vincenzo; Armadillo, Egidio; Rizzello, Daniele; Chiaberto, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    Time-series of radon concentration and environmental parameters were recently recorded in a uranium mine gallery, located in the Maritime Alps (NW Italy). The mine was bored in metarhyolites and porphyric schists mainly composed by quartz, feldspar, sericite and fluorite. U-bearing minerals are generally concentrated in veins heterogeneously spaced and made of crystals of metaautunite and metatorbernite. Radon air concentration monitoring was performed with an ionization chamber which was placed at the bottom of the gallery. Hourly mean values of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity were also measured. External data of atmospheric temperature, pressure and rainfall were also available from a meteorological station located nearby, at a similar altitude of the mine. The analysis of the time series recorded showed variation of radon concentration, of large amplitude, exhibiting daily and half-daily periods, which do not seem correlated with meteorological records. Searching for the origin of radon concentration changes and monitoring their amplitude as a function of time can provide important clues on the complex emanation process. During this process, radon reaches the air- and water-filled interstices by recoil and diffusion, where its migration is directed towards lower concentration regions, following the local gradient. The radon emanation from the rock matrix could also be controlled by stress changes acting on the rate of migration of radon into fissures, and fractures. This may yield emanation boosts due to rock extension and the consequent crack broadening, and emanation decrease when joints between cracks close. Thus, besides interaction and mass transfer with the external atmospheric environment, one possible explanation for the periodic changes in radon concentrations in the investigated mine, could be the variation of rock deformation related to lunar-solar tides. The large variation of concentration could be also due to the fact that the mine is

  14. Tracer movement in a single fissure in granitic rock - some experimental results and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.; Eriksen, T.; Taetinen, P.

    1980-08-01

    Radionuclide migration was studied in a natural fissure in a granite core. The fissure was oriented parallel to the axis in a cylindrical core 30 cm long and 20 in diameter. The traced solution was injected at one end of the core and collected at the other. Breakthrough curves were obtained for the nonsorbing tracers tritiated water, and a large molecular weight lignosulphonate molecule and the sorbing tracers cesium and strontium. From the breakthrough curves for the nonsorbing tracers it could be concluded that channeling occurs in the single fissure. A 'dispersion' model based on channeling is presented. The results from the sorbing tracers indicate that there is substantial diffusion into and sorption in the rock matrix. Sorption on the surface of the fissure also accounts for a part of the retardation effect of the sorbing species. A model which includes the mechanisms of channeling, surface sorption matrix diffusion and matrix sorption is presented. The experimental breakthrough curves can be fitted fairly well by this model by use of independently obtained data on diffusivities and matrix sorption. (author)

  15. Tracer Movement in a Single Fissure in Granitic Rock: Some Experimental Results and Their Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neretnieks, Ivars; Eriksen, Tryggve; TäHtinen, PäIvi

    1982-08-01

    Radionuclide migration was studied in a natural fissure in a granite core. The fissure was oriented parallel to the axis in a cylindrical core 30 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. The traced solution was injected at one end of the core and collected at the other. Breakthrough curves were obtained for the nonsorbing tracers, tritiated water, and a large-molecular-weight lignosulphonate molecule and for the sorbing tracers, cesium and strontium. From the breakthrough curves for the nonsorbing tracers it could be concluded that channeling occurs in the single fissure. A `dispersion' model based on channeling is presented. The results from the sorbing tracers indicate that there is substantial diffusion into and sorption in the rock matrix. Sorption on the surface of the fissure also accounts for a part of the retardation effect of the sorbing species. A model which includes the mechanisms of channeling, surface sorption, matrix diffusion, and matrix sorption is presented. The experimental breakthrough curves can be fitted fairly well by this model by use of independently obtained data on diffusivities and matrix sorption.

  16. Site Specific Advisory Board initiative, evaluation survey results supplementary appendix: Summary of individual site results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This Appendix presents results of the Site-Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) Initiative for each of the 11 sites that participated in the survey. These individual results are a supplement to the June 1996 Summary Report which presented overall survey results. Results are presented in 11 sections, arranged alphabetically by site. Each section includes a series of figures and tables that parallel those presented in the Summary Report. To facilitate comparison, figures are presented both for the individual site and for the overall long survey. The sequence of sections is: Fernald, Hanford, Idaho, Los Alamos, Monticello, Nevada, Pantex, Rocky Flats, St. Louis, Sandia, and Savannah River

  17. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Grogin, N.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Coe, D.; Capak, P.; Brammer, G., E-mail: lotz@stsci.edu [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 Sam Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope ? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5 σ point-source depths of ∼29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10–100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ∼30–33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m bands to 5 σ point-source depths of ∼26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  18. DART Core/Combustor-Noise Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Devin K.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2017-01-01

    Contributions from the combustor to the overall propulsion noise of civilian transport aircraft are starting to become important due to turbofan design trends and advances in mitigation of other noise sources. Future propulsion systems for ultra-efficient commercial air vehicles are projected to be of increasingly higher bypass ratio from larger fans combined with much smaller cores, with ultra-clean burning fuel-flexible combustors. Unless effective noise-reduction strategies are developed, combustor noise is likely to become a prominent contributor to overall airport community noise in the future. The new NASA DGEN Aero0propulsion Research Turbofan (DART) is a cost-efficient testbed for the study of core-noise physics and mitigation. This presentation gives a brief description of the recently completed DART core combustor-noise baseline test in the NASA GRC Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL). Acoustic data was simultaneously acquired using the AAPL overhead microphone array in the engine aft quadrant far field, a single midfield microphone, and two semi-infinite-tube unsteady pressure sensors at the core-nozzle exit. An initial assessment shows that the data is of high quality and compares well with results from a quick 2014 feasibility test. Combustor noise components of measured total-noise signatures were educed using a two-signal source-separation method an dare found to occur in the expected frequency range. The research described herein is aligned with the NASA Ultra-Efficient Commercial Transport strategic thrust and is supported by the NASA Advanced Air Vehicle Program, Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, under the Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject.

  19. Study on improved procedure for determination of three dimensional distributions of the initial rock stresses. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Yoshiaki

    2003-02-01

    In the fiscal year of 2002, our committee achieved the following work items during the contract period, from August 28th, 2002 to February 7th, 2003. Confirm mutual understanding with respect to the geological/geometrical data provided from Tono Geoscience Center and exchange procedure for taking those into each numerical models. The numerical models by finite element Method and Finite Difference Method were built taking strata data into account. A problem accompanying to back analysis for inhomogeneous modeling was brought up. A new 3D Boundary Element Method Code in which integrations to calculate the influence coefficients are carried out analytically and thus, the solutions with high accuracy can be given faster. Three examples of determination procedures, wide region model by FEM, small region model by FEM and intermediate region model by FDM were introduced. This is the report as the results of the studies mentioned above. (author)

  20. FFTF initial fuel loading, preanalyses, and comparison with preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothrock, R.B.; Daughtry, J.W.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Petrowicz, N.E.; Bennett, R.A.; Ombrellaro, P.A.

    1980-02-01

    Disadvantages of conventional loading from the center out were circumvented by loading one trisector at a time, and connecting the control rod drivelines in each sector after it was loaded so that the rods could be operated during the loading of subsequent trisectors. This sequence was interrupted once during the loading of the final sector, to achieve initial criticality at an approximately minimum critical loading and to measure absolute subcriticality by the rod drop technique. An in-core detector was preferable to the standard FTR ex-core detectors for monitoring the initial fuel loading. Consequently, special fission chambers were installed in an instrument thimble near the core center to monitor the initial fuel loading

  1. A novel method for boron determination in rock thin sections : first results from Ngawha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickridge, I.C.

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies of boron in New Zealand rock have relied on whole rock analyses. In order to gain more detailed knowledge of the sources of boron in rocks, we have developed a nuclear probe technique based on the 1 1B(p,α) nuclear reaction. The technique performs well on powdered USGS standards down to below 10 wt. ppm, and we have applied it with a proton beam focused down to 25 x 25 micrometre on a hydrothermally unaltered greywacke from Puketona, near Ngawha, Northland. There appears to be little variation in the boron concentrations in the sedimentary groundmass, but in the veins the boron appears to be more concentrated in the prehnite than in the quartz. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs., 14 refs

  2. T-H-M couplings in rock. Overview of results of importance to the SR-Can safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Faelth, Billy; Wallroth, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    This report deals with THM processes in rock hosting a KBS-nuclear waste repository. The issues addressed are mechanically and thermo-mechanically induced changes of the hydraulic conditions in the near-field and in the far-field, and the risk of stress-induced failure, spalling, in the walls of deposition holes. These changes are examined for the construction and operational phases, the initial temperate period and a subsequent glacial cycle. The report was compiled to be used as reference and background for corresponding parts of the safety report SR-Can. The near-field is analyzed using thermo-mechanical DEC models. There are a number of models for each of the three sites Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar. Parameter values of intact rock and rock mass mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties were obtained from the site descriptive models. Layout data, i.e. the number of canisters, the geometry of the repository openings, the tunnel spacing and the canister spacing are in accordance with rules and guidelines given in general design- and layout documents. Heat generation data, i.e. the initial canister power and the canister power decay are in accordance with data given in the SR-Can main report. The effects of changes in nearfield stresses during the different phases of the repository's lifetime are evaluated by comparing numerically obtained stresses and deformations on a number of explicitly modelled near-field fractures with empirical and theoretical stress-transmissivity laws and with empirically based slip-transmissivity estimates. For the near-field it is concluded that substantial transmissivity increases are found only very close to the repository openings. Bounding estimates, judged to be valid for the entire load sequence, are made of the extent and magnitude of the hydraulic disturbance. At distances larger than about 1.5 m from the tunnel periphery, transmissivity increases are concluded to be too small and unsystematic to be of any concern. The

  3. T-H-M couplings in rock. Overview of results of importance to the SR-Can safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Faelth, Billy [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Wallroth, Thomas [BERGAB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    This report deals with THM processes in rock hosting a KBS-nuclear waste repository. The issues addressed are mechanically and thermo-mechanically induced changes of the hydraulic conditions in the near-field and in the far-field, and the risk of stress-induced failure, spalling, in the walls of deposition holes. These changes are examined for the construction and operational phases, the initial temperate period and a subsequent glacial cycle. The report was compiled to be used as reference and background for corresponding parts of the safety report SR-Can. The near-field is analyzed using thermo-mechanical DEC models. There are a number of models for each of the three sites Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar. Parameter values of intact rock and rock mass mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties were obtained from the site descriptive models. Layout data, i.e. the number of canisters, the geometry of the repository openings, the tunnel spacing and the canister spacing are in accordance with rules and guidelines given in general design- and layout documents. Heat generation data, i.e. the initial canister power and the canister power decay are in accordance with data given in the SR-Can main report. The effects of changes in nearfield stresses during the different phases of the repository's lifetime are evaluated by comparing numerically obtained stresses and deformations on a number of explicitly modelled near-field fractures with empirical and theoretical stress-transmissivity laws and with empirically based slip-transmissivity estimates. For the near-field it is concluded that substantial transmissivity increases are found only very close to the repository openings. Bounding estimates, judged to be valid for the entire load sequence, are made of the extent and magnitude of the hydraulic disturbance. At distances larger than about 1.5 m from the tunnel periphery, transmissivity increases are concluded to be too small and unsystematic to be of any concern. The

  4. Initial Results from Coaxial Helicity Injection Experiments in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mueller, D.; Schaffer, M.J.; Maqueda, R.; Nelson, B.A.; Sabbagh, S.; Bell, M.; Ewig, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Hosea, J.; Ji, H.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Orvis, D.; Paolette, F.; Paul, S.; Peng, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Wilgen, W.; Zweben, S.

    2001-01-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been investigated on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Initial experiments produced 130 kA of toroidal current without the use of the central solenoid. The corresponding injector current was 20 kA. Discharges with pulse lengths up to 130 ms have been produced

  5. Initial results in SST-1 after up-gradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S.; Khan, Z.; Tanna, V. L.; Prasad, U.; Paravastu, Y.; Raval, D. C.; Masand, H.; Kumar, Aveg; Dhongde, J. R.; Jana, S.; Kakati, B.; Patel, K. B.; Bhandarkar, M. K.; Shukla, B. K.; Ghosh, D.; Patel, H. S.; Parekh, T. J.; Mansuri, I. A.; Dhanani, K. R.; Varadharajulu, A.; Khristi, Y. S.; Biswas, P.; Gupta, C. N.; George, S.; Semwal, P.; Sharma, D. K.; Gulati, H. K.; Mahajan, K.; Praghi, B. R.; Banaudha, M.; Makwana, A. R.; Chudasma, H. H.; Kumar, M.; Manchanda, R.; Joisa, Y. S.; Asudani, K.; Pandya, S. N.; Pathak, S. K.; Banerjee, S.; Patel, P. J.; Santra, P.; Pathan, F. S.; Chauhan, P. K.; Khan, M. S.; Thankey, P. L.; Prakash, A.; Panchal, P. N.; Panchal, R. N.; Patel, R. J.; Mahsuria, G. I.; Sonara, D. P.; Patel, K. M.; Jayaswal, S. P.; Sharma, M.; Patel, J. C.; Varmora, P.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D. R.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Babu, G. R.; Panchal, A. G.; Vora, M. M.; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, R.; Nimavat, H. D.; Shah, P. R.; Purwar, G.; Raval, T. Y.; Sharma, A. L.; Ojha, A.; Kumar, S.; Ramaiya, N. K.; Siju, V.; Gopalakrishna, M. V.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, P. K.; Atrey, P. K.; Kulkarni, SV; Ambulkar, K. K.; Parmar, P. R.; Thakur, A. L.; Raval, J. V.; Purohit, S.; Mishra, P. K.; Adhiya, A. N.; Nagora, U. C.; Thomas, J.; Chaudhari, V. K.; Patel, K. G.; Dalakoti, S.; Virani, C. G.; Gupta, S.; Kumar, Ajay; Chaudhari, B.; Kaur, R.; Srinivasan, R.; Raju, D.; Kanabar, D. H.; Jha, R.; Das, A.; Bora, D.

    2017-04-01

    SST-1 Tokamak has recently completed the 1st phase of up-gradation with successful installation and integration of all its First Wall components. The First Wall of SST-1 comprises of ∼ 3800 high heat flux compatible graphite tiles being assembled and installed on 132 CuCrZr heat sink back plates engraved with ∼ 4 km of leak tight baking and cooling channels in five major sub groups equipped with ∼ 400 sensors and weighing ∼ 6000 kg in total in thirteen isolated galvanic and six isolated hydraulic circuits. The phase-1 up-gradation spectrum also includes addition of Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) both on the in-board and out-board side, installation of fast reciprocating probes, adding some edge plasma probe diagnostics in the SOL region, installation and integration of segmented and up-down symmetric radial coils aiding/controlling plasma rotations, introduction of plasma position feedback and density controls etc. Post phase-I up-gradation spanning from Nov 2014 till June 2016, initial plasma experiments in up-graded SST-1 have begun since Aug 2016 after a brief engineering validation period in SST-1. The first experiments in SST-1 have revealed interesting aspects on the ‘eddy currents in the First Wall support structures’ influencing the ‘magnetic Null evolution dynamics’ and the subsequent plasma start-up characteristics after the ECH pre-ionization, the influence of the first walls on the ‘field errors’ and the resulting locked modes observed, the magnetic index influencing the evolution of the equilibrium of the plasma column, low density supra-thermal electron induced discharges and normal ohmic discharges etc. Presently; repeatable ohmic discharges regimes in SST-1 having plasma currents in excess of 65 KA (qa ∼ 3.8, BT = 1.5 T) with a current ramp rates ∼ 1.2 MA/s over a duration of ∼ 300 ms with line averaged densities ∼ 0.8 × 1019 and temperatures ∼ 200 eV with copious MHD signatures have been experimentally

  6. Distribution of organic carbon and petroleum source rock potential of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary carbonates, South Florida Basin: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacas, James George

    1978-01-01

    Analyses of 134 core samples from the South Florida Basin show that the carbonates of Comanchean age are relatively richer in average organic carbon (0.41 percent) than those of Coahuilan age (0.28 percent), Gulfian age (0.18 percent) and Paleocene age (0.20 percent). They are also nearly twice as rich as the average world, wide carbonate (average 0.24 percent). The majority of carbonates have organic carbons less than 0.30 percent but the presence of many relatively organic rich beds composed of highly bituminous, argillaceous, highly stylolitic, and algal-bearing limestones and dolomites accounts for the higher percentage of organic carbon in some of the stratigraphic units. Carbonate rocks that contain greater than 0.4 percent organic carbon and that might be considered as possible petroleum sources were noted in almost each subdivision of the Coahuilan and Comanchean Series but particularly the units of Fredericksburg 'B', Trinity 'A', Trinity 'F', and Upper Sunniland. Possible source rocks have been ascribed by others to the Lower Sunniland, but lack of sufficient samples precluded any firm assessment in this initial report. In the shallower section of the basin, organic-rich carbonates containing as much as 3.2 percent organic carbon were observed in the lowermost part of the Gulfian Series and carbonate rocks with oil staining or 'dead' and 'live oil' were noted by others in the uppermost Gulfian and upper Cedar Keys Formation. It is questionable whether these shallower rocks are of sufficient thermal maturity to have generated commercial oil. The South Florida basin is still sparsely drilled and produces only from the Sunniland Limestone at an average depth of 11,500 feet (3500 m). Because the Sunniland contains good reservoir rocks and apparently adequate source rocks, and because the success rate of new oil field discoveries has increased in recent years, the chances of finding additional oil reserves in the Sunniland are promising. Furthermore, the

  7. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  8. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK: RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Q.; Hui-Hai Liu; Molz, F.J.; Zhang, Y.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D m e , a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D m e values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F D (defined as the ratio of D m e to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D m ] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F D value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F D value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F D value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminant remediation

  9. Sedimentology and Rock Magnetism of Bailey River Peat Cores, Sudbury Area: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtseven, A.; Cioppa, M. T.; Dean, K.

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic measurements on peat can reveal atmospheric anthropogenic contamination. Two cores were collected from a marsh surrounding the Bailey River, 10 km north of Sudbury, Ontario, using a Russian peat borer. The BR1 core (1.4 m) was collected right at the river's edge, whereas the BR2 core (2.5 m) was collected about 50 m away from the river's edge, close to the edge of the marsh and near the forest. Significant sedimentological variation between the two cores was observed: core BR1 had several centimeter to decimeter scale fine to coarse grey sand layers at 0.14 m, 0.46 m and 0.87 m between thicker organic-rich (peat) zones, whereas core BR2 had only one 5 cm sand-rich layer at 0.94 m within the organic-rich material. The cores were subsampled at 2.5 cm intervals for laboratory magnetic analysis. Volume susceptibility was measured using a Bartington MS2B meter, and mass-specific susceptibility was then calculated. In core BR1, the sand layers had relatively higher susceptibility (13 x 10-8 m3/kg) , while the organic rich layers had very low susceptibility (0 - 2 x 10-8 m3/kg). In core BR2, which had little sand, the susceptibility variation was dominated by higher values near-surface (10 x 10-8 m3/kg), and very low susceptibility (0.3 x 10-8 m3/kg) below 0.3 m depth. Since the lithology in this core did not vary substantially, susceptibility variations may be controlled by anthropogenic deposition in the near-surface during the peak mining and smelting decades. These preliminary results suggest that any anthropogenic signal in core BR1 appears to be masked by the sedimentological variation. On pilot results from eight samples in core BR1, saturation isothermal remanence acquisition showed 95% saturation by 200 mT, and the S-ratios (0.3T/0.9T) were above 0.93, suggesting that magnetite is the major magnetization carrier. In core BR2, six out of eight samples showed similar results; however, two samples had slightly more higher coercivity minerals (90% saturation

  10. Revised interpretations of stable C and O patterns in carbonate rocks resulting from meteoric diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Peter K.; Oehlert, Amanda M.

    2018-02-01

    A positive correlation between the δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate rocks is a screening tool widely used to identify the overprint of meteoric diagenesis on the original isotopic composition of a sample. In particular, it has been suggested that systematic change from negative to positive δ13C and δ18O values with increasing depth in the core is an indicator of alteration within the zone of mixing between meteoric and marine waters. In this paper, we propose that such covariance is not generated within the traditionally defined mixing zone, and that positive correlations between δ13C and δ18O values in marine carbonates are not necessarily indicators of meteoric alteration. This new interpretation is based on data collected from the shallow sub-surface of the Bahamas, a region unequivocally influenced by meteoric waters to depths of at least 200 m below the current sediment-water interface. The classic interpretation of the diagenetic environments, based on changes in the δ13C and δ18O values, would suggest the maximum penetration of freshwater occurs between 65 and 100 m below seafloor. Below these depths, a strong positive covariation between the δ13C and δ18O values exists, and would traditionally be defined as the mixing zone. However, based upon known changes in sea level, the penetration of the freshwater lens extends significantly below this limit. We contend that the zone showing covariance of δ13C and δ18O values is actually altered within the freshwater lens, and not the mixing zone as previously proposed. The co-varying trend in δ13C and δ18O values is the result of diagenetic processes occurring at the interface between vadose and phreatic zones. Significantly greater rates of recrystallization and neomorphism are driven by the increased rates of oxidation of organic matter at this transition with progressively less alteration occurring with increasing depth. As sea level oscillates, the position of this interface moves through the

  11. Preliminary paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from 17 to 22 ka sediment of Jeju Island, Korea: Geomagnetic excursional behavior or rock magnetic anomalies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Sohn, Young Kwan; Lee, Jin-Young; Kim, Jin Cheul

    2018-05-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations were performed on a 64-cm-thick section of nonmarine unconsolidated muddy sediment from the Gosan Formation on Jeju Island, Korea. This sediment was recently dated to have been deposited between 22 and 17 kyr BP calibrated, with a sedimentation rate of 13-25 cm/kyr, based on many radiocarbon ages. Interestingly, stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetization revealed characteristic natural remanent magnetizations with anomalous directions, manifested by marked deviations from the direction of today's axial dipole field, for some separate depth levels. On the other hand, stepwise thermal (TH) demagnetization showed more complex behavior, resulting in the identification of multiple remanence components. For all TH-treated specimens, consistently two different components are predominant: a low-temperature component unblocked below 240-320 °C entirely having normal-polarity apparently within the secular variation range of the Brunhes Chron, and a high-temperature component with unblocking temperatures (Tubs) between 240-320 and 520-580 °C that have anomalous directions, concentrated in the 13-34-cm-depth interval ( 17-19 ka in inferred age) and possibly below 53 cm depth (before 20 ka). Rock magnetic results also infer the dominance of low-coercivity magnetic particles having 300 and 580 °C Curie temperature as remanence carriers, suggestive of (titano)maghemite and/or Ti-rich titanomagnetite and magnetite (or Ti-poor titanomagnetite), respectively. A noteworthy finding is that AF demagnetizations in this study often lead to incomplete separation of the two remanence components possibly due to their strongly overlapping AF spectra. The unusual directions do not appear to result from self-reversal remanences. Then, one interpretation is that the low-temperature components are attributable to post-depositional chemical remanences, associated possibly with the later formation of the mineral phase having Tub 300

  12. Performance of the Opalinus Clay under thermal loading: experimental results from Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gens, A. [Universitat Politència de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Gaus, I. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); and others

    2017-04-15

    The paper presents an overview of the behaviour of Opalinus Clay under thermal loading as observed in three in situ heating tests performed in the Mont Terri rock laboratory: HE-B, HE-D and HE-E. The three tests are summarily described; they encompass a broad range of test layouts and experimental conditions. Afterwards, the following topics are examined: determination of thermal conductivity, thermally-induced pore pressure generation and thermally-induced mechanical effects. The mechanisms underlying pore pressure generation and dissipation are discussed in detail and the relationship between rock damage and thermal loading is examined using an additional in situ test: SE-H. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the various thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) interactions identified in the heating tests. (authors)

  13. A first glance at the initial ATF experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lynch, V.E.; Charlton, L.A.

    1989-05-01

    In the initial phase of ATF operation, the plasma minor radius and the edge rotational transform were reduced by field errors. This caused an effective change of the magnetic configuration: it improved the stability properties but worsened the equilibrium properties. The threshold for the second stability regime was lowered to β 0 /approximately/ 1.5%. Experimental profile data are compatible with operation in the second stability regime, and the achieved beta values, β 0 /approximately/ 3%, are well beyond the theoretically calculated threshold. Magnetic fluctuation measurements showed the effects of beta self-stabilization. They are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of the theory and support the evidence that ATF has already operated in the second stability regime. 24 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  14. Initial results of a positron tomograph for prostate imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.S.; Choong, W.S.; Moses, W.W.; Qi, J.; Hu, J.; Wang,G.C.; Wilson, D.; Oh, S.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

    2004-11-29

    We present the status and initial images of a positrontomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair ofexternal curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis).The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access andto position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivitywith patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rowsof 20 CTI PET Systems HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 modules inthe camera. Compared to an ECAT HR PET system operating in 3D mode, ourcamera uses about one-quarter the number of detectors and hasapproximately the same sensitivity for a central point source, becauseour detectors are close to the patient. The individual detectors areangled in the plane to point towards the prostate to minimize resolutiondegradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified CTIdata acquisition electronics. We have completed construction of thegantry and electronics, have developed detector calibration and dataacquisition software, and are taking coincidence data. We demonstratethat we can clearly visualize a "prostate" in a simple phantom.Reconstructed images of two phantoms are shown.

  15. Initial results of Pakistan's first road traffic injury surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shahzad; Razzak, Junaid A; Jooma, Rashid; Khan, Uzma

    2011-09-01

    Our aim is to report the findings of the initial three years of road traffic injuries (RTI) surveillance at Karachi and to compare it with previously published RTI-related data from Pakistan and other low-and middle-income countries. Data were collected through the RTI surveillance programme at Karachi (RTIRP) from the five biggest emergency departments of the city, which receive almost all the major emergencies of the city for the period September 2006 till September 2009. A total of 99,272 victims were enlisted by the RTIRP during the study period. Annual incidence of RTI is calculated to be 184.3 per 100,000 populations and mortality is 5.7 per 100,000 populations. Eighty nine per cent of victims are male and 73% are between 15 and 44 years of age. Commonest road user to be affected is riders of two wheelers (45%). Only 7% of affected motorcyclists were found to be wearing helmets at the time of the accident. Trends of injuries remained uniform over the years. Most frequent injuries were external wounds, followed by orthopaedic injuries. On the basis of our surveillance system, we have presented the largest RTI-related data from a metropolitan city of Pakistan to date.

  16. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  17. Quantitative MR imaging in fracture dating--Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Katharina; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Schick, Fritz; Scheicher, Sylvia; Hassler, Eva; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-04-01

    For exact age determinations of bone fractures in a forensic context (e.g. in cases of child abuse) improved knowledge of the time course of the healing process and use of non-invasive modern imaging technology is of high importance. To date, fracture dating is based on radiographic methods by determining the callus status and thereby relying on an expert's experience. As a novel approach, this study aims to investigate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bone fracture dating by systematically investigating time-resolved changes in quantitative MR characteristics after a fracture event. Prior to investigating fracture healing in children, adults were examined for this study in order to test the methodology for this application. Altogether, 31 MR examinations in 17 subjects (♀: 11 ♂: 6; median age 34 ± 15 y, scanned 1-5 times over a period of up to 200 days after the fracture event) were performed on a clinical 3T MR scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Germany). All subjects were treated conservatively for a fracture in either a long bone or in the collar bone. Both, qualitative and quantitative MR measurements were performed in all subjects. MR sequences for a quantitative measurement of relaxation times T1 and T2 in the fracture gap and musculature were applied. Maps of quantitative MR parameters T1, T2, and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) were calculated and evaluated by investigating changes over time in the fractured area by defined ROIs. Additionally, muscle areas were examined as reference regions to validate this approach. Quantitative evaluation of 23 MR data sets (12 test subjects, ♀: 7 ♂: 5) showed an initial peak in T1 values in the fractured area (T1=1895 ± 607 ms), which decreased over time to a value of 1094 ± 182 ms (200 days after the fracture event). T2 values also peaked for early-stage fractures (T2=115 ± 80 ms) and decreased to 73 ± 33 ms within 21 days after the fracture event. After that time point, no

  18. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Complex decision-making: initial results of an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief survey of key literature on emotions and decision-making introduces an empirical study of a group of university students exploring the effects of decision-making complexity on error risk. The results clearly show that decision-making under stress in the experimental group produces significantly more errors than in the stress-free control group.

  20. Complex decision-making: initial results of an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2011-01-01

    A brief survey of key literature on emotions and decision-making introduces an empirical study of a group of university students exploring the effects of decision-making complexity on error risk. The results clearly show that decision-making under stress in the experimental group produces significantly more errors than in the stress-free control group.

  1. Alternative multi-user interaction screen: initial ergonomic test results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available excitement. In some instances the recording volume was too low and the recording had to be repeated. Participants were very keen to record their own sound clip and the activity would invariably result in general laughter when played back. We captured...

  2. Initial Results of a New Mobile Spectrum Occupancy Monitoring Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloem, J.W.H.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present results of the new monitoring network for spectrum governance. The network is based on the RFeye system of CRFS where the data is collected employing mobile monitoring vehicles. The measurement data, obtained from a frequency sweep between 10 MHz and 6 GHz, is further

  3. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  4. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  5. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  6. Initial results from the Donner 600-crystal positron tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.B.; Uber, D.C.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    These results show the 3-mm BGO crystals can improve the resolution in positron tomography by a substantial factor. This measured crystal-pair resolution of 2.4 mm FWHM and the reconstructed image resolution of 2.9 mm FWHM at the center of the tomograph are in good agreement with expected values. The most serious limitation of the detector design is that only a single section can be imaged. 4 refs., 4 figs

  7. Results of initial nuclear tests on LWBR (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarber, W.K.

    1979-06-01

    This report presents and discusses the results of physics tests performed at beginning of life on the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). These tests have confirmed that movable seed assembly critical positions and reactivity worths, temperature coefficients, xenon transient characteristics, core symmetry, and core shutdown are within the range of values used in the design of the LWBR and its reactor protection analysis. Measured core physics parameters were found to be in good agreement with the calculated values

  8. Initial commissioning results from the APS loss monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The design of the beam loss monitor system for the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source is based on using a number of air dielectric coaxial cables as long ionization chambers. Results to date show that the loss monitor is useful in helping to determine the cause of injection losses and losses large enough to limit circulating currents in the storage ring to short lifetimes. Sensitivities ranging from 13 to 240 pC of charge collected in the injector BTS (booster-to-storage-ring) loss monitor per picocoulomb of loss have been measured, depending on the loss location. These results have been used to predict that the storage ring loss monitor leakage current limit of 10 pA per cable should allow detection of losses resulting in beam lifetimes of 100 hours or less with 100 mA stored beam. Significant DC bias levels associated with the presence of stored beam have been observed. These large bias levels are most likely caused by the loss monitor responding to hard x-ray synchrotron radiation. No such response to synchrotron radiation was observed during earlier tests at SSRL. However, the loss monitor response to average stored beam current in APS has provided a reasonable alternative to the DC current transformer (DCCT) for measuring beam lifetimes

  9. Initial results from 50mm short SSC dipoles at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Coulter, K.; Delchamps, S.; Ewald, K.D.; Fulton, H.; Gonczy, I.; Gourlay, S.A.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.B.; Wake, M.; Gordon, M.; Hassan, N.; Sims, R.; Winters, M.

    1991-03-01

    Several short model SSC 50 mm bore dipoles are being built and tested at Fermilab. Mechanical design of these magnets has been determined from experience involved in the construction and testing of 40 mm dipoles. Construction experience includes coil winding, curing and measuring, coil end part design and fabrication, ground insulation, instrumentation, collaring and yoke assembly. Fabrication techniques are explained and construction problems are discussed. Similarities and differences from the 40 mm dipole tooling and management components are outlined. Test results from the first models are presented. 19 refs., 12 figs

  10. [Integrated intensive treatment of tinnitus: method and initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, B; Georgiewa, P; Seydel, C; Haupt, H; Scherer, H; Klapp, B F; Reisshauer, A

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, no major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of tinnitus. Hence, the present therapeutic strategies aim at decoupling the subconscious from the perception of tinnitus. Mindful of the lessons drawn from existing tinnitus retraining and desensitisation therapies, a new integrated day hospital strategy of treatment lasting 7-14 days has been developed at the Charité Hospital and is presented in the present paper. The strategy for treating tinnitus in the proximity of patient domicile is designed for patients who feel disturbed in their world of perception and their efficiency due to tinnitus and give evidence of mental and physical strain. In view of the etiologically non-uniform and multiple events connected with tinnitus, consideration was also given to the fact that somatic and psychosocial factors are equally involved. Therefore, therapy should aim at diagnosing and therapeutically influencing those psychosocial factors that reduce the hearing impression to such an extent that the affected persons suffer from strain. The first results of therapy-dependent changes of 46 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus are presented. The data were evaluated before and after 7 days of treatment and 6 months after the end of treatment. Immediately after the treatment, the scores of both the tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller) and the subscales improved significantly. These results were maintained during the 6-month post-treatment period and even improved.

  11. New results on initial state & quarkonia with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia Araya, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Weak bosons do not interact strongly with the dense and hot medium formed in the nuclear collisions, thus should be sensitive to the nuclear modification of parton distribution functions (nPDFs). The in-medium modification of heavy quarkonium states plays an important role in studying the hot and dense medium formed in the larger collision systems. The ATLAS detector, optimized for searching new physics in proton-proton collisions, is especially well equipped to measure Z, W bosons and quakonium in the high occupancy environment produced in heavy-ion collisions. We will present recent results on the Z boson and quarkonia yields as a function of centrality, transverse momentum and rapidity, from the ATLAS experiment.

  12. Overview and initial results of the ETE spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berni, L.A.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Ludwig, G.O.; Oliveira, R.M.; Shibata, C.S.; Barbosa, L.F.F.P.W.; Vilela, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The ETE spherical tokamak is a small size aspect-ratio machine with major and minor radius of 30 cm and 20 cm, respectively. The vessel was made of Inconel 625 and provides good access for plasma diagnostics through 58 Conflat ports. The first plasma was obtained at the end of 2000 and presently plasma currents of about 45 kA lasting for about 4 ms with electron temperature up to 160 eV and densities of 2.2x10 19 m -3 are routinely obtained. Achievement of the designed parameters for the first phase of operation is expected by the end of this year, with plasma current up to 200 kA lasting for about 15 ms. This paper describes some details of the ETE project, construction and mainly the first results and analysis of basic parameters. (author)

  13. Initial Hubble Diagram Results from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Aldering, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antilogus, P. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Aragon, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baltay, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bongard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buton, C [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Childress, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Copin, Y. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Gangler, E. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Loken, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nugent, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pain, R. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Pecontal, E. [Center of Research Astrophysics of Lyon (CRAL) (France); Pereira, R. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Perlmutter, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rabinowitz, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rigaudier, G. [Center of Research Astrophysics of Lyon (CRAL) (France); Ripoche, P. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Runge, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scalzo, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Smadja, G. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Tao, C. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Thomas, R. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, C. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France)

    2017-07-06

    The use of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe a decade ago. Now that large second generation surveys have significantly increased the size and quality of the high-redshift sample, the cosmological constraints are limited by the currently available sample of ~50 cosmologically useful nearby supernovae. The Nearby Supernova Factory addresses this problem by discovering nearby supernovae and observing their spectrophotometric time development. Our data sample includes over 2400 spectra from spectral timeseries of 185 supernovae. This talk presents results from a portion of this sample including a Hubble diagram (relative distance vs. redshift) and a description of some analyses using this rich dataset.

  14. Temporo-spatial IMRT optimization: concepts, implementation and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, Alexei; Rietzel, Eike; Lu Hsiaoming; Martin, Benjamin; Jiang, Steve; Chen, George T Y; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    With the recent availability of 4D-CT, the accuracy of information on internal organ motion during respiration has improved significantly. We investigate the utility of organ motion information in IMRT treatment planning, using an in-house prototype optimization system. Four approaches are compared: (1) planning with optimized margins, based on motion information; (2) the 'motion kernel' approach, in which a more accurate description of the dose deposit from a pencil beam to a moving target is achieved either through time-weighted averaging of influence matrices, calculated for different instances of anatomy (subsets of 4D-CT data, corresponding to various phases of motion) or through convolution of the pencil beam kernel with the probability density function describing the target motion; (3) optimal gating, or tracking with beam intensity maps optimized independently for each instance of anatomy; and (4) optimal tracking with beam intensity maps optimized simultaneously for all instances of anatomy. The optimization is based on a gradient technique and can handle both physical (dose-volume) and equivalent uniform dose constraints. Optimization requires voxel mapping from phase to phase in order to score the dose in individual voxels as they move. The results show that, compared to the other approaches, margin expansion has a significant disadvantage by substantially increasing the integral dose to patient. While gating or tracking result in the best dose conformation to the target, the former elongates treatment time, and the latter significantly complicates the delivery procedure. The 'motion kernel' approach does not provide a dosimetric advantage, compared to optimal tracking or gating, but might lead to more efficient delivery. A combination of gating with the 'motion kernel' or margin expansion approach will increase the duty cycle and may provide one with the most efficient solution, in terms of complexity of the delivery procedure and dose conformality to

  15. Multi-slice CT urography after diuretic injection: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Wildberger, J.E.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Borchers, H. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Urology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of CT urography (CTU) using a multi-slice (MS) scanner and to find out whether a low-dose diuretic injection is advantageous for the opacification of the urinary tract. Methods: MS-CTU was performed in 21 patients with urologic diseases. In 5/21 patients, 250 ml of physiologic saline solution were injected. In 16/21 patients, 10 mg of furosemide were injected 3-5 min before contrast material administration. A 4x2.5 mm collimation with a pitch of 1.25 and a tube curent of 100-150 mA were used. Scan time was 12-16 sec. 3 mm thin axial images with an overlap of 67% were reconstructed. Multiplanar maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were postprocessed to obtain urographic views. Bone structures were eliminated using the volume-of-interest method. Results: Furosemide-enhanced MS-CTU achieved either near complete or complete opacification in 30/32 (94%) ureters and in 32/32 (100%) pelvicaliceal systems up to a serum creatinine of 150 {mu}mol/l. In our series, only one CTU scan per patient was needed to obtain a diagnostic urogram after 10 min of contrast material injection. Ureteral compression was not necessary. When physiologic saline solution was used instead of furosemide, the radiopacity inside the enhanced pelvicalices was 4-5 times higher and more inhomogeneous. Diuretic-enhanced MS-CTU was more accurate in the depiction of pelvicaliceal details. In combination with furosemide, calculi were well identified inside the opacified urine and were safely differentiated from phleboliths. Postprocessing times of up to 20 minutes were problematic as were contrast-enhanced superimposing bowel loops on MIP images. Conclusion: Preliminary results demonstrate a good feasibility of furosemide-enhanced MS-CTU for obtaining detailed visualization of the entire upper urinary tract. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung zur Durchfuehrbarkeit der CT Urographie (CTU) mit einem Multidetektor(MD)-Computertomographen und ob eine

  16. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  17. The Young Solar Analogs Project: Initial Photometric Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saken, Jon M.; Gray, R. O.; Corbally, C. J.

    2013-06-01

    Since 2007 we have been conducting spectroscopic monitoring of the Ca II H & K lines and G-band for a sample of 31 YSAs in order to better understand their activity cycles and variations, as well as the effects of young stars on their solar systems. The targets cover the spectral range of stars most likely to contain Earth analogs, F8-K2, and a broad enough range of ages, 0.3 Gyr - 1.5 Gyr, to investigate how activity level changes with stellar age. These studies are already showing possible evidence for activity cycles, large variations in starspot activity, and flaring events. In order to obtain a more complete picture of the nature of the stars' activity and examine the correlations between stellar brightness and chromospheric activity, we have started a complimentary campaign of photometric monitoring of these targets in Johnson B, V, and R, Stromgren v and H-alpha, with the use of a small robotic telescope dedicated to this project. This poster will present some results from the first year of photometric monitoring, focusing on the correlations between the photometric bands, and between the photometric and spectroscopic data, as well as an investigation of short-term (1-2 minutes) spectroscopic variations using data obtained earlier this year on the 1.8 m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT).

  18. Interventional C-arm tomosynthesis for vascular imaging: initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, David A.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Al Assad, Omar; Trousset, Yves; Riddell, Cyril; Avignon, Gregoire; Solomon, Stephen B.; Lai, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    As percutaneous endovascular procedures address more complex and broader disease states, there is an increasing need for intra-procedure 3D vascular imaging. In this paper, we investigate C-Arm 2-axis tomosynthesis ("Tomo") as an alternative to C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) for workflow situations in which the CBCT acquisition may be inconvenient or prohibited. We report on our experience in performing tomosynthesis acquisitions with a digital angiographic imaging system (GE Healthcare Innova 4100 Angiographic Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI). During a tomo acquisition the detector and tube each orbit on a plane above and below the table respectively. The tomo orbit may be circular or elliptical, and the tomographic half-angle in our studies varied from approximately 16 to 28 degrees as a function of orbit period. The trajectory, geometric calibration, and gantry performance are presented. We overview a multi-resolution iterative reconstruction employing compressed sensing techniques to mitigate artifacts associated with incomplete data reconstructions. In this work, we focus on the reconstruction of small high contrast objects such as iodinated vasculature and interventional devices. We evaluate the overall performance of the acquisition and reconstruction through phantom acquisitions and a swine study. Both tomo and comparable CBCT acquisitions were performed during the swine study thereby enabling the use of CBCT as a reference in the evaluation of tomo vascular imaging. We close with a discussion of potential clinical applications for tomo, reflecting on the imaging and workflow results achieved.

  19. Summary of results of frictional sliding studies, at confining pressures up to 6.98 kb, in selected rock materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R.; Byerlee, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collection of stress-strain charts which were produced by deforming selected simuiated fault gouge materials. Several sets of samples consisted of intact cylinders, 1.000 inch in diameter and 2.500 inches long. The majority of the samples consisted of thin layers of the selected sample material, inserted within a diagonal sawcut in a 1.000-inch by 2.500-inch Westerly Granite cylinder. Two sorts of inserts were used. The first consisted of thin wafers cut from 1.000-inch-diameter cores of the rock being tested. The other consisted of thin layers of crushed material packed onto the sawcut surface. In several groups of tests using various thicknesses (0.010 inch to 0.160 inch) of a given type material there were variations in the stress level and/or stability of sliding as a function of the fault zone width. Because of this we elected to use a standard 0.025-inch width fault zone to compare the frictional properties of many of the different types of rock materials. This 0.025-inch thickness was chosen partially because this thickness of crushed granite behaves approximately the same as a fractured sample of initially intact granite, and also because this is near the lower limit at which we could cut intact wafers for those samples that were prepared from thin slices of rock. One series of tests was done with saw cut granite cylinders without fault gouge inserts. All of these tests were done in a hydraulically operated triaxial testing machine. The confining pressure (δ1, least principal stress) was applied by pumping petroleum ether into a pressure vessel. The differential stress (δ3-δ1) was applied by a hydraulically operated ram that could be advanced into the pressure vessel at any of several strain rates (10-4sec-1, 10-5sec-1, 10-6sec-1, 10-7sec-1, or 10-8sec-1). All samples were jacketed in polyurethane tubing to exclude the confining pressure medium from the samples. The majority of the samples, with the exception of some of the initially

  20. Initial results from the newborn hearing screening programme in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, A

    2013-03-02

    INTRODUCTION: Hearing screening programmes aim to detect hearing loss in the neonate. The Health Service Executive (HSE) South was the first phase of a national roll-out of a neonatal hearing screening programme in Ireland, going live on 28 April 2011. RESULTS: Over 11,738 babies have been screened for permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) during the first 12 months. The percentage of eligible babies offered hearing screening was 99.2 %. Only 0.2 % (n = 25) of those offered screening declined. 493 (4 %) were referred for immediate diagnostic audiological assessment. The average time between screen and diagnostic audiology appointment was 2 weeks. 15 (1.3\\/1,000) babies have been identified with a PCHI over the 12-month period. 946 (4 %) babies screened were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for >48 h. The prevalance of PCHI is 7.3\\/1,000 in the NICU population compared to 0.6\\/1000 in the well baby population. 214 (1.8 % of total babies screened) had a clear response in the screening programmes, but were deemed to be at risk of an acquired childhood hearing impairment. These babies will be reassessed with a diagnostic audiology appointment at 8-9 months of age. To date, there is one case of acquired hearing impairment through this targeted follow-up screen. Of the 15 cases of PCHI identified, 8 (53 %) of these had one or more risk factors for hearing loss and 7 (37 %) were admitted to the NICU for >48 h. Four babies were referred for assessment at the National Cochlear Implant Centre.

  1. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  2. [Initial results of the Erfurt Prevention of Prematurity Campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyme, U B; Grosch, A; Roemer, V M; Saling, E

    1998-01-01

    identification of women at risk for prematurity. Earliest possible intervention by the obstetrician appears to result in reducing the rate of prematures and in particular of very early prematures (< 32 + 0 weeks).

  3. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  4. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  5. Technical Note. The Concept of a Computer System for Interpretation of Tight Rocks Using X-Ray Computed Tomography Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habrat Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of a computer system for interpreting unconventional oil and gas deposits with the use of X-ray computed tomography results. The functional principles of the solution proposed are presented in the article. The main goal is to design a product which is a complex and useful tool in a form of a specialist computer software for qualitative and quantitative interpretation of images obtained from X-ray computed tomography. It is devoted to the issues of prospecting and identification of unconventional hydrocarbon deposits. The article focuses on the idea of X-ray computed tomography use as a basis for the analysis of tight rocks, considering especially functional principles of the system, which will be developed by the authors. The functional principles include the issues of graphical visualization of rock structure, qualitative and quantitative interpretation of model for visualizing rock samples, interpretation and a description of the parameters within realizing the module of quantitative interpretation.

  6. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  7. Disc cutter wear and rock texture in hard rock TBM tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yu; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tanimoto, Chikaosa; Nakagawa, Shigeo; Fujita, Naoya

    2008-01-01

    Disc cutter wear in TBM tunneling is caused by initial fragmentation of a solid rock face (the primary fragmentation) and fragmentation of residual rock pieces between a cutterhead and the face (the secondary fragmentation). In two projects through sedimentary and granitic rocks, the authors investigated the relationships between the rate of cutter wear caused by the primary fragmentation, point load index and the grain size and contents of abrasive minerals. As a result, it was found that the tensile strength and the mineral contents of rocks significantly influenced the cutter wear in both projects and thus it is necessary to take into account of rock type. (author)

  8. Effects of host rock stratigraphy on the formation of ring-faults and the initiation of collapse calderas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinvig, H S; Geyer, A; Gottsmann, J

    2008-01-01

    Most collapse calderas can be attributed to subsidence of the magma chamber roof along bounding sub-vertical normal faults (ring-faults) after a decompression of the magma chamber, following eruption. Here, we present new numerical models that use a Finite Element Method to investigate the effects of variable crustal stratigraphy (lithology/thickness/order of strata) above a magma chamber, on local stress field distribution and how these in turn compare with existing criteria for ring-fault initiation. Results indicate that the occurrence and relative distribution of mechanically different lithologies may be influential in generating or inhibiting caldera collapse.

  9. Effects of host rock stratigraphy on the formation of ring-faults and the initiation of collapse calderas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinvig, H S; Geyer, A; Gottsmann, J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen' s Road, BS8 1RJ, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-01

    Most collapse calderas can be attributed to subsidence of the magma chamber roof along bounding sub-vertical normal faults (ring-faults) after a decompression of the magma chamber, following eruption. Here, we present new numerical models that use a Finite Element Method to investigate the effects of variable crustal stratigraphy (lithology/thickness/order of strata) above a magma chamber, on local stress field distribution and how these in turn compare with existing criteria for ring-fault initiation. Results indicate that the occurrence and relative distribution of mechanically different lithologies may be influential in generating or inhibiting caldera collapse.

  10. Determined Initial lead for South Of Isua (SOI) terrain suggests a single homogeneous source for it and possibly other archaean rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tera, F.

    2011-12-01

    A Thorogenic-Uranogenic Lead Isotope Plane (TULIP), which entails plotting 206/208 (or its reverse) vs 207/208 (or its reverse), was applied to the Pb data on South of Isua (SOI) by Kamber et al., (1). When the data on 20 samples of these rocks and feldspars are plotted in pairs (each pair is a rock and its feldspar) on TULIP, they fall on 10 mixing lines that converge on a single spot (Fig. 1). This is the end member initial lead (EMIL). The 206/208 & 207/208 so determined are 0.3675 and 0.43525, respectively. From these values one calculates 207/206 = 1.1843 ± 0.0007, for EMIL. This pattern requires either: A) each pair has a singular kappa, K = 232Th/238U, different from others, or B) a pair's in situ decay Pb was homogenized in recent times. On 204/206 vs 207/206 diagram, the whole rocks of SOI define a 3.776 Ga isochron (2). From this and EMIL's 207/206, one obtains: 206/204 = 10.977, 207/204 = 12.974; and 208/204 = 29.756. This singularity of initial Pb contrasts with a deduced variability by the original authors (1). EMIL's radiogenic *(207/206) = 1.6220, gives a single-stage age = 5.9 Ga, indicating inapplicability of its evolution in one stage. Also, the μ calculated from 238U-206Pb for the single stage is different from that inferred from 235U-207Pb, confirming disqualification of this scenario. Reconciliation of the two decay schemes necessitates assumption of EMIL evolution in a minimum of two stages. Starting at 4.563 Ga, five scenarios were assumed: First stage ends and second starts at 4.55, 4.54, 4.53, 4.52 or 4.51 Ga. Second stages end at 3.776 Ga. The calculated μ1 for the first stage are 106, 59.5, 44.6, 36.3 and 30.9 respectively. For μ2 the change is limited, from 5.45 to 5.28. Only an average calculated K for both stages is possible. For the five outlined scenarios it ranges from 1.118 to 1.111. Earlier, Tera (3) observed that initial Pb of the oldest terrestrial reservoir requires evolution in two stages. There too μ1 >> μ2. Data on

  11. Proposal of rock mass behavior classification based on convergence measurement in shaft sinking through sedimentary soft rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu

    2010-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been excavating deep shafts through sedimentary soft rocks in Horonobe, Hokkaido. From the viewpoint of the observational construction, site engineers need a practical guide to evaluate the field measurements conducted with shaft sinking. The author analyzed the relationship among initial deformation rate, observed deformation, the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of rock mass to the initial stress, and the magnitude of inelastic behavior of rock based on convergence measurements and investigation of rock mass properties on shaft walls. As a result, the rock mass behavior classification for shaft sinking which consists of three classes was proposed. (author)

  12. Preliminary results of the determination of the Venus rock comsposition by ''Venera 13'' and ''Venera 14'' space probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Moskaleva, L.P.; Shcheglov, O.P.; Kharyukova, V.P.; Manvelyan, O.S.; Smirnov, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Composition of the rocks on Venus was determined for the first time. The determination of rock composition was carried out at the landing sites of Venera 13 and Venera 14. The rock samples analyzed by the X-ray radiometri.c method. The study of rocks was carried out in most typical of the surface of Venus provinces: rolling upland (Venera 13) and flat lowland (Venera 14). The rock composition at the Venera 13 landing site proved to be close to potassium alkaline basalt, that at the Venera 14 landing site close to tholeitic basalt of the Earth's crust. The comparison of the typical composition of Venus rocks with the composition of rocks of the same structural-morphological provinces of the Earth sws some differences in formation of the surface and the crust of those planets

  13. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Kent and Irving, 2010; and Kent et al, 2015 propose a monster shift in the position of Jurassic (160 to 145 Ma) paleopoles for North America- defined by results from igneous rocks. This monster shift is likely an unrecognized true polar wander occurrence. Although subject to inclination error, results from sedimentary rocks from North America, if corrected for these effects, can be used to supplement the available data for this time period. Steiner (2003) reported results from 48 stratigraphic horizons sampled from the Callovian Summerville Fm, from NE New Mexico. A recalculated mean of these results yields a mean direction of D = 332, I = 39, n=48, k = 15, α95 = 5.4°. These data were analyzed for possible inclination error-although the dataset is small, the E-I results yielded a corrected I = 53. This yields a corrected paleopole for NA at ~165 Ma located at 67° N and 168° E.Paleomagnetic results from the Black Hills- Kilanowski (2002) for the Callovian Hulett Mbr of the Sundance Fm, and Gregiore (2001) the Oxfordian-Tithonian Morrison Fm (Gregiore, 2001) have previously been interpreted to represent Eocene-aged remagnetizations- due to the nearly exact coincidence between the in-situ pole positions of these Jurassic units with the Eocene pole for NA. Both of the tilt-corrected results for these units have high latitude poles (Sundance Fm: 79° N, 146° E; Morrison Fm: 89° N, 165° E). An E-I analysis of these data will be presented- using a provisional inclination error of 10°, corrected paleopoles are: (Sundance Fm: 76° N, 220° E; Morrison Fm: 77° N, 266° E). The Black Hills 165 Ma (Sundance Fm) and 145 Ma (Morrison Fm) poles, provisionally corrected for 10° inclination error- occur fairly close to the NA APWP proposed by Kent et al, 2015- using an updated set of results from kimberlites- the agreement between the Sundance Fm and the Triple-B (158 Ma) pole would be nearly exact with a slightly lesser inclination error. The Summerville Fm- which is

  14. Rock magnetic properties in the sulfate reduction zone in IODP 350 Hole 1437B, Izu Bonin rear arc: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, R. J.; Kars, M. A. C.; Kodama, K.

    2014-12-01

    During the northern Spring 2014 (April-May), IODP Expedition 350 drilled a 1806.5 m deep hole at Site U1437 in the Izu-Bonin rear arc, in order to understand, among other objectives, the compositional evolution of the arc since the Miocene and track the missing half of the subduction factory. The good recovery of mostly fine grained sediments at this site enables a high resolution paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study. Particularly, variations in magnetic properties and mineralogy are well documented. The onboard magnetostratigraphy established from the study of the archive halves highlighted remagnetized intervals that produced "ghost" repetitions of geomagnetic reversals ~10's meters below their actual stratigraphic position in specific intervals. Onboard paleo- and rock magnetic analyses showed that remagnetization is probably due to a chemical remanence carried by iron sulfides (putatively identified as greigite). The rock magnetic parameters, SIRM/k and the S-ratio are consistent with the presence of ferromagnetic iron sulfides in Site U1437. A mixture of iron oxides and iron sulfides was found within the sulfate reduction zone, which was identified by onboard pore water analyses at ~50-60 meters below sea floor (mbsf) by a minimum in sulfate (~5 mM) coupled with a maximum in alkalinity. Below 50 mbsf, the sulfate content increases up to ~29 mM at ~460 mbsf. The particular downhole profile of the sulfate content in Site U1437 is probably triggered by fluid circulation. Evolution of sulfate content, pyritization process and fluid circulation are closely linked. Onshore research is focusing on further downhole characterization of the iron sulfides including their abundance, grain size and composition. Routine magnetic properties (NRM, magnetic susceptibility) and rock magnetic analyses at high resolution (every ~20-50 cm), including hysteresis properties and low temperature magnetic measurements, have been conducted on about 400 discrete samples in the first 200

  15. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  16. Review of results from SKB R and D on grouting technology for sealing the rock, years 1996-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, A.; Eklund, D.; Eriksson, Magnus; Lagerblad, B.; Lindblom, U.

    2001-05-01

    /head) is a robust parameter and that the distribution of specific capacities and calculated apertures pictures the geometric variations within the fracture. This distribution may, together with the area, also give an estimate of the fracture volume. The distribution of specific capacities and apertures within a fracture may help when choosing grouting strategy like choice of grout and order of grouting. The work in the subproject 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock ' has dealt with laboratory tests, numerical modelling and a summarising conceptual model. The results of the laboratory tests are a number of phenomenological studies of the spreading mechanisms. Preliminary attempts to take care of filtration and separation while grouting are incorporated in a numerical model. Software that generates fracture geometry, calculates penetration with respect to filtration and separation and evaluates the effect of grouting has been developed. A conceptual model has been developed, describing how to calculate the sealing efficiency and how a prediction of the leakage into a tunnel can be done. The subproject 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' has aimed to create a theoretical base for the modelling of the behaviour of weakness zones under the influence of different reinforcement systems in combination with pre-grouting of the zone. Freezing of a zone weathered down to gravel has also been studied. By, analytically or graphically, putting the ground reaction curve (GRC) together with the reaction curve of the reinforcement, the tunnel wall deformation is obtained in the current case. The studies show that, when using modern software for rock mechanical analyses, it is possible to create the necessary theoretical base for a decision on driving through a weakness zone in good bedrock. When driving, the great difficulty is probably to, fast enough, obtain relevant material parameters as input in the model. Therefore field investigations and

  17. A multi-packer technique for investigating resistance to flow through fractured rock and illustrative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Rae, J.

    1981-01-01

    A multi-packer technique was used to locate twelve discrete fractures in the lower half of a 200 m deep drill hole in Cornish granite. The resistances to water flows into these fractures both singly and together were measured. Geological explanations of the results obtained were sought by examination of core from the hole. Analysis of the results and the further data needed and now being sought to determine resistance to flow over long distances through the pattern of interconnected fractures are discussed. This information is required for the assessment of the safety of burial of radioactive wastes

  18. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  19. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  20. On the question of determining the amount of experiments, reliability and accuracy of the results in the study of physical-mechanical properties of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetcov n.n.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the methods for determining the required amount of experiments, the accuracy and reliability of the results of physical-mechanical rock properties study has been conducted. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing specialized method for determining the compressive strength of the samples have been discussed. On the basis of the investigation the optimal approach has been proposed to solve a wide range of the problems associated with the rock properties' parameters using

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime

  3. Geomechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay at multiple scales: results from Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, F.; Wild, K.M.; Loew, S. [Institute of Geology, Engineering Geology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Yong, S. [Knight Piesold Ltd, Vancouver (Canada); Thoeny, R. [Grundwasserschutz und Entsorgung, AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland); Frank, E. [Sektion Geologie (GEOL), Eidgenössisches Nuklear-Sicherheitsinspektorat (ENSI), Brugg (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    The paper represents a summary about our research projects conducted between 2003 and 2015 related to the mechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri. The research summarized covers a series of laboratory and field tests that address the brittle failure behaviour of Opalinus Clay, its undrained and effective strength, the dependency of petro-physical and mechanical properties on total suction, hydro-mechanically coupled phenomena and the development of a damage zone around excavations. On the laboratory scale, even simple laboratory tests are difficult to interpret and uncertainties remain regarding the representativeness of the results. We show that suction may develop rapidly after core extraction and substantially modifies the strength, stiffness, and petro-physical properties of Opalinus Clay. Consolidated undrained tests performed on fully saturated specimens revealed a relatively small true cohesion and confirmed the strong hydro-mechanically coupled behaviour of this material. Strong hydro-mechanically coupled processes may explain the stability of cores and tunnel excavations in the short term. Pore-pressure effects may cause effective stress states that favour stability in the short term but may cause longer-term deformations and damage as the pore-pressure dissipates. In-situ observations show that macroscopic fracturing is strongly influenced by bedding planes and faults planes. In tunnel sections where opening or shearing along bedding planes or faults planes is kinematically free, the induced fracture type is strongly dependent on the fault plane frequency and orientation. A transition from extensional macroscopic failure to shearing can be observed with increasing fault plane frequency. In zones around the excavation where bedding plane shearing/shearing along tectonic fault planes is kinematically restrained, primary extensional type fractures develop. In addition, heterogeneities such as single tectonic fault planes or fault zones

  4. Self-initiated actions result in suppressed auditory but amplified visual evoked components in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, Nathan G; Oestreich, Lena K L; Jack, Bradley N; Ford, Judith M; Roach, Brian J; Mathalon, Daniel H; Whitford, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Self-suppression refers to the phenomenon that sensations initiated by our own movements are typically less salient, and elicit an attenuated neural response, compared to sensations resulting from changes in the external world. Evidence for self-suppression is provided by previous ERP studies in the auditory modality, which have found that healthy participants typically exhibit a reduced auditory N1 component when auditory stimuli are self-initiated as opposed to externally initiated. However, the literature investigating self-suppression in the visual modality is sparse, with mixed findings and experimental protocols. An EEG study was conducted to expand our understanding of self-suppression across different sensory modalities. Healthy participants experienced either an auditory (tone) or visual (pattern-reversal) stimulus following a willed button press (self-initiated), a random interval (externally initiated, unpredictable onset), or a visual countdown (externally initiated, predictable onset-to match the intrinsic predictability of self-initiated stimuli), while EEG was continuously recorded. Reduced N1 amplitudes for self- versus externally initiated tones indicated that self-suppression occurred in the auditory domain. In contrast, the visual N145 component was amplified for self- versus externally initiated pattern reversals. Externally initiated conditions did not differ as a function of their predictability. These findings highlight a difference in sensory processing of self-initiated stimuli across modalities, and may have implications for clinical disorders that are ostensibly associated with abnormal self-suppression. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Fractional Differential Equations in Terms of Comparison Results and Lyapunov Stability with Initial Time Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Yakar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative behavior of a perturbed fractional-order differential equation with Caputo's derivative that differs in initial position and initial time with respect to the unperturbed fractional-order differential equation with Caputo's derivative has been investigated. We compare the classical notion of stability to the notion of initial time difference stability for fractional-order differential equations in Caputo's sense. We present a comparison result which again gives the null solution a central role in the comparison fractional-order differential equation when establishing initial time difference stability of the perturbed fractional-order differential equation with respect to the unperturbed fractional-order differential equation.

  6. Preliminary Results from Initial Investigations of Ceres' Cratering Record from Dawn Imaging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Michael, Gregory; Ivanov, Boris A.; Kneissl, Thomas; Neesemann, Adrian; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    The highly successful Dawn mission [1] finished data collection at Vesta in 2012 and is now on its way to the dwarf planet Ceres. According to the current Ceres approach timeline of the Dawn mission, the ground resolution of the Dawn FC camera [2] will be about 10 times better than Hubble data [3] at the time of the presentation of this work. This may allow for identification of craters about 15 km in diameter. Initial mapping of sample areas may provide enough information of the cratering record in order to compare it with the theoretical Ceres crater production function we present at the 46th LPSC conference (March 16-20, 2015, The Woodlands, Texas) [4]. Our preliminary crater production function for Ceres is derived from the assumption of an icy crust just below a thin surface layer of dust [5], and a projectile population that is very similar to the one that impacted the Moon [6]. In order to scale the lunar cratering record to Ceres we use the Ivanov scaling laws [7], which allow for crater scaling based on parameters that can be derived from observations. The lunar-like approach gave reasonable good results for the crater production function on the asteroids Vesta, Ida, Lutetia and Gaspra [8]. Since the lunar surface is of basaltic composition, the correct scaling between the different materials is challenging. One crucial parameter is the transition diameter from simple to complex craters. Based on the simple to complex transition diameter on Iapetus, an icy satellite of Saturn, we expect this transition at about 12 km crater size at Ceres. This value may be slightly different due to the different temperatures at Ceres and Iapetus. If the simple to complex transition is observed at much larger diameters, the reason could be a substantial fraction of rock in the shallow subsurface of Ceres. In an ice-rich surface material high relaxation rates may also be expected that could change the shape of the crater production function. A thorough geological mapping

  7. Four magnetite generations in the Precambrian Varena Iron Ore deposit, SE Lithuania, as a result of rock-fluid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Prusinskiene, Sabina; Siliauskas, Laurynas

    2017-04-01

    (2011). They have similar trace element abundances as skarn magnetites, e.g. are in general Ti-poor. The Mag-1 is more than twice richer in Mg than the porphyry and Kiruna type iron ores. A slight enrichment in Al, Ti and V because of spinel and ilmenite inclusions may have caused the earliest Mag-1 to resemble the porphyry type ores, while the secondary Mag-2 has Al, Ca and Mn contents as low as the Kiruna type ores. Thus, we can consider that fluid-rock interactions have strongly affected chemical compositions of the studied magnetites. Even though there are no precise age constructions for the metamorphic, metasomatic and hydrothermal iron ore formation process, they likely started later than 1.80 Ga (metamorphism of the host rocks; Bogdanova et al., 2015) and lasted until c. 1.50 Ga, when the rocks were intruded by the within-plate AMCG magmatic bodies. Bogdanova, S., Gorbatschev, R., Skridlaite, G., Soesoo, A., Taran, L., Kurlovich, D., 2015. Precambrian Research, 259, 5-33. Dupuis, C., Beaudoin, G., 2011. Mineral Deposita 46, 319-335. Marfinas, S., 1996. Report on the results of the evaluation of the Varena Iron Ore deposit, 2nd book, Vilnius.

  8. A Community-Level Initiative to Prevent Obesity: Results From Kaiser Permanente's Healthy Eating Active Living Zones Initiative in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Atiedu, Akpene; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Keene, Laura; Davoudi, Mehrnaz; Spring, Rebecca; Molina, Michelle; Lee, Lynda; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Steimberg, Clara; Tinajero, Roberta; Ravel, Jodi; Nudelman, Jean; Azuma, Andrea Misako; Kuo, Elena S; Solomon, Loel

    2018-05-01

    A growing number of health systems are leading health promotion efforts in their wider communities. What impact are these efforts having on health behaviors and ultimately health status? This paper presents evaluation results from the place-based Kaiser Permanente Healthy Eating Active Living Zones obesity prevention initiative, implemented in 2011-2015 in 12 low-income communities in Kaiser Permanente's Northern and Southern California Regions. The Healthy Eating Active Living Zones design targeted places and people through policy, environmental, and programmatic strategies. Each Healthy Eating Active Living Zone is a small, low-income community of 10,000 to 20,000 residents with high obesity rates and other health disparities. Community coalitions planned and implemented strategies in each community. A population-dose approach and pre and post surveys were used to assess impact of policy, program, and environmental change strategies; the analysis was conducted in 2016. Population dose is the product of reach (number of people affected by a strategy divided by target population size) and strength (the effect size or relative change in behavior for each person exposed to the strategy). More than 230 community change strategies were implemented over 3 years, encompassing policy, environmental, and programmatic changes as well as efforts to build community capacity to sustain strategies and make changes in the future. Positive population-level results were seen for higher-dose strategies, particularly those targeting youth physical activity. Higher-dose strategies were more likely to be found in communities with the longest duration of investment. These results demonstrate that strong (high-dose), community-based obesity prevention strategies can lead to improved health behaviors, particularly among youth in school settings. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is

  9. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Yun-Ze; Li, Han; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected.

  10. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Li Han; Dai Shun; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Ji Yi-Cai; Zhou Bin; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected

  11. New K-Ar ages of altered rocks from Paramillos Sur and Norte: Interpretation of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukharsky, Magdalena; Brodtkorb, Alejo; Munizaga, Francisco

    1998-01-01

    The whole-rock K-Ar dates from porphyry copper prospects of Paramillos Sur (phyllic and potasic alteration zones) and Paramillos Norte (propilitic zone) are reported. Radiometric data yielded 17,8 ± 0,9 Ma, 15,8 ± 1,0 Ma and 15,2 ± 0,5 Ma in Paramillos Sur, and 17,3 ± 0,7 Ma in Paramillos Norte, which can be added to an previously reported age of 16,4 ± 0,3 Ma. These data are in agreement with isotopic ages from non altered or non mineralized magmatic rocks of the region. When the isotopic ages and petrographic characteristics of the dated rocks are considered, two alteration-mineralization events are suggested for Paramillos Sur prospect. However this possibility needs to be confirmed by means of future studies, in view of the reduced interval between these events when compared with the analytical errors. (author)

  12. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous shoshonitic rocks in the northern Wuyi Mountains, South China: A result of the roll-back of a flat-slab?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu-Xian; Li, Xian-Hua; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    Potassic magmatism is commonly linked to post-/late-orogenic environments, such as foundering or convection thinning of continental lithosphere. Their petrogenesis is crucial for constraining the chemical and physical properties of the remnant sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Here we report new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages, whole rock geochemical results and Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotope data from four potassic plutons (the Da'an, Yingcheng, Zixi and Honggong plutons) in the northern Wuyi Mountains, South China. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analyses indicate that these potassic rocks formed at 139-126 Ma. They are characterized by high SiO2 (56-73%) and K2O (3.8-6.7%), with a K2O/Na2O ratio of 2.18-2.04, plotting within the field of high-SiO2 shoshonites. Their ISr and εNd(t) values vary from 0.7077 to 0.7162 and - 5.66 to - 10.52, respectively. The initial zircon εHf(t) values range from 2.3 to - 13.1, corresponding to TDM modal ages between 707 and 1330 Ma. These geochemical and isotope characteristics indicate that these shoshonites derived from a subduction-modified ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle, and then underwent significantly fractional crystallization of K-feldspar, plagioclase, and accessory minerals, such as apatite and Fe-Ti oxides during magma ascent. We interpret that asthenospheric mantle upwelling (caused by eastward roll-back of a flat-slab?) triggered partial melting of the metasomatized lithospheric mantle to result in the Early Cretaceous shoshonitic magmatism in the northern Wuyi Mountains. An integration of our new results with compiled data from the interior of the South China Block reveals that the arc-like geochemical signature is confined to the Wuyi Mountains region, but becomes little or even invisible toward inland in South China. This implies that the far-field effects of the early Mesozoic subduction only reached the Wuyi Mountains, ca. 500 km away from the trench, consistent with flat or shallow subduction models.

  13. Initial results from a charge exchange q-diagnostic on TEXT-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valanju, P.M.; Duraiappah, L.; Bengtson, R.D.; Karzhavin, Y.; Nikitin, A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors present initial results from a new q-diagnostic for TEXT-Upgrade. This method is based on using a toroidal array of detectors to determine the plane in which beam-injected neutrals are emitted after two charge-exchange collisions. The potential advantages are low cost, full plasma accessibility, and good time resolution. Their initial series of experiments on TEXT-U established the feasibility of this technique

  14. Effects of confinement on rock mass modulus: A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vazaios

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the influence of the applied confining stress on the rock mass modulus of moderately jointed rocks (well interlocked undisturbed rock mass with blocks formed by three or less intersecting joints. A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM approach is employed to determine the mechanical properties of the rock mass. In this approach, the intact body of rock is represented by the discrete element method (DEM-Voronoi grains with the ability of simulating the initiation and propagation of microcracks within the intact part of the model. The geometry of the pre-existing joints is generated by employing discrete fracture network (DFN modelling based on field joint data collected from the Brockville Tunnel using LiDAR scanning. The geometrical characteristics of the simulated joints at a representative sample size are first validated against the field data, and then used to measure the rock quality designation (RQD, joint spacing, areal fracture intensity (P21, and block volumes. These geometrical quantities are used to quantitatively determine a representative range of the geological strength index (GSI. The results show that estimating the GSI using the RQD tends to make a closer estimate of the degree of blockiness that leads to GSI values corresponding to those obtained from direct visual observations of the rock mass conditions in the field. The use of joint spacing and block volume in order to quantify the GSI value range for the studied rock mass suggests a lower range compared to that evaluated in situ. Based on numerical modelling results and laboratory data of rock testing reported in the literature, a semi-empirical equation is proposed that relates the rock mass modulus to confinement as a function of the areal fracture intensity and joint stiffness. Keywords: Synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM, Discrete fracture network (DFN, Rock mass modulus, Geological strength index (GSI, Confinement

  15. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  16. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate and the S1P3 Receptor Initiate Neuronal Retraction via RhoA/ROCK Associated with CRMP2 Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Serena; Camprubí-Robles, Maria; Schweigreiter, Rüdiger; Matusica, Dusan; Haberberger, Rainer V.; Proia, Richard L.; Bandtlow, Christine E.; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Kress, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an important regulator in the nervous system. Here, we explored the role of S1P and its receptors in vitro and in preclinical models of peripheral nerve regeneration. Adult sensory neurons and motor neuron-like cells were exposed to S1P in an in vitro assay, and virtually all neurons responded with a rapid retraction of neurites and growth cone collapse which were associated with RhoA and ROCK activation. The S1P1 receptor agonist SEW2871 neither activated RhoA or neurite retraction, nor was S1P-induced neurite retraction mitigated in S1P1-deficient neurons. Depletion of S1P3 receptors however resulted in a dramatic inhibition of S1P-induced neurite retraction and was on the contrary associated with a significant elongation of neuronal processes in response to S1P. Opposing responses to S1P could be observed in the same neuron population, where S1P could activate S1P1 receptors to stimulate elongation or S1P3 receptors and retraction. S1P was, for the first time in sensory neurons, linked to the phosphorylation of collapsin response-mediated protein-2 (CRMP2), which was inhibited by ROCK inhibition. The improved sensory recovery after crush injury further supported the relevance of a critical role for S1P and receptors in fine-tuning axonal outgrowth in peripheral neurons. PMID:29066950

  17. A Large-Scale Initiative Inviting Patients to Share Personal Fitness Tracker Data with Their Providers: Initial Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Pevnick

    Full Text Available Personal fitness trackers (PFT have substantial potential to improve healthcare.To quantify and characterize early adopters who shared their PFT data with providers.We used bivariate statistics and logistic regression to compare patients who shared any PFT data vs. patients who did not.A patient portal was used to invite 79,953 registered portal users to share their data. Of 66,105 users included in our analysis, 499 (0.8% uploaded data during an initial 37-day study period. Bivariate and regression analysis showed that early adopters were more likely than non-adopters to be younger, male, white, health system employees, and to have higher BMIs. Neither comorbidities nor utilization predicted adoption.Our results demonstrate that patients had little intrinsic desire to share PFT data with their providers, and suggest that patients most at risk for poor health outcomes are least likely to share PFT data. Marketing, incentives, and/or cultural change may be needed to induce such data-sharing.

  18. The Rock Engineering System (RES) applied to landslide susceptibility zonation of the northeastern flank of Etna: methodological approach and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuani, Tiziana; Corazzato, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Ground deformations in the northeastern flank of Etna are well known. Despite only a few landslide events have been documented, these have significantly involved and damaged lifelines and buildings. These events are mainly related to the activity of the volcano-tectonic structures and associated seismicity, as in the case of the 2002 reactivation of the Presa landslide during an increased activity of the Pernicana fault system. In order to highlight the areal distribution of potentially unstable slopes based on a detailed, site-specific study of the factors responsible for landslide, and to ultimately contribute to risk management, a landslide susceptibility analysis of the northeastern flank of Etna in the Pernicana area was carried out, and a susceptibility map at 1:10.000 scale was produced, extending over an area of 168 km2. Different methods are proposed in the literature to obtain the regional distribution of potentially unstable slopes, depending on the problem scale, the slope dynamic evolution in the geological context, and the availability of data. Among semi-quantitative approaches, the present research combines the Rock Engineering System (RES) methodology with parameter zonation mapping in a GIS environment. The RES method represents a structured approach to manage a high number of interacting factors involved in the instability problem. A numerically coded, site-specific interaction matrix (IM) analyzes the cause-effect relationship in these factors, and calculates the degree of interactivity of each parameter, normalized by the overall interactivity of the system (weight factor). In the specific Etna case, the considered parameters are: slope attitude, lithotechnical properties (lithology, structural complexity, soil and rock mass quality), land use, tectonic structures, seismic activity (horizontal acceleration) and hydrogeological conditions (groundwater and drainage). Thematic maps are prepared at 1:10.000 scale for each of these parameters, and

  19. Quality initiatives: improving patient flow for a bone densitometry practice: results from a Mayo Clinic radiology quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Kenneth T; Valley, Timothy B; O'Connor, Michael K

    2010-03-01

    Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies have been used in manufacturing for some time. However, Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies also are applicable to radiology as a way to identify opportunities for improvement in patient care delivery settings. A multidisciplinary team of physicians and staff conducted a 100-day quality improvement project with the guidance of a quality advisor. By using the framework of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control), time studies were performed for all aspects of patient and technologist involvement. From these studies, value stream maps for the current state and for the future were developed, and tests of change were implemented. Comprehensive value stream maps showed that before implementation of process changes, an average time of 20.95 minutes was required for completion of a bone densitometry study. Two process changes (ie, tests of change) were undertaken. First, the location for completion of a patient assessment form was moved from inside the imaging room to the waiting area, enabling patients to complete the form while waiting for the technologist. Second, the patient was instructed to sit in a waiting area immediately outside the imaging rooms, rather than in the main reception area, which is far removed from the imaging area. Realignment of these process steps, with reduced technologist travel distances, resulted in a 3-minute average decrease in the patient cycle time. This represented a 15% reduction in the initial patient cycle time with no change in staff or costs. Radiology process improvement projects can yield positive results despite small incremental changes.

  20. Initial results from the Mini-TES experiment in Gusev Crater from the Spirit Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Ruff, S. W.; Fergason, R. L.; Knudson, A. T.; Anwar, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bandfield, J. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Budney, C.; Calvin, W. M.; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) on Spirit has studied the mineralogy and thermophysical properties at Gusev crater. Undisturbed soil spectra show evidence for minor carbonates and bound water. Rocks are olivinerich basalts with varying degrees of dust and other coatings. Dark-toned soils observed on disturbed surfaces may be derived from rocks and have derived mineralogy (+/-5 to 10%) of 45% pyroxene (20% Ca-rich pyroxene and 25% pigeonite), 40% sodic to intermediate plagioclase, and 15% olivine (forsterite 45% +/-5 to 10). Two spectrally distinct coatings are observed on rocks, a possible indicator of the interaction of water, rock, and airfall dust. Diurnal temperature data indicate particle sizes from 40 to 80 microm in hollows to approximately 0.5 to 3 mm in soils.

  1. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  2. The problem of extracting oil from bituminous rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liatifov, A.I.; Bagirov, M.K.; Shirinov, S.G.; Sokov, U.I.; Zhirnov, E.I.

    1982-01-01

    Results are given from experimental laboratory research on flushing bituminous sandstones using diesel or oil alkaline by-products as the flushing agent and a sodium silicate solution as the desensitization initiator for the rock.

  3. General Atomic reprocessing pilot plant: description and results of initial testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    In June 1976 General Atomic completed the construction of a reprocessing head-end cold pilot plant. In the year since then, each system within the head end has been used for experiments which have qualified the designs. This report describes the equipment in the plant and summarizes the results of the initial phase of reprocessing testing

  4. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; et al., [Unknown; Hessels, J.W.T.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and

  5. Initial Laboratory-Scale Melter Test Results for Combined Fission Product Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods and results used to vitrify a baseline glass, CSLNTM-C-2.5 in support of the AFCI (Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) using a Quartz Crucible Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Document number AFCI-WAST-PMO-MI-DV-2009-000184.

  6. Novel Field test design and initial result for AC and DC characterization for PV-panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Sune; Riedel, Nicholas; Santamaria Lancia, Adrian Alejo

    This work describes the design and initial test results of a field test for PV modules, where the PV modules the majority of the time operates to produce power at their maximum power point. Sequentially the individual modules are switched into a measurement circuitry for IV curves and impedance s...

  7. Radon emission from uranium mining waste rock dumps and resulting radon immission; Radonemissionsverhalten von Halden des Uranbergbaus und daraus resultierende Radonemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regner, J.; Hinz, W.; Schmidt, P. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Since more than 20 years, Wismut GmbH has been investigating the radon situation at uranium mining waste rock dumps. In the present paper the results of 19 complex studies at uranium mining dumps in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) are reported. Although the mean specific activity of Ra-226 of the waste rock material was on a rather low level of about 0.5 Bq/g, the mean radon concentration in free atmosphere at the public exposure sites in the immediate vicinity of the dumps reached a value of about 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for a half-year exposition and of about 600 Bq/m{sup 3} for a one-year exposition. Certain geometries and structures of waste rock dumps and the occurrence of convective airflows in the dumps are main reasons for the high radon emission despite of the relatively low specific Ra-226 activity. A case study for two buildings directly on the top of a waste rock dump in the town Johanngeorgenstadt is presented. The hypothetical interpolation of the results for Ra-226-activity to a value below the threshold value of 0.2 Bq/g leads to the assumption that problematic radon situations may also occur outside the areas of legacies of uranium mining. Considering the aspects mentioned, a clearance level for NORM of 1 Bq/g is questionable.

  8. Evaluation of tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) result using the Japanese highway rock mass classification system for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von, W. C.; Ismail, M. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The knowing of geological profile ahead of tunnel face is significant to minimize the risk in tunnel excavation work and cost control in preventative measure. Due to mountainous area, site investigation with vertical boring is not recommended to obtain the geological profile for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer project. Hence, tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) method is adopted to predict the geological profile ahead of tunnel face. In order to evaluate the TSP results, IBM SPSS Statistic 22 is used to run artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to back calculate the predicted Rock Grade Points (JH) from actual Rock Grade Points (JH) using Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs from TSP. The results show good correlation between predicted Rock Grade points and actual Rock Grade Points (JH). In other words, TSP can provide geological profile prediction ahead of tunnel face significantly while allowing continuously TBM excavation works. Identifying weak zones or faults ahead of tunnel face is crucial for preventative measures to be carried out in advance for a safer tunnel excavation works.

  9. TextureCam Field Test Results from the Mojave Desert, California: Autonomous Instrument Classification of Sediment and Rock Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, R.; Abbey, W. J.; Bekker, D. L.; Cabrol, N. A.; Francis, R.; Manatt, K.; Ortega, K.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2013-12-01

    TextureCam is an intelligent camera that uses integrated image analysis to classify sediment and rock surfaces into basic visual categories. This onboard image understanding can improve the autonomy of exploration spacecraft during the long periods when they are out of contact with operators. This could increase the number of science activities performed in each command cycle by, for example, autonomously targeting science features of opportunity with narrow field of view remote sensing, identifying clean surfaces for autonomous placement of arm-mounted instruments, or by detecting high value images for prioritized downlink. TextureCam incorporates image understanding directly into embedded hardware with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This allows the instrument to perform the classification in real time without taxing the primary spacecraft computing resources. We use a machine learning approach in which operators train a statistical model of surface appearance using examples from previously acquired images. A random forest model extrapolates from these training cases, using the statistics of small image patches to characterize the texture of each pixel independently. Applying this model to each pixel in a new image yields a map of surface units. We deployed a prototype instrument in the Cima Volcanic Fields during a series of experiments in May 2013. We imaged each environment with a tripod-mounted RGB camera connected directly to the FPGA board for real time processing. Our first scenario assessed ground surface cover on open terrain atop a weathered volcanic flow. We performed a transect consisting of 16 forward-facing images collected at 1m intervals. We trained the system to categorize terrain into four classes: sediment, basalt cobbles, basalt pebbles, and basalt with iron oxide weathering. Accuracy rates with regards to the fraction of the actual feature that was labeled correctly by the automated system were calculated. Lower accuracy rates were

  10. Reciprocating magnetic refrigerator for 2--4 K operation: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, J.A.; Moze, O.; Paterson, L.

    1979-01-01

    The basic theory and design of a reciprocating magnetic refrigerator to pump heat from 2.2 to 4.2 K is presented. The results of initial experiments are shown. These results include conduction losses, eddy current losses, frictional losses, and mixing losses. Two cooling cycles were attempted and a net cooling power of 52 mW was observed at 1/60 Hz. The key problems in this design are identified and discussed

  11. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  12. Modeling of radionuclide transport through rock formations and the resulting radiation exposure of reference persons. Calculations using Asse II parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, Christian; Ustohalova, Veronika; Steinhoff, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    The long-term release of radioactivity into the ground water path cannot be excluded for the radioactive waste repository Asse II. The possible radiological consequences were analyzed using a radio-ecological scenario developed by GRS. A second scenario was developed considering the solubility of radionuclides in salt saturated solutions and retarding/retention effects during the radionuclide transport through the cap rock layers. The modeling of possible radiation exposure was based on the lifestyle habits of reference persons. In Germany the calculation procedure for the prediction of radionuclide release from final repositories is not defined by national standards, the used procedures are based on analogue methods from other radiation protection calculations.

  13. Results of isotopic geochemical and mineralogical investigations of crystalline rocks of the Carpathian Massif in 1973-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbak, N.P.; Bartnitskij, E.N.; Eliseeva, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The most frequent accesory mineral in crystalline rocks in the Czechoslovak and Ukrainian Carpathians is zircon, the least frequent is monazite. The differences are described in the mineralogical properties of zircon of different origin. For dating volcanism, the content and the isotope composition was determined of U and Pb in zircon and of U, Pb and Th in monazite. The earliest volcanic processes occurred in the Eastern Carpathians approximately 600 to 640 million years ago, in the Western Carpathians approximately 400 million years ago. (Ha)

  14. Initial Results on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mar Exploration Rover Gusev Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.

    2004-05-01

    The Spirit rover has investigated the geochemistry and mineralogy of the Gusev crater site using in situ Alpha Proton X-Ray, Mossbauer, visible, and infrared spectroscopy. The Gusev site is covered with angular to sub-rounded rocks that are typically less than 1 m in maximum dimension. More than 90 percent of these rocks are dark-toned, with the remainder being lighter-toned rocks that may predominantly be dark rocks with a thin (10's of microns) coating of easily removed fines. APXS analysis has been obtained of a rock (Adirondack) following the removal by grinding of the surface dust and the upper few mm of the rock surface. These data give a modal mineralogy corresponding to olivine basalt. High quality Mini-TES data have not been obtained of a completely dust-free rock surface. The Mini-TES data of Adirondack do show long wavelength (15-25 microns) absorptions due to olivine of composition ~Fo60. All of the rocks observed are very compositionally homogeneous in the Mini-TES spectra. These findings are consistent with the detection of olivine-bearing basalt at this site from orbital TES infrared spectroscopy. Mossbauer spectra of Adirondack show the presence of forsteritic olivine and magnetite, with possible pyroxene. The soils at Gusev are a mixture of reddish fine-grained to sandy materials, granular-sized particles that occur in ripple forms, and minor pebbles. Mini-TES spectra of the soil show an excellent match to the TES spectra of high-albedo, fine-grained material found in regional bright regions that is interpreted to be windblown dust. This agreement suggests at least the uppermost layer of the soil at Gusev has been accumulated from airfall dust. By analogy with prior analysis of TES data these materials contain several percent carbonate, minor bound water, and a framework silicate interpreted to be either feldspar or zeolite. APXS spectra show similar oxide abundances to those determined for the Pathfinder site, except for higher MgO, and lower

  15. Initial results from beam commissioning of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Carlier, E; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Gyr, M; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kramer, T; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Risselada, Thys; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Weterings, W

    2010-01-01

    Initial commissioning of the LHC beam dump system with beam took place in August and September 2008. The preparation, setting-up and the tests performed are described together with results of the extractions of beam into the dump lines. Analysis of the first detailed aperture measurements of the extraction channels and kicker performance derived from dilution sweep shapes are presented. The performance of the other equipment subsystems is summarised, in particular that of the dedicated dump system beam instrumentation.

  16. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-ray telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg2 of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary...

  17. Initial results for electrochemical dissolution of spent EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S. X.

    1998-01-01

    Initial results are reported for the anode behavior of spent metallic nuclear fuel in an electrorefining process. The anode behavior has been characterized in terms of the initial spent fuel composition and the final composition of the residual cladding hulls. A variety of results have been obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Some of the process variables considered are average and maximum cell voltage, average and maximum anode voltage, amount of electrical charge passed (coulombs or amp-hours) during the experiment, and cell resistance. The main goal of the experiments has been the nearly complete dissolution of uranium with the retention of zirconium and noble metal fission products in the cladding hulls. Analysis has shown that the most indicative parameters for determining an endpoint to the process, recognizing the stated goal, are the maximum anode voltage and the amount of electrical charge passed. For the initial experiments reported here, the best result obtained is greater than 98% uranium dissolution with approximately 50% zirconium retention. Noble metal fission product retention appears to be correlated with zirconium retention

  18. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O'Neill, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy

  19. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O' Neill, Brian E., E-mail: BEOneill@houstonmethodist.org

    2015-08-14

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

  20. Modelling of Fracture Initiation, Propagation and Creep of a KBS-3V and KBS-3H Repository in Sparsely Fractured Rock with Application to the Design at Forsmark Candidate Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backers, Tobias; Stephansson, Ove

    2008-01-01

    The stability issues of deposition holes of a repository layout according to the KBS-3 concept in the sparsely fractured Forsmark granites are analysed with the emphasis on fracture mechanics. At the start of the project the rock mass is viewed as a continuum. In a second step explicit fracture networks are introduced and included in the numerical rock fracture models. The software Fracod2D was used for the rock fracture mechanics analysis. Assuming deposition holes located in a continuous, homogeneous elastic rock mass and The presented stress state of the rock mass the following results were obtained: For single KBS-3H deposition holes oriented in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress, Sh, bore hole breakouts are introduced for all depth levels. For KBS-3H holes which are oriented in direction of SH, no significant fracturing can be expected. In case of vertical deposition holes according to KBS-3V an increased risk of fracturing at greater depth levels (> 500m) is evident. At shallow depth levels ( 5MPa gives a favourable situation about spalling for the KBS-3H and KBS-3V layouts. To prevent spalling, it is important to build up a swelling pressure soon after excavation, so that the enhanced stresses in the surrounding of the deposition ii holes are reduced. This has a positive impact on other excavation activities and also on time-dependent fracturing. After excavation and filling of the deposition holes with subsequent increase of swelling pressure, the temperature will increase in the vicinity of the excavation. For the range of swelling pressures predicted for the KBS-3 concept, i.e. 5.5MPa to 7.2MPa, no significant fracturing for the KBS-3H concept with the axis parallel SH at depths below about 600m was discovered. The results from other layouts bare the risk of partly significant fracturing. About 60ka from closing the repository an ice cover of approximately 3km is expected over Forsmark. This dead load increases the in-situ stresses and

  1. An Initiating-Event Analysis for PSA of Hanul Units 3 and 4: Results and Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-San; Park, Jin Hee

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the PSA, an initiating-event (IE) analysis was newly performed by considering the current state of knowledge and the requirements of the ASME/ANS probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) standard related to IE analysis. This paper describes the methods of, results and some insights from the IE analysis for the PSA of the Hanul units 3 and 4. In this study, as a part of the PSA for the Hanul units 3 and 4, an initiating-event (IE) analysis was newly performed by considering the current state of knowledge and the requirements of the ASME/ANS probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) standard. In comparison with the previous IE analysis, this study performed a more systematic and detailed analysis to identify potential initiating events, and calculated the IE frequencies by using the state-of-the-art methods and the latest data. As a result, not a few IE frequencies are quite different from the previous frequencies, which can change the major accident sequences obtained from the quantification of the PSA model

  2. Virtual enterprise architecture and methodology - Initial results from the Globeman21 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan; Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper will focus on presenting the initial results from the IMS project Globeman21 regarding generic models for Extended Enterprise Management (EEM). In particular the paper outlines a proposed architecture for the creation of virtual enterprises, industrial requirements regarding the generic...... models, terminology for describing extended enterprises, and initial considerations regarding a methodology for EEM. Globeman21 see the extended enterprise as a concept covering the totality of different concepts dealing with the expansion or extension of enterprise activities. One way of realising...... the concept of extended enterprise is through the creation of virtual enterprise, based on a more or less formalised network. This approach is the basis for the development of the generic EEM model within Globeman21....

  3. Leveraging finances for public health system improvement: results from the Turning Point initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekemeier, Betty; Riley, Catharine M; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2007-01-01

    Reforming the public health infrastructure requires substantial system changes at the state level; state health agencies, however, often lack the resources and support for strategic planning and systemwide improvement. The Turning Point Initiative provided support for states to focus on large-scale system changes that resulted in increased funding for public health capacity and infrastructure development. Turning Point provides a test case for obtaining financial and institutional resources focused on systems change and infrastructure development-areas for which it has been historically difficult to obtain long-term support. The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive survey research was to enumerate the actual resources leveraged toward public health system improvement through the partnerships, planning, and implementation activities funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as a part of the Turning Point Initiative.

  4. Research on supplying potential of uranium source from rocks in western provenance area of Hailaer basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Liu Hanbin; Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing

    2006-01-01

    Using U-Pb isotope composition evolution, this paper expounds the initial uranium content in volcanic rocks of provenance area of Xihulitu basin and in granites of provenance area of Kelulun sag, western Hailaer basin. The initial uranium content (U 0 ) in volcanic rocks of provenance area is higher, the average initial uranium content of volcanic rocks is 10.061 x 10 -6 , the average uranium variation coefficient (ΔU) is -49.57%; the average initial uranium content of granites is 18.381 x 10 -6 , the average uranium variation coefficient (ΔU) is -80%. The results indicate that rocks in provenance area could provide the pre-enrichment of uranium in deposited sandstone. U-Ra equilibrium coefficients of rocks indicate that there is obvious U-Ra disequilibrium phenomenon in volcanic rocks, and the time when granites provided uranium source occurred 16000 a ago. (authors)

  5. Preliminary results on the search for new Late Glacial rock shelter-sites in the Federal State of Hesse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Florian Rudolf

    The multidisciplinary project “Apocalypse Then? The Laacher See volcanic eruption, Deep Environmental History and Europe’s Geo-cultural Heritage” at Aarhus University aims to investigate the influence of the catastrophic Late Glacial volcanic eruption on the lifeways of foragers 13.000 years ago....... One of the major work packages is the discovery of new sites which can provide Late Palaeolithic strata in the context of volcanic ash deposits. Previous tephrochronological research has demonstrated that neither open-air nor deep cave sites harbour great potential for discovering in situ volcanic ash...... of Bettenroder Berg in Lower Saxony which provide rich ABP (Arch-backed point-technocomplex) finds covered by Laacher-See Tephra (see Grote 1994). For the state of Hesse in Central Germany a database of ca. 800 potential rock shelters is forming the basis for the search for new sites in the medial zone...

  6. Spinal epidural neurostimulation for treatment of acute and chronic intractable pain: initial and long term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R R; Siqueira, E B; Cerullo, L J

    1979-09-01

    Spinal epidural neurostimulation, which evolved from dorsal column stimulation, has been found to be effective in the treatment of acute and chronic intractable pain. Urban and Hashold have shown that it is a safe, simplified alternative to dorsal column stimulation, especially because laminectomy is not required if the electrodes are inserted percutaneously. Percutaneous epidural neurostimulation is also advantageous because there can be a diagnostic trial period before permanent internalization and implantation. This diagnostic and therapeutic modality has been used in 36 patients during the past 3 years at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Eleven of these patients had acute intractable pain, which was defined as pain of less than 1 year in duration. Initial postimplantation results from the 36 patients indicate that spinal epidural neurostimulation is most effective in treating the intractable pain of diabetes, arachnoiditis, and post-traumatic and postamputation neuroma. Long term follow-up, varying from 1 year to 3 years postimplantation in the 20 initially responding patients, indicates that the neurostimulation continues to provide significant pain relief (50% or greater) in a majority of the patients who experienced initial significant pain relief.

  7. Initial Results from the Lost Alpha Diagnostics on Joint European Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, Doug; Cecil, Ed; Ellis, Bob; Fullard, Keith; Hill, Ken; Horton, Alan; Kiptily, Vasily; Pedrick, Les; Reich, Matthias

    2007-07-25

    Two devices have been installed in the Joint European Torus (JET) vacuum vessel near the plasma boundary to investigate the loss of energetic ions and fusion products in general and alpha particles in particular during the upcoming JET experiments. These devices are (i) a set of multichannel thin foil Faraday collectors, and (ii) a well collimated scintillator which is optically connected to a charge-coupled device. Initial results, including the radial energy and poloidal dependence of lost ions from hydrogen and deuterium plasmas during the 2005–06 JET restart campaign, will be presented.

  8. Neonatal screening for four lysosomal storage diseases with a digital microfluidics platform: Initial results in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Camargo Neto

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe the initial results of a neonatal screening program for four lysosomal storage diseases (MPS I, Pompe, Gaucher and Fabry using the digital microfluidics methodology. The method successfully identified patients previously diagnosed with these diseases and was used to test dried blood spot samples obtained from 10,527 newborns aged 2 to 14 days. The digital microfluidic technology shows potential for a simple, rapid and high-throughput screening for these four diseases in a standard neonatal screening laboratory.

  9. Initial Results from the Lost Alpha Diagnostics on Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, Doug; Baeumel, Stefan; Cecil, Ed; Ellis, Bob; Fullard, Keith; Hill, Ken; Horton, Alan; Kiptily, Vasily; Pedrick, Les; Reich, Matthias; Werner, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Two devices have been installed in the Joint European Torus (JET) vacuum vessel near the plasma boundary to investigate the loss of energetic ions and fusion products in general and alpha particles in particular during the upcoming JET experiments. These devices are (i) a set of multichannel thin foil Faraday collectors, and (ii) a well collimated scintillator which is optically connected to a charge-coupled device. Initial results, including the radial energy and poloidal dependence of lost ions from hydrogen and deuterium plasmas during the 2005-06 JET restart campaign, will be presented.

  10. The determination of irradiation and so-called terrestrial ageing of rock meteorites based on the cosmogenic resulting radionuclides 53Mn and 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, P.

    1979-01-01

    The contents of cosmogenic occuring 53 Mn was determined by neutron activation in over 90 samples of 75 individual rock meteorites. The distinct depth effect of the 53 Mn production rate in rock meteorites could be measured by a depth profile at LL6 chondrite St. Severin (falling weight 271 kg). The experimental results confirm the present model concepts. By comparing with the spallogenic 22 Ne/ 21 Ne and 3 He/ 21 Ne ratios applicable as depth indicators, one could derive linear relationships suitable for correcting 53 Mn. They enable the determination of the average 53 Mn production rate from the saturation activities of long-term irradiated meteorites. Using this method it was possible to calculate the irradiation age of 40 rock meteorites. As 26 Al is formed with a similar effective cross-section to 53 Mn, the production rate ratio 53 Mn: 26 Al was also taken to derive the depth-independent irradiation ages. A method to determine the depth-independent terrestrial ageing of meteriorites has been developed based on the same isotope ratio, the effective field of application is between 0.10 to 2x10 6 a. Furthermore, an attempt was made to draw up the dependence of noble gas contents of 53 Mn resp. 53 Mn/ 26 Al irradiation age for the new determination of the 3 He, 21 Ne and 38 Ar production rates by means of a linear regression analysis. (orig./RB) [de

  11. Impact of the electron donor on in situ microbial nitrate reduction in Opalinus Clay: results from the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleyen, N.; Smets, S. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Small, J. [National Nuclear Laboratory NLL, Warrington (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-04-15

    At the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland), an in situ experiment is being carried out to examine the fate of nitrate leaching from nitrate-containing bituminized radioactive waste, in a clay host rock for geological disposal. Such a release of nitrate may cause a geochemical perturbation of the clay, possibly affecting some of the favorable characteristics of the host rock. In this in situ experiment, combined transport and reactivity of nitrate is studied inside anoxic and water-saturated chambers in a borehole in the Opalinus Clay. Continuous circulation of the solution from the borehole to the surface equipment allows a regular sampling and online monitoring of its chemical composition. In this paper, in situ microbial nitrate reduction in the Opalinus Clay is discussed, in the presence or absence of additional electron donors relevant for the disposal concept and likely to be released from nitrate-containing bituminized radioactive waste: acetate (simulating bitumen degradation products) and H{sub 2} (originating from radiolysis and corrosion in the repository). The results of these tests indicate that - in case microorganisms would be active in the repository or the surrounding clay - microbial nitrate reduction can occur using electron donors naturally present in the clay (e.g. pyrite, dissolved organic matter). Nevertheless, non-reactive transport of nitrate in the clay is expected to be the main process. In contrast, when easily oxidizable electron donors would be available (e.g. acetate and H{sub 2}), the microbial activity will be strongly stimulated. Both in the presence of H{sub 2} and acetate, nitrite and nitrogenous gases are predominantly produced, although some ammonium can also be formed when H{sub 2} is present. The reduction of nitrate in the clay could have an impact on the redox conditions in the pore-water and might also lead to a gas-related perturbation of the host rock, depending on the electron donor used during denitrification

  12. Compact Multipurpose Mobile Laser Scanning System — Initial Tests and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Glennie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a prototype compact mobile laser scanning system that may be operated from a backpack or unmanned aerial vehicle. The system is small, self-contained, relatively inexpensive, and easy to deploy. A description of system components is presented, along with the initial calibration of the multi-sensor platform. The first field tests of the system, both in backpack mode and mounted on a helium balloon for real-world applications are presented. For both field tests, the acquired kinematic LiDAR data are compared with highly accurate static terrestrial laser scanning point clouds. These initial results show that the vertical accuracy of the point cloud for the prototype system is approximately 4 cm (1σ in balloon mode, and 3 cm (1σ in backpack mode while horizontal accuracy was approximately 17 cm (1σ for the balloon tests. Results from selected study areas on the Sacramento River Delta and San Andreas Fault in California demonstrate system performance, deployment agility and flexibility, and potential for operational production of high density and highly accurate point cloud data. Cost and production rate trade-offs place this system in the niche between existing airborne and tripod mounted LiDAR systems.

  13. Turbulence modeling with fractional derivatives: Derivation from first principles and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Brenden; Cushman-Roisin, Benoit

    2017-11-01

    Fluid turbulence is an outstanding unsolved problem in classical physics, despite 120+ years of sustained effort. Given this history, we assert that a new mathematical framework is needed to make a transformative breakthrough. This talk offers one such framework, based upon kinetic theory tied to the statistics of turbulent transport. Starting from the Boltzmann equation and ``Lévy α-stable distributions'', we derive a turbulence model that expresses the turbulent stresses in the form of a fractional derivative, where the fractional order is tied to the transport behavior of the flow. Initial results are presented herein, for the cases of Couette-Poiseuille flow and 2D boundary layers. Among other results, our model is able to reproduce the logarithmic Law of the Wall in shear turbulence.

  14. Results of the initial test program for the Sandia Pulsed Reactor III (SPR III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, B.F.; Reuscher, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    This document presents a detailed discussion of the reactor including the mechanical and nuclear design characteristics. Also presented are the complete results of the Initial Approach to Critical and the Zero-and-Low Power testing programs. Reactivity worth measurements are given for such parameters as control element integral worth, Safety Block integral worth, and various materials (polyethylene, copper, lead, etc) as a function of position relative to the core. Subcritical reactivity measurements made during the approach to critical generally proved to be in reasonably good agreement with design values due to the good source-fuel-detector geometry possible with a reactor of this type. Subsequent dynamic measurements for reactivity worths are shown to be in good agreement with calculated results

  15. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 11 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 11 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 11 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amounts of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  16. Defective replication initiation results in locus specific chromosome breakage and a ribosomal RNA deficiency in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C Sanchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A form of dwarfism known as Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS is caused by recessive mutations in one of six different genes (ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDC6, CDT1, and MCM5. These genes encode components of the pre-replication complex, which assembles at origins of replication prior to S phase. Also, variants in two additional replication initiation genes have joined the list of causative mutations for MGS (Geminin and CDC45. The identity of the causative MGS genetic variants strongly suggests that some aspect of replication is amiss in MGS patients; however, little evidence has been obtained regarding what aspect of chromosome replication is faulty. Since the site of one of the missense mutations in the human ORC4 alleles is conserved between humans and yeast, we sought to determine in what way this single amino acid change affects the process of chromosome replication, by introducing the comparable mutation into yeast (orc4Y232C. We find that yeast cells with the orc4Y232C allele have a prolonged S-phase, due to compromised replication initiation at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA locus located on chromosome XII. The inability to initiate replication at the rDNA locus results in chromosome breakage and a severely reduced rDNA copy number in the survivors, presumably helping to ensure complete replication of chromosome XII. Although reducing rDNA copy number may help ensure complete chromosome replication, orc4Y232C cells struggle to meet the high demand for ribosomal RNA synthesis. This finding provides additional evidence linking two essential cellular pathways-DNA replication and ribosome biogenesis.

  17. Defective replication initiation results in locus specific chromosome breakage and a ribosomal RNA deficiency in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Joseph C; Kwan, Elizabeth X; Pohl, Thomas J; Amemiya, Haley M; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2017-10-01

    A form of dwarfism known as Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is caused by recessive mutations in one of six different genes (ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDC6, CDT1, and MCM5). These genes encode components of the pre-replication complex, which assembles at origins of replication prior to S phase. Also, variants in two additional replication initiation genes have joined the list of causative mutations for MGS (Geminin and CDC45). The identity of the causative MGS genetic variants strongly suggests that some aspect of replication is amiss in MGS patients; however, little evidence has been obtained regarding what aspect of chromosome replication is faulty. Since the site of one of the missense mutations in the human ORC4 alleles is conserved between humans and yeast, we sought to determine in what way this single amino acid change affects the process of chromosome replication, by introducing the comparable mutation into yeast (orc4Y232C). We find that yeast cells with the orc4Y232C allele have a prolonged S-phase, due to compromised replication initiation at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus located on chromosome XII. The inability to initiate replication at the rDNA locus results in chromosome breakage and a severely reduced rDNA copy number in the survivors, presumably helping to ensure complete replication of chromosome XII. Although reducing rDNA copy number may help ensure complete chromosome replication, orc4Y232C cells struggle to meet the high demand for ribosomal RNA synthesis. This finding provides additional evidence linking two essential cellular pathways-DNA replication and ribosome biogenesis.

  18. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O' Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  19. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock

  20. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the initial results of a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of Mesozoic intrusive rocks and spatially associated Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Au prospects in the Fortymile mining district in the southern Eagle quadrangle, Alaska. Analyzed samples include mineralized and unmineralized drill core from 2006 and 2007 exploration by Full Metal Minerals, USA, Inc., at the Little Whiteman (LWM) and Fish prospects, and other mineralized and plutonic samples collected within the mining district is part of the USGS study. Three new ion microprobe U-Pb zircon ages are: 210 +- 3 Ma for quartz diorite from LWM, 187 +- 3 Ma for quartz monzonite from Fish, and 70.5 +- 1.1 Ma for altered rhyolite porphyry from Fish. We also present 11 published and unpublished Mesozoic thermal ionization mass spectrometric U-Pb zircon and titanite ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the Mesozoic plutonic rocks. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutons generally have intermediate compositions and are slightly foliated, consistent with synkinematic intrusion. Several Early Jurassic plutons contain magmatic epidote, indicating emplacement of the host plutons at mesozonal crustal depths of greater than 15 km. Trace-element geochemical data indicate an arc origin for the granitoids, with an increase in the crustal component with time. Preliminary study of drill core from the LWM Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag prospect supports a carbonate-replacement model of mineralization. LWM massive sulfides consist of sphalerite, galena, and minor pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a gangue of calcite and lesser quartz; silver resides in Sb-As-Ag sulfosalts and pyrargyrite, and probably in submicroscopic inclusions within galena. Whole-rock analyses of LWM drill cores also show elevated In, an important metal in high-technology products. Hypogene mineralized rocks at Fish, below the secondary Zn-rich zone, are associated with a carbonate host and also may be of replacement origin, or alternatively, may be a magnetite

  1. Implementation of STUD Pulses at the Trident Laser and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. P.; Shimada, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Afeyan, B.; Hüller, S.

    2012-10-01

    Controlling and mitigating laser-plasma instabilities such as stimulated Brillouin scattering, stimulated Raman scattering, and crossed-beam energy transfer is important to achieve high-gain inertial fusion using laser drivers. Recent theory and simulations show that these instabilities can be largely controlled using laser pulses consisting of spike trains of uneven duration and delay (STUD) by modulating the laser on a picosecond time scale [1,2]. We have designed and implemented a STUD pulse generator at the LANL Trident Laser Facility using Fourier synthesis to produce a 0.5-ns envelope of psec-duration STUD pulses using a spatial light modulator. Initial results from laser propagation tests and measurements as well as initial laser-plasma characterization experiments will be presented.[4pt] [1] B. Afeyan and S. H"uller, ``Optimal Control of Laser Plasma Instabilities using STUD pulses,'' IFSA 2011, P.Mo.1, to appear in Euro. Phys. J. Web of Conf. (2012).[2] S. H"uller and B. Afeyan, ``Simulations of drastically reduced SBS with STUD pulses,'' IFSA 2011, O.Tu8-1, to appear in Euro. Phys. J. Web of Conf. (2012).

  2. Results from the Data & Democracy initiative to enhance community-based organization data and research capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wyn, Roberta; Zane, Jazmin I; Wallace, Steven P

    2012-07-01

    In an era of community-based participatory research and increased expectations for evidence-based practice, we evaluated an initiative designed to increase community-based organizations' data and research capacity through a 3-day train-the-trainer course on community health assessments. We employed a mixed method pre-post course evaluation design. Various data sources collected from 171 participants captured individual and organizational characteristics and pre-post course self-efficacy on 19 core skills, as well as behavior change 1 year later among a subsample of participants. Before the course, participants reported limited previous experience with data and low self-efficacy in basic research skills. Immediately after the course, participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in data and research self-efficacy. The subsample reported application of community assessment skills to their work and increased use of data 1 year later. Results suggest that an intensive, short-term training program can achieve large immediate gains in data and research self-efficacy in community-based organization staff. In addition, they demonstrate initial evidence of longer-term behavior change related to use of data and research skills to support their community work.

  3. Initial clinical results of linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Alexander, Eben; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Richardson, Gary E.; Black, Peter McL.; Loeffler, Jay S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the initial clinical results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for pituitary adenomas with regard to tumor and hormonal control and adverse effects of the treatment. Subjects and Methods: Forty-eight patients with pituitary adenoma who underwent SRS or SRT between September 1989 and September 1995 were analyzed. Of these, 18 received SRS and 30 received SRT. The median tumor volumes were 1.9 cm 3 for SRS and 5.7 cm 3 for SRT. Eleven of the SRS and 18 of the SRT patients were hormonally active at the time of the initial diagnosis. Four of the SRS and none of the SRT patients had a history of prior radiation therapy. Both SRS and SRT were performed using a dedicated stereotactic 6-MV linear accelerator (LINAC). The dose and normalization used for the SRS varied from 1000 cGy at 85% of the isodose line to 1500 cGy at 65% of the isodose line. For SRT patients, a total dose of 4500 cGy at 90% or 95% of the isodose line was delivered in 25 fractions of 180 cGy daily doses. Results: Disease control--The three year tumor control rate was 91.1% (100% for SRS and 85.3% for SRT). Normalization of the hormonal abnormality was achieved in 47% of the 48 patients (33% for SRS and 54% for SRT). The average time required for normalization was 8.5 months for SRS and 18 months for SRT. Adverse effects--The 3-year rate of freedom from central nervous system adverse effects was 89.7% (72.2% for SRS and 100% for SRT). Three patients who received SRS for a tumor in the cavernous sinus developed a ring enhancement in the temporal lobe as shown by follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. Two of these cases were irreversible and were considered to be radiation necrosis. None of the 48 patients developed new neurocognitive or visual disorders attributable to the irradiation. The incidence of endocrinological adverse effects were similar in the two groups, resulting in 3-year rates of freedom from newly

  4. Gas migration in argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E. E.; Olivella, S.

    2007-01-01

    The intrinsic gas permeability of fractured argillaceous rocks depends on the current structure of micro-cracks and fissures of the rock. They are a consequence of the initial state and the subsequent deformations induced by stress and gas pressure changes. Stresses are also coupled with fluid pressures and, therefore, gas flow and mechanical behaviour are intensely coupled. Laboratory experiments, aimed at determining intrinsic permeability, show the relevant effect of volumetric deformations induced by isotropic, as well as deviatoric stress changes. The relevance, in practice, of the flow-mechanical coupling is illustrated by means of some results obtained during the performance of the drift scale test (DST) in fractured tuff in the Yucca Mountain facility. The technique of embedding discontinuities in continuum thermo-hydro-mechanical elements is capable of reproducing observed features of gas flow migration in clayey rocks. An example is described. It is believed that the developed approach provides a powerful computational procedure to handle complex gas phenomena in clayey rocks. (author)

  5. Initial test results of an ionization chamber shower detector for a LHC luminosity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datte, P.; Beche, J.-F.; Haguenauer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manghisoni, M.; Millaud, J.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, L.; Riot, V.; Schmickler, H.; Speziali, V.; Turner, W.

    2002-01-01

    A novel, segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for optimization of the luminosity of the LHC. The ionization chambers are to be installed in the front quadrupole and zero degree neutral particle absorbers in the high luminosity IRs and sample the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast, pulse shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. In this paper we report the initial results of our second test of this instrumentation in an SPS external proton beam. Single 300 GeV protons are used to simulate the hadronic/electromagnetic shower produced by the forward collision products from the interaction regions of the LHC. The capability of instrumentations to measure the luminosity of individual bunches in a 40 MHz bunch train is demonstrated

  6. Initial results from the ISEE-1 and -2 plasma wave investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Smith, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the authors present an initial survey of results from the plasma wave experiments on the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft which are in nearly identical orbits passing through the Earth's magneotsphere at radial distances out to about 22.5 Rsub(e). Essentially every crossing of the Earth's bow shock can be associated with an intense burst of electrostatic and whistler-mode turbulence at the shock, with substanial wave intensities in both the upstream and downstream regions. In the magnetosphere high resolution spectrograms of the electric field show an extremely complex distribution of plasma and radio emission, with numerous resonance and cutoff effects. High resolution spectrograms of kilometric radio emissions are also presented which show an extremely complex frequency-time structure with many closely spaced narrow-band emissions. (Auth.)

  7. Initial cathode processing experiences and results for the treatment of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Laug, D.V.; Brunsvold, A.R.; Roach, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment demonstration at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, primarily consisting of a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a batch operation termed ''cathode processing.'' Cathode processing is performed in a retort furnace which enables the production of a stable uranium product that can be isotopically diluted and stored. To date, experiments have been performed with two distillation units; one for prototypical testing and the other for actual spent fuel treatment operations. The results and experiences from these initial experiments with both units will be discussed as well as problems encountered and their resolution

  8. Initial results from an agressive roentgenological and surgical approach to acute mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, S J; Sprayregan, S; Siegelman, S S; Veith, F J

    1977-12-01

    The 70% to 80% mortality rate of patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) has remained unchanged over the past 40 years. We report here the initial results using an aggressive approach to this problem. This included the earlier and more liberal use of angiography in patients at risk and the intra-arterial infusion of papaverine for the relief of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) vasoconstriction in both nonocclusive and occlusive forms of AMI. Of the first 50 patients managed by this approach, 35 (70%) had AMI demonstrated by SMA angiography, Nineteen (54%) of these 35 patients survived, including nine of 15 patients with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, seven of 16 with SMA embolus, two of three patients with SMA thrombosis, and the one patient with mesenteric venous thrombosis. Seventeen of the 19 survivors lost no bowel or had excision of less than 3 feet of small intestine.

  9. Initial results of the high resolution edge Thomson scattering upgrade at DIII-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, D; Bray, B D; Deterly, T M; Liu, C; Watkins, M; Groebner, R J; Leonard, A W; Osborne, T H; Snyder, P B; Boivin, R L; Tynan, G R

    2012-10-01

    Validation of models of pedestal structure is an important part of predicting pedestal height and performance in future tokamaks. The Thomson scattering diagnostic at DIII-D has been upgraded in support of validating these models. Spatial and temporal resolution, as well as signal to noise ratio, have all been specifically enhanced in the pedestal region. This region is now diagnosed by 20 view-chords with a spacing of 6 mm and a scattering length of just under 5 mm sampled at a nominal rate of 250 Hz. When mapped to the outboard midplane, this corresponds to ~3 mm spacing. These measurements are being used to test critical gradient models, in which pedestal gradients increase in time until a threshold is reached. This paper will describe the specifications of the upgrade and present initial results of the system.

  10. Initial results of NEXT-DEMO, a large-scale prototype of the NEXT-100 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Gil, A; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    NEXT-DEMO is a large-scale prototype of the NEXT-100 detector, an electroluminescent time projection chamber that will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of XE using 100–150 kg of enriched xenon gas. NEXT-DEMO was built to prove the expected performance of NEXT-100, namely, energy resolution better than 1% FWHM at 2.5 MeV and event topological reconstruction. In this paper we describe the prototype and its initial results. A resolution of 1.75% FWHM at 511 keV (which extrapolates to 0.8% FWHM at 2.5 MeV) was obtained at 10 bar pressure using a gamma-ray calibration source. Also, a basic study of the event topology along the longitudinal coordinate is presented, proving that it is possible to identify the distinct dE/dx of electron tracks in high-pressure xenon using an electroluminescence TPC.

  11. Initial tank calibration at NUCEF critical facility. 1. Measurement procedure and its result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Mineo, Hideaki; Tonoike, Kotaro; Takeshita, Isao; Hoshi, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki.

    1994-07-01

    Initial tank calibrations were carried out prior to hot operation of critical facilities in NUCEF: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility, for the purpose of the nuclear material accountancy and control for the facility. Raw calibration data were collected from single run per one tank by measuring differential pressure with dip-tube systems, weight of calibration liquid (demineralized water) poured into the tank, temperature in the tank and so on, without operation of tank ventilation system. Volume and level data were obtained by applying density and buoyancy corrections to the raw data. As a result, the evaluated measurement errors of volume and level were small enough, e.g. within 0.2 lit. and 1.0 mm, respectively, for Pu accountancy tanks. This paper summarizes the above-mentioned measurement procedures, collected data, data correction procedures and evaluated measurement errors. (author)

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, Paul Guy; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2012-01-01

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  13. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  14. Initial results from a multiple monoenergetic gamma radiography system for nuclear security

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Buckley E.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Danagoulian, Areg

    2016-10-01

    The detection of assembled nuclear devices and concealed special nuclear materials (SNM) such as plutonium or uranium in commercial cargo traffic is a major challenge in mitigating the threat of nuclear terrorism. Currently available radiographic and active interrogation systems use ∼1-10 MeV bremsstrahlung photon beams. Although simple to build and operate, bremsstrahlung-based systems deliver high radiation doses to the cargo and to potential stowaways. To eliminate problematic issues of high dose, we are developing a novel technique known as multiple monoenergetic gamma radiography (MMGR). MMGR uses ion-induced nuclear reactions to produce two monoenergetic gammas for dual-energy radiography. This allows us to image the areal density and effective atomic number (Zeff) of scanned cargo. We present initial results from the proof-of-concept experiment, which was conducted at the MIT Bates Research and Engineering Center. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the capabilities of MMGR to measure areal density and Zeff of container cargo mockups. The experiment used a 3.0 MeV radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator to create sources of 4.44 MeV and 15.11 MeV gammas from the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction in a thick natural boron target; the gammas are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors after transmission through cargo mockups . The measured fluxes of transmitted 4.44 MeV and 15.11 MeV gammas were used to assess the areal density and Zeff. Initial results show that MMGR is capable of discriminating the presence of high-Z materials concealed in up to 30 cm of iron shielding from low- and mid-Z materials present in the cargo mockup.

  15. What do Patients Want From Their Radiation Oncologist? Initial Results From a Prospective Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Ajay K.; Land, Stephanie R.; Shogan, Alyson; Rodgers, Edwin E.; Heron, Dwight E.; Flickinger, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patients' initial physician preferences using a newly developed instrument. Methods and Materials: A total of 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of prostate, breast, or lung cancer referred for consultation to University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Department of Radiation Oncology enrolled in our institutional review board-approved protocol. All patients completed patient preference instrument surveys before meeting their radiation oncologist. Survey responses to 10 statements were categorized into three groups (agree, neutral, or disagree), and the association of survey responses by cancer site was tested with chi-squared tests. Results: Ninety-nine percent of all patients preferred to be addressed by their first name in encounters with their radiation oncologist. There were significant associations of Item 3 (hand holding) with gender (p = 0.039) and education (p = 0.028). The responses to Item 5, a statement that patients would feel uncomfortable if the radiation oncologist offered to hug them at the end of treatment, was significantly associated with disease site (p < 0.0001). Further analysis was performed for Item 5 and revealed that the male lung cancer patients had a much higher rate of disagreement with Item 5 compared with prostate cancer patients (37% vs. 18%). Conclusions: Results of this study may afford greater insight and foster better understanding of what patients want from their radiation oncologist. For breast, lung, and prostate cancer patients, initial preferences for their radiation oncologist are generally similar, according to this tool. However, there are important difference among cancer sites (and gender) regarding physical contact at the end of treatment

  16. Results of Hydraulic Tests in Miocene Tuffaceous Rocks at the C-Hole Complex, 1995 to 1997, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldon, Arthur L.; Umari, Amjad M.A.; Fahy, Michael F.; Earle, John D.; Gemmell, James M.; Darnell, Jon

    2002-01-01

    ; and storativity ranges from 0.00002 to 0.002. Transmissivity in the Miocene tuffaceous rocks decreases from 2,600 to 700 meters squared per day northwesterly across the 21-square-kilometer area affected by hydraulic tests at the C-hole complex. The average transmissivity of the tuffaceous rocks in this area, as determined from plots of drawdown in most or all observation wells as functions of time or distance from the pumping well, is 2,100 to 2,600 meters squared per day. Average storativity determined from these plot ranges is 0.0005 to 0.002. Hydraulic conductivity ranges from less than 2 to more than 10 meters per day; it is largest where prominent northerly trending faults are closely spaced or intersected by northwesterly trending faults. During hydraulic tests, the Miocene tuffaceous rocks functioned as a single aquifer. Drawdown occurred in all monitored intervals of the C-holes and other observation wells, regardless of the hydrogeologic interval being pumped. This hydraulic connection across geologic and lithostratigraphic contacts is believed to result from interconnected faults, fractures, and intervals with large matrix permeability. Samples of UE-25 c #3 water, analyzed from 1995 to 1997, seem to indicate that changes in the quality of the water pumped from that well are probably due solely to lateral variations in water quality within the tuffaceous rocks.

  17. Attenuation-difference radar tomography: results of a multiple-plane experiment at the U.S. Geological Survey Fractured-Rock Research Site, Mirror Lake, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.W.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Harris, J.M.; Haeni, F.P.; Gorelick, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Attenuation-difference, borehole-radar tomography was used to monitor a series of sodium chloride tracer injection tests conducted within the FSE, wellfield at the U.S. Geological Survey Fractured-Rock Hydrology Research Site in Grafton County, New Hampshire, USA. Borehole-radar tomography surveys were conducted using the sequential-scanning and injection method in three boreholes that form a triangular prism of adjoining tomographic image planes. Results indicate that time-lapse tomography methods provide high-resolution images of tracer distribution in permeable zones.

  18. Experimental Characterization of Stress- and Strain-Dependent Stiffness in Grouted Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; Chong, Song-Hun; Cho, Gye-Chun

    2018-03-29

    Grouting of fractured rock mass prior to excavation results in grout-filled discontinuities that govern the deformation characteristics of a site. The influence of joint characteristics on the properties of grouted rocks is important in assessing the effects of grouting on jointed rock mass. However, grouting remains a predominantly empirical practice and the effects of grouting on rock joint behavior and material properties have yet to be accurately assessed. Granular materials, including jointed rocks, typically display nonlinear strain-dependent responses that can be characterized by the shear modulus degradation curve. In this study, the effects of grouting on the strain-dependent shear stiffness of jointed rock mass were investigated at the small-strain (below 10 -5 ) and mid-strain (10 -5 to 10 -3 ) ranges using the quasi-static resonant column test and rock mass dynamic test devices. The effects of curing time, axial stress, initial joint roughness, and grouted joint thickness were examined. The results show that (1) grouting of rock joints leads to decreased stress sensitivity and increased small-strain shear stiffness for all tested samples; (2) the grouted rock samples display similar modulus degradation characteristics as the applied grout material; (3) the initial joint roughness determines the stress-dependent behaviors and general stiffness range of the jointed and grouted rocks, but the strain-dependent behaviors are dependent on the properties of the grout material; (4) increased grouted joint thickness results in larger contribution of the grout properties in the overall grouted rock mass.

  19. Methods and results of the investigation of the thermomechanical behaviour of rock salt with regard to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, K.; Klarr, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the knowledge about thermal and mechanical behaviour of rock salt that has been accumulated by various R and D institutions in Germany from laboratory and in situ investigations. An important objective is to give a comprehensive overview of the investigation methods and instruments available and to discuss these methods and instruments with regard to their applicability and reliability for the investigation of the thermomechanical effects of high level radioactive waste emplacement in rock salt formations. The report is focused on the activities of the GSF-Institut fur Tieflagerung in the Asse mine regarding the disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste during the last decades. The design and the results of the most important in situ experiments are presented and discussed in detail. The results are compared to model calculations in order to evaluate the reliability of both the measurements and the calculation results. The relevance of the results for the situation in Spain is discussed in a separate chapter. As the investigations in Germany have been performed in domal salt, while the Spanish concept is based on waste disposal in bedded salt, significant differences in the thermomechanical behaviour cannot be excluded. The investigation methods, however, will be applicable. (Author)

  20. 42 CFR 476.93 - Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.93 Section 476.93 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. Before a QIO reaches an initial denial determination or makes a change as a result of a DRG validation, it must— (a) Promptly notify the...

  1. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1) An...

  2. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  3. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  4. Initial results from the high resolution powder diffractometer HRPD at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.; Johnson, M.W.

    1986-07-01

    The paper reviews the initial commissioning of the high resolution time-of-flight neutron powder diffractometer, HRPD, on the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Preliminary results have confirmed both intensity and resolution predictions indicating that (Δd/d) lies between 0.04% and 0.08% for all d-spacings between 0.2 and 5A. The scientific potential of this increased resolution over existing time-of-flight diffractometers has been demonstrated in the successful ab initio structure determination of an unknown inorganic material, FeAsO 4 , and the detailed study of subtle symmetry changes in NiO. The true instrumental resolution, however, has been observed in only a small number of experiments: sample broadening is often seen to play a dominant role in the determination of the peak shape, particularly at longer d-spacings. This leads to additional useful information about macroscopic properties, such as anisotropic crystallite size, strain distribution and sample homogeneity, but also results in a significant increase in complexity of peak-shape description and data-analysis strategy. (author)

  5. Evaluation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for remote wetland monitoring: design and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Carl J; Morrow, Michael; Morrison, Ken; Scannell, Sean; Yaziciaglu, Steve; Read, Jordan S; Hu, Yu-Hen; Hanson, Paul C; Kratz, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Here, we describe and evaluate two low-power wireless sensor networks (WSNs) designed to remotely monitor wetland hydrochemical dynamics over time scales ranging from minutes to decades. Each WSN (one student-built and one commercial) has multiple nodes to monitor water level, precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, and major solutes at user-defined time intervals. Both WSNs can be configured to report data in near real time via the internet. Based on deployments in two isolated wetlands, we report highly resolved water budgets, transient reversals of flow path, rates of transpiration from peatlands and the dynamics of chromophoric-dissolved organic matter and bulk ionic solutes (specific conductivity)-all on daily or subdaily time scales. Initial results indicate that direct precipitation and evapotranspiration dominate the hydrologic budget of both study wetlands, despite their relatively flat geomorphology and proximity to elevated uplands. Rates of transpiration from peatland sites were typically greater than evaporation from open waters but were more challenging to integrate spatially. Due to the high specific yield of peat, the hydrologic gradient between peatland and open water varied with precipitation events and intervening periods of dry out. The resultant flow path reversals implied that the flux of solutes across the riparian boundary varied over daily time scales. We conclude that WSNs can be deployed in remote wetland-dominated ecosystems at relatively low cost to assess the hydrochemical impacts of weather, climate, and other perturbations.

  6. Initial results of tests of depth markers as a surface diagnostic for fusion devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Kesler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator-Based In Situ Materials Surveillance (AIMS diagnostic was developed to perform in situ ion beam analysis (IBA on Alcator C-Mod in August 2012 to study divertor surfaces between shots. These results were limited to studying low-Z surface properties, because the Coulomb barrier precludes nuclear reactions between high-Z elements and the ∼1 MeV AIMS deuteron beam. In order to measure the high-Z erosion, a technique using deuteron-induced gamma emission and a low-Z depth marker is being developed. To determine the depth of the marker while eliminating some uncertainty due to beam and detector parameters, the energy dependence of the ratio of two gamma yields produced from the same depth marker will be used to determine the ion beam energy loss in the surface, and thus the thickness of the high-Z surface. This paper presents the results of initial trials of using an implanted depth marker layer with a deuteron beam and the method of ratios. First tests of a lithium depth marker proved unsuccessful due to the production of conflicting gamma peaks, among other issues. However, successful trials with a boron depth marker show that it is possible to measure the depth of the marker layer with the method of gamma yield ratios.

  7. [Implementation of a regional system for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke: Initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Oliveira, Miguel; Araújo, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    Implementing integrated systems for emergency care of patients with acute ischemic stroke helps reduce morbidity and mortality. We describe the process of organizing and implementing a regional system to cover around 3.7 million people and its main initial results. We performed a descriptive analysis of the implementation process and a retrospective analysis of the following parameters: number of patients prenotified by the pre-hospital system; number of times thrombolysis was performed; door-to-needle time; and functional assessment three months after stroke. The implementation process started in November 2005 and ended in December 2009, and included 11 health centers. There were 3574 prenotifications from the prehospital system. Thrombolysis was performed in 1142 patients. The percentage of patients receiving thrombolysis rose during the study period, with a maximum of 16%. Median door-to-needle time was 62 min in 2009. Functional recovery three months after stroke was total or near total in 50% of patients. The regional system implemented for emergency care of patients with acute ischemic stroke has led to health gains, with progressive improvements in patients' access to thrombolysis, and to greater equity in the health care system, thus helping to reduce mortality from cerebrovascular disease in Portugal. Our results, which are comparable with those of international studies, support the strategy adopted for implementation of this system. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Zwickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS evaluates students’ epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students’ reflections on their course’s expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  9. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography: initial clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dromain, Clarisse; Thibault, Fabienne; Tardivon, Anne; Muller, Serge; Rimareix, Francoise; Delaloge, Suzette; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of Dual-Energy Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography (CEDM) as an adjunct to mammography (MX) versus MX alone and versus mammography plus ultrasound (US). 120 women with 142 suspect findings on MX and/or US underwent CEDM. A pair of low- and high-energy images was acquired using a modified full-field digital mammography system. Exposures were taken in MLO at 2 min and in CC at 4 min after the injection of 1.5 ml/kg of an iodinated contrast agent. One reader evaluated MX, US and CEDM images during 2 sessions 1 month apart. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve were estimated. The results from pathology and follow-up identified 62 benign and 80 malignant lesions. Areas under the ROC curves were significantly superior for MX+CEDM than it was for MX alone and for MX+US using BI-RADS. Sensitivity was higher for MX+CEDM than it was for MX (93% vs. 78%; p < 0.001) with no loss in specificity. The lesion size was closer to the histological size for CEDM. All 23 multifocal lesions were correctly detected by MX+CEDM vs. 16 and 15 lesions by MX and US respectively. Initial clinical results show that CEDM has better diagnostic accuracy than mammography alone and mammography+ultrasound. (orig.)

  10. Petrophysical examination of CO₂-brine-rock interactions-results of the first stage of long-term experiments in the potential Zaosie Anticline reservoir (central Poland) for CO₂ storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Radosław; Wdowin, Magdalena; Manecki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of experiment-induced alterations and changes in the properties of reservoir rocks and sealing rocks sampled from potential reservoir for CO₂. In the experiment, rocks submerged in brine in specially constructed reactors were subjected to CO₂ pressure of 6 MPa for 20 months at room temperature. Samples of Lower Jurassic reservoir rocks and sealing rocks (sandstones, claystones, and mudstones) from the Zaosie Anticline (central Poland) were analysed for their petrophysical properties (specific surface area, porosity, pore size and distribution) before and after the experiment. Comparison of the ionic composition the brines before and after the experiment demonstrated an increase in total dissolved solids as well as the concentration of sulphates and calcium ions. This indicates partial dissolution of the rock matrix and the cements. As a result of the reaction, the properties of reservoir rocks did not changed significantly and should not affect the process of CO₂ storage. In the case of the sealing rocks, however, the porosity, the framework density, as well as the average capillary and threshold diameter increased. Also, the pore distribution in the pore space changed in favour of larger pores. The reasons for these changes could not be explained by petrographic characteristics and should be thoroughly investigated.

  11. Factors to Consider in Selecting an Organisational Improvement Initiative: Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Musli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisations should select the appropriate improvement initiative that will fit with the context of organisation and provide value to the organisation. This paper presents 18 factors to be considered when selecting an organisational improvement initiative. Organisational improvement initiatives are approaches, management systems, tools and/or techniques that can be used for managing and improving organisations, such as Lean, ISO9001, Six Sigma and Improvement Team. A survey was conducted to identify the level of importance of these 18 factors as criteria for selecting an improvement initiative. Purposive sampling was used for this survey involving practitioners, managers, engineers, executives, consultants and/or academicians, who have been involved in the selection and/or implementation of organisational improvement initiatives in Malaysia. Two factors were rated as ‘very high importance’, which involve: (1 The ability to gain top management commitment and support to introduce and implement the initiative successfully, and (2 The initiative is aligned to the vision, mission and/or purpose of the organisation. All these factors can be adopted by the organisations as decision criteria to assist in the selection of the most appropriate improvement initiative based on rational decision making.

  12. Evaluating agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rocks using nuclear and related techniques: Results from an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    2000-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project, 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates', was in operation during the period 1993-98. The research network comprised twenty-three scientists, of whom seventeen were in developing countries, with six in industrialized nations. Conventional and 32 P-isotope techniques were utilized to assess the bioavailability of P in soils amended with phosphate rock (PR) and water-soluble fertilisers, and to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PR products. No single chemical extraction method was found to be suitable for all soils and fertilisers. The Pi strip method showed promising results, but more testing is needed with tropical acid soils. The 32 P-phosphate-exchange kinetics method allowed a complete characterization of P dynamics, and provided basic information for estimating the kinetic pools of soil P. The agronomic effectiveness (AE) of PRs depends on their solubility (reactivity), which is related to the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure. Rock phosphates of low reactivity were unsuitable for direct application to annual crops. Research in Venezuela, China, Cuba, Brazil, and Thailand demonstrated that AE can be increased by partial acidulation, or by mixing with organic materials or a water-soluble source. The AE can be enhanced also through inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria. The AE, which depends on species, is particularly high in crops such as canola and lupin that exude organic acids from the roots. Agronomic effectiveness of PR is higher on soils with low pH, low available P, low exchangeable Ca, high cation exchange capacity and high organic-matter content. The 32 P-techniques are powerful tools for studying the factors that affect AE. Information from field trials was used to create a database for validating a model for providing recommendations for PR

  13. Evaluating agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rocks using nuclear and related techniques: Results from an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, F [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-06-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project, 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates', was in operation during the period 1993-98. The research network comprised twenty-three scientists, of whom seventeen were in developing countries, with six in industrialized nations. Conventional and {sup 32}P-isotope techniques were utilized to assess the bioavailability of P in soils amended with phosphate rock (PR) and water-soluble fertilisers, and to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PR products. No single chemical extraction method was found to be suitable for all soils and fertilisers. The Pi strip method showed promising results, but more testing is needed with tropical acid soils. The {sup 32}P-phosphate-exchange kinetics method allowed a complete characterization of P dynamics, and provided basic information for estimating the kinetic pools of soil P. The agronomic effectiveness (AE) of PRs depends on their solubility (reactivity), which is related to the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure. Rock phosphates of low reactivity were unsuitable for direct application to annual crops. Research in Venezuela, China, Cuba, Brazil, and Thailand demonstrated that AE can be increased by partial acidulation, or by mixing with organic materials or a water-soluble source. The AE can be enhanced also through inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria. The AE, which depends on species, is particularly high in crops such as canola and lupin that exude organic acids from the roots. Agronomic effectiveness of PR is higher on soils with low pH, low available P, low exchangeable Ca, high cation exchange capacity and high organic-matter content. The {sup 32}P-techniques are powerful tools for studying the factors that affect AE. Information from field trials was used to create a database for validating a model for providing recommendations

  14. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huanling, E-mail: whl_hm@163.com [Key Laboratory of Coastal Disaster and Defence, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); LML, University of Lille, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Xu, Weiya; Zuo, Jing [Institutes of Geotechnical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO{sub 2,} shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10{sup −19} m{sup 2}; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens’ permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure.

  15. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  16. Cosmic noise absorption and ionospheric currents at the South Pole and Frobisher Bay: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, T.J.; Wolfe, A.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the conjugacy of auroral and ionospheric phenomena at very high latitudes are an important aspect of magnetospheric physics research. The extent to which auroral phenomena in opposite hemispheres are similar in occurrence and in the details of their temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics can be used to infer the commonality of the source(s) of the disturbances. At one extreme in this consideration is the questions of whether sources lie on open or closed magnetic field lines. The University of Maryland and AT ampersand T Bell Laboratories have operated riometers and fluxgate magnetometers, respectively, at South Pole since 1982. Corresponding measurements at Frobisher Bay were begun in mid-1985. Riometers record the absorption of cosmic radio noise in the ionosphere produced by the enhances precipitation of energetic charged particles. The studies of the riometer data relate mainly to the effects of the influx of magnetospheric electrons, which give rise to auroral absorption of the cosmic signals. Intense currents (electrojets) that often flow in the ionosphere in association with auroral absorption events produce magnetic field changes that can be recorded on the ground by appropriately sited magnetometers. This report presents some initial results of the comparison of the two data sets

  17. Exploration of Compact Stellarators as Power Plants: Initial Results from ARIES-CS Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    2005-01-01

    A detailed and integrated study of compact stellarators as power plants, ARIES-CS, was initiated recently to advance our understanding of attractive compact stellarator configurations and to define key R and D areas. We have completed phase 1 of ARIES-CS study - our results are described in this paper. We have identified several promising stellarator configurations. High α particle loss of these configurations is a critical issue. It appears that devices with an overall size similar to those envisioned for tokamak power plants are possible. A novel approach was developed in ARIES-CS in which the blanket at the critical areas of minimum stand-off is replaced by a highly efficient WC-based shield. In this manner, we have been able to reduce the minimum stand-off by ∼20%-30% compared to a uniform radial build which was assumed in previous studies. Our examination of engineering options indicates that overall assembly and maintenance procedure plays a critical role in identifying acceptable engineering design and has a major impact on the optimization of a plasma/coil configuration

  18. Initial results from the rebuilt EXTRAP T2R RFP device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Gravestijn, R. M.; Hedqvist\\ad{2 }, A.; Malmberg, J.-A.

    2001-11-01

    The EXTRAP T2R thin shell reversed-field pinch (RFP) device has recently resumed operation after a major rebuild including the replacement of the graphite armour with molybdenum limiters, a fourfold increase of the shell time constant, and the replacement of the helical coil used for the toroidal field with a conventional solenoid-type coil. Wall-conditioning using hydrogen glow discharge cleaning was instrumental for successful RFP operation. Carbon was permanently removed from the walls during the first week of operation. The initial results from RFP operation with relatively low plasma currents in the range Ip = 70-100 kA are reported. RFP discharges are sustained for more than three shell times. Significant improvements in plasma parameters are observed, compared to operation before the rebuild. There is a substantial reduction in the carbon impurity level. The electron density behaviour is more shot-to-shot reproducible. The typical density is ne = 0.5-1×1019 m-3. Monitors of Hα line radiation indicate that the plasma wall interaction is more toroidally symmetric and that there is less transient gas release from the wall. The minimum loop voltage is in the range Vt = 28-35 V, corresponding to a reduction by a factor of two to three compared to the value before the rebuild.

  19. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of the kidney at 3 T. Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mie, Moritz B.; Zoellner, Frank G.; Heilmann, Melanie; Schad, Lothar R.; Nissen, Johanna C.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J.

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging provides diagnostic information in strokes, hemorrhages, and cerebral tumors and has proven to be a valuable tool in imaging venous vessels in the cerebrum. The SWI principle is based on the weighting of T 2 * weighted magnitude images with a phase mask, therewith improving image contrast of veins or neighbouring structures of different susceptibility, in general. T 2 * weighted MRI is already used for assessment of kidney function. In this paper, the feasibility of SWI on kidneys was investigated. Translation of SWI from the brain to the kidneys comes along with two main challenges: (i) organ motion due to breathing and (ii) a higher oxygenation level of renal veins compared to the brain. To handle these problems, the acquisition time has been cut down to allow for breath-hold examinations, and different post-processing methods including a new phase mask were investigated to visualize renal veins. Results showed that by a new post-processing strategy SWI contrast was enhanced on average by a factor of 1.33 compared to the standard phase mask. In summary, initial experiences of SWI on the kidneys demonstrated the feasibility. However, further technical developments have to be performed to make this technology applicable in clinical abdominal MRI. (orig.)

  20. Initial results of local grid control using wind farms with grid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes initial results with simulation of local grid control using wind farms with grid support. The focus is on simulation of the behaviour of the wind farms when they are isolated from the main grid and establish a local grid together with a few other grid components. The isolated subsystems used in the work presented in this report do not intend to simulate a specific subsystem, but they are extremely simplified single bus bar systems using only a few more components than the wind farm. This approach has been applied to make it easier to understand the dynamics of the subsystem. The main observation is that the fast dynamics of the wind turbines seem to be able to contribute significantly to the grid control, which can be useful where the wind farm is isolated with a subsystem from the main grid with surplus of generation. Thus, the fast down regulation of the wind farm using automatic frequency control can keep the subsystem in operation and thereby improve the reliability of the grid. (LN)

  1. Initial Results of the SSPX Transient Internal Probe System for Measuring Toroidal Field Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.; Hill, D. N.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.; Cellamare, V.

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) is using a field profile diagnostic called the Transient Internal Probe (TIP). TIP consists of a verdet-glass bullet that is used to measure the magnetic field by Faraday rotation. This probe is shot through the spheromak by a light gas gun at speeds near 2 km/s. An argon laser is aligned along the path of the probe. The light passes through the probe and is retro-reflected to an ellipsometer that measures the change in polarization angle. The measurement is spatially resolved down to the probes’ 1 cm length to within 15 Gauss. Initial testing results are given. This and future data will be used to determine the field profile for equilibrium reconstruction. TIP can also be used in conjunction with wall probes to map out toroidal mode amplitudes and phases internally. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  2. Project CONVERGE: Initial Results From the Mapping of Surface Currents in Palmer Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statscewich, H.; Kohut, J. T.; Winsor, P.; Oliver, M. J.; Bernard, K. S.; Cimino, M. A.; Fraser, W.

    2016-02-01

    The Palmer Deep submarine canyon on the Western Antarctic Peninsula provides a conduit for upwelling of relatively warm, nutrient rich waters which enhance local primary production and support a food web productive enough to sustain a large top predator biomass. In an analysis of ten years of satellite-tagged penguins, Oliver et al. (2013) showed that circulation features associated with tidal flows may be a key driver of nearshore predator distributions. During diurnal tides, the penguins feed close to their breeding colonies and during semi-diurnal tides, the penguins make foraging trips to the more distant regions of Palmer Deep. It is hypothesized that convergent features act to concentrate primary producers and aggregate schools of krill that influence the behavior of predator species. The initial results from a six month deployment of a High Frequency Radar network in Palmer Deep are presented in an attempt to characterize and quantify convergent features. During a three month period from January through March 2015, we conducted in situ sampling consisting of multiple underwater glider deployments, small boat acoustic surveys of Antarctic krill, and penguin ARGOS-linked satellite telemetry and time-depth recorders (TDRs). The combination of real-time surface current maps with adaptive in situ sampling introduces High Frequency Radar to the Antarctic in a way that allows us to rigorously and efficiently test the influence of local tidal processes on top predator foraging ecology.

  3. Energetic neutral atom imaging with the Polar CEPPAD/IPS instrument: Initial forward modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Moore, K.R.; Spence, H.E.; Jorgensen, A.M.; Roelof, E.C.

    1997-01-01

    Although the primary function of the CEP-PAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current, detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper, the authors present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies

  4. Underground storage at Saint-Illiers-la-Ville. Initial results of filling. Reservoir control problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernet, D

    1968-01-01

    The underground storage at Saint-Illiers-la-Ville (Yvelines in the Paris area) was discussed by Toche at the time when it was filled with gas in 1965. Now, 2-1/2 yr after the initial input, the volume of storage has reached 500 million cu m, and the first industrial withdrawals took place during the winter of 1967-1968. The results obtained in the operation of this underground storage are extremely satisfactory. In spite of differences in the composition of the sand layer, the gas bubble developed in a very regular way, horizontally and vertically, and the full penetration well equipment made a high output rate easy to obtain. Reservoir control was handled efficiently and the movements of the bubble contour were shown for every fluctuation of the injection and withdrawal volumes. Tests for production capacity showed the low extent to which the wells were affected by the phenomenon of water- coning and indicated measures to be taken to prevent the formation of hydrates. The measures effected and the conclusions which can be derived are discussed.

  5. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  6. Communications with Mars During Periods of Solar Conjunction: Initial Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Hastrup, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the initial phase of the human exploration of Mars, a reliable communications link to and from Earth will be required. The direct link can easily be maintained during most of the 780-day Earth-Mars synodic period. However, during periods in which the direct Earth-Mars link encounters increased intervening charged particles during superior solar conjunctions of Mars, the resultant effects are expected to corrupt the data signals to varying degrees. The purpose of this article is to explore possible strategies, provide recommendations, and identify options for communicating over this link during periods of solar conjunctions. A significant improvement in telemetry data return can be realized by using the higher frequency 32 GHz (Ka-band), which is less susceptible to solar effects. During the era of the onset of probable human exploration of Mars, six superior conjunctions were identified from 2015 to 2026. For five of these six conjunctions, where the signal source is not occulted by the disk of the Sun, continuous communications with Mars should be achievable. Only during the superior conjunction of 2023 is the signal source at Mars expected to lie behind the disk of the Sun for about one day and within two solar radii (0. 5 deg) for about three days.

  7. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... changes as a result of a DRG validation. (a) Notice of initial denial determination—(1) Parties to be... retrospective review, (excluding DRG validation and post procedure review), within 3 working days of the initial...

  8. The Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA): Project summary and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nemuc, Anca; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2017-04-01

    We present a summary and some first results of a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellite instruments, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. The primary goal of SAMIRA is to demonstrate the usefulness of existing and future satellite products of air quality for improving monitoring and mapping of air pollution at the regional scale. A total of six core activities are being carried out in order to achieve this goal: Firstly, the project is developing and optimizing algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of Meteosat Second Generation. As a second activity, SAMIRA aims to derive particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates from AOD data by developing robust algorithms for AOD-to-PM conversion with the support from model- and Lidar data. In a third activity, we evaluate the added value of satellite products of atmospheric composition for operational European-scale air quality mapping using geostatistics and auxiliary datasets. The additional benefit of satellite-based monitoring over existing monitoring techniques (in situ, models) is tested by combining these datasets using geostatistical methods and demonstrated for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and aerosol optical depth/particulate matter. As a fourth activity, the project is developing novel algorithms for downscaling coarse

  9. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  10. Design of and initial results from a Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Glowacki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of a Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC is described and initial results obtained from HIRAC are presented. The ability of HIRAC to perform in-situ laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH and HO2 radicals with the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE technique establishes it as internationally unique for a chamber of its size and pressure/temperature variable capabilities. In addition to the FAGE technique, HIRAC features a suite of analytical instrumentation, including: a multipass FTIR system; a conventional gas chromatography (GC instrument and a GC instrument for formaldehyde detection; NO/NO2, CO, O3, and H2O vapour analysers. Ray tracing simulations and NO2 actinometry have been utilized to develop a detailed model of the radiation field within HIRAC. Comparisons between the analysers and the FTIR coupled to HIRAC have been performed, and HIRAC has also been used to investigate pressure dependent kinetics of the chlorine atom reaction with ethene and the reaction of O3 and t-2-butene. The results obtained are in good agreement with literature recommendations and Master Chemical Mechanism predictions. HIRAC thereby offers a highly instrumented platform with the potential for: (1 high precision kinetics investigations over a range of atmospheric conditions; (2 detailed mechanism development, significantly enhanced according to its capability for measuring radicals; and (3 field instrument intercomparison, calibration, development, and investigations of instrument response at a range of atmospheric conditions.

  11. Initial Surgical Experience with Aortic Valve Repair: Clinical and Echocardiographic Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Diniz Affonso da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Due to late complications associated with the use of conventional prosthetic heart valves, several centers have advocated aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root replacement for patients with aortic valve insufficiency, in order to enhance late survival and minimize adverse postoperative events. Methods: From March/2012 thru March 2015, 37 patients consecutively underwent conservative operations of the aortic valve and/or aortic root. Mean age was 48±16 years and 81% were males. The aortic valve was bicuspid in 54% and tricuspid in the remaining. All were operated with the aid of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Surgical techniques consisted of replacing the aortic root with a Dacron graft whenever it was dilated or aneurysmatic, using either the remodeling or the reimplantation technique, besides correcting leaflet prolapse when present. Patients were sequentially evaluated with clinical and echocardiographic studies and mean follow-up time was 16±5 months. Results: Thirty-day mortality was 2.7%. In addition there were two late deaths, with late survival being 85% (CI 95% - 68%-95% at two years. Two patients were reoperated due to primary structural valve failure. Freedom from reoperation or from primary structural valve failure was 90% (CI 95% - 66%-97% and 91% (CI 95% - 69%-97% at 2 years, respectively. During clinical follow-up up to 3 years, there were no cases of thromboembolism, hemorrhage or endocarditis. Conclusions: Although this represents an initial series, these data demonstrates that aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root surgery can be performed with satisfactory immediate and short-term results.

  12. Initial Results from the STEM Student Experiences Aboard Ships (STEMSEAS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Cooper, S. K.; Thomson, K.; Rabin, B.; Alberts, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Science Technology Engineering and Math Student Experiences Aboard Ships (STEMSEAS) program was created as a response to NSF's call (through GEOPATHS) for improving undergraduate STEM education and enhancing diversity in the geosciences. It takes advantage of unused berths on UNOLS ships during transits between expeditions. During its 2016 pilot year - which consisted of three transits on three different research vessels in different parts of the country, each with a slightly different focus - the program has gained significant insights into how best to create and structure these opportunities and create impact on individual students. A call for applications resulted in nearly 900 applicants for 30 available spots. Of these applicants, 32% are from minority groups underrepresented in the geosciences (Black, Hispanic, or American Indian) and 20% attend community colleges. The program was able to sail socioeconomically diverse cohorts and include women, veterans, and students with disabilities and from two- and four-year colleges. Twenty-three are underrepresented minorities, 6 attend community colleges, 5 attend an HBCU or tribal college, and many are at HSIs or other MSIs. While longer term impact assessment will have to wait, initial results and 6-month tracking for the first cohort indicate that these kinds of relatively short but intense experiences can indeed achieve significant impacts on students' perception of the geosciences, in their understanding of STEM career opportunities, their desire to work in a geoscience lab setting, and to incorporate geosciences into non-STEM careers. Insights were also gained into the successful makeup of mentor/leader groups, factors to consider in student selection, necessary pre- and post-cruise logistics management, follow-up activities, structure of activities during daily life at sea, increasing student networks and access to mentorships, and leveraging of pre-existing resources and ship-based opportunities

  13. Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Tonya S; Larson, Joseph C; Alghothani, Nora; Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Cauley, Jane A; Chen, Zhao; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnesium is a necessary component of bone, but its relation to osteoporotic fractures is unclear. Objective: We examined magnesium intake as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures and altered bone mineral density (BMD). Design: This prospective cohort study included 73,684 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Total daily magnesium intake was estimated from baseline food-frequency questionnaires plus supplements. Hip fractures were confirmed by a medical record review; other fractures were identified by self-report. A baseline BMD analysis was performed in 4778 participants. Results: Baseline hip BMD was 3% higher (P 422.5 compared with magnesium. In contrast, risk of lower-arm or wrist fractures increased with higher magnesium intake [multivariate-adjusted HRs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) for quintiles 4 and 5, respectively, compared with quintile 1; P-trend = 0.002]. In addition, women with the highest magnesium intakes were more physically active and at increased risk of falls [HR for quintile 4: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.16); HR for quintile 5: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.20); P-trend magnesium intake is associated with lower BMD of the hip and whole body, but this result does not translate into increased risk of fractures. A magnesium consumption slightly greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowance is associated with increased lower-arm and wrist fractures that are possibly related to more physical activity and falls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. PMID:24500155

  14. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Graedel, T.E.

    1992-02-01

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO 2 , NH 3 /N 2 O, SO 2 /NO x , CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed

  15. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  16. Initial clinical results of linac stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Alexander, Eben; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Richardson, Gary E.; McL Black, Peter; Loeffler, Jay S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the initial clinical results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for pituitary adenomas with regard to tumor control and toxicity of the treatment, thus evaluate the feasibility of these technique for the treatment of pituitary adenomas. Subjects and Methods: 48 patients with either inoperable, recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma who underwent either SRS or SRT at the Brigham and Women's Hospital between 9/89 and 9/95 were analyzed. Of these, 18 received treatment with SRS, and 30 received SRT. SRS was contraindicated for the patients in whom the minimal distance of the target and optic chiasm or optic nerve was less than 5 mm. Patient characteristics were similar in the two groups, with the exception of tumor volume and previous irradiation. Median tumor volumes were 1.8 cm 3 and 7.7 cm 3 for SRS and SRT, respectively. Three of the SRS and none of the SRT patients had a history of previous external radiation therapy. Both SRS and SRT were performed by the use of dedicated stereotactic 6-MV linear accelerator with a treatment plan designed using a dedicated software. Doses were prescribed to the isodose distribution that covered the identified target. Dose and normalization used for SRS varied from 1000 cGy at 85 % isodose line to 1800 cGy at 80 % isodose line. For SRT patients, total dose of 4500 cGy was normalized at 90 or 95 % isodose line and this was delivered in 25 fractions of 180 cGy daily dose. Results: Local control: There was 1 case of local failure in each of SRS and SRT series (median follow up 42.5 months and 22 month, respectively). CNS adverse effects: There were 3 SRS cases in whom a ring enhancement in the temporal lobe was observed in follow-up MRI. (median follow up 32 months). Of these, one resolved spontaneously, whereas the other 2 lesion persisted and considered to be radiation necrosis. None of them required surgical intervention to date. These were observed in the

  17. Transanal minimally-invasive surgery (TAMIS: Technique and results from an initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramon Silveira Mendes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a minimally-invasive approach for rectal lesions. Superior exposure and access to the entire rectum result in lesser risk of compromised margins and lower recurrence rates, when compared to conventional transanal excision. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution's initial experience with transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS. This was a prospective review of our database. Elev- en procedures from January 2012 to June 2013 were analyzed. Results: eleven operations were completed. Five men were evaluated. Mean age was 62.9 (40-86. Mean follow-up was 9.3 (2-17 months. Average tumor size was 3.8 (1.8-8 cm. Mean distance from anal verge was 6.3 (3-12 cm. Mean operating time was 53.73 (28-118 min. Postoperative complica- tion rate was 9.1%. There were no readmissions. Mortality was null. Operative pathology disclosed the presence of adenoma in four patients, invasive adenocarcinoma in two, neu- roendocrine carcinoma in three, and no residual lesion in one case. TAMIS is a minimally- invasive procedure with low postoperative morbidity at the initial experience. TAMIS is a curative procedure for benign lesions and for selected early cancers. It is useful after neoadjuvant therapy for strictly selected cancers, pending the results of multi-institutional trials. Resumo: Microcirurgia endoscópica transanal é uma abordagem minimamente invasiva para lesões retais. Apresenta menor risco de margem comprometida e menores taxas de recorrência em comparação com excisão transanal convencional. Objetivou-se descrever a experiência inicial, de uma única instituição, com cirurgia minimamente invasiva transanal (TAMIS. Avaliação prospectiva de nosso banco de dados. Onze procedimentos de janeiro de 2012 a junho de 2013, foram analisados. Resultados: onze operações foram concluídas. Havia cinco homens. A média de idade foi de 62,9 (40-86. O acompanhamento médio foi de ww9,3 (2-17 meses. O

  18. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  19. Mechanical Properties and Acoustic Emission Properties of Rocks with Different Transverse Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the stability of engineering rock masses has important practical significance to projects like mining, tunneling, and petroleum engineering, it is necessary to study mechanical properties and stability prediction methods for rocks, cementing materials that are composed of minerals in all shapes and sizes. Rocks will generate acoustic emission during damage failure processes, which is deemed as an effective means of monitoring the stability of coal rocks. In the meantime, actual mining and roadway surrounding rocks tend to have transverse effects; namely, the transverse scale is larger than the length scale. Therefore, it is important to explore mechanical properties and acoustic emission properties of rocks under transverse size effects. Considering the transverse scale effects of rocks, this paper employs the microparticle flow software PFC2D to explore the influence of different aspect ratios on damage mechanics and acoustic emission properties of rocks. The results show that (1 the transverse scale affects uniaxial compression strength of rocks. As the aspect ratio increases, uniaxial compression strength of rocks decreases initially and later increases, showing a V-shape structure and (2 although it affects the maximum hit rate and the strain range of acoustic emission, it has little influence on the period of occurrence. As the transverse scale increases, both damage degree and damage rate of rocks decrease initially and later increase.

  20. Xenon NMR measurements of permeability and tortuosity in reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruopeng; Pavlin, Tina; Rosen, Matthew Scott; Mair, Ross William; Cory, David G; Walsworth, Ronald Lee

    2005-02-01

    In this work we present measurements of permeability, effective porosity and tortuosity on a variety of rock samples using NMR/MRI of thermal and laser-polarized gas. Permeability and effective porosity are measured simultaneously using MRI to monitor the inflow of laser-polarized xenon into the rock core. Tortuosity is determined from measurements of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient using thermal xenon in sealed samples. The initial results from a limited number of rocks indicate inverse correlations between tortuosity and both effective porosity and permeability. Further studies to widen the number of types of rocks studied may eventually aid in explaining the poorly understood connection between permeability and tortuosity of rock cores.

  1. Initial reconstruction results from a simulated adaptive small animal C shaped PET/MR insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimiou, Nikos [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Kostou, Theodora; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras (Greece); Charalampos, Tsoumpas [Division of Biomedical Imaging, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Loudos, George [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece)

    2015-05-18

    Traditionally, most clinical and preclinical PET scanners, rely on full cylindrical geometry for whole body as well as dedicated organ scans, which is not optimized with regards to sensitivity and resolution. Several groups proposed the construction of dedicated PET inserts for MR scanners, rather than the construction of new integrated PET/MR scanners. The space inside an MR scanner is a limiting factor which can be reduced further with the use of extra coils, and render the use of non-flexible cylindrical PET scanners difficult if not impossible. The incorporation of small SiPM arrays, can provide the means to design adaptive PET scanners to fit in tight locations, which, makes imaging possible and improve the sensitivity, due to the closer approximation to the organ of interest. In order to assess the performance of such a device we simulated the geometry of a C shaped PET, using GATE. The design of the C-PET was based on a realistic SiPM-BGO scenario. In order reconstruct the simulated data, with STIR, we had to calculate system probability matrix which corresponds to this non standard geometry. For this purpose we developed an efficient multi threaded ray tracing technique to calculate the line integral paths in voxel arrays. One of the major features is the ability to automatically adjust the size of FOV according to the geometry of the detectors. The initial results showed that the sensitivity improved as the angle between the detector arrays increases, thus better angular sampling the scanner's field of view (FOV). The more complete angular coverage helped in improving the shape of the source in the reconstructed images, as well. Furthermore, by adapting the FOV to the closer to the size of the source, the sensitivity per voxel is improved.

  2. The Far Ultraviolet M-dwarf Evolution Survey (FUMES): Overview and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; France, Kevin; Youngblood, Allison

    2018-01-01

    M-dwarf stars are prime targets for exoplanet searches because of their close proximity and favorable properties for both planet detection and characterization, with current searches around these targets having already discovered several Earth-sized planets within their star’s habitable zones. However, the atmospheric characterization and potential habitability of these exoplanetary systems depends critically on the high-energy stellar radiation environment from X-rays to NUV. Strong radiation at these energies can lead to atmospheric mass loss and is a strong driver of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres. Recently, the MUSCLES Treasury Survey provided the first comprehensive assessment of the high-energy radiation field around old, planet hosting M-dwarfs. However, the habitability and potential for such exoplanetary atmospheres to develop life also depends on the evolution of the atmosphere and hence the evolution of the incident radiation field. The strong high-energy spectrum of young M-dwarfs can have devastating consequences for the potential habitability of a given system. We, thus, introduce the Far Ultraviolet M-dwarf Evolution Survey (FUMES), a new HST-STIS observing campaign targeting 10 early-mid M dwarfs with known rotation periods, including 6 targets with known ages, to assess the evolution of the FUV radiation, including Lyα, of M-dwarf stars with stellar rotation period. We present the initial results of our survey characterizing the FUV emission features of our targets and the implications of our measurements for the evolution of the entire high-energy radiation environment around M-dwarfs from youth to old age.

  3. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  4. Tangible Results and Progress in Flood Risks Management with the PACTES Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Murielle; Abadie, Jean-Paul; Ducuing, Jean-Louis; Denier, Jean-Paul; Stéphane

    The PACTES project (Prévention et Anticipation des Crues au moyen des Techniques Spatiales), initiated by CNES and the French Ministry of Research, aims at improving flood risk management, over the following three main phases : - Prevention : support and facilitate the analysis of flood risks and socio-economic impacts (risk - Forecasting and alert : improve the capability to predict and anticipate the flooding event - Crisis management : allow better situation awareness, communication and sharing of In order to achieve its ambitious objectives, PACTES: - integrates state-of-the-art techniques and systems (integration of the overall processing chains, - takes advantage of integrating recent model developments in wheather forecasting, rainfall, In this approach, space technology is thus used in three main ways : - radar and optical earth observation data are used to produce Digital Elevation Maps, land use - earth observation data are also an input to wheather forecasting, together with ground sensors; - satellite-based telecommunication and mobile positioning. Started in December 2000, the approach taken in PACTES is to work closely with users such as civil security and civil protection organisms, fire fighter brigades and city councils for requirements gathering and during the validation phase. It has lead to the development and experimentation of an integrated pre-operational demonstrator, delivered to different types of operational users. Experimentation has taken place in three watersheds representative of different types of floods (flash and plain floods). After a breaf reminder of what the PACTES project organization and aims are, the PACTES integrated pre-operational demonstrator is presented. The main scientific inputs to flood risk management are summarized. Validation studies for the three watersheds covered by PACTES (Moselle, Hérault and Thoré) are detailed. Feedback on the PACTES tangible results on flood risk management from an user point of view

  5. Initial results from the StratoClim aircraft campaign in the Asian Monsoon in summer 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Asian Monsoon System is one of the Earth's largest and most energetic weather systems. Monsoon rainfall is critical to feeding over a billion people in Asia and the monsoon circulation affects weather patterns over the entire northern hemisphere. The Monsoon also acts like an enormous elevator, pumping vast amounts of air and pollutants from the surface up to the tropopause region at levels above 16km altitude, from where air can ascend into the stratosphere, where it spreads globally. Thus the monsoon affects the chemical composition of the global tropopause region and the stratosphere, and hence plays a key role for the composition of the UTS. Dynamically the monsoon circulation leads to the formation of a large anticyclone at tropopause levels above South Asia - the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA). Satellite images show a large cloud of aerosols directly above the monsoon, the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). In July to August 2017 the international research project StratoClim carried out the first in-situ aircraft measurements in the AMA and the ATAL with the high altitude research aircraft M55-Geophysica. Around 8 scientific flights took place in the airspaces of Nepal, India and Bangladesh and have horizontally and vertically probed the AMA and have well characterized the ATAL along flight patterns that have been carefully designed by a theory, modelling and satellite data analysing team in the field. The aircraft campaign has been complemented by launches of research balloons from ground stations in Nepal, Bangladesh, China and Palau. The presentation will give an overview of the StratoClim project, the aircraft and balloon activities and initial results from the StratoClim Asian Monsoon campaign in summer 2017.

  6. Initial Results from CASSIOPE/ePOP Satellite Overpasses above HAARP in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; James, H. G.; Yau, A. W.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility was operated in conjunction with overpasses of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) instruments on the Canadian CASSIOPE satellite. During these overpasses HAARP was operated in several different heating modes and regimes as diagnosed by the characteristics of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE) using ground-based receivers while simultaneously ePOP monitored in-situ HF and VLF signals, looked for ion and electron heating, and provided VHF and UHF signals for propagation effects studies. The e-POP suite of instruments and particularly the ePOP Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) offer a unique combination diagnostics appropriate for studying the non-linear plasma effects generated high-power HF waves in the ionosphere. In this presentation, the initial results from ePOP observations from two separate 2014 measurement campaigns at HAARP (April 16 to April 29 and May 25 to June 9) will be discussed. Several innovative experiments were performed during the campaign. Experiments explored a wide range of ionospheric effects. These include: 1) Penetration of HF pump waves into the ionosphere via large and small scale irregularities, 2) effects of gyro-harmonic heating and artificial ionization layers, 3) effects of HAARP beam shape with O- and X-mode transmissions, 4) coupling of Lower Hybrid modes into Whistler waves, 5) D/E-region VLF generation in the ionosphere using VLF modulation of the HF pump 6) scattering of VHF and UHF signals and 7) scattering and non-linear modulation of a 9.5 MHz probe wave propagating through the region of the ionosphere modified by HAARP. This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  7. Initial 2-year results of CardioCel® patch implantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavy, Carine; Michielon, Guido; Robertus, Jan Lukas; Lacour-Gayet, François; Ghez, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    We present the initial 2-year results of CardioCel® patch (Admedus Regen Pty Ltd, Perth, WA, Australia) implantation in paediatric patients with congenital heart diseases. This was a single-centre retrospective study with prospectively collected data of all patients aged 18 years and under operated for congenital heart disease. The patch was introduced in 2014, with clinical practice committee approval and a special consent in case of an Ozaki procedure. Standard follow-up was performed with systematic clinical exams and echocardiograms. In case of reoperation or graft failure, the patch was removed and sent for a histological examination. Between March 2014 and April 2016, 101 patients had surgical repair using a CardioCel patch. The mean age was 22 (±36.3) months, and the mean weight was 9.7 (±10.3) kg. No infections and no intraoperative implantation difficulties were associated with the patch. The median follow-up period was 212 (range 4-726) days. The overall 30-day postoperative mortality was 3.8% (n = 4), none of which were related to graft failure. Five children were reoperated because of graft failure, 4 of whom had the patch implanted for aortic and were aged less than 10 days. The indications for patch implantation in the aortic position were aortopulmonary window, truncus arteriosus, coarctation and aortic arch hypoplasia repair. The median time between the first and the second operation for graft failure was 245 (range 5-480) days. Our experience shows that the patch is well tolerated in the septal, valvar and pulmonary artery positions. However, we experienced graft failures in infants in the aortic position. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  8. Initial reconstruction results from a simulated adaptive small animal C shaped PET/MR insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimiou, Nikos; Kostou, Theodora; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Charalampos, Tsoumpas; Loudos, George

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, most clinical and preclinical PET scanners, rely on full cylindrical geometry for whole body as well as dedicated organ scans, which is not optimized with regards to sensitivity and resolution. Several groups proposed the construction of dedicated PET inserts for MR scanners, rather than the construction of new integrated PET/MR scanners. The space inside an MR scanner is a limiting factor which can be reduced further with the use of extra coils, and render the use of non-flexible cylindrical PET scanners difficult if not impossible. The incorporation of small SiPM arrays, can provide the means to design adaptive PET scanners to fit in tight locations, which, makes imaging possible and improve the sensitivity, due to the closer approximation to the organ of interest. In order to assess the performance of such a device we simulated the geometry of a C shaped PET, using GATE. The design of the C-PET was based on a realistic SiPM-BGO scenario. In order reconstruct the simulated data, with STIR, we had to calculate system probability matrix which corresponds to this non standard geometry. For this purpose we developed an efficient multi threaded ray tracing technique to calculate the line integral paths in voxel arrays. One of the major features is the ability to automatically adjust the size of FOV according to the geometry of the detectors. The initial results showed that the sensitivity improved as the angle between the detector arrays increases, thus better angular sampling the scanner's field of view (FOV). The more complete angular coverage helped in improving the shape of the source in the reconstructed images, as well. Furthermore, by adapting the FOV to the closer to the size of the source, the sensitivity per voxel is improved.

  9. Initial results of the oesophageal and gastric cancer registry from the Comunidad Valenciana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrig, Javier; Mingol, Fernando; Martí, Roberto; Puche, José; Trullenque, Ramón; Barreras, José Antonio; Asencio, Francisco; Aguiló, Javier; Navarro, José Manuel; Alberich, Carmen; Salas, Dolores; Lacueva, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the initial results of the oesophagogastric cancer registry developed for the Sociedad Valenciana de Cirugía and the Health Department of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). Fourteen of the 24 public hospitals belonging to the Comunidad Valenciana participated. All patients with diagnosis of oesophageal or gastric carcinomas operated from January 2013 to December 2014 were evaluated. Demographic, clinical and pathological data were analysed. Four hundred and thirty-four patients (120 oesophageal carcinomas and 314 gastric carcinomas) were included. Only two hospitals operated more than 10 patients with oesophageal cancer per year. Transthoracic oesophaguectomy was the most frequent approach (84.2%) in tumours localized within the oesophagus. A total gastrectomy was performed in 50.9% patients with gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) carcinomas. Postoperative 30-day and 90-day mortality were 8% and 11.6% in oesophageal carcinoma and 5.9 and 8.6% in gastric carcinoma. Before surgery, middle oesophagus carcinomas were treated mostly (76,5%) with chemoradiotherapy. On the contrary, lower oesophagus and GOJ carcinomas were treated preferably with chemotherapy alone (45.5 and 53.4%). Any neoadjuvant treatment was administered to 73.6% of gastric cancer patients. Half patients with oesophageal carcinoma or gastric carcinoma received no adjuvant treatment. This registry revealed that half patients with oesophageal cancer were operated in hospitals with less than 10 cases per year at the Comunidad Valenciana. Also, it detected capacity improvement for some clinical outcomes of oesophageal and gastric carcinomas. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-cost autonomous orbit control about Mars: Initial simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S. D.; Early, L. W.; Potterveld, C. W.; Königsmann, H. J.

    1999-11-01

    Interest in studying the possibility of extraterrestrial life has led to the re-emergence of the Red Planet as a major target of planetary exploration. Currently proposed missions in the post-2000 period are routinely calling for rendezvous with ascent craft, long-term orbiting of, and sample-return from Mars. Such missions would benefit greatly from autonomous orbit control as a means to reduce operations costs and enable contact with Mars ground stations out of view of the Earth. This paper present results from initial simulations of autonomously controlled orbits around Mars, and points out possible uses of the technology and areas of routine Mars operations where such cost-conscious and robust autonomy could prove most effective. These simulations have validated the approach and control philosophies used in the development of this autonomous orbit controller. Future work will refine the controller, accounting for systematic and random errors in the navigation of the spacecraft from the sensor suite, and will produce prototype flight code for inclusion on future missions. A modified version of Microcosm's commercially available High Precision Orbit Propagator (HPOP) was used in the preparation of these results due to its high accuracy and speed of operation. Control laws were developed to allow an autonomously controlled spacecraft to continuously control to a pre-defined orbit about Mars with near-optimal propellant usage. The control laws were implemented as an adjunct to HPOP. The GSFC-produced 50 × 50 field model of the Martian gravitational potential was used in all simulations. The Martian atmospheric drag was modeled using an exponentially decaying atmosphere based on data from the Mars-GRAM NASA Ames model. It is hoped that the simple atmosphere model that was implemented can be significantly improved in the future so as to approach the fidelity of the Mars-GRAM model in its predictions of atmospheric density at orbital altitudes. Such additional work

  11. Initial Results from the Micro-pulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Ginoux, Paul; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The micro-pulse lidar system (MPL) was developed in the early 1990s and was the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar built for full time monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions. In 2000, a new project using MPL systems was started at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This new project, the Micro-pulse Lidar Network or MPL-Net, was created to provide long-term observations of aerosol and cloud vertical profiles at key sites around the world. This is accomplished using both NASA operated sites and partnerships with other organizations owning MPL systems. The MPL-Net sites are co-located with NASA AERONET sunphotometers to provide aerosol optical depth data needed for calibration of the MPL. In addition to the long-term sites, MPL-Net provides lidar support for a limited number of field experiments and ocean cruises each year. We will present an overview of the MPL-Net project and show initial results from the first two MPL-Net sites at the South Pole and at Goddard Space Flight Center. Observations of dust layers transported from the Gobi desert, across the Pacific Ocean, to the east coast of the United States will also be shown. MPL-Net affiliated instruments were in place at the desert source region in China, on a research vessel in the Sea of Japan, at ARM sites in Alaska and Oklahoma, and finally at our home site in Maryland (GSFC) during the massive dust storms that occurred in April 2001. The MPL observations of dust layers at each location are shown in comparison to dust layers predicted using the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). Finally, the MPL-Net project is the primary ground-validation program for the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) satellite lidar project (launch date 2002). We will present an overview demonstrating how MPL-Net results are used to help prepare the GLAS data processing algorithms and assist in the calibration/validation of the GLAS data products.

  12. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Paolillo, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II di Napoli, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kaspi, Shai [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università degli studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Gibson, Robert R., E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  13. [Evaluation of initial results of treatment of lead poisoning with EDTA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, V; Adjarov, D; Pavlova, S; Naydenova, E; Kerimova, M; Kuneva, T

    1994-01-01

    The results of EDTA therapy were studied in 37 workers of a battery factory consisting of males with varying degrees of occupational lead poisoning (low exposure: 10 subjects, blood lead levels (PbB) lower than 400 micrograms/l with slight alterations in heme biosynthesis; beyond limit of effect: 5 subjects, PbB > 400 micrograms/l; slight intoxication: 19 subjects, with marked alterations in heme synthesis and preclinical signs of intoxication; average degree of intoxication: 3 subjects with clinical signs of intoxication. Clinical symptoms and the following parameters were investigated: blood lead (PbB), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in erythrocytes (ALA-D), zinc protoporphyrin (PP) in erythrocytes and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in 24-hour urine before and after EDTA chelating therapy. Simultaneous measurement of ALA-D and PP showed high diagnostic sensitivity in detecting lead poisoning in occupationally exposed subjects. In view of the high interindividual variability of the results, these indices did not, however, permit a useful differentiation to be made of the different degrees of intoxication at individual level, even though a good correlation was observed between PbB and porphyrin metabolism indices. From the alterations observed in ALA-D and PP values it was not possible to establish an association between degree of alteration and types of clinical symptoms in the different intoxication studies. At the end of EDTA treatment, a clinical improvement was observed in all cases studied but only in 5 cases was a reduction in PbB observed, to levels below 1.20 mol/l, which is accepted as a permissible limit for the general population; in 17 cases PbB remained at levels above the critical value for occupational lead poisoning (400 micrograms/l), although there was a decrease after treatment. The improvement observed in the indices of porphyrin metabolism at the end of treatment was only slight: significant variations were measured only for PbB. After

  14. Initial Results From The Micro-pulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Berkoff, T. A.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Ginoux, P.

    2001-12-01

    The micro-pulse lidar system (MPL) was developed in the early 1990s and was the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar built for fulltime monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions. In 2000, a new project using MPL systems was started at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This new project, the Micro-pulse Lidar Network or MPL-Net, was created to provide long-term observations of aerosol and cloud vertical profiles at key sites around the world. This is accomplished using both NASA operated sites and partnerships with other organizations owning MPL systems. The MPL-Net sites are co-located with NASA AERONET sunphotometers to provide aerosol optical depth data needed for calibration of the MPL. In addition to the long-term sites, MPL-Net provides lidar support for a limited number of field experiments and ocean cruises each year. We will present an overview of the MPL-Net project and show initial results from the first two MPL-Net sites at the South Pole and at Goddard Space Flight Center. Observations of dust layers transported from the desert regions of China, across the Pacific Ocean, to the east coast of the United States will also be shown. MPL-Net affiliated instruments were in place at the desert source region in China, on a research vessel in the Sea of Japan, at ARM sites in Alaska and Oklahoma, and finally at our home site in Maryland (GSFC) during the massive dust storms that occurred in April 2001. The MPL observations of dust layers at each location are shown in comparison to dust layers predicted using the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). Finally, the MPL-Net project is the primary ground-validation program for the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) satellite lidar project (launch date 2002). We will present an overview demonstrating how MPL-Net results are used to help prepare the GLAS data processing algorithms and assist in the calibration/validation of the GLAS data

  15. Initial results with the Berkeley on-line mass separator-RAMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, J.; Moltz, D.M.; Evans, H.C.; Vieira, D.J.; Parry, R.F.; Wouters, J.M.; Gough, R.A.; Zisman, M.S.

    1977-11-01

    Initial performance is described for a reasonably fast and universal (having little or no chemical selectivity) on-line mass analysis system used to expand capabilities in studying nuclei far from stability. The system is termed RAMA, an acronym for Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer. Basically, this system utilizes the helium-jet method to transport activity to a Sidenius hollow-cathode ion source which is coupled to a mass spectrometer. Initial experiments and planned improvements are discussed. Transport efficiencies of between 10 and 60 percent have routinely been achieved, though the latter is much more typical when conditions are optimized

  16. Overview of results and perspectives from the Shoreham major common-cause initiating events study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Orvis, D.D.; Paccione, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study represents the continuation of a large effort by LILCO to fully understand the potential hazards posed by future operation of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Stations (SNPS). The Shoreham Probabilistic Risk Assessment, a level 3 PRA without external events, provided a characterization of the accident sequences that could leave the core in a condition in which it would be vulnerable to severe damage if further mitigating actions were not taken. It estimated the frequency and magnitude of the potential radioactivity releases associated with such sequences. The study was limited to accident sequences initiated by so called internal events to the plant including a loss of offsite power. It also characterized the public risk associated with those accident sequences. The ''Major Common-Cause Initiating Events Study'' (MCCI) for the Shoreham plant was performed to obtain insights into the plant's susceptibility to, and inherent defenses against, certain MCCIs. Major common-cause initiating events are occurrences which have the potential to initiate a plant transient or LOCA and, also, damage one or more plant systems needed to mitigate the effects of a transient or LOCA. The scope of the MCCI study included detailed analyses of seismic events and fires through the severe core damage and bounding analyses of aircraft crashes, windstorms, turbine missiles and release of hazardous materials near the plant

  17. Fast pyrolysis in a novel wire-mesh reactor: design and initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Hogendoorn, Kees

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis is known to occur by decomposition processes followed by vapour phase reactions. The goal of this research is to develop a novel device to study the initial decomposition processes. For this, a novel wire-mesh reactor was constructed. A small sample (<0.1 g) was clamped between two meshes

  18. The magnetic field investigation on the ARASE (ERG) mission: Data characteristics and initial scientific results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Teramoto, M.; Nomura, R.; Nose, M.; Fujimoto, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Shiokawa, K.; Obana, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Takashima, T.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-12-01

    The ARASE (ERG) satellite was successfully launched on December 20 2016. A fluxgate magnetometer (MGF) was built for the ARASE satellite to measure DC and low-frequency magnetic field. The requirements to the magnetic field measurements by ARASE was defined as (1) accuracy of the absolute field intensity is within 5 nT (2) angular accuracy of the field direction is within 1 degree (3) measurement frequency range is from DC to 60Hz or wider. MGF measures the vector magnetic field with the original sampling frequency of 256 Hz. The dynamic range is switched between +/-8000nT and +/- 60000nT according to the background field intensity. The MGF initial checkout was carried on January 10th 2017, when the MGF normal performance and downlinked data were confirmed. The 5-m length MAST for the sensor was deployed on 17th January. The nominal operation of MGF started in March 2017. The MGF data are calibrated based on the results from the ground experiments and in-orbit data analysis. The MGF CDF files are distributed by the ARASE Science Center and available by Space Physics Environment Data Analysis Software (SPEDAS). The acceleration process of the charged particles in the inner magnetosphere is considered to be closely related to the deformation and perturbation of the magnetic field. Accurate measurement of the magnetic field is required to understand the acceleration mechanism of the charged particles, which is one of the major scientific objectives of the ARASE mission. We designed a fluxgate magnetometer which is optimized to investigate following topics; (1) accurate measurement of the background magnetic field - the deformation of the magnetic field and its relationship with the particle acceleration. (2) MHD waves - measurement of the ULF electromagnetic waves of frequencies about 1mHz (Pc4-5), and investigation of the radiation-belt electrons radially diffused by the resonance with the ULF waves. (3) EMIC waves - measurement of the electromagnetic ion

  19. Initial Results from the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; Wilson, G.; Burke, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. The DC electric field detector has revealed zonal and meridional electric fields that undergo a diurnal variation, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. In general, the measured DC electric field amplitudes are in the 0.5-2 mV/m range, corresponding to I3 x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. What is surprising is the high degree of large-scale (10's to 100's of km) structure in the DC electric field, particularly at night, regardless of whether well-defined spread-F plasma density depletions are present. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. On some occasions, localized regions of low frequency (field broadband irregularities have been detected, suggestive of filamentary currents, although there is no one-to-one correspondence of these waves with the observed plasma density depletions, at least within the data examined thus far. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF waves corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning

  20. Overview of the Ozone Water-Land Environmental Transition Study: Summary of Observations and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, T.; Sullivan, J.; Pippin, M. R.; Gronoff, G.; Knepp, T. N.; Twigg, L.; Schroeder, J.; Carrion, W.; Farris, B.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Nino, L.; Gargulinski, E.; Rodio, L.; Sanchez, P.; Desorae Davis, A. A.; Janz, S. J.; Judd, L.; Pusede, S.; Wolfe, G. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Munyan, J.; Flynn, J.; Moore, B.; Dreessen, J.; Salkovitz, D.; Stumpf, K.; King, B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Brandt, J.; Blake, D. R.; Abuhassan, N.; Cede, A.; Tzortziou, M.; Demoz, B.; Tsay, S. C.; Swap, R.; Holben, B. N.; Szykman, J.; McGee, T. J.; Neilan, J.; Allen, D.

    2017-12-01

    combination of observations provided a unique 4-D (horizontal, vertical, and time) view of O3 to help provide feedback to air quality forecast models as well as future satellite remote sensing systems such as NASA's TEMPO mission. In this presentation, a summary of observations and initial results will be presented from the OWLETS campaign.

  1. Penn State geoPebble system: Design,Implementation, and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Bilen, S. G.; Fleishman, A.; Burkett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Penn State geoPebble system is a new network of wirelessly interconnected seismic and GPS sensor nodes with flexible architecture. This network will be used for studies of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, as well as to investigate mountain glaciers. The network will consist of ˜150 geoPebbles that can be deployed in a user-defined spatial geometry. We present our design methodology, which has enabled us to develop these state-of- the art sensors using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware combined with custom-designed hardware and software. Each geoPebble is a self- contained, wirelessly connected sensor for collecting seismic measurements and position information. Key elements of each node encompasses a three-component seismic recorder, which includes an amplifier, filter, and 24- bit analog-to-digital converter that can sample up to 10 kHz. Each unit also includes a microphone channel to record the ground-coupled airwave. The timing for each node is available from GPS measurements and a local precision oscillator that is conditioned by the GPS timing pulses. In addition, we record the carrier-phase measurement of the L1 GPS signal in order to determine location at sub-decimeter accuracy (relative to other geoPebbles within a few kilometers radius). Each geoPebble includes 16 GB of solid-state storage, wireless communications capability to a central supervisory unit, and auxiliary measurements capability (including tilt from accelerometers, absolute orientation from magnetometers and temperature). A novel aspect of the geoPebble is a wireless charging system for the internal battery (using inductive coupling techniques). The geoPebbles include all the sensors (geophones, GPS, microphone), communications (WiFi), and power (battery and charging) internally, so the geoPebble system can operate without any cabling connections (though we do provide an external connector so that different geophones can be used). We report initial field-deployment results and

  2. The path from ITER to a power plant - initial results from the ARIES ''Pathways'' program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmabadi, F.

    2007-01-01

    The US national power plant studies program, ARIES, has initiated a 3-year integrated study, called the ''Pathways Program'' to investigate what the fusion program needs to do, in addition to successful operation of the ITER, in order to transform fusion into a commercial reality. The US power industry and regulatory agencies view the demonstration power plant, DEMO, as a device which is build and operated by industry, possibly with government participation, to demonstrate the commercial readiness of fusion power. As such, the ''Pathways'' programs will investigate what is needed, in addition to successful operation of ITER, to convince industry to move forward with a fusion DEMO. While many reports exists that provide a strategic view of the needs for fusion development; in the ITER era, a much more detailed view is needed to provide the necessary information for program planning. By comparing the anticipated results from ITER and existing facilities with the requirements for a power plant in the first phase of the Pathways study, we will develop a comprehensive list of remaining R and D items for developing fusion, will identify metrics for distributing resources among R and D issues, and will identify which of those items can/should be done in existing or simulation facilities. In the second phase of the study, we will develop potential embodiments for the fusion test facility (ies) and explore their cost/performance parametrically. An important by-product of this study is the identification of key R and D issues that can be performed and resolved in existing facilities to make the fusion facility cheaper and/or a higher performance device. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of our study. We have adopted a ''holistic'' or integrated approach with the focus on the needs of the customer. In such an approach, the remaining R and D should generate all of the information needed by industry to move forward with the DEMO, i.e., data needed to

  3. KBS-3H - Excavation of two horizontal drifts at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during year 2004-2005. Work description, summary of results and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, Goeran; Lindgren, Erik

    2005-10-01

    SKB and Posiva Oy in Finland jointly study the possibility to develop a variant of the KBS-3 method for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The idea is to make serial deposition of canisters in long horizontal drifts instead of vertical deposition of single canisters in the deposition hole. The studies concerning the horizontal deposition alternative are conducted within the framework of a KBS-3H project, where certain demonstration activities are implemented. A key issue of the running project is to test the ability to excavate the horizontal deposition drifts. The objectives for this work are as follows: To show the feasibility of meeting the geometrical and other requirements; To construct two deposition drifts needed for the later project stages. One drift is needed to demonstrate that heavy load can be transported into the drift. One drift is needed to demonstrate that a plug (bulkhead) can be constructed by low-pH shotcrete; To evaluate the applicability of selected excavation methodologies for realistic repository conditions, and based on the experience in the project define need for technical developments/improvements. To meet the objectives, two deposition drifts were excavated at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during the period October 2004 to February 2005. One horizontal drift was 15 m in length and one 95 m in length. Both drifts were excavated to the diameter 1.85 m using horizontal push-reaming technology by adapting conventional raise-drilling equipment. The drifts were excavated in good rock conditions where no rock support or grouting was needed for feasible excavation or are needed to operate the drifts. SKB and Posiva have stringent geometrical requirements for the excavated drifts and the conclusions concerning compliance with the requirements are: Length: The project met this target. Two drifts were excavated, 15 m and 95 m respectively in accordance with the initial plan. Diameter: Actually it was not easy to measure the diameters of the

  4. KBS-3H - Excavation of two horizontal drifts at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during year 2004-2005. Work description, summary of results and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran [Conrox AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindgren, Erik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-10-15

    SKB and Posiva Oy in Finland jointly study the possibility to develop a variant of the KBS-3 method for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The idea is to make serial deposition of canisters in long horizontal drifts instead of vertical deposition of single canisters in the deposition hole. The studies concerning the horizontal deposition alternative are conducted within the framework of a KBS-3H project, where certain demonstration activities are implemented. A key issue of the running project is to test the ability to excavate the horizontal deposition drifts. The objectives for this work are as follows: To show the feasibility of meeting the geometrical and other requirements; To construct two deposition drifts needed for the later project stages. One drift is needed to demonstrate that heavy load can be transported into the drift. One drift is needed to demonstrate that a plug (bulkhead) can be constructed by low-pH shotcrete; To evaluate the applicability of selected excavation methodologies for realistic repository conditions, and based on the experience in the project define need for technical developments/improvements. To meet the objectives, two deposition drifts were excavated at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during the period October 2004 to February 2005. One horizontal drift was 15 m in length and one 95 m in length. Both drifts were excavated to the diameter 1.85 m using horizontal push-reaming technology by adapting conventional raise-drilling equipment. The drifts were excavated in good rock conditions where no rock support or grouting was needed for feasible excavation or are needed to operate the drifts. SKB and Posiva have stringent geometrical requirements for the excavated drifts and the conclusions concerning compliance with the requirements are: Length: The project met this target. Two drifts were excavated, 15 m and 95 m respectively in accordance with the initial plan. Diameter: Actually it was not easy to measure the diameters of the

  5. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  6. Towards a new generation of flow and transport models for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Main results from the project Aespoe models 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Urban; Vidstrand, Patrik; Neretnieks, Ivars; Wallin, Bill

    2008-05-01

    This report constitutes the outcome of a project called 'Aespoe models 2005'. The main objective of the project has been to provide a first step towards a new generation of numerical models of flow and transport, for the Aespoe HRL. In order to achieve this goal, work has been carried out along three parallel lines; discussion of basic concepts, compilation and analysis of data and model applications. A number of sub tasks are reported as appendices in the report. In fact, these appendices represent the main achievements of the project: an analysis of fracture properties, compilation of isotope and chemical data, dispersion and mixing in fractured rocks and model results. The conclusion of the project is that significant contributions to a new generation of Aespoe models have been obtained. It has further been demonstrated that working numerical simulations are up and running. Recommendations are provided for the continued work

  7. Towards a new generation of flow and transport models for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Main results from the project Aespoe models 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (ed.) (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB (CFE AB), SE-602 10 Norrkoeping (Sweden)); Vidstrand, Patrik (Bergab AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Neretnieks, Ivars (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Wallin, Bill (Geokema, Lidingoe (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    This report constitutes the outcome of a project called 'Aespoe models 2005'. The main objective of the project has been to provide a first step towards a new generation of numerical models of flow and transport, for the Aespoe HRL. In order to achieve this goal, work has been carried out along three parallel lines; discussion of basic concepts, compilation and analysis of data and model applications. A number of sub tasks are reported as appendices in the report. In fact, these appendices represent the main achievements of the project: an analysis of fracture properties, compilation of isotope and chemical data, dispersion and mixing in fractured rocks and model results. The conclusion of the project is that significant contributions to a new generation of Aespoe models have been obtained. It has further been demonstrated that working numerical simulations are up and running. Recommendations are provided for the continued work

  8. Respiratory motion-resolved, self-gated 4D-MRI using Rotating Cartesian K-space (ROCK): Initial clinical experience on an MRI-guided radiotherapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhou, Ziwu; Du, Dongsu; Gao, Yu; Rashid, Shams; Cao, Minsong; Shaverdian, Narek; Hegde, John V; Steinberg, Michael; Lee, Percy; Raldow, Ann; Low, Daniel A; Sheng, Ke; Yang, Yingli; Hu, Peng

    2018-06-01

    To optimize and evaluate the respiratory motion-resolved, self-gated 4D-MRI using Rotating Cartesian K-space (ROCK-4D-MRI) method in a 0.35 T MRI-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) system. The study included seven patients with abdominal tumors treated on the MRgRT system. ROCK-4D-MRI and 2D-CINE, was performed immediately after one of the treatment fractions. Motion quantification based on 4D-MRI was compared with those based on 2D-CINE. The image quality of 4D-MRI was evaluated against 4D-CT. The gross tumor volumes (GTV) were defined based on individual respiratory phases of both 4D-MRI and 4D-CT and compared for their variability over the respiratory cycle. The motion measurements based on 4D-MRI matched well with 2D-CINE, with differences of 1.04 ± 0.52 mm in the superior-inferior and 0.54 ± 0.21 mm in the anterior-posterior directions. The image quality scores of 4D-MRI were significantly higher than 4D-CT, with better tumor contrast (3.29 ± 0.76 vs. 1.86 ± 0.90) and less motion artifacts (3.57 ± 0.53 vs. 2.29 ± 0.95). The GTVs were more consistent in 4D-MRI than in 4D-CT, with significantly smaller GTV variability (9.31 ± 4.58% vs. 34.27 ± 23.33%). Our study demonstrated the clinical feasibility of using the ROCK-4D-MRI to acquire high quality, respiratory motion-resolved 4D-MRI in a low-field MRgRT system. The 4D-MRI image could provide accurate dynamic information for radiotherapy treatment planning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  10. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  11. Verification of the both hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical code results by an on-site test in granitic rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Polák

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The project entitled “Methods and tools for the evaluation of the effect of engeneered barriers on distant interactions in the environment of a deep repository facility” deals with the ability to validate the behavior of applied engeneered barriers on hydrodynamic and migration parameters in the water-bearing granite environment of a radioactive waste deep repository facility. A part of the project represents a detailed mapping of the fracture network by means of geophysical and drilling surveys on the test-site (active granite quarry, construction of model objects (about 100 samples with the shape of cylinders, ridges and blocks, and the mineralogical, petrological and geochemical description of granite. All the model objects were subjected to migration and hydrodynamic tests with the use of fluorescein and NaCl as tracers. The tests were performed on samples with simple fractures, injected fractures and with an undisturbed integrity (verified by ultrasonic. The gained hydrodynamic and migration parameters of the model objects were processed with the modeling software NAPSAC and FEFLOW. During the following two years, these results and parameters will be verified (on the test-site by means of a long-term field test including the tuning of the software functionality.

  12. Description and results of tracer tests conducted for a deep fracture zone within granitic rock at the Leuggern borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. jr.

    1990-09-01

    A tracer test program was planned at the Leuggern borehole, to provide hydrogeologic information concerning the fracture zone(s) intersected within the depth interval 1,634.9 - 1,688.9 m. The original design of the tracer-dilution test was to: establish a uniform tracer concentration within the test system, and then monitor (at ground surface) the decline of tracer concentration within the circulated test system fluid. Analysis of the tracer concentration decline pattern was expected to provide an estimate of the natural lateral flux and lateral hydraulic gradient for the isolated test interval. A later pump-back test was also designed to recover tracer that had been 'flushed' into the test section, during the previous closed-circulation period. Analysis of the tracer recovery pattern was expected to provide an estimate of the dispersivity within the intersected fracture system. Results obtained from 'arrival-time' information during the Eosin and Naphtionat injection/recovery phases indicate a downward vertical flow of approximately 195-225 ml/min in the isolated interval, from an analysis of the dilution levels of Uranin and Eosin during the injection/recovery periods, and review of field data, the top of the upper inflow zone was determined to be approximately 13 m below the top flow line and the bottom of the outflow zone to be approximately 3 to 5 meters above the bottom flow line. (author) 30 figs., tabs., 42 refs

  13. Initial evaluations of the use of microbial measures to quantify impact of acid rock drainage on the Finniss River (east branch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, P.J.; Wilde, K.L.; Stone, D.J.; Ben-David, E.A.; Foster, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Biological measures assessing the impact of pollution on aquatic ecosystems have been increasingly used over the last ten years to examine ecosystem health. The focus, however, has been on diversity and abundance of higher organisms, such as fish, frogs and macroinvertebrates, and it is desirable that such measures be made across all trophic levels of the ecosystem. In this study, phospholipid-fatty acid analysis and microbial carbon substrate utilisation assays (BIOLOG) of sediment and water samples were conducted to evaluate their usefulness as a measure of the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD) on the East Branch of the Finniss River. Both PLFA, and BIOLOG assays, generate data well suited to multivariate analysis and previous studies of the impact of ARD from the Brukunga mine (South Australia) have demonstrated the ability to distinguish between the effect of ARD, nutrients and dry-land salinity on microbial populations

  14. Initial Results of Using Daily CT Localization to Correct Portal Error in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattanzi, Joseph; McNeely, Shawn; Barnes, Scott; Das, Indra; Schultheiss, Timothy E; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of daily CT simulation in prostate cancer to correct errors in portal placement and organ motion. Improved localization with this technique should allow the reduction of target margins and facilitate dose escalation in high risk patients while minimizing the risk of normal tissue morbidity. Methods and Materials : Five patients underwent standard CT simulation with the alpha cradle cast, IV contrast, and urethrogram. All were initially treated to 46 Gy in a four field conformal technique which included the prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes (GTV 1 ). The prostate or prostate and seminal vesicles (GTV 2 ) then received 56 Gy with a 1.0 cm margin to the PTV. At 50 Gy a second CT simulation was performed with IV contrast, urethrogram and the alpha cradle secured to a rigid sliding board. The prostate was contoured, a new isocenter generated, and surface markers placed. Prostate only treatment portals for the final conedown (GTV 3 ) were created with 0.25 cm isodose margins to the PTV. The final six fractions in 2 patients with favorable disease and eight fractions in 3 patients with unfavorable disease were delivered using the daily CT technique. On each treatment day the patient was placed in his cast on the sliding board and a CT scan performed. The daily isocenter was calculated in the A/P and lateral dimension and compared to the 50 Gy CT simulation isocenter. Couch and surface marker shifts were calculated to produce perfect portal alignment. To maintain positioning, the patient was transferred to a gurney while on the sliding board in his cast, transported to the treatment room and then transferred to the treatment couch. The patient was then treated to the corrected isocenter. Portal films and real time images were obtained for each portal. Results: Utilizing CT-CT image registration (fusion) of the daily and 50 Gy baseline CT scans the isocenter changes were quantified to reflect the contribution of positional

  15. Rock properties data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1991-03-01

    As mining companies proceed deeper and into areas whose stability is threatened by high and complex stress fields, the science of rock mechanics becomes invaluable in designing underground mine strata control programs. CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories division has compiled a summary of pre- and post-failure mechanical properties of rock types which were tested to provide design data. The 'Rock Properties Data Base' presents the results of these tests, and includes many rock types typical of Canadian mine environments. The data base also contains 'm' and 's' values determined using Hoek and Brown's failure criteria for both pre- and post-failure conditions. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs., 1 append.

  16. Simulation of crack propagation in rock in plasma blasting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkurthi, V. R.; Tahiliani, K.; Chaturvedi, S.

    Plasma Blasting Technology (PBT) involves the production of a pulsed electrical discharge by inserting a blasting probe in a water-filled cavity drilled in a rock, which produces shocks or pressure waves in the water. These pulses then propagate into the rock, leading to fracture. In this paper, we present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the SHALE code to study crack propagation in rock. Three separate issues have been examined. Firstly, assuming that a constant pressure P is maintained in the cavity for a time τ , we have determined the P- τ curve that just cracks a given rock into at least two large-sized parts. This study shows that there exists an optimal pressure level for cracking a given rock-type and geometry. Secondly, we have varied the volume of water in which the initial energy E is deposited, which corresponds to different initial peak pressures Ppeak. We have determined the E- Ppeak curve that just breaks the rock into four large-sized parts. It is found that there must be an optimal Ppeak that lowers the energy consumption, but with acceptable probe damage. Thirdly, we have attempted to identify the dominant mechanism of rock fracture. We also highlight some numerical errors that must be kept in mind in such simulations.

  17. Seismic refraction profile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: field operations, instrumentation, and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, H. Richard; Healy, J.H.; Roller, John; Lamson, Ralph; Fisher, Fred; McClearn, Robert; Allen, Steve

    1979-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the USGS along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used--five on land, with charges placed mostly below water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and fired from a ship. The total charge consumed was slightly in excess of 61 metric tons in 21 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by means of a set of 100 newly developed portable seismic stations. Each station consists of a standard 2-Hz vertical geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. The stations were deployed in groups of 20 by five observer teams, each generally consisting of two scientist-technicians and a surveyor-guide. On the day prior to deployment, the instruments were calibrated and programmed for automatic operation by means of a specially designed device called a hand-held tester. At each of ten pre-selected recording time windows on a designated firing day, the instruments were programmed to turn on, stabilize, record internal calibration signals, record the seismic signals at three levels of amplification, and then deactivate. After the final window in the firing sequence, all instruments were retrieved and their data tapes removed for processing. A specially designed, field tape- dubbing system was utilized at shot point camps to organize and edit data recorded on the cassette tapes. The main functions of this system are to concatenate all data from each shot on any given day

  18. Awake craniotomy for glioma resection: Technical aspects and initial results in a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Gillian; McStravick, Clodagh; Farling, Peter; Megaw, Katie; McKinstry, Steven; Smyth, Graham; Law, Gillian; Courtney, Heather; Quigley, Gavin; Flannery, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Although variations in the technique of awake craniotomy (AC) have been widely reported, a key member of this interdisciplinary procedure is the healthcare professional performing assessments of neurological function during resection. The expertise of the latter will depend on the neurological function to be tested and on available resources of the institution. This report details our initial experience of an AC service utilizing the expertise of a speech and language therapist (SLT) and an experienced neuro-physiotherapist (NP) to monitor patient function during glioma resection. Forty-five patients underwent 50 AC procedures for eloquently located gliomas over a 3-year period. Patients with a glioma involving speech or sensorimotor areas were assessed preoperatively by the SLT/NP respectively. The same therapist monitored the patient's neurological function intraoperatively and executed a rehabilitation program tailored to the needs of the patient in the postoperative period. Three patients underwent biopsy only, due to intraoperative seizures precluding intraoperative mapping (2 cases) or speech arrest on stimulation of a small recurrent tumor. The remaining 47 cases were suitable for repetitive neurological assessment "awake" during tumor debulking. One patient with a large sensorimotor tumor developed intraoperative hemiparesis due to outward brain herniation (which recovered postoperatively). Ten patients developed a new or worsened neurological deficit in the initial postoperative period (6 were detected intraoperatively), of which 5 eventually had resolution and returned to baseline function within 2 weeks. In our initial experience based anecdotally on a previous similar "non-awake" caseload, we have found AC with the input of the SLT/NP to be a key component in ensuring optimal functional outcomes for patients with gliomas in eloquently located areas.

  19. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  20. Automation and robotics for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, D.; Criswell, D.; Heer, E.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 52 submissions were received in the Automation and Robotics (A&R) area during Project Outreach. About half of the submissions (24) contained concepts that were judged to have high utility for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and were analyzed further by the robotics panel. These 24 submissions are analyzed here. Three types of robots were proposed in the high scoring submissions: structured task robots (STRs), teleoperated robots (TORs), and surface exploration robots. Several advanced TOR control interface technologies were proposed in the submissions. Many A&R concepts or potential standards were presented or alluded to by the submitters, but few specific technologies or systems were suggested.

  1. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Confining Stress on Hard Rock Fragmentation Using a Conical Pick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibing; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Shanyong

    2018-01-01

    High geostress is a prominent condition in deep excavations and affects the cuttability of deep hard rock. This study aims to determine the influence of confining stress on hard rock fragmentation as applied by a conical pick. Using a true triaxial test apparatus, static and coupled static and dynamic loadings from pick forces were applied to end faces of cubic rock specimens to break them under biaxial, uniaxial and stress-free confining stress conditions. The cuttability indices (peak pick force, insertion depth and disturbance duration), failure patterns and fragment sizes were measured and compared to estimate the effects of confining stress. The results show that the rock cuttabilities decreased in order from rock breakages under stress-free conditions to uniaxial confining stress and then to biaxial confining stress. Under biaxial confining stress, only flake-shaped fragments were stripped from the rock surfaces under the requirements of large pick forces or disturbance durations. As the level of uniaxial confining stress increased, the peak pick force and the insertion depth initially increased and then decreased, and the failure patterns varied from splitting to partial splitting and then to rock bursts with decreasing average fragment sizes. Rock bursts will occur under elastic compression via ultra-high uniaxial confining stresses. There are two critical uniaxial confining stress levels, namely stress values at which peak pick forces begin to decrease and improve rock cuttability, and those at which rock bursts initially occur and cutting safety decreases. In particular, hard rock is easiest to split safely and efficiently under stress-free conditions. Moreover, coupled static preloading and dynamic disturbance can increase the efficiency of rock fragmentation with increasing preloading levels and disturbance amplitudes. The concluding remarks confirm hard rock cuttability using conical pick, which can improve the applicability of mechanical excavation in

  3. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  4. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. A QIO initial denial determination or change as a result of DRG validation is final and binding unless, in accordance with the procedures in...

  5. Rock Directed Breaking Under the Impulse Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomeriki, Sergo; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Losaberidze, Marine; Khomeriki, Davit; Shatberashvili, Grigol

    2016-10-01

    In the work the problem of directed chipping of facing stone material by means of managing of explosion process is considered. The technology of the mining of decorative stone by the use of explosion energy means the very rapid transfer of potential energy of elastic deformations to kinetic energy. As a result, the explosion impulse, in the expanse of the inertia of rock massive, does not cause the increase of existing cracks. In the course of explosion, the shock wave is propagated by ultrasonic velocity and in this case the medium parameters (pressure, density, temperature, velocity) increase in spurts. In spite of this fact the all three conservation laws of mechanics remain valid on basis of three laws the equations are derived by which the parameters of shock wave may be defined by means of the rock physical-mechanical properties. The load on the body volume at breaking under explosion acts over very small period of the time. Therefore, stressed-deformed state of the rock was studied when the impulse load acts on the boundary. It was considered that the mining of the blocks of facing stone is performed from the hard rocks. This means that the breaking proceeds in the zone of elastic deformation. In the conditions of mentioned assumptions, the expression of the stress tensor and displacement of vector components initiated by stressed-deformed state in the rock are written.

  6. Paleozoic age of high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Dakh salient, North-Western Caucasus: results of U-Pb-geochronological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somin, M.L.; Levchenkov, O.A.; Kotov, A.B.; Makeev, A.F.; Komarov, A.N.; Ro, N.I.; Lavrishchev, V.A.; Lebedev, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    U-Pb geochronological studies of an ancient component of the Dakh salient, i.e. metaaplites, which are vein fine-grained rocks made up by albite, microcline, quartz and potash mica, were made. Besides, K-Ar dating of granodiorites breaking through metamorphic rocks was conducted. U-Pb dating of accessory zircons (353 mln. years) defines the lower age boundary of the Dakh salient rock metamorphism. Its upper boundary was identified by K-Ar dating (301 ± 10 mln. years) of hornfels blende of nonmetamophized granodiorites [ru

  7. Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site 1438, Amami Sankaku Basin: Implications for Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey-Vargas, R.; Ishizuka, O.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Bizimis, M.; Savov, I. P.; McCarthy, A. J.; Arculus, R. J.; Bogus, K.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 351 drilled 150 m of volcanic basement overlain by 1461 m of sedimentary material at Site 1438 in the Amami Sankaku basin, just west of the Kyushu Palau Ridge, the locus of IBM arc initiation. Age interpretations based on biostratigraphy (Arculus et al., Nat. Geosci., in-press) determined that the age of the basement section is between 64 and 51 Ma, encompassing the age of the earliest volcanic products of the IBM arc. The Site 1438 volcanic basement consists of multiple flows of aphyric microcrystalline to finely crystalline basalts containing plagioclase and clinopyroxene with rare olivine pseudomorphs. New XRF major and ICPMS trace element data confirm findings of shipboard analysis that the basalts are moderately differentiated (6-14 % MgO; Mg# = 51-83; 73-490 ppm Cr and 58-350 ppm Ni) with downcore variations related to flow units. Ti/V and Ti/Sc ratios are 16-27 and 75-152, respectively, with lowest values at the base of the core. One prominent characteristic of the basalts is their depletion of immobile highly incompatible elements compared with MORB. Basalts have MORB-normalized La/Nd of 0.5 to 0.9, and most have Th/La 3 and primitive mantle normalized La/Yb > 1. Our results suggest that mantle melting at the onset of subduction involved exceptionally depleted sources. Enrichment over time may be related to increasing subduction inputs and/or other processes, such as entrainment of fertile asthenosphere during extension of the overriding plate.

  8. DESTRUCTIVE LESIONS OF BONES AS A RESULT OF MYCOBACTERIAL PROCESS IN CHILDREN WITH INITIAL IMMUNODEFICIENCIES (CLINICAL, DIAGNOSTICAL AND TACTIC PECULIARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Mushkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial immunodeficiencies are genetically conditioned defects of immune system; they are the basis for generalized infections including those induced by mycobacteria of tuberculosis complex. The lesions of skeleton in those patients are of different types depending on the kind of immunodeficiency. The article presents the results of clinical observation, conservative and surgical treatment of 12 children with mycobacterial lesions of skeleton on the ground different initial immunodeficiencies — severe combined immune deficiency, chronic granulematosis and insufficiency of interferon and interleukin 12.Key words: children, initial immunodeficiency, mycobacterial infection, bone lesions, surgical treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 60–64

  9. Initial results of high resolution L-H transition studies on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G; Rhodes, T L; Doyle, E J; Peebles, W A; Zeng, L; Burrell, K H; McKee, G R; Groebner, R J; Evans, T E

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the L-H transition in tokamaks has been an important area of research for more than two decades. High time resolution diagnostics on DIII-D allow detailed characterization of the L-H transition and, therefore, testing and benchmarking of theoretical models. An experiment was performed in DIII-D utilizing a novel, high temporal and spatial resolution reflectometer density profile system to measure densities from the SOL to the inside separatrix. Initial data analysis indicates different density profile evolution during L-H transitions in upper single-null and lower single-null divertor configuration plasmas. A detailed comparison of the density gradient and fluctuation changes is presented for these two cases

  10. Performance of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and initial experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Conde, M.; Cox, G.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.; Barov, N.

    1996-01-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility has begun its experimental program. This unique facility is designed to address advanced acceleration research which requires very short, intense electron bunches. The facility incorporates two photo-cathode based electron sources. One produces up to 100 nC, multi-kiloamp 'drive' bunches which are used to excite wakefields in dielectric loaded structures and in plasma. The second source produces much lower intensity 'witness' pulses which are used to probe the fields produced by the drive. The drive and witness pulses can be precisely timed as well as laterally positioned with respect to each other. We discuss commissioning, initial experiments, and outline plans for a proposed 1 GeV demonstration accelerator. (author)

  11. Performance of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility and initial experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Conde, M.; Cox, G.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.; Barov, N.

    1996-01-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility has begun its experimental program. It is designed to address advanced acceleration research requiring very short, intense electron bunches. It incorporates two photocathode based electron sources. One produces up to 100 nC, multi-kiloamp 'drive' bunches which are used to excite wakefields in dielectric loaded structures and in plasma. The second source produces much lower intensity 'witness' pulses which are used to probe the fields produced by the drive. The drive and witness pulses can be precisely timed as well as laterally positioned with respect to each other. This paper discusses commissioning, initial experiments, and outline plans for a proposed 1 GeV demonstration accelerator

  12. Initial results of high resolution L-H transition studies on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rhodes, T L [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Doyle, E J [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Peebles, W A [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zeng, L [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); McKee, G R [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Evans, T E [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Understanding the L-H transition in tokamaks has been an important area of research for more than two decades. High time resolution diagnostics on DIII-D allow detailed characterization of the L-H transition and, therefore, testing and benchmarking of theoretical models. An experiment was performed in DIII-D utilizing a novel, high temporal and spatial resolution reflectometer density profile system to measure densities from the SOL to the inside separatrix. Initial data analysis indicates different density profile evolution during L-H transitions in upper single-null and lower single-null divertor configuration plasmas. A detailed comparison of the density gradient and fluctuation changes is presented for these two cases.

  13. Fibrosis of the pancreas: the initial tissue damage and the resulting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöppel, Günter; Detlefsen, Sönke; Feyerabend, Bernd

    2004-07-01

    Fibrosis in the pancreas is caused by such processes as necrosis/apoptosis, inflammation or duct obstruction. The initial event that induces fibrogenesis in the pancreas is an injury that may involve the interstitial mesenchymal cells, the duct cells and/or the acinar cells. Damage to any one of these tissue compartments of the pancreas is associated with cytokine-triggered transformation of resident fibroblasts/pancreatic stellate cells into myofibroblasts and the subsequent production and deposition of extracellular matrix. Depending on the site of injury in the pancreas and the involved tissue compartment, predominantly inter(peri)lobular fibrosis (as in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis), periductal fibrosis (as in hereditary pancreatitis), periductal and interlobular fibrosis (as in autoimmune pancreatitis) or diffuse inter- and intralobular fibrosis (as in obstructive chronic pancreatitis) develops.

  14. Initial results from the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Auto/Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP), a cooperative effort by the three major US auto companies and fourteen oil companies, is the most comprehensive research effort ever undertaken to develop data on the air quality effects of the use of various motor fuels in various automotive systems and the relative cost-effectiveness of various fuel/vehicle combinations. Phase 1 of the Program, at a cost of about $15 million, is examining emissions and air quality impacts from current and older vehicles using reformulated gasolines with widely different values of aromatics content, olefin content, oxygenate content and type, sulfur content, vapor pressure (RVP) and 90% distillation temperature. Emissions from Flexible and Variable Fuel vehicles using methanol/gasoline mixtures are also being examined. A second phase with a $25 million budget over three years has also been approved. Initial findings for the Phase 1 study and Phase 2 plans are presented

  15. Initial formulation results for in situ grouting of a waste trench at ORNL Site No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Spence, R.D.; Godsey, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted by the Chemical Technology Division to assist the Environmental Sciences Division in developing a grout formulation for use in testing in situ grouting in a waste trench at ORNL Site 6. This final report satisfies the milestone of Subtack 12 entitled, ''Low Level Waste (LLW) Trench Grouting Assessment,'' which was initially issued as RAP-86-7, December 31, 1985. Grouts prepared from dry-solid blends containing Type I Portland cement, ASTM Class C or Class F fly ash, and bentonite, mixed water at ratios of 10 to 15 lb/gal, were evaluated. The grouts prepared with ASTM Class C fly ash exhibited significantly better properties than those prepared with ASTM Class F fly ash. The grouts containing ASTM Class C fly ash satisfy tentative performance criteria for the project. 8 refs., 7 tabs

  16. Initial experimental results from the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Dempster, W F; Alling, A; Allen, J P; Rasmussen, R; Silverstone, S; Van Thillo, M

    2003-01-01

    An initial experiment in the Laboratory Biosphere facility, Santa Fe, New Mexico, was conducted May-August 2002 using a soil-based system with light levels (at 12 h per day) of 58-mol m-2 d-1. The crop tested was soybean, cultivar Hoyt, which produced an aboveground biomass of 2510 grams. Dynamics of a number of trace gases showed that methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen gas had initial increases that were substantially reduced in concentration by the end of the experiment. Methane was reduced from 209 ppm to 11 ppm, and nitrous oxide from 5 ppm to 1.4 ppm in the last 40 days of the closure experiment. Ethylene was at elevated levels compared to ambient during the flowering/fruiting phase of the crop. Soil respiration from the 5.37 m2 (1.46 m3) soil component was estimated at 23.4 ppm h-1 or 1.28 g CO2 h-1 or 5.7 g CO2 m-2 d-1. Phytorespiration peaked near the time of fruiting at about 160 ppm h-1. At the height of plant growth, photosynthesis CO2 draw down was as high as 3950 ppm d-1, and averaged 265 ppm h-1 (whole day averages) during lighted hours with a range of 156-390 ppm h-1. During this period, the chamber required injections of CO2 to continue plant growth. Oxygen levels rose along with the injections of carbon dioxide. Upon several occasions, CO2 was allowed to be drawn down to severely limiting levels, bottoming at around 150 ppm. A strong positive correlation (about 0.05 ppm h-1 ppm-1 with r2 about 0.9 for the range 1000-5000 ppm) was observed between atmospheric CO2 concentration and the rate of fixation up to concentrations of around 8800 ppm CO2. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ten Years of Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): Results and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    During recent decades, Northern Eurasia was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts and heat waves alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next. The region stores nearly half of the Earth's terrestrial carbon in permafrost, wetlands, and forested land, so ecosystem changes that release stored carbon could profoundly affect the world's climate. Furthermore, changes to climate and to hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are starting to affect daily life. For example, infrastructure is collapsing as permafrost thaws, severe winter storms increasingly bring businesses to a halt, and a growing water deficit is beginning to strain agricultural production and forestry. To pool resources and facilitate research, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than165 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. Among the numerous Institutional and private sponsors from the United States, European Union, Russia, China, and Japan, the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. At this presentation we shall overview the environmental studies conducted by the NEESPI community, brief the audience about the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we are going to initiate preparation of the book

  18. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines. OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  19. Size Effect on Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Coal-Rock Damage Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal-gas outburst, rock burst, and other mine dynamic disasters are closely related to the instability and failure of coal-rock. Coal-rock is the assemblies of mineral particles of varying sizes and shapes bonded together by cementing materials. The damage and rupture process of coal-rock is accompanied by acoustic emission (AE, which can be used as an effective means to monitor and predict the instability of coal-rock body. In this manuscript, considering the size effect of coal-rock, the influence of different height to diameter ratio on the acoustic emission characteristics of coal-rock damage evolution was discussed by microparticle flow PFC2D software platform. The results show that coal-rock size influences the uniaxial compressive strength, peak strain, and elastic modulus of itself; the size effect has little effect on the acoustic emission law of coal-rock damage and the effects of the size of coal-rock samples on acoustic emission characteristics are mainly reflected in three aspects: the triggering time of acoustic emission, the strain range of strong acoustic emission, and the intensity of acoustic emission; the damage evolution of coal-rock specimen can be divided into 4 stages: initial damage, stable development, accelerated development, and damage.

  20. Studies on the mechanical behavior of rock anchors. ; Results of in-situ pull-out tests. Rock anchor no rikigaku kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Gen prime ichi shiken ni okeru anchor no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, K.; Ebisu, S.; Nakagawa, M.; Usui, M.; Someya, T.; Machida, N. (Okumura Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-31

    The rock anchor method is planned to apply to some permanent structures but since this method was developed for temporary structures, the clarification of the transferring mechanism of force from an anchor to a rockmass, the fracture mechanism and the development of the dynamic model have not been established. This paper arranged the data obtained by a full-scale, in-situ pulling out test of a rock anchor as the first step to understand the dynamic behavior and analyzed by paying attetion to the modulus of deformation of the rockmass where the anchor was embedded to elucidate the affecting degree of rockmass modulus of deformation, the embedded length and the tendon diameter on the dynamic behavior of the anchor. The rock anchor behavior could be expressed accurately by applying a theoretical solution derived by the balancing condition of forces at the boundary face. Especially, when the rockmass is uniform and the fracture occurrs at the interface between the tendon and grout, this approach can express the fracture with the accuracy similar to that made by the finite element method. 6 refs., 11 figs.,1 tab.

  1. Results of a Medicare Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Readmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Surya P; Wells, J Michael; Iyer, Anand S; Kirkpatrick, deNay P; Parekh, Trisha M; Leach, Lauren T; Anderson, Erica M; Sanders, J Greg; Nichols, Jessica K; Blackburn, Cindy C; Dransfield, Mark T

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 20% of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are readmitted within 30 days of discharge. In addition to implementing penalties for excess readmissions, the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has developed Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiatives to improve outcomes and control costs. To evaluate whether a comprehensive COPD multidisciplinary intervention focusing on inpatient, transitional, and outpatient care as part of our institution's BPCI participation would reduce 30-day all-cause readmission rates for COPD exacerbations and reduce overall costs. We performed a pre-postintervention study comparing all-cause readmissions and costs after index hospitalization for Medicare-only patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. The primary outcome was the difference in 30-day all-cause readmission rate compared with historical control subjects; secondary outcomes included the 90-day all-cause readmission rate and also health care costs compared with BPCI target prices. Seventy-eight consecutive Medicare patients were prospectively enrolled in the BPCI intervention in 2014 and compared with 109 patients in the historical group from 2012. Patients in BPCI were more likely to receive regular follow-up phone calls, pneumococcal and influenza vaccines, home health care, durable medical equipment, and pulmonary rehabilitation, and to attend pulmonary clinic. There was no difference in all-cause readmission rates at 30 days (BPCI, 12 events [15.4%] vs. non-BPCI, 19 events [17.4%]; P = 0.711), and 90 days (21 [26.9%] vs. 37 [33.9%]; P = 0.306). Compared with BPCI target prices, we incurred 4.3% lower 90-day costs before accounting for significant investment from the health system. A Medicare BPCI intervention did not reduce 30-day all-cause readmission rates or overall costs after hospitalization for acute exacerbation of COPD. Although additional studies

  2. Results From the Audit of DOD’s American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Initial Data Quality Review Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-03

    Results From the Audit of DoD’s American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Initial Data Quality Review Implementation Memorandum No. D-2010-RAM...number. 1. REPORT DATE 03 NOV 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Results From the Audit of...SUBJECT: Results From the Audit of DOD’ s American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of2009 Initial Data Quality Review Implementation (Report No. D

  3. REFIR/BB initial observations in the water vapour rotational band: Results from a field campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.; Grieco, G.; Leone, L.; Restieri, R.; Serio, C.; Bianchini, G.; Palchetti, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Cuomo, V.; Masiello, G.; Pavese, G.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the far infrared spectral region 17-50 μm as a remote sensing tool in atmospheric sciences, since this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic molecular rotational band for water vapour. Much of the Earth energy lost to space is radiated through this spectral region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Breadboard (REFIR/BB) spectrometer was born because of the quest to make observations in the far infrared. REFIR/BB is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a sampling resolution of 0.5 cm -1 and it was tested for the first time in the field to check its reliability and radiometric performance. The field campaign was held at Toppo di Castelgrande (40 o 49' N, 15 o 27' E, 1258 m a. s. l.), a mountain site in South Italy. The spectral and radiometric performance of the instrument and initial observations are shown in this paper. Comparisons to both (1) BOMEM MR100 Fourier Transform spectrometer observations and (2) line-by-line radiative transfer calculations for selected clear sky are presented and discussed. These comparisons (1) show a very nice agreement between radiance measured by REFIR/BB and by BOMEM MR100 and (2) demonstrate that REFIR/BB accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the water vapour rotational band

  4. Core competencies for emergency medicine clerkships: results of a Canadian consensus initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penciner, Rick; Woods, Robert A; McEwen, Jill; Lee, Richard; Langhan, Trevor; Bandiera, Glen

    2013-01-01

    There is no consensus on what constitutes the core competencies for emergency medicine (EM) clerkship rotations in Canada. Existing EM curricula have been developed through informal consensus and often focus on EM content to be known at the end of training rather than what is an appropriate focus for a time-limited rotation in EM. We sought to define the core competencies for EM clerkship in Canada through consensus among an expert panel of Canadian EM educators. We used a modified Delphi method and the CanMEDS 2005 Physician Competency Framework to develop a consensus among expert EM educators from across Canada. Thirty experts from nine different medical schools across Canada participated on the panel. The initial list consisted of 152 competencies organized in the seven domains of the CanMEDS 2005 Physician Competency Framework. After the second round of the Delphi process, the list of competencies was reduced to 62 (59% reduction). A complete list of competencies is provided. This study established a national consensus defining the core competencies for EM clerkship in Canada.

  5. Initial results for a 170 GHz high power ITER waveguide component test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Timothy; Barker, Alan; Dukes, Carl; Killough, Stephen; Kaufman, Michael; White, John; Bell, Gary; Hanson, Greg; Rasmussen, Dave

    2014-10-01

    A high power microwave test stand is being setup at ORNL to enable prototype testing of 170 GHz cw waveguide components being developed for the ITER ECH system. The ITER ECH system will utilize 63.5 mm diameter evacuated corrugated waveguide and will have 24 >150 m long runs. A 170 GHz 1 MW class gyrotron is being developed by Communications and Power Industries and is nearing completion. A HVDC power supply, water-cooling and control system has been partially tested in preparation for arrival of the gyrotron. The power supply and water-cooling system are being designed to operate for >3600 second pulses to simulate the operating conditions planned for the ITER ECH system. The gyrotron Gaussian beam output has a single mirror for focusing into a 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide in the vertical plane. The output beam and mirror are enclosed in an evacuated duct with absorber for stray radiation. Beam alignment with the waveguide is a critical task so a combination of mirror tilt adjustments and a bellows for offsets will be provided. Analysis of thermal patterns on thin witness plates will provide gyrotron mode purity and waveguide coupling efficiency data. Pre-prototype waveguide components and two dummy loads are available for initial operational testing of the gyrotron. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  6. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  7. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  8. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  9. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  10. Groundwater degassing and two-phase flow in fractured rock: Summary of results and conclusions achieved during the period 1994-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, J.; Destouni, G.

    2001-06-01

    drifts, by summarising and systematically interpreting all available laboratory and field investigations that have been conducted within the SKB degassing and two-phase flow programme. Data from various sites in Sweden show that the volumetric percent gas coming out of solution as the pressure of deep groundwater is lowered down to atmospheric pressure is generally less than 5%. Laboratory experiments and an analytical expression showed that conditions often are favourable for trapping and accumulation of gas bubbles in the fracture pore space (once bubbles are formed), implying that local fracture gas saturation degrees may become considerable, even though the evolved percent gas per unit volume flowing water is relatively low. For instance, a saturation degree of 40% was observed in a laboratory fracture for 7% evolved gas. However, degassing effects such as inflow reductions to boreholes and drifts will not be considerable unless the potential degassing zone (where the water pressure is lower than the gas bubble pressure) is sufficiently large in relation to the total length of the fracture. A series of borehole test conducted at Aespoe HRL between 300 and 450 meters depth indicated that degassing only causes considerable flow reductions for gas contents that are well above the normal ones in Swedish granitic bedrock. This field result was reproduced by a predictive degassing model, developed considering independent degassing observations in the laboratory. Since the model predictions were shown to be robust with regard to plausible variable ranges for rock fractures intersecting boreholes at depths between 20 and 600 metres, we conclude more generally that groundwater degassing will not cause considerable inflow reductions in fractures intersecting open boreholes under conditions normal for Swedish granitic bedrock. We also considered the relatively large drift inflow reductions observed in the Stripa simulated drift experiment. These reductions were hypothesised to

  11. Magnetic properties of natural pyrrhotite Part I : Behaviour of initial susceptibility and saturation-magnetization-related rock-magnetic parameters in a grain-size dependent framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The grain-size dependence of the initial susceptibility, saturation magnetization, saturation remanence , coercive force, remanent coercive force and remanent acquisition coercive force, is reported for four natural pyrrhotites in a grain-size range from 250 µm down to <5 µm.

  12. New paleomagnetic results from the Permian and Mesozoic rocks in central and northeast Thailand: their implications for the construction of the Indochina block in Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Yan, Y.; Huang, B.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of the Indochina block, aiming to reconstruct the paleogeography, have been undertaken for several decades. Since the Indochina block is lack of reliable paleomagnetic data to constraint its paleo-positions during the Middle Permian to Upper Triassic, the paleogeography reconstruction is still in debate between different models reported. Here we present new paleomagnetic data of Middle Permian to Upper Triassic sediment rocks from the Indochina block in Thailand, and recalculate paleomagnetic data reported by different authors. We collected the Permian samples in 20 sites distributed in the central Thailand, and Triassic samples from the Huai Hin Lat and Nam Phong formations in 13 sites in the northern Thailand.The magnetic directions of the 11 sites of Permian limestones are not significantly clustered after tilt correction which implying a remagnetized result. Remarkably, in geographic coordinate, the 11 sites were distributed along a circle showing a similar inclination which is 22.9° implying the paleolatitude to be about 12°. Totally, 13 sites from the Huai Hin Lat formation are included in the calculation of the formation mean direction Dg/Ig = 21.4°/38.1°, kg = 19.5, α95 = 9.6° before and Ds/Is = 43.0°/48.0°, ks = 47.4, α95 = 6.1°, N = 13 after bedding correction. A pre-folding characteristic magnetization is suggested by the positive fold test result derived from the Huai Hin Lat formation, and thus implies a primary remanence of the Norian Stage Upper Triassic rocks. A new Nam Phong formation mean direction derived from 11 sites is Dg/Ig = 36.5°/31.3°, kg = 14.7, α95 = 12.3°before and Ds/Is = 36.4°/37.8°, ks = 68.5, α95 = 5.6°, N = 11 after bedding correction. The two formation mean directions correspond to the magnetic pole positions , Plat./Plon=48.7°N/165.9°E, A95=7.2° and Plat./Plon=55.2°N/178.0°E, A95=5.9°, respectively. A remarkable tectonic movement (~8° southward) of the Indochina block from the age of

  13. 75 FR 71072 - Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... factors including, but not limited to: (1) Management; (2) production facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base. See Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... y Placa resulted in little or no change in management, production facilities, supplier relationships...

  14. Tensile rock mass strength estimated using InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2012-11-01

    The large-scale strength of rock is known to be lower than the strength determined from small-scale samples in the laboratory. However, it is not well known how strength scales with sample size. I estimate kilometer-scale tensional rock mass strength by measuring offsets across new tensional fractures (joints), formed above a shallow magmatic dike intrusion in western Arabia in 2009. I use satellite radar observations to derive 3D ground displacements and by quantifying the extension accommodated by the joints and the maximum extension that did not result in a fracture, I put bounds on the joint initiation threshold of the surface rocks. The results indicate that the kilometer-scale tensile strength of the granitic rock mass is 1–3 MPa, almost an order of magnitude lower than typical laboratory values.

  15. Tensile rock mass strength estimated using InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale strength of rock is known to be lower than the strength determined from small-scale samples in the laboratory. However, it is not well known how strength scales with sample size. I estimate kilometer-scale tensional rock mass strength by measuring offsets across new tensional fractures (joints), formed above a shallow magmatic dike intrusion in western Arabia in 2009. I use satellite radar observations to derive 3D ground displacements and by quantifying the extension accommodated by the joints and the maximum extension that did not result in a fracture, I put bounds on the joint initiation threshold of the surface rocks. The results indicate that the kilometer-scale tensile strength of the granitic rock mass is 1–3 MPa, almost an order of magnitude lower than typical laboratory values.

  16. Observations of Fabric Development in Polycrystalline Ice at Basal Pressures: Methods and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, D. J.; Baker, I.; Cole, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and predicting the flow of polycrystalline ice is crucial to ice sheet modeling and paleoclimate reconstruction from ice cores. Ice flow rates depend strongly on the fabric (i.e. the distribution of grain sizes and crystallographic orientations) which evolves over time and enhances the flow rate in the direction of applied stress. The mechanisms for fabric evolution in ice have been extensively studied at atmospheric pressures, but little work has been done to observe these processes at the high pressures experienced deep within ice sheets where long-term changes in ice rheology are expected to have significance. We conducted compressive creep tests on a 917 kg m-3 polycrystalline ice specimen at 20 MPa hydrostatic pressure, thus simulating ~2,000 m depth. Initial specimen grain orientations were random, typical grain diameters were 1.2 mm, and the applied creep stress was 0.3 MPa. Subsequent microstructural analyses on the deformed specimen and a similarly prepared, undeformed specimen allowed characterization of crystal fabric evolution under pressure. Our microstructural analysis technique simultaneously collected grain shape and size data from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs and obtained crystallographic orientation data via Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). Combining these measurements allows rapid analysis of the ice fabric over large numbers of grains, yielding statistically useful numbers of grain size and full c- and a-axis grain orientation data. The combined creep and microstructural data demonstrate pressure-dependent effects on the mechanical and microstructural evolution of polycrystalline ice. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed phenomena, and future directions for hydrostatic creep testing.

  17. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  18. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments.

  19. EPA program to demonstrate mitigation measures for indoor radon: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.; Scott, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    EPA has installed radon mitigation techniques in 18 concrete block basement homes in the Reading Prong region of eastern Pennsylvania. Three alternative active soil ventilation approaches were tested: suction on the void network within the concrete block basement walls; suction on the footing drain tile system; and suction on the aggregate underneath the concrete slab. The initial 18 mitigation installations were designed to demonstrate techniques which would have low to moderate installation and operating costs. Where effective closure of major openings in the block walls is possible, suction on the wall voids has proved to be extremely effective, able to reduce homes having very high radon Working Levels (up to 7 WL) to 0.02 WL and less. However, where inaccessible major openings are concealed within the wall, it is more difficult and/or more expensive to develop adequate suction on the void network, and performance is reduced. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the steps required to achieve high performance with wall suction in homes with such difficult-to close walls. Drain tile suction can be very effective where the drain tiles completely surround the home; drain tile suction is the least expensive and most aesthetic of the active soil ventilation approaches, but appears susceptible to spikes in radon levels when the basement is depressurized. Sub-slab suction as tested in this study - with one or two individual suction points in the slab - does not appear adequate to ensure sustained high levels of reduction on block wall basement homes; it appears to effectively treat slab-related soil gas entry routes so long as a uniform layer of aggregate is present, but it does not appear to effectively treat the wall-related entry routes. Closure of major openings might have improved sub-slab suction performance. 5 figures, 3 tables

  20. Imaging of tumor viability in lung cancer. Initial results using 23Na-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzler, T.; Apfaltrer, P.; Haneder, S.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Fink, C.; Konstandin, S.; Schad, L.; Schmid-Bindert, G.; Manegold, C.; Wenz, F.

    2012-01-01

    23 Na-MRI has been proposed as a potential imaging biomarker for the assessment of tumor viability and the evaluation of therapy response but has not yet been evaluated in patients with lung cancer. We aimed to assess the feasibility of 23 Na-MRI in patients with lung cancer. Three patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung were examined on a clinical 3 Tesla MRI system (Magnetom TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Feasibility of 23 Na-MRI images was proven by comparison and fusion of 23 Na-MRI with 1 H-MR, CT and FDG-PET-CT images. 23 Na signal intensities (SI) of tumor and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the spinal canal were measured and the SI ratio in tumor and CSF was calculated. One chemonaive patient was examined before and after the initiation of combination therapy (Carboplatin, Gemcitabin, Cetuximab). All 23 Na-MRI examinations were successfully completed and were of diagnostic quality. Fusion of 23 Na-MRI images with 1 H-MRI, CT and FDG-PET-CT was feasible in all patients and showed differences in solid and necrotic tumor areas. The mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF SI ratio were 13.3 ± 1.8 x 103 and 0.83 ± 0.14, respectively. In necrotic tumors, as suggested by central non-FDG-avid areas, the mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF ratio were 19.4 x 103 and 1.10, respectively. 23 Na-MRI is feasible in patients with lung cancer and could provide valuable functional molecular information regarding tumor viability, and potentially treatment response. (orig.)

  1. Successfully Reducing Hospitalizations of Nursing Home Residents: Results of the Missouri Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Popejoy, Lori; Vogelsmeier, Amy; Galambos, Colleen; Alexander, Greg; Flesner, Marcia; Crecelius, Charles; Ge, Bin; Petroski, Gregory

    2017-11-01

    The goals of the Missouri Quality Initiative (MOQI) for long-stay nursing home residents were to reduce the frequency of avoidable hospital admissions and readmissions, improve resident health outcomes, improve the process of transitioning between inpatient hospitals and nursing facilities, and reduce overall healthcare spending without restricting access to care or choice of providers. The MOQI was one of 7 program sites in the United States, with specific interventions unique to each site tested for the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) Innovations Center. A prospective, single group intervention design, the MOQI included an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) embedded full-time within each nursing home (NH) to influence resident care outcomes. Data were collected continuously for more than 3 years from an average of 1750 long-stay Medicare, Medicaid, and private pay residents living each day in 16 participating nursing homes in urban, metro, and rural communities within 80 miles of a major Midwestern city in Missouri. Performance feedback reports were provided to each facility summarizing their all-cause hospitalizations and potentially avoidable hospitalizations as well as a support team of social work, health information technology, and INTERACT/Quality Improvement Coaches. The MOQI achieved a 30% reduction in all-cause hospitalizations and statistically significant reductions in 4 single quarters of the 2.75 years of full implementation of the intervention for long-stay nursing home residents. As the population of older people explodes in upcoming decades, it is critical to find good solutions to deal with increasing costs of health care. APRNs, working with multidisciplinary support teams, are a good solution to improving care and reducing costs if all nursing home residents have access to APRNs nationwide. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring success: results from a national survey of recruitment and retention initiatives in the nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Carthon, J Margo; Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Chittams, Jesse; Park, Elizabeth; Guevara, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify common components of diversity pipeline programs across a national sample of nursing institutions and determine what effect these programs have on increasing underrepresented minority enrollment and graduation. Linked data from an electronic survey conducted November 2012 to March 2013 and American Association of Colleges of Nursing baccalaureate graduation and enrollment data (2008 and 2012). Academic and administrative staff of 164 nursing schools in 26 states, including Puerto Rico in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to (1) describe organizational features of nursing diversity pipeline programs and (2) determine significant trends in underrepresented minorities' graduation and enrollment between nursing schools with and without diversity pipeline programs Twenty percent (n = 33) of surveyed nursing schools reported a structured diversity pipeline program. The most frequent program measures associated with pipeline programs included mentorship, academic, and psychosocial support. Asian, Hispanic, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander nursing student enrollment increased between 2008 and 2012. Hispanic/Latino graduation rates increased (7.9%-10.4%, p = .001), but they decreased among Black (6.8%-5.0%, p = .004) and Native American/Pacific Islander students (2.1 %-0.3%, p ≥ .001). Nursing diversity pipeline programs are associated with increases in nursing school enrollment and graduation for some, although not all, minority students. Future initiatives should build on current trends while creating targeted strategies to reverse downward graduation trends among Black, Native American, and Pacific Island nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The green bank northern celestial cap pulsar survey. I. Survey description, data analysis, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, K.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Leake, S. [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, One West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Lynch, R. S.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J.; Kaplan, D. L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Boyles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I., E-mail: stovall.kevin@gmail.com [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); and others

    2014-08-10

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > –40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm{sup –3}) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of –1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M{sub J}). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  4. Interaction of thermal and mechanical processes in steep permafrost rock walls: A conceptual approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draebing, D.; Krautblatter, M.; Dikau, R.

    2014-12-01

    Degradation of permafrost rock wall decreases stability and can initiate rock slope instability of all magnitudes. Rock instability is controlled by the balance of shear forces and shear resistances. The sensitivity of slope stability to warming results from a complex interplay of shear forces and resistances. Conductive, convective and advective heat transport processes act to warm, degrade and thaw permafrost in rock walls. On a seasonal scale, snow cover changes are a poorly understood key control of the timing and extent of thawing and permafrost degradation. We identified two potential critical time windows where shear forces might exceed shear resistances of the rock. In early summer combined hydrostatic and cryostatic pressure can cause a peak in shear force exceeding high frozen shear resistance and in autumn fast increasing shear forces can exceed slower increasing shear resistance. On a multiannual system scale, shear resistances change from predominantly rock-mechanically to ice-mechanically controlled. Progressive rock bridge failure results in an increase of sensitivity to warming. Climate change alters snow cover and duration and, hereby, thermal and mechanical processes in the rock wall. Amplified thawing of permafrost will result in higher rock slope instability and rock fall activity. We present a holistic conceptual approach connecting thermal and mechanical processes, validate parts of the model with geophysical and kinematic data and develop future scenarios to enhance understanding on system scale.

  5. Some initial results from the new SLAC [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] permeameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.K.; Early, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    A new permeameter has been built and is now available for testing samples of steel and other ferromagnetic materials for their magnetic characteristics such as permeability, remanent induction, coercive force and saturation induction. The present range of operation for the permeameter is from 0.5 Oe to 1250 Oe. Results are presented for two samples of low-carbon steel as well as some preliminary results for Vanadium Permendur. 4 refs., 8 figs

  6. Initial experience with a group presentation of study results to research participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Stephen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite ethical imperatives, informing research participants about the results of the studies in which they take part is not often performed. This is due, in part, to the costs and burdens of communicating with each participant after publication of the results. Methods Following the closeout and publication of a randomized clinical trial of saw palmetto for treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, patients were invited back to the research center to participate in a group presentation of the study results. Results Approximately 10% of participants attended one of two presentation sessions. Reaction to the experience of the group presentation was very positive among the attendees. Conclusion A group presentation to research participants is an efficient method of communicating study results to those who desire to be informed and was highly valued by those who attended. Prospectively planning for such presentations and greater scheduling flexibility may result in higher attendance rates. Trial Registration Number Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00037154

  7. Initial results from a reconnaissance of cyanobacteria and associated toxins in Illinois, August--October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrio, Paul J.; Ostrodka, Lenna M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Good, Gregg; Holland, Teri

    2013-01-01

    Ten lakes and two rivers in Illinois were sampled in August–October 2012 to determine the concentrations and spatial distribution of cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins throughout the State. The reconnaissance was a collaborative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Sample results indicated that concentrations of both total cyanobacterial cells and microcystin were commonly at levels likely to result in adverse human health effects, according to World Health Organization guidance values. Concentrations generally decreased from August to October following precipitation events and lower temperatures.

  8. Rock slope instabilities in Norway: First systematic hazard and risk classification of 22 unstable rock slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Martina; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Oppikofer, Thierry; Penna, Ivanna

    2016-04-01

    average displacement rates of up to 6 cm are measured with differential GNSS and InSAR. Cosmogenic nuclide dating suggests an acceleration of the present displacement compared to the average displacement since the initiation of the gravitational movement approximately 7000 years ago. Furthermore, there exists a pre-historic rock avalanche 3 km north along the same slope. These characteristics result in a very high hazard for the Gamanjunni unstable rock slope. The consequence analyses focus on the possibility of life loss only. For this the number of persons in the area that can be affected by either the rock slope failure itself and/or its secondary consequence of a displacement wave in case that a rock slope failure would hit a water body is estimated. For Gamanjunni the direct consequences are approximately 40 casualties, representing medium consequences. A total of 48 scenarios were finally analyzed for hazard, consequences and risk. The results are plotted in a risk matrix with 5 hazard and 5 consequence classes, leading to 4 risk classes. One unstable rock slope was classified as very high hazard, 9 scenarios as high hazard, 25 as medium hazard and 13 as low hazard, while none were classified as very low hazard. The consequence analyses for those scenarios resulted in 5 scenarios with very high consequences (>1000 potential casualties), 13 scenarios with high consequences (100-1000 casualties), 9 scenarios with medium consequences (10-100 casualties), 6 scenarios with low consequences (1-10 casualties) and 15 scenarios with very low consequences (0-1 casualties). This resulted in a high risk for 6 scenarios, medium to high risk for 16 scenarios, medium risk for 7 scenarios and low risk for 19 scenarios. These results allow determining which unstable rock slopes do not require further follow-up and on which further investigations and/or mitigation measures should be considered.

  9. Initial Results of an Intercomparison of AMS-Based Atmospheric 14CO2 Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, John; Lehman, Scott; Wolak, Chad; Turnbull, Jocelyn; Dunn, Gregory; Graven, Heather; Keeling, Ralph; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita Th; Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Smith, Andrew M.; Allison, Colin; Southon, John; Xu, Xiaomei; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Aoki, Shuji; Nakamura, Toshio; Guilderson, Thomas; LaFranchi, Brian; Mukai, Hitoshi; Terao, Yukio; Uchida, Masao; Kondo, Miyuki

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results from the first 3 rounds of an international intercomparison of measurements of Delta(CO2)-C-14 in liter-scale samples of whole air by groups using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The ultimate goal of the intercomparison is to allow the merging of Delta(CO2)-C-14

  10. Electron Beam Return-Current Losses in Solar Flares: Initial Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated electrons play an important role in the energetics of solar flares. Understanding the process or processes that accelerate these electrons to high, nonthermal energies also depends on understanding the evolution of these electrons between the acceleration region and the region where they are observed through their hard X-ray or radio emission. Energy losses in the co-spatial electric field that drives the current-neutralizing return current can flatten the electron distribution toward low energies. This in turn flattens the corresponding bremsstrahlung hard X-ray spectrum toward low energies. The lost electron beam energy also enhances heating in the coronal part of the flare loop. Extending earlier work by Knight & Sturrock (1977), Emslie (1980), Diakonov & Somov (1988), and Litvinenko & Somov (1991), I have derived analytical and semi-analytical results for the nonthermal electron distribution function and the self-consistent electric field strength in the presence of a steady-state return-current. I review these results, presented previously at the 2009 SPD Meeting in Boulder, CO, and compare them and computed X-ray spectra with numerical results obtained by Zharkova & Gordovskii (2005, 2006). The phYSical significance of similarities and differences in the results will be emphasized. This work is supported by NASA's Heliophysics Guest Investigator Program and the RHESSI Project.

  11. 75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... including, but not limited to, changes in management, production facilities, supplier relationships, and customer base. See Industrial Phosphoric Acid From Israel: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed... Corp. is the successor-in- interest to Phuong Nam Co., Ltd. With respect to management prior to and...

  12. A 10-Year Mechatronics Curriculum Development Initiative: Relevance, Content, and Results--Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Yost, S. A.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of a Mechatronics Curriculum Development effort--the design of an "Introduction to Mechatronics" course, the infusion of mechatronics activities throughout the curriculum and in outreach activities, and assessment results. In addition, the relevance and impact of such a curriculum on the education of engineers…

  13. 75 FR 61702 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    .../supplier relationships have not changed as a result of the corporate name change. To support its claims, A... 1, 2010, A Foods informed the Department that it changed its name from May Ao and [[Page 61703... that May Ao officially changed its name to A Foods on December 25, 2009. This constitutes changed...

  14. General Atomic HTGR fuel reprocessing pilot plant: results of initial sequential equipment operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In September 1977, the processing of 20 large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fuel elements was completed sequentially through the head-end cold pilot plant equipment. This report gives a brief description of the equipment and summarizes the results of the sequential operation of the pilot plant. 32 figures, 15 tables

  15. Tether dynamics and control results for tethered satellite system's initial flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapel, Jim D.; Flanders, Howard

    The recent Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) mission has provided a wealth of data concerning the dynamics of tethered systems in space and has demonstrated the effectiveness of operational techniques designed to control these dynamics. In this paper, we review control techniques developed for managing tether dynamics, and discuss the results of using these techniques for the Tethered Satellite System's maiden flight on STS-46. In particular, the flight results of controlling libration dynamics, string dynamics, and slack tether are presented. These results show that tether dynamics can be safely managed. The overall stability of the system was found to be surprisingly good even at relatively short tether lengths. In fact, the system operated in passive mode at a tether length of 256 meters for over 9 hours. Only monitoring of the system was required during this time. Although flight anomalies prevented the planned deployment to 20 km, the extended operations at shorter tether lengths have proven the viability of using tethers in space. These results should prove invaluable in preparing for future missions with tethered objects in space.

  16. Initial results of combined anterior mitral leaflet extension and myectomy in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Kofflard (Marcel); L.A. van Herwerden (Lex); D.J. Waldstein; P.N. Ruygrok (Peter); H. Boersma (Eric); M.A. Taams (Meindert); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractObjectives. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and functional results of combined anterior mitral leaflet extension and myectomy in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Background. Septal myectomy is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in

  17. Localization, Weakening and Fluid-rock Coupling Mechanisms in Gypsum: Development and Initial Data From a New, Combined, Rotary Shear and Acoustic Emission Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, P. M.; Pozzi, G.; Guerin-Marthe, S.; De Paola, N.; Nielsen, S. B.; Tomas, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present initial pilot data from a newly developed apparatus designed to measure Acoustic Emissions (AE) during the shear of fault gouges to 25 MPa normal stress and up to a maximum speed of 1 m/s, simulating dynamic earthquake processes. The sample assembly consists of a titanium-vanadium alloy (Ti-alloy, Ti90Al6V4) anvil fitted with 6 ports on the lower (stationary) section for AE sensors that record the activity of the shearing occurring in the gouge layer above. AE data are amplified from between 6 to 70 dB and recorded to disk continuously at a sampling rate of 10 MHz; calibration tests with Teflon shims confirm that the machine noise is negligible. Gouge thicknesses of approximately 2 mm are used, confined with a Teflon ring. Here we focus on Gypsum gouge from the Volterra region of Italy, sieved to give a constant gouge range of between 63 to 90 micrometers. Mechanical data show the onset of weakening after a slip of 1-3 cm for velocities of v = 100 to 1 cm s-1 respectively. Microstructural observations reveal a shear zone bounded by sharp mirror surfaces, and the development of a dehydration front, which is likely to have produced small pockets of water. We also record a characteristic `pulsing' AE signal generated after shearing is arrested, manifested as a series of energy spikes occurring at regular intervals. However, these signals are only generally seen for shear tests conducted on gypsum gouges (not in anhydrite) at 10cm per second or higher. Taken together, we interpret these observations as evidence that the initial shearing generated a thin slip zone that heats up rapidly, generating the dehydration front. Once motion ceases, pockets of trapped pressurized water combined with thermal stress generates distributed micro-fracturing detected as an initial swarm of high energy AE, and allows fluids to vent in pulses to the ambient atmosphere. An initial seismic -b value analysis of the continuous AE waveform also supports these initial findings.

  18. Operation results of 3-rd generation nuclear fuel WWER-440 in initial period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeev, V.; Panov, A.

    2011-01-01

    On unit 4 of Kola NPP trial operation of 3-rd generation's fuel began in 2010. Fuel assemblies of 3-rd generation (FA-3) have a number of design features that provide better operational characteristics. Concise description of a design and the basic advantages of fuel of 3-rd generation are described in articles. Increasing of efficiency of nuclear fuel usage will be achieved by reduction of the parasitic capture of thermal neutrons in constructional materials (weight of zirconium is reduced), optimization of uranium-water relation (increase in fuel elements step), increasing of uranium loading (usage of fuel pellets with increased diameter and without central hole in them). By results of trial operation mass transition to use of given type of assemblies in WWER-440 is possible. This report presents the basic outcomes of the trial operation, a brief survey of the obtained data. The basic characteristics of the reactor core with fuel of 3-rd generation are resulted in work. (authors)

  19. Advances in the diagnosis of hereditary kidney cancer: Initial results of a multigene panel test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kevin A; Syed, Jamil S; Espenschied, Carin R; LaDuca, Holly; Bhagat, Ansh M; Suarez-Sarmiento, Alfredo; O'Rourke, Timothy K; Brierley, Karina L; Hofstatter, Erin W; Shuch, Brian

    2017-11-15

    Panel testing has been recently introduced to evaluate hereditary cancer; however, limited information is available regarding its use in kidney cancer. The authors retrospectively reviewed test results and clinical data from patients who underwent targeted multigene panel testing of up to 19 genes associated with hereditary kidney cancer from 2013 to 2016. The frequency of positive (mutation/variant likely pathogenic), inconclusive (variant of unknown significance), and negative results was evaluated. A logistic regression analysis evaluated predictive factors for a positive test. Patients (n = 1235) had a median age at diagnosis of 46 years, which was significantly younger than the US population of individuals with kidney cancer (P kidney cancer. Panel tests may be particularly useful for patients who lack distinguishing clinical characteristics of known hereditary kidney cancer syndromes. The current results support the use of early age of onset for genetic counseling and/or testing. Cancer 2017;123:4363-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Design of a low cost miniaturized SFCW GPR with initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Swati; Sinha, Piyush; Gupta, Manish; Patel, Anand; Vedam, V. V.; Mevada, Pratik; Chavda, Rajesh; Shah, Amita; Putrevu, Deepak

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses about the design &developmental of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), various scientific and commercial applications of GPR along with the testing and results of GPR at Antarctica for Ice thickness measurement. GPR instruments are categorised as per their frequency of operation, which is inversely proportional to the depth of penetration. GPRs are also categorized as per method of operation which is time-domain or frequency-domain. Indian market is presently procuring GPRs from only foreign suppliers. Space Applications Centre (SAC) had taken up GPR as R&D Technological development with a view to benchmark the technology which may be transferred to local industry for mass production of instrument at a relatively cheaper cost (~20 times cheaper). Hence, this instrument presents a viable indigenous alternative. Also, the design and configuration was targeted for terrestrial as well as future interplanetary (Lander/Rover) missions of ISRO to map subsurface features. The developed GPR has a very large bandwidth (100%, i.e. bandwidth of 500MHz with centre-frequency of 500MHz) and high dynamic range along with the advantage of being highly portable (<10kg). The system was configured as a Stepped-Frequency-Continuous-Wave (SFCW) GPR which is a frequency domain GPR with the aim to increase the detection capabilities with respect to current systems. In order to achieve this goal, innovative electronic equipment have been designed and developed. Three prototypes were developed and two of them have been delivered for Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) in 2013 and 2014-15, respectively and promising results have been obtained. The results from the same closely compare with that from commercial GPR too.

  1. Initial results of strand produced in Phase 2 of the SSCL Vendor Qualification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, M.; Capone, D. II; Coleman, S.; Jones, B.; Seuntjens, J.

    1993-05-01

    In 1991, the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) instituted a program to qualify specific superconductor manufacturers for production of cable acceptable for use in both Collider Dipole (CDM) and Quadrupole (CQM) magnets. The SSCL Vendor Qualification Program (VQP) was designed with two Phases. Phase 1 was divided into two additional phases, 1A and 1B, which ran concurrently. In Phase 1B, each vendor was directed to manufacture roughly 3000 kg of cable using a ''baseline'' process. The baseline process was agreed to by both the SSCL and the vendor at the beginning of the VQP. In this phase, process control was closely monitored with the use of statistical methods and each vendor was graded based on these results. Phase 1A, known as the R ampersand D phase, was developed to allow each vendor an opportunity to optimize and improve on their baseline process in terms of both cost and manufacturability. In this phase, multifilament billets were designed to explore several key variables such as alternate alloy sources, process modifications and improved billet designs. At the end of Phase 1, the results from both 1A and 1B were evaluated at a review between the SSCL and each vendor, and a final Phase 2 process was generated and fixed using the best results. In Phase 2, each vendor is required to manufacture roughly 6000 kg of superconducting cable under a firm fixed price contract which can then be used to create an accurate price estimate for competitive bidding on the full rate production CDM and CQM contracts. At the end of Phase 2, each vendor must meet the minimum requirements outlined in the contract to become a qualified superconducting cable supplier. For one requirement, critical process variables identified by the SSCL Conductor Department at the beginning of the VQP will be evaluated to determine the quality and uniformity of the material produced during Phase 2 of the program

  2. Seroprevalence of Dengue Fever in US Army Special Operations Forces: Initial Results and the Way Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caci, Jennifer B; Blaylock, Jason M; De La Barrera, Rafael; Griggs, April N; Lin, Leyi; Jarman, Richard G; Thomas, Stephen J; Lyons, Arthur G

    2014-01-01

    The endemicity of dengue fever (DF) and, consequently, sequelae of DF are increasing worldwide. The increases are largely a result of widespread international travel and the increased range of the mosquito vectors. US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) personnel are at an increased risk of exposure to dengue based on their frequent deployments to and presence in dengue endemic areas worldwide. Repeated deployments to different endemic areas can increase the risk for developing the more serious sequelae of dengue: dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Information about the seroprevalence rate of dengue in USASOC personnel, in particular, is lacking and is critical to assessing the risk, tailoring preventive medicine countermeasures, leveraging field diagnostics, and maintaining mission capability. In the first part of a two-part project to assess baseline seroprevalence in USASOC units, a random, unit-stratified sample of 500 anonymous serum specimens from personnel assigned to the highest-risk units in USASOC were screened for dengue using a microneutralization assay. Of the 500 specimens screened, 56 (11.2%) of 500 had neutralizing titers (NT) (MN₅₀≥10) against at least one DENV serotype. Subsequent sample titration resulted in 48 (85.7%) of 56 of the samples with NT (MN₅₀≥10) against at least one dengue serotype for an overall dengue exposure rate of 9.6% (48 of 500). The second part of the ongoing project, started in 2012, was a multicenter, serosurveillance project using predeployment and postdeployment sera collected from USASOC personnel deployed to South and Central America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Preliminary results show a 13.2% (55 of 414) seropositivity rate. The significance of these findings as they relate to personal risk and operational impact is discussed. 2014.

  3. Initial results from 3D-DDTC detectors on p-type substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoboli, A., E-mail: zoboli@disi.unitn.i [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, and INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), Via Sommarive, 14, I-38100 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi, Via Sommarive, 18, I-38100 Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via A. Valerio, 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, and INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), Via Sommarive, 14, I-38100 Povo di Trento (Italy); Piemonte, C.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi, Via Sommarive, 18, I-38100 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-01-11

    Owing to their superior radiation hardness compared to planar detectors, 3D detectors are one of the most promising technologies for the LHC upgrade foreseen in 2017. Fondazione Bruno Kessler has developed 3D Double-side Double-Type Column (3D-DDTC) detectors providing a technological simplifications with respect to a standard 3D process while aiming at comparable detector performance. We present selected results from the electrical characterization of 3D-DDTC structures from the second batch made on p-type substrates, supported also by TCAD simulations.

  4. Initial results with time series forecasting of TJ-II heliac waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, G.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Vega, J.; Díaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses about how to apply forecasting techniques to predict future samples of plasma signals during a discharge. One application of the forecasting could be to detect in real time anomalous behaviors in fusion waveforms. The work describes the implementation of three prediction techniques; two of them based on machine learning methods such as artificial neural networks and support vector machines for regression. The results have shown that depending on the temporal horizon, the predictions match the real samples in most cases with an error less than 5%, even more the forecasting of five samples ahead can reach accuracy over 90% in most signals analyzed.

  5. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Fazzio, Robert T; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  6. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Denis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE for classification of breast masses.CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results.Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s. Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC, the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC.CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  7. Crystal habit modification of nickel-ferrite: development and results of initial laboratory testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.E.; Varrin, R.D.; Marks, C.; Barkatt, A.; Kim, K.; Fruzzetti, K.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the results of a laboratory test program conducted to assess the feasibility of using a new type of additive in the primary coolant of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) or to boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant. These additives, known as crystal habit modifiers (CHMs), could potentially be used to control the crystal habits, or shapes, that comprise primary deposits and crud. Similar additives are used throughout the chemical process industry to produce products with desirable crystalline structure, morphology, density, particle size, or surface area. Based on the successes of CHM technologies in other industries, CHMs may have the potential to alleviate problems associated with deposits in nuclear plants including axial offset anomaly (AOA). By controlling the habit of deposit materials, it may be possible to retard deposit formation, produce deposits with desirable properties (e.g., high friability, low or high porosity), or promote a preferred chemical composition or deposit structure that is more amenable to removal. Desirable properties that could be selected for include enhanced boiling efficiency, reduced surface affinity for boron, and resistance to consolidation. The results of this project demonstrate that crystal habit modification of nickel ferrite, a typical primary side deposit species, can be achieved by the addition of both inorganic and organic chemical species (CHMs). The most significant habit modification of nickel ferrite was observed with the addition of metal species (e.g., Zn, Cr) due to their incorporation into the crystal lattice of the oxide. Lesser degrees of modification were achieved with organic additives such as acetate. Specific CHM candidates that may have a beneficial effect on PWR operation are identified in this paper. In addition, this paper summarizes the refinement of several methods for synthesizing nickel ferrites under hydrothermal conditions that may benefit those interested in studying crud and

  8. Crystal habit modification of nickel-ferrite: development and results of initial laboratory testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.E.; Varrin, R.D.; Marks, C. [Dominion Engineering, Inc., Reston, Virginia (United States); Barkatt, A. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Dept. of Chemistry, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kim, K.; Fruzzetti, K.P. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper documents the results of a laboratory test program conducted to assess the feasibility of using a new type of additive in the primary coolant of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) or to boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant. These additives, known as crystal habit modifiers (CHMs), could potentially be used to control the crystal habits, or shapes, that comprise primary deposits and crud. Similar additives are used throughout the chemical process industry to produce products with desirable crystalline structure, morphology, density, particle size, or surface area. Based on the successes of CHM technologies in other industries, CHMs may have the potential to alleviate problems associated with deposits in nuclear plants including axial offset anomaly (AOA). By controlling the habit of deposit materials, it may be possible to retard deposit formation, produce deposits with desirable properties (e.g., high friability, low or high porosity), or promote a preferred chemical composition or deposit structure that is more amenable to removal. Desirable properties that could be selected for include enhanced boiling efficiency, reduced surface affinity for boron, and resistance to consolidation. The results of this project demonstrate that crystal habit modification of nickel ferrite, a typical primary side deposit species, can be achieved by the addition of both inorganic and organic chemical species (CHMs). The most significant habit modification of nickel ferrite was observed with the addition of metal species (e.g., Zn, Cr) due to their incorporation into the crystal lattice of the oxide. Lesser degrees of modification were achieved with organic additives such as acetate. Specific CHM candidates that may have a beneficial effect on PWR operation are identified in this paper. In addition, this paper summarizes the refinement of several methods for synthesizing nickel ferrites under hydrothermal conditions that may benefit those interested in studying crud and

  9. Tablets in Education. Results from the Initiative ETiE, for Teaching Plants to Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokides, Emmanuel; Atsikpasi, Pinelopi

    2017-01-01

    The study presents the results from the first phase of the initiative Emerging Technologies in Education. At this stage, we examined the learning outcomes from the use of tablets and an application as content delivery methods for teaching plants' parts, reproduction types and organs, photosynthesis, and respiration. The project lasted for four…

  10. Initial Results on Neutralized Drift Compression Experiments (NDCX-IA) for High Intensity Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Prabir K; Baca, David; Bieniosek, Frank; Coleman, Joshua E; Davidson, Ronald C; Efthimion, Philip; Eylon, Shmuel; Gilson, Erik P; Grant Logan, B; Greenway, Wayne; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Leitner, Matthaeus; Rose, David; Sefkow, Adam; Sharp, William M; Shuman, Derek; Thoma, Carsten H; Vanecek, David; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam neutralization and compression experiments are designed to determine the feasibility of using compressed high intensity ion beams for high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and for inertial fusion power. To quantitatively ascertain the various mechanisms and methods for beam compression, the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) facility is being constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). In the first compression experiment, a 260 KeV, 25 mA, K+ ion beam of centimeters size is radially compressed to a mm size spot by neutralization in a meter-long plasma column and beam peak current is longitudinally compressed by an induction velocity tilt core. Instrumentation, preliminary results of the experiments, and practical limits of compression are presented. These include parameters such as emittance, degree of neutralization, velocity tilt time profile, and accuracy of measurements (fast and spatially high resolution diagnostic) are discussed.

  11. Summary of initial results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The main magnetic field of Jupiter was measured by the Fluxgate Magnetometer on Pioneer 11 and analysis reveals it to be relatively more complex than expected. In a centered spherical harmonic representation with a maximum order of n = 3 (designated GSFC model 04), the dipole term (with opposite polarity to the Earth's) has a moment of 4.28 Gauss x (Jupiter radius cubed), tilted by 9.6 deg towards a system 111 longitude of 232. The quadrupole and octupole moments are significant, 24% and 21% of the dipole moment respectively, and this leads to deviations of the planetary magnetic field from a simple offset tilted dipole for distances smaller than three Jupiter radii. The GSFC model shows a north polar field strength of 14 Gauss and a south polar field strength of 10.4 Gauss. Enhanced absorption effects in the radiation belts may be predicted as a result of field distortion.

  12. Using Empirical Data to Estimate Potential Functions in Commodity Markets: Some Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Haven, E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on estimating real and quantum potentials from financial commodities. The log returns of six common commodities are considered. We find that some phenomena, such as the vertical potential walls and the time scale issue of the variation on returns, also exists in commodity markets. By comparing the quantum and classical potentials, we attempt to demonstrate that the information within these two types of potentials is different. We believe this empirical result is consistent with the theoretical assumption that quantum potentials (when embedded into social science contexts) may contain some social cognitive or market psychological information, while classical potentials mainly reflect `hard' market conditions. We also compare the two potential forces and explore their relationship by simply estimating the Pearson correlation between them. The Medium or weak interaction effect may indicate that the cognitive system among traders may be affected by those `hard' market conditions.

  13. Byggmeister Test Home: Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals and verified implementation. With the high exposure of energy efficiency and retrofit terminology being used in the general media at this time, it is important to have evidence that measures being proposed will in fact benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. There are several basic areas of research to which the technical report for these test homes can be expected to contribute. These include the combination of measures that is feasible, affordable and acceptable to homeowners as well as expectations versus results. Two Byggmeister multi-family test homes in Massachusetts are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes.

  14. Myocardial delayed contrast enhancement in patients with arterial hypertension: Initial results of cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Kjel [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: kjel_andersen@web.de; Hennersdorf, Marcus [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: hennersdorf@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Cohnen, Mathias [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: cohnen@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Blondin, Dirk [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Moedder, Ulrich [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: moedder@uni-duesseldorf.de; Poll, Ludger W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: poll@gmx.de

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: In arterial hypertension left ventricular hypertrophy comprises myocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and structural alterations of the coronary microcirculation. MRI enables the detection of myocardial fibrosis, infarction and scar tissue by delayed enhancement (DE) after contrast media application. Aim of this study was to investigate patients with arterial hypertension but without known coronary disease or previous myocardial infarction to detect areas of DE. Methods and material: Twenty patients with arterial hypertension with clinical symptoms of myocardial ischemia, but without history of myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteries during coronary angiography were investigated on a 1.0 T superconducting magnet (Gyroscan T10-NT, Intera Release 8.0, Philips). Fast gradient-echo cine sequences and T2-weighted STIR-sequences were acquired. Fifteen minutes after injection of Gadobenate dimeglumine inversion recovery gradient-echo sequences were performed for detection of myocardial DE. Presence or absence of DE on MRI was correlated with clinical data and the results of echocardiography and electrocardiography, respectively. Results: Nine of 20 patients showed DE in the interventricular septum and the anteroseptal left ventricular wall. In 6 patients, DE was localized intramurally and in 3 patients subendocardially. There was a significant correlation between myocardial DE and ST-segment depressions during exercise and between DE and left-ventricular enddiastolic pressure. Patients with intermittent atrial fibrillation showed a myocardial DE more often than patients without atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: In our series, 45% of patients with arterial hypertension showed DE on cardiac MRI. In this clinical setting, delayed enhancement may be due to coronary microangiopathy. The more intramurally localization of DE, however, rather indicates myocardial interstitial fibrosis.

  15. Initial experience with fecal microbiota transplantation in Clostridium difficile infection: transplant protocol and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ponte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI constitutes an important cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Recurrence after first-line treatment with antibiotics is high and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT may be effective for refractory and recurrent CDI. This series aims to describe the efficacy of FMT in the treatment of refractory and recurrent CDI. Methods: A prospectively recorded single-centre case series of patients with persistent or recurrent CDI treated with FMT between June 2014 and March 2015 was analyzed. Primary and secondary outcomes were defined as resolution of diarrhea without recurrence of CDI within 2 months after one or more FMT, respectively. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: 8 FMT were performed in 6 patients, 3 with refractory CDI and 3 with recurrent CDI. The median age of recipients was 71 years and 66.7% were women. One FMT was delivered through colonoscopy and the remaining 87.5% through esophagogastroduodenoscopy. One upper FMT was excluded due to recurrence of CDI after antibiotic exposure for a respiratory infection. The overall cure rate of FMT was total with lower route and 83.3% with upper route. Primary cure rate was achieved in 83.3% of patients and secondary cure rate was achieved in all patients. Median time to resolution of diarrhea after FMT was 1 day and no complications were reported during follow-up. Conclusion: FMT appears to constitute a safe and effective approach in the management of refractory and recurrent CDI. Difference between primary and secondary cure rates may result of insufficient restoration of intestinal microbiota with a single FMT.

  16. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter K-Band (26 GHz) Signal Analysis: Initial Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D. D.; Heckman, D.

    2017-11-01

    Lower frequency telemetry bands are becoming more limited in bandwidth due to increased competition between flight projects and other entities. Higher frequency bands offer significantly more bandwidth and hence the prospect of much higher data rates. Future or prospective flight projects considering higher frequency bands such as Ka-band (32 GHz) for deep-space and K-band (26 GHz) for near-Earth telemetry links are interested in past flight experience with available received data at these frequencies. Given that there is increased degradation due to the atmosphere at these higher frequencies, there is an effort to retrieve flight data of received signal strength to analyze performance under a variety of factors. Such factors include elevation angle, season, and atmospheric conditions. This article reports on the analysis findings of over 10 million observations of received signal strength of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft collected between 2014 and 2017. We analyzed these data to characterize link performance over a wide range of weather conditions, season, and as a function of elevation angle. Based on this analysis, we have confirmed the safety of using a 3-dB margin for preflight planning purposes. These results suggest that a 3-dB margin with respect to adverse conditions will ensure a 98 to 99 percent data return under 95 percent weather conditions at 26 GHz (K-band), thus confirming expectations from link budget predictions. The results suggest that this margin should be applicable for all elevation angles above 10 deg. Thus, missions that have sufficient power for their desired data rates may opt to use 10 deg as their minimum elevation angle. Limitations of this study include climate variability and the fact that the observations require removal of hotbody noise in order to perform an adequate cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis, which is planned for a future comprehensive study. Flight projects may use other link margins

  17. Initial Continuous Chemistry Results From The Roosevelt Island Ice Core (RICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, H. A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Simonsen, M. F.; Neff, P. D.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Svensson, A.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Roosevelt Island ice core (79.36° S, -161.71° W) was drilled in 2011-13 at the top of the Roosevelt Island ice dome, a location surrounded by the Ross ice shelf. The RICE ice core provides a unique opportunity to look into the past evolution of the West Antarctic Ice sheet. Further the site has high accumulation; 0.26 m of ice equivalent is deposited annually allowing annual layer determination for many chemical parameters. The RICE core was drilled to bedrock and has a total length of 763 metres. Preliminary results derived from water isotopes suggest that the oldest ice reaches back to the Eemian, with the last glacial being compressed in the bottom 60 metres. We present preliminary results from the RICE ice core including continuous measurements of acidity using an optical dye method, insoluble dust particles, conductivity and calcium. The core was analyzed at the New Zealand National Ice Core Research Facility at GNS Science in Wellington. The analytical set up used to determine climate proxies in the ice core was a modified version of the Copenhagen CFA system (Bigler et al., 2011). Key volcanic layers have been matched to those from the WAIS record (Sigl et al., 2013). A significant anti-correlation between acidity and calcium was seen in the Holocene part of the record. Due to the proximity to the ocean a large fraction of the calcium originates from sea salt and is in phase with total conductivity and sodium. In combination with the insoluble dust record, calcium has been apportioned into ocean-related and dust-related sources. Variability over the Holocene is presented and attributed to changing inputs of marine and dust aerosols.

  18. Myocardial delayed contrast enhancement in patients with arterial hypertension: Initial results of cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Kjel; Hennersdorf, Marcus; Cohnen, Mathias; Blondin, Dirk; Moedder, Ulrich; Poll, Ludger W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In arterial hypertension left ventricular hypertrophy comprises myocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and structural alterations of the coronary microcirculation. MRI enables the detection of myocardial fibrosis, infarction and scar tissue by delayed enhancement (DE) after contrast media application. Aim of this study was to investigate patients with arterial hypertension but without known coronary disease or previous myocardial infarction to detect areas of DE. Methods and material: Twenty patients with arterial hypertension with clinical symptoms of myocardial ischemia, but without history of myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteries during coronary angiography were investigated on a 1.0 T superconducting magnet (Gyroscan T10-NT, Intera Release 8.0, Philips). Fast gradient-echo cine sequences and T2-weighted STIR-sequences were acquired. Fifteen minutes after injection of Gadobenate dimeglumine inversion recovery gradient-echo sequences were performed for detection of myocardial DE. Presence or absence of DE on MRI was correlated with clinical data and the results of echocardiography and electrocardiography, respectively. Results: Nine of 20 patients showed DE in the interventricular septum and the anteroseptal left ventricular wall. In 6 patients, DE was localized intramurally and in 3 patients subendocardially. There was a significant correlation between myocardial DE and ST-segment depressions during exercise and between DE and left-ventricular enddiastolic pressure. Patients with intermittent atrial fibrillation showed a myocardial DE more often than patients without atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: In our series, 45% of patients with arterial hypertension showed DE on cardiac MRI. In this clinical setting, delayed enhancement may be due to coronary microangiopathy. The more intramurally localization of DE, however, rather indicates myocardial interstitial fibrosis.

  19. Imaging of patients with hippocampal sclerosis at 7 Tesla: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Tobias; Wanke, Isabel; Maderwald, Stefan; Woermann, Friedrich G; Kraff, Oliver; Theysohn, Jens M; Ebner, Alois; Forsting, Michael; Ladd, Mark E; Schlamann, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Focal epilepsies potentially can be cured by neurosurgery; other treatment options usually remain symptomatic. High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the central imaging strategy in the evaluation of focal epilepsy. The most common substrate of temporal epilepsies is hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which cannot always be sufficiently characterized with current MR field strengths. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-resolution MR imaging at 7 Tesla in patients with focal epilepsy resulting from a HS and to improve image resolution at 7 Tesla in patients with HS. Six patients with known HS were investigated with T1-, T2-, T2(*)-, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-weighted sequences at 7 Tesla with an eight-channel transmit-receive head coil. Total imaging time did not exceed 90 minutes per patient. High-resolution imaging at 7 Tesla is feasible and reveals high resolution of intrahippocampal structures in vivo. HS was confirmed in all patients. The maximum non-interpolated in-plane resolution reached 0.2 x 0.2 mm(2) in T2(*)-weighted images. The increased susceptibility effects at 7 Tesla revealed identification of intrahippocampal structures in more detail than at 1.5 Tesla, but otherwise led to stronger artifacts. Imaging revealed regional differences in hippocampal atrophy between patients. The scan volume was limited because of specific absorption rate restrictions, scanning time was reasonable. High-resolution imaging at 7 Tesla is promising in presurgical epilepsy imaging. "New" contrasts may further improve detection of even very small intrahippocampal structural changes. Therefore, further investigations will be necessary to demonstrate the potential benefit for presurgical selection of patients with various lesion patterns in mesial temporal epilepsies resulting from a unilateral HS. Copyright 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental Studies on the Mechanical Behaviour of Rock Joints with Various Openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Oh, J.; Mitra, R.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanical behaviour of rough joints is markedly affected by the degree of joint opening. A systematic experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of the initial opening on both normal and shear deformations of rock joints. Two types of joints with triangular asperities were produced in the laboratory and subjected to compression tests and direct shear tests with different initial opening values. The results showed that opened rock joints allow much greater normal closure and result in much lower normal stiffness. A semi-logarithmic law incorporating the degree of interlocking is proposed to describe the normal deformation of opened rock joints. The proposed equation agrees well with the experimental results. Additionally, the results of direct shear tests demonstrated that shear strength and dilation are reduced because of reduced involvement of and increased damage to asperities in the process of shearing. The results indicate that constitutive models of rock joints that consider the true asperity contact area can be used to predict shear resistance along opened rock joints. Because rock masses are loosened and rock joints become open after excavation, the model suggested in this study can be incorporated into numerical procedures such as finite-element or discrete-element methods. Use of the model could then increase the accuracy and reliability of stability predictions for rock masses under excavation.

  1. Drill-back studies examine fractured, heated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.; Myer, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the effects of heating on the mineralogical, geochemical, and mechanical properties of rock by high-level radioactive waste, cores are being examined from holes penetrating locations where electric heaters simulated the presence of a waste canister, and from holes penetration natural hydrothermal systems. Results to date indicate the localized mobility and deposition of uranium in an open fracture in heated granitic rock, the mobility of U in a breccia zone in an active hydrothermal system in tuff, and the presence of U in relatively high concentration in fracture-lining material in tuff. Mechanical -- property studies indicate that differences in compressional- and shear-wave parameters between heated and less heated rock can be attributed to differences in the density of microcracks. Emphasis has shifted from initial studies of granitic rock at Stripa, Sweden to current investigations of welded tuff at the Nevada Test Site. 7 refs., 8 figs

  2. Loading-unloading pressure-volume curves for rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, D R; Lilley, E M [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The stress-strain codes (SOC and TENSOR) used to calculate phenomenology of nuclear explosion for the Plowshare Program require inter alia the pressure-volume relationships of the earth media. In this paper we describe a rapid and accurate method to obtain pressure-volume data to 40 kb at 25 deg. C for rocks. These experimental results may also be related to the in situ elastic properties of the rock and to other laboratory measurement of properties, such as ultrasonic experiments with pressure and Hugoniot determinations. Qualitative features of the pressure-volume curves can be related to the initial porosity of the rock. A porous rock is usually quite compressible at low pressures. If the porosity is in the form of narrow cracks, the cracks are closed at a pressure of about 3 to 6 kb, after which the rock is much less compressible. If the porosity is in the form of spherical pores, it is not necessarily removed even at pressures of 40 kb, depending on the strength of the rock, and the compressibility is higher at all pressures than for a similar rock containing no porosity. Data for water-saturated samples show the phase transformation due to free water at about 10 and 22 kb. However, the presence of 'nonliquid' water, which is loosely contained within the lattice of clay or zeolitic minerals or adsorbed on particle surfaces, is also observed. (author)

  3. Loading-unloading pressure-volume curves for rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, D.R.; Lilley, E.M.

    1970-01-01

    The stress-strain codes (SOC and TENSOR) used to calculate phenomenology of nuclear explosion for the Plowshare Program require inter alia the pressure-volume relationships of the earth media. In this paper we describe a rapid and accurate method to obtain pressure-volume data to 40 kb at 25 deg. C for rocks. These experimental results may also be related to the in situ elastic properties of the rock and to other laboratory measurement of properties, such as ultrasonic experiments with pressure and Hugoniot determinations. Qualitative features of the pressure-volume curves can be related to the initial porosity of the rock. A porous rock is usually quite compressible at low pressures. If the porosity is in the form of narrow cracks, the cracks are closed at a pressure of about 3 to 6 kb, after which the rock is much less compressible. If the porosity is in the form of spherical pores, it is not necessarily removed even at pressures of 40 kb, depending on the strength of the rock, and the compressibility is higher at all pressures than for a similar rock containing no porosity. Data for water-saturated samples show the phase transformation due to free water at about 10 and 22 kb. However, the presence of 'nonliquid' water, which is loosely contained within the lattice of clay or zeolitic minerals or adsorbed on particle surfaces, is also observed. (author)

  4. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    August through December. These patterns can also be seen in other daily images recorded at the site since January 2012. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015, and had a substantial influence on autumn senescence of the plant community, as a whole, within each chamber. Generally, vegetation in the warmed chambers stayed green longer than that in the unwarmed chambers. We characterized the seasonality by fitting a sigmoid curve to the Gcc time series data, and we used the autumn half-maximum date of the sigmoid as an indicator of the timing of senescence. We found a strong linear relationship between senescence date and temperature treatment (r2 = 0.71,n = 10). Overall, senescence was delayed by 3.5 ± 0.7 days per 1° C of warming. Thus, although photoperiod is widely believed to be the key trigger for autumn senescence, our results do not indicate that the autumn response to warming is in any way constrained by day length. The SPRUCE experiment is planned to running through 2025. Looking forward, we anticipate that different results may be obtained in year 2 of the SPRUCE experiment if warming treatments result in earlier spring onset, and increased evapotranspiration during spring and early summer, leading to drought conditions by late summer.

  5. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  6. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  7. Quantification of renal allograft perfusion using arterial spin labeling MRI: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzman, Rotem S; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Martirosian, Petros; Zgoura, Panagiota; Bilk, Philip; Kröpil, Patric; Schick, Fritz; Voiculescu, Adina; Blondin, Dirk

    2010-06-01

    To quantify renal allograft perfusion in recipients with stable allograft function and acute decrease in allograft function using nonenhanced flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR)-TrueFISP arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging. Following approval of the local ethics committee, 20 renal allograft recipients were included in this study. ASL perfusion measurement and an anatomical T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (HASTE) sequence were performed on a 1.5-T scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). T2-weighted MR urography was performed in patients with suspected ureteral obstruction. Patients were assigned to three groups: group a, 6 patients with stable allograft function over the previous 4 months; group b, 7 patients with good allograft function who underwent transplantation during the previous 3 weeks; group c, 7 allograft recipients with an acute deterioration of renal function. Mean cortical perfusion values were 304.8 +/- 34.4, 296.5 +/- 44.1, and 181.9 +/- 53.4 mg/100 ml/min for groups a, b and c, respectively. Reduction in cortical perfusion in group c was statistically significant. Our results indicate that ASL is a promising technique for nonenhanced quantification of cortical perfusion of renal allografts. Further studies are required to determine the clinical value of ASL for monitoring renal allograft recipients.

  8. Initial communication survey results for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.M.

    1991-03-01

    To support the public communication efforts of the Technical Steering Panel of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a public survey was conducted. The survey was intended to provide information about the public's knowledge and interest in the project and the best ways to communicate project results. Questions about the project were included as part of an omnibus survey conducted by Washington State University. The survey was conducted by phone to Washington State residents in the spring of 1990. This report gives the HEDR-related questions and summary data of responses. Questions associated with the HEDR Project were grouped into four categories: knowledge of the HEDR Project; interest in the project; preferred ways of receiving information about the project (including public information meetings, a newsletter mailed to homes, presentations to civic groups in the respondent's community, a computer bulletin board respondent could access with a modem, information displays at public buildings and shopping malls, and an information video sent to respondent); and level of concern over past exposure from Hanford operations. Questions abut whom state residents are most likely to trust about radiation issues were also part of the omnibus survey, and responses are included in this report

  9. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for fetal oxygenation during maternal hypoxia: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedegaertner, U.; Adam, G.; Tchirikov, M.; Schroeder, H.; Koch, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of fMRI to measure changes in fetal tissue oxygenation during acute maternal hypoxia in fetal lambs. Material and Methods: Two ewes carrying singleton fetuses (gestational age 125 and 131 days) underwent MR imaging under inhalation anesthesia. BOLD imaging of the fetal brain, liver and myocardium was performed during acute maternal hypoxia (oxygen replaced by N 2 O). Maternal oxygen saturation and heart rate were monitored by a pulse-oxymeter attached to the maternal tongue. Results: Changes of fetal tissue oxygenation during maternal hypoxia were clearly visible with BOLD MRI. Signal intensity decreases were more distinct in liver and heart (∝40%) from control than in the fetal brain (∝10%). Conclusions: fMRI is a promising diagnostic tool to determine fetal tissue oxygenation and may open new opportunities in monitoring fetal well being in high risk pregnancies complicated by uteroplacentar insufficiency. Different signal changes in liver/heart and brain may reflect a centralization of the fetal blood flow. (orig.) [de

  10. Resonant Frequency Control For the PIP-II Injector Test RFQ: Control Framework and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Bowring, D.; Chase, B. E.; Edelen, J. P.; Nicklaus, D.; Steimel, J.

    2016-12-16

    For the PIP-II Injector Test (PI-Test) at Fermilab, a four-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is designed to accelerate a 30-keV, 1-mA to 10-mA, H- beam to 2.1 MeV under both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) RF operation. The available headroom of the RF amplifiers limits the maximum allowable detuning to 3 kHz, and the detuning is controlled entirely via thermal regulation. Fine control over the detuning, minimal manual intervention, and fast trip recovery is desired. In addition, having active control over both the walls and vanes provides a wider tuning range. For this, we intend to use model predictive control (MPC). To facilitate these objectives, we developed a dedicated control framework that handles higher-level system decisions as well as executes control calculations. It is written in Python in a modular fashion for easy adjustments, readability, and portability. Here we describe the framework and present the first control results for the PI-Test RFQ under pulsed and CW operation.

  11. Quantification of renal allograft perfusion using arterial spin labeling MRI: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzman, Rotem S.; Wittsack, Hans-Joerg; Bilk, Philip; Kroepil, Patric; Blondin, Dirk; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Zgoura, Panagiota; Voiculescu, Adina

    2010-01-01

    To quantify renal allograft perfusion in recipients with stable allograft function and acute decrease in allograft function using nonenhanced flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR)-TrueFISP arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging. Following approval of the local ethics committee, 20 renal allograft recipients were included in this study. ASL perfusion measurement and an anatomical T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (HASTE) sequence were performed on a 1.5-T scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). T2-weighted MR urography was performed in patients with suspected ureteral obstruction. Patients were assigned to three groups: group a, 6 patients with stable allograft function over the previous 4 months; group b, 7 patients with good allograft function who underwent transplantation during the previous 3 weeks; group c, 7 allograft recipients with an acute deterioration of renal function. Mean cortical perfusion values were 304.8 ± 34.4, 296.5 ± 44.1, and 181.9 ± 53.4 mg/100 ml/min for groups a, b and c, respectively. Reduction in cortical perfusion in group c was statistically significant. Our results indicate that ASL is a promising technique for nonenhanced quantification of cortical perfusion of renal allografts. Further studies are required to determine the clinical value of ASL for monitoring renal allograft recipients. (orig.)

  12. A web application for moderation training: Initial results of a randomized clinical trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Reid K.; Delaney, Harold D.; Campbell, William; Handmaker, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Eighty four heavy drinkers who responded to a newspaper recruitment ad were randomly assigned to receive either: a) training in a moderate drinking protocol via an Internet-based program (www.moderatedrinking.com) and use of the online resources of Moderation Management (MM) (www.moderation.org) or b) use of the online resources of MM alone. Follow-ups are being conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results of the recently completed 3 month follow-up (86% follow-up) indicated both groups significantly reduced their drinking based on these variables: standard drinks per week; percent days abstinent; and mean BAC per drinking day. Both groups also significantly reduced their alcohol-related problems. Relative to the control group the experimental group had better outcomes on percent days abstinent and log Drinks per Drinking Day. These short-term outcome data provide evidence for the effectiveness of both the moderate drinking web application and of the resources available online at MM in helping heavy drinkers reduce their drinking and alcohol-related problems. PMID:19339137

  13. Initial results from a prototype whole-body photon-counting computed tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z; Leng, S; Jorgensen, S M; Li, Z; Gutjahr, R; Chen, B; Duan, X; Halaweish, A F; Yu, L; Ritman, E L; McCollough, C H

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) with energy-discriminating capabilities presents exciting opportunities for increased dose efficiency and improved material decomposition analyses. However, due to constraints imposed by the inability of photon-counting detectors (PCD) to respond accurately at high photon flux, to date there has been no clinical application of PCD-CT. Recently, our lab installed a research prototype system consisting of two x-ray sources and two corresponding detectors, one using an energy-integrating detector (EID) and the other using a PCD. In this work, we report the first third-party evaluation of this prototype CT system using both phantoms and a cadaver head. The phantom studies demonstrated several promising characteristics of the PCD sub-system, including improved longitudinal spatial resolution and reduced beam hardening artifacts, relative to the EID sub-system. More importantly, we found that the PCD sub-system offers excellent pulse pileup control in cases of x-ray flux up to 550 mA at 140 kV, which corresponds to approximately 2.5×10 11 photons per cm 2 per second. In an anthropomorphic phantom and a cadaver head, the PCD sub-system provided image quality comparable to the EID sub-system for the same dose level. Our results demonstrate the potential of the prototype system to produce clinically-acceptable images in vivo .

  14. The Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array (M3A: system development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nittis

    Full Text Available Operational forecasting of ocean circulation and marine ecosystem fluctuations requires multi-parametric real-time measurements of physical and biochemical properties. The architecture of a system that is able to provide such measurements from the upper-thermocline layers of the Mediterranean Sea is described here. The system was developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System and incorporates state-of-the-art sensors for optical and chemical measurements in the upper 100 m and physical measurements down to 500 m. Independent moorings that communicate via hydro-acoustic modems are hosting the sensors. The satellite data transfer and the large autonomy allow for the operation of the system in any open-ocean site. The system has been in pre-operational use in the Cretan Sea since January 2000. The results of this pilot phase indicate that multi-parametric real-time observations with the M3A system are feasible, if a consistent maintenance and re-calibration program is followed. The main limitations of the present configuration of M3A are related: (a to bio-fouling that primarily affects the turbidity and secondarily affects the other optical sensors, and (b to the limited throughput of the currently used satellite communication system.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (instruments and techniques. Oceanography: general (ocean prediction Oceanography: physical (upper ocean process

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography for assessment of renal allograft dysfunction - initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, Katja; Gutberlet, M.; Rodt, T.; Wacker, F.; Galanski, M.; Hartung, D. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School - Germany, Hannover (Germany); Gwinner, W. [Clinic for Nephrology, Hannover Medical School - Germany, Hannover (Germany); Lehner, F. [Clinic for General, Abdominal and Transplant Surgery, Hannover Medical School - Germany, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    To evaluate MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as non-invasive diagnostic tool for detection of acute and chronic allograft dysfunction and changes of organ microstructure. 15 kidney transplanted patients with allograft dysfunction and 14 healthy volunteers were examined using a fat-saturated echo-planar DTI-sequence at 1.5 T (6 diffusion directions, b = 0, 600 s/mm{sup 2}). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated separately for the cortex and for the medulla and compared between healthy and transplanted kidneys. Furthermore, the correlation between diffusion parameters and estimated GFR was determined. The ADC in the cortex and in the medulla were lower in transplanted than in healthy kidneys (p < 0.01). Differences were more distinct for FA, especially in the renal medulla, with a significant reduction in allografts (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in transplanted patients a correlation between mean FA in the medulla and estimated GFR was observed (r = 0.72, p < 0.01). Tractography visualized changes in renal microstructure in patients with impaired allograft function. Changes in allograft function and microstructure can be detected and quantified using DTI. However, to prove the value of DTI for standard clinical application especially correlation of imaging findings and biopsy results is necessary. (orig.)

  16. Initial results of the quality control in 11 computed tomography scanners at Curitiba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodlulovich, S; Oliveira, L.; Jakubiak, R.R.; Miquelin, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of 11 scanners installed in public and private centers of Curitiba, Brazil. This sample represents 30% of the CT scanners in the city so far. The ACR CT accreditation phantom was used to verify the accomplishment of the scanners performance to the international quality requirements. The results indicate that efforts should be concentrated in the maintenance of the equipments and specific training of the technicians. Most of the scanners have showed some non-conformity. In 27,5% of the sample the positioning requirement wasn't accomplished. The CT number accuracy evaluation showed that in 72,3 % of the scanners the CT numbers were out of the tolerance range, reaching values 35% greater than the limit. The low contrast resolution criteria weren't accomplished in 9% of the scanners. The main concern is that there isn't a specific program to evaluate the image quality of the CT scanners neither to estimate the CT doses in the procedures. (author)

  17. Longitudinal Study of the Impacts of a Climate Change Curriculum on Undergraduate Student Learning: Initial Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin C. Burkholder

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses the efficacy of a semester-long undergraduate sustainability curriculum designed from a systems approach. The three-course curriculum, which incorporated environmental science and ethics courses along with an integrative course using a community-based learning pedagogy, was intended to provide students with experience using knowledge and skills from distinct disciplines in a holistic way in order to address the complex problems of the human acceptance of and response to anthropogenic climate change. In the fall of 2013, 23 of the 24 sophomore general education students enrolled in the three courses were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester; 17 of those same students completed the survey again in the spring of 2016, their senior year. Results, which focus on the 17 students who continued to participate through their senior year, were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The pre/post data from the surveys demonstrated significant improvement in climate literacy, certainty, concern and urgency over the course of the semester; the senior data indicated that those improvements were largely retained. The study also suggests that the nine-credit curriculum improved transferable skills such as interdisciplinary thinking, self-confidence and public speaking. A qualitative analysis of three student cases, informed by a focus group (n = 7 of seniors along with other sources of information, suggested retention of such transferable skills, and, in some cases, deeper involvement in climate and sustainability action.

  18. The Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array (M3A: system development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nittis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational forecasting of ocean circulation and marine ecosystem fluctuations requires multi-parametric real-time measurements of physical and biochemical properties. The architecture of a system that is able to provide such measurements from the upper-thermocline layers of the Mediterranean Sea is described here. The system was developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System and incorporates state-of-the-art sensors for optical and chemical measurements in the upper 100 m and physical measurements down to 500 m. Independent moorings that communicate via hydro-acoustic modems are hosting the sensors. The satellite data transfer and the large autonomy allow for the operation of the system in any open-ocean site. The system has been in pre-operational use in the Cretan Sea since January 2000. The results of this pilot phase indicate that multi-parametric real-time observations with the M3A system are feasible, if a consistent maintenance and re-calibration program is followed. The main limitations of the present configuration of M3A are related: (a to bio-fouling that primarily affects the turbidity and secondarily affects the other optical sensors, and (b to the limited throughput of the currently used satellite communication system. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (instruments and techniques. Oceanography: general (ocean prediction Oceanography: physical (upper ocean process

  19. "Know Your Status": results from a novel, student-run HIV testing initiative on college campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Caitlin; Cuneo, C Nicholas; Rutstein, Sarah E; Hicks, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Know Your Status (KYS), a novel, student-run program offered free HIV-testing at a private university (PU) and community college (CC). Following completion of surveys of risk behaviors/reasons for seeking testing, students were provided with rapid, oral HIV-testing. We investigated testing history, risk behaviors, and HIV prevalence among students tested during the first three years of KYS. In total, 1408 tests were conducted, 5 were positive: 4/408 CC, 1/1000 PU (1% vs. 0.1%, p=0.01). Three positives were new diagnoses, all black men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Over 50% of students were tested for the first time and 59% reported risk behaviors. CC students were less likely to have used condoms at last sex (a surrogate for risk behavior) compared to PU (OR 0.73, CI [0.54, 0.98]). Race, sexual identity, and sex were not associated with condom use. These results demonstrate that KYS successfully recruited large numbers of previously untested, at-risk students, highlighting the feasibility and importance of testing college populations.

  20. Quantitative analysis of pulmonary perfusion using time-resolved parallel 3D MRI - initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.; Buhmann, R.; Plathow, C.; Puderbach, M.; Kauczor, H.U.; Risse, F.; Ley, S.; Meyer, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: to assess the use of time-resolved parallel 3D MRI for a quantitative analysis of pulmonary perfusion in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. Materials and methods: eight patients with pulmonary embolism or pulmonary hypertension were examined with a time-resolved 3D gradient echo pulse sequence with parallel imaging techniques (FLASH 3D, TE/TR: 0.8/1.9 ms; flip angle: 40 ; GRAPPA). A quantitative perfusion analysis based on indicator dilution theory was performed using a dedicated software. Results: patients with pulmonary embolism or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension revealed characteristic wedge-shaped perfusion defects at perfusion MRI. They were characterized by a decreased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and increased mean transit time (MTT). Patients with primary pulmonary hypertension or eisenmenger syndrome showed a more homogeneous perfusion pattern. The mean MTT of all patients was 3.3 - 4.7 s. The mean PBF and PBV showed a broader interindividual variation (PBF: 104-322 ml/100 ml/min; PBV: 8 - 21 ml/100 ml). Conclusion: time-resolved parallel 3D MRI allows at least a semi-quantitative assessment of lung perfusion. Future studies will have to assess the clinical value of this quantitative information for the diagnosis and management of cardiopulmonary disease. (orig.) [de

  1. A thermo-elastic model for soft rocks considering structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Z.; Zhang, S.; Teng, J.; Xiong, Y.

    2017-01-01

    In the fields of nuclear waste geological deposit, geothermal energy and deep mining, the effects of temperature on the mechanical behaviors of soft rocks cannot be neglected. Experimental data in the literature also showed that the structure of soft rocks cannot be ignored. Based on the super-loading yield surface and the concept of temperature-deduced equivalent stress, a thermo-elastoplastic model for soft rocks is proposed considering the structure. Compared to the super-loading yield surface, only one parameter is added, i.e. the linear thermal expansion coefficient. The predicted results and the comparisons with experimental data in the literature show that the proposed model is capable of simultaneously describing heat increase and heat decrease of soft rocks. A stronger initial structure leads to a greater strength of the soft rocks. Heat increase and heat decrease can be converted between each other due to the change of the initial structure of soft rocks. Furthermore, regardless of the heat increase or heat decrease, a larger linear thermal expansion coefficient or a greater temperature always leads to a much rapider degradation of the structure. The degradation trend will be more obvious for the coupled greater values of linear thermal expansion coefficient and temperature. Lastly, compared to heat decrease, the structure will degrade more easily in the case of heat increase. (authors)

  2. A thermo-elastoplastic model for soft rocks considering structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zuoyue; Zhang, Sheng; Teng, Jidong; Xiong, Yonglin

    2017-11-01

    In the fields of nuclear waste geological deposit, geothermy and deep mining, the effects of temperature on the mechanical behaviors of soft rocks cannot be neglected. Experimental data in the literature also showed that the structure of soft rocks cannot be ignored. Based on the superloading yield surface and the concept of temperature-deduced equivalent stress, a thermo-elastoplastic model for soft rocks is proposed considering the structure. Compared to the superloading yield surface, only one parameter is added, i.e. the linear thermal expansion coefficient. The predicted results and the comparisons with experimental data in the literature show that the proposed model is capable of simultaneously describing heat increase and heat decrease of soft rocks. A stronger initial structure leads to a greater strength of the soft rocks. Heat increase and heat decrease can be converted between each other due to the change of the initial structure of soft rocks. Furthermore, regardless of the heat increase or heat decrease, a larger linear thermal expansion coefficient or a greater temperature always leads to a much rapider degradation of the structure. The degradation trend will be more obvious for the coupled greater values of linear thermal expansion coefficient and temperature. Lastly, compared to heat decrease, the structure will degrade more easily in the case of heat increase.

  3. Pb, Sr and Nd isotope geological characteristics and its evolution of Jianchaling rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Chunyong; Chen Minyang; Xu Wenxin

    2003-01-01

    It has been a long time debatable subject on the raw material source and its genesis of Jianchaling ultrabasic rock, because the original rock phases, the original mineral compositions, texture and structure, even part of the chemical components of the rocks had been changed completely after many periods and phases of metamorphism. According to the content of Pb, Rb, Sr, Nd elements and their Pb, Sr, Nd isotope compositions of the rocks, together with the isotope geological age of late magmatic activities, the authors analyze the evolution of Pb, Sr, Nd isotope compositions, The inferred initiate Nd isotope ratio of ultrabasic rocks is 0.510233, lower than that of meteorite unity at a corresponding period, its ε Nd(T)>O; The initiate Sr ratios inferred by the isotope geological age ranges from 0.702735 to 0.719028; Projecting the lead isotope compositions on the Pb tectonic evolution model, the result indicates that the raw material of Jianchaling ultrabasic rock coming from the deplete upper mantle. The ultrabasic magma which enrich of Mg, Ni and less S intruded the crust and formed the Jianchaling ultrabasic rock at late Proterozoic era (927 Ma±). The forming time of serpentinite is mostly equal to the granitoid intruding time, showing the intrusion o flate acidic magma caused a large scale alteration of the ultrabasic rocks and formed the meta-ultrabasic phase rock observed today. (authors)

  4. Dual energy CT intracranial angiography: image quality, radiation dose and initial application results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xue; Zhang Longjiang; Lu Guangming; Zhou Changsheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of dual-energy intracranial CT angiography (CTA). Methods: Forty-one patients suspected of intracranial vascular diseases underwent dual-energy intracranial CT angiography, and 41 patients who underwent conventional subtraction CT were enrolled as the control group. Image quality of intracranial and skull base vessels and radiation dose between dual-energy CTA and conventional subtraction CTA were compared using two independent sample nonparametric test and independent-samples t test, respectively. Prevalence and size of lesions detected by dual-energy CTA and digital subtraction CTA were compared using paired-samples t test and Spearman correlative analysis. Results: The percentage of image quality scored 5 was 70.7% (29/41) for dual-energy CTA and 75.6% (31/41) for conventional subtraction CTA. There was no significant difference between the two groups (Z= -0.455, P=0.650). Image quality of vessels at the skull base in conventional subtraction CTA was superior to that in dual-energy CTA, especially for the petrosal and syphon segment (Z=-4.087, P=0.000). Radiation exposure of dual energy CTA and conventional CTA were (396.54±17.43) and (1090.95±114.29) mGy·cm respectively. Radiation exposure was decreased by 64% (t=-38.52, P=0.000) by dual energy CTA compared with conventional subtraction CTA. Out of the 41 patients, 19 patients were diagnosed as intracranial aneurysm, 2 patients as arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 3 patients with Moya-moya's disease, and the remaining 17 patients with negative results. Nine patients with intracranial aneurysm, 2 patients with AVM, 3 patients with Moya-moya's disease, and 2 patients with negative findings underwent DSA or operation, with concordant findings from both techniques. Diameter of aneurysm neck, long axis and minor axis by dual-energy CTA was (2.90±1.61), (5.23±1.68) and (3.83±1.69) mm, respectively; Diameter of aneurysm neck, long axis and minor axis by DSA was (2.95±1

  5. Arterial spin labelling perfusion MRI of breast cancer using FAIR TrueFISP: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbender, S.; Obenauer, S.; Mohrmann, S.; Martirosian, P.; Buchbender, C.; Miese, F.R.; Wittsack, H.J.; Miekley, M.; Antoch, G.; Lanzman, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the feasibility of an unenhanced, flow-sensitive, alternating inversion recovery-balanced steady-state free precession (FAIR TrueFISP) arterial spin labelling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for quantification of breast cancer perfusion. Materials and methods: Eighteen untreated breast tumour patients (mean age 53 ± 17 years, range 30–68 years) and four healthy controls (mean age 51 ± 14 years, range 33–68 years) were enrolled in this study and were imaged using a clinical 1.5 T MRI machine. Perfusion measurements were performed using a coronal single-section ASL FAIR TrueFISP technique in addition to a routine breast MRI examination. T1 relaxation time of normal breast parenchyma was determined in four healthy volunteers using the variable flip angle approach. The definitive diagnosis was obtained at histology after biopsy or surgery and was available for all patients. Results: ASL perfusion was successfully acquired in 13 of 18 tumour patients and in all healthy controls. The mean ASL perfusion of invasive ductal carcinoma tissue was significantly higher (88.2 ± 39.5 ml/100 g/min) compared to ASL perfusion of normal breast parenchyma (24.9 ± 12.7 ml/100 g/min; p < 0.05) and invasive lobular carcinoma (30.5 ± 4.3 ml/100 g/min; p < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the mean ASL perfusion of normal breast parenchyma and invasive lobular carcinoma tissue (p = 0.97). Conclusion: ASL MRI enables quantification of breast cancer perfusion without the use of contrast material. However, its impact on diagnosis and therapy management of breast tumours has to be evaluated in larger patient studies

  6. Plans for longitudinal and transverse neutralized beam compression experiments, and initial results from solenoid transport experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.A.; Armijo, J.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grote, D.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Molvik, A.W.; Rose, D.V.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.; Vay, J.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plans for neutralized drift compression experiments, precursors to future target heating experiments. The target-physics objective is to study warm dense matter (WDM) using short-duration (∼1 ns) ion beams that enter the targets at energies just above that at which dE/dx is maximal. High intensity on target is to be achieved by a combination of longitudinal compression and transverse focusing. This work will build upon recent success in longitudinal compression, where the ion beam was compressed lengthwise by a factor of more than 50 by first applying a linear head-to-tail velocity tilt to the beam, and then allowing the beam to drift through a dense, neutralizing background plasma. Studies on a novel pulse line ion accelerator were also carried out. It is planned to demonstrate simultaneous transverse focusing and longitudinal compression in a series of future experiments, thereby achieving conditions suitable for future WDM target experiments. Future experiments may use solenoids for transverse focusing of un-neutralized ion beams during acceleration. Recent results are reported in the transport of a high-perveance heavy ion beam in a solenoid transport channel. The principal objectives of this solenoid transport experiment are to match and transport a space-charge-dominated ion beam, and to study associated electron-cloud and gas effects that may limit the beam quality in a solenoid transport system. Ideally, the beam will establish a Brillouin-flow condition (rotation at one-half the cyclotron frequency). Other mechanisms that potentially degrade beam quality are being studied, such as focusing-field aberrations, beam halo, and separation of lattice focusing elements

  7. Sequential Blood Filtration for Extracorporeal Circulation: Initial Results from a Proof-of-Concept Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Micropore filters are used during extracorporeal circulation to prevent gaseous and solid particles from entering the patient’s systemic circulation. Although these devices improve patient safety, limitations in current designs have prompted the development of a new concept in micropore filtration. A prototype of the new design was made using 40-μm filter screens and compared against four commercially available filters for performance in pressure loss and gross air handling. Pre- and postfilter bubble counts for 5- and 10-mL bolus injections in an ex vivo test circuit were recorded using a Doppler ultrasound bubble counter. Statistical analysis of results for bubble volume reduction between test filters was performed with one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance using Bonferroni post hoc tests. Changes in filter performance with changes in microbubble load were also assessed with dependent t tests using the 5- and 10-mL bolus injections as the paired sample for each filter. Significance was set at p < .05. All filters in the test group were comparable in pressure loss performance, showing a range of 26–33 mmHg at a flow rate of 6 L/min. In gross air-handling studies, the prototype showed improved bubble volume reduction, reaching statistical significance with three of the four commercial filters. All test filters showed decreased performance in bubble volume reduction when the microbubble load was increased. Findings from this research support the underpinning theories of a sequential arterial-line filter design and suggest that improvements in microbubble filtration may be possible using this technique. PMID:26357790

  8. CT enteroclysis in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, T.P.; Gulati, M.S.; Makharia, G.K.; Bandhu, S.; Garg, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) enteroclysis in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Materials and methods: In a prospective study, CT enteroclysis was performed in 21 patients (median age 50 years; range 13-71 years) with obscure GI bleeding in which the source of the bleeding could not be detected despite the patient having undergone both upper GI endoscopic and colonoscopic examinations. The entire abdomen and pelvis was examined in the arterial and venous phases using multisection CT after distending the small intestine with 2 l of 0.5% methylcellulose as a neutral enteral contrast medium and the administration of 150 ml intravenous contrast medium. Results: Adequate distension of the small intestine was achieved in 20 of the 21 (95.2%) patients. Potential causes of GI bleeding were identified in 10 of the 21 (47.6%) patients using CT enteroclysis. The cause of the bleeding could be detected nine of 14 (64.3%) patients with overt, obscure GI bleeding. However, for patients with occult, obscure GI bleeding, the cause of the bleeding was identified in only one of the seven (14.3%) patients. The lesions identified by CT enteroclysis included small bowel tumours (n = 2), small bowel intussusceptions (n = 2), intestinal tuberculosis (n = 2), and vascular lesions (n = 3). All vascular lesions were seen equally well in both the arterial and venous phases. Conclusions: The success rate in detection of the cause of bleeding using CT enteroclysis was 47.6% in patients with obscure GI bleeding. The diagnostic yield was higher in patients with overt, obscure GI bleeding than in those with occult obscure GI bleeding

  9. Current discharge management of acute coronary syndromes: baseline results from a national quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, A; Pulver, L K; Oliver, K; Thompson, A

    2012-05-01

    Evidence-practice gaps exist in the continuum of care for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), particularly at hospital discharge. We aimed to describe the methodology and baseline results of the Discharge Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes (DMACS) project, focusing on the prescription of guideline-recommended medications, referral to cardiac rehabilitation and communication between the hospital, patient and their primary healthcare professionals. DMACS employed Drug Use Evaluation methodology involving data collection, evaluation and feedback, and targeted educational interventions. Adult patients with ACS discharged during a 4-month period were eligible to participate. Data were collected (maximum 50 patients) at each site through an inpatient medical record review, a general practitioner (GP) postal/fax survey conducted 14 days post discharge and a patient telephone survey 3 months post discharge. Forty-nine hospitals participated in the audit recruiting 1545 patients. At discharge, 57% of patients were prescribed a combination of antiplatelet agent(s), beta-blocker, statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and/or angiotensin II-antagonist. At 3 months post discharge, 48% of patients reported using the same combination. Some 67% of patients recalled being referred to cardiac rehabilitation; of these, 33% had completed the programme. In total, 83% of patients had a documented ACS management plan at discharge. Of these, 90% included a medication list, 56% a chest pain action plan and 54% risk factor modification advice. Overall, 65% of GPs rated the quality of information received in the discharge summary as 'very good' to 'excellent'. The findings of our baseline audit showed that despite the robust evidence base and availability of national guidelines, the management of patients with ACS can be improved. These findings will inform a multifaceted intervention strategy to improve adherence to guidelines for the discharge management of

  10. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhogora Wilbroad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR. The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to x-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al at a source image distance (SID of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program.

  11. Initial Results With Image-guided Cochlear Implant Programming in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jack H; Hedley-Williams, Andrea J; Sunderhaus, Linsey; Dawant, Benoit M; Labadie, Robert F; Camarata, Stephen M; Gifford, René H

    2016-02-01

    Image-guided cochlear implant (CI) programming can improve hearing outcomes for pediatric CI recipients. CIs have been highly successful for children with severe-to-profound hearing loss, offering potential for mainstreamed education and auditory-oral communication. Despite this, a significant number of recipients still experience poor speech understanding, language delay, and, even among the best performers, restoration to normal auditory fidelity is rare. Although significant research efforts have been devoted to improving stimulation strategies, few developments have led to significant hearing improvement over the past two decades. Recently introduced techniques for image-guided CI programming (IGCIP) permit creating patient-customized CI programs by making it possible, for the first time, to estimate the position of implanted CI electrodes relative to the nerves they stimulate using CT images. This approach permits identification of electrodes with high levels of stimulation overlap and to deactivate them from a patient's map. Previous studies have shown that IGCIP can significantly improve hearing outcomes for adults with CIs. The IGCIP technique was tested for 21 ears of 18 pediatric CI recipients. Participants had long-term experience with their CI (5 mo to 13 yr) and ranged in age from 5 to 17 years old. Speech understanding was assessed after approximately 4 weeks of experience with the IGCIP map. Using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank test, statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05) was observed for word and sentence recognition in quiet and noise, as well as pediatric self-reported quality-of-life (QOL) measures. Our results indicate that image guidance significantly improves hearing and QOL outcomes for pediatric CI recipients.

  12. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRI of lung perfusion in children with cystic fibrosis - initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Puderbach, Michael; Zuna, Ivan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Fink, Christian; Gahr, Julie; Mueller, Frank-Michael; Ley, Sebastian; Plathow, Christian; Tuengerthal, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a feasibility study of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lung perfusion in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) using contrast-enhanced 3D MRI. Correlation assessment of perfusion changes with structural abnormalities. Eleven CF patients (9 f, 2 m; median age 16 years) were examined at 1.5 T. Morphology: HASTE coronal, transversal (TR/TE/α/ST: 600 ms/28 ms/180 /6 mm), breath-hold 18 s. Perfusion: Time-resolved 3D GRE pulse sequence (FLASH, TE/TR/α: 0.8/1.9 ms/40 ), parallel imaging (GRAPPA, PAT 2). Twenty-five data sets were acquired after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of gadodiamide, 3-5 ml/s. A total of 198 lung segments were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus and scored for morphological and perfusion changes. Statistical analysis was performed by Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test. Results showed that perfusion defects were observed in all patients and present in 80% of upper, and 39% of lower lobes. Normal lung parenchyma showed homogeneous perfusion (86%, P<0.0001). Severe morphological changes led to perfusion defects (97%, P<0.0001). Segments with moderate morphological changes showed normal (53%) or impaired perfusion (47%). In conclusion, pulmonary perfusion is easy to judge in segments with normal parenchyma or severe changes. In moderately damaged segments, MRI of lung perfusion may help to better assess actual functional impairment. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRI of lung perfusion has the potential for early vascular functional assessment and therapy control in CF patients. (orig.)

  13. Multi-voxel MR spectroscopic imaging of the brain: utility in clinical setting-initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Hemant; Lim, Tchoyoson C.C.; Yin Hong; Chua, Violet; Khin, Lay-Wai; Raidy, Tom; Hui, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Compared to single voxel methods, MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the brain provides metabolic information with improved anatomical coverage and spectral resolution, but may be difficult to perform in the clinical setting. We evaluate the factors influencing spectral quality in MRSI using a semi-automated method, focussing on lipid contamination, and phase correction errors related to magnetic field inhomogeneity. Methods: We retrospectively analysed MRSI studies planned by radiologists and radiographers. Two-dimensional MRSI studies using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) localisation, at long echo time (135 or 144 ms) were acquired on a 1.5 T scanner. Studies that contained lipid contamination and abnormally inverted spectra were reviewed and the latter correlated with anatomic location at the base of skull, and with the area of the region of interest (ROI) studied. Results: Of 128 consecutive MRSI studies, six showed abnormal inverted spectra, of which four were acquired at the base of skull. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that study location at the base of skull, but not larger ROI, was a significant predictor for the risk of being affected by inverted spectra (RR for base of skull: 11.76, 95% CI: 1.86-74.18, P = 0.009. RR for area of ROI: 3.68, 95% CI: 0.57-23.67, P = 0.170). Seven studies showed lipid contamination; all were in close proximity to the overlying scalp. Conclusion: Using a semi-automated acquisition and post-processing method, MRSI can be successfully applied in the clinical setting. However, care should be taken to avoid regions of high magnetic field inhomogeneity at the base of skull, and lipid contamination in voxels prescribed near the scalp

  14. Field data collection of miscellaneous electrical loads in Northern California: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Claybaugh, Erin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Nagaraju, Mythri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Young, Scott J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.

    2013-02-25

    This report describes efforts to measure energy use of miscellaneous electrical loads (MELs) in 880 San Francisco Bay Area homes during the summer of 2012. Ten regions were selected for metering: Antioch, Berkeley, Fremont, Livermore, Marin County (San Rafael, Novato, Fairfax, and Mill Valley), Oakland/Emeryville, Pleasanton, Richmond, San Leandro, and Union City. The project focused on three major categories of devices: entertainment (game consoles, set-top boxes, televisions and video players), home office (computers, monitors and network equipment), and kitchen plug-loads (coffee/espresso makers, microwave ovens/toaster ovens/toasters, rice/slow cookers and wine chillers). These categories were important to meter because they either dominated the estimated overall energy use of MELs, are rapidly changing, or there are very little energy consumption data published. A total of 1,176 energy meters and 143 other sensors were deployed, and 90% of these meters and sensors were retrieved. After data cleaning, we obtained 711 valid device energy use measurements, which were used to estimate, for a number of device subcategories, the average time spent in high power, low power and “off” modes, the average energy use in each mode, and the average overall energy use. Consistent with observations made in previous studies, we find on average that information technology (IT) devices (home entertainment and home office equipment) consume more energy (15.0 and 13.0 W, respectively) than non-IT devices (kitchen plug-loads; 4.9 W). Opportunities for energy savings were identified in almost every device category, based on the time spent in various modes and/or the power levels consumed in those modes. Future reports will analyze the collected data in detail by device category and compare results to those obtained from prior studies.

  15. The Vermont oxford neonatal encephalopathy registry: rationale, methods, and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2006, the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) established the Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry (NER) to characterize infants born with neonatal encephalopathy, describe evaluations and medical treatments, monitor hypothermic therapy (HT) dissemination, define clinical research questions, and identify opportunities for improved care. Methods Eligible infants were ≥ 36 weeks with seizures, altered consciousness (stupor, coma) during the first 72 hours of life, a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, or receiving HT. Infants with central nervous system birth defects were excluded. Results From 2006–2010, 95 centers registered 4232 infants. Of those, 59% suffered a seizure, 50% had a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, 38% received HT, and 18% had stupor/coma documented on neurologic exam. Some infants experienced more than one eligibility criterion. Only 53% had a cord gas obtained and only 63% had a blood gas obtained within 24 hours of birth, important components for determining HT eligibility. Sixty-four percent received ventilator support, 65% received anticonvulsants, 66% had a head MRI, 23% had a cranial CT, 67% had a full channel encephalogram (EEG) and 33% amplitude integrated EEG. Of all infants, 87% survived. Conclusions The VON NER describes the heterogeneous population of infants with NE, the subset that received HT, their patterns of care, and outcomes. The optimal routine care of infants with neonatal encephalopathy is unknown. The registry method is well suited to identify opportunities for improvement in the care of infants affected by NE and study interventions such as HT as they are implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22726296

  16. Assessment of pulmonary parenchyma perfusion with FAIR in comparison with DCE-MRI-Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Li [Department of Radiology, ChangZheng Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, No. 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China)], E-mail: fanli0930@163.com; Liu Shiyuan [Department of Radiology, ChangZheng Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, No. 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Sun Fei [GE Healthcare China (China)], E-mail: Fei.sun@med.ge.com; Xiao Xiangsheng [Department of Radiology, ChangZheng Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, No. 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China)], E-mail: lizhaobin79@163.com

    2009-04-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary parenchyma perfusion with flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) in comparison with 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging in healthy volunteers and in patients with pulmonary embolism or lung cancer. Materials and methods: Sixteen healthy volunteers and 16 patients with pulmonary embolism (5 cases) or lung cancer (11 cases) were included in this study. Firstly, the optimized inversion time of FAIR (TI) was determined in 12 healthy volunteers. Then, FAIR imaging with the optimized TI was performed followed by DCE-MRI on the other 4 healthy volunteers and 16 patients. Tagging efficiency of lung and SNR of perfusion images were calculated with different TI values. In the comparison of FAIR with DCE-MRI, the homogeneity of FAIR and DCE-MRI perfusion was assessed. In the cases of perfusion abnormality, the contrast between normal lung and perfusion defects was quantified by calculating a normalized signal intensity ratio. Results: One thousand milliseconds was the optimal TI, which generated the highest lung tagging efficiency and second highest PBF SNR. In the volunteers, the signal intensity of perfusion images acquired with both FAIR and DCE-MRI was homogeneous. Wedged-shaped or triangle perfusion defects were visualized in five pulmonary embolisms and three lung cancer cases. There was no significant statistical difference in signal intensity ratio between FAIR and DCE-MRI (P > 0.05). In the rest of eight lung cancers, all the lesions showed low perfusion against the higher perfused pulmonary parenchyma in both FAIR and DCE-MRI. Conclusion: Pulmonary parenchyma perfusion imaging with FAIR was feasible, consistent and could obtain similar functional information to that from DCE-MRI.

  17. Assessment of pulmonary parenchyma perfusion with FAIR in comparison with DCE-MRI-Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Li; Liu Shiyuan; Sun Fei; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary parenchyma perfusion with flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) in comparison with 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging in healthy volunteers and in patients with pulmonary embolism or lung cancer. Materials and methods: Sixteen healthy volunteers and 16 patients with pulmonary embolism (5 cases) or lung cancer (11 cases) were included in this study. Firstly, the optimized inversion time of FAIR (TI) was determined in 12 healthy volunteers. Then, FAIR imaging with the optimized TI was performed followed by DCE-MRI on the other 4 healthy volunteers and 16 patients. Tagging efficiency of lung and SNR of perfusion images were calculated with different TI values. In the comparison of FAIR with DCE-MRI, the homogeneity of FAIR and DCE-MRI perfusion was assessed. In the cases of perfusion abnormality, the contrast between normal lung and perfusion defects was quantified by calculating a normalized signal intensity ratio. Results: One thousand milliseconds was the optimal TI, which generated the highest lung tagging efficiency and second highest PBF SNR. In the volunteers, the signal intensity of perfusion images acquired with both FAIR and DCE-MRI was homogeneous. Wedged-shaped or triangle perfusion defects were visualized in five pulmonary embolisms and three lung cancer cases. There was no significant statistical difference in signal intensity ratio between FAIR and DCE-MRI (P > 0.05). In the rest of eight lung cancers, all the lesions showed low perfusion against the higher perfused pulmonary parenchyma in both FAIR and DCE-MRI. Conclusion: Pulmonary parenchyma perfusion imaging with FAIR was feasible, consistent and could obtain similar functional information to that from DCE-MRI.

  18. CT enteroclysis in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, T.P. [Department ofRadiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Gulati, M.S. [Department of Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Makharia, G.K. [Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)]. E-mail: govindmakharia@aiims.ac.in; Bandhu, S. [Department ofRadiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Garg, P.K. [Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2007-07-15

    Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) enteroclysis in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Materials and methods: In a prospective study, CT enteroclysis was performed in 21 patients (median age 50 years; range 13-71 years) with obscure GI bleeding in which the source of the bleeding could not be detected despite the patient having undergone both upper GI endoscopic and colonoscopic examinations. The entire abdomen and pelvis was examined in the arterial and venous phases using multisection CT after distending the small intestine with 2 l of 0.5% methylcellulose as a neutral enteral contrast medium and the administration of 150 ml intravenous contrast medium. Results: Adequate distension of the small intestine was achieved in 20 of the 21 (95.2%) patients. Potential causes of GI bleeding were identified in 10 of the 21 (47.6%) patients using CT enteroclysis. The cause of the bleeding could be detected nine of 14 (64.3%) patients with overt, obscure GI bleeding. However, for patients with occult, obscure GI bleeding, the cause of the bleeding was identified in only one of the seven (14.3%) patients. The lesions identified by CT enteroclysis included small bowel tumours (n = 2), small bowel intussusceptions (n = 2), intestinal tuberculosis (n = 2), and vascular lesions (n = 3). All vascular lesions were seen equally well in both the arterial and venous phases. Conclusions: The success rate in detection of the cause of bleeding using CT enteroclysis was 47.6% in patients with obscure GI bleeding. The diagnostic yield was higher in patients with overt, obscure GI bleeding than in those with occult obscure GI bleeding.

  19. FY 1974 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Study on physicochemical properties of rocks in geothermal districts; 1974 nendo chinetsu chitai ni okeru ganseki no butsuri kagakuteki tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    The geothermal district is characterized by distributions of high temperature and hot water. The beds and rocks in these areas are characteristically altered by these conditions. It is an object of this research and development project to clarify how properties of the beds and rocks in these areas, exposed to the characteristic physicochemical conditions, differ from properties of those in other areas. There are may rock properties. In this project, the studied properties are centered by those used for physical exploitation (or geophysical methods), e.g., electrical properties (electrical exploitation), magnetic properties (magnetic exploitation), and thermal conductivity (measurement of heat flow rates and geothermal gradients). The FY 1974 project covers pigeonholing the basic data, establishment of the experimental procedures, and measurement of water quality characteristics and temperature distributions (geothermal temperature gradients) at the test site. This paper reports the results categorized by (I) measurement of rock resistivity and effects on moisture content on this property, (II) properties of water in the geothermal district (Yahata-daira District), and (III) relationships between rock thermal conductivity and other properties. (NEDO)

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for fetal oxygenation during maternal hypoxia: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, U.; Adam, G. [Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, UKE Hamburg (Germany); Tchirikov, M.; Schroeder, H. [Abt. fuer experimentelle Gynaekologie der Universitaetsfrauenklinik, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde, UKE, Hamburg (Germany); Koch, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, UKE Hamburg (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of fMRI to measure changes in fetal tissue oxygenation during acute maternal hypoxia in fetal lambs. Material and Methods: Two ewes carrying singleton fetuses (gestational age 125 and 131 days) underwent MR imaging under inhalation anesthesia. BOLD imaging of the fetal brain, liver and myocardium was performed during acute maternal hypoxia (oxygen replaced by N{sub 2}O). Maternal oxygen saturation and heart rate were monitored by a pulse-oxymeter attached to the maternal tongue. Results: Changes of fetal tissue oxygenation during maternal hypoxia were clearly visible with BOLD MRI. Signal intensity decreases were more distinct in liver and heart ({proportional_to}40%) from control than in the fetal brain ({proportional_to}10%). Conclusions: fMRI is a promising diagnostic tool to determine fetal tissue oxygenation and may open new opportunities in monitoring fetal well being in high risk pregnancies complicated by uteroplacentar insufficiency. Different signal changes in liver/heart and brain may reflect a centralization of the fetal blood flow. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung des Potentiales der funktionellen MRT (BOLD) in der Darstellung von Veraenderungen in der Sauerstoffsaettigung fetaler Gewebe waehrend akuter materner Hypoxie bei fetalen Laemmern. Material und Methoden: Die MR-Untersuchung wurde an zwei Mutterschafen mit 125 und 131 Tage alten Feten in Inhalationsnarkose durchgefuehrt. Die BOLD Messungen von fetaler Leber, Myokard und Gehirn erfolgten waehrend einer akuten Hypoxiephase des Muttertieres, in der Sauerstoff durch N{sub 2}O ersetzt wurde. Die materne Sauerstoffsaettigung und Herzfrequenz wurde durch ein Pulsoxymeter ueberwacht. Ergebnisse: Aenderungen der fetalen Gewebsoxygenierung waehrend einer akuten Hypoxiephase der Mutter waren mit der BOLD-MR-Bildgebung deutlich darstellbar. In der fetalen Leber und dem Myokard zeigte sich ein staerkerer Signalabfall um ca. 40% von den Kontrollwerten als im fetalen

  1. Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Yannakoulia, Mary; Kosmidis, Mary H; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Hadjigeorgiou, Giorgos M; Sakka, Paraskevi; Arampatzi, Xanthi; Bougea, Anastasia; Labropoulos, Ioannis; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    strongest for memory. Fish consumption was negatively associated with dementia and cognitive performance positively associated with non-refined cereal consumption. Our results suggest that adherence to the MeDi is associated with better cognitive performance and lower dementia rates in Greek elders. Thus, the MeDi in its a priori constructed prototype form may have cognitive benefits in traditional Mediterranean populations.

  2. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  3. Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A Anastasiou

    associations were strongest for memory. Fish consumption was negatively associated with dementia and cognitive performance positively associated with non-refined cereal consumption.Our results suggest that adherence to the MeDi is associated with better cognitive performance and lower dementia rates in Greek elders. Thus, the MeDi in its a priori constructed prototype form may have cognitive benefits in traditional Mediterranean populations.

  4. Features and Initial Results of the DIII-D Advanced Tokamak Radiative Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.C. O'Neill; A.S. Bozek; M.E. Friend; C.B. Baxi; E.E. Reis; M.A. Mahdavi; D.G. Nilson; S.L. Allen; W.P. West

    1999-01-01

    into the designs of the structures is the capability to withstand the thermal gradient across the structures and the DIII-D vacuum vessel during operations and bakeout in which temperatures reach as high as 350 C. The performance of the diagnostics and divertor systems with experimental results of the two existing systems are reported in this paper along with the baseline of the designs of the three divertor systems

  5. Petrography and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks of the Rodeio Velho Member, Ordovician of the Camaqua basin (RS-Brazil): preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Delia del Pilar M. de; Lopes, Ricardo da C.; Gomes, Cristiane H.; Lima, Larissa de.

    2000-01-01

    A geochemical study based in REE, minor elements and petrographic analyses from the volcanic rocks pertaining to the Rodeio Velho Member, comprising lava flows and epizonal intrusive bodies, both corresponding to andesites, subalkaline and alkaline basalts and trachyandesites; and stratified pyroclastic deposits, showed that fractional crystallization of deep source magma is the fundamental mechanism controlling the relationships among these rocks. This igneous event occurred in an alkaline intraplate environment, associated to a widespread extension tectonics, probably corresponding to a final stage of the Pan African - Brasiliano Orogeny during the Middle Ordovician. (author)

  6. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype Repository. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between October 2007 and March 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, D.; Haycox, J.; Pettitt, W.S.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The experiment has been designed to simulate a disposal tunnel in a real deep repository environment for storage of high-level radioactive waste. The test consists of a 90 m long, 5 m diameter subhorizontal tunnel excavated in dioritic granite. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype Repository. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between October 2007 and March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, D.; Haycox, J.; Pettitt, W.S. (Applied Seismology Consultants, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The experiment has been designed to simulate a disposal tunnel in a real deep repository environment for storage of high-level radioactive waste. The test consists of a 90 m long, 5 m diameter subhorizontal tunnel excavated in dioritic granite. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing.

  9. Federating clinical data from six pediatric hospitals: process and initial results for microbiology from the PHIS+ consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Warner, Phillip B; Mo, Peter; Levin, James E; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir S; de Regt, David; Kirkendall, Eric; Bickel, Jonathan; Korgenski, E Kent; Precourt, Michelle; Stepanek, Richard L; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P; Keren, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Microbiology study results are necessary for conducting many comparative effectiveness research studies. Unlike core laboratory test results, microbiology results have a complex structure. Federating and integrating microbiology data from six disparate electronic medical record systems is challenging and requires a team of varied skills. The PHIS+ consortium which is partnership between members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network, the Children's Hospital Association and the University of Utah, have used "FURTHeR' for federating laboratory data. We present our process and initial results for federating microbiology data from six pediatric hospitals.

  10. Impact of grain size and rock composition on simulated rock weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Yoni; Emmanuel, Simon

    2018-05-01

    Both chemical and mechanical processes act together to control the weathering rate of rocks. In rocks with micrometer size grains, enhanced dissolution at grain boundaries has been observed to cause the mechanical detachment of particles. However, it remains unclear how important this effect is in rocks with larger grains, and how the overall weathering rate is influenced by the proportion of high- and low-reactivity mineral phases. Here, we use a numerical model to assess the effect of grain size on chemical weathering and chemo-mechanical grain detachment. Our model shows that as grain size increases, the weathering rate initially decreases; however, beyond a critical size no significant decrease in the rate is observed. This transition occurs when the density of reactive boundaries is less than ˜ 20 % of the entire domain. In addition, we examined the weathering rates of rocks containing different proportions of high- and low-reactivity minerals. We found that as the proportion of low-reactivity minerals increases, the weathering rate decreases nonlinearly. These simulations indicate that for all compositions, grain detachment contributes more than 36 % to the overall weathering rate, with a maximum of ˜ 50 % when high- and low-reactivity minerals are equally abundant in the rock. This occurs because selective dissolution of the high-reactivity minerals creates large clusters of low-reactivity minerals, which then become detached. Our results demonstrate that the balance between chemical and mechanical processes can create complex and nonlinear relationships between the weathering rate and lithology.

  11. Rb-Sr geochronology of the rocks of the Himalayas, Eastern Nepal, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Kunio

    1981-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotopic measurements were carried out for whole rock and small sliced rock from the Himalayan gneiss which constitutes the metamorphosed basement of the Tethyan sediments. The results of the measurements on whole rock from the Barun migmatite, the Barun gneiss and the Irkhua gneiss indicate that complete Sr isotopic redistribution occurred about 520 m.y. ago. This age is interpreted as the time of the regional metamorphism. The analytical results of the small sliced slabs of the Himalayan gneiss indicate that Sr isotopic redistribution occurred among the sliced slabs 33.3 +- 13.2 m.y. ago. This age is interpreted as the time of the metamorphism in the sillimanite-amphibolite facies. The high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.7372 +- 0.0031 from the Barun migmatite of the Himalayan gneiss suggests the Precambrian Origin of the source rocks. The analytical results on the sliced slab of the Barun migmatite indicate that the original age of the rocks is about 800 m.y. The rock is interpreted as the remobilized Precambrian crustal rock. The high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the Barun gneiss and the Irkhua gneiss of the Himalayan gneiss (0.7234 +- 0.0013) indicates also the Precambrian origin of the source rocks. (author)

  12. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  13. Analysis of volcano rocks by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have analysed the basalt rock from Mount Ba tur volcano situated on the Island of Bali in Indonesia.We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. (authors)

  14. Channelling of flow through fractures in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    A method of mapping the channelling of flow in rock fractures formed by contacts between rock faces and of measuring the effective apertures of channels has been developed. Some typical results are given. (author)

  15. Time-dependent dilatancy for brittle rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study on time-dependent dilatancy