WorldWideScience

Sample records for rockies ecosystem protection

  1. Translating science into policy: Using ecosystem thresholds to protect resources in Rocky Mountain National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Ellen; Johnson, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Concern over impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, has prompted the National Park Service, the State of Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, the Environmental Protection Agency, and interested stakeholders to collaborate in the Rocky Mountain National Park Initiative, a process to address these impacts. The development of a nitrogen critical load for park aquatic resources has provided the basis for a deposition goal to achieve resource protection, and parties to the Initiative are now discussing strategies to meet that goal by reducing air pollutant emissions that contribute to nitrogen deposition in the Park. Issues being considered include the types and locations of emissions to be reduced, the timeline for emission reductions, and the impact of emission reductions from programs already in place. These strategies may serve as templates for addressing ecosystem impacts from deposition in other national parks. - A collaborative approach between scientists and policymakers is described for addressing nitrogen deposition effects to Rocky Mountain National Park, USA

  2. Restoring rocky intertidal communities: Lessons from a benthic macroalgal ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellgrove, Alecia; McKenzie, Prudence F; Cameron, Hayley; Pocklington, Jacqueline B

    2017-04-15

    As coastal population growth increases globally, effective waste management practices are required to protect biodiversity. Water authorities are under increasing pressure to reduce the impact of sewage effluent discharged into the coastal environment and restore disturbed ecosystems. We review the role of benthic macroalgae as ecosystem engineers and focus particularly on the temperate Australasian fucoid Hormosira banksii as a case study for rocky intertidal restoration efforts. Research focussing on the roles of ecosystem engineers is lagging behind restoration research of ecosystem engineers. As such, management decisions are being made without a sound understanding of the ecology of ecosystem engineers. For successful restoration of rocky intertidal shores it is important that we assess the thresholds of engineering traits (discussed herein) and the environmental conditions under which they are important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Restoring rocky intertidal communities: Lessons from a benthic macroalgal ecosystem engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellgrove, Alecia; McKenzie, Prudence F.; Cameron, Hayley; Pocklington, Jacqueline B.

    2017-01-01

    As coastal population growth increases globally, effective waste management practices are required to protect biodiversity. Water authorities are under increasing pressure to reduce the impact of sewage effluent discharged into the coastal environment and restore disturbed ecosystems. We review the role of benthic macroalgae as ecosystem engineers and focus particularly on the temperate Australasian fucoid Hormosira banksii as a case study for rocky intertidal restoration efforts. Research focussing on the roles of ecosystem engineers is lagging behind restoration research of ecosystem engineers. As such, management decisions are being made without a sound understanding of the ecology of ecosystem engineers. For successful restoration of rocky intertidal shores it is important that we assess the thresholds of engineering traits (discussed herein) and the environmental conditions under which they are important. - Highlights: • Fucoid algae can be important ecosystem engineers in rocky reef ecosystems • Sewage-effluent disposal negatively affects fucoids and associated communities • Restoring fucoid populations can improve biodiversity of degraded systems • Clarifying the roles of fucoids in ecosystem function can improve restoration efforts • Thresholds of engineering traits and associated environmental conditions important

  4. Symposium 9: Rocky Mountain futures: preserving, utilizing, and sustaining Rocky Mountain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Seastedt, Timothy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Tomback, Diana; Garcia, Elizabeth; Bowen, Zachary H.; Logan, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 we published Rocky Mountain Futures, an Ecological Perspective (Island Press) to examine the cumulative ecological effects of human activity in the Rocky Mountains. We concluded that multiple local activities concerning land use, hydrologic manipulation, and resource extraction have altered ecosystems, although there were examples where the “tyranny of small decisions” worked in a positive way toward more sustainable coupled human/environment interactions. Superimposed on local change was climate change, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and other pollutants, regional population growth, and some national management policies such as fire suppression.

  5. Understanding and Managing the Effects of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services in the Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Halofsky

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Public lands in the US Rocky Mountains provide critical ecosystem services, especially to rural communities that rely on these lands for fuel, food, water, and recreation. Climate change will likely affect the ability of these lands to provide ecosystem services. We describe 2 efforts to assess climate change vulnerabilities and develop adaptation options on federal lands in the Rocky Mountains. We specifically focus on aspects that affect community economic security and livelihood security, including water quality and quantity, timber, livestock grazing, and recreation. Headwaters of the Rocky Mountains serve as the primary source of water for large populations, and these headwaters are located primarily on public land. Thus, federal agencies will play a key role in helping to protect water quantity and quality by promoting watershed function and water conservation. Although increased temperatures and atmospheric concentration of CO2 have the potential to increase timber and forage production in the Rocky Mountains, those gains may be offset by wildfires, droughts, insect outbreaks, non-native species, and altered species composition. Our assessment identified ways in which federal land managers can help sustain forest and range productivity, primarily by increasing ecosystem resilience and minimizing current stressors, such as invasive species. Climate change will likely increase recreation participation. However, recreation managers will need more flexibility to adjust practices, provide recreation opportunities, and sustain economic benefits to communities. Federal agencies are now transitioning from the planning phase of climate change adaptation to implementation to ensure that ecosystem services will continue to be provided from federal lands in a changing climate.

  6. Cascading effects of fire exclusion in the Rocky Mountain ecosystems: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Kevin C. Ryan; Tom T. Veblen; Craig D. Allen; Jessie Logan; Brad Hawkes

    2002-01-01

    The health of many Rocky Mountain ecosystems is in decline because of the policy of excluding fire in the management of these ecosystems. Fire exclusion has actually made it more difficult to fight fires, and this poses greater risks to the people who fight fires and for those who live in and around Rocky Mountain forests and rangelands. This paper discusses the extent...

  7. Structure of macroalgal communities on tropical rocky shores inside and outside a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Adriana Brizon; Carvalho, Fabrício Lopes; Soares, Marcelo de Oliveira; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Castro Nunes, José Marcos

    2017-09-01

    The structure of marine macroalgal communities and morpho-functional groups were investigated in a poorly characterized region on the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic coast, Brazil. The survey was conducted at six rocky shores located on the mainland and on coastal islands distributed inside a marine protected area (MPA) and outside the MPA (near a densely populated area). We hypothesized that tropical rocky shores inside the MPA and islands have higher species richness, diversity, and evenness of marine macroalgae. Results confirmed that species richness, diversity and evenness were significantly higher inside the MPA than in rocky shores outside the MPA. Only species richness was higher on islands than on the mainland. The results suggest that human impacts could lead to a competitive advantage and dominance in the articulated calcareous morphotype, resulting in community differences and lower benthic biodiversity in tropical ecosystems near urbanized sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem. [Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes.

  9. Effects of climate change on ecosystem services in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Warziniack; Megan Lawson; S. Karen Dante-Wood

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the ecosystem services provided to people who visit, live adjacent to, or otherwise benefit from natural resources on public lands. Communities in the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), hereafter called the Northern Rockies region, are highly dependent on ecosystem...

  10. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Mapping critical loads of nitrogen deposition for aquatic ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Clow, David W.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Campbell, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially explicit estimates of critical loads of nitrogen (N) deposition (CLNdep) for nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems were developed for the Rocky Mountains, USA, using a geostatistical approach. The lowest CLNdep estimates (-1 yr-1) occurred in high-elevation basins with steep slopes, sparse vegetation, and abundance of exposed bedrock and talus. These areas often correspond with areas of high N deposition (>3 kg N ha-1 yr-1), resulting in CLNdep exceedances ≥1.5 ± 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1. CLNdep and CLNdep exceedances exhibit substantial spatial variability related to basin characteristics and are highly sensitive to the NO3- threshold at which ecological effects are thought to occur. Based on an NO3- threshold of 0.5 μmol L-1, N deposition exceeds CLNdep in 21 ± 8% of the study area; thus, broad areas of the Rocky Mountains may be impacted by excess N deposition, with greatest impacts at high elevations.

  12. Historical range of variation assessment for wetland and riparian ecosystems, U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Gage; David J. Cooper

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of historical range of variation concepts and explores their application to wetland and riparian ecosystems in the US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region (Region 2), which includes National Forests and National Grasslands occurring in the states of Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota. For each of five ecosystem...

  13. Mapping critical loads of nitrogen deposition for aquatic ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanus, Leora; Clow, David W.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Campbell, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially explicit estimates of critical loads of nitrogen (N) deposition (CL Ndep ) for nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems were developed for the Rocky Mountains, USA, using a geostatistical approach. The lowest CL Ndep estimates ( −1 yr −1 ) occurred in high-elevation basins with steep slopes, sparse vegetation, and abundance of exposed bedrock and talus. These areas often correspond with areas of high N deposition (>3 kg N ha −1 yr −1 ), resulting in CL Ndep exceedances ≥1.5 ± 1 kg N ha −1 yr −1 . CL Ndep and CL Ndep exceedances exhibit substantial spatial variability related to basin characteristics and are highly sensitive to the NO 3 − threshold at which ecological effects are thought to occur. Based on an NO 3 − threshold of 0.5 μmol L −1 , N deposition exceeds CL Ndep in 21 ± 8% of the study area; thus, broad areas of the Rocky Mountains may be impacted by excess N deposition, with greatest impacts at high elevations. - Highlights: ► Critical loads maps for nutrient enrichment effects of nitrogen deposition. ► Critical load estimates show spatial variability related to basin characteristics. ► Critical loads are sensitive to the nitrate threshold value for ecological effects. ► Broad areas of the Rocky Mountains may be impacted by excess nitrogen deposition. - Critical loads maps for nutrient enrichment effects of nitrogen deposition show that broad areas of the Rocky Mountains may be impacted by excess nitrogen deposition.

  14. Sustaining Rocky Mountain landscapes: Science, policy and management for the Crown of the Continent ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2007-01-01

    Prato and Fagre offer the first systematic, multi-disciplinary assessment of the challenges involved in managing the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem ( CCE), an area of the Rocky Mountains that includes northwestern Montana, southwestern Alberta, and southeastern British Columbia. The spectacular landscapes, extensive recreational options, and broad employment opportunities of the CCE have made it one of the fastest growing regions in the United States and Canada, and have lead to a shift in its economic base from extractive resource industries to service-oriented recreation and tourism industries. In the process, however, the amenities and attributes that draw people to this “New West” are under threat. Pastoral scenes are disappearing as agricultural lands and other open spaces are converted to residential uses, biodiversity is endangered by the fragmentation of fish and wildlife habitats, and many areas are experiencing a decline in air and water quality. Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes provides a scientific basis for communities to develop policies for managing the growth and economic transformation of the CCE without sacrificing the quality of life and environment for which the land is renowned. This forthcoming edited volume focuses on five aspects of sustaining mountain landscapes in the CCE and similar regions in the Rocky Mountains. The five aspects are: 1) how social, economic, demo graphic and environmental forces are transforming ecosystem structure and function, 2) trends in use and conditions for human and environmental resources, 3) activating science, policy and education to enhance sustainable landscape management, 4) challenges to sustainable management of public and private lands, and 5) future prospects for achieving sustainable landscapes.

  15. Evaluating the sufficiency of protected lands for maintaining wildlife population connectivity in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth; Curtis H. Flather

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The goal of this study was to evaluate the sufficiency of the network of protected lands in the U.S. northern Rocky Mountains in providing protection for habitat connectivity for 105 hypothetical organisms. A large proportion of the landscape...

  16. Are rocky shore ecosystems affected by nutrient-enriched seawater? Some preliminary results from a mesocosm experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokn, T.L.; Moy, F.E.; Christie, H.; Engelbert, S.; Karez, R.; Kersting, K.; Kraufvelin, P.; Lindblad, C.; Marba, N.; Pedersen, M.F.; Sorensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The response of rocky shore ecosystems to increased nutrient availability was examined in eight land-based mesocosms designed for hard-bottom littoral communities built at Marine Research Station Solbergstrand (Norway). The average seawater volume in each basin was 9 m3 with an average water

  17. Fire Regime and Ecosystem Effects of Climate-driven Changes in Rocky Mountains Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, A. L.; Das, T.; Lubetkin, K.; Romme, W.; Ryan, M. G.; Smithwick, E. A.; Turner, M.

    2009-12-01

    Western US Forest managers face more wildfires than ever before, and it is increasingly imperative to anticipate the consequences of this trend. Large fires in the northern Rocky Mountains have increased in association with warmer temperatures, earlier snowmelt, and longer fire seasons (1), and this trend is likely to continue with global warming (2). Increased wildfire occurrence is already a concern shared by managers from many federal land-management agencies (3). However, new analyses for the western US suggest that future climate could diverge even more rapidly from past climate than previously suggested. Current model projections suggest end-of-century hydroclimatic conditions like those of 1988 (the year of the well-known Yellowstone Fires) may represent close to the average year rather than an extreme year. The consequences of a shift of this magnitude for the fire regime, post-fire succession and carbon (C) balance of western forest ecosystems are well beyond what scientists have explored to date, and may fundamentally change the potential of western forests to sequester atmospheric C. We link hydroclimatic extremes (spring and summer temperature and cumulative water-year moisture deficit) to extreme fire years in northern Rockies forests, using large forest fire histories and 1/8-degree gridded historical hydrologic simulations (1950 - 2005) (4) forced with historical gridded temperature and precipitation (5). The frequency of extremes in hydroclimate associated with historic severe fire years in the northern Rocky Mountains is compared to those projected under a range of climate change projections, using global climate model runs for the A2 and B1 emissions pathways for three global climate models (NCAR PCM1, GFDL CM2.1, CNRM CM3). Coarse-scale climatic variables are downscaled to a 1/8 degree grid and used to force hydrologic simulations (6, 7). We will present preliminary results using these hydrologic simulations to model spatially explicit annual

  18. Linking biophysical models and public preferences for ecosystem service assessments: a case study for the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Reed, James; Semmens, Darius J.; Sherrouse, Ben C.; Troy, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Through extensive research, ecosystem services have been mapped using both survey-based and biophysical approaches, but comparative mapping of public values and those quantified using models has been lacking. In this paper, we mapped hot and cold spots for perceived and modeled ecosystem services by synthesizing results from a social-values mapping study of residents living near the Pike–San Isabel National Forest (PSI), located in the Southern Rocky Mountains, with corresponding biophysically modeled ecosystem services. Social-value maps for the PSI were developed using the Social Values for Ecosystem Services tool, providing statistically modeled continuous value surfaces for 12 value types, including aesthetic, biodiversity, and life-sustaining values. Biophysically modeled maps of carbon sequestration and storage, scenic viewsheds, sediment regulation, and water yield were generated using the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services tool. Hotspots for both perceived and modeled services were disproportionately located within the PSI’s wilderness areas. Additionally, we used regression analysis to evaluate spatial relationships between perceived biodiversity and cultural ecosystem services and corresponding biophysical model outputs. Our goal was to determine whether publicly valued locations for aesthetic, biodiversity, and life-sustaining values relate meaningfully to results from corresponding biophysical ecosystem service models. We found weak relationships between perceived and biophysically modeled services, indicating that public perception of ecosystem service provisioning regions is limited. We believe that biophysical and social approaches to ecosystem service mapping can serve as methodological complements that can advance ecosystem services-based resource management, benefitting resource managers by showing potential locations of synergy or conflict between areas supplying ecosystem services and those valued by the public.

  19. Assessment of Climate Change and Freshwater Ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains, USA and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, F. Richard; Baron, Jill S.; Campbell, Donald H.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Hostetler, Steve W.; Leavesley, George H.; Leavitt, Peter R.; McKnight, Diane M.; Stanford, Jack A.

    1997-06-01

    The Rocky Mountains in the USA and Canada encompass the interior cordillera of western North America, from the southern Yukon to northern New Mexico. Annual weather patterns are cold in winter and mild in summer. Precipitation has high seasonal and interannual variation and may differ by an order of magnitude between geographically close locales, depending on slope, aspect and local climatic and orographic conditions. The region's hydrology is characterized by the accumulation of winter snow, spring snowmelt and autumnal baseflows. During the 2-3-month spring runoff period, rivers frequently discharge > 70% of their annual water budget and have instantaneous discharges 10-100 times mean low flow.Complex weather patterns characterized by high spatial and temporal variability make predictions of future conditions tenuous. However, general patterns are identifiable; northern and western portions of the region are dominated by maritime weather patterns from the North Pacific, central areas and eastern slopes are dominated by continental air masses and southern portions receive seasonally variable atmospheric circulation from the Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico. Significant interannual variations occur in these general patterns, possibly related to ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) forcing.Changes in precipitation and temperature regimes or patterns have significant potential effects on the distribution and abundance of plants and animals. For example, elevation of the timber-line is principally a function of temperature. Palaeolimnological investigations have shown significant shifts in phyto- and zoo-plankton populations as alpine lakes shift between being above or below the timber-line. Likewise, streamside vegetation has a significant effect on stream ecosystem structure and function. Changes in stream temperature regimes result in significant changes in community composition as a consequence of bioenergetic factors. Stenothermic species could be extirpated as

  20. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first legislative concerns for the protection and exploitation of forests are occurring since the eighteenth century. Forest of the country has always been a priority for environmental policy. The institutional framework for forestry organization in Romania is represented mainly by the Ministry of Environment and National Administration of Forests – Romsilva. First Romanian Forest Code was adopted on 19 June 1881. In present, the main law governing the forest is given by Law No. 46 of March 19, 2008 (Forest Code. Forests are resources of interest economic, social, recreational, ecological and biological. Biodiversity conservation of forest ecosystems involves the sustainable management by applying intensive treatments that promote natural regeneration of species of fundamental natural forest type and forest conservation and quasi virgin. The main way to conserve forest ecosystems is represented by the establishment of protected areas of national interest.

  1. Protected area certificates: gaining ground for better ecosystem protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates.

  2. "Rickettsia amblyommii" induces cross protection against lethal Rocky Mountain spotted fever in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Lucas S; Mendell, Nicole L; Walker, David H; Bouyer, Donald H

    2014-08-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a severe illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which there is no available vaccine. We hypothesize that exposure to the highly prevalent, relatively nonpathogenic "Rickettsia amblyommii" protects against R. rickettsii challenge. To test this hypothesis, guinea pigs were inoculated with "R. amblyommii." After inoculation, the animals showed no signs of illness. When later challenged with lethal doses of R. rickettsii, those previously exposed to "R. amblyommii" remained well, whereas unimmunized controls developed severe illness and died. We conclude that "R. amblyommii" induces an immune response that protects from illness and death in the guinea pig model of RMSF. These results provide a basis for exploring the use of low-virulence rickettsiae as a platform to develop live attenuated vaccine candidates to prevent severe rickettsioses.

  3. Call to protect deep-sea coral, sponge ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-03-01

    More than 1100 scientists are signatories to a 15 February consensus statement calling for the protection of deep sea coral and sponge ecosystems. The statement indicates that ``the greatest human threat'' to these ecosystems ``is commercial fishing, especially bottom trawling.''

  4. Rocky road in the Rockies: Challenges to biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomback, Diana F.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Baron, Jill S.

    2002-01-01

    To people worldwide, the Rocky Mountains of the United States and Canada represent a last bastion of nature in its purest and rawest form-unspoiled forests teeming with elk and deer stalked by mountain lions and grizzly bears; bald eagles nesting near lakes and rivers; fat, feisty native trout in rushing mountain streams; and dazzling arrays of wildflowers in lush meadows. In fact, the total biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains is considerable, with relatively high diversity in birds, mammals, butterflies, reptiles, and conifers (Ricketts et al. 1999) and with geographic variation in the flora and fauna of alpine, forest, foothill, and adjacent shortgrass prairie and shrub communities over more than 20 degrees of latitude and more than 10' of longitude. Although the biodiversity of most North American regions has declined because of anthropogenic influences, the perception remains that the biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains is intact. This view exists in part because the Rocky Mountains are remote from urban centers, in part because so much of the land comprises protected areas such as national parks and wilderness areas, and in part because of wishful thinking-that nothing bad could happen to the biodiversity that is so much a part of the history, national self-image, legends, nature films, and movies of the United States and Canada. Despite modern technology and the homogenization and globalization of their cities and towns, at heart North Americans still regard their land as the New World, with pristine nature and untamed landscapes epitomized by the Rockies. The reality is that the biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains has not been free of anthropogenic influences since the West was settled in the 1800s, and in fact it was altered by Native Americans for centuries prior to settlement. A number of escalating problems and consequences of management choices are currently changing Rocky Mountain ecological communities at a dizzying pace. In Order to maintain some

  5. Non-Native Plant Invasion along Elevation and Canopy Closure Gradients in a Middle Rocky Mountain Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Averett

    Full Text Available Mountain environments are currently among the ecosystems least invaded by non-native species; however, mountains are increasingly under threat of non-native plant invasion. The slow pace of exotic plant invasions in mountain ecosystems is likely due to a combination of low anthropogenic disturbances, low propagule supply, and extreme/steep environmental gradients. The importance of any one of these factors is debated and likely ecosystem dependent. We evaluated the importance of various correlates of plant invasions in the Wallowa Mountain Range of northeastern Oregon and explored whether non-native species distributions differed from native species along an elevation gradient. Vascular plant communities were sampled in summer 2012 along three mountain roads. Transects (n = 20 were evenly stratified by elevation (~70 m intervals along each road. Vascular plant species abundances and environmental parameters were measured. We used indicator species analysis to identify habitat affinities for non-native species. Plots were ordinated in species space, joint plots and non-parametric multiplicative regression were used to relate species and community variation to environmental variables. Non-native species richness decreased continuously with increasing elevation. In contrast, native species richness displayed a unimodal distribution with maximum richness occurring at mid-elevations. Species composition was strongly related to elevation and canopy openness. Overlays of trait and environmental factors onto non-metric multidimensional ordinations identified the montane-subalpine community transition and over-story canopy closure exceeding 60% as potential barriers to non-native species establishment. Unlike native species, non-native species showed little evidence for high-elevation or closed-canopy specialization. These data suggest that non-native plants currently found in the Wallowa Mountains are dependent on open canopies and disturbance for

  6. Non-Native Plant Invasion along Elevation and Canopy Closure Gradients in a Middle Rocky Mountain Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Joshua P; McCune, Bruce; Parks, Catherine G; Naylor, Bridgett J; DelCurto, Tim; Mata-González, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Mountain environments are currently among the ecosystems least invaded by non-native species; however, mountains are increasingly under threat of non-native plant invasion. The slow pace of exotic plant invasions in mountain ecosystems is likely due to a combination of low anthropogenic disturbances, low propagule supply, and extreme/steep environmental gradients. The importance of any one of these factors is debated and likely ecosystem dependent. We evaluated the importance of various correlates of plant invasions in the Wallowa Mountain Range of northeastern Oregon and explored whether non-native species distributions differed from native species along an elevation gradient. Vascular plant communities were sampled in summer 2012 along three mountain roads. Transects (n = 20) were evenly stratified by elevation (~70 m intervals) along each road. Vascular plant species abundances and environmental parameters were measured. We used indicator species analysis to identify habitat affinities for non-native species. Plots were ordinated in species space, joint plots and non-parametric multiplicative regression were used to relate species and community variation to environmental variables. Non-native species richness decreased continuously with increasing elevation. In contrast, native species richness displayed a unimodal distribution with maximum richness occurring at mid-elevations. Species composition was strongly related to elevation and canopy openness. Overlays of trait and environmental factors onto non-metric multidimensional ordinations identified the montane-subalpine community transition and over-story canopy closure exceeding 60% as potential barriers to non-native species establishment. Unlike native species, non-native species showed little evidence for high-elevation or closed-canopy specialization. These data suggest that non-native plants currently found in the Wallowa Mountains are dependent on open canopies and disturbance for establishment in low

  7. Methods applied in the large littoral mesocosms study of nutrient enrichment in rocky shore ecosystems - EULIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokn, T.L.; Hoell, E.E.; Kersting, K.; Moy, F.E.; Sorensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Eight concrete land-based mesocosms have been set up for a study of the effect of nutrient enrichment on littoral hard bottom ecosystems. The construction of the mesocosms and the community establishment were initiated 2 yr ahead of the MAST-III project. The littoral communities were established by

  8. An ecosystem approach to management: a context for wilderness protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Gray; Robert J. Davidson

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable development, ecosystem management and ecosystem health are three prominent catch phrases that now permeate the scientific and popular media, and form the basis of a growing number of private sector, government and academic programs. This discussion paper briefly explores the definition and application of these concepts as a context for wilderness protection...

  9. Wildland Fire Research: Water Supply and Ecosystem Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is critical to better understand how fires affect water quality and supply and the overall health of an ecosystem. This information can be used to protect the safety of drinking water and assess the vulnerability of water supplies.

  10. Incentive mechanisms for ecosystem protection on private lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.; Perali, F.; Veronesi, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study has the objective to bring to the fore the importance of appropriate incentive schemes for the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems on private lands. The analysis describes the effectiveness of the regulations implemented in advanced countries. In particular, first the study presents some examples and discusses the implications of the actual legislation in developed countries for the protection of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Then, the study analyses the legal doctrine regarding compensation, and the available economic instruments for ecosystem services protection. Finally, the study presents the best economic tools capable to align private behavior with the social goals of protecting the services offered by the ecosystems and favoring the participation of private owners to projects for sustainable production and conservation. Special attention is paid to the institution of Community Foundations using as models those implemented in the United States. [it

  11. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND BEYOND: INTEGRATION OF ECOSYSTEM SCIENCE AND MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MODELING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision-making for ecosystem protection and resource management requires an integrative science and technology applied with a sufficiently comprehensive systems approach. Single media (e.g., air, soil and water) approaches that evaluate aspects of an ecosystem in a stressor-by-...

  12. Sea otters homogenize mussel beds and reduce habitat provisioning in a rocky intertidal ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G Singh

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities.

  13. To what extent can ecosystem services motivate protecting biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Laura E; De Lara, Michel; Costello, Christopher; Gaines, Steven D

    2017-08-01

    Society increasingly focuses on managing nature for the services it provides people rather than for the existence of particular species. How much biodiversity protection would result from this modified focus? Although biodiversity contributes to ecosystem services, the details of which species are critical, and whether they will go functionally extinct in the future, are fraught with uncertainty. Explicitly considering this uncertainty, we develop an analytical framework to determine how much biodiversity protection would arise solely from optimising net value from an ecosystem service. Using stochastic dynamic programming, we find that protecting a threshold number of species is optimal, and uncertainty surrounding how biodiversity produces services makes it optimal to protect more species than are presumed critical. We define conditions under which the economically optimal protection strategy is to protect all species, no species, and cases in between. We show how the optimal number of species to protect depends upon different relationships between species and services, including considering multiple services. Our analysis provides simple criteria to evaluate when managing for particular ecosystem services could warrant protecting all species, given uncertainty. Evaluating this criterion with empirical estimates from different ecosystems suggests that optimising some services will be more likely to protect most species than others. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Radioecology of natural systems in Colordao. Fourteenth annual progress report, May 1, 1975--July 31, 1976. [Pu diffusion in terrestrial ecosystems at Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1976-08-01

    This report summarizes project activities during the period May 1, 1975 through July 31, 1976. The major study on the distribution and levels of Pu in major components of the terrestrial ecosystem at Rocky Flats was completed. Supportive studies on the ecology and pathology of small mammals and their role in Pu transport were essentially completed as well. Detailed studies on mule deer food habits, population dynamics, and movements at Rocky Flats are progressing. These studies are designed to measure the potential of mule deer in transporting Pu to uncontrolled areas. Alpha autoradiographic studies designed to measure Pu particle size and distribution and spatial patterns in soil were initiated. Field and greenhouse transport pathways from soil to vegetation are in progress and some early results reported. The status of studies on seasonal kinetics of Cs in a montane lake and stable lead geochemistry in an alpine lake watershed are also reported.

  15. Toward Understanding, Managing, and Protecting Microbial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial communities are at the very basis of life on earth, catalyzing biogeochemical reactions driving global nutrient cycles. However, unlike for plants and animals, microbial diversity is not on the biodiversity–conservation agenda. The latter, however, would imply that microbial diversity is not under any threat by anthropogenic disturbance or climate change. This maybe a misconception caused by the rudimentary knowledge we have concerning microbial diversity and its role in ecosystem functioning. This perspective paper identifies major areas with knowledge gaps within the field of environmental microbiology that preclude a comprehension of microbial ecosystems on the level we have for plants and animals. Opportunities and challenges are pointed out to open the microbial black box and to go from descriptive to predictive microbial ecology. PMID:21747797

  16. Towards understanding, managing and protecting microbial ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eBodelier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities are at the very basis of life on earth, catalysing biogeochemical reactions driving global nutrient cycles. However, unlike for plants and animals, microbial diversity is not on the biodiversity conservation agenda. The latter, however, would imply that microbial diversity is not under any threat by anthropogenic disturbance or climate change. This maybe a misconception caused by the rudimentary knowledge we have concerning microbial diversity and its role in ecosystem functioning. This perspective paper indentifies major areas with knowledge gaps within the field of environmental microbiology that preclude a comprehension of microbial ecosystems on the level we have for plants and animals. Opportunities and challenges are pointed out to open the microbial black box and to go from descriptive to predictive microbial ecology.

  17. Toward understanding, managing, and protecting microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodelier, Paul L E

    2011-01-01

    Microbial communities are at the very basis of life on earth, catalyzing biogeochemical reactions driving global nutrient cycles. However, unlike for plants and animals, microbial diversity is not on the biodiversity-conservation agenda. The latter, however, would imply that microbial diversity is not under any threat by anthropogenic disturbance or climate change. This maybe a misconception caused by the rudimentary knowledge we have concerning microbial diversity and its role in ecosystem functioning. This perspective paper identifies major areas with knowledge gaps within the field of environmental microbiology that preclude a comprehension of microbial ecosystems on the level we have for plants and animals. Opportunities and challenges are pointed out to open the microbial black box and to go from descriptive to predictive microbial ecology.

  18. THE ECONOMIC APPROACH OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PROVIDED BY PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirnu Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As practice shows us, at the present time ecosystem services are recognized by humanity, but unfortunately are undervalued compared to their full potential. Most of planet's ecosystems are degradated by anthropic activity of humankind. It is almost impossible to say that there are no areas affected by human activity, however, the Protected Areas are a good opportunity, so the assessing of ecosystem services in Protected Areas can be a solution to the problem of economic growth. At present, there are few consistent informations on economic value of ecosystem services in Romania, on the basis of which can be adopted some sustainable financing policies of activities in Protected Areas. The premise from which we start is that a proper management of natural capital will allow biodiversity conservation and human well-being if it find appropriate economic instruments. For this reason, studies of economic research on the contribution of those ecosystem services to the communities welfare may constitute credible means for decision-makers, demonstrating the Protected Areas importance. This paper, based on the study of international and national literature, examines the state of knowledge on the economic and environmental valences of ecosystem services. The growing interest of researchers regarding the economic valuation of ecosystem services related to Protected Areas is visible through the many studies carried out at international level. Although national scientific research relating to ecosystem services is at the beginning, concerns researchers economists and ecologists have been directed toward this recess, of ecosystem services. The reason for we should assign an economic value to ecosystem services is to ensure that their value is included actively in decision-making and is not ignored because "is still available". Briefly, the paper start with an overview of the main definition of ecosystem services. From the point of economic value view, the paper

  19. New assay of protective activity of Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, R L; Smith, R F; Mann, R E; Hamilton, M A

    1976-01-01

    Areas under the fever curves of guinea pigs inoculated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccine over a restricted dose range and infected with a standardized dose of Rickettsia rickettsii varied linearly with log10 dose of vaccine. A calculator was programmed to plot fever curves and calculate the vaccine dose that reduced the fever of infected animals by 50%. PMID:823177

  20. Coastal ecosystems for protection against storm surge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    and infrastructure in single catastrophe exceeded Rs. 2750 crore. Economic loss is thus prohibitive and hence unsustainable. This paper acknowledges the intrinsic protective value of coastal sand dunes, vegetation and wetlands as a functional natural defence...

  1. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  2. Application of a coupled ecosystem-chemical equilibrium model, DayCent-Chem, to stream and soil chemistry in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, M.D.; Baron, Jill S.; Ojima, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species have the potential to acidify terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, but nitrate and ammonium are also critical nutrients for plant and microbial productivity. Both the ecological response and the hydrochemical response to atmospheric deposition are of interest to regulatory and land management agencies. We developed a non-spatial biogeochemical model to simulate soil and surface water chemistry by linking the daily version of the CENTURY ecosystem model (DayCent) with a low temperature aqueous geochemical model, PHREEQC. The coupled model, DayCent-Chem, simulates the daily dynamics of plant production, soil organic matter, cation exchange, mineral weathering, elution, stream discharge, and solute concentrations in soil water and stream flow. By aerially weighting the contributions of separate bedrock/talus and tundra simulations, the model was able to replicate the measured seasonal and annual stream chemistry for most solutes for Andrews Creek in Loch Vale watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park. Simulated soil chemistry, net primary production, live biomass, and soil organic matter for forest and tundra matched well with measurements. This model is appropriate for accurately describing ecosystem and surface water chemical response to atmospheric deposition and climate change. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Principles for urban stormwater management to protect stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher J.; Booth, Derek B.; Burns, Matthew J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Hale, Rebecca L.; Hoang, Lan N.; Livingston, Grant; Rippy, Megan A.; Roy, Allison; Scoggins, Mateo; Wallace, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Urban stormwater runoff is a critical source of degradation to stream ecosystems globally. Despite broad appreciation by stream ecologists of negative effects of stormwater runoff, stormwater management objectives still typically center on flood and pollution mitigation without an explicit focus on altered hydrology. Resulting management approaches are unlikely to protect the ecological structure and function of streams adequately. We present critical elements of stormwater management necessary for protecting stream ecosystems through 5 principles intended to be broadly applicable to all urban landscapes that drain to a receiving stream: 1) the ecosystems to be protected and a target ecological state should be explicitly identified; 2) the postdevelopment balance of evapotranspiration, stream flow, and infiltration should mimic the predevelopment balance, which typically requires keeping significant runoff volume from reaching the stream; 3) stormwater control measures (SCMs) should deliver flow regimes that mimic the predevelopment regime in quality and quantity; 4) SCMs should have capacity to store rain events for all storms that would not have produced widespread surface runoff in a predevelopment state, thereby avoiding increased frequency of disturbance to biota; and 5) SCMs should be applied to all impervious surfaces in the catchment of the target stream. These principles present a range of technical and social challenges. Existing infrastructural, institutional, or governance contexts often prevent application of the principles to the degree necessary to achieve effective protection or restoration, but significant potential exists for multiple co-benefits from SCM technologies (e.g., water supply and climate-change adaptation) that may remove barriers to implementation. Our set of ideal principles for stream protection is intended as a guide for innovators who seek to develop new approaches to stormwater management rather than accept seemingly

  4. Shallow rocky nursery habitat for fish: Spatial variability of juvenile fishes among this poorly protected essential habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheminée, Adrien; Rider, Mary; Lenfant, Philippe; Zawadzki, Audrey; Mercière, Alexandre; Crec'hriou, Romain; Mercader, Manon; Saragoni, Gilles; Neveu, Reda; Ternon, Quentin; Pastor, Jérémy

    2017-06-15

    Coastal nursery habitats are essential for the renewal of adult fish populations. We quantified the availability of a coastal nursery habitat (shallow heterogeneous rocky bottoms) and the spatial variability of its juvenile fish populations along 250km of the Catalan coastline (France and Spain). Nurseries were present in 27% of the coastline, but only 2% of them benefited from strict protection status. For nine taxa characteristic of this habitat, total juvenile densities varied significantly between nursery sites along the coastline, with the highest densities being found on the northern sites. Recruitment level (i.e. a proxy of nursery value) was not explained by protection level, but it was moderately and positively correlated with an anthropization index. Patterns of spatial variations were taxa-specific. Exceptional observations of four juveniles of the protected grouper Epinephelus marginatus were recorded. Our data on habitat availability and recruitment levels provides important informations which help to focus MPA management efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Downscaling Climate Projections to a Mountainous Landscape: A Climate Impact Assessment for the U.S. Northern Rockies Crown of the Continent Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler, J.; Anderson, R.; Running, S. W.

    2010-12-01

    In topographically complex landscapes, there is often a mismatch in scale between global climate model projections and more local climate-forcing factors and related ecological/hydrological processes. To overcome this limitation, the objective of this study was to downscale climate projections to the rugged Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (CCE) within the U.S. Northern Rockies and assess future impacts on water balances, vegetation dynamics, and carbon fluxes. A 40-year (1970-2009) spatial historical climate dataset (800m resolution, daily timestep) was generated for the CCE and modified for terrain influences. Regional climate projections were downscaled by applying them to the fine-scale historical dataset using a modified delta downscaling method and stochastic weather generator. The downscaled projections were used to drive the Biome-BGC ecosystem model. Overall CCE impacts included decreases in April 1 snow water equivalent, less days with snow on the ground, increased vegetation water stress, and increased growing degree days. The relaxing of temperature constraints increased annual net primary productivity (NPP) throughout most of the CCE landscape. However, an increase in water stress seems to have limited the growth in NPP and, in some areas, NPP actually decreased. Thus, CCE vegetation productivity trends under increasing temperatures will likely be determined by local changes in hydrologic function. Given the greater uncertainty in precipitation projections, future work should concentrate on determining thresholds in water constraints that greatly modify the magnitude and direction of carbon accumulation within the CCE under a warming climate.

  6. The Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station's Southwestern Borderlands Ecosystem Management Project: building on ten years of success [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Carleton B. Edminster

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service initiated the Southwestern Borderlands Ecosystem Management Project in 1994. The Project concentrates on the unique, relatively unfragmented landscape of exceptional biological diversity in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Its mission is to: "Contribute to the scientific basis for developing and implementing a comprehensive...

  7. Ecosystem services in European protected areas: Ambiguity in the views of scientists and managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, C.; Provenzale, A.; Van der Meer, J.; Wijnhoven, S.; Nolte, A.; Poursanidis, D.; Janss, G.; Jurek, M.; Andresen, M.; Poulin, B.; Kobler, J.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Honrado, J.; Razinkovas, A.; Stritih, A.; Bargmann, T.; Ziemba, A.; Bonet-García, F.; Adamescu, M.C.; Janssen, G.; Hummel, H.

    2017-01-01

    Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers,

  8. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  9. Rocky Flats Compliance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The primary objective of the Office of Technology Development, Rocky Flats Compliance Program (RFCP), is to develop altemative treatment technologies for mixed low-level waste (wastes containing both hazardous and radioactive components) to use in bringing the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) into compliance with Federal and state regulations and agreements. Approximately 48,000 cubic feet of untreated low-level mixed waste, for which treatment has not been specified, are stored at the RFP. The cleanup of the Rocky Flats site is driven by agreements between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Under these agreements, a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan (CTMP) was drafted to outline the mechanisms by which RFP will achieve compliance with the regulations and agreements. This document describes DOE's strategy to treat low-level mixed waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and sets specific milestones related to the regulatory aspects of technology development. These milestones detail schedules for the development of technologies to treat all of the mixed wastes at the RFP. Under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the CTMP has been incorporated into Rocky Flats Plant Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP). The CSTP will become the Rocky Flats Plant site Treatment Plan in 1995 and will supersede the CTMP

  10. Task group of international union of radioecology 'ecosystem approach to environment protection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    An ecosystem approach is a holistic (i.e., top-down) strategy for protection of ecosystem structures and functions from perturbations. A task group of International Union of Radioecology 'Ecosystem Approach to Environment Protection' was launched in April, 2010. This task group is preparing a report on the following topics: (1) goals of environmental protection; (2) legislation about environmental protection; (3) assessment of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAP) concept in the general context of environmental protection; (4) limitations and uncertainties of the RAPs concept; (5) justification and merits of the ecosystem approach; (6) assessing the feasibility of the ecosystem approach; (7) research and development required for the ecosystem approach; and (8) recommendations with respect to radiation protection. The topics 1, 3, 4 and 5 have been almost completely prepared, and demonstrate that the ecosystem approach is required for radiation protection of the environment. On the other hand, methods of the ecosystem approach which should be adopted for radiation protection of the environment are not clear in the current draft report. They should be specified by reviewing the Convention on Biological Diversity, fish stock management and other activities where the ecosystem approach is already adopted. (author)

  11. Protecting the environment for development: Linking ecosystem structure & function and development outcomes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available edition of National Water Resource Strategy sets out to ensure that South Africa's aquatic ecosystems are protected effectively at different levels in accordance with the classification system, and that decisions concerning levels of protection take...

  12. A global mismatch in the protection of multiple marine biodiversity components and ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Holt, Ben G.; MacKenzie, Brian R.

    2018-01-01

    spatial scale. We demonstrate a pronounced spatial mismatch between the existing degree of protection and all the conservation priorities above, highlighting that neither the world's most diverse, nor the most productive ecosystems are currently the most protected ecosystems. Furthermore, we show...... more effectively than the existing degree of protection, which at best is only marginally better than a random expectation. Therefore, a holistic perspective is needed when designating an appropriate degree of protection of marine conservation priorities worldwide....

  13. Assessing impacts of intensified biomass production and biodiversity protection on ecosystem services provided by European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.J.; Mavsar, R.; Giergiczny, M.; Lindner, M.; Edwards, D.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    To develop viable strategies for intensifying the use of forest biomass and for increasing forest protection, impacts on ecosystem services need to be assessed. We investigated the biophysical and economic impacts of increased forest biomass production and biodiversity protection on forest ecosystem

  14. Economic value of ecosystem services in Protected Landscape Areas n the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daněk, Jan; Vačkář, David; Lorencová, Eliška

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 99-112 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ecosystem services * economic valuation * Protected Landscape Areas * forest ecosystems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  15. Ecosystem services in European protected areas: Ambiguity in the views of scientists and managers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Hummel

    Full Text Available Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers, and the threats upon them. Here we show that the perception of these important variables differs markedly between scientists and managers of Protected Areas in mountains and transitional waters. Scientists emphasise variables of abiotic and biotic nature, whereas managers highlight socio-economic, cultural and anthropogenic variables. This indicates fundamental differences in perception. To be able to better protect an area it would be advisable to bring the perception of scientists and managers closer together. Intensified and harmonised communication across disciplinary and professional boundaries will be needed to implement and improve Ecosystem Service oriented management strategies in current and future Protected Areas.

  16. Ecosystem services in European protected areas: Ambiguity in the views of scientists and managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, Antonello; van der Meer, Jaap; Wijnhoven, Sander; Nolte, Arno; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Janss, Guyonne; Jurek, Matthias; Andresen, Magnus; Poulin, Brigitte; Kobler, Johannes; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Honrado, João; Razinkovas, Arturas; Stritih, Ana; Bargmann, Tessa; Ziemba, Alex; Bonet-García, Francisco; Adamescu, Mihai Cristian; Janssen, Gerard; Hummel, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers, and the threats upon them. Here we show that the perception of these important variables differs markedly between scientists and managers of Protected Areas in mountains and transitional waters. Scientists emphasise variables of abiotic and biotic nature, whereas managers highlight socio-economic, cultural and anthropogenic variables. This indicates fundamental differences in perception. To be able to better protect an area it would be advisable to bring the perception of scientists and managers closer together. Intensified and harmonised communication across disciplinary and professional boundaries will be needed to implement and improve Ecosystem Service oriented management strategies in current and future Protected Areas. PMID:29140983

  17. Ecosystem services in European protected areas: Ambiguity in the views of scientists and managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Christiaan; Provenzale, Antonello; van der Meer, Jaap; Wijnhoven, Sander; Nolte, Arno; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Janss, Guyonne; Jurek, Matthias; Andresen, Magnus; Poulin, Brigitte; Kobler, Johannes; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Honrado, João; Razinkovas, Arturas; Stritih, Ana; Bargmann, Tessa; Ziemba, Alex; Bonet-García, Francisco; Adamescu, Mihai Cristian; Janssen, Gerard; Hummel, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers, and the threats upon them. Here we show that the perception of these important variables differs markedly between scientists and managers of Protected Areas in mountains and transitional waters. Scientists emphasise variables of abiotic and biotic nature, whereas managers highlight socio-economic, cultural and anthropogenic variables. This indicates fundamental differences in perception. To be able to better protect an area it would be advisable to bring the perception of scientists and managers closer together. Intensified and harmonised communication across disciplinary and professional boundaries will be needed to implement and improve Ecosystem Service oriented management strategies in current and future Protected Areas.

  18. Using an Ecosystem Approach to complement protection schemes based on organism-level endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, Clare; Kapustka, Lawrence; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Brown, Justin; Ciffroy, Philippe; Forbes, Valery; Geras'kin, Stanislav; Kautsky, Ulrik; Bréchignac, François

    2014-01-01

    Radiation protection goals for ecological resources are focussed on ecological structures and functions at population-, community-, and ecosystem-levels. The current approach to radiation safety for non-human biota relies on organism-level endpoints, and as such is not aligned with the stated overarching protection goals of international agencies. Exposure to stressors can trigger non-linear changes in ecosystem structure and function that cannot be predicted from effects on individual organisms. From the ecological sciences, we know that important interactive dynamics related to such emergent properties determine the flows of goods and services in ecological systems that human societies rely upon. A previous Task Group of the IUR (International Union of Radioecology) has presented the rationale for adding an Ecosystem Approach to the suite of tools available to manage radiation safety. In this paper, we summarize the arguments for an Ecosystem Approach and identify next steps and challenges ahead pertaining to developing and implementing a practical Ecosystem Approach to complement organism-level endpoints currently used in radiation safety. - Highlights: • An Ecosystem Approach to radiation safety complements the organism-level approach. • Emergent properties in ecosystems are not captured by organism-level endpoints. • The proposed Ecosystem Approach better aligns with management goals. • Practical guidance with respect to system-level endpoints is needed. • Guidance on computational model selection would benefit an Ecosystem Approach

  19. Representation of Ecosystem Services by Terrestrial Protected Areas: Chile as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, América P.; Casalegno, Stefano; Marquet, Pablo A.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are increasingly considered to play a key role in the global maintenance of ecosystem processes and the ecosystem services they provide. It is thus vital to assess the extent to which existing protected area systems represent those services. Here, for the first time, we document the effectiveness of the current Chilean protected area system and its planned extensions in representing both ecosystem services (plant productivity, carbon storage and agricultural production) and biodiversity. Additionally, we evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas based on their respective management objectives. Our results show that existing protected areas in Chile do not contain an unusually high proportion of carbon storage (14.9%), agricultural production (0.2%) or biodiversity (11.8%), and also represent a low level of plant productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.38). Proposed additional priority sites enhance the representation of ecosystem services and biodiversity, but not sufficiently to attain levels of representation higher than would be expected for their area of coverage. Moreover, when the species groups were assessed separately, amphibians was the only one well represented. Suggested priority sites for biodiversity conservation, without formal protection yet, was the only protected area category that over-represents carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity. The low representation of ecosystem services and species’ distribution ranges by the current protected area system is because these protected areas are heavily biased toward southern Chile, and contain large extents of ice and bare rock. The designation and management of proposed priority sites needs to be addressed in order to increase the representation of ecosystem services within the Chilean protected area system. PMID:24376559

  20. Flood Protection Through Landscape Scale Ecosystem Restoration- Quantifying the Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, E.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey illustrated the risks associated with storm surges on coastal areas, especially during severe storms. One way to address storm surges is to utilize the natural ability of offshore coastal land to dampen their severity. In addition to helping reduce storm surge intensity and related damage, restoring the land will generate numerous co-benefits such as carbon sequestration and water quality improvement. The session will discuss the analytical methodology that helps define what is the most resilient species to take root, and to calculate quantified benefits. It will also address the quantification and monetization of benefits to make the business case for restoration. In 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita damaged levees along the Gulf of Mexico, leading to major forest degradation, habitat deterioration and reduced wildlife use. As a result, this area lost an extensive amount of land, with contiguous sections of wetlands being converted to open water. The Restore the Earth Foundation's North American Amazon project intends to restore one million acres of forests and forested wetlands in the lower Mississippi River Valley. The proposed area for the first phase of this project was once an historic bald cypress forested wetland, which was degraded due to increased salinity levels and extreme fluctuations in hydrology. The Terrebonne and Lafourche Parishes, the "bayou parishes", communities with a combined population of over 200,000, sit on thin fingers of land that are protected by surrounding wetland swamps and wetlands, beyond which is the Gulf of Mexico. The Parishes depend on fishing, hunting, trapping, boat building, off-shore oil and gas production and support activities. Yet these communities are highly vulnerable to risks from natural hazards and future land loss. The ground is at or near sea level and therefore easily inundated by storm surges if not protected by wetlands. While some communities are protected by a levee system, the Terrebonne and

  1. Climate Change and River Ecosystems: Protection and Adaptation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Margaret A.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Poff, N. Leroy; Postel, Sandra L.; Richter, Brian; Warner, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Rivers provide a special suite of goods and services valued highly by the public that are inextricably linked to their flow dynamics and the interaction of flow with the landscape. Yet most rivers are within watersheds that are stressed to some extent by human activities including development, dams, or extractive uses. Climate change will add to and magnify risks that are already present through its potential to alter rainfall, temperature, runoff patterns, and to disrupt biological communities and sever ecological linkages. We provide an overview of the predicted impacts based on published studies to date, discuss both reactive and proactive management responses, and outline six categories of management actions that will contribute substantially to the protection of valuable river assets. To be effective, management must be place-based focusing on local watershed scales that are most relevant to management scales. The first priority should be enhancing environmental monitoring of changes and river responses coupled with the development of local scenario-building exercises that take land use and water use into account. Protection of a greater number of rivers and riparian corridors is essential, as is conjunctive groundwater/surface water management. This will require collaborations among multiple partners in the respective river basins and wise land use planning to minimize additional development in watersheds with valued rivers. Ensuring environmental flows by purchasing or leasing water rights and/or altering reservoir release patterns will be needed for many rivers. Implementing restoration projects proactively can be used to protect existing resources so that expensive reactive restoration to repair damage associated with a changing climate is minimized. Special attention should be given to diversifying and replicating habitats of special importance and to monitoring populations at high risk or of special value so that management interventions can occur if the

  2. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Doi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances, ... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  3. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F., E-mail: francois.brechignac@irsn. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, Blg 229, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Doi, Masahiro [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Center for Radiation Protection, Regulatory Sciences Research Group, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances, ... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  4. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore US ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Mark E.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Blett, Tamara F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, Richard A.; Evers, David C.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Jeffries, Dean S.

    2011-01-01

    More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage.

  5. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  7. Portfolio optimisation for hydropower producers that balances riverine ecosystem protection and producer needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.; Liu, C. L.

    2014-04-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, hydropower portfolio design has become an essential task for producers. The previous research on hydropower portfolio optimisation focused mainly on the maximisation of profits but did not take into account riverine ecosystem protection. Although profit maximisation is the major objective for producers in deregulated markets, protection of riverine ecosystems must be incorporated into the process of hydropower portfolio optimisation, especially against a background of increasing attention to environmental protection and stronger opposition to hydropower generation. This research seeks mainly to remind hydropower producers of the requirement of river protection when they design portfolios and help shift portfolio optimisation from economically oriented to ecologically friendly. We establish a framework to determine the optimal portfolio for a hydropower reservoir, accounting for both economic benefits and ecological needs. In this framework, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint on hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximisation of mean annual revenue is set as the optimisation objective. The electricity volumes assigned in different electricity submarkets are optimised by the noisy genetic algorithm. The proposed framework is applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The results show that the new framework could help to design eco-friendly portfolios that can ensure a planned profit and reduce alteration of the natural flow regime.

  8. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Achieving sustainable ese of environment: a framework for payment for protected forest ecosystem service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widicahyono, A.; Awang, S. A.; Maryudi, A.; Setiawan, M. A.; Rusdimi, A. U.; Handoko, D.; Muhammad, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Over the last decade, deforestation in Indonesia has reduced the forest area down to more than 6 million hectares. There is conflict that the protected forest ecosystem service is still often perceived as public goods. Many of them went unrecognized in planning process and continue to be undervalued. The challenge lies in maintaining socioeconomic development and ecosystem services sustainability without overlooking the people’s opportunities and improving their livelihoods over the long term. An integrated approach is required to understand the comprehensive concept of protected forest ecosystem service. This research aims to formulate a scheme of payment for ecosystem service (PES) in a protected forest. It is a first step towards the attempt for the value of ecosystem services to be reflected in decision-making. Literatures, previous researches and secondary data are reviewed thoroughly to analyze the interrelated components by looking at the environment as a whole and recognize their linkages that have consequences to one another both positive and negative. The framework of implementation of PES schemes outlines the complexity of human-environment interconnecting relationships. It evaluates the contributing actors of different interest i.e. long term use and short term use. The concept of PES accommodates the fulfillment of both conservation and exploitation with an incentive scheme to the contributing parties who are willing to implement conservation and issuance of compensation expense for any exploitation means. The most crucial part in this concept is to have a good and effective communication between every policy makers concerning the forest ecosystem and local communities.

  11. Using ecosystem science to improve protection of the environment from radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C. [Stockholm University (Sweden); Brechignac, F. [IUR / IRSN (France); Barnthouse, L. [LWB Environmental Services Inc. (United States); Brown, J. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Forbes, V. [University of Lincoln (United Kingdom); Kapustka, L. [LC LK Consultancy (Canada); Kautsky, U. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB - SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem approach (EA) involves considering the impacts of an anthropogenic stressor at the ecosystem level because this is usually the ultimate goal of environmental protection. As such, EA includes population, community and ecosystem effects, structural and functional effects, indirect effects due to ecological interactions between species, dynamic interactions, positive or negative feedback loops, and potential synergistic or antagonistic effects of multiple stressors (both anthropogenic and natural). All such effects better reflect the reality of the impact of a contamination scenario than if assessments are restricted to considering effects to individual organisms or species. Such effects may be greater or lesser than expected from studies of individual organisms or species, so not considering them may result in under- or overestimation of risk, respectively. EA is a term that is widely used in environmental assessment, management and legislation in a number of regulatory fields (e.g., radiation protection, chemicals legislation, fisheries policy, international biodiversity conventions). However, although its justification is now well established in a wide range of environment protection contexts, its practical use is still unclear due to poorly defined protection goals and assessment endpoints, making its implementation difficult. This paper presents the initial findings of a newly formed follow-up task group of the International Union of Radioecology whose aims are to identify ways to put the EA into practice when considering protection of the environment from radiation. Drawing on knowledge and experience from a range of fields, we summarise the types of ecosystem processes, goods and services that might be included when using this approach, the science that supports the use of the EA, and the methodological challenges that need to be addressed when implementing the EA in the field of radiation protection. Document available in abstract form only

  12. Canadian Rockies Ecoregion: Chapter 4 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian Rockies Ecoregion covers approximately 18,494 km2 (7,141 mi2) in northwestern Montana (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The east side of the ecoregion is bordered by the Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion, which also forms a large part of the western border of the ecoregion. In addition, the Northern Rockies Ecoregion wraps around the ecoregion to the northwest and south (fig. 1). As the name implies, the Canadian Rocky Mountains are located mostly in Canada, straddling the border between Alberta and British Columbia. However, this ecoregion only includes the part of the northern Rocky Mountains that is in the United States. This ecoregion is characterized by steep, high-elevation mountain ranges similar to most of the rest of the Rocky Mountains. Compared to the Northern Rockies Ecoregion, however, the Canadian Rockies Ecoregion reaches higher elevations and contains a greater proportion of perennial snow and ice (Omernik, 1987) (fig. 2). Over the years, this section of the Rocky Mountains has garnered many different names, including “Crown of the Continent” by George Bird Grinnell (Waldt, 2008) and “Backbone of the World” by the Blackfeet (Pikuni) Nation. Throughout the ecoregion, montane, subalpine, and alpine ecosystems have distinct flora and fauna elevation zones. Glaciers, permanent snowfields, and seasonal snowpack are found at the highest elevations. Spring and summer runoff fills lakes and tarns that form the headwaters of numerous streams and rivers, including the Columbia and Missouri Rivers that flow west and east, respectively, from the Continental Divide.

  13. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  14. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore U.S. ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, M.E.; Lambert, K.F.; Blett, T.F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, L.H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, R. A.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Jeffries, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage. Based on the results of a comprehensive review of air pollution thresholds, we conclude: ??? Ecosystem services such as air and water purification, decomposition and detoxification of waste materials, climate regulation, regeneration of soil fertility, production and biodiversity maintenance, as well as crop, timber and fish supplies are impacted by deposition of nitrogen, sulfur, mercury and other pollutants. The consequences of these changes may be difficult or impossible to reverse as impacts cascade throughout affected ecosystems. ??? The effects of too much nitrogen are common across the U.S. and include altered plant and lichen communities, enhanced growth of invasive species, eutrophication and acidification of lands and waters, and habitat deterioration for native species, including endangered species. ??? Lake, stream and soil acidification is widespread across the eastern United States. Up to 65% of lakes within sensitive areas receive acid deposition that exceeds critical loads. ??? Mercury contamination adversely affects fish in many inland and coastal waters. Fish consumption advisories for mercury exist in all 50

  15. Solutions for ecosystem-level protection of ocean systems under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Ana M; Huebert, Klaus B; Keyl, Friedemann; Fernandes, Jose A; Stolte, Willem; Maar, Marie; Kay, Susan; Jones, Miranda C; Hamon, Katell G; Hendriksen, Gerrit; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul; Teal, Lorna R; Somerfield, Paul J; Austen, Melanie C; Barange, Manuel; Sell, Anne F; Allen, Icarus; Peck, Myron A

    2016-12-01

    The Paris Conference of Parties (COP21) agreement renewed momentum for action against climate change, creating the space for solutions for conservation of the ocean addressing two of its largest threats: climate change and ocean acidification (CCOA). Recent arguments that ocean policies disregard a mature conservation research field and that protected areas cannot address climate change may be oversimplistic at this time when dynamic solutions for the management of changing oceans are needed. We propose a novel approach, based on spatial meta-analysis of climate impact models, to improve the positioning of marine protected areas to limit CCOA impacts. We do this by estimating the vulnerability of ocean ecosystems to CCOA in a spatially explicit manner and then co-mapping human activities such as the placement of renewable energy developments and the distribution of marine protected areas. We test this approach in the NE Atlantic considering also how CCOA impacts the base of the food web which supports protected species, an aspect often neglected in conservation studies. We found that, in this case, current regional conservation plans protect areas with low ecosystem-level vulnerability to CCOA, but disregard how species may redistribute to new, suitable and productive habitats. Under current plans, these areas remain open to commercial extraction and other uses. Here, and worldwide, ocean conservation strategies under CCOA must recognize the long-term importance of these habitat refuges, and studies such as this one are needed to identify them. Protecting these areas creates adaptive, climate-ready and ecosystem-level policy options for conservation, suitable for changing oceans. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity in Natural Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Silvia; Salata, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Recently, in Italy, a legislative proposal has been set to reform the role and the functions of natural protected areas promoting their aggregation (or the abolition) pursuing a better efficiency for their administration and economic saving. The system of natural protected areas is composed of different conservation levels: there are the Natural parks, established in the ‘80 by national or regional institution for the safeguard of natural elements, the Natura 2000 -Habitat 92/43/CEE promoted by European Union, with conservation measures for maintaining or restoring habitats and species of Communitarian interest, and the local parks of supra-municipal interest (namely PLIS) created by single municipalities or their aggregation aimed at limiting the soil sealing process. The hierarchical level of protection has determined differences in the management of the areas which leads to various approaches and strategies for biodiversity conservation and integrity. In order to assess strengths and weaknesses of the legislative initiative, the new management framework should be designed, considering the ecosystem characteristics of each natural protected area to define the future opportunities and critics, rather than, in the extreme case, remove the level of protection due to the absence of valuable ecosystem conditions. The paper provides an operative support to better apply the legislative proposal investigating the dynamics that affect all protected areas using the land take process as a major threat to biodiversity conservation in natural zones. The land take process is explored using the Land Use Change analysis (LUCa) as a possible way to determine the impact and the environmental effects of land transitions. LUCa is also useful to determine the loss of protected zones capacity to support Ecosystem Services. Finally, the assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity (ESC) index expresses the ability of each LULC to provide ES and, in particular, the Ecological

  17. Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A J Graham

    Full Text Available Coral reefs have emerged as one of the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate variation and change. While the contribution of a warming climate to the loss of live coral cover has been well documented across large spatial and temporal scales, the associated effects on fish have not. Here, we respond to recent and repeated calls to assess the importance of local management in conserving coral reefs in the context of global climate change. Such information is important, as coral reef fish assemblages are the most species dense vertebrate communities on earth, contributing critical ecosystem functions and providing crucial ecosystem services to human societies in tropical countries. Our assessment of the impacts of the 1998 mass bleaching event on coral cover, reef structural complexity, and reef associated fishes spans 7 countries, 66 sites and 26 degrees of latitude in the Indian Ocean. Using Bayesian meta-analysis we show that changes in the size structure, diversity and trophic composition of the reef fish community have followed coral declines. Although the ocean scale integrity of these coral reef ecosystems has been lost, it is positive to see the effects are spatially variable at multiple scales, with impacts and vulnerability affected by geography but not management regime. Existing no-take marine protected areas still support high biomass of fish, however they had no positive affect on the ecosystem response to large-scale disturbance. This suggests a need for future conservation and management efforts to identify and protect regional refugia, which should be integrated into existing management frameworks and combined with policies to improve system-wide resilience to climate variation and change.

  18. Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Tim R; MacNeil, M Aaron; Wilson, Shaun K; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Jennings, Simon; Chabanet, Pascale; Clark, Susan; Spalding, Mark D; Letourneur, Yves; Bigot, Lionel; Galzin, René; Ohman, Marcus C; Garpe, Kajsa C; Edwards, Alasdair J; Sheppard, Charles R C

    2008-08-27

    Coral reefs have emerged as one of the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate variation and change. While the contribution of a warming climate to the loss of live coral cover has been well documented across large spatial and temporal scales, the associated effects on fish have not. Here, we respond to recent and repeated calls to assess the importance of local management in conserving coral reefs in the context of global climate change. Such information is important, as coral reef fish assemblages are the most species dense vertebrate communities on earth, contributing critical ecosystem functions and providing crucial ecosystem services to human societies in tropical countries. Our assessment of the impacts of the 1998 mass bleaching event on coral cover, reef structural complexity, and reef associated fishes spans 7 countries, 66 sites and 26 degrees of latitude in the Indian Ocean. Using Bayesian meta-analysis we show that changes in the size structure, diversity and trophic composition of the reef fish community have followed coral declines. Although the ocean scale integrity of these coral reef ecosystems has been lost, it is positive to see the effects are spatially variable at multiple scales, with impacts and vulnerability affected by geography but not management regime. Existing no-take marine protected areas still support high biomass of fish, however they had no positive affect on the ecosystem response to large-scale disturbance. This suggests a need for future conservation and management efforts to identify and protect regional refugia, which should be integrated into existing management frameworks and combined with policies to improve system-wide resilience to climate variation and change.

  19. Surface protein Adr2 of Rickettsia rickettsii induced protective immunity against Rocky Mountain spotted fever in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Xiong, Xiaolu; Qi, Yong; Jiao, Jun; Duan, Changsong; Wen, Bohai

    2014-04-11

    Rickettsia rickettsii is the pathogen of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a life-threatening tick-transmitted infection. Adr2 was a surface-exposed adhesion protein of R. rickettsii and its immunoprotection against RMSF was investigated in mice. Recombinant Adr2 (rAdr2) was used to immunize C3H/HeN mice, and the rickettsial loads in organs of the mice were detected after challenge with R. rickettsii. The levels of specific antibodies of sera from the immunized mice were determined and the sera from immunized mice were applied to neutralize R. rickettsii. Proliferation and cytokine secretion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells isolated from R. rickettsii-infected mice were also assayed after rAdr2 stimulation. After R. rickettsii challenge, the rickettsial loads in spleens, livers, and lungs were significantly lower and the impairment degrees of these organs in rAdr2-immunized mice were markedly slighter, compared with those in negative control mice. The ratio of specific IgG2a/IgG1 of rAdr2-immunized mice kept increasing during the immunization. After treatment with rAdr2-immunized sera, the total number of R. rickettsii organisms adhering and invading host cells was significantly lower than that treated with PBS-immunized sera. Interferon-γ secretion by CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion by CD4(+) T cells from R. rickettsii-infected mice were respectively significantly greater than those from uninfected mice after rAdr2 stimulation. Adr2 is a protective antigen of R. rickettsii. Protection offered by Adr2 is mainly dependent on antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses, including efficient activity of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to produce great amount of TNF-α and/or IFN-γ as well as rapid increase of specific IgG2a, which synergistically activate and opsonize host cells to killing intracellular rickettsiae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resolving the Conflict Between Ecosystem Protection and Land Use in Protected Areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation.

  1. Is an ecosystem services-based approach developed for setting specific protection goals for plant protection products applicable to other chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine; Jackson, Mathew; Whale, Graham; Brown, A Ross; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Woods, Richard; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-02-15

    Clearly defined protection goals specifying what to protect, where and when, are required for designing scientifically sound risk assessments and effective risk management of chemicals. Environmental protection goals specified in EU legislation are defined in general terms, resulting in uncertainty in how to achieve them. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a framework to identify more specific protection goals based on ecosystem services potentially affected by plant protection products. But how applicable is this framework to chemicals with different emission scenarios and receptor ecosystems? Four case studies used to address this question were: (i) oil refinery waste water exposure in estuarine environments; (ii) oil dispersant exposure in aquatic environments; (iii) down the drain chemicals exposure in a wide range of ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic); (iv) persistent organic pollutant exposure in remote (pristine) Arctic environments. A four-step process was followed to identify ecosystems and services potentially impacted by chemical emissions and to define specific protection goals. Case studies demonstrated that, in principle, the ecosystem services concept and the EFSA framework can be applied to derive specific protection goals for a broad range of chemical exposure scenarios. By identifying key habitats and ecosystem services of concern, the approach offers the potential for greater spatial and temporal resolution, together with increased environmental relevance, in chemical risk assessments. With modifications including improved clarity on terminology/definitions and further development/refinement of the key concepts, we believe the principles of the EFSA framework could provide a methodical approach to the identification and prioritization of ecosystems, ecosystem services and the service providing units that are most at risk from chemical exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Strategy of protected areas development in purposes of using and keeping bioresources and ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vyacheslavovna Tikhonova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Features and condition of existing system of especially protected natural territories of the Komi Republic are presented in this paper. Their specific environmental problems are defined. Strong sides and weaknesses of functioning and management of objects of special protection are provided. For approbation of a complex of methods of steady exploitation of this territory modeling objects of special protection are allocated and the economic assessment is carried out them. Potential recipients of benefits from use of bioresources and ecosystem services on modeling objects arerevealed. Theterritories possessing a reservefor increasein use of their resources and services are presented. Offers on strategy of development of a control system of especially protected natural territories of the Komi Republic are developed. Development strategy of control system ofespecially protected natural territories is consisting of someinstitutional decisions. This acceptance of federal-regional agreement about management control;creating of regional rules, which regulatethe usage of natural resources in especially protected natural territories; application of an integrated approach to the use of territories, which provide the bases to increase recreation and tourist industry; transfer buffer zone territories to biosphere reservation.

  3. Ecosystem services in a peri-urban protected area in Cyprus: a rapid appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Manolaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas around the world are increasingly being recognized for their potential to protect various ecosystem services in addition to biodiversity. We carried out an ecosystem services (ES assessment at the Rizoelia National Forest Park, a biodiversity hotspot in Cyprus. For ES assessment we used TESSA v.1.1 and an ES matrix-approach to map the capacity of habitat types in the area. According to TESSA the most important ES provided by the study area are aesthetic benefits, recreation/ tourism, biodiversity, global climate regulation, and environmental education. Total Carbon stock was estimated to 14247.327 tonnes and the total number of annual visits was 14471. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of visits among visitation periods but there were statistically significant differences among National Holidays, Weekends and Weekdays. We identified that plantations had the highest capacity for most groups of services particularly where their understory comprises semi-natural habitat types rich in biodiversity. This is the first study in Cyprus which provides a preliminary quantification of ES in a protected area context using widely employed tools. The paper discusses how these findings can help decision-makers to plan direct future restoration and management actions to the benefit of a wide range of stakeholders.

  4. Experimental and numerical analysis of coastal protection provided by natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, M.; Lara, J. L.; Losada, I. J.; Nepf, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    The risk of flooding and erosion is increasing for many coastal areas owing to global and regional changes in climate conditions together with increasing exposure and vulnerability. After hurricane Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) and the tsunami in Indonesia (2004), coastal managers have become interested in low environmental impact alternatives, or nature-based solutions, to protect the coast. Although capacity for coastal ecosystems to damp flow energy has been widely recognized, they have not been firmly considered in the portfolio of coastal protection options. This is mainly due to the complexity of flow-vegetation interaction and of quantifying the value of coastal protection provided by these ecosystems. This complex problem involves different temporal and spatial scales and disciplines, such as engineering, ecology and economics. This work aims to make a step forward in better understanding the physics involved in flow-vegetation interaction leading to new formulations and parameterizations to address some unsolved questions in literature: the representation of plants and field properties; the influence of wave parameters on the relevant processes; the role of the combined effect of waves and currents and the effect of extreme events on vegetation elements. The three main coastal vegetated ecosystems (seagrasses, saltmarshes and mangroves) are studied with an experimental and numerical approach. Experimental analysis is carried out using mimics and real vegetation, considering different flow and vegetation parameters and characterizing flow energy attenuation for the different scenarios. Numerical simulations are performed using 2-D and 3-D Navier-Stokes models in which the effect of vegetation is implemented and validated. These models are used to extend experimental results by simulating different vegetation distributions and analyzing variables such as high-spatial-resolution free surface and velocity data and forces exerted on vegetation elements.

  5. Astrobiological Field Campaign to a Volcanosedimentary Mars Analogue Methane Producing Subsurface Protected Ecosystem: Imuruk Lake (Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Viking missions reported adverse conditions for life in Mars surface. High hydrogen signal obtained by Mars orbiters has increased the interest in subsurface prospection as putative protected Mars environment with life potential. Permafrost has attracted considerable interest from an astrobiological point of view due to the recently reported results from the Mars exploration rovers. Considerable studies have been developed on extreme ecosystems and permafrost in particular, to evaluate the possibility of life on Mars and to test specific automated life detection instruments for space missions. The biodiversity of permafrost located on the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve has been studied as an example of subsurface protected niche of astrobiological interest. Different conventional (enrichment and isolation and molecular ecology techniques (cloning, fluorescence “in situ” probe hybridization, FISH have been used for isolation and bacterial identification.

  6. The importance of conserving biodiversity outside of protected areas in mediterranean ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L Cox

    Full Text Available Mediterranean-type ecosystems constitute one of the rarest terrestrial biomes and yet they are extraordinarily biodiverse. Home to over 250 million people, the five regions where these ecosystems are found have climate and coastal conditions that make them highly desirable human habitats. The current conservation landscape does not reflect the mediterranean biome's rarity and its importance for plant endemism. Habitat conversion will clearly outpace expansion of formal protected-area networks, and conservationists must augment this traditional strategy with new approaches to sustain the mediterranean biota. Using regional scale datasets, we determine the area of land in each of the five regions that is protected, converted (e.g., to urban or industrial, impacted (e.g., intensive, cultivated agriculture, or lands that we consider to have conservation potential. The latter are natural and semi-natural lands that are unprotected (e.g., private range lands but sustain numerous native species and associated habitats. Chile has the greatest proportion of its land (75% in this category and California-Mexico the least (48%. To illustrate the potential for achieving mediterranean biodiversity conservation on these lands, we use species-area curves generated from ecoregion scale data on native plant species richness and vertebrate species richness. For example, if biodiversity could be sustained on even 25% of existing unprotected, natural and semi-natural lands, we estimate that the habitat of more than 6,000 species could be represented. This analysis suggests that if unprotected natural and semi-natural lands are managed in a manner that allows for persistence of native species, we can realize significant additional biodiversity gains. Lasting biodiversity protection at the scale needed requires unprecedented collaboration among stakeholders to promote conservation both inside and outside of traditional protected areas, including on lands where people

  7. The effect of a protected area on the tradeoffs between short-run and long-run benefits from mangrove ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    McNally, Catherine G.; Uchida, Emi; Gold, Arthur J.

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas are used to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, protected areas can create tradeoffs spatially and temporally among ecosystem services, which can affect the welfare of dependent local communities. This study examines the effect of a protected area on the tradeoff between two extractive ecosystem services from mangrove forests: cutting mangroves (fuelwood) and harvesting the shrimp and fish that thrive if mangroves are not cut. We demonstrate the effect in the...

  8. A systematic approach towards the identification and protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardron, Jeff A.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Penney, Andrew J.; Hourigan, Thomas F.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Dunstan, Piers K.; Watling, Les; Shank, Timothy M.; Tracey, Di M.; Dunn, Matthew R.; Parker, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly in 2006 and 2009 adopted resolutions that call for the identification and protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) from significant adverse impacts of bottom fishing. While general criteria have been produced, there are no guidelines or protocols that elaborate on the process from initial identification through to the protection of VMEs. Here, based upon an expert review of existing practices, a 10-step framework is proposed: (1) Comparatively assess potential VME indicator taxa and habitats in a region; (2) determine VME thresholds; (3) consider areas already known for their ecological importance; (4) compile information on the distributions of likely VME taxa and habitats, as well as related environmental data; (5) develop predictive distribution models for VME indicator taxa and habitats; (6) compile known or likely fishing impacts; (7) produce a predicted VME naturalness distribution (areas of low cumulative impacts); (8) identify areas of higher value to user groups; (9) conduct management strategy evaluations to produce trade-off scenarios; (10) review and re-iterate, until spatial management scenarios are developed that fulfil international obligations and regional conservation and management objectives. To date, regional progress has been piecemeal and incremental. The proposed 10-step framework combines these various experiences into a systematic approach.

  9. Assessing the protection function of Alpine forest ecosystems using BGC modelling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötzelsberger, E.; Hasenauer, H.; Petritsch, R.; Pietsch, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the protection function of forests in Alpine areas by modelling the flux dynamics (water, carbon, nutrients) within a watershed as they may depend on the vegetation pattern and forest management impacts. The application case for this study was the catchment Schmittenbach, located in the province of Salzburg. Data available covered the hydrology (rainfall measurements from 1981 to 1998 and runoff measurements at the river Schmittenbach from 1981 to 2005), vegetation dynamics (currently 69% forest, predominantly Norway Spruce). The method of simulating the forest growth and water outflow was validated. For simulations of the key ecosystem processes (e.g. photosynthesis, carbon and nitrogen allocation in the different plant parts, litter fall, mineralisation, tree water uptake, transpiration, rainfall interception, evaporation, snow accumulation and snow melt, outflow of spare water) the biogeochemical ecosystem model Biome-BGC was applied. Relevant model extensions were the tree species specific parameter sets and the improved thinning regime. The model is sensitive to site characteristics and needs daily weather data and information on the atmospheric composition, which makes it sensitive to higher CO2-levels and climate change. For model validation 53 plots were selected covering the full range of site quality and stand age. Tree volume and soil was measured and compared with the respective model results. The outflow for the watershed was predicted by combining the simulated forest-outflow (derived from plot-outflow) with the outflow from the non-forest area (calculated with a fixed outflow/rainfall coefficient (OC)). The analysis of production and water related model outputs indicated that mechanistic modelling can be used as a tool to assess the performance of Alpine protection forests. The Water Use Efficiency (WUE), the ratio of Net primary production (NPP) and Transpiration, was found the highest for juvenile stands (

  10. Bringing radiation protection into harmony with human life and the ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, T.

    2000-01-01

    A radiation protection policy that is truly in harmony with human life and the ecosystem cannot insist that radiation doses be reduced to as low as achievable regardless of the impact of such a policy on other aspects of human life and the ecosystem. This potential conflict of purposes can be approached from several directions, some of which are explored here. First, we must consider the presence of a large and variable background of natural radiation, whose health and ecological effects are virtually identical to those from human-generated radiation. To attempt to measure, account for, and reduce additional radiation sources that are far smaller than this background-indeed, far smaller than the natural variations in the background, affronts both science and common sense. Second, to base policy on extrapolation of several orders of magnitude from health effects resulting from high-level, high-dose rate, radiation is another serious departure from proper scientific practice. Third, to justify current policy as being conservative in the face of uncertainty is wrong on both counts. The uncertainty claimed by the policy makers is based on their unwillingness to consider and apply the enormous body of available evidence. The presumption of conservatism is based on the issue in question: that any level of radiation is deemed potentially harmful. Fourth, by not fully considering the cost of implementing current radiation policy, limited societal resources are diverted from critical needs, for little or no societal benefit. There are good data showing that health of the people and the environment are directly impacted by the amount of money available in the society to benefit real needs. In addition, the fear generated by the presumption that all radiation is harmful, leads to avoidance of life-saving medical techniques such as mammograms, irradiation of food, applications of radiation such as smoke detectors and medical research, reduction of air and ground pollution

  11. Quantifying causal mechanisms to determine how protected areas affect poverty through changes in ecosystem services and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2014-01-01

    To develop effective environmental policies, we must understand the mechanisms through which the policies affect social and environmental outcomes. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. We develop an approach to quantifying the mechanisms through which protected areas affect poverty. We focus on three mechanisms: changes in tourism and recreational services; changes in infrastructure in the form of road networks, health clinics, and schools; and changes in regulating and provisioning ecosystem services and foregone production activities that arise from land-use restrictions. The contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program have not yet been empirically estimated. Nearly two-thirds of the poverty reduction associated with the establishment of Costa Rican protected areas is causally attributable to opportunities afforded by tourism. Although protected areas reduced deforestation and increased regrowth, these land cover changes neither reduced nor exacerbated poverty, on average. Protected areas did not, on average, affect our measures of infrastructure and thus did not contribute to poverty reduction through this mechanism. We attribute the remaining poverty reduction to unobserved dimensions of our mechanisms or to other mechanisms. Our study empirically estimates previously unidentified contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program. We demonstrate that, with existing data and appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policymakers can begin to elucidate the mechanisms through which ecosystem conservation programs affect human welfare. PMID:24567397

  12. Modeling Root Exudation, Priming and Protection in Soil Carbon Responses to Elevated CO2 from Ecosystem to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, B. N.; Phillips, R.; Shevliakova, E.; Oishi, A. C.; Pacala, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which plants induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or "priming") or promote SOC gains (via stabilization through physico-chemical protection). We developed a new SOC model, "Carbon, Organisms, Rhizosphere and Protection in the Soil Environment" (CORPSE), to examine the net effect of priming and protection in response to rising atmospheric CO2, and conducted simulations of rhizosphere priming effects at both ecosystem and global scales. At the ecosystem scale, the model successfully captured and explained disparate SOC responses at the Duke and Oak Ridge free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of "new" carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of "old" SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter (e.g. Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses owing to priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters (e.g. Duke). For global simulations, the model was fully integrated into the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model LM3. Globally, priming effects driven by enhanced root exudation and expansion of the rhizosphere reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from the enhanced ecosystem productivity driven by CO2 fertilization. Collectively, our results suggest that SOC stocks globally depend not only on temperature and moisture, but also on vegetation responses to environmental changes, and that protected C may provide an important constraint on priming effects.

  13. How do migratory species add ecosystem service value to wilderness? Calculating the spatial subsidies provided by protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Species that migrate through protected and wilderness areas and utilize their resources, deliver ecosystem services to people in faraway locations. The mismatch between the areas that most support a species and those areas where the species provides most benefits to society can lead to underestimation of the true value of protected areas such as wilderness. We present a method to communicate the “off-site” value of wilderness and protected areas in providing habitat to migratory species that, in turn, provide benefits to people in distant locations. Using northern pintail ducks (Anas acuta) as an example, the article provides a method to estimate the amount of subsidy – the value of the ecosystem services provided by a migratory species in one area versus the cost to support the species and its habitat elsewhere.

  14. STUDY REGARDING TO AGGRESSIONS ON THE ECOSYSTEM DANUBE DELTA – BLACK SEA AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gr. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Danube Delta has suffered damages of habitat and species loss caused by factors, including: construction of dams upstream have degraded obviously flooding regime; creation of agricultural and fishing enclosures which decreased the natural and original surfaces; extending artificial navigation channels that negatively affected the hydrological regime and water quality of lakes; increase of nutrients in the water, industrial pollution and accumulate effluents that led to the reduction of plant and bird species; attempt to exploit quartz sand, very pure and fine, the sea levees, although they were protected as nature reserves because of the specific morphology and sub-Mediterranean vegetation covering them; tourism and illegal fishing; mismanagement of resources of reed and fish. The fact is that there was a slight improvement for the marine ecosystem, reported since the early 90s. At present, the area of the Danube Delta - Black Sea is developing sustainable, in terms of medium and economic perspective. In my study I used comparative methods, investigations, direct observations, measurements, calculations and actual data, obtained from surveys and direct observations, from prestigious, specialized and authorized institutions.

  15. A dynamic model to assess tradeoffs in power production and riverine ecosystem protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Ariel; Vörösmarty, Charles J

    2013-06-01

    Major strategic planning decisions loom as society aims to balance energy security, economic development and environmental protection. To achieve such balance, decisions involving the so-called water-energy nexus must necessarily embrace a regional multi-power plant perspective. We present here the Thermoelectric Power & Thermal Pollution Model (TP2M), a simulation model that simultaneously quantifies thermal pollution of rivers and estimates efficiency losses in electricity generation as a result of fluctuating intake temperatures and river flows typically encountered across the temperate zone. We demonstrate the model's theoretical framework by carrying out sensitivity tests based on energy, physical and environmental settings. We simulate a series of five thermoelectric plants aligned along a hypothetical river, where we find that warm ambient temperatures, acting both as a physical constraint and as a trigger for regulatory limits on plant operations directly reduce electricity generation. As expected, environmental regulation aimed at reducing thermal loads at a single plant reduces power production at that plant, but ironically can improve the net electricity output from multiple plants when they are optimally co-managed. On the technology management side, high efficiency can be achieved through the use of natural gas combined cycle plants, which can raise the overall efficiency of the aging population of plants, including that of coal. Tradeoff analysis clearly shows the benefit of attaining such high efficiencies, in terms of both limiting thermal loads that preserve ecosystem services and increasing electricity production that benefits economic development.

  16. Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Pearson; M. Kim; J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain...

  17. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Norm [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to

  18. Impacts and effects of ocean warming on intertidal rocky habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Stephen J.; Evans, A J; Firth, L B; Genner, Martin J; Herbert, R J H; Adams, L C; Moore, P J; Mieszkowska, N; Thompson, R.C.; Burrows, M.T.; Fenberg, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    • Intertidal rocky habitats comprise over 50% of the shorelines of the world, supporting a diversity of marine life and providing extensive ecosystem services worth in the region of US$ 5-10 trillion per year. • They are valuable indicators of the impacts of climate change on the wider marine environment and ecosystems. • Changes in species distributions, abundance and phenology have already been observed around the world in response to recent rapid climate change. • Species-level responses w...

  19. Hydrocarbon-Based Communities in the Ultra-Deep Gulf of Mexico: Protecting the Asphalt Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Sahling, H.

    2016-02-01

    The term `asphalt volcanism' was coined to describe marine sites where extrusions of highly degraded oil form large expanses of hard substratum, which is then colonized by chemosynthetic fauna and sessile invertebrates. A site named `Chapopote', a knoll at 3200m in the southern Gulf of Mexico, was described as the type specimen of asphalt volcanism in 2003. A joint German-Mexican-U.S. expedition on the German ship F/S METEOR returned to the region in February and March, 2015 to quantify the extent and characteristics of Chapopote and other asphalt-hosting knolls using the SEAL AUV, QUEST ROV, shipborne acoustics, and autonomous instrument landers. Preliminary findings have greatly expanded the number of confirmed asphalt volcanoes, as well as sites where seepage was detected as gas flares in the water column. The morphology of asphalt flows, which was investigated using large-scale photo-mosaicking techniques, indicated that they form with a complex interplay of gravity flows, buoyant uplift, and chemical weathering. An unexpected finding was the occurrence of gas hydrate mounds, some exceeding 1000 m2 in area and 10 m in relief. Gas hydrate forms almost instantly at ambient depths and temperatures and there was evidence that large plugs of hydrate that can rapidly breach the seafloor. Older mounds are colonized by massive tubeworm aggregations that may serve to stabilize the hydrate. Mexico recently announced the first energy production lease sales in their `ultra-deep' offshore. In contrast to the U.S. Gulf, where extensive safeguards for chemosynthetic communities have been in place for over 25 years, few existing protocols protect the Mexican deep-sea asphalt ecosystem. The combination of extensive asphalt pavements and exposed gas hydrate also pose unusual hazards for exploration piston coring or drilling operations. The time is ripe to consider what conservation model would best serve the region.

  20. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Portman

    Full Text Available Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity.

  1. Ocean Futures Under Ocean Acidification, Marine Protection, and Changing Fishing Pressures Explored Using a Worldwide Suite of Ecosystem Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Olsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based management (EBM of the ocean considers all impacts on and uses of marine and coastal systems. In recent years, there has been a heightened interest in EBM tools that allow testing of alternative management options and help identify tradeoffs among human uses. End-to-end ecosystem modeling frameworks that consider a wide range of management options are a means to provide integrated solutions to the complex ocean management problems encountered in EBM. Here, we leverage the global advances in ecosystem modeling to explore common opportunities and challenges for ecosystem-based management, including changes in ocean acidification, spatial management, and fishing pressure across eight Atlantis (atlantis.cmar.csiro.au end-to-end ecosystem models. These models represent marine ecosystems from the tropics to the arctic, varying in size, ecology, and management regimes, using a three-dimensional, spatially-explicit structure parametrized for each system. Results suggest stronger impacts from ocean acidification and marine protected areas than from altering fishing pressure, both in terms of guild-level (i.e., aggregations of similar species or groups biomass and in terms of indicators of ecological and fishery structure. Effects of ocean acidification were typically negative (reducing biomass, while marine protected areas led to both “winners” and “losers” at the level of particular species (or functional groups. Changing fishing pressure (doubling or halving had smaller effects on the species guilds or ecosystem indicators than either ocean acidification or marine protected areas. Compensatory effects within guilds led to weaker average effects at the guild level than the species or group level. The impacts and tradeoffs implied by these future scenarios are highly relevant as ocean governance shifts focus from single-sector objectives (e.g., sustainable levels of individual fished stocks to taking into account competing

  2. 3-Methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one for area and individual tree protection against spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; A. Steven Munson; Darren C. Blackford; Andrew D. Graves; Tom W. Coleman; L. Scott. Baggett

    2017-01-01

    We tested 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) and an Acer kairomone blend (AKB) as repellent semiochemicals for area and single tree protection to prevent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) attacks at locations in Utah and New Mexico. In the area protection study, we compared host infestation rates of MCH applications at three densities (20, 40, and 80 g MCH...

  3. Aquatic ecosystem protection and restoration: Advances in methods for assessment and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, M.B.; Harig, A.L.; Loucks, D.P.; Goforth, R.R.; Mills, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Many methods and criteria are available to assess aquatic ecosystems, and this review focuses on a set that demonstrates advancements from community analyses to methods spanning large spatial and temporal scales. Basic methods have been extended by incorporating taxa sensitivity to different forms of stress, adding measures linked to system function, synthesizing multiple faunal groups, integrating biological and physical attributes, spanning large spatial scales, and enabling simulations through time. These tools can be customized to meet the needs of a particular assessment and ecosystem. Two case studies are presented to show how new methods were applied at the ecosystem scale for achieving practical management goals. One case used an assessment of biotic structure to demonstrate how enhanced river flows can improve habitat conditions and restore a diverse fish fauna reflective of a healthy riverine ecosystem. In the second case, multitaxonomic integrity indicators were successful in distinguishing lake ecosystems that were disturbed, healthy, and in the process of restoration. Most methods strive to address the concept of biological integrity and assessment effectiveness often can be impeded by the lack of more specific ecosystem management objectives. Scientific and policy explorations are needed to define new ways for designating a healthy system so as to allow specification of precise quality criteria that will promote further development of ecosystem analysis tools.

  4. Analysis of Reptile Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services within the Protected Areas at a National Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    A focus for resource management, conservation planning, and environmental decision analysis has been mapping and quantifying biodiversity and ecosystem services. The challenge has been to integrate ecology with economics to better understand the effects of human policies and acti...

  5. Representation of Reptile Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services within the Protected Areas of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A focus for resource management, conservation planning, and environmental decision analysis has been mapping and quantifying biodiversity and ecosystem services. The challange has been to integrate ecology with economics to better understand the effects of human policies and acti...

  6. Informing policy to protect coastal coral reefs: insight from a global review of reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Schaffelke, Britta; Bartley, Rebecca

    2014-08-15

    The continuing degradation of coral reefs has serious consequences for the provision of ecosystem goods and services to local and regional communities. While climate change is considered the most serious risk to coral reefs, agricultural pollution threatens approximately 25% of the total global reef area with further increases in sediment and nutrient fluxes projected over the next 50 years. Here, we aim to inform coral reef management using insights learned from management examples that were successful in reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems. We identify multiple examples reporting reduced fluxes of sediment and nutrients at end-of-river, and associated declines in nutrient concentrations and algal biomass in receiving coastal waters. Based on the insights obtained, we recommend that future protection of coral reef ecosystems demands policy focused on desired ecosystem outcomes, targeted regulatory approaches, up-scaling of watershed management, and long-term maintenance of scientifically robust monitoring programs linked with adaptive management. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of mangrove ecosystem service functions of Ximen Island Marine Specially Protected Areas in Yueqing Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. G.; Sun, L.; Tan, Y. H.; Shi, A. Q.; Cheng, J.

    2017-08-01

    Taking the mangrove ecosystem of Ximen Island National Marine Specially Protected Areas as the research object, the ecological service value of the mangrove forest was evaluated and analyzed using a market value method, an ecological value method and a carbon tax method. The results showed that the ecosystem service value of the mangrove forest on Ximen Island is worth a total of 16,104,000 CNY/a. Among the value of individual ecosystem services, the direct value of material production function and leisure function reached 1,385,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 8.6%. The indirect value of disturbance regulation, gas regulation, water purification, habitat function and culture research reached 14,719,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 91.4%. Among the above sub-items, the proportion of disturbance regulation value, habitat function value and cultural research function value reached 78.8%, which reflects the important scientific value and ecological value of the Ximen Island mangrove ecosystem, especially its vital importance in providing a habitat for birds and playing a role in disaster prevention and mitigation.

  8. Kepler's first rocky planet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batalha, N.M.; Borucki, W.J.; Bryson, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission uses transit photometry to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in or near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The mission reached a milestone toward meeting that goal: the discovery of its first rocky planet, Kepler-10b. Two distinct sets of transit events were...... tests on the photometric and pixel flux time series established the viability of the planet candidates triggering ground-based follow-up observations. Forty precision Doppler measurements were used to confirm that the short-period transit event is due to a planetary companion. The parent star is bright...

  9. Substance-specific water quality criteria for the protection of South African freshwater ecosystems: methods for derivation and initial results for some inorganic toxic substances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems form the resource base on which water users, such as the agricultural, recreational, domestic and industrial sectors depend. These essential resources therefore need to be protected and maintained in a healthy state...

  10. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  11. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

  12. Critical loads as a policy tool for protecting ecosystems from the effects of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. Burns; Tamara Blett; Richard Haeuber; Linda H. Pardo

    2008-01-01

    Framing the effects of air pollutants on ecosystems in terms of a "critical load" provides a meaningful approach for research scientists to communicate policy-relevant science to air-quality policy makers and natural resource managers. A critical-loads approach has been widely used to shape air-pollutant control policy in Europe since the 1980s, yet has only...

  13. NON-TARGET AND ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS CONTAINING PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk of unintended and unexpected adverse impacts on non-target organisms and ecosystems is a key issue in environmental risk assessment of PIP crop plants. While there has been considerable examination of the effects of insect resistant crops on certain non-target organisms...

  14. Natural resource management in a protected area of the Indian Himalayas: a modeling approach for anthropogenic interactions on ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald

    2009-06-01

    The concept of ecosystem conservation as a broad theme came into existence during the 1970s under the Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Indian Government followed this approach and chose the method to segregate the landscape for conservation of the ecosystem as well as for the development of the local economy and its people. We have examined the effect of this policy and concurrently developed a theoretical modeling approach to understand how human behavior is changing under shifting political, socioeconomic and environmental conditions. A specific focus has been on how the landscape is changing in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region where about 10% of the total geographical area is converted into protected landscape for conservation of biodiversity. For local people living in the Himalayan mountains in India, agriculture is the main land use activity and is strongly linked to the forests in providing sustainability. There are several branches in the rural ecosystems where the local people's economy was centered. These include agriculture, animal husbandry, medicinal and aromatic plants cultivation, forest resource collection, tourism and other occupations. The greatest proportion of the population was engaged in the agriculture sector, whose contribution is high in the rural economy (61%); followed by animal husbandry (19%), forest resource collection for economic gain (18%), and medicinal and aromatic plants cultivation (1.5%). However, three decades ago the animal husbandry branch of the rural ecosystem was contributing the maximum share towards rural household income (40%) followed by tourism (35.2%), and lastly agriculture (14%). The desire of farmers to secure the optimum output from agricultural land use has resulted in an increase for resource collection from the forests. The people's perception (n = 1,648) regarding overall changes occurring in the region was

  15. The Internet of Things ecosystem: the blockchain and data protection issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Fabiano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The IoT is innovative and important phenomenon prone to several services and applications such as the blockchain which an emerging phenomenon. We can describe the blockchain as blockchain as a service because of the opportunity to use several applications based on this technology. We, indeed, should take into account the legal issues related to the data protection and privacy law to avoid breaches of the law. In this context, it is important to consider the new European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR that will be in force on 25 May 2018. The contribution describes the main legal issues related to data protection and privacy focusing on the Data Protection by Design approach, according to the GDPR. Furthermore, I resolutely believe that is possible to develop a global privacy standard framework that organizations can use for their data protection activities.

  16. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  17. Defra Soil Protection Research in the Context of the Soil Natural Capital / Ecosystem Services Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, David A.; Cooper, David; Emmett, Bridget A.; Evans, Chris D.; Keith, Aidan; Lebron, Inma; Lofts, Stephen; Norton, Lisa; Reynolds, Brian; Tipping, Edward; Rawlins, Barry G.; Tye, Andrew M.; Watts, Chris W.; Whalley, W. Richard; Black, Helaina I.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: "A Nation that destroys its soil destroys itself." This quote from, F.D. Roosevelt, 1937, from a letter written to all state Governors in the USA following the dust bowl, encapsulates the importance of soil protection. The dust bowl brought about legislation to protect and conserve soils as a fundamental natural resource in the USA between 1930 and 1936. In current times we are facing unprecedented pressure on land resources from multiple uses here in the UK and across Euro...

  18. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Healthy sand : a farmers initiative on soil protection and ecosystem service management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Annemieke; Verzandvoort, Simone; Kuikman, Peter; Stuka, Jason; Morari, Francesco; Rienks, Willem; Stokkers, Jan; Hesselink, Bertus; Lever, Henk

    2015-04-01

    In a small region in the Netherlands a group of dairy farmers (cooperated in a foundation HOE Duurzaam) cooperates with the drinking water company and together aim for a more healthy soil. They farm a sandy soil, which is in most of the parcels low in organic matter. The local farmers perceive loss of soil fertility and blame loss of soil organic matter for that. All farmers expect that increasing the soil organic matter content will retain more nitrates in the soil, leading to a reduction in nitrate leaching and a higher nutrient availability for the crops, forage and grass and probably low urgency for grassland renewal. The drinking water company in the area also has high expectations that a higher SOM content does relate to higher quality of the (drinking) water and lower costs to clean and filter the water to meet drinking water quality requirements. Most farmers in the area face suboptimal moisture conditions and thrive for increasing the soil organic matter content and improving the soil structure as key factors to relieve, soil moisture problems both in dry (drought) and wet (flooding) periods. A better water holding capacity of the soil provides benefits for the regional water board as this reduces leaching and run-off. The case study, which is part of the Recare-project, at first glance deals with soil management and technology to improve soil quality. However, the casus in fact deals with social innovation. The real challenge to this group of neighbours, farmers within a small region, and to science is how to combine knowledge and experience on soil management for increasing the content of soil organic matter and how to recognize the ecosystem services that are provided by the adapted and more 'healthy' soils. And also how to formalize relations between costs and benefits of measures taken in the field and how these could be financially rewarded from an agreed and acceptable financial awarding scheme based on payments for securing soil carbon stocks and

  20. Merits and Limits of Ecosystem Protection for Conserving Wild Salmon in a Northern Coastal British Columbia River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Hill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss and degradation of freshwater habitat reduces the ability of wild salmon populations to endure other anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, harvest, and interactions with artificially propagated fishes. Preservation of pristine salmon rivers has thus been advocated as a cost-effective way of sustaining wild Pacific salmon populations. We examine the value of freshwater habitat protection in conserving salmon and fostering resilience in the Kitlope watershed in northern coastal British Columbia - a large (3186 km2 and undeveloped temperate rainforest ecosystem with legislated protected status. In comparison with other pristine Pacific Rim salmon rivers we studied, the Kitlope is characterized by abundant and complex habitats for salmon that should contribute to high resilience. However, biological productivity in this system is constrained by naturally cold, light limited, ultra-oligotrophic growing conditions; and the mean (± SD density of river-rearing salmonids is currently low (0.32 ± 0.27 fish per square meter; n = 36 compared to our other four study rivers (grand mean = 2.55 ± 2.98 fish per square meter; n = 224. Existing data and traditional ecological knowledge suggest that current returns of adult salmon to the Kitlope, particularly sockeye, are declining or depressed relative to historic levels. This poor stock status - presumably owing to unfavorable conditions in the marine environment and ongoing harvest in coastal mixed-stock fisheries - reduces the salmon-mediated transfer of marine-derived nutrients and energy to the system's nutrient-poor aquatic and terrestrial food webs. In fact, Kitlope Lake sediments and riparian tree leaves had marine nitrogen signatures (δ15N among the lowest recorded in a salmon ecosystem. The protection of the Kitlope watershed is undoubtedly a conservation success story. However, "salmon strongholds" of pristine watersheds may not adequately sustain salmon populations and foster

  1. When trends intersect: The challenge of protecting freshwater ecosystems under multiple land use and hydrological intensification scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenny; O'Grady, Anthony P; Dale, Allan; Arthington, Angela H; Gell, Peter A; Driver, Patrick D; Bond, Nick; Casanova, Michelle; Finlayson, Max; Watts, Robyn J; Capon, Samantha J; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Tingley, Reid; Fry, Brian; Page, Timothy J; Specht, Alison

    2015-11-15

    Intensification of the use of natural resources is a world-wide trend driven by the increasing demand for water, food, fibre, minerals and energy. These demands are the result of a rising world population, increasing wealth and greater global focus on economic growth. Land use intensification, together with climate change, is also driving intensification of the global hydrological cycle. Both processes will have major socio-economic and ecological implications for global water availability. In this paper we focus on the implications of land use intensification for the conservation and management of freshwater ecosystems using Australia as an example. We consider this in the light of intensification of the hydrologic cycle due to climate change, and associated hydrological scenarios that include the occurrence of more intense hydrological events (extreme storms, larger floods and longer droughts). We highlight the importance of managing water quality, the value of providing environmental flows within a watershed framework and the critical role that innovative science and adaptive management must play in developing proactive and robust responses to intensification. We also suggest research priorities to support improved systemic governance, including adaptation planning and management to maximise freshwater biodiversity outcomes while supporting the socio-economic objectives driving land use intensification. Further research priorities include: i) determining the relative contributions of surface water and groundwater in supporting freshwater ecosystems; ii) identifying and protecting freshwater biodiversity hotspots and refugia; iii) improving our capacity to model hydro-ecological relationships and predict ecological outcomes from land use intensification and climate change; iv) developing an understanding of long term ecosystem behaviour; and v) exploring systemic approaches to enhancing governance systems, including planning and management systems affecting

  2. Perception and attitudes of local people concerning ecosystem services of culturally protected forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Ouyang, Z.; Zheng, H.; Bluemling, B.

    2013-01-01

    Culturally protected forests (CPFs) can be defined as forest areas preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, and these forests have been maintained for decades or even centuries without much disturbance or change. Most of them are natural

  3. 50 CFR 300.103 - Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... life, compromise human safety, prevent the loss of vessels or aircraft, or to prevent environmental... FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300... the Antarctic Treaty (or the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty and its...

  4. Rapid assessment of risks to a mobile marine mammal in an ecosystem-scale marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, A; Marsh, H

    2008-06-01

    Ecosystem-scale networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are important conservation tools, but their effectiveness is difficult to quantify in a time frame appropriate to species conservation because of uncertainties in the data available. The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a mobile marine species that occurs in shallow inshore waters of an ecosystem-scale network of MPAs (the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area [GBRWHA]). We developed a rapid approach to assess risk to dugongs in the region and evaluate options to ameliorate that risk. We used expert opinion and a Delphi technique to identify and rank 5 human factors with the potential to adversely affect dugongs and their sea grass habitats: netting, indigenous hunting, trawling, vessel traffic, and poor-quality terrestrial runoff. We then quantified and compared the distribution of these factors with a spatially explicit model of dugong distribution. We estimated that approximately 96% of habitat of high conservation value for dugongs in the GBRWHA is at low risk from human activities. Using a sensitivity analysis, we found that to decrease risk, commercial netting or indigenous hunting had to be reduced in remote areas and the effects of vessel traffic, terrestrial runoff, and commercial netting had to be reduced in urban areas. This approach enabled us to compare and rank risks so as to identify the most severe risks and locate specific sites that require further management attention.

  5. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Nienstedt, Karin M.; Brock, T. C. M.

    2012-01-01

    General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process...... followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as well as examples of resulting SPGs obtained so far for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides is presented. The ecosystem services approach was used as an overarching...... and geographical scale of the effect, and the degree of certainty that the specified level of effect will not be exceeded. In general, to ensure ecosystem services, taxa representative for the key drivers identified need to be protected at the population level. However, for some vertebrates and species that have...

  6. Biological impacts of oil pollution: rocky shores. V. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Most people with access to the sea have at one time enjoyed looking into rockpools and searching for crabs under boulders. Rocky shores have a great deal of fascination for people and they are the closest that many of them will get to the mysteries below the low tide mark. They are found, in some form, on most of the world's coasts and their ecology has been the subject of many books, reports and scientific papers. Rocky shores encompass a variety of intertidal habitats and have a range of vulnerabilities to oil. While some areas are quickly and easily cleaned by natural forces others can trap oil in sensitive sub-habitats which may then be damaged and take many years to recover. Furthermore, rocky shores have an importance in the wider context of marine ecosystems and some provide important local fisheries resources, tourism and amenities. This report describes the factors that make some rocky shores more sensitive to oil spills than others and considers the most appropriate methods of clean-up. Case histories are used to illustrate the effects of spills and spill clean-up, as well as typical recovery rates. (UK)

  7. The effect of a protected area on the tradeoffs between short-run and long-run benefits from mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Catherine G.; Uchida, Emi; Gold, Arthur J.

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas are used to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, protected areas can create tradeoffs spatially and temporally among ecosystem services, which can affect the welfare of dependent local communities. This study examines the effect of a protected area on the tradeoff between two extractive ecosystem services from mangrove forests: cutting mangroves (fuelwood) and harvesting the shrimp and fish that thrive if mangroves are not cut. We demonstrate the effect in the context of Saadani National Park (SANAPA) in Tanzania, where enforcement of prohibition of mangrove harvesting was strengthened to preserve biodiversity. Remote sensing data of mangrove cover over time are integrated with georeferenced household survey data in an econometric framework to identify the causal effect of mangrove protection on income components directly linked to mangrove ecosystem services. Our findings suggest that many households experienced an immediate loss in the consumption of mangrove firewood, with the loss most prevalent in richer households. However, all wealth classes appear to benefit from long-term sustainability gains in shrimping and fishing that result from mangrove protection. On average, we find that a 10% increase in the mangrove cover within SANAPA boundaries in a 5-km2 radius of the subvillage increases shrimping income by approximately twofold. The creation of SANAPA shifted the future trajectory of the area from one in which mangroves were experiencing uncontrolled cutting to one in which mangrove conservation is providing gains in income for the local villages as a result of the preservation of nursery habitat and biodiversity. PMID:21873182

  8. The effect of a protected area on the tradeoffs between short-run and long-run benefits from mangrove ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Catherine G; Uchida, Emi; Gold, Arthur J

    2011-08-23

    Protected areas are used to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, protected areas can create tradeoffs spatially and temporally among ecosystem services, which can affect the welfare of dependent local communities. This study examines the effect of a protected area on the tradeoff between two extractive ecosystem services from mangrove forests: cutting mangroves (fuelwood) and harvesting the shrimp and fish that thrive if mangroves are not cut. We demonstrate the effect in the context of Saadani National Park (SANAPA) in Tanzania, where enforcement of prohibition of mangrove harvesting was strengthened to preserve biodiversity. Remote sensing data of mangrove cover over time are integrated with georeferenced household survey data in an econometric framework to identify the causal effect of mangrove protection on income components directly linked to mangrove ecosystem services. Our findings suggest that many households experienced an immediate loss in the consumption of mangrove firewood, with the loss most prevalent in richer households. However, all wealth classes appear to benefit from long-term sustainability gains in shrimping and fishing that result from mangrove protection. On average, we find that a 10% increase in the mangrove cover within SANAPA boundaries in a 5-km(2) radius of the subvillage increases shrimping income by approximately twofold. The creation of SANAPA shifted the future trajectory of the area from one in which mangroves were experiencing uncontrolled cutting to one in which mangrove conservation is providing gains in income for the local villages as a result of the preservation of nursery habitat and biodiversity.

  9. Modeled subalpine plant community response to climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, T.C.; Belyazid, S.; Sullivan, T.J.; Sverdrup, H.; Bowman, W.D.; Porter, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate potential long-term effects of climate change and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on subalpine ecosystems, the coupled biogeochemical and vegetation community competition model ForSAFE-Veg was applied to a site at the Loch Vale watershed of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Changes in climate and N deposition since 1900 resulted in pronounced changes in simulated plant species cover as compared with ambient and estimated future community composition. The estimated critical load (CL) of N deposition to protect against an average future (2010–2100) change in biodiversity of 10% was between 1.9 and 3.5 kg N ha −1  yr −1 . Results suggest that the CL has been exceeded and vegetation at the study site has already undergone a change of more than 10% as a result of N deposition. Future increases in air temperature are forecast to cause further changes in plant community composition, exacerbating changes in response to N deposition alone. - Highlights: • A novel calibration step was introduced for modeling biodiversity with ForSAFE-Veg. • Modeled increases in tree cover are consistent with empirical studies. • Reductions in N deposition decreased future graminoid percent cover. • Critical loads of N to protect biodiversity should consider climate change effects. - Subalpine plant biodiversity in Rocky Mountain National Park has already been impacted by N deposition and climate change and is expected to experience significant future effects

  10. Public involvement in cleanup - the Rocky Flats experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukert, J.; Pennock, S.; Schassburger, R.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant recently completed and implemented the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plan for public involvement in environmental restoration of the site. The plan was developed in cooperation with the plant's regulators, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Colorado Department of Health. In addition, citizens near the plant played a significant role in shaping the document through extensive community interviews and public comment. The result of these cooperative efforts is a plan that meets and exceeds the applicable federal and state community relations requirements for a cleanup program. In fact, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has used the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plants a model for similar plans at other federal facilities. Plan development, however, is only the starting point for an effective community relations effort. The Rocky Flats Plant and the public will face many challenges together as we implement the plan and build a partnership for addressing environmental cleanup issues. (author)

  11. Environmental equity and the conservation of unique ecosystems: an analysis of the distribution of benefits for protecting Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Aldy; Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    Some critics in the environmental equity literature argue that low-income populations disproportionately have environmental risks, while the wealthy and better educated gain disproportionately from protecting unique ecosystems. The authors test this hypothesis in an analysis of the decline of Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. They calculate willingness-to-pay...

  12. RESTORATION PLUS: A COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO ACHIEVE ECOLOGICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is evaluating ecosystem restoration and management techniques to ensure they create sustainable solutions for degraded watersheds. The ORD/NRMRL initiated the Restoration Plus (RePlus) program in 2002, which emphasizes collabora...

  13. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienstedt, Karin M.; Brock, Theo C.M.; Wensem, Joke van; Montforts, Mark; Hart, Andy; Aagaard, Alf; Alix, Anne; Boesten, Jos; Bopp, Stephanie K.; Brown, Colin; Capri, Ettore; Forbes, Valery; Köpp, Herbert; Liess, Matthias; Luttik, Robert; Maltby, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as well as examples of resulting SPGs obtained so far for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides is presented. The ecosystem services approach was used as an overarching concept for the development of SPGs, which will likely facilitate communication with stakeholders in general and risk managers in particular. It is proposed to develop SPG options for 7 key drivers for ecosystem services (microbes, algae, non target plants (aquatic and terrestrial), aquatic invertebrates, terrestrial non target arthropods including honeybees, terrestrial non-arthropod invertebrates, and vertebrates), covering the ecosystem services that could potentially be affected by the use of pesticides. These SPGs need to be defined in 6 dimensions: biological entity, attribute, magnitude, temporal and geographical scale of the effect, and the degree of certainty that the specified level of effect will not be exceeded. In general, to ensure ecosystem services, taxa representative for the key drivers identified need to be protected at the population level. However, for some vertebrates and species that have a protection status in legislation, protection may be at the individual level. To protect the provisioning and supporting services provided by microbes it may be sufficient to protect them at the functional group level. To protect biodiversity impacts need to be assessed at least at the scale of the watershed/landscape. - Research highlights: ► How to define specific protection goals (SPGs) for environmental risk assessment? ► The process uses the ecosystem services (ES

  14. Soil decontamination at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.L.; Hayden, J.A.; Alford, C.E.; Kochen, R.L.; Stevens, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A soils decontamination project was initiated, to remove actinides from soils at Rocky Flats. Wet screening, attrition scrubbing with Calgon at high pH, attrition scrubbing at low pH, and cationic flotation were investigated. Pilot plant studies were carried out. Conceptual designs have been generated for mounting the process in semi-trailers

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  16. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  17. Recovery trajectories of kelp forest animals are rapid yet spatially variable across a network of temperate marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Caselle, JE; Rassweiler, A; Hamilton, SL; Warner, RR

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Oceans currently face a variety of threats, requiring ecosystem-based approaches to management such as networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). We evaluated changes in fish biomass on temperate rocky reefs over the decade following implementation of a network of MPAs in the northern Channel Islands, California. We found that the biomass of targeted (i.e. fished) species has increased consistently inside all MPAs in the network, with an e...

  18. Distribution and abundance of phytobenthic communities: Implications for connectivity and ecosystem functioning in a Black Sea Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berov, Dimitar; Todorova, Valentina; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Rinde, Eli; Karamfilov, Ventzislav

    2018-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of macroalgal communities in a Marine Protected Area (MPA) along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast were mapped and quantified, with particular focus on the previously unstudied P. crispa lower-infralittoral communities on Ostrea edulis biogenic reefs. Data from high resolution geophysical substrate mapping were combined with benthic community observations from georeferenced benthic photographic surveys and sampling. Multivariate analysis identified four distinct assemblages of lower-infralittoral macroalgal communities at depths between 10 and 17 m, dominated by Phyllophora crispa, Apoglossum ruscifoluim, Zanardinia typus and Gelidium spp. Maxent software analysis showed distinct preferences of the identified communities to areas with specific ranges of depth, inclination and curvature, with P. crispa more frequently occurring on vertical oyster biogenic reef structures. By combining production rates from literature, biomass measurements and the produced habitat maps, the highest proportion of primary production and DOC release was shown for the upper infralittoral Cystoseira barbata and Cystoseira bosphorica, followed by the production of the lower-infralittoral macroalgae. The observed distribution of P. crispa within the studied MPA was related to the network of Natura 2000 maritime MPAs along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, which indicated that the connectivity of the populations of the species within the established network is insufficient within this cell of ecosystem functioning.

  19. Effect of spatial variation on salinity tolerance of macroinvertebrates in Eastern Australia and implications for ecosystem protection trigger values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, Jason E.; Horrigan, Nelli; McGregor, Glenn; Kefford, Ben J.; Choy, Satish; Prasad, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Salinisation of freshwater has been identified as a serious environmental issue in Australia and around the world. Protective concentrations (trigger values) for salinity can be used to manage salinity impacts, though require locally relevant salinity tolerance information. 72-h acute salinity tolerance values were determined for 102 macroinvertebrates collected from 11 locations in four biologically distinct freshwater bio-regions in Northeast Australia and compared with sensitivities observed in Southeast Australia. The salinity tolerance of individual taxa was consistent across Northeast Australia and between Northeast and Southeast Australia. However, two distinct communities were identified in Northeast Australia using distributions of the acute tolerance values and a calculated index of salinity sensitivity. Salinity trigger values should therefore be representative of local or regionally relevant communities and may be adequately calculated using sensitivity values from throughout Eastern Australia. The results presented provide a basis for assessing salinity risk and determining trigger values for salinity in freshwater ecosystems at local and regional scales in Eastern Australia. - Salinity tolerance of macroinvertebrate communities vary in Eastern Australia hence water quality guidelines should be developed at a local or regional scale

  20. Grizzly bears as a filter for human use management in Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Petersen

    2000-01-01

    Canadian National Parks within the Rocky Mountains recognize that human use must be managed if the integrity and health of the ecosystems are to be preserved. Parks Canada is being challenged to ensure that these management actions are based on credible scientific principles and understanding. Grizzly bears provide one of only a few ecological tools that can be used to...

  1. NEPA/CERCLA integration at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schassburger, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Integration of two laws, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was mandated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) with issuance of DOE Order 5400.4 in October 6, 1989. NEPA documentation is required for all federal actions to thereby consider the impacts of such actions prior to the action taking place. On the other hand, CERCLA actions taken by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at non-federal and federal sites do not normally take NEPA into consideration, although it is not exempted at federal sites. EPA claims that CERCLA is functionally equivalent to N-EPA and therefore NEPA is not required. Although EPA maintains the functional equivalency of the two laws and formerly resisted to recognize NEPA even in Inter-Agency Agreements (IAGs), Rocky Flats has been integrating the two laws within documents to avoid duplication of information and effort

  2. Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement implementation successes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    On July 19, 1996 the US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Colorado (CDPHE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into an agreement called the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) for the cleanup and closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Rocky Flats). Major elements of the agreement include: an Integrated Site-Wide Baseline; up to twelve significant enforceable milestones per year; agreed upon soil and water action levels and standards for cleanup; open space as the likely foreseeable land use; the plutonium and TRU waste removed by 2015; streamlined regulatory process; agreement with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to coordinate activities; and a risk reduction focus. Successful implementation of RFCA requires a substantial effort by the parties to change their way of thinking about RFETS and meet the deliverables and commitments. Substantial progress toward Site closure through the implementation of RFCA has been accomplished in the short time since the signing, yet much remains to be done. Much can be learned from the Rocky Flats experience by other facilities in similar situations

  3. Land use planning: A potential force for retaining habitat connectivity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L. Shafer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE is perceived to have been isolated from the population in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem for a century. Better land use planning is needed to thwart progressive intra- and inter-ecosystem habitat fragmentation, especially due to private land development. The dilemma of private lands being intermixed in large landscapes is addressed. This review attempts to identify some land use planning levels and tools which might facilitate dispersal by the grizzly bear and other large mammals. The planning levels discussed include national, regional, state, county and municipal, and federal land management agency. Specific potential federal tools mentioned include zoning, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives, the Endangered Species Act, beyond boundary authority, land exchanges, less-than-fee acquisition and other incentives, the Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act, and federal land annexation. Besides summarizing existing recommendations, some derived observations are offered.

  4. Responses of soil physical and chemical properties to karst rocky desertification evolution in typical karst valley area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; zeng, Cheng; Xiao, Jianyong; Qian, Qinghuan; Luo, Guangjie

    2018-01-01

    In order to reveal the differences of soil physical and chemical properties and their response mechanism to the evolution of KRD. The characteristics of soil physical and chemical properties of different grades of KRD were studied by field sampling method to research different types of KRD in the typical karst valley of southern China. Instead of using space of time, to explore the response and the mechanisms of the soil physical and chemical properties at the different evolution process. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, sediment concentration, clay content and AWHC in different levels of KRD environment. However, these indicators are not with increasing desertification degree has been degraded, but improved after a first degradation trends; (2) The correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter, acid, alkali, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and clay contents were significantly correlated with other physical and chemical factors. They are the key factors of soil physical and chemical properties, play a key role in improving soil physical and chemical properties and promoting nutrient cycling; (3) The principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and sediment concentration was 80.26%, which was the key index to evaluate rocky desertification degree based on soil physical and chemical properties. The results have important theoretical and practical significance for the protection and restoration of rocky desertification ecosystem in southwest China.

  5. Aerobic biodegradation potential of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in surface-water sediment at Rocky Mountain National Park, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M; Battaglin, William A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Clark, Jimmy M; Journey, Celeste A

    2016-05-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in surface water and bed sediment threaten the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In natural, remote, and protected surface-water environments where contaminant releases are sporadic, contaminant biodegradation is a fundamental driver of exposure concentration, timing, duration, and, thus, EDC ecological risk. Anthropogenic contaminants, including known and suspected EDCs, were detected in surface water and sediment collected from 2 streams and 2 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). The potential for aerobic EDC biodegradation was assessed in collected sediments using 6 (14) C-radiolabeled model compounds. Aerobic microbial mineralization of natural (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol) estrogen was significant at all sites. Bed sediment microbial communities in Rocky Mountain National Park also effectively degraded the xenoestrogens bisphenol-A and 4-nonylphenol. The same sediment samples exhibited little potential for aerobic biodegradation of triclocarban, however, illustrating the need to assess a wider range of contaminant compounds. The present study's results support recent concerns over the widespread environmental occurrence of carbanalide antibacterials, like triclocarban and triclosan, and suggest that backcountry use of products containing these compounds should be discouraged. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  6. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, J.D.

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees

  7. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees.

  8. DOE awards first economic conversion project at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1993-01-01

    In the first economic conversion project at an Energy Department weapons facility, a Colorado company this week was given permission to refurbish four buildings at DOE's Rocky Flats plant to recycle slightly radioactive scrap metal. DOE, acting in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency and Colorado authorities, announced Tuesday it had given the go-ahead to Manufacturing Sciences Corp. of Golden, Colorado, to proceed with planning for the project

  9. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  10. Are seagrass beds indicators of anthropogenic nutrient stress in the rocky intertidal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, Susanna E.; Mahoney, Brenna; Glanz, Jess S.; Hughes, Brent B.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that anthropogenic nutrient inputs harm estuarine seagrasses, but the influence of nutrients in rocky intertidal ecosystems is less clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of anthropogenic nutrient loading on Phyllospadix spp., a rocky intertidal seagrass, at local and regional scales. At sites along California, Washington, and Oregon, we demonstrated a significant, negative correlation of urban development and Phyllospadix bed thickness. These results were echoed locally along an urban gradient on the central California coast, where Phyllospadix shoot δ 15 N was negatively associated with Phyllospadix bed thickness, and experimentally, where nutrient additions in mesocosms reduced Phyllospadix shoot formation and increased epiphytic cover on Phyllospadix shoots. These findings provide evidence that coastal development can threaten rocky intertidal seagrasses through increased epiphytism. Considering that seagrasses provide vital ecosystem services, mitigating eutrophication and other factors associated with development in the rocky intertidal coastal zone should be a management priority. - Highlights: • The effect of nutrient loading on rocky intertidal seagrasses is not well studied. • Regionally, development was negatively associated with Phyllospadix bed thickness. • Locally, shoot δ 15 N was negatively associated with Phyllospadix bed thickness. • Mesocosms with added nutrients had a net loss in shoots and increased epiphytes. • Nutrient loading may have a negative effect on intertidal seagrass bed health.

  11. A seasonal nitrogen deposition budget for Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K B; Carrico, C M; Kreidenweis, S M; Schichtel, B; Malm, W C; Collett, J L

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen deposition is a concern in many protected ecosystems around the world, yet few studies have quantified a complete reactive nitrogen deposition budget including all dry and wet, inorganic and organic compounds. Critical loads that identify the level at which nitrogen deposition negatively affects an ecosystem are often defined using incomplete reactive nitrogen budgets. Frequently only wet deposition of ammonium and nitrate are considered, despite the importance of other nitrogen deposition pathways. Recently, dry deposition pathways including particulate ammonium and nitrate and gas phase nitric acid have been added to nitrogen deposition budgets. However, other nitrogen deposition pathways, including dry deposition of ammonia and wet deposition of organic nitrogen, still are rarely included. In this study, a more complete seasonal nitrogen deposition budget was constructed based on observations during a year-long study period from November 2008 to November 2009 at a location on the east side of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. Measurements included wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen, PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm, nitrate, and ammonium) concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen, and atmospheric gas phase concentrations of ammonia, nitric acid, and NO2. Dry deposition fluxes were determined from measured ambient concentrations and modeled deposition velocities. Total reactive nitrogen deposition by all included pathways was found to be 3.65 kg N x ha(-1) yr(-1). Monthly deposition fluxes ranged from 0.06 to 0.54 kg N x ha(-1)yr(-1), with peak deposition in the month of July and the least deposition in December. Wet deposition of ammonium and nitrate were the two largest deposition pathways, together contributing 1.97 kg N x ha(-1)yr(-1) or 54% of the total nitrogen deposition budget for this region. The next two largest deposition pathways were wet

  12. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  13. Evaluation of the Modern State of Water Ecosystems and the Issues with Protecting Biological Resources During Development of the Kruzenshternskoye Gas Condensate Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dmitrievich Bogdanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the studies of the present state of freshwater ecosystems and their biotic components in the western part of the Yamal Peninsula are presented. Based on the evaluation of the structure of the communities of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and whitefishes, the range of the problems related to the protection of biological resources at the development of the Kruzenshternskoye gas field is defined. Data on species composition and quantitative indicators of hydrobionts of different types of waterbodies and watercourses in the lower reaches of the Mordyyakha and Naduyyakha rivers basins are the basis for environmental monitoring of water objects at development and exploitation of the Kruzenshternskoye gas field. According to the monitoring program, evaluation of the fish fauna state and their food base on the territory of the Kruzenshternskoye gas condensate field (GCF, is present. The zones of rivers deltas are the most important areas of the salmonid and whitefishes valuable fish species feeding at the territory of Kruzenshternskoye GCF. In the cases where complete demolish of waterbodies and watercourses for construction of facilities for GCF does not occur, changes of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of communities of hydrobionts after cease of works are reversible. River ecosystems are restored within a more short period of time in comparison to lacustrine ones. On the basis of conducted comprehensive studies, the proposals for the protection of fisheries resources and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems are reported. Recommendations for reducing the anthropogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems in the development period are presented. The results of the investigation were used in the designing the environmental protection part of the Kruzenshternskoye deposit project. At present, the disturbances in the territory of Kruzenshternskoye deposit of gas does not impact the aquatic ecosystems

  14. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras'kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters? accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research c...

  15. A National Analysis of Reptile Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services within the Protected Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A focus for resource management, conservation planning, and environmental decision analysis has been mapping and quantifying biodiversity and ecosystem services. The challenge has been to integrate ecology with economics to better understand the effects of human policies and acti...

  16. Policy objectives for conserving freshwater ecosystems: How many rivers, which ones, and what level of protection are required

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, D

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A current initiative aims to develop a set of operational policy objectives for facilitating national-level coordination in the conservation of freshwater ecosystems and their associated biodiversity. This initiative draws from the relatively new...

  17. Ocean Futures Under Ocean Acidification, Marine Protection, and Changing Fishing Pressures Explored Using a Worldwide Suite of Ecosystem Models

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Olsen; Isaac C. Kaplan; Cameron Ainsworth; Gavin Fay; Sarah Gaichas; Robert Gamble; Raphael Girardin; Cecilie H. Eide; Thomas F. Ihde; Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna; Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna; Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna; Kelli F. Johnson; Marie Savina-Rolland; Howard Townsend

    2018-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of the ocean considers all impacts on and uses of marine and coastal systems. In recent years, there has been a heightened interest in EBM tools that allow testing of alternative management options and help identify tradeoffs among human uses. End-to-end ecosystem modeling frameworks that consider a wide range of management options are a means to provide integrated solutions to the complex ocean management problems encountered in EBM. Here, we leverage the glo...

  18. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA

  19. Establishment and maintenance of regulating ecosystem services in a dryland area of Central Asia: the Kökyar Protection Forest, Aksu, NW China, as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missall, S.; Welp, M.; Thevs, N.; Abliz, A.; Halik, Ü.

    2014-12-01

    The city of Aksu, situated at the northern fringe of the Taklimakan Desert in the northwest of China, is exposed to periodic severe dust and sand storms. In 1986, local authorities decided to establish a peri-urban shelterbelt plantation, the so-called Kökyar Protection Forest. It was realised as a patchwork of poplar shelterbelts and orchards. The total area of the plantation reached 3800 ha in 2005. This endeavour was made possible by the annual mass mobilisation of Aksu citizens, based on the Chinese regulation of the "National Compulsory Afforestation Campaigns". Establishment costs amounted to ca. CNY 60 000 ha-1 (ca. USD 10 000 ha-1). The regulating ecosystem services provided by Kökyar Protection Forest clearly reduce dust and sand storm impacts on Aksu City. Permanent maintenance of the plantation is facilitated by leasing orchard plots to private fruit farmers. This system ensures forest tending, reduces government expenses, and provides incomes to farmers. From the perspective of the local economy, annual farming net benefits generated by Kökyar fruit farmers more than compensate annual government grants for maintenance, resulting in an overall monetary net benefit of at least CNY 10 500 ha-1 (ca. USD 1600 ha-1) on the long-term average. The intended regulating ecosystem services can thus be provided to the citizens of Aksu without payments for ecosystem services or other financial burdens. For a more complete understanding of Kökyar Protection Forest, future research should be directed towards quantifying the effect of its regulating ecosystem services, and on investigating the negative downstream consequences of its water consumption.

  20. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  1. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Transmission Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis and Testing ...

  4. Radiation monitor training program at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, L.C.; Kittinger, W.D.; Vogel, R.M.

    The Rocky Flats Radiation Monitor Training Program is tailored to train new health physics personnel in the field of radiation monitoring. The purpose of the prescribed materials and media is to be consistent in training in all areas of Rocky Flats radiation monitoring job involvement

  5. Economic valuation of the ecosystem services provided by a protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado: application of the contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, F M; Fernandes, G W; Andrade, D C; Néder, H D

    2017-11-01

    Considering that the economic valuation of ecosystem services is a useful approach to support the conservation of natural areas, we aimed to estimate the monetary value of the benefits provided by a protected area in southeast Brazil, the Serra do Cipó National Park. We calculated the visitor's willingness to pay to conserve the ecosystems of the protected area using the contingent valuation method. Located in a region under intense anthropogenic pressure, the Serra do Cipó National Park is mostly composed of rupestrian grassland ecosystems, in addition to other Cerrado physiognomies. We conducted a survey consisting of 514 interviews with visitors of the region and found that the mean willingness to pay was R$ 7.16 year-1, which corresponds to a total of approximately R$ 716,000.00 year-1. We detected that per capita income, the household size, the level of interest in environmental issues and the place of origin influenced the likelihood that individuals are willing to contribute to the conservation of the park, as well as the value of the stated willingness to pay. This study conveys the importance of conserving rupestrian grassland and other Cerrado physiognomies to decision makers and society.

  6. Integrating ecosystem services into crop protection and pest management: Case study with the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene and its use in tomato production in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Samantha; Alix, Anne; Knowles, Steve; Wheeler, James; Tescari, Enzo; Alvarez, Lara; Nicolette, Joseph; Rockel, Mark; Burston, Peter; Quadri, Giorgia

    2016-10-01

    Ecosystems provide the conditions for producing food, regulating water, and providing wildlife habitats; these, among others, are known as ecosystem services (ESs). Food production is both economically and culturally important to southern European farmers, particularly in Italy where farmers grow flavorsome tomatoes with passion and pride. Growers rely on pesticides for crop protection, the potential environmental impact of which is often questioned by regulators and other stakeholders. The European regulatory system for the approval of pesticides includes a thorough evaluation of risks to the environment and is designed to be protective of ecosystems. The consideration of ESs in environmental decision making is a growing trend, and the present case study provides an example of how ESs evaluation could be used to enhance agricultural practices and regulatory policy for crop protection. By attacking plant roots, nematodes may affect the growth and yield of fruit and vegetable crops, and the income earned by farmers at harvest time. Available solutions include chemical treatments such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), physical treatments (solarization), and biological treatments (biofumigation). In order to characterize the risks and benefits associated with the use of 1,3-D in crop protection, ESs and socioeconomic analyses were applied to its use in the control of nematodes in tomato cultivation in southern Italy. The present study confirmed the benefits of 1,3-D to tomato production in Italy, with significant positive effects on production yields and farm income when compared to limited and transient potential impacts on services such as soil function. It was confirmed that 1,3-D allows farm income to be maintained and secures tomato production in these regions for the future. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:801-810. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras'kin, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. - Highlights: • IUR built better scientific consensus on the ecological effects of radiation. • Laboratory versus field approaches have been addressed. • Organism versus

  8. Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuor, N. R.; Schubert, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    Safely accelerating the closure of Rocky Flats to 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy, Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees, and taxpayers across the country. On June 30, 2000, Kaiser-Hill (KH) submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), KH's plan to achieve closure of Rocky Flats by December 15, 2006, for a remaining cost of $3.96 billion (February 1, 2000, to December 15, 2006). The Closure Project Baseline (CPB) is the detailed project plan for accomplishing this ambitious closure goal. This paper will provide a status report on the progress being made toward the closure goal. This paper will: provide a summary of the closure contract completion criteria; give the current cost and schedule variance of the project and the status of key activities; detail important accomplishments of the past year; and discuss the challenges ahead

  9. Coral reef ecosystem marine protected area monitoring in Fagamalo, American Samoa: benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010 the village of Fagamalo, Tutuila, American Samoa, designated a no-take Marine Protected Area that sees the protection of 2.25 square kilometers of ocean....

  10. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras'kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik; Kuhne, Wendy; Lynch, Michael; Mappes, Tapio; Mihok, Steve; Møller, Anders P; Mothersill, Carmel; Mousseau, Timothy A; Otaki, Joji M; Pryakhin, Evgeny; Rhodes, Olin E; Salbu, Brit; Strand, Per; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras’kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik; Kuhne, Wendy; Lynch, Michael; Mappes, Tapio; Mihok, Steve; Møller, Anders P.; Mothersill, Carmel; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Otaki, Joji M.; Pryakhin, Evgeny; Rhodes, Olin E.; Salbu, Brit; Strand, Per; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters’ accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. PMID:27058410

  12. Applicability of economic instruments for protecting ecosystem services from cultural agrarian landscapes in Doñana, SW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaitán-Cremaschi, Daniel; Palomo, Ignacio; Baraibar Molina, Sergio; Groot, De Rudolf; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Abandonment and conversion of cultural agrarian landscapes are major drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in Europe. One incentive for land-use conversion is the higher (private) economic return from industrial mono-functional crops relative to traditional multi-functional ones. However,

  13. The public water supply protection value of forests: A watershed-scale ecosystem services based upon total organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a cost-based methodology to assess the value of forested watersheds to improve water quality in public water supplies. The developed methodology is applicable to other source watersheds to determine ecosystem services for water quality. We assess the value of forest land for source wate...

  14. Long-range Rocky Flats utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this Study was to provide information concerning the Rocky Flats Plant and its operations that will be useful to the Nation's decision-makers in determining the long-range future of the Plant. This Study was conducted under the premise that national defense policy must be supported and, accordingly, the capabilities at Rocky Flats must be maintained there or at some other location(s). The Study, therefore, makes no attempt to speculate on how possible future changes in national defense policy might affect decisions regarding the utilization of Rocky Flats. Factors pertinent to decisions regarding Rocky Flats, which are included in the Study, are: physical condition of the Plant and its vulnerabilities to natural phenomena; risks associated with plutonium to Plant workers and the public posed by postulated natural phenomena and operational accidents; identification of alternative actions regarding the future use of the Rocky Flats Plant with associated costs and time scales; local socioeconomic impacts if Rocky Flats operations were relocated; and potential for other uses if Rocky Flats facilities were vacated. The results of the tasks performed in support of this Study are summarized in the context of these five factors

  15. Multiscale Framework for Assessing Critical Loads of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition for Aquatic Ecosystems in Wilderness Areas of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Clow, David; Saros, Jasmine; McMurray, Jill; Blett, Tamara; Sickman, James

    2017-04-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems in Wilderness areas of the western United States are impacted by current and historic atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition associated with local and regional air pollution. Documented effects include elevated surface water nitrate concentrations, increased algal productivity, and changes in diatom species assemblages. A predictive framework was developed for sensitive high-elevation basins across the western United States at multiple spatial scales including the Rocky Mountain Region (Rockies), the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), and Yosemite (YOSE) and Sequoia & Kings Canyon (SEKI) National Parks. Spatial trends in critical loads of N deposition for nutrient enrichment of aquatic ecosystems were quantified and mapped using a geostatistical approach, with modeled N deposition, topography, vegetation, geology, and climate as potential explanatory variables. Multiple predictive models were created using various combinations of explanatory variables; this approach allowed for better quantification of uncertainty and identification of areas most sensitive to high atmospheric N deposition (> 3 kg N ha-1 yr-1). For multiple spatial scales, the lowest critical loads estimates (1.5 + 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1) correspond with areas of high N deposition and vary spatially ranging from less than 20% to over 40% of the study area for the Rockies, GYA, YOSE, and SEKI. These predictive models and maps identify sensitive aquatic ecosystems that may be impacted by excess atmospheric N deposition and can be used to help protect against future anthropogenic disturbance. The approach presented here may be transferable to other remote and protected high-elevation ecosystems at multiple spatial scales that are sensitive to adverse effects of pollutant loading in the US and around the world.

  16. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal,...

  17. Circumscribing campo rupestre – megadiverse Brazilian rocky montane savanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJV. Alves

    Full Text Available Currently campo rupestre (CR is a name accepted and used internationally by botanists, zoologists, and other naturalists, usually applied to a very specific ecosystem, despite the lack of a consensual published circumscription. We present a tentative geographic circumscription of the term, combining data on climate, geology, geomorphology, soil, flora, fauna and vegetation. The circumscription of campo rupestre proposed herein is based on the following premises: (1 the classification of vegetation is not an exact science, and it is difficult to attain a high degree of consensus to the circumscription of vegetation names; (2 despite this, vegetation classification is useful for conservation and management. It is thus desirable to circumscribe vegetation types with the greatest attainable precision; (3 there is a need to preserve all montane and rocky vegetation types, regardless of classification, biome, etc; (4 the CRs are formed by a complex mosaic of vegetation types including rock-dwelling, psammophilous, aquatic, epiphytic, and penumbral plant communities. Campos rupestres stricto sensu are a Neotropical, azonal vegetation complex endemic to Brazil, forming a mosaic of rocky mountaintop “archipelagos” inserted within a matrix of zonal vegetation, mainly in the Cerrado and Caatinga provinces of the Brazilian Shield (southeastern, northeastern and central-western regions, occurring mainly above 900 m asl. up to altitudes exceeding 2000 m, having measured annual precipitation between 800 and 1500 mm, and an arid season of two to five months.

  18. Circumscribing campo rupestre - megadiverse Brazilian rocky montane savanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R J V; Silva, N G; Oliveira, J A; Medeiros, D

    2014-05-01

    Currently campo rupestre (CR) is a name accepted and used internationally by botanists, zoologists, and other naturalists, usually applied to a very specific ecosystem, despite the lack of a consensual published circumscription. We present a tentative geographic circumscription of the term, combining data on climate, geology, geomorphology, soil, flora, fauna and vegetation. The circumscription of campo rupestre proposed herein is based on the following premises: (1) the classification of vegetation is not an exact science, and it is difficult to attain a high degree of consensus to the circumscription of vegetation names; (2) despite this, vegetation classification is useful for conservation and management. It is thus desirable to circumscribe vegetation types with the greatest attainable precision; (3) there is a need to preserve all montane and rocky vegetation types, regardless of classification, biome, etc; (4) the CRs are formed by a complex mosaic of vegetation types including rock-dwelling, psammophilous, aquatic, epiphytic, and penumbral plant communities. Campos rupestres stricto sensu are a Neotropical, azonal vegetation complex endemic to Brazil, forming a mosaic of rocky mountaintop "archipelagos" inserted within a matrix of zonal vegetation, mainly in the Cerrado and Caatinga provinces of the Brazilian Shield (southeastern, northeastern and central-western regions), occurring mainly above 900 m asl. up to altitudes exceeding 2000 m, having measured annual precipitation between 800 and 1500 mm, and an arid season of two to five months.

  19. Mapping and quantifying groundwater inflows to Deep Creek (Maribyrnong catchment, SE Australia) using 222Rn, implications for protecting groundwater-dependant ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Ian; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Groundwater inflows in a chain-of-ponds river quantified. • Groundwater inflow vs. discharge relationship determined using Rn. • First long-term continuous Rn monitoring in a river indicates temporal changes to groundwater inflows. • Application to protection of groundwater-dependant ecosystems. - Abstract: Understanding groundwater inflows to rivers is important in managing connected groundwater and surface water systems and for protecting groundwater-dependant ecosystems. This study defines the distribution of gaining reaches and estimates groundwater inflows to a 62 km long section of Deep Creek (Maribyrnong catchment, Australia) using 222 Rn. During summer months, Deep Creek ceases to flow and comprises a chain of ponds that δ 18 O and δ 2 H values, major ion concentrations, and 222 Rn activities imply are groundwater fed. During the period where the river flows, the relative contribution of groundwater inflows to total river discharge ranges from ∼14% at high flow conditions to ∼100% at low flows. That the predicted groundwater inflows account for all of the increase in discharge at low flow conditions lends confidence to the mass balance calculations. Near-continuous 27 week 222 Rn monitoring at one location in the middle of the catchment confirms the inverse correlation between river discharge and relative groundwater inflows, and also implies that there are limited bank return flows. Variations in groundwater inflows are related to geology and topography. High groundwater inflows occur where the river is at the edge of its floodplain, adjacent to hills composed of basement rocks, or flowing through steep incised valleys. Understanding the distribution of groundwater inflows and quantifying the contribution of groundwater to Deep Creek is important for managing and protecting the surface water resources, which support the endangered Yarra pygmy perch

  20. Establishment and maintenance of regulating ecosystem services in a dryland area of central Asia, illustrated using the Kökyar Protection Forest, Aksu, NW China, as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missall, S.; Welp, M.; Thevs, N.; Abliz, A.; Halik, Ü.

    2015-06-01

    The city of Aksu, situated at the northern fringe of the Taklimakan Desert in northwest China, is exposed to severe periodic dust and sand storms. In 1986, local authorities decided to establish a peri-urban shelterbelt plantation, the so-called Kökyar Protection Forest, with the aim of reducing dust and sand storm impacts on Aksu City by the regulating ecosystem services provided by the plantation. It was realised as a patchwork of poplar shelterbelts and orchards. The total area of the plantation reached 3800 ha in 2005. The Kökyar Protection Forest is used as a case study to answer the following question: under which institutional frameworks and to which financial conditions can peri-urban shelterbelts be established and maintained? The endeavour of planting the shelterbelt was made possible by the annual mass mobilisation of Aksu citizens, based on the Chinese regulation of the "National Compulsory Afforestation Campaigns". Establishment costs amounted to ca. CNY 60 000 ha-1 (ca. USD 10 000 ha-1). Permanent maintenance of the plantation is facilitated by leasing orchard plots to private fruit farmers. From the perspective of the local economy, annual farming net benefits generated by Kökyar fruit farmers more than compensate for annual government grants for maintenance, resulting in an average overall monetary net benefit of at least CNY 10 500 ha-1 (ca. USD 1600 ha-1) in the long term. For a more complete understanding of Kökyar Protection Forest, future research should be directed towards quantifying the effect of its regulating ecosystem services and on investigating the negative downstream consequences of its water consumption.

  1. Ecosystem Management and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Peine; B.L. Jacobs; K.E. Franzreb; M.R. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem management (EM) promotes an integrated approach to environmental issues; its central goal is the protection of entire ecosystems. By focusing on an interdisciplinary solution to environmental challenges, EM can help to synthesize societal, economic scientific, and governmental goals. Furthermore, as EM becomes part of the foundation of environmental...

  2. Contamination of terrestrial ecosystem components with 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra caused by the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of radioactive waste storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latynova, N. E.

    2010-03-01

    The spatial-temporal features of the radioactive contamination of terrestrial ecosystem components caused by the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of regional radioactive waste storages of the State Research Center of the Russian Federation-Leipunskii Institute of Physics and Power Engineering at the input of radionuclides into the soil and ground water were studied. The composition of the radioactive contamination was determined, and the hydrological and geochemical processes resulting in the formation of large radioactive sources were described. The natural features of the radioactive waste storage areas favoring the entry of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra into the soils and their inclusion in the biological turnover were characterized. The directions of the horizontal migration of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra and the sites of their accumulation within the superaquatic and aquatic landscapes of a near-terrace depression were studied; the factors of the 90Sr accumulation in plants and cockles were calculated. The results of the studies expand the theoretical concepts of the mechanisms, processes, and factors controlling the behavior of radionuclides at the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of radioactive waste storages. The presented experimental data can be used for solving practical problems related to environmental protection in the areas of industrial nuclear complexes.

  3. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different scenarios: climate change and planned developments. At the coast-wide scale, climate change drove the largest change in cumulative effects with both widespread impacts and high vulnerability scores. Where the impacts of planned developments occur, planned industrial and pipeline activities had high cumulative effects, but the footprint of these effects was comparatively localized. Nearshore habitats were at greatest risk from planned industrial and pipeline activities; in particular, the impacts of planned pipelines on rocky intertidal habitats were predicted to cause the highest change in cumulative effects. This method of incorporating planned industrial development in cumulative effects mapping allows explicit comparison of different scenarios with the potential to be used in environmental impact assessments at various scales. Its use allows resource managers to consider cumulative effect hotspots when making decisions regarding industrial developments and avoid unacceptable cumulative effects. Management needs to consider both global and local stressors in managing marine ecosystems for the protection of biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  4. Climate change, habitat loss, protected areas and the climate adaptation potential of species in mediterranean ecosystems worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk R Klausmeyer

    Full Text Available Mediterranean climate is found on five continents and supports five global biodiversity hotspots. Based on combined downscaled results from 23 atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs for three emissions scenarios, we determined the projected spatial shifts in the mediterranean climate extent (MCE over the next century. Although most AOGCMs project a moderate expansion in the global MCE, regional impacts are large and uneven. The median AOGCM simulation output for the three emissions scenarios project the MCE at the end of the 21(st century in Chile will range from 129-153% of its current size, while in Australia, it will contract to only 77-49% of its current size losing an area equivalent to over twice the size of Portugal. Only 4% of the land area within the current MCE worldwide is in protected status (compared to a global average of 12% for all biome types, and, depending on the emissions scenario, only 50-60% of these protected areas are likely to be in the future MCE. To exacerbate the climate impact, nearly one third (29-31% of the land where the MCE is projected to remain stable has already been converted to human use, limiting the size of the potential climate refuges and diminishing the adaptation potential of native biota. High conversion and low protection in projected stable areas make Australia the highest priority region for investment in climate-adaptation strategies to reduce the threat of climate change to the rich biodiversity of the mediterranean biome.

  5. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  6. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant

  7. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  8. Radiological/Health physics program assessement at Rocky Flats, the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psomas, P.O.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Office, Safety and Health Group, Health Physics Team (HPT) is responsible for oversight of the Radiation Protection and Health Physics Program (RPHP) of the Integrating Management Contractor (IMC), Kaiser-Hill (K-H) operations at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). As of 1 January 1996 the Rocky Flats Plant employed 300 DOE and 4,300 contractor personnel (K-H and their subcontractors). WSI is a subcontractor and provides plant security. To accomplish the RPHP program oversight HPT personnel developed a systematic methodology for performing a functional RPHP Assessment. The initial process included development of a flow diagram identifying all programmatic elements and assessment criteria documents. Formulation of plans for conducting interviews and performance of assessments constituted the second major effort. The generation of assessment reports was the final step, based on the results of this process. This assessment will be a 6 person-year effort, over the next three years. This process is the most comprehensive assessment of any Radiation Protection and Health Physics (RPHP) Program ever performed at Rocky Flats. The results of these efforts will establish a baseline for future RPHP Program assessments at RFETS. This methodology has been well-received by contractor personnel and creates no Privacy Act violations or other misunderstandings

  9. Projections of change in key ecosystem indicators for planning and management of marine protected areas: An example study for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Susan; Butenschön, Momme

    2018-02-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely used as tools to maintain biodiversity, protect habitats and ensure that development is sustainable. If MPAs are to maintain their role into the future it is important for managers to understand how conditions at these sites may change as a result of climate change and other drivers, and this understanding needs to extend beyond temperature to a range of key ecosystem indicators. This case study demonstrates how spatially-aggregated model results for multiple variables can provide useful projections for MPA planners and managers. Conditions in European MPAs have been projected for the 2040s using unmitigated and globally managed scenarios of climate change and river management, and hence high and low emissions of greenhouse gases and riverborne nutrients. The results highlight the vulnerability of potential refuge sites in the north-west Mediterranean and the need for careful monitoring at MPAs to the north and west of the British Isles, which may be affected by changes in Atlantic circulation patterns. The projections also support the need for more MPAs in the eastern Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea, and can inform the selection of sites.

  10. Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers.

  11. Reasons for decision in the matter of review of the applications for gas export licences from Brooklyn Navy Yard Cogeneration Partners, L.P., Husky Oil Operations Ltd., ProGas Limited, Shell Canada Ltd., Western Gas Marketing Limited application dated 7 March 1994 from Rocky Mountain Ecosystem Coalition for a review of GH-5-93 decision made by the National Energy Board in February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    In February 1994, the National Energy Board of Canada granted 16 licenses to five companies for the export of natural gas to various power plants and gas distribution companies in the United States. In response to a submission from the Rocky Mountain Ecosystem Coalition, the Board requested submissions from those companies as part of a review of its Feburary 1994 decision. The Coalition claimed that the Board should have considered upstream environmental effects of the gas exports in its decisions; this claim was based on a Canadian Supreme Court decision of 24 February 1994 which required Hydro-Quebec to conduct environmental impact assessments related to electricity exports. The Board accordingly asked the five exporting companies to address the following questions in their submissions: the correctness of Board decisions considering environmental and directly-related social effects of the proposals in respect of the scope of its obligations under federal guidelines; whether evidence submitted by the applicants would allow the Board to meet its obligations under those guidelines; and whether there is any other evidence necessary to allow the Board to meet its obligations. A summary of the submissions and the views of the Board are presented. The applicability of the Supreme Court Hydro-Quebec decision to gas exports is discussed. The Board found that the decision was only applicable if there is a necessary connection between the upstream facilities and the proposal to export gas. The Board found that only the application from Shell Canada had this connection, and thus will require Shell to provide sufficient information concerning environmental and directly-related social effects relating to its proposal

  12. Whole-community facilitation regulates biodiversity on Patagonian rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Silliman

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity is a central goal in ecology. While positive species interactions (i.e., facilitation have historically been underemphasized in ecological research, they are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Dominant habitat-forming species (foundation species buffer environmental conditions and can therefore facilitate myriad associated species. Theory predicts that facilitation will be the dominant community-structuring force under harsh environmental conditions, where organisms depend on shelter for survival and predation is diminished. Wind-swept, arid Patagonian rocky shores are one of the most desiccating intertidal rocky shores ever studied, providing an opportunity to test this theory and elucidate the context-dependency of facilitation.Surveys across 2100 km of southern Argentinean coastline and experimental manipulations both supported theoretical predictions, with 43 out of 46 species in the animal assemblage obligated to living within the matrices of mussels for protection from potentially lethal desiccation stress and predators having no detectable impact on diversity.These results provide the first experimental support of long-standing theoretical predictions and reveal that in extreme climates, maintenance of whole-community diversity can be maintained by positive interactions that ameliorate physical stress. These findings have important conservation implications and emphasize that preserving foundation species should be a priority in remediating the biodiversity consequences of global climate change.

  13. Stabilization of mixed waste - Rocky Flats solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, T.A.; Mathew, S.A.; Henderson, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Among the wastes that require disposal as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program are large amounts of contaminated sludge and inorganic wastes. Halliburton NUS Corporation was awarded a contract by EG ampersand G Rocky Flats in March 1991 to stabilize mixed waste sludge contained in five solar evaporator ponds and to reprocess billets of solidified waste called Pondcrete and Saltcrete at DOE's Rocky Flats Plant. The scope of the project consists of waste characterization and treatability studies for process development, followed by design, construction and operation of various process trains to remediate different waste forms ranging from solid Pondcrete/Saltcrete blocks to aqueous brine solutions. One of the significant advances made was the development of a durable and certifiable stabilization formulation capable of treating concentrated nitrate solution wastes. The project uses high-volume grout mixing and pumping technologies with process control techniques that accommodate the heterogeneity of the wastes. To comply with all relevant environmental regulations and to provide a safe working atmosphere for plant personnel, Halliburton NUS designed process trains such that all emissions were eliminated during the remediation process. Personnel protection equipment requirements have been downgraded due to safeguards incorporated in the design. The technical and regulatory issues that were encountered would be typical of stabilization efforts underway at other DOE sites. Thus the lessons learned and concepts developed can be expected to have widespread application

  14. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Ecological Monitoring Program 1995 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (ECMP) was established at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) in September 1992. At that time, EcMP staff developed a Program Plan that was peer-reviewed by scientists from western universities before submittal to DOE RFFO in January 1993. The intent of the program is to measure several quantitative variables at different ecological scales in order to characterize the Rocky Flats ecosystem. This information is necessary to document ecological conditions at the Site in impacted and nonimpacted areas to determine if Site practices have had ecological impacts, either positive or negative. This information can be used by managers interested in future use scenarios and CERCLA activities. Others interested in impact analysis may also find the information useful. In addition, these measurements are entered into a database which will serve as a long-term information repository that will document long-term trends and potential future changes to the Site, both natural and anthropogenic

  15. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Ecological Monitoring Program 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-31

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (ECMP) was established at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) in September 1992. At that time, EcMP staff developed a Program Plan that was peer-reviewed by scientists from western universities before submittal to DOE RFFO in January 1993. The intent of the program is to measure several quantitative variables at different ecological scales in order to characterize the Rocky Flats ecosystem. This information is necessary to document ecological conditions at the Site in impacted and nonimpacted areas to determine if Site practices have had ecological impacts, either positive or negative. This information can be used by managers interested in future use scenarios and CERCLA activities. Others interested in impact analysis may also find the information useful. In addition, these measurements are entered into a database which will serve as a long-term information repository that will document long-term trends and potential future changes to the Site, both natural and anthropogenic.

  16. Bio-protective microbial agents from rhizosphere eco-systems trigger plant defense responses provide protection against sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Udai B; Malviya, Deepti; Wasiullah; Singh, Shailendra; Pradhan, Jatindra K; Singh, Bhanu P; Roy, Manish; Imram, Mohd; Pathak, Neelam; Baisyal, B M; Rai, Jai P; Sarma, B K; Singh, Rajiv K; Sharma, P K; Kaur, Saman Deep; Manna, M C; Sharma, Sushil K; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-11-01

    Sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a major disease and attempts are being made to develop microbe based technologies for biocontrol of this pathogen. However, the mechanisms of biocontrol are not fully understood and still require indepth study in the backdrop of emerging concepts in biological systems. The present investigation was aimed at deciphering the mechanisms of biocontrol of sheath blight of rice employing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum as model agents for biocontrol. Initially 25, 5 and 5 strains of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum, respectively, were screened for their biocontrol potential. Out of which, six strains with higher value of percent inhibition of fungal mycelium in dual plate assay were selected. The role of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum were investigated in induction and bioaccumulation of natural antioxidants, defence-related biomolecules and other changes in plant which lead not only to growth promotion but also protection from pathogenic stress conditions in rice. The two most promising strains, P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 selected on the basis of in planta evaluation, when applied individually or in combination, significantly enhanced the accumulation of defence-related biomolecules, enzymes and exhibited biocontrol potential against R. solani. A modified/newly developed delivery system was applied for the first time in the experiments involving inoculation of plants with both bioagents, viz. P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501. Results suggested that application of P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 alone or in combination, not only helps in control of the disease but also increases plant growth along with reduction in application of toxic chemical pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Limber pine health in the Canadian Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyndi M. Smith; David Langor; Colin Myrholm; Jim Weber; Cameron Gillies; Jon Stuart-Smith

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) reaches the northern limit of its range at about 52 degrees latitude in Alberta (AB) and 51 degrees latitude in British Columbia (BC). Most populations are found on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, with a few disjunct populations west of the Continental Divide in southeastern BC.

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  19. Impact of Front Range sources on reactive nitrogen concentrations and deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B. Benedict

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human influenced atmospheric reactive nitrogen (RN is impacting ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO. Due to ROMO’s protected status as a Class 1 area, these changes are concerning, and improving our understanding of the contributions of different types of RN and their sources is important for reducing impacts in ROMO. In July–August 2014 the most comprehensive measurements (to date of RN were made in ROMO during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ. Measurements included peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, C1–C5 alkyl nitrates, and high-time resolution NOx, NOy, and ammonia. A limited set of measurements was extended through October. Co-located measurements of a suite of volatile organic compounds provide information on source types impacting ROMO. Specifically, we use ethane as a tracer of oil and gas operations and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4 as an urban tracer to investigate their relationship with RN species and transport patterns. Results of this analysis suggest elevated RN concentrations are associated with emissions from oil and gas operations, which are frequently co-located with agricultural production and livestock feeding areas in the region, and from urban areas. There also are periods where RN at ROMO is impacted by long-range transport. We present an atmospheric RN budget and a nitrogen deposition budget with dry and wet components. Total deposition for the period (7/1–9/30 was estimated at 1.58 kg N/ha, with 87% from wet deposition during this period of above average precipitation. Ammonium wet deposition was the dominant contributor to total nitrogen deposition followed by nitrate wet deposition and total dry deposition. Ammonia was estimated to be the largest contributor to dry deposition followed by nitric acid and PAN (other species included alkyl nitrates, ammonium and nitrate. All three species are challenging to measure routinely, especially at high time resolution.

  20. Using high-resolution future climate scenarios to forecast Bromus tectorum invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda M; Kumar, Sunil; Wakie, Tewodros; Brown, Cynthia S; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Laituri, Melinda; Bromberg, Jim

    2015-01-01

    National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass), which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park), Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211), current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2) and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m) is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum.

  1. Using High-Resolution Future Climate Scenarios to Forecast Bromus tectorum Invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda M.; Kumar, Sunil; Wakie, Tewodros; Brown, Cynthia S.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Laituri, Melinda; Bromberg, Jim

    2015-01-01

    National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass), which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park), Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211), current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2) and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m) is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum. PMID:25695255

  2. Aerobic biodegradation potential of endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface-water sediment at Rocky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Battaglin, William A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) in surface water and bed sediment threaten the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In natural, remote, and protected surface-water environments where contaminant releases are sporadic, contaminant biodegradation is a fundamental driver of exposure concentration, timing, duration, and, thus, EDC ecological risk. Anthropogenic contaminants, including known and suspected EDC, were detected in surface water and sediment collected from 2 streams and 2 lakes in Rocky Mountains National Park (ROMO). The potential for aerobic EDC biodegradation was assessed in collected sediments using 6 14C-radiolabeled model compounds. Aerobic microbial mineralization of natural (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol) estrogen was significant at all sites. ROMO bed sediment microbial communities also effectively degraded the xenoestrogens, bisphenol-A and 4-nonylphenol. The same sediment samples exhibited little potential for aerobic biodegradation of triclocarban, however, illustrating the need to assess a wider range of contaminant compounds. The current results support recent concerns over the widespread environmental occurrence of carbanalide antibacterials, like triclocarban and triclosan, and suggest that backcountry use of products containing these compounds should be discouraged.

  3. Using high-resolution future climate scenarios to forecast Bromus tectorum invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M West

    Full Text Available National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass, which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park, Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211, current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2 and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum.

  4. FIELD ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE INVESTIGATION OF WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN TWO HIGH ELEVATION WATERSHEDS OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from long-range transport and/or regional sources are having an impact on remote western ecosystems, including AK. Rocky Mountain Nation...

  5. Management of Protected Areas and Its Effect on an Ecosystem Function: Removal of Prosopis flexuosa Seeds by Mammals in Argentinian Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Valeria E.; Miguel, Florencia; Cona, Mónica I.

    2016-01-01

    The ecological function of animal seed dispersal depends on species interactions and can be affected by drivers such as the management interventions applied to protected areas. This study was conducted in two protected areas in the Monte Desert: a fenced reserve with grazing exclusion and absence of large native mammals (the Man and Biosphere Ñacuñán Reserve; FR) and an unfenced reserve with low densities of large native and domestic animals (Ischigualasto Park; UFR). The study focuses on Prosopis flexuosa seed removal by different functional mammal groups: “seed predators”, “scatter-hoarders”, and “opportunistic frugivores”. Under both interventions, the relative contribution to seed removal by different functional mammal groups was assessed, as well as how these groups respond to habitat heterogeneity (i.e. vegetation structure) at different spatial scales. Camera traps were used to identify mammal species removing P. flexuosa seeds and to quantify seed removal; remote sensing data helped analyze habitat heterogeneity. In the FR, the major fruit removers were a seed predator (Graomys griseoflavus) and a scatter-hoarder (Microcavia asutralis). In the UFR, the main seed removers were the opportunistic frugivores (Lycalopex griseus and Dolichotis patagonum), who removed more seeds than the seed predator in the FR. The FR shows higher habitat homogeneity than the UFR, and functional groups respond differently to habitat heterogeneity at different spatial scales. In the FR, because large herbivores are locally extinct (e.g. Lama guanicoe) and domestic herbivores are excluded, important functions of large herbivores are missing, such as the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity, which provides habitats for medium-sized opportunistic frugivores with consequent improvement of quality and quantity of seed dispersal services. In the UFR, with low densities of large herbivores, probably one important ecosystem function this group performs is to increase

  6. Management of Protected Areas and Its Effect on an Ecosystem Function: Removal of Prosopis flexuosa Seeds by Mammals in Argentinian Drylands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M Campos

    Full Text Available The ecological function of animal seed dispersal depends on species interactions and can be affected by drivers such as the management interventions applied to protected areas. This study was conducted in two protected areas in the Monte Desert: a fenced reserve with grazing exclusion and absence of large native mammals (the Man and Biosphere Ñacuñán Reserve; FR and an unfenced reserve with low densities of large native and domestic animals (Ischigualasto Park; UFR. The study focuses on Prosopis flexuosa seed removal by different functional mammal groups: "seed predators", "scatter-hoarders", and "opportunistic frugivores". Under both interventions, the relative contribution to seed removal by different functional mammal groups was assessed, as well as how these groups respond to habitat heterogeneity (i.e. vegetation structure at different spatial scales. Camera traps were used to identify mammal species removing P. flexuosa seeds and to quantify seed removal; remote sensing data helped analyze habitat heterogeneity. In the FR, the major fruit removers were a seed predator (Graomys griseoflavus and a scatter-hoarder (Microcavia asutralis. In the UFR, the main seed removers were the opportunistic frugivores (Lycalopex griseus and Dolichotis patagonum, who removed more seeds than the seed predator in the FR. The FR shows higher habitat homogeneity than the UFR, and functional groups respond differently to habitat heterogeneity at different spatial scales. In the FR, because large herbivores are locally extinct (e.g. Lama guanicoe and domestic herbivores are excluded, important functions of large herbivores are missing, such as the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity, which provides habitats for medium-sized opportunistic frugivores with consequent improvement of quality and quantity of seed dispersal services. In the UFR, with low densities of large herbivores, probably one important ecosystem function this group performs is to increase

  7. Recreation in whitebark pine ecosystems: Demand, problems, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole

    1990-01-01

    Whitebark pine ecosystems are an important element of many of the most spectacular high-elevation landscapes in the western United States. They occupy upper subalpine and timberline zones in the prime recreation lands of the Cascades, the Sierra Nevada, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. This paper explores the nature of the recreational opportunities that the whitebark...

  8. Research of the Rio Grande Ecosystem Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the mission, objectives, and preliminary results of the Middle Rio Grande Ecosystem Management Research Program managed at the Rocky Mountain Research Station's Albuquerque laboratory. This program was initiated in 1994 to address growing pressures to effectively manage the limited resources of the middle Rio Grande Basin. The program is...

  9. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  10. Analyzing Whitebark Pine Distribution in the Northern Rocky Mountains in Support of Grizzly Bear Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R.; Landenburger, L.; Jewett, J.

    2007-12-01

    Whitebark pine seeds have long been identified as the most significant vegetative food source for grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and, hence, a crucial element of suitable grizzly bear habitat. The overall health and status of whitebark pine in the GYE is currently threatened by mountain pine beetle infestations and the spread of whitepine blister rust. Whitebark pine distribution (presence/absence) was mapped for the GYE using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery and topographic data as part of a long-term inter-agency monitoring program. Logistic regression was compared with classification tree analysis (CTA) with and without boosting. Overall comparative classification accuracies for the central portion of the GYE covering three ETM+ images along a single path ranged from 91.6% using logistic regression to 95.8% with See5's CTA algorithm with the maximum 99 boosts. The analysis is being extended to the entire northern Rocky Mountain Ecosystem and extended over decadal time scales. The analysis is being extended to the entire northern Rocky Mountain Ecosystem and extended over decadal time scales.

  11. Release fractions for Rocky Flats specific accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    As Rocky Flats and other DOE facilities begin the transition process towards decommissioning, the nature of the scenarios to be studied in safety analysis will change. Whereas the previous emphasis in safety accidents related to production, now the emphasis is shifting to accidents related tc decommissioning and waste management. Accident scenarios of concern at Rocky Flats now include situations of a different nature and different scale than are represented by most of the existing experimental accident data. This presentation will discuss approaches at sign to use for applying the existing body of release fraction data to this new emphasis. Mention will also be made of ongoing efforts to produce new data and improve the understanding of physical mechanisms involved

  12. History of Rocky Flats waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckett, L.L.; Dickman, A.A.; Wells, C.R.; Vickery, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the waste streams at Rocky Flats was done to provide information for the Waste Certification program. This program has involved studying the types and amounts of retrievable transuranic (TRU) waste from Rocky Flats that is stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The information can be used to estimate the types and amounts of waste that will need to be permanently stored in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The study covered mostly the eight-year period from June 1971 to June 1979. The types, amounts, and plutonium content of TRU waste and the areas or operations responsible for generating the waste are summarized in this waste stream history report. From the period studied, a total of 24,546,153 lbs of waste containing 211,148 g of plutonium currently occupies 709,497 cu ft of storage space at INEL

  13. Rocky Flats cleanup receives new deadline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats nuclear weapon plant near Denver narrowly missed a court-ordered shutdown of virtually all cleanup activities when it failed to meet an Aug. 22 deadline for a state permit to store mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes on site. US District Court Judge Lewis Babcock granted a 90-day stay of contempt charges against the US Dept. of Energy, but left open the possibility of civil penalties under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE's problems stem from a lawsuit the Sierra Club won two years ago in which Babcock gave Rocky Flats until Aug. 22 to obtain a RCRA permit or interim status from Colorado to store 600 cu yd of mixed wastes. If DOE failed to do so, the court said it could not generate further hazardous wastes at the site

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  15. THERMODYNAMIC LIMITS ON MAGNETODYNAMOS IN ROCKY EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, Eric; Conrad, Clinton P.; Manga, Michael; Hernlund, John

    2010-01-01

    To ascertain whether magnetic dynamos operate in rocky exoplanets more massive or hotter than the Earth, we developed a parametric model of a differentiated rocky planet and its thermal evolution. Our model reproduces the established properties of Earth's interior and magnetic field at the present time. When applied to Venus, assuming that planet lacks plate tectonics and has a dehydrated mantle with an elevated viscosity, the model shows that the dynamo shuts down or never operated. Our model predicts that at a fixed planet mass, dynamo history is sensitive to core size, but not to the initial inventory of long-lived, heat-producing radionuclides. It predicts that rocky planets larger than 2.5 Earth masses will not develop inner cores because the temperature-pressure slope of the iron solidus becomes flatter than that of the core adiabat. Instead, iron 'snow' will condense near or at the top of these cores, and the net transfer of latent heat upward will suppress convection and a dynamo. More massive planets can have anemic dynamos due to core cooling, but only if they have mobile lids (plate tectonics). The lifetime of these dynamos is shorter with increasing planet mass but longer with higher surface temperature. Massive Venus-like planets with stagnant lids and more viscous mantles will lack dynamos altogether. We identify two alternative sources of magnetic fields on rocky planets: eddy currents induced in the hot or molten upper layers of planets on very short-period orbits, and dynamos in the ionic conducting layers of 'ocean' planets with ∼10% mass in an upper mantle of water (ice).

  16. Basic TRUEX process for Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Dow, J.A.; Farley, S.E.; Nunez, L.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-08-01

    The Generic TRUEX Model was used to develop a TRUEX process flowsheet for recovering the transuranics (Pu, Am) from a nitrate waste stream at Rocky Flats Plant. The process was designed so that it is relatively insensitive to changes in process feed concentrations and flow rates. Related issues are considered, including solvent losses, feed analysis requirements, safety, and interaction with an evaporator system for nitric acid recycle

  17. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  18. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology

  19. Conserving biodiversity in a human-dominated world: degradation of marine sessile communities within a protected area with conflicting human uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Parravicini

    Full Text Available Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM, that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.

  20. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraker Terry R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni, and moose (Alces alces. A leucine variant at position 132 (132L in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in regulatory regions outside the open reading frame of PRNP have been associated with varying degrees of susceptibility to prion disease in other species, and some variants have been observed in similar regions of Rocky Mountain elk PRNP. Thus, additional genetic variants might provide increased protection, either alone or in combination with 132L. Findings This study provided genomic sequence of all exons for PRNP of Rocky Mountain elk. Many functional sites in and around the PRNP gene region were sequenced, and this report approximately doubled (to 75 the number of known variants in this region. A haplotype-tagging approach was used to reduce the number of genetic variants required to survey this variation in the PRNP gene region of 559 Rocky Mountain elk. Eight haplotypes were observed with frequencies over 1.0%, and one haplotype was present at 71.2% frequency, reflecting limited genetic diversity in the PRNP gene region. Conclusions The presence of 132L cut odds of CWD by more than half (Odds Ratio = 0.43; P = 0.0031, which was similar to a previous report. However after accounting for 132L, no association with CWD was found for any additional variants in the PRNP region (P > 0.05.

  1. Atmospheric dispersion modeling at the Rocky Flats Plant. Progress report, December 1981-December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant applies atmospheric dispersion modeling as a tool for Emergency Response, Risk Assessment, and Regulatory Compliance. Extreme variations in terrain around the facility have necessitated the development of an advanced modeling approach. The Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) was developed to treat realistically the changing wind, stability, dispersion, and deposition patterns that are experienced in mountainous areas. The result is a detailed picture of dose and deposition patterns associated with postulated or actual releases. A unified approach was taken to modeling needs at Rocky Flats. This produces consistent dose projections for all applications. A Risk Assessment version of TRAC is now operational. A high-speed version of the code is being implemented for Emergency Response, and development of a regulatory version is under way. Public, scientific, and governmental acceptance of TRAC is critical to successful applications at the Rocky Flats Plant. A program of peer review and regulatory approval was initiated to provide a full outside evaluation of our techniques. Full field validation (tracer testing) is key to demonstrating reliability of the TRAC model. A validation study was planned for implementation beginning in early CY-1986. The necessary funding ($500,000) is being sought. Although the TRAC model development and approval program was developed for site-specific needs at the Rocky Flats Plant, potential exists for wider application within the Department of Energy (DOE). The TRAC model can be easily applied at other sites in complex terrain. A coordinated approach to model validation throughout the Albquerque Operations Office (AL) or DOE complexes could prove more cost effective than site-by-site evaluations. Finally, the model approval procedure developed jointly by Rocky Flats and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is general and could be applied to other models or as the basis for a DOE-wide program

  2. Alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.W. Rundel; C.I. Millar

    2016-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are typically defined as those areas occurring above treeline, while recognizing that alpine ecosystems at a local scale may be found below this boundary for reasons including geology, geomorphology, and microclimate. The lower limit of the alpine ecosystems, the climatic treeline, varies with latitude across California, ranging from about 3500 m in...

  3. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  4. Criteria impacting shipments of Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, R.L.; Eide, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, Transportation and Packaging Division, under contract for the Los Alamos Technology Office-Rocky Flats Plant, has developed this synopsis report to be used as a reference in the development of the Rocky Flats Plant Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan and the Rocky Flats Plant Residue Elimination Plan. This report represents the criteria for packaging, shipping, and transporting Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes. It is a compilation of state and federal regulations, US Department of Energy orders, and acceptance criteria specific to US Department of Energy radioactive mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities

  5. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  6. Ecosystem quality in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, John S.; Damiani, Mattia; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results are used to assess potential environmental impacts of different products and services. As part of the UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative flagship project that aims to harmonize indicators of potential environmental impacts, we provide a consensus...... viewpoint and recommendations for future developments in LCIA related to the ecosystem quality area of protection (AoP). Through our recommendations, we aim to encourage LCIA developments that improve the usefulness and global acceptability of LCIA results. Methods: We analyze current ecosystem quality...... metrics and provide recommendations to the LCIA research community for achieving further developments towards comparable and more ecologically relevant metrics addressing ecosystem quality. Results and discussion: We recommend that LCIA development for ecosystem quality should tend towards species...

  7. What's new in Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains an important illness despite an effective therapy because it is difficult to diagnose and is capable of producing a fatal outcome. The pathogenesis of RMSF remains, in large part, an enigma. However, recent research has helped shed light on this mystery. Importantly, the diagnosis of RMSF must be considered in all febrile patients who have known or possible exposure to ticks, especially if they live in or have traveled to endemic regions during warmer months. Decisions about giving empiric therapy to such patients are difficult and require skill and careful judgement.

  8. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2012-2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass Cairns

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the...

  9. Drivers of spatial heterogeneity in nitrogen processing among three alpine plant communities in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, A. C.; Beers, A.; Grinath, J.; Bowman, W. D.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen cycling across the globe has been fundamentally altered due to regional elevated N deposition and there is a cascade of ecosystem consequences including shifts in species composition, eutrophication, and soil acidification. Making predictions that encompass the factors that drive these ecosystem changes has frequently been limited to single ecosystem types, or areas with fairly homogenous abiotic conditions. The alpine is an ecosystem type that exhibits changes under relatively low levels of N depositions due to short growing seasons and shallow soils limiting N storage. While recent work provided estimates for the magnitude of N associated with ecosystem changes, less is known about the within-site factors that may interact to stabilize or amplify the differential response of N pools under future conditions of resource deposition. To examine numerous potential within-site and regional factors (both biotic and abiotic) affecting ecosystem N pools we examined the relationship between those factors and a suite of ecosystem pools of N followed by model selection procedures and structural equation modelling. Measurements were conducted at Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research site and in Rocky Mountain National Park in three distinct alpine meadow ecosystems (dry, moist, and wet meadows). These meadows span a moisture gradient as well as plant community composition, thereby providing high variability of potential biotic and abiotic drivers across small spatial scales in the alpine. In general, regional scale abiotic factors such as site levels of annual average N deposition or precipitation were poor predictors of seasonal pools of N, while spring soil water pools of N were negatively correlated with elevation. Models containing multiple abiotic and biotic drivers, however, were best at predicting soil and plant pools of N across the two sites. Future analysis will include highlight interactions among with-site factors affecting N pools in the alpine using

  10. Ecosystem-service Based Ecological Protection for Dongting Lake Wetlands%基于生态系统服务的洞庭湖湿地生态保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江波; 李红清; 李志军; 林国俊; 柳雅纯

    2015-01-01

    基于洞庭湖湿地水文监测数据、洞庭湖湿地遥感卫星数据、湿地越冬水鸟观测数据及文献综述,对洞庭湖湿地主要生态环境变化进行了分析.结果表明:①近20年,城陵矶10月水位表现为显著下降趋势(Z=-2.26,p0.05);②受人类活动和水位变化影响,各湿地类型在1987-2011年整个时间序列变化较为复杂,而在空间上表现为相对稳定的分布规律;③2005-2014年越冬水鸟数量和多样性指数无显著变化趋势(p>0.05);④湿地退化会影响生态系统服务的供给能力及受益者的实际需求(使用)量.基于以上分析结果,探讨了洞庭湖湿地生态保护的重要性及现有研究在管理层面应用的局限性,并基于文献综述提出使用适合于洞庭湖湿地生态系统管理的驱动力-压力-状态-生态系统服务-响应(DPSER)框架.主要目标是使洞庭湖湿地生态服务由认知走向管理实践.%Dongting Lake provides a great diversity of ecosystem services needed to sustain human livelihoods and socio-economic development. Despite the crucial role it plays in delivering ecosystem services and supporting human well-being, Dongting Lake is one of the most extensively and rapidly altered lakes in China due to human disturbances and natural variability. Ecosystem service based management (ESBM) is proposed as a decision-making strategy to help managers evaluate the different needs of multiple stakeholders. Yet the implementation of the ESBM requires cross-sector and transdisciplinary cooperation to ifll the data gaps in clarifying tradeoffs among ecosystem services and the marginal inlfuence of ecosystem structures and processes on ecosystem services. In this paper, we first used the hydrological monitoring data, satellite monitoring data, winter-bird survey data, ifeld survey, and literature review to assess the importance of Dongting Lake ecological protection. The main results of the data analysis were: 1) in recent two decades

  11. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes

  12. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-01-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy's Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation's nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989

  13. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.; Spigel, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are defined as a set of interdependent actors and factors coordinated in such a way that they enable productive entrepreneurship within a particular territory. The purpose of this paper is to

  14. Distribution of macroinvertebrates on intertidal rocky shores in Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Londoño-Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organisms found on rocky shores must endure harsh environmental conditions during tidal changes but scientific studies on tropical rocky shores are scarce, particularly in Colombian shores. Here we describe the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates associated to the intertidal rocky ecosystems of Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific. Sampling was carried out in four localities around the Island: La Ventana and La Camaronera (sampled during October 2010 and La Mancora and El Muelle (sampled during March 2011. Two methodologies were used: rapid ecological assessments for qualitative data and quadrats for quantitative data. The richness, abundance, diversity (Shannon-Wiener H’, and evenness (Pielou J’ of macroinvertebrates were determined for and compared between, using one way ANOVA, each locality and the three intertidal zones of La Ventana (see methods. One hundred twenty-one species of macroinvertebrates were found during the sampling period. In all localities, Mollusca was the richest and most abundant taxon (46% of the species and 59% of the individuals, followed by Crustacea (32% of the species and 33% of the individuals. The other groups accounted for the remaining 22% of the richness and 8% of the abundance. Several studies have demonstrated that mollusks and crustaceans are the richest and most abundant taxa in marine benthic communities. Most of the abundant species found were herbivores. The species composition varied among zones. The results of dominant species for each zone are consistent with the ones observed in other tropical rocky intertidal shores. All response variables showed a decreasing pattern from the low to the high intertidal (in La Ventana. Post-hoc results indicated that the high intertidal, the zone with the harshest environmental conditions, had significantly lower values than the other two zones for all response variables. Comparisons between the low intertidal zones of the different localities

  15. Coral reef ecosystem marine protected area monitoring in Fagamalo, American Samoa: comprehensive assessment of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) from belt transect surveys in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010 the village of Fagamalo, Tutuila, American Samoa, designated a no-take Marine Protected Area that sees the protection of 2.25 square kilometers of ocean....

  16. Spatial and temporal variation in sources of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains using nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Campbell, Donald H.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2018-03-01

    Variation in source areas and source types of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains were evaluated using spatially and temporally distributed N isotope data from atmospheric deposition networks for 1995-2016. This unique dataset links N in wet deposition and snowpack to mobile and stationary emissions sources, and enhances understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic activities and environmental policies that mitigate effects of accelerated N cycling across the Rocky Mountain region. δ15N-NO3- at 50 U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Snowpack (Snowpack) sites ranged from -3.3‰ to +6.5‰, with a mean value of +1.4‰. At 15 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network wet deposition (NADP Wetfall) sites, summer δ15N-NO3- is significantly lower ranging from -7.6‰ to -1.3‰ while winter δ15N-NO3- ranges from -2.6‰ to +5.5‰, with a mean value of +0.7‰ during the cool season. The strong seasonal difference in NADP Wetfall δ15N-NO3- is due in part to variation in the proportion of N originating from source regions at different times of the year due to seasonal changes in weather patterns. Snowpack NO3- and δ15N-NO3- are significantly related to NADP Wetfall (fall and winter) suggesting that bulk snowpack samples provide a reliable estimate at high elevations. Spatial trends show higher NO3- concentrations and δ15N-NO3- in the Southern Rocky Mountains located near larger anthropogenic N emission sources compared to the Northern Rocky Mountains. NADP Wetfall δ15N-NH4+ ranged from -10‰ to 0‰, with no observed spatial pattern. However, the lowest δ15N-NH4+(-9‰), and the highest NH4+ concentration (35 μeq/L) were observed at a Utah site dominated by local agricultural activities, whereas the higher δ15N-NH4+ observed in Colorado and Wyoming are likely due to mixed sources, including fossil fuel combustion and agricultural sources. These findings show spatial and

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in sources of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains using nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Campbell, Donald H.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2018-01-01

    Variation in source areas and source types of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains were evaluated using spatially and temporally distributed N isotope data from atmospheric deposition networks for 1995-2016. This unique dataset links N in wet deposition and snowpack to mobile and stationary emissions sources, and enhances understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic activities and environmental policies that mitigate effects of accelerated N cycling across the Rocky Mountain region. δ15N−NO3− at 50 U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Snowpack (Snowpack) sites ranged from −3.3‰ to +6.5‰, with a mean value of +1.4‰. At 15 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network wet deposition (NADP Wetfall) sites, summer δ15N−NO3− is significantly lower ranging from −7.6‰ to −1.3‰ while winter δ15N−NO3− ranges from −2.6‰ to +5.5‰, with a mean value of +0.7‰ during the cool season. The strong seasonal difference in NADP Wetfall δ15N−NO3− is due in part to variation in the proportion of N originating from source regions at different times of the year due to seasonal changes in weather patterns. Snowpack NO3− and δ15N−NO3− are significantly related to NADP Wetfall (fall and winter) suggesting that bulk snowpack samples provide a reliable estimate at high elevations. Spatial trends show higher NO3−concentrations and δ15N−NO3− in the Southern Rocky Mountains located near larger anthropogenic N emission sources compared to the Northern Rocky Mountains. NADP Wetfall δ15N−NH4+ ranged from −10‰ to 0‰, with no observed spatial pattern. However, the lowest δ15N−NH4+(−9‰), and the highest NH4+ concentration (35 μeq/L) were observed at a Utah site dominated by local agricultural activities, whereas the higher δ15N−NH4+observed in Colorado and Wyoming are likely due to mixed sources, including fossil fuel combustion and

  18. Rocky Flats Solar Evaporation Ponds RCRA hybrid-closure case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogg, R.T.; Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Solar Evaporation Ponds (SEP)/Operable Unit 4 (OU 4), located at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) sixteen miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, is currently undergoing remediation/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure in accordance with the Rocky Flats Interagency Agreement (IAG) signed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH) on January 22, 1991. Based on the ''Phase 1'' (source and soils) RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation (RFM data and interpretations), the DOE and EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG and G) have selected a permanent surface engineered/isolation barrier as the technological option for remediation of the SEP. The DOE and EG and G will utilize all natural materials to create an ''impermeable'' barrier/structure to isolate the waste being left in place from impacting human health and the environment for a minimum of 1,000 years. Their rationale for utilizing natural materials is two fold; (1) optimize long term performance of the barrier and; (2) design a structure which will be near maintenance free (passive remediation) for 1,000 years. The DOE and EG and G have taken a proactive approach in providing post closure performance assessment for this RCRA closure action. An integrated monitoring system has been designed which will include monitoring the engineered barrier, vadose zone and ground water systems. Rocky Flats will integrate instrumentation into the permanent engineered barrier which will provide early warning of potential liquid migration through the barrier and into the waste zone

  19. Economic assessment of the contribution of biological control to the management of invasive alien plants and to the protection of ecosystem services in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a first attempt at a holistic economic evaluation of South African endeavours to manage invasive alien plants using biological control. The author’s focus was on the delivery of ecosystem services from habitats that are invaded...

  20. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Palacio, German Rau

    1998-01-01

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  2. Cure electrocoagulation demonstration at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, J.L.; Jones, J.; Ball, T.

    1996-01-01

    A demonstration of an innovative technology for remediating radionuclide contamination in water took place at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colorado, during the summer of 1995. The demonstration was part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program and was conducted by EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and General Environmental Corporation (GEC). The SITE program encourages the development and demonstration of innovative treatment and monitoring technologies. The purpose of the demonstration was to evaluate the ability of GEC's innovative CURE technology to remove uranium, plutonium, and americium from water taken from the A and B solar evaporation ponds at RFETS. The CURE electrocoagulation process uses an anode and cathode in a patented geometry to remove contaminants, including radionuclides, from wastewater in a continuous flow process. Electrocoagulation has been recognized as a method of removing a variety of contaminants from wastewaters. With the CURE process, GEC has refined the technology and adapted it to hazardous waste cleanup. Bench scale treatability testing conducted in April 1995 indicated 99 percent removal efficiencies were possible for uranium, plutonium-239/240, and americium-241. During the field scale demonstration in August and September 1995, samples were collected from four demonstration runs at RFETS. A removal efficiency of approximately 50 percent was achieved for uranium and nearly 99 percent for plutonium and americium

  3. Cure electrocoagulation demonstration at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, J.L.; Jones, J.; Ball, T. [PRC Environmental Management, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A demonstration of an innovative technology for remediating radionuclide contamination in water took place at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colorado, during the summer of 1995. The demonstration was part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program and was conducted by EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and General Environmental Corporation (GEC). The SITE program encourages the development and demonstration of innovative treatment and monitoring technologies. The purpose of the demonstration was to evaluate the ability of GEC`s innovative CURE technology to remove uranium, plutonium, and americium from water taken from the A and B solar evaporation ponds at RFETS. The CURE electrocoagulation process uses an anode and cathode in a patented geometry to remove contaminants, including radionuclides, from wastewater in a continuous flow process. Electrocoagulation has been recognized as a method of removing a variety of contaminants from wastewaters. With the CURE process, GEC has refined the technology and adapted it to hazardous waste cleanup. Bench scale treatability testing conducted in April 1995 indicated 99 percent removal efficiencies were possible for uranium, plutonium-239/240, and americium-241. During the field scale demonstration in August and September 1995, samples were collected from four demonstration runs at RFETS. A removal efficiency of approximately 50 percent was achieved for uranium and nearly 99 percent for plutonium and americium.

  4. Urban ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvigneaud, P

    1974-01-01

    The author considers the town as an ecosystem. He examines its various subdivisions (climate, soil, structure, human and non-human communities, etc.) for which he chooses examples with particular reference to the city of Brussels.

  5. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1 describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2 identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3 identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org. A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2% appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs. In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska. No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05. Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  6. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes how stakeholder involvement processes led to the successful resolution of a dispute over radionuclide soil action levels at the Rocky Flats Site near Denver, Colorado. During the Cold War Era, Rocky Flats, a plutonium fabrication plant, was part of the American government's multi-site nuclear weapons production facilities. Although the Rocky Flats plant had significant positive effects on the local economy, it became a target of public protest due to concerns over both public safety in the area surrounding the site and global nuclear proliferation. In the late 1980's, local safety concerns led to investigations by state and federal agencies. In 1992, with the Cold War ended, the Department of Energy decided to decommission the Rocky Flats site and to begin the long process of decontamination. (author)

  7. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  8. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-02-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  9. Ongoing Cerebral Vasculitis During Treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lisa R; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne infection that produces a systemic small-vessel vasculitis; its prognosis is excellent if appropriate treatment is initiated early. Because the advent of effective antirickettsial therapies predates the widespread use of brain magnetic resonance imaging, there are limited data on the effect of untreated Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection on neuroimaging studies. We describe a 7-year-old girl with delayed treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever who suffered severe neurological impairment. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed a progressive "starry sky appearance," which is proposed to result from the same small vessel vasculitis that causes the characteristic skin rash of this infection. Neurological injury can continue to occur despite specific antirickettsial therapy in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This child's clinical features raise questions about the optimal management of this infection, particularly the utility of immune modulating therapies in cases of delayed treatment and neurological involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Flood Protection Ecosystem Services in the Coast of Puerto Rico: Associations Between Watershed Processes and Local Human Health and Well Being Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood events are becoming increasingly important in coastal cities due to a projected increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. A potential strategy to promote coastal protection from these hazards is the use of green infrastructure to provide flood protection ecosyste...

  11. Benchmarking and performance improvement at Rocky Flats Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.; Doyle, G.; Featherman, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes

  12. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  13. Patterns of Spatial Variation of Assemblages Associated with Intertidal Rocky Shores: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Miloslavich, Patricia; Palomo, Gabriela; Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Pohle, Gerhard; Trott, Tom; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Herrera, César; Hernández, Alejandra; Sardi, Adriana; Bueno, Andrea; Castillo, Julio; Klein, Eduardo; Guerra-Castro, Edlin; Gobin, Judith; Gómez, Diana Isabel; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Mead, Angela; Bigatti, Gregorio; Knowlton, Ann; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs); however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample) was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index) were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution), we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses. PMID:21179546

  14. Effects of climate change on ecological disturbance in the northern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Rachel A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; DeNitto, Gregg A.; Keane, Robert E.; Manning, Mary E.; Duncan, Jacob P.; Egan, Joel M.; Jackson, Marcus B.; Kegley, Sandra; Lockman, I. Blakey; Pearson, Dean E.; Powell, James A.; Shelly, Steve; Steed, Brytten E.; Zambino, Paul J.; Halofsky, Jessica E.; Peterson, David L.

    2018-01-01

    Disturbances alter ecosystem, community, or population structure and change elements of the biological and/or physical environment. Climate changes can alter the timing, magnitude, frequency, and duration of disturbance events, as well as the interactions of disturbances on a landscape, and climate change may already be affecting disturbance events and regimes. Interactions among disturbance regimes, such as the cooccurrence in space and time of bark beetle outbreaks and wildfires, can result in highly visible, rapidly occurring, and persistent changes in landscape composition and structure. Understanding how altered disturbance patterns and multiple disturbance interactions might result in novel and emergent landscape behaviors is critical for addressing climate change impacts and for designing land management strategies that are appropriate for future climates This chapter describes the ecology of important disturbance regimes in the Northern Rockies region, and potential shifts in these regimes as a consequence of observed and projected climate change. We summarize five disturbance types present in the Northern Rockies that are sensitive to a changing climate--wildfires, bark beetles, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), other forest diseases, and nonnative plant invasions—and provide information that can help managers anticipate how, when, where, and why climate changes may alter the characteristics of disturbance regimes.

  15. Patterns of spatial variation of assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores: a global perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cruz-Motta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org. There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs; however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution, we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses.

  16. KEPLER'S FIRST ROCKY PLANET: KEPLER-10b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Fressin, Francois; Latham, David W.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Kjeldsen, Hans; Ciardi, David; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N. III; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Howell, Steve B.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission uses transit photometry to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in or near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The mission reached a milestone toward meeting that goal: the discovery of its first rocky planet, Kepler-10b. Two distinct sets of transit events were detected: (1) a 152 ± 4 ppm dimming lasting 1.811 ± 0.024 hr with ephemeris T [BJD] =2454964.57375 +0.00060 -0.00082 + N*0.837495 +0.000004 -0.000005 days and (2) a 376 ± 9 ppm dimming lasting 6.86 ± 0.07 hr with ephemeris T [BJD] =2454971.6761 +0.0020 -0.0023 + N*45.29485 +0.00065 -0.00076 days. Statistical tests on the photometric and pixel flux time series established the viability of the planet candidates triggering ground-based follow-up observations. Forty precision Doppler measurements were used to confirm that the short-period transit event is due to a planetary companion. The parent star is bright enough for asteroseismic analysis. Photometry was collected at 1 minute cadence for >4 months from which we detected 19 distinct pulsation frequencies. Modeling the frequencies resulted in precise knowledge of the fundamental stellar properties. Kepler-10 is a relatively old (11.9 ± 4.5 Gyr) but otherwise Sun-like main-sequence star with T eff = 5627 ± 44 K, M * = 0.895 ± 0.060 M sun , and R * = 1.056 ± 0.021 R sun . Physical models simultaneously fit to the transit light curves and the precision Doppler measurements yielded tight constraints on the properties of Kepler-10b that speak to its rocky composition: M P = 4.56 +1.17 -1.29 M + , R P = 1.416 +0.033 -0.036 R + , and ρ P = 8.8 +2.1 -2.9 g cm -3 . Kepler-10b is the smallest transiting exoplanet discovered to date.

  17. Great Basin Research and Management Project: Restoring and maintaining riparian ecosystem integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2000-01-01

    The Great Basin Research and Management Project was initiated in 1994 by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station’s Ecology, Paleoecology, and Restoration of Great Basin Watersheds Project to address the problems of stream incision and riparian ecosystem degradation in central Nevada. It is a highly interdisciplinary project that is being conducted in...

  18. Do protected areas networks ensure the supply of ecosystem services? Spatial patterns of two nature reserve systems in semi-arid Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Antonio J.; Martín-López, Berta; López, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conserving biodiversity, and these lands have traditionally been set aside for this purpose alone. However, the increasing global demand for agricultural and forestry commodities creates conflict and tradeoffs between dedicating land for conservation versus food...

  19. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2013-01-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several species of biocontrol

  20. Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.

    2011-01-01

    Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.

  1. LHC Report: Rocky re-start

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Holzer for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    A rocky re-start with beam followed a successful machine development period and the first technical stop of 2012. Today, Friday 11 May, the machine began running again with 1380 bunches.   A short, two-day machine development period was successfully completed on 21-22 April. It focused on topics relevant for the 2012 physics beam operation. This was then followed by a five-day technical stop, the first of the year. The technical stop finished on time on Friday 26 April. The re-start with beam was somewhat tortuous and hampered by an unlucky succession of technical faults leading to extended periods of downtime. The planned intensity increase was put on hold for three days with the machine operating with 1092 bunches and a moderate bunch intensity of 1.3x1011 protons. This delivered a reasonable peak luminosity of 3.6x1033 cm-2s-1 to ATLAS and CMS. Higher than usual beam losses were observed in the ramp and squeeze, and time was required to investigate the causes and to implement mitigati...

  2. Elemental compositions of two extrasolar rocky planetesimals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Koester, D., E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: kleinb@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: koester@astrophysik.uni-kiel.de [Institut fur Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, University of Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2014-03-10

    We report Keck/HIRES and Hubble Space Telescope/COS spectroscopic studies of extrasolar rocky planetesimals accreted onto two hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs, G29-38 and GD 133. In G29-38, eight elements are detected, including C, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Fe while in GD 133, O, Si, Ca, and marginally Mg are seen. These two extrasolar planetesimals show a pattern of refractory enhancement and volatile depletion. For G29-38, the observed composition can be best interpreted as a blend of a chondritic object with some refractory-rich material, a result from post-nebular processing. Water is very depleted in the parent body accreted onto G29-38, based on the derived oxygen abundance. The inferred total mass accretion rate in GD 133 is the lowest of all known dusty white dwarfs, possibly due to non-steady state accretion. We continue to find that a variety of extrasolar planetesimals all resemble to zeroth order the elemental composition of bulk Earth.

  3. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  4. The HARPS-N Rocky Planet Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motalebi, F.; Udry, S.; Gillon, M.

    2015-01-01

    We know now from radial velocity surveys and transit space missions that planets only a few times more massive than our Earth are frequent around solar-type stars. Fundamental questions about their formation history, physical properties, internal structure, and atmosphere composition are, however......, still to be solved. We present here the detection of a system of four low-mass planets around the bright (V = 5.5) and close-by (6.5 pc) star HD 219134. This is the first result of the Rocky Planet Search programme with HARPS-N on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in La Palma. The inner planet orbits...... on a close-in, quasi-circular orbit with a period of 6.767 ± 0.004 days. The third planet in the system has a period of 46.66 ± 0.08 days and a minimum-mass of 8.94 ± 1.13 M⊕, at 0.233 ± 0.002 AU from the star. Its eccentricity is 0.46 ± 0.11. The period of this planet is close to the rotational period...

  5. Rocky Planet Formation: Quick and Neat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Najita, Joan R.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2016-11-01

    We reconsider the commonly held assumption that warm debris disks are tracers of terrestrial planet formation. The high occurrence rate inferred for Earth-mass planets around mature solar-type stars based on exoplanet surveys (˜20%) stands in stark contrast to the low incidence rate (≤2%-3%) of warm dusty debris around solar-type stars during the expected epoch of terrestrial planet assembly (˜10 Myr). If Earth-mass planets at au distances are a common outcome of the planet formation process, this discrepancy suggests that rocky planet formation occurs more quickly and/or is much neater than traditionally believed, leaving behind little in the way of a dust signature. Alternatively, the incidence rate of terrestrial planets has been overestimated, or some previously unrecognized physical mechanism removes warm dust efficiently from the terrestrial planet region. A promising removal mechanism is gas drag in a residual gaseous disk with a surface density ≳10-5 of the minimum-mass solar nebula.

  6. Commercial Decommissioning at DOE's Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiboth, C.; Sandlin, N.; Schubert, A.; Hansen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Due in large part to the number of nuclear facilities that make up the DOE complex, DOE-EM work has historically been paperwork intensive and driven by extensive regulations. Requirements for non-nuclear facilities are often grouped with those of nuclear facilities, driving up costs. Kaiser-Hill was interested in applying a commercial model to demolition of these facilities and wanted to apply necessary and sufficient standards to the work activities, but avoid applying unnecessary requirements. Faced with demolishing hundreds of uncontaminated or non-radiologically contaminated facilities, Kaiser-Hill has developed a subcontracting strategy to drastically reduce the cost of demolishing these facilities at Rocky Flats. Aiming to tailor the demolition approach of such facilities to more closely follow commercial practices, Kaiser-Hill recently released a Request for Proposals (RFP) for the demolition of the site's former central administration facility. The RFP significantly reduced requirements for compliance with specific DOE directives. Instead, the RFP required subcontractors to comply with health and safety requirements commonly found in the demolition of similar facilities in a commercial setting. This resulted in a number of bids from companies who have normally not bid on DOE work previously and at a reduced cost over previous approaches. This paper will discuss the details of this subcontracting strategy

  7. Toward a rational exuberance for ecosystem services markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Marisa J. Mazzotta; Trista M. Patterson

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem services markets have become a popular topic among environmental policymakers and ecosystem protection advocates. Their proponents view markets as a promising new way to finance conservation of threatened ecosystems worldwide at a time when the need for additional protection seems especially critical. Their advocates in forestry promise that such markets will...

  8. A Bayesian-Based Approach to Marine Spatial Planning: Evaluating Spatial and Temporal Variance in the Provision of Ecosystem Services Before and After the Establishment Oregon's Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B.; Harte, M.; Goldfinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Participating in a ten-year monitoring project to assess the ecological, social, and socioeconomic impacts of Oregon's Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), we have worked in partnership with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) to develop a Bayesian geospatial method to evaluate the spatial and temporal variance in the provision of ecosystem services produced by Oregon's MPAs. Probabilistic (Bayesian) approaches to Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) show considerable potential for addressing issues such as uncertainty, cumulative effects, and the need to integrate stakeholder-held information and preferences into decision making processes. To that end, we have created a Bayesian-based geospatial approach to MSP capable of modelling the evolution of the provision of ecosystem services before and after the establishment of Oregon's MPAs. Our approach permits both planners and stakeholders to view expected impacts of differing policies, behaviors, or choices made concerning Oregon's MPAs and surrounding areas in a geospatial (map) format while simultaneously considering multiple parties' beliefs on the policies or uses in question. We quantify the influence of the MPAs as the shift in the spatial distribution of ecosystem services, both inside and outside the protected areas, over time. Once the MPAs' influence on the provision of coastal ecosystem services has been evaluated, it is possible to view these impacts through geovisualization techniques. As a specific example of model use and output, a user could investigate the effects of altering the habitat preferences of a rockfish species over a prescribed period of time (5, 10, 20 years post-harvesting restrictions, etc.) on the relative intensity of spillover from nearby reserves (please see submitted figure). Particular strengths of our Bayesian-based approach include its ability to integrate highly disparate input types (qualitative or quantitative), to accommodate data gaps, address uncertainty, and to

  9. Designer ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Singh, Kripal; O'Grady, Audrey; Courtney, Ronan; Kalra, Alok; Singh, Rana Pratap; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Steinberger, Yosef; Patra, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in human population is accelerating the rate of land use change, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, triggering a serious threat to life supporting ecosystem services. Existing strategies for biological conservation remain insufficient to achieve a sustainable human-nature

  10. Rocky desertification in Southwest China: Impacts, causes, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongcheng; Lian, Yanqing; Qin, Xiaoqun

    2014-05-01

    Rocky desertification, which is relatively less well known than desertification, refers to the processes and human activities that transform a karst area covered by vegetation and soil into a rocky landscape. It has occurred in various countries and regions, including the European Mediterranean and Dinaric Karst regions of the Balkan Peninsula, Southwest China on a large scale, and alarmingly, even in tropical rainforests such as Haiti and Barbados, and has had tremendous negative impacts to the environment and social and economic conditions at local and regional scales. The goal of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the impacts, causes, and restoration measures of rocky desertification based on decades of studies in the southwest karst area of China and reviews of studies in Europe and other parts of the world. The low soil formation rate and high permeability of carbonate rocks create a fragile and vulnerable environment that is susceptible to deforestation and soil erosion. Other natural processes related to hydrology and ecology could exacerbate rocky desertification. However, disturbances from a wide variety of human activities are ultimately responsible for rocky desertification wherever it has occurred. This review shows that reforestation can be successful in Southwest China and even in the Dinaric Karst region when the land, people, water, and other resources are managed cohesively. However, new challenges may arise as more frequent droughts and extreme floods induced by global climate change and variability may slow the recovery process or even expand rocky desertification. This review is intended to bring attention to this challenging issue and provide information needed to advance research and engineering practices to combat rocky desertification and to aid in sustainable development.

  11. Spatial patterns of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur using ion-exchange resin collectors in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Roop, Heidi; Nanus, Leora; Fenn, Mark; Sexstone, Graham A.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes and streams in Class 1 wilderness areas in the western United States (U.S.) are at risk from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S), and protection of these resources is mandated under the Federal Clean Air Act and amendments. Assessment of critical loads, which are the maximum exposure to pollution an area can receive without adverse effects on sensitive ecosystems, requires accurate deposition estimates. However, deposition is difficult and expensive to measure in high-elevation wilderness, and spatial patterns in N and S deposition in these areas remain poorly quantified. In this study, ion-exchange resin (IER) collectors were used to measure dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and S deposition during June 2006–September 2007 at approximately 20 alpine/subalpine sites spanning the Continental Divide in Rocky Mountain National Park. Results indicated good agreement between deposition estimated from IER collectors and commonly used wet + dry methods during summer, but poor agreement during winter. Snowpack sampling was found to be a more accurate way of quantifying DIN and S deposition during winter. Summer DIN deposition was significantly greater on the east side of the park than on the west side (25–50%; p ≤ 0.03), consistent with transport of pollutants to the park from urban and agricultural areas to the east. Sources of atmospheric nitrate (NO3−) were examined using N isotopes. The average δ15N of NO3− from IER collectors was 3.5‰ higher during winter than during summer (p model critical loads by filling gaps in geographic coverage of deposition monitoring/modeling programs and thus may enable policy makers to better protect sensitive natural resources in Class 1 Wilderness areas.

  12. Identifying organic nitrogen compounds in Rocky Mountain National Park aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, K. B.; Desyaterik, Y.; Ozel, M. Z.; Hamilton, J. F.; Collett, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition is an important issue in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). While inorganic nitrogen contributions to the ecosystems in this area have been studied, the sources of organic nitrogen are still largely unknown. To better understand the potential sources of organic nitrogen, filter samples were collected and analyzed for organic nitrogen species. Samples were collected in RMNP using a Thermo Fisher Scientific TSP (total suspended particulate) high-volume sampler with a PM2.5 impactor plate from April - November of 2008. The samples presented the opportunity to compare two different methods for identification of individual organic nitrogen species. The first type of analysis was performed with a comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) system using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). The filter samples were spiked with propanil in dichloromethane to use as an internal standard and were then extracted in water followed by solid phase extraction. The GCxGC system was comprised of a volatility based separation (DB5 column) followed by a polarity based separation (RXI-17 column). A NCD was used to specifically detect nitrogen compounds and remove the complex background matrix. Individual standards were used to identify peaks by comparing retention times. This method has the added benefit of an equimolar response for nitrogen so only a single calibration is needed for all species. In the second analysis, a portion of the same filter samples were extracted in DI water and analyzed with liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). The separation was performed using a C18 column and a water-methanol gradient elution. Electrospray ionization into a time of flight mass spectrometer was used for detection. High accuracy mass measurement allowed unambiguous assignments of elemental composition of resulting ions. Positive and negative polarities were used since amines tend to show up in positive mode and nitrates in

  13. Sustainability Of Coastal Fringe Ecosystems Against Anthropogenic Chemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-dominated coastal ecosystems provide least 21 ecological services including shoreline protection, contaminant removal and nursery and breeding habitat for biota. The value of these ecological services is as great as $28000/h. These ecosystems which include intertidal wetl...

  14. ROCKY PLANETESIMAL FORMATION VIA FLUFFY AGGREGATES OF NANOGRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Sota; Nakamoto, Taishi, E-mail: arakawa.s.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that silicate grains in primitive meteorites are not interstellar grains but condensates formed in the early solar system. Moreover, the size distribution of matrix grains in chondrites implies that these condensates might be formed as nanometer-sized grains. Therefore, we propose a novel scenario for rocky planetesimal formation in which nanometer-sized silicate grains are produced by evaporation and recondensation events in early solar nebula, and rocky planetesimals are formed via aggregation of these nanograins. We reveal that silicate nanograins can grow into rocky planetesimals via direct aggregation without catastrophic fragmentation and serious radial drift, and our results provide a suitable condition for protoplanet formation in our solar system.

  15. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy as a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, the post-Cold War era, and the transition between the two. This provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified. (author)

  16. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Aswine K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG and aspirin. Conclusion This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  17. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Aswine K; Kairys, Steven W

    2009-07-06

    Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and aspirin. This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  18. Przewalski’ s Horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Re-intr oduction in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area: from Species to Ecosystem Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kaczensky

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Przewalski’s horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Po ljakov , 1881, or “T akhi” in Mongolian, became extinct in the wild by the mid 1960’ s. The last recorded sightings of Przewalski’s horses occurred in the Dzungarian Gobi desert in SW Mo ngolia, today’s Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area (SP A. A re - introduction program was initiated in 1992 and the fi rs t group of captive-born Przewalski’s horses was airlifted to the SPA. Given the logistical challenges associated with such a venture, the initial project focus has been on transport logistics and the well-being of the re-introduced horses. Tod ay, conservation efforts are spread over the entire protected area. Present day ef forts include other mammals, vegetation and the local people. Due to its important symbolic value in Mongolian culture, the Przewalski’ s horse became an important fl agship species for the protected area’s conservation and management.

  19. Steady-state sulfur critical loads and exceedances for protection of aquatic ecosystems in the U.S. Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Todd C; Sullivan, Timothy J; Hessburg, Paul F; Reynolds, Keith M; Povak, Nicholas A; Cosby, Bernard J; Jackson, William; Salter, R Brion

    2014-12-15

    Atmospherically deposited sulfur (S) causes stream water acidification throughout the eastern U.S. Southern Appalachian Mountain (SAM) region. Acidification has been linked with reduced fitness and richness of aquatic species and changes to benthic communities. Maintaining acid-base chemistry that supports native biota depends largely on balancing acidic deposition with the natural resupply of base cations. Stream water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is maintained by base cations that mostly originate from weathering of surrounding lithologies. When ambient atmospheric S deposition exceeds the critical load (CL) an ecosystem can tolerate, stream water chemistry may become lethal to biota. This work links statistical predictions of ANC and base cation weathering for streams and watersheds of the SAM region with a steady-state model to estimate CLs and exceedances. Results showed that 20.1% of the total length of study region streams displayed ANC high elevation, and cool and moist forested conditions, the percentage of stream length in exceedance was highest for mountain wilderness areas and in national parks, and lowest for privately owned valley bottom land. Exceedance results were summarized by 12-digit hydrologic unit code (subwatershed) for use in developing management goals and policy objectives, and for long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  1. The removal of plutonium contaminants from Rocky Flats Plant soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderland, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    This research was undertaken to determine if the TRUclean process could effectively remove radioactive elements from soils other than derived coral. This is an interim report prior to the project report and discusses the outcome of the tests of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) soil. The soil tested contained plutonium particulates in the micron and submicron range. Volume reduction and activity removal were accomplished with an overall efficiency of greater than 90%. The TRUclean process is a very practical and economical solution to soil contamination problems at the Rocky Flats Plant

  2. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. [Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC, Golden, CO (United States)], Doyle, D. [USDOE Rocky Flats Office, Golden, CO (United States)], Featherman, W.D. [Project Performance Corp., Sterline, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  3. Fiscal year 1990 Rocky Flats Plant environmental restoration program current-year work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, T.; Waage, E.; Miller, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the FY90 Current Year Work Plan (CYWP), intended to serve as a guiding document with which the Environmental Restoration and RCRA Compliance programs will be implemented at the Rocky Flats Plant, The Current Year Work Plan document serves to provide in one single document any cross-references necessary to understand how the DOE Five Year Plan, Site Specific Plan, or any other related documents fit into the Current Year Work Plan for the Rocky Flats Environmental Restoration. The scope of this paper will compare the planned Fiscal Year 1990 environmental restoration activities to those actually achieved at the end of the fiscal year. The DOE Headquarters (HQ) issued the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Five-Year Plan (FYP). The purpose of the FYP is to establish an agenda for compliance and cleanup against which progress will be measured. The Five Year Plan has been updated to include the Colorado Department of Health (CDH), Evironmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Department of Energy (DOE) Inter Agency Agreement Environmental Restoration activities. It addresses hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, mixed wastes (radioactive and hazardous), and sanitary wastes. It also addresses facilities and sites contaminated with or used in the management of those wastes

  4. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant.

  5. Reactive nitrogen impacts on ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) is a new, multi-year research initiative under development by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As one of its components, ESRP has chosen to focus on reactive Nitrogen (Nr) for stressor-specific ecosystem research through a...

  6. Patterns of Mass Mortality among Rocky Shore Invertebrates across 100 km of Northeastern Pacific Coastline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Jurgens

    Full Text Available Mass mortalities in natural populations, particularly those that leave few survivors over large spatial areas, may cause long-term ecological perturbations. Yet mass mortalities may remain undocumented or poorly described due to challenges in responding rapidly to unforeseen events, scarcity of baseline data, and difficulties in quantifying rare or patchily distributed species, especially in remote or marine systems. Better chronicling the geographic pattern and intensity of mass mortalities is especially critical in the face of global changes predicted to alter regional disturbance regimes. Here, we couple replicated post-mortality surveys with preceding long-term surveys and historical data to describe a rapid and severe mass mortality of rocky shore invertebrates along the north-central California coast of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In late August 2011, formerly abundant intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a well-known ecosystem engineer, and the predatory six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp. were functionally extirpated from ~100 km of coastline. Other invertebrates, including the gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus, and subtidal populations of purple sea urchins also exhibited elevated mortality. The pattern and extent of mortality suggest the potential for long-term population, community, and ecosystem consequences, recovery from which may depend on the different dispersal abilities of the affected species.

  7. Effects of climate change on ecological disturbance in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Rachel A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; DeNitto, Gregg A.; Keane, Robert E.; Manning, Mary E.; Duncan, Jacob P.; Egan, Joel M.; Jackson, Marcus B.; Kegley, Sandra; Lockman, I. Blakey; Pearson, Dean E.; Powell, James A.; Shelly, Steve; Steed, Brytten E.; Zambino, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter describes the ecology of important disturbance regimes in the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area, hereafter called the Northern Rockies region, and potential shifts in these regimes as a consequence of observed and projected climate change. The term disturbance regime describes the general temporal and spatial characteristics of a disturbance agent - insect, disease, fire, weather, even human activity - and the effects of that agent on the landscape (table 8.1). More specifically, a disturbance regime is the cumulative effect of multiple disturbance events over space and time (Keane 2013). Disturbances disrupt an ecosystem, community, or population structure and change elements of the biological environment, physical environment, or both (White and Pickett 1985). The resulting shifting mosaic of diverse ecological patterns and structures in turn affects future patterns of disturbance, in a reciprocal, linked relationship that shapes the fundamental character of landscapes and ecosystems. Disturbance creates and maintains biological diversity in the form of shifting, heterogeneous mosaics of diverse communities and habitats across a landscape (McKinney and Drake 1998), and biodiversity is generally highest when disturbance is neither too rare nor too frequent on the landscape (Grime 1973).

  8. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF SOIL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Along with specialty items used for the development and implementation of sustainable development, protection and conservation of the environment, legal protection component of soil resources play an essential role. Legal and institutional framework provides a much protection of soil resources. Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. A soil pollutant is any factor which deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content of the soil ...

  9. Emissions implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey D; Brinkman, Gregory L; Milford, Jana B

    2014-11-18

    Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. This study explores how trends in natural gas production over the coming decades might affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the United States and its Rocky Mountain region. The MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) energy system optimization model is used with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nine-region database to compare scenarios for natural gas supply and demand, constraints on the electricity generation mix, and GHG emissions fees. Through 2050, total energy system GHG emissions show little response to natural gas supply assumptions, due to offsetting changes across sectors. Policy-driven constraints or emissions fees are needed to achieve net reductions. In most scenarios, wind is a less expensive source of new electricity supplies in the Rocky Mountain region than natural gas. U.S. NOx emissions decline in all the scenarios considered. Increased VOC emissions from natural gas production offset part of the anticipated reductions from the transportation sector, especially in the Rocky Mountain region.

  10. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Rocky Rats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant's environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1992. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population

  11. Progress towards a lightning ignition model for the Northern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Sopko; Don Latham

    2010-01-01

    We are in the process of constructing a lightning ignition model specific to the Northern Rockies using fire occurrence, lightning strike, ecoregion, and historical weather, NFDRS (National Fire Danger Rating System), lightning efficiency and lightning "possibility" data. Daily grids for each of these categories were reconstructed for the 2003 fire season (...

  12. Adsorption study for uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Rupert, M.C.; Harris, M.J.; Duran, A.

    1995-01-01

    Six adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in removing uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater. The bench column and batch (Kd) tests showed that uranium can be removed (>99.9%) by four adsorbents. Bone Charcoal (R1O22); F-1 Alumina (granular activated alumina); BIOFIX (immobilized biological agent); SOPBPLUS (mixed metal oxide); Filtrasorb 300 (granular activated carbon); and Zeolite (clinoptilolite)

  13. Field guide to diseases & insects of the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Health Protection. Rocky Mountain Region

    2010-01-01

    This field guide is a forest management tool for field identification of biotic and abiotic agents that damage native trees in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, which constitute the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Region. The guide focuses only on tree diseases and forest insects that have significant economic, ecological, and/ or...

  14. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    The Rocky Rats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1992. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population.

  15. Immune Thrombocytopenia as a Consequence of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeo, Cherisse; Seegobin, Karan; Zuberi, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) - also called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or immune thrombocytopenic purpura - is an acquired thrombocytopenia caused by autoantibodies against platelet antigens. It is one of the more common causes of thrombocytopenia in otherwise asymptomatic adults. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a potentially lethal, but curable, tick-borne disease. We present a case of ITP that was triggered by RMSF.

  16. Natural phenomena risk assessment at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foppe, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A realistic approach is currently being used at the Rocky Flats Plant to assess the risks of natural phenomena events. The methodology addresses frequency of occurrence estimates, damage stress on the facility and vital equipment, material-at-risk, release fractions and source terms, leakpath, dispersion and dosimetric models, risk curves, and an uncertainty analysis. 28 references, 1 figure

  17. Aquatic Resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Consequently, temperatures rise and oxygen levels fall. Primary producers in these stretches shift from periphyton to phytoplankton (suspended algae ...trees and have rocky substrates. Primary production in these cold- water and coolwater reaches is generally limited to periphyton (attached algae ...Adams County. Biotic components investigated included phytoplankton , zooplankton, aquatic macrophytes, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish eggs and

  18. Erratum: Vascular epiphyte vegetation in rocky savannas of southeastern Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alves, R. J. V.; Kolbek, Jiří; Becker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2009), s. 351-352 ISSN 0107-055X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : epiphytes * Brazil * rocky savannas Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2009

  19. The Colville Study: wood utilization for ecosystem management: preliminary results of study of product potential from small-diameter stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Willits; R. J. Barbour; J. McNeel; R. D. Fight; G. C. Myers; A. Mason

    The Colville Study was developed in 1994 to identify and evaluate a series of management options for achieving ecosystem objectives in dense stands of small-diameter trees while also producing wood products. The Colville National Forest selected the Rocky II Timber Sale as an example of this type of stand that needed management to achieve the following goals: (1)...

  20. Ecosystem services provided by bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Thomas H; Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth; Bauer, Dana; Lobova, Tatyana; Fleming, Theodore H

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits obtained from the environment that increase human well-being. Economic valuation is conducted by measuring the human welfare gains or losses that result from changes in the provision of ecosystem services. Bats have long been postulated to play important roles in arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, and pollination; however, only recently have these ecosystem services begun to be thoroughly evaluated. Here, we review the available literature on the ecological and economic impact of ecosystem services provided by bats. We describe dietary preferences, foraging behaviors, adaptations, and phylogenetic histories of insectivorous, frugivorous, and nectarivorous bats worldwide in the context of their respective ecosystem services. For each trophic ensemble, we discuss the consequences of these ecological interactions on both natural and agricultural systems. Throughout this review, we highlight the research needed to fully determine the ecosystem services in question. Finally, we provide a comprehensive overview of economic valuation of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, few studies estimating the economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats have been conducted to date; however, we outline a framework that could be used in future studies to more fully address this question. Consumptive goods provided by bats, such as food and guano, are often exchanged in markets where the market price indicates an economic value. Nonmarket valuation methods can be used to estimate the economic value of nonconsumptive services, including inputs to agricultural production and recreational activities. Information on the ecological and economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats can be used to inform decisions regarding where and when to protect or restore bat populations and associated habitats, as well as to improve public perception of bats. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Rocky Planetary Debris Around Young WDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, B.

    2014-04-01

    , the low C/Si ratio demonstrates that the planetary material is of rocky nature. * None of the 9 systems where we measure the C/O ratio shows evidence for carbon-dominated chemistry, implying that "carbon planets" are not common. * In the most polluted white dwarfs, we measure the debris abundances of up to 11 elements, enabling a detailed comparison between the chemistry of exo-planetary material with that of solar system meteorites. We find that the exo-planetary debris shares many characteristics of solar-system material, i.e. a wide spread in the relative abundances of Mg, Fe, Si, and O, a constant Al/Ca ratio, and evidence for differentiation in the form of Fe over-abundances All of the above is suggestive that thermal and collisional processing of planetary material in those systems might have been similar to that in the solar system.

  2. The Natural Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Potential of Rocky Mountain Soils Derived From Volcanic Bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, D. B.; Burchell, A.; Johnson, R. H.

    2008-12-01

    The possible economic and environmental ramifications of climate change have stimulated a range of atmospheric carbon mitigation actions, as well as, studies to understand and quantify potential carbon sinks. However, current carbon management strategies for reducing atmospheric emissions underestimate a critical component. Soils represent between 18 - 30% of the terrestrial carbon sink needed to prevent atmospheric doubling of CO2 by 2050 and a crucial element in mitigating climate change, natural terrestrial sequestration (NTS), is required. NTS includes all naturally occurring, cumulative, biologic and geologic processes that either remove CO2 from the atmosphere or prevent net CO2 emissions through photosynthesis and microbial fixation, soil formation, weathering and adsorption or chemical reactions involving principally alumino- ferromagnesium minerals, volcanic glass and clays. Additionally, NTS supports ecosystem services by improving soil productivity, moisture retention, water purification and reducing erosion. Thus, 'global climate triage' must include the protection of high NTS areas, purposeful enhancement of NTS processes and reclamation of disturbed and mined lands. To better understand NTS, we analyzed soil-cores from Colorado, Rocky Mountain Cordillera sites. North-facing, high-plains to alpine sites in non-wetland environments were selected to represent temperate soils that may be less susceptible to carbon pool declines due to global warming than soils in warmer regions. Undisturbed soils sampled have 2 to 6 times greater total organic soil carbon (TOSC) than global TOSC averages (4 - 5 Wt. %). Forest soils derived from weathering of intermediate to mafic volcanic bedrock have the highest C (34.15 Wt. %), C:N (43) and arylsulfatase (ave. 278, high 461 μg p-nitrophenol/g/h). Intermediate TOSC was identified in soils derived from Cretaceous shale (7.2 Wt. %) and Precambrian, felsic gneiss (6.2 Wt. %). Unreclaimed mine-sites have the lowest C (0

  3. Study on comprehensive planning of rocky desertification in karst area of Chongqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yajun

    2017-11-01

    Chongqing is a key area for comprehensive treatment of rocky desertification in karst areas of china. Strengthening the comprehensive management of karst rocky desertification area, for the maintenance of ecological safety of Three Gorges Reservoir area, expanding the karst rocky desertification area people survival and development space, and improving the regional ecological conditions, have important practical significance to the construction of ecological civilization and building a harmonious society. Based on the investigation, analysis and arrangement of the data in the rocky desertification area, the paper puts forward the corresponding measures and phased targets for the treatment of the Rocky Desertification in the karst areas of Chongqing.

  4. Forest disturbance interactions and successional pathways in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu Liang,; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Xuecao Li,; Peng Gong,

    2016-01-01

    The pine forests in the southern portion of the Rocky Mountains are a heterogeneous mosaic of disturbance and recovery. The most extensive and intensive stress and mortality are received from human activity, fire, and mountain pine beetles (MPB;Dendroctonus ponderosae). Understanding disturbance interactions and disturbance-succession pathways are crucial for adapting management strategies to mitigate their impacts and anticipate future ecosystem change. Driven by this goal, we assessed the forest disturbance and recovery history in the Southern Rocky Mountains Ecoregion using a 13-year time series of Landsat image stacks. An automated classification workflow that integrates temporal segmentation techniques and a random forest classifier was used to examine disturbance patterns. To enhance efficiency in selecting representative samples at the ecoregion scale, a new sampling strategy that takes advantage of the scene-overlap among adjacent Landsat images was designed. The segment-based assessment revealed that the overall accuracy for all 14 scenes varied from 73.6% to 92.5%, with a mean of 83.1%. A design-based inference indicated the average producer’s and user’s accuracies for MPB mortality were 85.4% and 82.5% respectively. We found that burn severity was largely unrelated to the severity of pre-fire beetle outbreaks in this region, where the severity of post-fire beetle outbreaks generally decreased in relation to burn severity. Approximately half the clear-cut and burned areas were in various stages of recovery, but the regeneration rate was much slower for MPB-disturbed sites. Pre-fire beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire produced positive compound effects on seedling reestablishment in this ecoregion. Taken together, these results emphasize that although multiple disturbances do play a role in the resilience mechanism of the serotinous lodgepole pine, the overall recovery could be slow due to the vast area of beetle mortality.

  5. The challenge and future of rocky desertification control in karst areas in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Dai, M. H.; Wang, L. C.; Zeng, C. F.; Su, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    Karst rocky desertification occurs after vegetation deteriorates as a result of intensive land use, which leads to severe water loss and soil erosion and exposes basement rocks, creating a rocky landscape. Karst rocky desertification is found in humid areas in southwest China, the region most seriously affected by rocky desertification in the world. In order to promote ecological restoration and help peasants out of poverty, the Chinese government carried out the first phase of a rocky desertification control project from 2006 to 2015, which initially contained the expansion of rocky desertification. Currently, the Chinese government is prepared to implement the second phase of the rocky desertification control project, and therefore it is essential to summarise the lessons learned over the last 10 years of the first phase. In this paper, we analyse the driving social and economic factors behind rocky desertification, summarise the scientific research on rocky desertification in the region, and finally identify the main problems facing rocky desertification control. In addition, we put forward several policy suggestions that take into account the perspective of local peasants, scientific research, and China's economic development and urbanisation process. These suggestions include promoting the non-agriculturalization of household livelihoods, improving ecological compensation, strengthening the evaluation of rocky desertification control and dynamic monitoring, and strengthening research on key ecological function recovery technologies and supporting technologies.

  6. Habitat selection by a focal predator (Canis lupus) in a multiprey ecosystem of the northern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milakovic, B.; Parker, K.L.; Gustine, D.D.; Lay, R.J.; Walker, A.B.D.; Gillingham, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Large predators respond to land cover and physiography that maximize the likelihood of encountering prey. Using locations from global positioning system-collared wolves (Canis lupus), we examined whether land cover, vegetation productivity or change, or habitat-selection value for ungulate prey species themselves most influenced patterns of selection by wolves in a large, intact multiprey system of northern British Columbia. Selection models based on land cover, in combination with topographical features, consistently outperformed models based on indexes of vegetation quantity and quality (using normalized difference vegetation index) or on selection value to prey species (moose [Alces americanus], elk [Cervus elaphus], woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus], and Stone's sheep [Ovis dalli stonei]). Wolves generally selected for shrub communities and high diversity of cover across seasons and avoided conifer stands and non-vegetated areas and west aspects year-round. Seasonal selection strategies were not always reflected in use patterns, which showed highest frequency of use in riparian, shrub, and conifer classes. Patterns of use and selection for individual wolf packs did not always conform to global models, and appeared related to the distribution of land cover and terrain within respective home ranges. Our findings corroborate the biological linkages between wolves and their habitat related to ease of movement and potential prey associations. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

  7. Measuring and modeling carbon balance in mountainous Northern Rocky mixed conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Berardi, D.; Stenzel, J.

    2016-12-01

    Drought and wildfire caused by changing precipitation patterns, increased temperatures, increased fuel loads, and decades of fire suppression are reducing forest carbon uptake from local to continental scales. This trend is especially widespread in Idaho and the intermountain west and has important implications for climate change and forest management options. Given the key role of forests in climate regulation, understanding forest response to drought and the feedbacks to the atmosphere is a key research and policy-relevant priority globally. As temperature, fire, and precipitation regimes continue to change and there is increased risk of forest mortality, measurements and modeling at temporal and spatial scales that are conducive to understanding the impacts and underlying mechanisms of carbon and nutrient cycling become critically important. Until recently, sub-daily measurements of ecosystem carbon balance have been limited in remote, mountainous terrain (e.g Northern Rocky mountain forests). Here, we combine new measurement technology and state-of-the-art ecosystem modeling to determine the impact of drought on the total carbon balance of a mature, mixed-conifer forest in Northern Idaho. Our findings indicate that drought had no impact on aboveground NPP, despite early growing season reductions in soil moisture and fine root biomass compared to non-drought years in the past. Modeled estimates of net ecosystem production (NEP) suggest that a simultaneous reduction in heterotrophic respiration increased the carbon sink for this forest. This has important implications for forest management, such as thinning where the objectives are to increase forest resilience to fire and drought, but may decrease NEP.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Large-Scale Rocky Coastline Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, P.; Murray, A. B.; Littlewood, R.; Valvo, L.

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's ocean coastline is rocky. On large scales (i.e. greater than a kilometer), many intertwined processes drive rocky coastline evolution, including coastal erosion and sediment transport, tectonics, antecedent topography, and variations in sea cliff lithology. In areas such as California, an additional aspect of rocky coastline evolution involves submarine canyons that cut across the continental shelf and extend into the nearshore zone. These types of canyons intercept alongshore sediment transport and flush sand to abyssal depths during periodic turbidity currents, thereby delineating coastal sediment transport pathways and affecting shoreline evolution over large spatial and time scales. How tectonic, sediment transport, and canyon processes interact with inherited topographic and lithologic settings to shape rocky coastlines remains an unanswered, and largely unexplored, question. We will present numerical model results of rocky coastline evolution that starts with an immature fractal coastline. The initial shape is modified by headland erosion, wave-driven alongshore sediment transport, and submarine canyon placement. Our previous model results have shown that, as expected, an initial sediment-free irregularly shaped rocky coastline with homogeneous lithology will undergo smoothing in response to wave attack; headlands erode and mobile sediment is swept into bays, forming isolated pocket beaches. As this diffusive process continues, pocket beaches coalesce, and a continuous sediment transport pathway results. However, when a randomly placed submarine canyon is introduced to the system as a sediment sink, the end results are wholly different: sediment cover is reduced, which in turn increases weathering and erosion rates and causes the entire shoreline to move landward more rapidly. The canyon's alongshore position also affects coastline morphology. When placed offshore of a headland, the submarine canyon captures local sediment

  9. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes

  10. Integrating NRDA and CERCLA environmental evaluations at the Rocky Flats Plant: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly review cleanup regulations in reference to natural resource liability, protection, and restoration; to present a case study on the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) showing how this DOE facility is approaching the task of integrating the ecological assessment/impact portion of three major regulatory mandates: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations using a flow chart depicting RCRA/CERCLA interim and final actions; to present what has and has not worked at the RFP; and, finally to suggest some technical strategies when planning for remediation and restoration in the NRD process that should be considered

  11. RCRA closures at Rocky Flats Plant: A programmatic perspective and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogg, Randy T.; Peterman, Bruce D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interagency Agreement (IAG) integrates a unique mechanism for remediating hazardous waste sites at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), which include utilizing RCRA and CERCLA technical/regulatory processes. Pursuant to the IAG signed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) on January 22, 1991, sixteen operable units (OUs) were defined for characterization and remediation at RFP. Of the sixteen OUs, six are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure units. The six RCRA interim status closure units are: Solar Evaporation Ponds-OU 4, Present LandfUl-OU 7, Original Process Waste Lines-OU 9, Other Outside Closures-OU 10, West Spray Field-OU II, and Inside Building Closures-OU 15. The IAG will function as a technical/regulatory mechanism for managing/complying with all aspects of the RCRA interim status closure units at RFP. (author)

  12. Dimensions of ecosystem management: a system approach to policy formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.B. Carey

    1998-01-01

    For the past sixty years, ecologists have been arguing about what an ecosystem is, and the debate continues (Blew 1996; Lenz and Haber 1996). Ecosystem management, however, is an entirely human process that entails not only manipulating and protecting ecosystems but also making private and public goals operational within a larger social environment of public needs,...

  13. Trends in Rocky Mountain amphibians and the role of beaver as a keystone species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Gould, William R.; Patla, Debra A.; Muths, Erin L.; Daley, Rob; Legg, Kristin; Corn, P. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Despite prevalent awareness of global amphibian declines, there is still little information on trends for many widespread species. To inform land managers of trends on protected landscapes and identify potential conservation strategies, we collected occurrence data for five wetland-breeding amphibian species in four national parks in the U.S. Rocky Mountains during 2002–2011. We used explicit dynamics models to estimate variation in annual occupancy, extinction, and colonization of wetlands according to summer drought and several biophysical characteristics (e.g., wetland size, elevation), including the influence of North American beaver (Castor canadensis). We found more declines in occupancy than increases, especially in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks (NP), where three of four species declined since 2002. However, most species in Rocky Mountain NP were too rare to include in our analysis, which likely reflects significant historical declines. Although beaver were uncommon, their creation or modification of wetlands was associated with higher colonization rates for 4 of 5 amphibian species, producing a 34% increase in occupancy in beaver-influenced wetlands compared to wetlands without beaver influence. Also, colonization rates and occupancy of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas) and Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) were ⩾2 times higher in beaver-influenced wetlands. These strong relationships suggest management for beaver that fosters amphibian recovery could counter declines in some areas. Our data reinforce reports of widespread declines of formerly and currently common species, even in areas assumed to be protected from most forms of human disturbance, and demonstrate the close ecological association between beaver and wetland-dependent species.

  14. Astronomical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  15. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  16. Designing radiation protection signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines

  17. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene

  18. Implementing DOE guidance for hazards assessments at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hazards Assessments are performed for a variety of activities and facilities at Rocky Flats Plant. Prior to 1991, there was no guidance for performing Hazards Assessments. Each organization that performed Hazards Assessments used its own methodology with no attempt at standardization. In 1991, DOE published guidelines for the performance of Hazards Assessments for Emergency Planning (DOE-EPG-5500.1, ''Guidance for a Hazards Assessment Methodology''). Subsequently, in 1992, DOE published a standard for the performance of Hazards Assessments (DOE-STD-1027-92, ''Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis, Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''). Although these documents are a step in the direction of standardization, there remains a great deal of interpretation and subjective implementation in the performance of Hazards Assessments. Rocky Flats Plant has initiated efforts to develop a uniform and standard process to be used for Hazards Assessments

  19. Facility overview for commercial application of selected Rocky Flats facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Facility Overview is to support the Rocky Flats Local Impacts Initiative's Request for Interest, to solicit interest from commercial corporations for utilizing buildings 865 and 883, and the equipment contained within each building, for a commercial venture. In the following sections, this document describes the Rocky Flats Site, the buildings available for lease, the equipment within these buildings, the site services available to a tenant, the human resources available to support operations in buildings 865 and 883, and the environmental condition of the buildings and property. In addition, a brief description is provided of the work performed to date to explore the potential products that might be manufactured in Buildings 865 and 883, and the markets for these products

  20. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Services Market-Based Programs Web Service, U.S., 2016, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service contains layers depicting market-based programs and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. Layers...

  1. Restoration of genetic connectivity among Northern Rockies wolf populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebblewhite, Mark; Musiani, Marco; Mills, L Scott

    2010-10-01

    Probably no conservation genetics issue is currently more controversial than the question of whether grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the Northern Rockies have recovered to genetically effective levels. Following the dispersal-based recolonization of Northwestern Montana from Canada, and reintroductions to Yellowstone and Central Idaho, wolves have vastly exceeded population recovery goals of 300 wolves distributed in at least 10 breeding pairs in each of Wyoming, Idaho and Montana. With >1700 wolves currently, efforts to delist wolves from endangered status have become mired in legal battles over the distinct population segment (DPS) clause of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and whether subpopulations within the DPS were genetically isolated. An earlier study by vonHoldt et al. (2008) suggested Yellowstone National Park wolves were indeed isolated and was used against delisting in 2008. Since then, wolves were temporarily delisted, and a first controversial hunting season occurred in fall of 2009. Yet, concerns over the genetic recovery of wolves in the Northern Rockies remain, and upcoming District court rulings in the summer of 2010 will probably include consideration of gene flow between subpopulations. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, vonHoldt et al. (2010) conduct the largest analysis of gene flow and population structure of the Northern Rockies wolves to date. Using an impressive sampling design and novel analytic methods, vonHoldt et al. (2010) show substantial levels of gene flow between three identified subpopulations of wolves within the Northern Rockies, clarifying previous analyses and convincingly showing genetic recovery. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report.

  3. Properties of vitrified rocky flats TRUW with different waste loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Miley, D.V.; Erickson, A.W.; Farnsworth, R.N.; Larsen, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Leach rates, phase structures, and mechanical properties of simulated Rocky Flats Plant 1st and 2nd slate sludge vitrified in an arc melter are described as a function of waste to soil fraction and method of devitrification to produce the glass-ceramic waste form. Volatile, hazardous, and transuranic (TRU) surrogate metals were added to assess dissolution effects. Zirconia and titania were also added to confirm their ability as transuranic-surrogate getters

  4. Reseeding of mussels on denuded rocky shores: preliminary studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method is developed to establish clumps of mussels Perna perna in denuded areas on high-energy rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa. A total of 20 small (20–30 mm total length) mussels is placed under a 30 cm half-section of perforated PVC drainage pipe bolted to the rock surface. The pipe is left in ...

  5. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant's environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report

  6. Immune Thrombocytopenia as a Consequence of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Baldeo, Cherisse; Seegobin, Karan; Zuberi, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) – also called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or immune thrombocytopenic purpura – is an acquired thrombocytopenia caused by autoantibodies against platelet antigens. It is one of the more common causes of thrombocytopenia in otherwise asymptomatic adults. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a potentially lethal, but curable, tick-borne disease. We present a case of ITP that was triggered by RMSF.

  7. Immune Thrombocytopenia as a Consequence of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherisse Baldeo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP – also called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or immune thrombocytopenic purpura – is an acquired thrombocytopenia caused by autoantibodies against platelet antigens. It is one of the more common causes of thrombocytopenia in otherwise asymptomatic adults. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF is a potentially lethal, but curable, tick-borne disease. We present a case of ITP that was triggered by RMSF.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever acquired in Florida, 1973-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, J J; Janowski, H T

    1985-01-01

    From 1973 to 1983, 49 Florida residents were reported with confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), 25 of whom were considered to have had Florida-acquired disease. Although there was no history of tick exposure for six of these 25 persons, all had contact with dogs or outdoor activities during the incubation period. The tick vectors of RMSF are widely distributed throughout Florida. We conclude that RMSF, although rare in Florida, can be acquired in the state. PMID:4061716

  9. Treatment of pond sludge at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, J.; Tyler, R.; Baldwin, C.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of low-level radioactive/hazardous materials sludges from five inactive solar evaporation settling ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant is discussed. The paper presents information on the following topics: history of the ponds; previous pond cleanout activities; current approach to the problem with respect to water management, sludge management, regulatory actions, and disposal; and future processing technology needs in the areas of polymer solidification, microwave solidification, joule-heated glass melters, and advanced technology incineration

  10. Litigation Technical Support and Services, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    34 d V) W C > - d) 4- -~ 0 - - .4 ..- di L *..L 3~1 3-~ v mi a- a t - --- w- Vdi 4 - ý 0 -4 0 m~ -j m0 m’ .- us 0 Ill i to -v .4 I 4 1 t A ~ 3Ul t -4...2060. Marlow, D. J. 1979g, November 8. Pest control report, October 1979. Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Microfilm RMA182, Franes 2048 -2053 Marlow, D. J

  11. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    An account of the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy is presented as: a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, which was characterised by secrecy and distrust, the post-Cold War era, in which trust and co-operation between risk managers and the public began to develop. This contrast between these two historical periods provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified: (1) without a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement in the management of radiological hazards is not possible; (2) given a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement can lead to improved solutions to the management of radiological hazards; and (3) risk managers should therefore seek to understand the values of public stakeholders and to identify ways, through stakeholder involvement, that those values can be incorporated in management practice. (author)

  12. Mortality among plutonium and other workers at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Reyes, M.; Tietjen, G.L.; Wiggs, L.d.; Voelz, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed study of mortality and radiation exposure for Rocky Flats workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society in January 1983. Significantly fewer deaths were found than were expected due to all causes, all malignant neoplasms, lung cancer, and cancer of the digestive organs. No bone cancers were observed and cancers commonly associated with radiation exposure were not more frequent than expected. Significantly more deaths than expected were observed for two causes, cancer of the prostate and benign and unspecified neoplasms. Further investigation revealed that the deaths from benign and unspecified neoplasms all involved intracranial tumors. A case control study found no association between these brain tumors and exposure to radiation, including plutonium depositions or type of occupation. The excess deaths from intracranial tumors remain unexplained but do not appear to be associated with employment at Rocky Flats. Relative risks among Rocky Flats workers with cumulative plutonium depositions of 2 nCi or more did not indicate a significantly greater risk of death among workers exposed to plutonium than among unexposed workers. Similar results were found for workers with cumulative radiation exposure of at least 1 rem. 2 references, 3 tables

  13. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Laura [Des Moines Area Community College, Ankeny, Iowa (United States); Mazur, Robert E. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Edelson, Martin [Ames Laboratory-USDOE (Retired), Ames, Iowa (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  14. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in an American tourist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pender, A M G; Bauer, A G C; van Genderen, P J J

    2005-04-02

    In a 28-year-old male American tourist who presented in the hospital with fever, cold shivers, headache, nausea, myalgia and arthralgia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever was suspected, partly because he came from an endemic region (the state of Georgia). The patient was treated with doxycycline, 100 mg b.i.d.; 9 days after the first appearance of the symptoms, the diagnosis was confirmed by the report of a positive antibody titre against Rickettsia rickettsii. The patient did not have exanthema. He was discharged in good general condition after two weeks of treatment. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium R. rickettsii, is a serious rickettsiosis. The disease is seen only sporadically in the Netherlands because the ticks in the Netherlands do not carry the bacterium. The travel history is still not a standard component of the anamnesis and is therefore often forgotten. This can lead to under-diagnosis and delayed treatment of diseases that were formerly limited to the continent. The early recognition and treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is important since delayed treatment is associated with a clear increase in both morbidity and mortality.

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Roldán, Jesús Felipe González; Milan, Néstor Saúl Hernández; Lash, R Ryan; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Paddock, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the most lethal of all infectious diseases in the Americas. In Mexico, the disease was first described during the early 1940s by scientists who carefully documented specific environmental determinants responsible for devastating outbreaks in several communities in the states of Sinaloa, Sonora, Durango, and Coahuila. These investigators also described the pivotal roles of domesticated dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (brown dog ticks) as drivers of epidemic levels of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. After several decades of quiescence, the disease re-emerged in Sonora and Baja California during the early 21st century, driven by the same environmental circumstances that perpetuated outbreaks in Mexico during the 1940s. This Review explores the history of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico, current epidemiology, and the multiple clinical, economic, and social challenges that must be considered in the control and prevention of this life-threatening illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Laura; Mazur, Robert E.; Edelson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  17. Map of mixed prairie grassland vegetation, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S J.V.; Webber, P J; Komarkova, V; Weber, W A

    1980-01-01

    A color vegetation map at the scale of 1:12,000 of the area surrounding the Rocky Flats, Rockwell International Plant near Boulder, Colorado, provides a permanent record of baseline data which can be used to monitor changes in both vegetation and environment and thus to contribute to future land management and land-use policies. Sixteen mapping units based on species composition were identified, and characterized by two 10-m/sup 2/ vegetation stands each. These were grouped into prairie, pasture, and valley side on the basis of their species composition. Both the mapping units and these major groups were later confirmed by agglomerative clustering analysis of the 32 vegetation stands on the basis of species composition. A modified Bray and Curtis ordination was used to determine the environmental factor complexes controlling the distribution of vegetation at Rocky flats. Recommendations are made for future policies of environmental management and predictions of the response to environmental change of the present vegetation at the Rocky Flats site.

  18. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Jody K. [Stoller LMS Team, Contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, Colorado 80021 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several

  19. Belowground dynamics in mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal communities are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services (fig. 1). Mangrove wetlands are important filters of materials moving between the land and sea, trapping sediment, nutrients, and pollutants in runoff from uplands and preventing their direct introduction into sensitive marine ecosystems such as seagrass beds and coral reefs. Mangroves serve as nursery grounds and refuge for a variety of organisms and are consequently vital to the biological productivity of coastal waters. Furthermore, because mangroves are highly resilient to disturbances such as hurricanes, they represent a self-sustaining, protective barrier for human populations living in the coastal zone. Mangrove ecosystems also contribute to shoreline stabilization through consolidation of unstable mineral sediments and peat formation. In order to help conserve mangrove ecoystems, scientists with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand the dynamics that impact these vital ecosystems.

  20. Conditions for caribou persistence in the wolf-elk-caribou systems of the Canadian Rockies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hebblewhite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou populations are considered threatened in Alberta and have declined in the Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks of Banff and Jasper despite protection from factors causing caribou populations to decline outside of parks. Recent research emphasizes the importance of the numeric response of wolves to moose in moose-caribou-wolf systems to caribou persistence. Moose are rare in the Canadian Rockies, where the dominant ungulate prey for wolves is elk. Few studies have explored wolf-elk dynamics and none have examined implications for caribou. We used data collected in Banff to estimate the numeric response of wolves to elk from 1985 to 2005. Because no caribou kill-rate data exist for the Rockies, we explore the consequences of a range of hypothetical kill-rates based on kill-rates of alternate prey collected from 1985 to 2000 in Banff. We then multiplied the numeric response of wolves by the estimated caribou kill-rates to estimate the wolf predation response on caribou as a function of elk density. Caribou predation rates were inversely density dependent because wolf numbers depend on prey species besides caribou in multiple prey species systems. We then combined this simple wolf-elk-caribou model with observed demographic and population estimates for Banff and Jasper caribou from 2003-2004 and solved for the critical kill-rate thresholds above which caribou populations would decline. Using these critical kill-rate thresholds, Jasper caribou are likely to persist when wolf densities are below 2.1 - 4.3 wolves/1000km2 and/or when elk densities are below 0.015- 0.033 elk/km2. Thresholds for Banff caribou persistence are much lower because of inverse density dependence. Future research is needed on some of the necessary assumptions underlying our modeling including multi-prey wolf numeric responses, wolf kill-rates of caribou, caribou mortality by other predators, and spatial aspects of wolf-elk-caribou dynamics.

  1. PROTECTING ECOSYSTEMS BY WAY OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jurie Moolman

    Agricultural Pests Act 36 of 1983 (APA) and the National Environmental ... their physical environment.4 They may operate on a global, long-term scale or on a .... twelve highlights which came from the National Biodiversity Assessment by ...

  2. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  3. Mapping Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev,Teodor; Burkhard,Benjamin; Maes,Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the contributions of ecosystem structure and function (in combination with other inputs) to human well-being. That means, humankind is strongly dependent on well-functioning ecosystems and natural capital that are the base for a constant flow of ecosystem services from nature to society. Therefore ecosystem services have the potential to become a major tool for policy and decision making on global, national, regional and local scales. Possible applications are manifold:...

  4. The effect of a small creek valley on drainage flows in the Rocky Flats region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porch, W.

    1996-01-01

    Regional scale circulation and mountain-plain interactions and effects on boundary layer development are important for understanding the fate of an atmospheric release from Rocky Flats, Colorado. Numerical modeling of Front Range topographic effects near Rocky Flats have shown that though the Front Range dominates large scale flow features, small-scale terrain features near Rocky Flats are important to local transport during nighttime drainage flow conditions. Rocky Flats has been the focus of interest for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program

  5. The Snowmastodon Project: A view of the Last Interglacial Period from high in the Colorado Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2015-01-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span the Last Interglacial Period [or Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5] are rare. In 2010-11, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado revealed a lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site (ZRFS) also contained thousands of well-preserved bones and teeth of Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals, including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework, shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.

  6. Network structure beyond food webs: mapping non-trophic and trophic interactions on Chilean rocky shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Kéfi; Berlow, Eric L; Wieters, Evie A; Joppa, Lucas N; Wood, Spencer A; Brose, Ulrich; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2015-01-01

    How multiple types of non-trophic interactions map onto trophic networks in real communities remains largely unknown. We present the first effort, to our knowledge, describing a comprehensive ecological network that includes all known trophic and diverse non-trophic links among >100 coexisting species for the marine rocky intertidal community of the central Chilean coast. Our results suggest that non-trophic interactions exhibit highly nonrandom structures both alone and with respect to food web structure. The occurrence of different types of interactions, relative to all possible links, was well predicted by trophic structure and simple traits of the source and target species. In this community, competition for space and positive interactions related to habitat/refuge provisioning by sessile and/or basal species were by far the most abundant non-trophic interactions. If these patterns are orroborated in other ecosystems, they may suggest potentially important dynamic constraints on the combined architecture of trophic and non-trophic interactions. The nonrandom patterning of non-trophic interactions suggests a path forward for developing a more comprehensive ecological network theory to predict the functioning and resilience of ecological communities.

  7. Site vegetation report: Terrestrial vegetation survey (1993--1995) for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (EcMP) was designed to investigate the long-term ecological trends in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at the US Department of energy's (DOE's) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) (DOE 1993). Field sampling was conducted during 1993, 1994, and 1995, until the program was terminated in late 1995. This report presents the terrestrial vegetation data that were gathered by the EcMP. The site is located on the Colorado Piedmont, east of the Front Range, between Boulder and Golden, approximately 25 km (16 miles) northwest of Denver. The topography and proximity of the Site to the mountain front result in an interesting mixture of prairie and mountain plant species. The Site is one of the few large, relatively undisturbed areas of its kind that remains along the Colorado Piedmont. Until 1989, the primary mission of the Site was the production of nuclear weapons components (DOE 1993). After production ceased, Site personnel shifted their focus to cleanup and closure

  8. Analysis of nitrogen saturation potential in Rocky Mountain tundra and forest: implications for aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Parton, William J.

    1994-01-01

    We employed grass and forest versions of the CENTURY model under a range of N deposition values (0.02–1.60 g N m−2 y−1) to explore the possibility that high observed lake and stream N was due to terrestrial N saturation of alpine tundra and subalpine forest in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Model results suggest that N is limiting to subalpine forest productivity, but that excess leachate from alpine tundra is sufficient to account for the current observed stream N. Tundra leachate, combined with N leached from exposed rock surfaces, produce high N loads in aquatic ecosystems above treeline in the Colorado Front Range. A combination of terrestrial leaching, large N inputs from snowmelt, high watershed gradients, rapid hydrologic flushing and lake turnover times, and possibly other nutrient limitations of aquatic organisms constrain high elevation lakes and streams from assimilating even small increases in atmospheric N. CENTURY model simulations further suggest that, while increased N deposition will worsen the situation, nitrogen saturation is an ongoing phenomenon.

  9. Effects of climate change on forest vegetation in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Robert E.; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Bollenbacher, Barry L.; Manning, Mary E.; Loehman, Rachel A.; Jain, Terrie B.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Larson, Andrew J.; Webster, Meredith M.

    2018-01-01

    The projected rapid changes in climate will affect the unique vegetation assemblages of the Northern Rockies region in myriad ways, both directly through shifts in vegetation growth, mortality, and regeneration, and indirectly through changes in disturbance regimes and interactions with changes in other ecosystem processes, such as hydrology, snow dynamics, and exotic invasions (Bonan 2008; Hansen and Phillips 2015; Hansen et al. 2001; Notaro et al. 2007). These impacts, taken collectively, could change the way vegetation is managed by public land agencies in this area. Some species may be in danger of rapid decreases in abundance, while others may undergo range expansion (Landhäusser et al. 2010). New vegetation communities may form, while historical vegetation complexes may simply shift to other areas of the landscape or become rare. Juxtaposed with climate change concerns are the consequences of other land management policies and past activities, such as fire exclusion, fuels treatments, and grazing. A thorough assessment of the responses of vegetation to projected climate change is needed, along with an evaluation of the vulnerability of important species, communities, and vegetation-related resources that may be influenced by the effects, both direct and indirect, of climate change. This assessment must also account for past management actions and current vegetation conditions and their interactions with future climates.

  10. Interactive responses of primary producers and grazers to pollution on temperate rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Amelia E; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Hill, Nicole A; Thomson, Russell J; Strain, Elisabeth M A; Alexander, Timothy J; Kirkpatrick, James; Edgar, Graham J

    2018-06-01

    Macroalgal beds provide important habitat structure and support primary production for rocky reef communities, but are increasingly degraded as a result of human pressures. Various sources of pollution can have both direct and interactive effects on stressed ecosystems. In particular, interactions involving invertebrate grazers could potentially weaken or strengthen the overall impact of pollution on macroalgal beds. Using a paired impact-control experimental design, we tested the effects of multiple pollution sources (fish farms, marinas, sewerage, and stormwater) on translocated and locally established algal assemblages, while also considering the influence of invertebrate grazers. Marinas directly affected algal assemblages and also reduced densities of amphipods and other invertebrate mesograzers. Fish farms and sewerage outfalls tended to directly increase local establishment of foliose and leathery algae without any indication of changes in herbivory. Overall, pollution impacts on algae did not appear to be strongly mediated by changes in grazer abundance. Instead, mesograzer abundance was closely linked to availability of more complex algal forms, with populations likely to decline concurrently with loss of complex algal habitats. Macrograzers, such as sea urchins, showed no signs of a negative impact from any pollution source; hence, the influence of this group on algal dynamics is probably persistent and independent of moderate pollution levels, potentially adding to the direct impacts of pollution on algal beds in urbanised environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Site vegetation report: Terrestrial vegetation survey (1993--1995) for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (EcMP) was designed to investigate the long-term ecological trends in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) (DOE 1993). Field sampling was conducted during 1993, 1994, and 1995, until the program was terminated in late 1995. This report presents the terrestrial vegetation data that were gathered by the EcMP. The site is located on the Colorado Piedmont, east of the Front Range, between Boulder and Golden, approximately 25 km (16 miles) northwest of Denver. The topography and proximity of the Site to the mountain front result in an interesting mixture of prairie and mountain plant species. The Site is one of the few large, relatively undisturbed areas of its kind that remains along the Colorado Piedmont. Until 1989, the primary mission of the Site was the production of nuclear weapons components (DOE 1993). After production ceased, Site personnel shifted their focus to cleanup and closure.

  12. Ecohydrological dynamics of peatlands and adjacent upland forests in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, D.; Parsekian, A.; Mercer, J.; Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Williams, D. G.; Cooper, D. J.; Ronayne, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain peatlands are susceptible to a changing climate via changes in the water cycle. Understanding the impacts of such changes requires knowledge of the hydrological processes within these peatlands and in the upland forests that supply them with water. We investigated hydrological processes in peatland catchments in the Rocky Mountains by developing empirical models of groundwater dynamics, and are working to improve subsurface water dynamics in a ecohydrological process model, the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES). Results from empirical models showed major differences in water budget components between two peatlands with differing climate, vegetation, and hydrogeological settings. Several-fold higher rates of evapotranspiration from the saturated zone, and groundwater inflow were observed for a sloping fen in southern Wyoming than that of a basin fen in southwestern Colorado, where rainfall was two-fold higher due to stronger influence of the North American monsoon. We also present ongoing work coupling stable water isotope and borehole nuclear magnetic resonance analyses to test which soil water pools (bound or mobile) are used by dominant upland and peatland vegetation in two catchments in southern Wyoming. These data are being used to test whether the root hydraulic mechanisms in TREES can simulate water uptake from these two soil water pools, and sap flux measurements are being used to evaluate simulated transpiration. Preliminary results from this work suggest that upland vegetation utilize tightly-bound soil water pools, as these pools comprise the largest amount of subsurface water (> 80%) in the vadose zone long after snow melt. Conversely, it appears that herbaceous peatland hydrophytes may preferentially utilize mobile soil water pools, since their roots extend below the water table. The results of this work are expected to increase predictive understanding of hydrological processes in these important ecosystems.

  13. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  14. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  15. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  16. Cascading effects of ocean acidification in a rocky subtidal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Asnaghi

    Full Text Available Temperate marine rocky habitats may be alternatively characterized by well vegetated macroalgal assemblages or barren grounds, as a consequence of direct and indirect human impacts (e.g. overfishing and grazing pressure by herbivorous organisms. In future scenarios of ocean acidification, calcifying organisms are expected to be less competitive: among these two key elements of the rocky subtidal food web, coralline algae and sea urchins. In order to highlight how the effects of increased pCO2 on individual calcifying species will be exacerbated by interactions with other trophic levels, we performed an experiment simultaneously testing ocean acidification effects on primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying algae and their grazers (sea urchins. Artificial communities, composed by juveniles of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and calcifying (Corallina elongata and non-calcifying (Cystoseira amentacea var stricta, Dictyota dichotoma macroalgae, were subjected to pCO2 levels of 390, 550, 750 and 1000 µatm in the laboratory. Our study highlighted a direct pCO2 effect on coralline algae and on sea urchin defense from predation (test robustness. There was no direct effect on the non-calcifying macroalgae. More interestingly, we highlighted diet-mediated effects on test robustness and on the Aristotle's lantern size. In a future scenario of ocean acidification a decrease of sea urchins' density is expected, due to lower defense from predation, as a direct consequence of pH decrease, and to a reduced availability of calcifying macroalgae, important component of urchins' diet. The effects of ocean acidification may therefore be contrasting on well vegetated macroalgal assemblages and barren grounds: in the absence of other human impacts, a decrease of biodiversity can be predicted in vegetated macroalgal assemblages, whereas a lower density of sea urchin could help the recovery of shallow subtidal rocky areas affected by overfishing from

  17. Cascading effects of ocean acidification in a rocky subtidal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaghi, Valentina; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Mangialajo, Luisa; Gazeau, Frédéric; Francour, Patrice; Alliouane, Samir; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Temperate marine rocky habitats may be alternatively characterized by well vegetated macroalgal assemblages or barren grounds, as a consequence of direct and indirect human impacts (e.g. overfishing) and grazing pressure by herbivorous organisms. In future scenarios of ocean acidification, calcifying organisms are expected to be less competitive: among these two key elements of the rocky subtidal food web, coralline algae and sea urchins. In order to highlight how the effects of increased pCO2 on individual calcifying species will be exacerbated by interactions with other trophic levels, we performed an experiment simultaneously testing ocean acidification effects on primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying algae) and their grazers (sea urchins). Artificial communities, composed by juveniles of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and calcifying (Corallina elongata) and non-calcifying (Cystoseira amentacea var stricta, Dictyota dichotoma) macroalgae, were subjected to pCO2 levels of 390, 550, 750 and 1000 µatm in the laboratory. Our study highlighted a direct pCO2 effect on coralline algae and on sea urchin defense from predation (test robustness). There was no direct effect on the non-calcifying macroalgae. More interestingly, we highlighted diet-mediated effects on test robustness and on the Aristotle's lantern size. In a future scenario of ocean acidification a decrease of sea urchins' density is expected, due to lower defense from predation, as a direct consequence of pH decrease, and to a reduced availability of calcifying macroalgae, important component of urchins' diet. The effects of ocean acidification may therefore be contrasting on well vegetated macroalgal assemblages and barren grounds: in the absence of other human impacts, a decrease of biodiversity can be predicted in vegetated macroalgal assemblages, whereas a lower density of sea urchin could help the recovery of shallow subtidal rocky areas affected by overfishing from barren grounds to

  18. Rocky Flats Neutron Detector Testing at Valduc, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Dulik, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent program requirements of the US Department of Energy/NNSA have led to a need for a criticality accident alarm system to be installed at a newly activated facility. The Criticality Safety Group of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was able to recover and store for possible future use approximately 200 neutron criticality detectors and 20 master alarm panels from the former Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado when the plant was closed. The Criticality Safety Group participated in a facility analysis and evaluation, the engineering design and review process, as well as the refurbishment, testing, and recalibration of the Rocky Flats criticality alarm system equipment to be used in the new facility. In order to demonstrate the functionality and survivability of the neutron detectors to the effects of an actual criticality accident, neutron detector testing was performed at the French CEA Valduc SILENE reactor from October 7 to October 19, 2010. The neutron detectors were exposed to three criticality events or pulses generated by the SILENE reactor. The first excursion was performed with a bare or unshielded reactor, and the second excursion was made with a lead shielded/reflected reactor, and the third excursion with a polyethylene reflected core. These tests of the Rocky Flats neutron detectors were performed as a part of the 2010 Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Measurements at the SILENE Reactor. The principal investigators for this series of experiments were Thomas M. Miller and John C. Wagner of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Nicolas Authier and Nathalie Baclet of CEA Valduc. Several other organizations were also represented, including the Y-12 National Security Complex, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, CEA Saclay, and Babcock International Group.

  19. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  20. Seeking opportunities in the Internet of Things (IoT): : A Study of IT values co-creation in the IoT ecosystem while considering the potential impacts of the EU General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR).

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, David Thomas; Qamar, Sreman

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we have studied the phenomena of value co-creation in IoT ecosystem, while considering the potential impacts of GDPR on IT value co-creation in the IoT ecosystem. IT firms’ ability to create value is an important aspect of their existence and growth in which case they pursuit different and several means to accomplish this task. IT firms that operate within the IoT ecosystem are categorised as Enablers, Engagers, and Enhancers who interact, work together to provide the technolo...

  1. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  2. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  3. Thermal Structure and Mantle Dynamics of Rocky Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F. W.; Tosi, N.; Hussmann, H.; Sohl, F.

    2011-12-01

    The confirmed detections of CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b reveal that rocky exoplanets exist. Moreover, recent theoretical studies suggest that small planets beyond the Solar System are indeed common and many of them will be discovered by increasingly precise observational surveys in the years ahead. The knowledge about the interior structure and thermal state of exoplanet interiors provides crucial theoretical input not only for classification and characterization of individual planetary bodies, but also to better understand the origin and evolution of the Solar System and the Earth in general. These developments and considerations have motivated us to address several questions concerning thermal structure and interior dynamics of terrestrial exoplanets. In the present study, depth-dependent structural models of solid exoplanet interiors have been constructed in conjunction with a mixing length approach to calculate self-consistently the radial distribution of temperature and heat flux. Furthermore, 2-D convection simulations using the compressible anelastic approximation have been carried through to examine the effect of thermodynamic quantities (e.g., thermal expansivity) on mantle convection pattern within rocky planets more massive than the Earth. In comparison to parameterized convection models, our calculated results predict generally hotter planetary interiors, which are mainly attributed to a viscosity-regulating feedback mechanism involving temperature and pressure. We find that density and thermal conductivity increase with depth by a factor of two to three, however, thermal expansivity decreases by more than an order of magnitude across the mantle for planets as massive as CoRoT-7b or Kepler-10b. The specific heat capacity is observed to stay almost constant over an extended region of the lower mantle. The planform of mantle convection is strongly modified in the presence of depth-dependent thermodynamic quantities with hot upwellings (plumes) rising across

  4. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found

  5. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Incineration of combustible materials highly contaminated with plutonium produces a residue of incinerator ash. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash residues at Rocky Flats is accomplished by a continuous leaching operation with nitric acid containing fluoride ion. Special equipment used in the leaching operation consists of a screw feeder, air-lift dissolvers, filters, solids dryer, and vapor collection system. Each equipment item is described in detail. The average dissolution efficiency of plutonium experienced with the process was 68% on the first pass, 74% on the second pass, and 64% on each subsequent pass. Total-solids dissolution efficiencies averaged 47% on the first pass and about 25% on each subsequent pass

  6. [Rocky mountain spotted fever: report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Miguel Angel; Padilla-Zamudio, Guillermo; Solís-Gallardo, Lilia Patricia; Guevara-Tovar, Marcela

    2005-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an acute febrile illness caused by infection with Ricketsia Rickettsii, characterized by the presence of petechial rash. Even though the etiology, clinical characteristics and availability of effective antibiotics are known, RMSF related deaths have a prevalence of 4%. In its early stages RMFS can resemble many others infectious conditions and the diagnosis can be difficult. The present paper reports two patients with RMSF; these cases underscore the importance of prompt diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and consider RMSF as a differential diagnosis in any patient who develops fever and rash in an endemic area.

  7. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study was concerned with plutonium contamination of grassland at the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geogrphical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for plutonium analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99% of the total plutonium was contained in the soil. The concentrations of plutonium in soil were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes. A mechanism of agglomerated submicron plutonium oxide particles and larger (1-500 μm) host soil particles was proposed. Concentrations of Pu in litter and vegetation were inversely correlated to distance from the source and directly correlated to soil concentrations at the same location. Comparatively high concentration ratios of vegetation to soil suggested wind resuspension of contamination as an important transport mechanism. Arthropod and small mammal samples were highly skewed, kurtotic, and quite variable, having coefficients of variation (standard deviation/mean) as high as 600%. Bone Pu concentrations were lower than other tissues. Hide, GI, and lung were generally not higher in Pu than kidney, liver and muscle

  8. Predicting multi-scale relationships between geomorphology and bedrock geology of the rocky intertidal in Central and Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, A.; Aiello, I. W.

    2014-12-01

    Substratum geology is fundamental in shaping rocky shore morphology. Specific lithologies have various responses to wave action, tectonic features (e.g. fractures, faults) and sedimentary structures (e.g. bedding), creating distinctive weathering profiles. Along with local oceanography and climate forcing, different rock substrata create coastal morphologies that can vary distinctly between scales, ranging from mm to km. Despite the complexity of the system, qualitative observations show coastal areas with similar rock types share similar geomorphologies. Thus, a statistic relationship between geomorphology (expressed for instance by surface parameter rugosity) and geology can be envisaged. There are multiple benefits of finding such a relationship, as rocky intertidal geomorphology can be an important determinant in which organisms can settle, grow, and survive in near shore communities: allowing the prediction of geomorphologic parameters determining coastal ecology solely based on substratum geology, a crucial aspect in guiding the selection of marine protected areas. This study presents preliminary results of multi-scale geospatial surveys (cm to tens of meters) of rocky intertidal outcrops from Central to Northern California using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner. The outcrops investigated are representative of the most common igneous and sedimentary rocks in California (granitoids, conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones) and metamorphic units. The statistical analysis of the survey data support the hypothesis that surface properties can change significantly with changing scale, each rock type having distinct surface characteristics which are similar to comparable lithologies exposed at different locations. These scale dependent variations are controlled by different lithologic and structural characteristics of the outcrop in question. Our data also suggests lithologic variability within a rock unit could be a very significant factor in controlling changes in

  9. Seasonal variability of rocky reef fish assemblages: Detecting functional and structural changes due to fishing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Sofia; Pais, Miguel Pessanha; Costa, Maria José; Cabral, Henrique Nogueira

    2013-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of seasonal variation on the stability of fish-based metrics and their capability to detect changes in fish assemblages, which is yet poorly understood despite the general idea that guilds are more resilient to natural variability than species abundances. Three zones subject to different levels of fishing pressure inside the Arrábida Marine Protected Area (MPA) were sampled seasonally. The results showed differences between warm (summer and autumn) and cold (winter and spring) seasons, with the autumn clearly standing out. In general, the values of the metrics density of juveniles, density of invertebrate feeders and density of omnivores increased in warm seasons, which can be attributed to differences in recruitment patterns, spawning migrations and feeding activity among seasons. The density of generalist/opportunistic individuals was sensitive to the effect of fishing, with higher values at zones with the lowest level of protection, while the density of individuals with high commercial value only responded to fishing in the autumn, due to a cumulative result of both juveniles and adults abundances during this season. Overall, this study showed that seasonal variability affects structural and functional features of the fish assemblage and that might influence the detection of changes as a result of anthropogenic pressures. The choice of a specific season, during warm sea conditions after the spawning period (July-October), seems to be more adequate to assess changes on rocky-reef fish assemblages.

  10. A history of forest entomology in the Intermountain and Rocky Mountain areas, 1901 to 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm M. Furniss

    2007-01-01

    This account spans the time from A.D. Hopkins' trip to the Black Hills, SD, in 1901 to my retirement in 1982. The focus is on personnel and the work of the Division of Forest Insect Investigations, USDA, and the Forest Service experiment stations in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain areas. Information for the Intermountain and Northern Rocky Mountain station...

  11. 76 FR 9350 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare... Organization: AHRQ has accepted a notification of voluntary relinquishment from Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization, a component entity of Colorado Hospital Association, of its status as a Patient Safety...

  12. 78 FR 70033 - Encana Marketing (USA) Inc. v. Rockies Express Pipeline LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Marketing (USA) Inc. v. Rockies Express Pipeline LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on November 15... Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Encana Marketing (USA) Inc. (Encana Marketing or Complainant), filed... Rockies Express has unlawfully denied Encana Marketing's request to make changes to the primary delivery...

  13. Vascular plant flora of the alpine zone in the southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; B. E. Nelson; Ronald L. Hartman

    2014-01-01

    Field detection of changes in occurrence, distribution, or abundance of alpine plant species is predicated on knowledge of which species are in specific locations. The alpine zone of the Southern Rocky Mountain Region has been systematically inventoried by the staff and floristics graduate students from the Rocky Mountain Herbarium over the last 27 years. It is...

  14. Co-Infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: Is Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Underdiagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczniak, Gregory A.; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H.; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S.; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections. PMID:25331804

  15. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  16. Plant community mediation of ecosystem responses to global change factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human alteration of the numerous environmental drivers affecting ecosystem processes is unprecedented in the last century, including changes in climate regimes and rapid increases in the availability of biologically active nitrogen (N). Plant communities may offer stabilizing or amplifying feedbacks mediating potential ecosystem responses to these alterations, and my research seeks to examine the conditions associated with when plant feedbacks are important for ecosystem change. My dissertation research focused on the unintended consequences of N deposition into natural landscapes, including alpine ecosystems which are particularly susceptible to adverse environmental impacts. In particular, I examined alpine plant and soil responses to N deposition 1) across multiple spatial scales throughout the Southern Rocky Mountains, 2) among diverse plant communities associated with unique environmental conditions common in the alpine of this region, and 3) among ecosystem pools of N contributing to stabilization of N inputs within those communities. I found that communities responded to inputs of N differently, often associated with traits of dominant plant species but these responses were intimately linked with the abiotic conditions of each independent community. Even so, statistical models predicting metrics of N processing in the alpine were improved by encompassing both abiotic and biotic components of the main community types.

  17. Improvements in ecosystem services from investments in natural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zheng, Hua; Xiao, Yi; Polasky, Stephen; Liu, Jianguo; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Yang; Rao, Enming; Jiang, Ling; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke; Yang, Guangbin; Gong, Shihan; Wu, Bingfang; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Wu; Daily, Gretchen C

    2016-06-17

    In response to ecosystem degradation from rapid economic development, China began investing heavily in protecting and restoring natural capital starting in 2000. We report on China's first national ecosystem assessment (2000-2010), designed to quantify and help manage change in ecosystem services, including food production, carbon sequestration, soil retention, sandstorm prevention, water retention, flood mitigation, and provision of habitat for biodiversity. Overall, ecosystem services improved from 2000 to 2010, apart from habitat provision. China's national conservation policies contributed significantly to the increases in those ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  19. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  20. Extraction of Rocky Desertification from Disp Imagery: a Case Study of Liupanshui, Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Wu, Z.; Wang, W.; Shi, Y.; Mao, G.; Huang, Y.; Jia, B.; Gao, G.; Chen, P.

    2017-09-01

    Karst rocky desertification is a typical type of land degradation in Guizhou Province, China. It causes great ecological and economical implications to the local people. This paper utilized the declassified intelligence satellite photography (DISP) of 1960s to extract the karst rocky desertification area to analyze the early situation of karst rocky desertification in Liupanshui, Guizhou, China. Due to the lack of ground control points and parameters of the satellite, a polynomial orthographic correction model with considering altitude difference correction is proposed for orthorectification of DISP imagery. With the proposed model, the 96 DISP images from four missions are orthorectified. The images are assembled into a seamless image map of the karst area of Guizhou, China. The assembled image map is produced to thematic map of karst rocky desertification by visual interpretation in Liupanshui city. With the assembled image map, extraction of rocky desertification is conducted.

  1. EXTRACTION OF ROCKY DESERTIFICATION FROM DISP IMAGERY: A CASE STUDY OF LIUPANSHUI, GUIZHOU, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Karst rocky desertification is a typical type of land degradation in Guizhou Province, China. It causes great ecological and economical implications to the local people. This paper utilized the declassified intelligence satellite photography (DISP of 1960s to extract the karst rocky desertification area to analyze the early situation of karst rocky desertification in Liupanshui, Guizhou, China. Due to the lack of ground control points and parameters of the satellite, a polynomial orthographic correction model with considering altitude difference correction is proposed for orthorectification of DISP imagery. With the proposed model, the 96 DISP images from four missions are orthorectified. The images are assembled into a seamless image map of the karst area of Guizhou, China. The assembled image map is produced to thematic map of karst rocky desertification by visual interpretation in Liupanshui city. With the assembled image map, extraction of rocky desertification is conducted.

  2. Dust Allergens within Rural Northern Rocky Mountain Residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Emily; Semmens, Erin; Noonan, Curtis; Cady, Carol; Ward, Tony

    2015-01-23

    To date, few studies have characterized allergens within residences located in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountain region. In this study, we collected dust samples from 57 homes located throughout western Montana and northern Idaho. Dust samples were collected and later analyzed for dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 , Group 2 mite allergens ( Der p 2 and Der f 2 ), domestic feline ( Fel d 1 ), and canine ( Can f 1 ). Indoor temperature and humidity levels were also measured during the sampling program, as were basic characteristics of each home. Dog (96%) and cat (82%) allergens were the most prevalent allergens found in these homes (even when a feline or canine did not reside in the home). Results also revealed the presence of dust mites. Seven percent (7%) of homes tested positive for Der p 1 , 19% of homes were positive for Der f 1 , and 5% of homes were positive for the Group 2 mite allergens. Indoor relative humidity averaged 27.0 ± 7.6% within the homes. Overall, humidity was not significantly associated with dust mite presence, nor was any of the other measured home characteristics. This study provides a descriptive assessment of indoor allergen presence (including dust mites) in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountains, and provides new information to assist regional patients with reducing allergen exposure using in-home intervention strategies.

  3. ROCKY EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY COMPOSITIONS DERIVED FROM EXTERNALLY POLLUTED WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, B.; Jura, M.; Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report Keck High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer data and model atmosphere analysis of two helium-dominated white dwarfs, PG1225–079 and HS2253+8023, whose heavy pollutions most likely derive from the accretion of terrestrial-type planet(esimal)s. For each system, the minimum accreted mass is ∼10 22 g, that of a large asteroid. In PG1225–079, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni have abundance ratios similar to bulk Earth values, while we measure four refractory elements, Ca, Sc, Ti, and V, all at a factor of ∼2-3 higher abundance than in the bulk Earth. For HS2253+8023 the swallowed material was compositionally similar to bulk Earth in being more than 85% by mass in the major element species, O, Mg, Si, and Fe, and with abundances in the distinctive proportions of mineral oxides—compelling evidence for an origin in a rocky parent body. Including previous studies we now know of four heavily polluted white dwarfs where the measured oxygen and hydrogen are consistent with the view that the parents' bodies formed with little ice, interior to any snow line in their nebular environments. The growing handful of polluted white dwarf systems with comprehensive abundance measurements form a baseline for characterizing rocky exoplanet compositions that can be compared with bulk Earth.

  4. Land disposal restriction (LDR) waste management strategy at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.W.; Anderson, S.A.; Rising, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility which is a part of the nationwide DOE nuclear weapons production complex. Rocky Flats has accumulated (and will continue to generate) a substantial quantity of mixed waste subject to regulation under the land disposal restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These waste streams include low level mixed waste and transuranic mixed waste which are LDR primarily due to solvent and heavy metal contamination. DOE and EPA have entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) which requires actions to be taken to ensure the accurate identification, safe storage and minimization of LDR mixed wastes prior to their ultimate treatment and/or disposal. As required by the FFCA, DOE has prepared a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plant (CTMP) which describes the strategy and commitments for bringing LDR wastes at RFP into compliance with applicable regulations. This strategy includes waste characterization and reclassification, utilization of existing commercial and DOE treatment capacity, as well as, the development and implementation of treatment systems (and other management systems) for the purpose of achieving LDR regulatory compliance and ultimate waste disposal. This paper will give an overview of this strategy including a description of the major waste streams being addressed, the regulatory drivers, and plans and status of ongoing treatment systems technology development and implementation efforts

  5. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Persad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971. George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990. Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF.

  6. Validation of KENO-based criticality calculations at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsher, P.D.; McKamy, J.N.; Monahan, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of experimental data, it is necessary to rely on computer-based computational methods in evaluating the criticality condition of a nuclear system. The validity of the computer codes is established in a two-part procedure as outlined in ANSI/ANS 8.1. The first step, usually the responsibility of the code developer, involves verification that the algorithmic structure of the code is performing the intended mathematical operations correctly. The second step involves an assessment of the code's ability to realistically portray the governing physical processes in question. This is accomplished by determining the code's bias, or systematic error, through a comparison of computational results to accepted values obtained experimentally. In this paper, the authors discuss the validation process for KENO and the Hansen-Roach cross sections in use at EG and G Rocky Flats. The validation process at Rocky Flats consists of both global and local techniques. The global validation resulted in a maximum k eff limit of 0.95 for the limiting-accident scanarios of a criticality evaluation

  7. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  8. On Man and Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Harold

    1982-01-01

    Distinctions between natural ecosystems and human ecosystems are misleading. Natural and social sciences can be integrated through the concept of a "human-use ecosystem," in which social scientists analyze the community, household, and individual, and natural scientists analyze the land. Includes a case study of St. Kitts. (KC)

  9. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  10. Towards ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support

  11. Rights to ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these services are provided outside the borders of the land where they are produced; this article investigates who is entitled to these non-excludable ecosystem services from two libertarian perspectives. Taking a

  12. Ecosystem services in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J

    that actions initiated to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions are sustainable and not destructive to existing ecosystem services. Therefore it is important to address i.e. land use change in relation to the regulating services of the ecosystems, such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation. At present...... a thorough understanding of the ecosystem processes controlling the uptake or emissions of GHG is fundamental. Here we present ECOCLIM in the context of ecosystem services and the experimental studies within ECOCLIM which will lead to an enhanced understanding of Danish ecosystems....

  13. Marine protected area design for Bahia Portete - La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Moreno, Carolina; Alonso C, David; Segura Quintero, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Using an ecorregional planning process for the selection of conservation priority sites in the Colombian Caribbean region and the qualification of ecological criteria, Bahia Portete was identified as a potential site for the establishment of a new Marine Protected Area (MPA). This bay encompass a great variety of marine and coastal ecosystems, including fish, planktonic, and benthic communities as well as species that in conjunction with the environmental features form an area of high heterogeneity and unique biodiversity in the province of La Guajira. The purpose of this research was to design the first MPA in the north of the Province through the evaluation of ecologic criteria, as well as proposed conservation and management objectives; setting up a management category within the existing National Protected Areas System (SINAP in Spanish). Therefore, based on secondary information and following the The five S framework, methodology design by The Nature Conservancy for site planning, five conservation objectives (OdC) of coarse-filter or habitats were identified: corals, sea grasses, sandy beaches, rocky coasts and mangroves ecosystems, and three OdC of fine filter: areas with presence of Crocodylus acutus, sea turtles feeding areas, and areas of birds congregation. A viability analysis was developed for each healthy object found within the area, thus reflecting the biodiversity health of the area. The analysis of criteria, viability and the definition of the management objectives for the area, allowed the election of National Natural Park as the most appropriate management category for the area. Based on a systematic process and with the use of the MARXAN (University of Queensland) Decision Support System (DSS), three no-take zones were identified, with which the protection of a minimum of 30% of the coverage area for each of the objects is guaranteed as the initial contribution to the internal zoning of the new MPA

  14. The effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and southern Wyoming, USA-a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Mountains of Colorado and southern Wyoming receive atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition that ranges from 2 to 7 kg ha -1 yr -1 , and some previous research indicates pronounced ecosystem effects at the highest rates of deposition. This paper provides a critical review of previously published studies on the effects of atmospheric N deposition in the region. Plant community changes have been demonstrated through N fertilization studies, however, N limitation is still widely reported in alpine tundra and subalpine forests of the Front Range, and sensitivity to changes in snow cover alone indicate the importance of climate sensitivity in these ecosystems. Retention of N in atmospheric wet deposition is 3 - concentrations have not been demonstrated, and future trend analyses must consider the role of climate as well as N deposition. Relatively high rates of atmospheric N deposition east of the Divide may have altered nutrient limitation of phytoplankton, species composition of diatoms, and amphibian populations, but most of these effects have been inconclusive to date, and additional studies are needed to confirm hypothesized cause and effect relations. Projected future population growth and energy use in Colorado and the west increase the likelihood that the subtle effects of atmospheric N deposition now evident in the Front Range will become more pronounced and widespread in the future. - The effects of nitrogen deposition will become more evident as growth increases

  15. Long-term changes in rocky intertidal macrobenthos during the five years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hwan; Park, Henug-Sik; Yoon, Kon-Tak; Kim, Hyung-June; Shim, Won-Joon

    2017-03-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill reached the west coast of Taean County, Korea, on December 7, 2007. At that time, this was the largest oil spill that had occurred in the country. The incident devastated local marine ecosystems. In this study, we examined changes in these ecosystems and the recovery pattern on impacted rocky shores. Macrobenthos monitoring of polluted and control sites was performed seasonally from January 2008 through October 2013. At polluted sites, ecological indices increased gradually from 2009, thereby providing evidence of recovery. However, the mean density of macrobenthos was still less than 50% of the level at the control site, indicating that the ecological status of the polluted sites has still not recovered to that which prevailed before the oil spill. Although densities of the most dominant species were higher in the control site than in polluted sites, the densities of Lottia spp. and Odostomia aomori were higher in polluted sites. These two taxa were found in lower numbers at the control site, where they were out-competed by Chthamalus challengeri. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination divided the macrobenthic community structure into three clusters according to differences in the abundance of dominant species over the 6 years after the oil spill. An ANOSIM test detected significant differences between the polluted and control sites. Consistent long-term differences indicate that complete recovery had not occurred during the duration of our study.

  16. Fishing for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L; Pegg, Mark A; Cole, Nicholas W; Siddons, Stephen F; Fedele, Alexis D; Harmon, Brian S; Ruskamp, Ryan L; Turner, Dylan R; Uerling, Caleb C

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem services. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem services, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem services could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem services. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: a demonstration using Rocky Mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Caren S; Pilliod, David S; Arkle, Robert S; Waits, Lisette P

    2011-01-01

    Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus). We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  18. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: a demonstration using Rocky Mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren S Goldberg

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus. We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  19. Beetle-kill to carbon-negative bioenergy in the Rockies: stand, enterprise, and regional-scale perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Paustian, K.

    2016-12-01

    The interior mountain West is particularly vulnerable to climate change with potential impacts including drought and wildfire intensification, and wide-scale species disruptions due to shifts in habitable elevation ranges or other effects. One such example is the current outbreak of native mountain pine and spruce beetles across the Rockies, with warmer winters, dryer summers, and a legacy of logging and fire suppression all interacting to result in infestation and unprecedented tree mortality over more than 42 million acres. Current global climate change mitigation commitments imply that shifts to renewable energy must be supplemented with widespread deployment of carbon-negative technologies such as BECCS and biochar. Carefully-designed forest bioenergy and biochar industries can play an important role in meeting these targets, valorizing woody biomass and allowing more acres to be actively managed under existing land management goals while simultaneously displacing fossil energy use and directly sequestering carbon. In this work we assess the negative emissions potential from the deployment of biochar co-producing thermochemical bioenergy technologies in the Rockies using beetle-kill wood as a feedstock, a way of leveraging a climate change driven problem for climate mitigation. We start with a review and classification of bioenergy lifecycle assessment emission source categories, clarifying the differences in mechanism and confidence around emissions sources, offsets, sequestration, and leakage effects. Next we develop methods for modeling ecosystem carbon response to biomass removals at the stand scale, considering potential species shifts and regrowth rates under different harvest systems deployed in different areas. We then apply a lifecycle assessment framework to evaluate the performance of a set of real-world bioenergy technologies at enterprise scale, including biomass logistics and conversion product yields. We end with an exploration of regional

  20. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  1. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A Soler

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores was significantly greater (by 40% - 200% in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing.

  2. Mapping Ecosystem Services: An Integrated Biophysical and Economic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hayha, T.

    2014-01-01

    Forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services, from timber and non-wood products (provisioning services) to carbon sequestration, hydrogeological protection (regulating services), and recreation and aesthetic experiences (cultural services). Nonmarketed forest ecosystem services tend to be undervalued due to the lack of a market price and a clear understanding of their vital support to socio-economic systems. Ecosystem services are interlinked, and therefore the optimization of one typol...

  3. Coral reef ecosystem marine protected area monitoring in Fagamalo, American Samoa: comprehensive assessment of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) from belt transect surveys from 2015-10-26 to 2015-11-13 (NCEI Accession 0166380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010 the village of Fagamalo, Tutuila, American Samoa, designated a no-take Marine Protected Area that sees the protection of 2.25 square kilometers of ocean....

  4. Ecosystem services in sustainable groundwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinstra, Jaap; van Wensem, Joke

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem services concept seems to get foothold in environmental policy and management in Europe and, for instance, The Netherlands. With respect to groundwater management there is a challenge to incorporate this concept in such a way that it contributes to the sustainability of decisions. Groundwater is of vital importance to societies, which is reflected in the presented overview of groundwater related ecosystem services. Classifications of these services vary depending on the purpose of the listing (valuation, protection, mapping et cetera). Though the scientific basis is developing, the knowledge-availability still can be a critical factor in decision making based upon ecosystem services. The examples in this article illustrate that awareness of the value of groundwater can result in balanced decisions with respect to the use of ecosystem services. The ecosystem services concept contributes to this awareness and enhances the visibility of the groundwater functions in the decision making process. The success of the ecosystem services concept and its contribution to sustainable groundwater management will, however, largely depend on other aspects than the concept itself. Local and actual circumstances, policy ambitions and knowledge availability will play an important role. Solutions can be considered more sustainable when more of the key elements for sustainable groundwater management, as defined in this article, are fully used and the presented guidelines for long term use of ecosystem services are respected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Review on the Progress of Marine Ecosystem Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xuefen; Zhang Luoping

    2007-01-01

    Along with the industrial development, adverse impacts on the natural environment become more serious, and ecosystem health and ecological security have also been deteriorated.The traditional environment management focused on the shortterm and economic benefits. Such managing pattern is not accommodating to the new situation of increasingly global environment problems and large scale marine environment problems.This paper introduces the advance and definition of a new managing pattern-ecosystem management. Meanwhile, the connotation of ecosystem management was summarized as seven points: Sustainability; Human is an important aspect of ecosystem management; Cooperation is the foundation of ecosystem management; Maintain health and security of ecosystem; Ecological diversity protection characters ecosystem management; Maintain the integrity of ecosystem; Ecosystem management must be founded on scientific theories and precise information. Somebody said Ecosystem Management is "a new label of old ideas". However, there is an essential difference between ecosystem management and traditional environmental management. In the last part of this paper, the differences of the approaches between ecosystem management and traditional environmental management are compared.

  6. Optimal advanced credit releases in ecosystem service markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd K; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  7. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes

  8. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for EG&G Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences resulting from illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This report presents the 1994 morbidity data for the Rocky Flats plant.

  9. Status of Americium-241 recovery at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knighton, J.B.; Hagan, P.G.; Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is presented in two parts: Part I, Molten Salt Extraction of Americium from Molten Plutonium Metal, and Part II, Aqueous Recovery of Americium from Extraction Salts. The Rocky Flats recovery process used for waste salts includes (1) dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution of residues; (2) cation exchange to convert from the chloride to the nitrate system and to remove gross amounts of monovalent impurities; (3) anion exchange separation of plutonium; (4) oxalate precipitation of americium; and (5) calcination of the oxalate at 600 0 C to yield americium oxide. The aqueous process portion describes attempts to improve the recovery of americium. The first part deals with modifications to the cation exchange step; the second describes development of a solvent extractions process that will recovery americium from residues containing aluminium as well as other common impurities. Results of laboratory work are described. 3 figures, 6 tables. (DP)

  10. Rocky Flats Plant Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolosi, S.L.; Rodriguez, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of the Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report (RAR) is to provide an authorization basis for operation as required by DOE 5480.16. The existing Live-Fire Range does not have a safety analysis-related authorization basis. EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. has worked with DOE and its representatives to develop a format and content description for development of an RAR for the Live-Fire Range. Development of the RAR is closely aligned with development of the design for a baffle system to control risks from errant projectiles. DOE 5480.16 requires either an RAR or a safety analysis report (SAR) for live-fire ranges. An RAR rather than a SAR was selected in order to gain flexibility to more closely address the safety analysis and conduct of operation needs for a live-fire range in a cost-effective manner.

  11. Rockwell International - Rocky Flats Plant: Occupational Health Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistine, R.W.; Petrocchi, A.; Wright, W.L.; Yoder, R.E.; Fischer, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Rockwell International-Rocky Flats Occupational Health Information System uses the FLOW GEMINI software on a VAX computer system. The system is extremely user friendly, flexible, comprehensive, and easily customized by the user. The system contains the editioned files (i.e., time organized historical data) of the Medical, Industrial Hygiene, Health Physics, and Safety Departments. It maintains, analyzes and reports on data from employee medical and work histories, medical exams, workplace monitoring, and health effects related to specific hazards or locations in the workplace. It identifies and reports potential individual and group problems through regular reports and responses to on-line queries. In addition, it schedules examination, sampling, produces standard user-defined reports, and provides statistical analysis capabilities. The system presently contains a file of more than 20,000 Material Data Safety Sheets. A user group provides a mechanism for sharing ideas and continual software enhancement. 11 figures

  12. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama: a cluster description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribaldos, Maribel; Zaldivar, Yamitzel; Bermudez, Sergio; Samudio, Franklyn; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Martinez, Alexander A; Villalobos, Rodrigo; Eremeeva, Marina E; Paddock, Christopher D; Page, Kathleen; Smith, Rebecca E; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2011-10-13

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. We report a cluster of fatal cases of RMSF in 2007 in Panama, involving a pregnant woman and two children from the same family.  The woman presented with a fever followed by respiratory distress, maculopapular rash, and an eschar at the site from which a tick had been removed.  She died four days after disease onset.  This is the second published report of an eschar in a patient confirmed by PCR to be infected with R. rickettsii.  One month later, the children presented within days of one another with fever and rash and died three and four days after disease onset. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, PCR and sequencing of the genes of R. rickettsii in tissues obtained at autopsy. 

  13. Association between sepsis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Marcelo Rodrigues; Namura, José Jorge

    2012-12-06

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a disease caused by the Gram-negative coccobacillus Rickettsia ricketsii which has been on the rise since the last decade in the USA. The symptoms are common to the many viral diseases, and the classic triad of fever, rash and headache is not always present when RMSF is diagnosed. It may progress to severe cases such as renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and septicaemia. This report aims to present a fulminant case of RMSF associated with sepsis. It describes a female patient's case that quickly progressed to sepsis and death. The patient showed non-specific symptoms for 5 days before being admitted to a hospital. The fact that she lived in an area highly infested with Amblyomma aureolatum ticks was unknown to the medical staff until the moment she died.

  14. Characterization and storage of the Rocky Flats plutonium oxide legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakebake, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to 1989, plutonium oxide storage at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) could generally be considered as short term. Packaging configurations for short-term storage consisted of slip-lid cans and sealed produce cans. Prior to packaging, most of the oxide had been stabilized by heating to ∼500 degrees C. When storage times were relatively short, few problems were attributed to either packaging or storage. However, with projected storage times extended up to 50 yr, most of the old packaging of RFETS plutonium oxide will be in two welded steel containers in compliance with the DOE Standard 3013-96, which defines processing and packaging criteria for safe, long-term storage of plutonium oxide

  15. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children: clinical and epidemiological features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Miguel Angel; Alvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Padilla-Zamudioa, José Guillermo; Rojas-Guerra, Maria Guadalupe

    2007-01-01

    To report the clinical features of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in children of southern Sonora, Mexico. Nine cases were studied at the Sonora State Children's Hospital. One case was defined by clinical features and positive serological tests (indirect immunofluorescence assay or reaction to Proteus OX 19). Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were registered. The study subjects were children from two to twelve years ofage. All patients have had contact with tick-infested dogs and had fever, as well as petechial rash. Laboratory findings included high levels of hepatic aminotransferase, hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia. Therapy with chloramphenicol and doxyciclyne was administered after the first seven days of the onset of illness. The mortality rate was 22%. This study supports the presence of RMSF in the state of Sonora, Mexico, which should be considered as a public health hazard, requiring immediate actions for prevention and control.

  16. Sitewide risk perspectives for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently finalized a closure plan (originally called the Ten Year Plan) for closure and environmental cleanup of previous nuclear weapons facilities. The DOE Rocky Flats Field Office has established priorities for risk reduction work to Support closure activities, as well as addressing those hazards associated with storage and management of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. To provide information for future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) or other regulatory assessments of specific risk reduction projects identified in the Closure Plan, a risk assessment of normal operations and potential accidents was recently prepared to provide an updated baseline of the cumulative impacts to the worker, public and environment due to the Site's operations, activities, and environmental conditions in light of the Site's change in mission, and of future closure projects. This paper summarizes the risk assessment approach, results, and conclusions

  17. Coso geothermal environmental overview study ecosystem quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, P.

    1981-09-01

    The Coso Known Geothermal Resource Area is located just east of the Sierra Nevada, in the broad transition zone between the Mohave and Great Basin desert ecosystems. The prospect of large-scale geothermal energy development here in the near future has led to concern for the protection of biological resources. Objectives here are the identification of ecosystem issues, evaluation of the existing data base, and recommendation of additional studies needed to resolve key issues. High-priority issues include the need for (1) site-specific data on the occurrence of plant and animal species of special concern, (2) accurate and detailed information on the nature and extent of the geothermal resource, and (3) implementation of a comprehensive plan for ecosystem protection.

  18. Concentrations of mineral aerosol from desert to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Goldstein, Harland L.; Neff, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral dusts can have profound effects on climate, clouds, ecosystem processes, and human health. Because regional dust emission and deposition in western North America are not well understood, measurements of total suspended particulate (TSP) from 2011 to 2013 were made along a 500-km transect of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA. The TSP concentrations in μg m−3 adjusted to a 24-h period were relatively high at the two westernmost, dryland sites at Canyonlands National Park (mean = 135) and at Mesa Verde National Park (mean = 99), as well as at the easternmost site on the Great Plains (mean = 143). The TSP concentrations at the two intervening montane sites were less, with more loading on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, mean = 68) closest to the desert sites compared with the site on the eastern slope (Niwot Ridge, mean = 58). Dust concentrations were commonly highest during late winter-late spring, when Pacific frontal storms are the dominant causes of regional wind. Low concentrations (10), as revealed by relatively low average daily concentrations of fine (<5 μg m−3; PM2.5) and coarse (<10 μg m−3; PM2.5–10) fractions monitored at or near four sites. Standard air-quality measurements for PM2.5 and PM10 apparently do not capture the large majority of mineral-particulate pollution in the remote western interior U.S.

  19. [Ecosystem services valuation of Qinghai Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-10-01

    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland and salt water lake in China, and provides important ecosystem services to beneficiaries. Economic valuation of wetland ecosystem services from Qinghai Lake can reveal the direct contribution of lake ecosystems to beneficiaries using economic data, which can advance the incorporation of wetland protection of Qinghai Lake into economic tradeoffs and decision analyses. In this paper, we established a final ecosystem services valuation system based on the underlying ecological mechanisms and regional socio-economic conditions. We then evaluated the eco-economic value provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake to beneficiaries in 2012 using the market value method, replacement cost method, zonal travel cost method, and contingent valuation method. According to the valuation result, the total economic values of the final ecosystem services provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake were estimated to be 6749.08 x 10(8) yuan RMB in 2012, among which the value of water storage service and climate regulation service were 4797.57 x 10(8) and 1929.34 x 10(8) yuan RMB, accounting for 71.1% and 28.6% of the total value, respectively. The economic value of the 8 final ecosystem services was ranked from greatest to lowest as: water storage service > climate regulation service > recreation and tourism service > non-use value > oxygen release service > raw material production service > carbon sequestration service > food production service. The evaluation result of this paper reflects the substantial value that the wetlands of Qinghai Lake provide to beneficiaries using monetary values, which has the potential to help increase wetland protection awareness among the public and decision-makers, and inform managers about ways to create ecological compensation incentives. The final ecosystem service evaluation system presented in this paper will offer guidance on separating intermediate services and final services, and establishing monitoring programs for

  20. Atmospheric Circulations of Rocky Planets as Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koll, D. D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Rocky planets are extremely common in the galaxy and include Earth, Mars, Venus, and hundreds of exoplanets. To understand and compare the climates of these planets, we need theories that are general enough to accommodate drastically different atmospheric and planetary properties. Unfortunately, few such theories currently exist.For Earth, there is a well-known principle that its atmosphere resembles a heat engine - the atmosphere absorbs heat near the surface, at a hot temperature, and emits heat to space in the upper troposphere, at a cold temperature, which allows it to perform work and balance dissipative processes such as friction. However, previous studies also showed that Earth's hydrological cycle uses up a large fraction of the heat engine's work output, which makes it difficult to view other atmospheres as heat engines.In this work I extend the heat engine principle from Earth towards other rocky planets. I explore both dry and moist atmospheres in an idealized general circulation model (GCM), and quantify their work output using entropy budgets. First, I show that convection and turbulent heat diffusion are important entropy sources in dry atmospheres. I develop a scaling that accounts for its effects, which allows me to predict the strength of frictional dissipation in dry atmospheres. There are strong parallels between my scaling and so-called potential intensity theory, which is a seminal theory for understanding tropical cyclones on Earth. Second, I address how moisture affects atmospheric heat engines. Moisture modifies both the thermodynamic properties of air and releases latent heat when water vapor condenses. I explore the impact of both effects, and use numerical simulations to explore the difference between dry and moist atmospheric circulations across a wide range of climates.

  1. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  2. Public distrust and hazard management success at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohenemser, C.

    1987-01-01

    Based on experience gained while serving a public oversight commission appointed by the governor of Colorado, hazard management at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant is reviewed. Specific reference is made to the plant's history of controversy, its defense-in-depth strategy of hazard control, occupational health issues, public exposure to plutonium, and the assessment of low-probability, high-consequence risks. This leads to the conclusion that Rocky flats is, by any objective standard, a hazard management success. It follows that public distrust of Rocky Flats arises as much from fear and loathing of nuclear weapons themselves as from the manufacturing process by which they are made

  3. Structure Changes of Macrobenthic Community on Rocky Shores After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Hwan Jung; Heung-Sik Park; Kon-Tak Yoon; Hyung-Gon Lee; Chae-Woo Ma

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, more than 300 oil spill accidents occur every year. Despite the frequency, only a small pool of data is available on the initial effect of oil spill on macrobenthic fauna inhabiting rocky shores. The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of macrobenthic fauna composition and community structure on rocky shores, and understand the impact of oil on rocky shore organisms after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Field surveys were carried out in five regions dose to the wreck site in ...

  4. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems store vast quantities of wealth, but difficulties measuring wealth held in ecosystems prevent its inclusion in accounting systems. Ecosystem-based management endeavors to manage ecosystems holistically. However, ecosystem-based management lacks headline indicators to evaluate performance. We unify the inclusive wealth and ecosystem-based management paradigms, allowing apples-to-apples comparisons between the wealth of the ecosystem and other forms of wealth, while providing a headl...

  5. Spatial complementarity of forests and farms: accounting for ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; David T. Butry

    2006-01-01

    Our article considers the economic contributions of forest ecosystem services, using a case study from Flores, Indonesia, in which forest protection in upstream watersheds stabilize soil and hydrological flows in downstream farms. We focus on the demand for a weak complement to the ecosystem services--farm labor-- and account for spatial dependence due to economic...

  6. Ecosystem service markets 101: supply and demand for nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Jeff Kline; Trista Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Establishing markets for ecosystem services—the benefits that nature provides, such as clean air, water, and wildlife habitat—has gained traction in some circles as a way to finance the conservation of these public goods. Market influences on supply and demand work in tandem to encourage ecosystem protection. Jeff Kline and Trista Patterson, scientists with the...

  7. Grazing effects of the periwinkle Echinolittorina peruviana at a central Peruvian high rocky intertidal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Firstater, Fausto N.; Fanjul, Eugenia; Bazterrica, M. Cielo; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Tarazona, Juan; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2008-03-01

    Echinolittorina peruviana is the most common gastropod in the high intertidal zone of Peru, representing more than 80% of the individuals present at that zone. Experimental removal of snails was used to evaluate their effects on (a) abundance of epilithic biofilm, (b) barnacle recruitment, and (c) abundance of macroalgae under “normal” conditions of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Experiments were carried out from October 2005 to April 2007 at two intertidal levels of a semi-protected rocky shore of central Peru. Results demonstrated that E. peruviana is able to control biofilm abundance and barnacle recruitment at both heights investigated, with marked effects in the lower zone. Erect macroalgae ( Ulva spp. and Gelidium spp.) were less affected by grazing; but negative effects were observed on macroalgal crusts. Season and physical stress seem to play a more important role in the abundance of macroalgae in the high intertidal. Our results are similar to those reported elsewhere for high shore littorinids and represent baseline data to understand how the role of intertidal consumers will vary under the cold (La Niña) and warm (El Niño) phases of ENSO on these shores.

  8. The Rocky Flats Plant Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization Program (WSRIC): Progress and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ideker, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) Program, as described in the WSRIC Program Description delineates the process knowledge used to identify and characterize currently-generated waste from approximately 5404 waste streams originating from 576 processes in 288 buildings at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Annual updates to the WSRIC documents are required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency. Accurate determination and characterization of waste is a crucial component in RFP's waste management strategy to assure compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage and treatment requirements, as well as disposal acceptance criteria. The WSRIC Program was rebaselined in September 1992, and serves as the linchpin for documenting process knowledge in RFP's RCRA operating record. Enhancements to the WSRIC include strengthening the waste characterization rationale, expanding WSRIC training for waste generators, and incorporating analytical information into the WSRIC building books. These enhancements will improve credibility with the regulators and increase waste generators' understanding of the basis for credible waste characterizations

  9. Draft comprehensive conservation plan and environmental impact statement-Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex, consisting of some of the newer properties in the National Wildlife Refuge System, is a work in progress. Offering unique assets to surrounding communities, these lands promise to become some of the premier urban wildlife refuges in the country. At the heart of the refuge complex is the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge: 16,000 acres of shortgrass and mixed-grass prairie that is home to bison, bald eagles, migratory songbirds, prairie dogs, and much more—all within the Denver Metropolitan area.This comprehensive conservation plan will be the first in the country designed to begin implementing the Refuge System’s new Urban Refuge Initiative. To accomplish this, we analyzed a wide range of options on how best to support up to one million visitors per year without compromising our principal purposes to protect and preserve fish and wildlife and their habitats. We are fortunate to have inherited a great deal of infrastructure from the U.S. Army, but we are also constrained by the current condition and layout of these facilities. Some of this infrastructure may be acting as barriers to the public—a condition inconsistent with the purposes of the refuge. Accordingly, we have developed a goal to increase and improve suitable access to the refuge, develop sustainable transportation options, and provide more connections among the units of the refuge complex. This increased access will enable people from all walks of life to visit the refuge. The vision we have developed for the refuge complex calls for the restoration of the refuge’s historical habitats, and the reconnection of people with the natural lands of the refuge and of the region at large using a network consisting of multimodal trails, a far-reaching light-rail system, and the Denver International Airport. This refuge is well positioned to leverage and catalyze early investments to create world-class wildlife habitat and a

  10. Ecosystem services in the St. Louis River AOC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset indicates the presence or absence of each ecosystems service at each coordinate Location. Also included are depth, fetch, and aquatic vegetation data. See...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Rare Ecosystems in the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset identifies rare ecosystems using base landcover data from the USGS GAP Analysis Program (Version 2, 2011) combined with landscape ecology...

  12. An ecosystem services framework for multidisciplinary research in the Colorado River headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, D.J.; Briggs, J.S.; Martin, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    A rapidly spreading Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic is killing lodgepole pine forest in the Rocky Mountains, causing landscape change on a massive scale. Approximately 1.5 million acres of lodgepoledominated forest is already dead or dying in Colorado, the infestation is still spreading rapidly, and it is expected that in excess of 90 percent of all lodgepole forest will ultimately be killed. Drought conditions combined with dramatically reduced foliar moisture content due to stress or mortality from Mountain Pine Beetle have combined to elevate the probability of large fires throughout the Colorado River headwaters. Large numbers of homes in the wildland-urban interface, an extensive water supply infrastructure, and a local economy driven largely by recreational tourism make the potential costs associated with such a fire very large. Any assessment of fire risk for strategic planning of pre-fire management actions must consider these and a host of other important socioeconomic benefits derived from the Rocky Mountain Lodgepole Pine Forest ecosystem. This paper presents a plan to focus U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) multidisciplinary fire/beetle-related research in the Colorado River headwaters within a framework that integrates a wide variety of discipline-specific research to assess and value the full range of ecosystem services provided by the Rocky Mountain Lodgepole Pine Forest ecosystem. Baseline, unburned conditions will be compared with a hypothetical, fully burned scenario to (a) identify where services would be most severely impacted, and (b) quantify potential economic losses. Collaboration with the U.S. Forest Service will further yield a distributed model of fire probability that can be used in combination with the ecosystem service valuation to develop comprehensive, distributed maps of fire risk in the Upper Colorado River Basin. These maps will be intended for use by stakeholders as a strategic planning tool for pre-fire management activities and can

  13. Ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types: understanding the interactions and suggesting pathways for sustaining multiple ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Turton, Stephen M; Macgregor, Colin J; Pert, Petina L

    2016-10-01

    As ecosystem services supply from tropical forests is declining due to deforestation and forest degradation, much effort is essential to sustain ecosystem services supply from tropical forested landscapes, because tropical forests provide the largest flow of multiple ecosystem services among the terrestrial ecosystems. In order to sustain multiple ecosystem services, understanding ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types and identifying certain ecosystem services that could be managed to leverage positive effects across the wider bundle of ecosystem services are required. We sampled three forest types, tropical rainforests, sclerophyll forests, and rehabilitated plantation forests, over an area of 32,000m(2) from Wet Tropics bioregion, Australia, aiming to compare supply and evaluate interactions and patterns of eight ecosystem services (global climate regulation, air quality regulation, erosion regulation, nutrient regulation, cyclone protection, habitat provision, energy provision, and timber provision). On average, multiple ecosystem services were highest in the rainforests, lowest in sclerophyll forests, and intermediate in rehabilitated plantation forests. However, a wide variation was apparent among the plots across the three forest types. Global climate regulation service had a synergistic impact on the supply of multiple ecosystem services, while nutrient regulation service was found to have a trade-off impact. Considering multiple ecosystem services, most of the rehabilitated plantation forest plots shared the same ordination space with rainforest plots in the ordination analysis, indicating that rehabilitated plantation forests may supply certain ecosystem services nearly equivalent to rainforests. Two synergy groups and one trade-off group were identified. Apart from conserving rainforests and sclerophyll forests, our findings suggest two additional integrated pathways to sustain the supply of multiple ecosystem services from a

  14. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Enabling Conditions, U.S., 2016, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains polygons depicting conditions enabling market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Areas, U.S., 2015, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains polygons depicting the geographic areas of market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Locations, U.S., 2015, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains points depicting the location of market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem services...

  17. BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS VS BUSINESS DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  18. Esthetic evaluation of timber harvesting in the Northern Rockies - a progressive report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis L. Schweitzer; James R. Ullrich; Robert E. Benson

    1976-01-01

    Panels of judges have been evaluating the esthetic dimension of harvested areas in the Northern Rockies. Studies conducted in Wyoming and Montana agree with intuition in that forest scenes are generally liked less as the evidence of man's activities increases.

  19. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Tesoro Logistics-Rockies - Ponderosa Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains documents related to the synthetic minor NSR permit for the Tesoro Logistics-Rockies Ponderosa Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  20. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of 1938-1942....

  1. Compaction-Driven Evolution of Pluto's Rocky Core: Implications for Water-Rock Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabasova, L. R.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.

    2018-05-01

    We model the compaction of Pluto's rocky core after accretion and explore the potential for hydrothermal circulation within the porous layer, as well as examine its effect on core cooling and the persistence of a liquid internal ocean.

  2. Numerical simulation of atmospheric dispersion in the vicinity of the Rocky Flats plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, J.E.; Poulos, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program sponsored a field experiment in the winter of 1991 near Rocky Flats, Colorado. Both meteorological and tracer dispersion measurements were taken. These two data sets provided an opportunity to investigate the influence of terrain-generated, radiatively-driven flows on the dispersion of the tracer. In this study, we use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to simulate meteorological conditions and tracer dispersion on the case night of 4--5 February 1991. The simulations were developed to examine the influence of nocturnal drainage flow from various topography regimes on the dispersion of tracer from the Rocky Flats plant. The simulation described herein demonstrates the extent to which Rocky Mountain drainage winds influence the flow at the mountain/plain interface for a particular case night, and shows the potential importance of canyon drainage on dispersion from the Rocky Flats area

  3. Discrepancies in Weil-Felix and microimmunofluorescence test results for Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechemy, K E; Stevens, R W; Sasowski, S; Michaelson, E E; Casper, E A; Philip, R N

    1979-01-01

    Only 4.2% of 284 single specimens and 17.6% of 51 pairs of sera reactive in Weil-Felix agglutination tests for Rocky Mountain spotted fever were confirmed by a specific Rickettsia rickettsii microimmunofluorescence test. PMID:107194

  4. Proceedings of the second symposium on the geology of Rocky Mountain coal, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, H. E. [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The 1977 Symposium on the Geology of Rocky Mountain Coal was held May 9 and 10 on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. The 1977 Symposium was sponsored by the Colorado Geological Survey and the US Geological Survey. The 1977 Symposium consisted of four technical sessions: Depositional Models for Coal Exploration in the Rocky Mountain Cretaceous; Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments of Rocky Mountain Tertiary Coal Deposits; Depositional Models for Coal Exploration in non-Rocky Mountain Regions; and Application of Geology to Coal Mining and Coal Mine Planning. Several papers discuss geophysical survey and well logging techniques applied to the exploration of coal deposits and for mine planning. Fouteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Comparative wood anatomy of some shrubs native to the Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlene Dale

    1968-01-01

    This paper describes some xylem characteristics of the more important shrub species of the Northern Rockies and presents a key for identifying shrub-wood specimens by microscopic characters. The paper contains photomicrographs of 55 shrub woods.

  6. SITE Technology Capsule. Demonstration of Rocky Mountain Remediation Services Soil Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report briefly summarizes the Rocky Mountain Remediation Services treatment technology demonstration of a soil amendment process for lead contaminated soil at Roseville, OH. The evaluation included leaching, bioavailability, geotechnical, and geochemical methods.

  7. NPDES Permit for Rocky Mountain Arsenal Recycled Water Pipeline in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  8. Bat population monitoring and conservation at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — A study of the bat populations at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) was conducted from 1997–1998, which provided basic population and contaminant...

  9. Body size structure, biometric relationships and density of Chiton albolineatus (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) on the intertidal rocky zone of three islands of Mazatlan Bay, SE of the Gulf of California

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Campaña, Luis Miguel; Arzola-González, Juan Francisco; de León-Herrera, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Populations of the polyplacophoran mollusk Chiton albolineatus were studied at 6 sites with different wave exposure of the rocky shores of 3 islands of Mazatlan Bay (southeastern side of the Gulf of California). This chiton species is endemic to the Mexican Pacific coast. Chitons were sampled on wave-exposed and wave-protected sites in the intertidal zone of these islands from January to December 2008 to determine its demographic patterns based on density and body size. Length (L), breadth (B...

  10. Protecting the Amazon with protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Moore, Nathan J.; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia; Caldas, Marcellus; Vergara, Dante; Bohrer, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses climate-tipping points in the Amazon Basin resulting from deforestation. It applies a regional climate model to assess whether the system of protected areas in Brazil is able to avoid such tipping points, with massive conversion to semiarid vegetation, particularly along the south and southeastern margins of the basin. The regional climate model produces spatially distributed annual rainfall under a variety of external forcing conditions, assuming that all land outside protected areas is deforested. It translates these results into dry season impacts on resident ecosystems and shows that Amazonian dry ecosystems in the southern and southeastern basin do not desiccate appreciably and that extensive areas experience an increase in precipitation. Nor do the moist forests dry out to an excessive amount. Evidently, Brazilian environmental policy has created a sustainable core of protected areas in the Amazon that buffers against potential climate-tipping points and protects the drier ecosystems of the basin. Thus, all efforts should be made to manage them effectively. PMID:19549819

  11. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W. L.; Veblen, T. T.; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  12. Sintopy of two Tropidurus lizard species (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in a rocky Cerrado habitat in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Faria,R. G.; Araujo,A. F. B.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the ecology of Tropidurus itambere and T. oreadicus that occur syntopically in rocky habitats of Cerrado vegetation in central Brazil during the dry season (April to September 2000). The two species are ecologically similar, but somewhat differentiated in vertical microhabitat use. The two species preferred rocky surface microhabitat. Both species demonstrated a unimodal activity pattern, with a peak between 10 and 15 h. Their diets were similar in composition and prey size. The mo...

  13. Belowground ecosystems [chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carole Coe Klopatek

    1995-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service defined ecosystem management as "an ecological approach to achieve multiple-use management of national forests and grasslands by blending the needs of people and environmental values in such a way that national forests and grasslands represent diverse, healthy, productive, and sustainable ecosystems" (June 4, 1992, letter from Chief FS...

  14. Payments for Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kai M.A; Anderson, Emily K.; Chapman, Mollie

    2017-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs are one prominent strategy to address economic externalities of resource extraction and commodity production, improving both social and ecological outcomes. But do PES and related incentive programs achieve that lofty goal? Along with considerable en...... sustainable relationships with nature, conserving and restoring ecosystems and their benefits for people now and in the future....

  15. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  16. Remote Sensing of Mangrove Ecosystems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dech

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems dominate the coastal wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. They provide various ecological and economical ecosystem services contributing to coastal erosion protection, water filtration, provision of areas for fish and shrimp breeding, provision of building material and medicinal ingredients, and the attraction of tourists, amongst many other factors. At the same time, mangroves belong to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems worldwide and experienced a dramatic decline during the last half century. International programs, such as the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands or the Kyoto Protocol, underscore the importance of immediate protection measures and conservation activities to prevent the further loss of mangroves. In this context, remote sensing is the tool of choice to provide spatio-temporal information on mangrove ecosystem distribution, species differentiation, health status, and ongoing changes of mangrove populations. Such studies can be based on various sensors, ranging from aerial photography to high- and medium-resolution optical imagery and from hyperspectral data to active microwave (SAR data. Remote-sensing techniques have demonstrated a high potential to detect, identify, map, and monitor mangrove conditions and changes during the last two decades, which is reflected by the large number of scientific papers published on this topic. To our knowledge, a recent review paper on the remote sensing of mangroves does not exist, although mangrove ecosystems have become the focus of attention in the context of current climate change and discussions of the services provided by these ecosystems. Also, climate change-related remote-sensing studies in coastal zones have increased drastically in recent years. The aim of this review paper is to provide a comprehensive overview and sound summary of all of the work undertaken, addressing the variety of remotely sensed data applied for mangrove

  17. [Relationships between landscape structure and rocky desertification in karst region of northwestern Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-nan; Wang, Ke-lin; Chen, Hong-song; Zhang, Wei

    2008-11-01

    By using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), sixteen landscape indices were adopted to quantitatively analyze the relationships between the landscape structure and rocky desertification in karst region of Huanjiang County, Guangxi Province. The results showed that the first and the second ordination axis of CCA were strongly correlated to the factors of average patch area, average dry land patch area, landscape shape index, and landscape aggregation index. The potential rocky desertification in the region was highly positively correlated with the average dry land patch area and the average fractal dimensions of dry land and shrub land, but negatively correlated with the patch numbers of dry land. Light rocky desertification had obvious positive correlations with the fractal dimension index, average fractal dimension of unused land, and patch numbers of shrub land; while moderate and strong rocky desertification had high positive correlations with the average unused land patch area but negative correlation with the average fractal dimension of shrub land. To some extent, rocky desertification degree might be represented by the values of landscape indices. The gradient variation in karst rocky desertification along landscape structure was clearly presented by the results of CCA.

  18. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory code assessment of the Rocky Flats transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report is an assessment of the content codes associated with transuranic waste shipped from the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, to INEL. The primary objective of this document is to characterize and describe the transuranic wastes shipped to INEL from Rocky Flats by item description code (IDC). This information will aid INEL in determining if the waste meets the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The waste covered by this content code assessment was shipped from Rocky Flats between 1985 and 1989. These years coincide with the dates for information available in the Rocky Flats Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). The majority of waste shipped during this time was certified to the existing WIPP WAC. This waste is referred to as precertified waste. Reassessment of these precertified waste containers is necessary because of changes in the WIPP WAC. To accomplish this assessment, the analytical and process knowledge available on the various IDCs used at Rocky Flats were evaluated. Rocky Flats sources for this information include employee interviews, SWIMS, Transuranic Waste Certification Program, Transuranic Waste Inspection Procedure, Backlog Waste Baseline Books, WIPP Experimental Waste Characterization Program (headspace analysis), and other related documents, procedures, and programs. Summaries are provided of: (a) certification information, (b) waste description, (c) generation source, (d) recovery method, (e) waste packaging and handling information, (f) container preparation information, (g) assay information, (h) inspection information, (i) analytical data, and (j) RCRA characterization.

  19. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...... in the conceptual framework for EU wide ecosystem assessments (Maes et al., 2013), which couples existing approaches for recreation management at country level with behavioural data derived from surveys, and population distribution data. The proposed framework is based on three components: the ecosystem function...

  20. Trade and the governance of ecosystem services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgaard, Richard B.; Jin, Ling

    2008-01-01

    We work with a basic general equilibrium model of an economy with an industrial good and a rural good. Industrial good production results in pollution that affects the provision of ecosystem services and thereby the production of the rural good. The assignment of ecosystem rights to the industrial polluters or to the rural pollutees results in differential transaction costs that affect production possibilities between the two goods. Ecosystem rights are assigned to maximize social welfare. Over time, technological change and differences in income superiority affect the choice of the assignment of rights. Opening to trade affects the choice of the assignment of ecosystem rights depending on the nature of technological change, but the relative income superiority of goods no longer affects the assignment of ecosystem rights in a small economy. Thus, among other findings, we demonstrate that the phenomena known as the environmental Kuznets curve does not hold for the protection of ecosystem services in production, or production externalities generally, because trade separates consumption from production. (author)

  1. Trade and the governance of ecosystem services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norgaard, Richard B.; Jin, Ling [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2008-07-15

    We work with a basic general equilibrium model of an economy with an industrial good and a rural good. Industrial good production results in pollution that affects the provision of ecosystem services and thereby the production of the rural good. The assignment of ecosystem rights to the industrial polluters or to the rural pollutees results in differential transaction costs that affect production possibilities between the two goods. Ecosystem rights are assigned to maximize social welfare. Over time, technological change and differences in income superiority affect the choice of the assignment of rights. Opening to trade affects the choice of the assignment of ecosystem rights depending on the nature of technological change, but the relative income superiority of goods no longer affects the assignment of ecosystem rights in a small economy. Thus, among other findings, we demonstrate that the phenomena known as the environmental Kuznets curve does not hold for the protection of ecosystem services in production, or production externalities generally, because trade separates consumption from production. (author)

  2. Balancing conservation needs with uses of river ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabater, Sergi; Elosegui, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Rivers are among the most diverse and threatened ecosystems on the earth, but their conservation are a requisite for sustainable development. Conservation must consider both the structure and the functioning of the elements (usually species), as well as of their ecosystem. Therefore, successful river conservation must go beyond protecting species to protecting entire ecosystems and the processes that give each ecosystem its special characteristics. River conservation has to meet the legitimate aspirations of human populations for clean, readily available supply of water, without compromising the water needs of ecosystems and nature. Therefore, it is essential to take a landscape perspective that incorporates processes occurring in the riverine riparian areas as well as on connectivity with the land and across the river network.

  3. Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES): using GIS to include social values information in ecosystem services assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, B.C.; Semmens, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem services can be defined in various ways; simply put, they are the benefits provided by nature, which contribute to human well-being. These benefits can range from tangible products such as food and fresh water to cultural services such as recreation and esthetics. As the use of these benefits continues to increase, additional pressures are placed on the natural ecosystems providing them. This makes it all the more important when assessing possible tradeoffs among ecosystem services to consider the human attitudes and preferences that express underlying social values associated with their benefits. While some of these values can be accounted for through economic markets, other values can be more difficult to quantify, and attaching dollar amounts to them may not be very useful in all cases. Regardless of the processes or units used for quantifying such values, the ability to map them across the landscape and relate them to the ecosystem services to which they are attributed is necessary for effective assessments. To address some of the needs associated with quantifying and mapping social values for inclusion in ecosystem services assessments, scientists at the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), in collaboration with Colorado State University, have developed a public domain tool, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). SolVES is a geographic information system (GIS) application designed to use data from public attitude and preference surveys to assess, map, and quantify social values for ecosystem services. SolVES calculates and maps a 10-point Value Index representing the relative perceived social values of ecosystem services such as recreation and biodiversity for various groups of ecosystem stakeholders. SolVES output can also be used to identify and model relationships between social values and physical characteristics of the underlying landscape. These relationships can then be used to generate predicted Value Index maps for areas

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of Ecosystem Health in a Karst Area of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzi Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to propose a GIS-based mechanism for diagnosing karst rocky desertification (KRD ecosystem health. Using the Huajiang Demonstration Area in Guizhou Province as a case study, this research offers a multi-factor indicator system for diagnosing KRD ecosystem health. A set of geologic, environmental, and socio-economic health indicators were developed based on remote sensing images from field-investigation, hydrological, and meteorological monitoring data. With the use of grid GIS technology, this study gives an indicator for diagnosing the spatial expression of desertification at a 5 m × 5 m grid scale. Using spatial overlaying technology based on grid data, the temporal and spatial dynamics of ecosystem health in the Huajiang Demonstration Area were tracked over a 10 year time span. The results of the analysis indicate that ecosystem health in the Huajiang Demonstration Area varies regionally, and has overall improved over time. The proportion of healthy area increased from 3.7% in 2000 to 8.2% in 2010. However, unhealthy and middle-health areas still accounted for 78.7% of the total area by 2010. The most obvious improvement of ecosystem health was in an area where comprehensive control measures for curbing KRD were implemented. These results suggest that comprehensive control of KRD can effectively mitigate ecosystem deterioration and improve ecosystem health in karst regions of South China.

  5. Ecosystem approach in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiullin, Iskander

    2017-04-01

    Environmental education is a base for sustainable development. Therefore, in our school we pay great attention to environmental education. Environmental education in our school is based on ecosystem approach. What is an ecosystem approach? Ecosystem is a fundamental concept of ecology. Living organisms and their non-living environments interact with each other as a system, and the biosphere planet functions as a global ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary for children to understand relationships in ecosystems, and we have to develop systems thinking in our students. Ecosystem approach and systems thinking should help us to solve global environmental problems. How do we implement the ecosystem approach? Students must understand that our biosphere functions as a single ecosystem and even small changes can lead to environmental disasters. Even the disappearance of one plant or animal species can lead to irreversible consequences. So in the classroom we learn the importance of each living organism for the nature. We pay special attention to endangered species, which are listed in the Red Data List. Kids are doing projects about these organisms, make videos, print brochures and newspapers. Fieldwork also plays an important role for ecosystem approach. Every summer, we go out for expeditions to study species of plants and animals listed in the Red Data List of Tatarstan. In class, students often write essays on behalf of any endangered species of plants or animals, this also helps them to understand the importance of each living organism in nature. Each spring we organise a festival of environmental projects among students. Groups of 4-5 students work on a solution of environmental problems, such as water, air or soil pollution, waste recycling, the loss of biodiversity, etc. Participants shoot a clip about their project, print brochures. Furthermore, some of the students participate in national and international scientific Olympiads with their projects. In addition to

  6. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9459-7] Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change... entitled, Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi- stressor... vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems across the United States to the potential impacts of...

  7. Ecological Production Functions Linking Multiple Stressors to Ecosystem Services – A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecosystem services concept is being used to frame environmental protection goals that guide management of the risks of chemicals. Ecosystem services link changes in ecological systems to the benefits received by people. The use of ecosystem services in risk assessments and th...

  8. Restoration and repair of Earth's damaged ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Holly P; Jones, Peter C; Barbier, Edward B; Blackburn, Ryan C; Rey Benayas, Jose M; Holl, Karen D; McCrackin, Michelle; Meli, Paula; Montoya, Daniel; Mateos, David Moreno

    2018-02-28

    Given that few ecosystems on the Earth have been unaffected by humans, restoring them holds great promise for stemming the biodiversity crisis and ensuring ecosystem services are provided to humanity. Nonetheless, few studies have documented the recovery of ecosystems globally or the rates at which ecosystems recover. Even fewer have addressed the added benefit of actively restoring ecosystems versus allowing them to recover without human intervention following the cessation of a disturbance. Our meta-analysis of 400 studies worldwide that document recovery from large-scale disturbances, such as oil spills, agriculture and logging, suggests that though ecosystems are progressing towards recovery following disturbances, they rarely recover completely. This result reinforces conservation of intact ecosystems as a key strategy for protecting biodiversity. Recovery rates slowed down with time since the disturbance ended, suggesting that the final stages of recovery are the most challenging to achieve. Active restoration did not result in faster or more complete recovery than simply ending the disturbances ecosystems face. Our results on the added benefit of restoration must be interpreted cautiously, because few studies directly compared different restoration actions in the same location after the same disturbance. The lack of consistent value added of active restoration following disturbance suggests that passive recovery should be considered as a first option; if recovery is slow, then active restoration actions should be better tailored to overcome specific obstacles to recovery and achieve restoration goals. We call for a more strategic investment of limited restoration resources into innovative collaborative efforts between scientists, local communities and practitioners to develop restoration techniques that are ecologically, economically and socially viable. © 2018 The Author(s).

  9. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  10. Accretion of Planetesimals and the Formation of Rocky Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John E.; O'Brien, David P.; Davis, Andrew M.

    2010-02-01

    Here we describe the formation of rocky planets and asteroids in the context of the planetesimal hypothesis. Small dust grains in protoplanetary disks readily stick together forming mm-to-cm-sized aggregates, many of which experience brief heating episodes causing melting. Growth to km-sized planetesimals might proceed via continued pairwise sticking, turbulent concentration, or gravitational instability of a thin particle layer. Gravitational interactions between planetesimals lead to rapid runaway and oligarchic growth forming lunar-to-Mars-sized protoplanets in 10^5 to 10^6 years. Giant impacts between protoplanets form Earth-mass planets in 10^7 to 10^8 years, and occasionally lead to the formation of large satellites. Protoplanets may migrate far from their formation locations due to tidal interactions with the surrounding disk. Radioactive decay and impact heating cause melting and differentiation of planetesimals and protoplanets, forming iron-rich cores and silicate mantles, and leading to some loss of volatiles. Dynamical perturbations from giant planets eject most planetesimals and protoplanets from regions near orbital resonances, leading to asteroid-belt formation. Some of this scattered material will collide with growing terrestrial planets, altering their composition as a result. Numerical simulations and radioisotope dating indicate that the terrestrial planets of the Solar System were essentially fully formed in 100-200 million years.

  11. DISPOSITION PATHS FOR ROCKY FLATS GLOVEBOXES: EVALUATING OPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobdell, D.; Geimer, R.; Larsen, P.; Loveland, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC has the responsibility for closure activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). One of the challenges faced for closure is the disposition of radiologically contaminated gloveboxes. Evaluation of the disposition options for gloveboxes included a detailed analysis of available treatment capabilities, disposal facilities, and lifecycle costs. The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC followed several processes in determining how the gloveboxes would be managed for disposition. Currently, multiple disposition paths have been chosen to accommodate the needs of the varying styles and conditions of the gloveboxes, meet the needs of the decommissioning team, and to best manage lifecycle costs. Several challenges associated with developing a disposition path that addresses both the radiological and RCRA concerns as well as offering the most cost-effective solution were encountered. These challenges included meeting the radiological waste acceptance criteria of available disposal facilities, making a RCRA determination, evaluating treatment options and costs, addressing void requirements associated with disposal, and identifying packaging and transportation options. The varying disposal facility requirements affected disposition choices. Facility conditions that impacted decisions included radiological and chemical waste acceptance criteria, physical requirements, and measurement for payment options. The facility requirements also impacted onsite activities including management strategies, decontamination activities, and life-cycle cost

  12. Differential concentration of plutonium isotopes in Rocky Flats Biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Craig A.

    1978-01-01

    Data for 238 Pu and 239 Pu concentrations in samples from grassland biota and soil at Rocky Flats, Colorado, were studied to compare environmental behavior of these isotopes. Mean isotope ratios ( 239,240 Pu pCi/g / 238 Pu pCi/g) were lower for the small mammals and arthropods than for the soil, litter, and standing vegetation. The isotopic ratio was also found to be inversely related to soil sample depth. These results suggested that, relative to 239 Pu, 238 Pu was concentrating in small mammals and arthropods and moving downward into the soil at a faster rate. Further investigations, however, indicated that isotopic ratios were likely biased towards lower values of the ratio as the total plutonium concentration in a sample decreased. This bias can be understood as a leftward shift of the value of the most probable and mean ratio. This shift occurs when the frequency distribution of the numerator ( 239 Pu) and denominator ( 238 Pu) of the ratio are truncated (have their lower tail removed) by eliminating values below some detection limit. If, as in this example, the distribution of the denominator variable is of lower magnitude than the numerator and, therefore, nearer the detection limit and truncated to a larger degree, the resulting ratio frequency distribution is shifted to lower values compared to the ratio of two untruncated variables. (author)

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), conducted August 11 through 22, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the RFP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations carried on at RFP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activates. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the RFP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the RFP Survey. 75 refs., 24 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Blake P.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the results of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) conducted November 14 to 18 and November 28 to December 9, 1988. This appraisal covered the effectiveness and improvements in the RFP safety program across the site, evaluating progress to date against standards of accepted practice. The appraisal included coverage of the timeliness and effectiveness of actions taken in response to the recommendations/concerns in three previous Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) of RFP Bldg. 707 conducted in July 1986, Bldgs. 771/774 conducted in October/November 1986, and Bldgs. 776/777 conducted in January/February 1988. Results of this appraisal are given in Section IV for each of 14 technical safety areas at RFP. These results include a discussion, conclusions and any new safety concerns for each technical safety area. Appendix A contains a description of the system for categorizing concerns, and the concerns are tabulated in Appendix B. Appendix C reports on the evaluation of the contractor's actions and the current status of each of the 230 recommendations and concerns contained in the three previous TSA reports.

  15. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), conducted August 11 through 22, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the RFP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations carried on at RFP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activates. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the RFP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the RFP Survey. 75 refs., 24 figs., 33 tabs

  16. Efficient cooling of rocky planets by intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Diogo L.; Rozel, Antoine B.; Gerya, Taras; Tackley, Paul J.

    2018-05-01

    The Earth is in a plate tectonics regime with high surface heat flow concentrated at constructive plate boundaries. Other terrestrial bodies that lack plate tectonics are thought to lose their internal heat by conduction through their lids and volcanism: hotter planets (Io and Venus) show widespread volcanism whereas colder ones (modern Mars and Mercury) are less volcanically active. However, studies of terrestrial magmatic processes show that less than 20% of melt volcanically erupts, with most melt intruding into the crust. Signatures of large magmatic intrusions are also found on other planets. Yet, the influence of intrusive magmatism on planetary cooling remains unclear. Here we use numerical magmatic-thermo-mechanical models to simulate global mantle convection in a planetary interior. In our simulations, warm intrusive magmatism acts to thin the lithosphere, leading to sustained recycling of overlying crustal material and cooling of the mantle. In contrast, volcanic eruptions lead to a thick lithosphere that insulates the upper mantle and prevents efficient cooling. We find that heat loss due to intrusive magmatism can be particularly efficient compared to volcanic eruptions if the partitioning of heat-producing radioactive elements into the melt phase is weak. We conclude that the mode of magmatism experienced by rocky bodies determines the thermal and compositional evolution of their interior.

  17. Retrospective Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Rechelle; Ahn, Christine; Daniel, Alyssa; Yosipovitch, Gil; Strowd, Lindsay C

    2017-03-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a lethal tick-borne illness, is prevalent in the south central United States. Children younger than 10 years old have the greatest risk of fatal outcome from RMSF. The objective of the current study was to review pediatric cases of RMSF seen in the dermatology consult service and to evaluate dermatology's role in the diagnosis and management of this disease. A retrospective review was performed of inpatient dermatology consultations at a tertiary care center in North Carolina from 2001 to 2011. Data collected included patient demographic characteristics, symptoms, pre- and postconsultation diagnoses, diagnostic procedures, length of hospital stay, and outcome. A total of 3,912 consultations were conducted in the dermatology service over 10 years. Six patients with RMSF, ranging in age from 22 months to 10 years (mean 5.1 years), were evaluated during April, May, and June. All preconsultation diagnoses included RMSF in the differential diagnosis. All patients underwent skin biopsies, and a culture was obtained in one case. Fifty percent of patients died within 4 days of hospitalization. Variables associated with mortality from RMSF are delayed diagnosis and initiation of antirickettsial therapy. Physicians should consider RMSF in children presenting with fever and rash during the summer months. Dermatology consultation is useful in evaluating patients with suspicious clinical features of RMSF with skin findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Atypical Rocky Mountain spotted fever with polyarticular arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Muhammad A; Scofield, Robert Hal

    2013-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an acute, serious tick borne illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsi. Frequently, RMSF is manifested by headache, a typical rash and fever but atypical disease is common, making diagnosis difficult. Inflammatory arthritis as a manifestation is rare. The purpose of this study is to describe a patient with serologically proven RMSF who presented in an atypical manner with inflammatory arthritis of the small joints of the hands and to review the previously reported patients with rickettsial infection and inflammatory arthritis. An 18-year-old woman presented with a rash that began on the distal extremities and spread centrally, along with hand pain and swelling. She had tenderness and swelling of the metacarpophlangeal joints on examination in addition to an erythematosus macular rash and occasional fever. Acute and convalescent serology demonstrated R rickettsi infection. She was successfully treated with doxycycline. Inflammatory arthritis is a rare manifestation of RMSF or other rickettsial infection with 8 previously reported patients, only 1 of whom had RMSF. Physician must have a high index of suspicion for RMSF because of atypical presentations.

  19. Rocky mountain spotted fever hospitalizations among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, Linda J; Holman, Robert C; Mikosz, Christina A; Curns, Aaron T; Swerdlow, David L; Paisano, Edna L; Cheek, James E

    2006-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), we conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalization records with an RMSF diagnosis using Indian Health Service (IHS) hospital discharge data for calendar years 1980-2003. A total of 261 RMSF hospitalizations were reported among AIs, for an average annual hospitalization rate of 1.21 per 100,000 persons; two deaths were reported (0.8%). Most hospitalizations (88.5%) occurred in the Southern Plains region, where the rate was 4.23 per 100,000 persons. Children 1-4 years of age had the highest age-specific hospitalization rate of 2.50 per 100,000 persons. The overall annual RMSF hospitalization rate declined during the study period. Understanding the epidemiology of RMSF among AI/ANs and educating IHS/tribal physicians on the diagnosis of tick-borne diseases remain important for the prompt treatment of RMSF and the reduction of the disease occurrence among AI/ANs, particularly in high-risk areas.

  20. Regional-scale analysis of subtidal rocky shore community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien-Courtel, Sandrine; Le Gal, Aodren; Grall, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    The French monitoring network, REseau BENThique (REBENT), was launched by the Ministry of the Environment in 2003 following the 1999 Erika oil spill. REBENT aimed to acquire baseline knowledge of coastal benthic habitat distributions with a special focus on biological diversity. This study analyzed data from 38 subtidal rocky reef sites collected by a single diving team of marine biologists along the coast of Brittany from 2004 to 2010. At each site, the depth limits of the algal belts were determined between 0 and -40 m Chart Datum (CD); the flora and fauna compositions and abundances were sampled at -3 and -8 m CD. A total of 364 taxa (156 flora and 208 fauna), belonging to 12 phyla, were identified. The results showed that the depth limit and density of kelp beds increased as water turbidity decreased; moreover, several changes in community structure could be related to water turbidity and temperature. Thus, northern and southern Brittany showed strong differences in diversity and structure of the dominant kelp species ( Laminaria hyperborea and Saccorhiza polyschides). The results from this kelp habitat composition survey (dominant kelp species and indicator species) provided important information for local pressure assessments, like increases in turbidity. The data also provided a reference that could be useful for detecting changes in coastal water temperatures due to global warming.

  1. ESTIMAP: A GIS-BASED MODEL TO MAP ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zulian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Policies of the European Union which affect the use or protection of natural resources increasingly need spatial data on the supply, the flow and the demand of ecosystem services. The model ESTIMAP was developed to this purpose. ESTIMAP departs from land cover and land use maps to which it adds other spatial information with the objective to map various ecosystem services. This study introduces the ESTIMAP map as tool to support the mapping and modelling of ecosystem services at European scale. Examples are provided for three regulating ecosystem services, air quality regulation, coastal protection, and pollination and one cultural ecosystem services, recreation. 

  2. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijerman, Mariska; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Brainard, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis) to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings) and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated 'full regulation' scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  3. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Weijerman

    Full Text Available Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated 'full regulation' scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  4. Effects of polyacrylamide on soil erosion and nutrient losses from substrate material in steep rocky slope stabilization projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Chen, Wenlu; Li, Chengjun; Pu, Yanpin; Sun, Haifeng

    2016-06-01

    Erosion of denuded steep rocky slopes causes increasing losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, which is a severe problem in rocky slope protection. Thus, it is important to determine the appropriate materials that can reduce the erodibility and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus of the soil. In this paper, twenty-seven simulated rainfall events were carried out in a greenhouse, in which the substrate material was artificial soil; nine types of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) were studied, which consisted of three molecular weight (6, 12, and 18 Mg mol(-1)) and three charge density (10, 20, and 30%) formulations in a 3 by 3 factorial design. The results showed that: (1) Polyacrylamide application reduced total nitrogen losses by 35.3% to 50.0% and total phosphorus losses by 34.9% to 48.0% relative to the control group. (2) The losses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus had significant correlation with the molecular weight. Besides, the losses of total phosphorus, particulate-bound phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen (NH4-N) were significantly correlated with their molecular weight and charge density. However, the losses of dissolved organic nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N), dissolved organic phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus (PO4-P) were non-significantly correlated with molecular weight and charge density. (3) Particulate-bound nitrogen and phosphorus were responsible for the losses of nitrogen and phosphorus during runoff events, where particulate-bound nitrogen made up 71.7% to 73.2% of total nitrogen losses, and particulate-bound phosphorus made up 82.3% to 85.2% of total phosphorus losses. (4) Polyacrylamide treatments increased water-stable aggregates content by 32.3% to 59.1%, total porosity by 11.3% to 49.0%, final infiltrative rate by 41.3% to 72.5%, and reduced soil erosion by 18.9% to 39.8% compared with the control group. Overall, the results of this study indicated that polyacrylamide application in the steep rocky slope stabilization projects could

  5. Decapod crustaceans from rocky shore at Farol Island, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil. I: temporal distribution of population densities

    OpenAIRE

    Masunari, Setuko; Oliveira, Edinalva; Kowalczuk, Vânia Graciele Lezan

    1998-01-01

    A study of the temporal distribution of the decapod populations from a rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, State of Paraná, Brazil (25o51'S e48o32'W) was carried out. The rocky shore is 13m wide when the tidal level is zero meter and about 8o inclination. In the supralittoral, the rocky basins is mostly covered by a layer of litter coming from the terrestrial environment. In the midlittoral and upper infralittoral, the rocky slope is overlayed by boulders and pebbles and they constitute a hi...

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever from an unexpected tick vector in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, Linda J; Traeger, Marc S; Nicholson, William L; Paddock, Christopher D; Blau, Dianna M; Eremeeva, Marina E; Dasch, Gregory A; Levin, Michael L; Singleton, Joseph; Zaki, Sherif R; Cheek, James E; Swerdlow, David L; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2005-08-11

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a life-threatening, tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. This disease is rarely reported in Arizona, and the principal vectors, Dermacentor species ticks, are uncommon in the state. From 2002 through 2004, a focus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was investigated in rural eastern Arizona. We obtained blood and tissue specimens from patients with suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever and ticks from patients' homesites. Serologic, molecular, immunohistochemical, and culture assays were performed to identify the causative agent. On the basis of specific laboratory criteria, patients were classified as having confirmed or probable Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection. A total of 16 patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection (11 with confirmed and 5 with probable infection) were identified. Of these patients, 13 (81 percent) were children 12 years of age or younger, 15 (94 percent) were hospitalized, and 2 (12 percent) died. Dense populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were found on dogs and in the yards of patients' homesites. All patients with confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever had contact with tick-infested dogs, and four had a reported history of tick bite preceding the illness. R. rickettsii DNA was detected in nonengorged R. sanguineus ticks collected at one home, and R. rickettsii isolates were cultured from these ticks. This investigation documents the presence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in eastern Arizona, with common brown dog ticks (R. sanguineus) implicated as a vector of R. rickettsii. The broad distribution of this common tick raises concern about its potential to transmit R. rickettsii in other settings. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  7. Review: Mangrove ecosystem in Java: 2. Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURIN CANDRA PURNAMA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available R E V I E W:Ekosistem Mangrove di Jawa: 2. RestorasiThe restoration of mangroves has received a lot of attentions world wide for several reasons. Mangrove ecosystem is very important in term of socio-economic and ecology functions. Because of its functions, wide range of people paid attention whenever mangrove restoration taken place. Mangrove restoration potentially increases mangrove resource value, protect the coastal area from destruction, conserve biodiversity, fish production and both of directly and indirectly support the life of surrounding people. This paper outlines the activities of mangrove restoration on Java island. The extensive research has been carried out on the ecology, structure and functioning of the mangrove ecosystem. However, the findings have not been interpreted in a management framework, thus mangrove forests around the world continue to be over-exploited, converted to aquaculture ponds, and polluted. We strongly argue that links between research and sustainable management of mangrove ecosystem should be established.

  8. Middle Rockies Ecoregion: Chapter 5 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Rockies Ecoregion—characterized by steep, high-elevation mountain ranges and intermountain valleys—is a disjunct ecoregion composed of three distinct geographic areas: the Greater Yellowstone area in northwest Wyoming, southwest Montana, and eastern Idaho; the Bighorn Mountains in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana; and the Black Hills in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion covers approximately 90,160 km2 (34,881 mi2), and its three distinct geographic sections are bordered by several other ecoregions (fig. 1). The Yellowstone section abuts the Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies and the Northern Rockies Ecoregions to the north, the Snake River Basin and the Central Basin and Range Ecoregions to the west, and the Wyoming Basin Ecoregion to the south and east. The Bighorn Mountains section lies between the Wyoming Basin Ecoregion to the west and the Northwestern Great Plains Ecoregion to the east, and it abuts the Montana Valleys and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion to the north. The Black Hills section is entirely surrounded by the Northwestern Great Plains Ecoregion. The Continental Divide crosses the ecoregion from the southeast along the Wind River Range, through Yellowstone National Park, and west along the Montana-Idaho border. On both sides of the divide, topographic relief causes local climate variability, particularly the effects of aspect, exposure to prevailing wind, thermal inversions, and rain-shadow effects, that are reflected in the wide variety of flora and fauna within the ecoregion (Ricketts and others, 1999).

  9. Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) at Rocky Flats Plant: An overview of practical management issues for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwan, F.M.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the buildings at the Rocky Flats Plant were designed and built before modern standards were developed, including standards for protection against extreme natural phenomenon such as tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods. The purpose of the SEP is to establish an integrated approach to assessing the design adequacy of specific high and moderate hazard Rocky Flats facilities from a safety perspective and to establish a basis for defining any needed facility improvements. The SEP is to be carried out in three Phases. In Phase 1, topics to be evaluated and an evaluation plan for each topic were developed. Any differences between Current Design Requirements (CDR) or acceptance criteria and the design of existing facilities, will be identified during Phase 2 and assessed using an integrated systematic approach during Phase 3. The integrated assessment performed during Phase 3 provides a process for evaluating the differences between existing facility design and CDRs so that decisions on corrective actions can be made on the basis of relative risk reduction and cost effectiveness. These efforts will ensure that a balanced and integrated level of safety is achieved for long-term operation of these buildings. Through appropriate selection of topics and identification of the structures, systems, and components to be evaluated, the SEP will address outstanding design issues related to the prevention and mitigation of design basis accidents, including those arising from natural phenomena. The objective of the SEP is not to bring these buildings into strict compliance with current requirements, but rather to ensure that an adequate level of safety is achieved in an economical fashion

  10. Relationships between fish, sea urchins and macroalgae: The structure of shallow rocky sublittoral communities in the Cyclades, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Cebrian, Emma; Kokkoris, Giorgos D.; Ballesteros, Enric; Sala, Enric

    2012-08-01

    Historical overfishing is the most likely explanation for the depletion of the shallow sublittoral communities in many areas not least in the Cyclades Archipelago, Greece. The present study is the first quantitative study of the shallow rocky sublittoral of the Cyclades based on in situ underwater surveys of algal cover, and fish and sea urchin abundance at 181 sampling sites in 25 islands to provide a baseline and investigate the relationship between these communities. Algal turf was the most abundant algal functional group, and canopy algae of the genus Cystoseira were more abundant at the northern islands. A range in fish biomass of almost two orders of magnitude was found across islands, but overall the Cyclades displayed much lower values than fished areas of the Western Mediterranean. We observed apex predators only in 25% of our sampling sites, and their biomass was uncorrelated to total fish biomass, indicating a depleted ecosystem. Sea urchin biomass was also low but similar to values found in other Mediterranean islands and was positively correlated with barrens. We observed a gradient of benthic community complexity from sea urchin barrens to communities dominated by Cystoseira spp. There was no correlation between sea urchins and their predators Diplodus spp., which presented extremely low densities.

  11. Detection and characterization of benthic filamentous algal stands (Cladophora sp.) on rocky substrata using a high-frequency echosounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David C.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Smith, Ralph E.H.; Hecky, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    A high-frequency echosounder was used to detect and characterize percent cover and stand height of the benthic filamentous green alga Cladophora sp. on rocky substratum of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Comparisons between in situ observations and estimates of the algal stand characteristics (percent cover, stand height) derived from the acoustic data show good agreement for algal stands that exceeded the height threshold for detection by acoustics (~7.5 cm). Backscatter intensity and volume scattering strength were unable to provide any predictive power for estimating algal biomass. A comparative analysis between the only current commercial software (EcoSAV™) and an alternate method using a graphical user interface (GUI) written in MATLAB® confirmed previous findings that EcoSAV functions poorly in conditions where the substrate is uneven and bottom depth changes rapidly. The GUI method uses a signal processing algorithm similar to that of EcoSAV but bases bottom depth classification and algal stand height classification on adjustable thresholds that can be visualized by a trained analyst. This study documents the successful characterization of nuisance quantities of filamentous algae on hard substrate using an acoustic system and demonstrates the potential to significantly increase the efficiency of collecting information on the distribution of nuisance macroalgae. This study also highlights the need for further development of more flexible classification algorithms that can be used in a variety of aquatic ecosystems.

  12. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  13. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions...... for Harvard students) or value proposition (share messages, photos, videos, etc. with friends). Processes of configuring actors, resources, and value propositions are influenced by the structural embeddedness of the service ecosystem (e.g., regional infrastructure, existing networks of actors, or resource...... availability) as well as guided by the actors’ own and shared institutions (e.g., rules, norms,and beliefs).We contextualize each starting point with illustrative cases and analyze the service ecosystem configuration process: “Axoon/Trumpf” (initiated by resources), “JOSEPHS – the service manufactory...

  14. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ‘Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  15. Ecosystem Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research programs: analysis and modeling of ecosystems; EDFB/IBP data center; biome analysis studies; land/water interaction studies; and computer programs for development of models

  16. Mid-21st-century climate changes increase predicted fire occurrence and fire season length, Northern Rocky Mountains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Karin L.; Loehman, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes are expected to increase fire frequency, fire season length, and cumulative area burned in the western United States. We focus on the potential impact of mid-21st-century climate changes on annual burn probability, fire season length, and large fire characteristics including number and size for a study area in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Although large fires are rare they account for most of the area burned in western North America, burn under extreme weather conditions, and exhibit behaviors that preclude methods of direct control. Allocation of resources, development of management plans, and assessment of fire effects on ecosystems all require an understanding of when and where fires are likely to burn, particularly under altered climate regimes that may increase large fire occurrence. We used the large fire simulation model FSim to model ignition, growth, and containment of wildfires under two climate scenarios: contemporary (based on instrumental weather) and mid-century (based on an ensemble average of global climate models driven by the A1B SRES emissions scenario). Modeled changes in fire patterns include increased annual burn probability, particularly in areas of the study region with relatively short contemporary fire return intervals; increased individual fire size and annual area burned; and fewer years without large fires. High fire danger days, represented by threshold values of Energy Release Component (ERC), are projected to increase in number, especially in spring and fall, lengthening the climatic fire season. For fire managers, ERC is an indicator of fire intensity potential and fire economics, with higher ERC thresholds often associated with larger, more expensive fires. Longer periods of elevated ERC may significantly increase the cost and complexity of fire management activities, requiring new strategies to maintain desired ecological conditions and limit fire risk. Increased fire activity (within the historical range of

  17. Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Sveinsdottir, Thordis; Wessels, Bridgette; Smallwood, Rod; Linde, Peter; Kalla, Vasso; Tsoukala, Victoria; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable for Work Package 1 (WP1), Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems, of the EU FP7 funded project RECODE (Grant Agreement No: 321463), which focuses on developing Policy Recommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe. WP1 focuses on understanding stakeholder values and ecosystems in Open Access, dissemination and preservation in the area of scientific and scholarly data (thus not government data). The objectives of this WP are as follows: • Identify and map ...

  18. Privacy driven internet ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...

  19. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, M.-C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    impacts show that seafloor disturbance by benthic fishing is mainly attributable to trawling in the Gulf of Lion and to long lines where rocky substrates are present. The bauxite residue (red mud) expelled in the Cassidaigne canyon was seen to prevent fauna from settling at the bottom of the canyon and it covered much of the flanks. Litter was present in all of the canyons and especially in considerable quantities in the Ligurian Sea, where the heads of the canyons are closer to the coast. Three Marine Protected Areas and one fishing area with restricted access have recently been established and should permit the preservation of these deep ecosystems.

  20. 1994 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-24

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys and other wildlife monitoring performed from January through December 1994. These surveys are part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and quantifying fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in the species using the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) as year-round or seasonal habitat. Wildlife population densities vary constantly due to natural pressures, and only well-integrated, long-term monitoring can identify which factors influencing wildlife populations are a consequence of natural causes, and which are due to human activities. An integrated monitoring program that gathers data on ecologically interactive species is essential in evaluating population fluctuations. Such data can be an invaluable tool in predicting and avoiding impacts on the ecology of an area due to projected human activities. With 167 species of birds, three big game species, nine species of carnivores, nine species of mid-sized mammals, and 15 small mammal species, the Site provides habitat to a surprising variety of wildlife. Many of these species are sensitive species or indicator organisms that by their presence or, more significantly, by their absence can indicate the ecological health of an area. Their presence at the Site indicates a very healthy ecosystem.