WorldWideScience

Sample records for robotic wheelchair roaming

  1. Research on wheelchair robot control system based on EOG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang; Chen, Naijian; Han, Xiangdong; Sun, Jianbo

    2018-04-01

    The paper describes an intelligent wheelchair control system based on EOG. It can help disabled people improve their living ability. The system can acquire EOG signal from the user, detect the number of blink and the direction of glancing, and then send commands to the wheelchair robot via RS-232 to achieve the control of wheelchair robot. Wheelchair robot control system based on EOG is composed of processing EOG signal and human-computer interactive technology, which achieves a purpose of using conscious eye movement to control wheelchair robot.

  2. A Multi-Agent Control Architecture for a Robotic Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Galindo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistant robots like robotic wheelchairs can perform an effective and valuable work in our daily lives. However, they eventually may need external help from humans in the robot environment (particularly, the driver in the case of a wheelchair to accomplish safely and efficiently some tricky tasks for the current technology, i.e. opening a locked door, traversing a crowded area, etc. This article proposes a control architecture for assistant robots designed under a multi-agent perspective that facilitates the participation of humans into the robotic system and improves the overall performance of the robot as well as its dependability. Within our design, agents have their own intentions and beliefs, have different abilities (that include algorithmic behaviours and human skills and also learn autonomously the most convenient method to carry out their actions through reinforcement learning. The proposed architecture is illustrated with a real assistant robot: a robotic wheelchair that provides mobility to impaired or elderly people.

  3. A robotic wheelchair trainer: design overview and a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Experiencing independent mobility is important for children with a severe movement disability, but learning to drive a powered wheelchair can be labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist. Methods To improve accessibility to training, we developed a robotic wheelchair trainer that steers itself along a course marked by a line on the floor using computer vision, haptically guiding the driver's hand in appropriate steering motions using a force feedback joystick, as the driver tries to catch a mobile robot in a game of "robot tag". This paper provides a detailed design description of the computer vision and control system. In addition, we present data from a pilot study in which we used the chair to teach children without motor impairment aged 4-9 (n = 22) to drive the wheelchair in a single training session, in order to verify that the wheelchair could enable learning by the non-impaired motor system, and to establish normative values of learning rates. Results and Discussion Training with haptic guidance from the robotic wheelchair trainer improved the steering ability of children without motor impairment significantly more than training without guidance. We also report the results of a case study with one 8-year-old child with a severe motor impairment due to cerebral palsy, who replicated the single-session training protocol that the non-disabled children participated in. This child also improved steering ability after training with guidance from the joystick by an amount even greater than the children without motor impairment. Conclusions The system not only provided a safe, fun context for automating driver's training, but also enhanced motor learning by the non-impaired motor system, presumably by demonstrating through intuitive movement and force of the joystick itself exemplary control to follow the course. The case study indicates that a child with a motor system impaired by CP can also gain a short-term benefit

  4. Novel roaming and stationary tethered aerial robots for continuous mobile missions in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cai, Guowei; Seneviratne, Lakmal [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, new tethered aerial robots including roaming tethered aerial robots (RTARs) for radioactive material sampling and stationary tethered aerial robots (STARs) for environment monitoring are proposed to meet extremely-long-endurance missions of nuclear power plants. The flight of the proposed tethered aerial robots may last for a few days or even a few months as long as the tethered cable provides continuous power. A high voltage AC or DC power system was newly adopted to reduce the mass of the tethered cable. The RTAR uses a tethered cable spooled from the aerial robot and an aerial tension control system. The aerial tension control system provides the appropriate tension to the tethered cable, which is accordingly laid down on the ground as the RTAR roams. The STAR includes a tethered cable spooled from the ground and a ground tension control system, which enables the STAR to reach high altitudes. Prototypes of the RTAR and STAR were designed and successfully demonstrated in outdoor environments, where the load power, power type, operating frequency, and flight attitude of the RTAR and STAR were: 180 W, AC 100 kHz, and 20 m; and 300 W, AC or DC 100 kHz, and 80 m, respectively.

  5. Novel Roaming and Stationary Tethered Aerial Robots for Continuous Mobile Missions in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom W. Gu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new tethered aerial robots including roaming tethered aerial robots (RTARs for radioactive material sampling and stationary tethered aerial robots (STARs for environment monitoring are proposed to meet extremely-long-endurance missions of nuclear power plants. The flight of the proposed tethered aerial robots may last for a few days or even a few months as long as the tethered cable provides continuous power. A high voltage AC or DC power system was newly adopted to reduce the mass of the tethered cable. The RTAR uses a tethered cable spooled from the aerial robot and an aerial tension control system. The aerial tension control system provides the appropriate tension to the tethered cable, which is accordingly laid down on the ground as the RTAR roams. The STAR includes a tethered cable spooled from the ground and a ground tension control system, which enables the STAR to reach high altitudes. Prototypes of the RTAR and STAR were designed and successfully demonstrated in outdoor environments, where the load power, power type, operating frequency, and flight attitude of the RTAR and STAR were: 180 W, AC 100 kHz, and 20 m; and 300 W, AC or DC 100 kHz, and 80 m, respectively.

  6. Effectiveness of social behaviors for autonomous wheelchair robot to support elderly people in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Shiomi

    Full Text Available We developed a wheelchair robot to support the movement of elderly people and specifically implemented two functions to enhance their intention to use it: speaking behavior to convey place/location related information and speed adjustment based on individual preferences. Our study examines how the evaluations of our wheelchair robot differ when compared with human caregivers and a conventional autonomous wheelchair without the two proposed functions in a moving support context. 28 senior citizens participated in the experiment to evaluate three different conditions. Our measurements consisted of questionnaire items and the coding of free-style interview results. Our experimental results revealed that elderly people evaluated our wheelchair robot higher than the wheelchair without the two functions and the human caregivers for some items.

  7. Active Tension Control for WT Wheelchair Robot by Using a Novel Control Law for Holonomic or Nonholonomic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactional characteristics between WT wheelchair robot and stair environment are analyzed, and possible patterns of WT wheelchair robot during the stair-climbing process are summarized, with the criteria of the wheelchair robot for determining the pattern proposed. Aiming at WT wheelchair robot's complicated mechanism with holonomic constraints and combined with the computed torque method, a novel control law that is called active tension control is presented for holonomic or nonholonomic robotic systems, by which the wheelchair robot with a holonomic or nonholonomic mechanism can track the reference input of the constraint forces of holonomic or nonholonomic constraints as well as tracking the reference input of the generalized coordinate of each joint. A stateflow module of Matlab is used to simulate the entire stair-climbing process for WT wheelchair robot. A comparison of output curve with the reference input curve of each joint is made, with the effectiveness of the presented control law verified.

  8. Development of an advanced mobile base for personal mobility and manipulation appliance generation II robotic wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwu; Candiotti, Jorge; Shino, Motoki; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Grindle, Garrett G; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a mobile base for the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance Generation II (PerMMA Gen II robotic wheelchair), an obstacle-climbing wheelchair able to move in structured and unstructured environments, and to climb over curbs as high as 8 inches. The mechanical, electrical, and software systems of the mobile base are presented in detail, and similar devices such as the iBOT mobility system, TopChair, and 6X6 Explorer are described. The mobile base of PerMMA Gen II has two operating modes: "advanced driving mode" on flat and uneven terrain, and "automatic climbing mode" during stair climbing. The different operating modes are triggered either by local and dynamic conditions or by external commands from users. A step-climbing sequence, up to 0.2 m, is under development and to be evaluated via simulation. The mathematical model of the mobile base is introduced. A feedback and a feed-forward controller have been developed to maintain the posture of the passenger when driving over uneven surfaces or slopes. The effectiveness of the controller has been evaluated by simulation using the open dynamics engine tool. Future work for PerMMA Gen II mobile base is implementation of the simulation and control on a real system and evaluation of the system via further experimental tests.

  9. Human-machine interface based on muscular and brain signals applied to a robotic wheelchair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, A; Silva, R L; Celeste, W C; Filho, T F Bastos; Filho, M Sarcinelli

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) based on the signals generated by eye blinks or brain activity. The system structure and the signal acquisition and processing are shown. The signals used in this work are either the signal associated to the muscular movement corresponding to an eye blink or the brain signal corresponding to visual information processing. The variance is the feature extracted from such signals in order to detect the intention of the user. The classification is performed by a variance threshold which is experimentally determined for each user during the training stage. The command options, which are going to be sent to the commanded device, are presented to the user in the screen of a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). In the experiments here reported, a robotic wheelchair is used as the device being commanded

  10. Human-machine interface based on muscular and brain signals applied to a robotic wheelchair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, A; Silva, R L; Celeste, W C; Filho, T F Bastos; Filho, M Sarcinelli [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES), Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Vitoria, 29075-910 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) based on the signals generated by eye blinks or brain activity. The system structure and the signal acquisition and processing are shown. The signals used in this work are either the signal associated to the muscular movement corresponding to an eye blink or the brain signal corresponding to visual information processing. The variance is the feature extracted from such signals in order to detect the intention of the user. The classification is performed by a variance threshold which is experimentally determined for each user during the training stage. The command options, which are going to be sent to the commanded device, are presented to the user in the screen of a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). In the experiments here reported, a robotic wheelchair is used as the device being commanded.

  11. Collaborative Assistive Robot for Mobility Enhancement (CARMEN) The bare necessities assisted wheelchair navigation and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Urdiales, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In nowadays aging society, many people require mobility assistance. Sometimes, assistive devices need a certain degree of autonomy when users' disabilities difficult manual control. However, clinicians report that excessive assistance may lead to loss of residual skills and frustration. Shared control focuses on deciding when users need help and providing it. Collaborative control aims at giving just the right amount of help in a transparent, seamless way. This book presents the collaborative control paradigm. User performance may be indicative of physical/cognitive condition, so it is used to decide how much help is needed. Besides, collaborative control integrates machine and user commands so that people contribute to self-motion at all times. Collaborative control was extensively tested for 3 years using a robotized wheelchair at a rehabilitation hospital in Rome with volunteer inpatients presenting different disabilities, ranging from mild to severe. We also present a taxonomy of common metrics for wheelc...

  12. Position Based Visual Servoing control of a Wheelchair Mounter Robotic Arm using Parallel Tracking and Mapping of task objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Palla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years power wheelchairs have been becoming the only device able to provide autonomy and independence to people with motor skill impairments. In particular, many power wheelchairs feature robotic arms for gesture emulation, like the interaction with objects. However, complex robotic arms often require a joystic to be controlled; this feature make the arm hard to be controlled by impaired users. Paradoxically, if the user were able to proficiently control such devices, he would not need them. For that reason, this paper presents a highly autonomous robotic arm, designed in order to minimize the effort necessary for the control of the arm. In order to do that, the arm feature an easy to use human - machine interface and is controlled by Computer Vison algorithm, implementing a Position Based Visual Servoing (PBVS control. It was realized by extracting features by the camera and fusing them with the distance from the target, obtained by a proximity sensor. The Parallel Tracking and Mapping (PTAM algorithm was used to find the 3D position of the task object in the camera reference system. The visual servoing algorithm was implemented in an embedded platform, in real time. Each part of the control loop was developed in Robotic Operative System (ROS Environment, which allows to implement the previous algorithms as different nodes. Theoretical analysis, simulations and in system measurements proved the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  13. Comparison of Healthcare Workers Transferring Patients Using Either Conventional Or Robotic Wheelchairs: Kinematic, Electromyographic, and Electrocardiographic Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Matsumoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the musculoskeletal and physical strain on healthcare workers, by measuring range of motion (ROM, muscle activity, and heart rate (HR, during transfer of a simulated patient using either a robotic wheelchair (RWC or a conventional wheelchair (CWC. Methods. The subjects were 10 females who had work experience in transferring patients and another female adult as the simulated patient to be transferred from bed to a RWC or a CWC. In both experimental conditions, ROM, muscle activity, and HR were assessed in the subjects using motion sensors, electromyography, and electrocardiograms. Results. Peak ROM of shoulder flexion during assistive transfer with the RWC was significantly lower than that with the CWC. Values for back muscle activity during transfer were lower with the RWC than with the CWC. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the RWC may decrease workplace injuries and lower back pain in healthcare workers.

  14. Prediction of User Preference over Shared Control Paradigms for a Robotic Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-20

    were mostly naive to wheelchair driving . The overall experiment was divided into four phases, each of which started two meters away from a door (t = t0...effective and efficient navigation assistance. Significantly less attention has been given to the end-user’s preference between different assistance...wheelchairs has traditionally focused heavily on providing effective and efficient navigation assistance. Significantly less attention has been given to

  15. Seat Adjustment Design of an Intelligent Robotic Wheelchair Based on the Stewart Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Er Hsu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A wheelchair user makes direct contact with the wheelchair seat, which serves as the interface between the user and the wheelchair, for much of any given day. Seat adjustment design is of crucial importance in providing proper seating posture and comfort. This paper presents a multiple-DOF (degrees of freedom seat adjustment mechanism, which is intended to increase the independence of the wheelchair user while maintaining a concise structure, light weight, and intuitive control interface. This four-axis Stewart platform is capable of heaving, pitching, and swaying to provide seat elevation, tilt-in-space, and sideways movement functions. The geometry and types of joints of this mechanism are carefully arranged so that only one actuator needs to be controlled, enabling the wheelchair user to adjust the seat by simply pressing a button. The seat is also equipped with soft pressure-sensing pads to provide pressure management by adjusting the seat mechanism once continuous and concentrated pressure is detected. Finally, by comparing with the manual wheelchair, the proposed mechanism demonstrated the easier and more convenient operation with less effort for transfer assistance.

  16. Satisfaction and perceptions of long-term manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury upon completion of a locomotor training program with an overground robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dany H; Vermette, Martin; Duclos, Cyril; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Ahmed, Sara; Kairy, Dahlia

    2017-12-19

    The main objectives of this study were to quantify clients' satisfaction and perception upon completion of a locomotor training program with an overground robotic exoskeleton. A group of 14 wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury, who finished a 6-8-week locomotor training program with the robotic exoskeleton (18 training sessions), were invited to complete a web-based electronic questionnaire. This questionnaire encompassed 41 statements organized around seven key domains: overall satisfaction related to the training program, satisfaction related to the overground robotic exoskeleton, satisfaction related to the program attributes, perceived learnability, perceived health benefits and risks and perceived motivation to engage in physical activity. Each statement was rated using a visual analogue scale ranging from "0 = totally disagree" to "100 = completely agree". Overall, respondents unanimously considered themselves satisfied with the locomotor training program with the robotic exoskeleton (95.7 ± 0.7%) and provided positive feedback about the robotic exoskeleton itself (82.3 ± 6.9%), the attributes of the locomotor training program (84.5 ± 6.9%) and their ability to learn to perform sit-stand transfers and walk with the robotic exoskeleton (79.6 ± 17%). Respondents perceived some health benefits (67.9 ± 16.7%) and have reported no fear of developing secondary complications or of potential risk for themselves linked to the use of the robotic exoskeleton (16.7 ± 8.2%). At the end of the program, respondents felt motivated to engage in a regular physical activity program (91.3 ± 0.1%). This study provides new insights on satisfaction and perceptions of wheelchair users while also confirming the relevance to continue to improve such technologies, and informing the development of future clinical trials. Implications for Rehabilitation All long-term manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury who participated in the

  17. Smart wheelchairs: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard C

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that both children and adults benefit substantially from access to a means of independent mobility. While the needs of many individuals with disabilities can be satisfied with traditional manual or powered wheelchairs, a segment of the disabled community finds it difficult or impossible to use wheelchairs independently. To accommodate this population, researchers have used technologies originally developed for mobile robots to create "smart wheelchairs." Smart wheelchairs have been the subject of research since the early 1980s and have been developed on four continents. This article presents a summary of the current state of the art and directions for future research.

  18. Wheelchair-mounted robotic arm to hold and move a communication device - final design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Graham; Kurley, Kyle; Brauchie, Casey; Morton, Scott; Barrett, Steven

    2015-01-01

    At the 51st Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium we presented a preliminary design for a robotic arm to assist an individual living within an assistive technology smart home. The individual controls much of their environment with a Dynavox Maestro communication device. However, the device obstructs the individual’s line of site when navigating about the smart home. A robotic arm was developed to move the communication device in and out of the user’s field of view as desired. The robotic arm is controlled by a conveniently mounted jelly switch. The jelly switch sends control signals to a four state (up, off, down, off) single-axis robotic arm interfaced to a DC motor by high power electronic relays. This paper describes the system, control circuitry, and multiple safety features. The arm will be delivered for use later in 2015.

  19. A Low-Cost Tele-Presence Wheelchair System

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jiajun; Xu, Bin; Pei, Mingtao; Jia, Yunde

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture and implementation of a tele-presence wheelchair system based on tele-presence robot, intelligent wheelchair, and touch screen technologies. The tele-presence wheelchair system consists of a commercial electric wheelchair, an add-on tele-presence interaction module, and a touchable live video image based user interface (called TIUI). The tele-presence interaction module is used to provide video-chatting for an elderly or disabled person with the family mem...

  20. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  1. High-Order Sliding Mode-Based Synchronous Control of a Novel Stair-Climbing Wheelchair Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Juanxiu; Wu, Yifei; Guo, Jian; Chen, Qingwei

    2015-01-01

    For the attitude control of a novel stair-climbing wheelchair with inertial uncertainties and external disturbance torques, a new synchronous control method is proposed via combing high-order sliding mode control techniques with cross-coupling techniques. For this purpose, a proper controller is designed, which can improve the performance of the system under conditions of uncertainties and torque perturbations and also can guarantee the synchronization of the system. Firstly, a robust high-or...

  2. Cardiorespiratory demand and rate of perceived exertion during overground walking with a robotic exoskeleton in long-term manual wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injury: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Manuel J; Brosseau, Rachel; Vermette, Martin; Comtois, Alain Steve; Duclos, Cyril; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Gagnon, Dany H

    2018-07-01

    Many wheelchair users adopt a sedentary lifestyle, which results in progressive physical deconditioning with increased risk of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and endocrine/metabolic morbidity and mortality. Engaging in a walking program with an overground robotic exoskeleton may be an effective strategy for mitigating these potential negative health consequences and optimizing fitness in this population. However, additional research is warranted to inform the development of adapted physical activity programs incorporating this technology. To determine cardiorespiratory demands during sitting, standing and overground walking with a robotic exoskeleton and to verify whether such overground walking results in at least moderate-intensity physical exercise. We enrolled 13 long-term wheelchair users with complete motor spinal cord injury in a walking program with an overground robotic exoskeleton. Cardiorespiratory measures and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded by using a portable gas analyzer system during sitting, standing and four 10m walking tasks with the robotic exoskeleton. Each participant also performed an arm crank ergometer test to determine maximal cardiorespiratory ability (i.e., peak heart rate and O 2 uptake [HR peak , VO 2peak ]). Cardiorespiratory measures increased by a range of 9%-35% from sitting to standing and further increased by 22%-52% from standing to walking with the robotic exoskeleton. During walking, median oxygen cost (O 2Walking ), relative HR (%HR peak ), relative O 2 consumption (%VO 2peak ) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) reached 0.29mL/kg/m, 82.9%, 41.8% and 0.9, respectively, whereas median RPE reached 3.2/10. O 2Walking was moderately influenced by total number of sessions and steps taken with the robotic exoskeleton since the start of the walking program. Overground walking with the robotic exoskeleton over a short distance allowed wheelchair users to achieve a moderate-intensity level of exercise. Hence, an

  3. High-Order Sliding Mode-Based Synchronous Control of a Novel Stair-Climbing Wheelchair Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanxiu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the attitude control of a novel stair-climbing wheelchair with inertial uncertainties and external disturbance torques, a new synchronous control method is proposed via combing high-order sliding mode control techniques with cross-coupling techniques. For this purpose, a proper controller is designed, which can improve the performance of the system under conditions of uncertainties and torque perturbations and also can guarantee the synchronization of the system. Firstly, a robust high-order sliding mode control law is designed to track the desired position trajectories effectively. Secondly, considering the coordination of the multiple joints, a high-order sliding mode synchronization controller is designed to reduce the synchronization errors and tracking errors based on the controller designed previously. Stability of the closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov theory. The simulation is performed by MATLAB to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller. By comparing the simulation results of two controllers, it is obvious that the proposed scheme has better performance and stronger robustness.

  4. Employees Who Use Wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person who uses a wheelchair, do not lean on the wheelchair unless you have permission to ... currently no specific federal requirements regarding ergonomics for office workers. However, there has been some effort to ...

  5. Gardening from a Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Gardening from a wheelchair Gardening from a wheelchair ☷ ▾ Page contents Tips from community ... round handles) on gate latches, doors, and faucets. Gardening as therapy For Gene Rothert gardening is a ...

  6. Wheelchairs propulsion analysis: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Sagawa Júnior

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze aspects related with wheelchair propulsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to delineate this review the search for information was carried out within electronics databases, using the following descriptors: "wheelchair propulsion", "wheelchair biomechanics" e "wheelchair users". Full papers published in English and French were included in the study. RESULTS: The wheelchair propulsion is a complex movement that requires the execution of repeated bi manual forces applications during a short time period. In this movement high levels of force must be produced due to the bad mechanical performance of the wheelchair. Could be characterized that wheelchair users are not satisfied with their wheelchair, the places are not adapted to their presence and lack of specific criteria for the adjustment of this equipment. The main points to look at are the seat height in relation to elbow flexion (100-120 degrees with his hand in the propulsion rim and tire pressure. The semicircular mode of technique propulsion seems to be more appropriate; in this pattern the wheelchair user returns his hand under the rim after propulsion. Efforts in wheelchairs are high and the incidence of injuries in wheelchair users is high. CONCLUSION: One can conclude that in spite of researchers’ efforts there are still many divergences between topics and methods of evaluation, what makes difficult to apply the experimental results to the wheelchairs users’ daily life.

  7. A qualitative examination of wheelchair configuration for optimal mobility performance in wheelchair sports : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; Porcellato, Lorna; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    Objective: To examine wheelchair athletes' perceptions of wheelchair configuration in relation to aspects of mobility performance. Methods: Nine elite wheelchair athletes from wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby and wheelchair tennis were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Interview

  8. Improving Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, Thom T.J.; De Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; van der Slikke, Rienk M A; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; Hoozemans, Marco J M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate which characteristics of athlete, wheelchair and athlete-wheelchair interface are the best predictors of wheelchair basketball mobility performance. DESIGN: Sixty experienced wheelchair basketball players performed a wheelchair mobility performance test to

  9. Efforts toward an autonomous wheelchair - biomed 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven; Streeter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    An autonomous wheelchair is in development to provide mobility to those with significant physical challenges. The overall goal of the project is to develop a wheelchair that is fully autonomous with the ability to navigate about an environment and negotiate obstacles. As a starting point for the project, we have reversed engineered the joystick control system of an off-the-shelf commercially available wheelchair. The joystick control has been replaced with a microcontroller based system. The microcontroller has the capability to interface with a number of subsystems currently under development including wheel odometers, obstacle avoidance sensors, and ultrasonic-based wall sensors. This paper will discuss the microcontroller based system and provide a detailed system description. Results of this study may be adapted to commercial or military robot control.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Two Wheelchair Accessories for Pushing Doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Soran Jalal; Shaikh Mohammed, Javeed

    2017-03-27

    Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products. Therefore, the current manuscript presents the modeling and simulation of a novel but simple technology in the form of a passive wheelchair accessory (straight, arm-like with a single wheel, and arc-shaped with multiple wheels) for pushing doors open from a wheelchair. From the simulations using different wheel shapes and sizes, it was found that the arc-shaped accessory could push open the doors faster and with almost half the required force as compared to the arm-like accessory. Also, smaller spherical wheels were found to be best in terms of reaction forces on the wheels. Prototypes based on the arc-shaped accessory design will be manufactured and evaluated for pushing doors open and dodging or gliding other obstacles.

  11. International Roaming of Mobile Services: The Need for Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section discusses the need for regulation of international roaming charges. This is done through analysis of the EU experiences by a heavy handed price regulation of roaming services.......This section discusses the need for regulation of international roaming charges. This is done through analysis of the EU experiences by a heavy handed price regulation of roaming services....

  12. DESIGN OF A TRANSMISSION INTENDED TO WHEELCHAIRS FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut GEONEA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the authors contributions on designing and evaluation of a mechanical transmission intended to be used to wheelchairs for disabled people. In most cases the wheelchairs propulsion system solution consist of two DC motors, mounted on wheels shafts directly, or by means an intermediary transmission with chains or belts. In this case the wheelchair must be equipped with a controller, generally based on a PWM technology. Proposed solution consists of a mechanical transmission based on differential gears, which uses two motors, for steering and for propulsion. For this design architecture the control solution is much simple and easy cost to design, consisting in one servo controller for two motors. Based on dimensional synthesis of transmission gears, is developed the design solution of the robotic wheelchair. The wheelchair motion simulation is studied in Adams software, for the case of traction, steering and combined motion. From Adams simulations are obtained the wheelchair motion trajectories, kinematic and dynamic parameters. Obtained results are analyzed and compared to other wheelchairs design solution, concluding that proposed design solution of this transmission can be successful used to a wheelchair experimental prototype.

  13. Workshop on Roaming and Cold Molecule Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    dynamics related to roaming. The speakers were all at the top of these fields and the graduate students and postdocs who attended were thus exposed...dynamics related to roaming. The speakers were all at the top of these fields and the graduate students and postdocs who attended were thus exposed to...mathematics, engineering or technology fields: Student Metrics This section only applies to graduating undergraduates supported by this agreement in

  14. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E. P.; Iurevich, E. I.

    The history and the current status of robotics are reviewed, as are the design, operation, and principal applications of industrial robots. Attention is given to programmable robots, robots with adaptive control and elements of artificial intelligence, and remotely controlled robots. The applications of robots discussed include mechanical engineering, cargo handling during transportation and storage, mining, and metallurgy. The future prospects of robotics are briefly outlined.

  15. Important wheelchair skills for new manual wheelchair users: health care professional and wheelchair user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kerri A; Engsberg, Jack R; Gray, David B

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify wheelchair skills currently being taught to new manual wheelchair users, identify areas of importance for manual wheelchair skills' training during initial rehabilitation, identify similarities and differences between the perspectives of health care professionals and manual wheelchair users and use the ICF to organize themes related to rehabilitation and learning how to use a manual wheelchair. Focus groups were conducted with health care professionals and experienced manual wheelchair users. ICF codes were used to identify focus group themes. The Activities and Participation codes were more frequently used than Structure, Function and Environment codes. Wheelchair skills identified as important for new manual wheelchair users included propulsion techniques, transfers in an out of the wheelchair, providing maintenance to the wheelchair and navigating barriers such as curbs, ramps and rough terrain. Health care professionals and manual wheelchair users identified the need to incorporate the environment (home and community) into the wheelchair training program. Identifying essential components for training the proper propulsion mechanics and wheelchair skills in new manual wheelchair users is an important step in preventing future health and participation restrictions. Implications for Rehabilitation Wheelchair skills are being addressed frequently during rehabilitation at the activity-dependent level. Propulsion techniques, transfers in an out of the wheelchair, providing maintenance to the wheelchair and navigating barriers such as curbs, ramps and rough terrain are important skills to address during wheelchair training. Environment factors (in the home and community) are important to incorporate into wheelchair training to maximize safe and multiple-environmental-setting uses of manual wheelchairs. The ICF has application to understanding manual wheelchair rehabilitation for wheelchair users and therapists for improving

  16. Capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering patterns with mobile cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework.

  17. Free roaming dogs and the communities' knowledge, attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free roaming dogs and the communities' knowledge, attitude and practices of ... Understanding the dynamics of free roaming dog populations is, thus, a step to ... and other related costs), public health impact and social value of the disease.

  18. Locomotor training using an overground robotic exoskeleton in long-term manual wheelchair users with a chronic spinal cord injury living in the community: Lessons learned from a feasibility study in terms of recruitment, attendance, learnability, performance and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dany H; Escalona, Manuel J; Vermette, Martin; Carvalho, Lívia P; Karelis, Antony D; Duclos, Cyril; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2018-03-01

    For individuals who sustain a complete motor spinal cord injury (SCI) and rely on a wheelchair as their primary mode of locomotion, overground robotic exoskeletons represent a promising solution to stand and walk again. Although overground robotic exoskeletons have gained tremendous attention over the past decade and are now being transferred from laboratories to clinical settings, their effects remain unclear given the paucity of scientific evidence and the absence of large-scale clinical trials. This study aims to examine the feasibility of a locomotor training program with an overground robotic exoskeleton in terms of recruitment, attendance, and drop-out rates as well as walking performance, learnability, and safety. Individuals with a SCI were invited to participate in a 6 to 8-week locomotor training program with a robotic exoskeleton encompassing 18 sessions. Selected participants underwent a comprehensive screening process and completed two familiarization sessions with the robotic exoskeleton. The outcome measures were the rate of recruitment of potential participants, the rate of attendance at training sessions, the rate of drop-outs, the ability to walk with the exoskeleton, and its progression over the program as well as the adverse events. Out of 49 individuals who expressed their interest in participating in the study, only 14 initiated the program (recruitment rate = 28.6%). Of these, 13 individuals completed the program (drop-out rate = 7.1%) and attended 17.6 ± 1.1 sessions (attendance rate = 97.9%). Their greatest standing time, walking time, and number of steps taken during a session were 64.5 ± 10.2 min, 47.2 ± 11.3 min, and 1843 ± 577 steps, respectively. During the training program, these last three parameters increased by 45.3%, 102.1%, and 248.7%, respectively. At the end of the program, when walking with the exoskeleton, most participants required one therapist (85.7%), needed stand-by or contact

  19. Robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS

  20. EEG Controlled Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Sim Kok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a brainwave controlled wheelchair. The main objective of this project is to construct a wheelchair which can be directly controlled by the brain without requires any physical feedback as controlling input from the user. The method employed in this project is the Brain-computer Interface (BCI, which enables direct communication between the brain and the electrical wheelchair. The best method for recording the brain’s activity is electroencephalogram (EEG. EEG signal is also known as brainwaves signal. The device that used for capturing the EEG signal is the Emotiv EPOC headset. This headset is able to transmit the EEG signal wirelessly via Bluetooth to the PC (personal computer. By using the PC software, the EEG signals are processed and converted into mental command. According to the mental command (e.g. forward, left... obtained, the output electrical signal is sent out to the electrical wheelchair to perform the desired movement. Thus, in this project, a computer software is developed for translating the EEG signal into mental commands and transmitting out the controlling signal wirelessly to the electrical wheelchair.

  1. Is any wheelchair better than no wheelchair? A Zimbabwean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within a rights-based paradigm, wheelchairs are essential in the promotion of user autonomy, dignity, freedom, inclusion and participation. Objectives: This paper aimed to describe a group of Zimbabwean wheelchair users’ satisfaction with wheelchairs, wheelchair services and wheelchair function. Method: A mixed method, descriptive study was done. Quantitative data was collected from 94 consecutively sampled wheelchair users, who accessed wheelchair services at 16 clinics in five Zimbabwean provinces between October 2013 and February 2014, using the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology for adults and children and Functioning Every day with a Wheelchair questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected through two focus group discussions (22 participants and two case studies with participants purposively sampled from those who participated in the quantitative phase. Results: More than 60% of participants were dissatisfied with the following wheelchair features: durability (78.6%, weight (75.6%, ease of adjustment (69.1%, effectiveness (69.0%, safety (66.7%, reliability (66.7%, and meeting user needs (60.6%. Similarly, more than 66% of participants were dissatisfied with various services aspects: professional services (69.0%, follow-up (67.0%, and service delivery (68.3%. Although 60% of participants agreed that the wheelchair contributed to specific functions, more than 50% of participants indicated that the features of the wheelchair did not allow in- (53.2% and outdoor (52.7% mobility. Conclusion: Findings indicate high levels of dissatisfaction with wheelchair features and services, as well as mobility. It is recommended that policy and minimum service standards which incorporate evidence and good practice guidelines for wheelchair services and management of wheelchair donations are developed for Zimbabwe.

  2. Robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorino, P; Altwegg, J M

    1985-05-01

    This article, which is aimed at the general reader, examines latest developments in, and the role of, modern robotics. The 7 main sections are sub-divided into 27 papers presented by 30 authors. The sections are as follows: 1) The role of robotics, 2) Robotics in the business world and what it can offer, 3) Study and development, 4) Utilisation, 5) Wages, 6) Conditions for success, and 7) Technological dynamics.

  3. Wheelchair-related accidents: relationship with wheelchair-using behavior in active community wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Yin; Jang, Yuh; Wang, Jung-Der; Huang, Wen-Ni; Chang, Chan-Chia; Mao, Hui-Fen; Wang, Yen-Ho

    2011-06-01

    To report the prevalence, mechanisms, self-perceived causes, consequences, and wheelchair-using behaviors associated with wheelchair-related accidents. A case-control study. Community. A sample of experienced, community-dwelling, active manual and powered wheelchair users (N=95) recruited from a hospital assistive technology service center. Not applicable. Wheelchair-using behaviors, wheelchair-related accidents over a 3-year period, and the mechanisms and consequences of the accidents. Among the 95 participants, 52 (54.7%) reported at least 1 accident and 16 (16.8%) reported 2 or more accidents during the 3 years prior to the interview. A total of 74 accidents, were categorized into tips and falls (87.8%), accidental contact (6.8%), and dangerous operations (5.4%). A logistic regression found individuals who failed to maintain their wheelchairs regularly (odds ratio [OR]=11.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.62-48.61) and used a wheelchair not prescribed by professionals (OR=4.31; 95% CI, 1.10-16.82) had significantly greater risks of accidents. In addition to the risk factor, lack of regular wheelchair maintenance, the Poisson regression corroborated the other risk factor, seat belts not used (incident rate ratio=2.14; 95% CI, 1.08-4.14), for wheelchair-related accidents. Wheelchair-related accidents are closely related to their wheelchair-using behaviors. Services including professional evaluation, repair, maintenance, and an educational program on proper wheelchair use may decrease the risks of wheelchair accidents. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  5. Sliding Mode Control for Trajectory Tracking of an Intelligent Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan SOLEA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deal with a robust sliding-mode trajectory tracking controller, fornonholonomic wheeled mobile robots and its experimental evaluation by theimplementation in an intelligent wheelchair (RobChair. The proposed control structureis based on two nonlinear sliding surfaces ensuring the tracking of the three outputvariables, with respect to the nonholonomic constraint. The performances of theproposed controller for the trajectory planning problem with comfort constraint areverified through the real time acceleration provided by an inertial measurement unit.

  6. Crime and punishment in a roaming cleanerfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Suzanne C; Côté, Isabelle M

    2010-12-07

    Cheating is common in cooperative interactions, but its occurrence can be controlled by various means ranging from rewarding cooperators to active punishment of cheaters. Punishment occurs in the mutualism involving the cleanerfish Labroides dimidiatus and its reef fish clients. When L. dimidiatus cheats, by taking scales and mucus rather than ectoparasites, wronged clients either chase or withhold further visits to the dishonest cleaner, which leads to more cooperative future interactions. Punishment of cheating L. dimidiatus may be effective largely because these cleaners are strictly site-attached, increasing the potential for repeated interactions between individual cleaners and clients. Here, we contrast the patterns of cheating and punishment in L. dimidiatus with its close relative, the less site-attached Labroides bicolor. Overall, L. bicolor had larger home ranges, cheated more often and, contrary to our prediction, were punished by cheated clients as frequently as, and not less often than, L. dimidiatus. However, adult L. bicolor, which had the largest home ranges, did not cheat more than younger conspecifics, suggesting that roaming, and hence the frequency of repeated interactions, has little influence on cheating and retaliation in cleaner-client relationships. We suggest that roaming cleaners offer the only option available to many site-attached reef fish seeking a cleaning service. This asymmetry in scope for partner choice encourages dishonesty by the partner with more options (i.e. L. bicolor), but to be cleaned by a cleaner that sometimes cheats may be a better option than not to be cleaned at all.

  7. Robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    netic induction to detect an object. The development of ... end effector, inclination of object, magnetic and electric fields, etc. The sensors described ... In the case of a robot, the various actuators and motors have to be modelled. The major ...

  8. Eduroam: Secure WiFi roaming for education and research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Miteff, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author introduces the Eduroam initiative, and explains how it combines existing wireless security technologies in a novel way, to enable secure global roaming for end users at university campuses and research institutions....

  9. Designing of Roaming Protocol for Bluetooth Equipped Multi Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Fazli; Hasbullah, Halabi B.

    Bluetooth is an established standard for low cost, low power, wireless personal area network. Currently, Bluetooth does not support any roaming protocol in which handoff occurs dynamically when a Bluetooth device is moving out of the piconet. If a device is losing its connection to the master device, no provision is made to transfer it to another master. Handoff is not possible in a piconet, as in order to stay within the network, a slave would have to keep the same master. So, by definition intra-handoff is not possible within a piconet. This research mainly focuses on Bluetooth technology and designing a roaming protocol for Bluetooth equipped multi agent systems. A mathematical model is derived for an agent. The idea behind the mathematical model is to know when to initiate the roaming process for an agent. A desired trajectory for the agent is calculated using its x and y coordinates system, and is simulated in SIMULINK. Various roaming techniques are also studied and discussed. The advantage of designing a roaming protocol is to ensure the Bluetooth enabled roaming devices can freely move inside the network coverage without losing its connection or break of service in case of changing the base stations.

  10. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  11. Optimum cycle frequencies in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; Sargeant, A J

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of different cycle frequencies on cardio-respiratory responses and propulsion technique in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion, experienced wheelchair sportsmen (WS group; n = 6) and non-wheelchair users (NW group; n = 6) performed wheelchair exercise tests on a motor-driven

  12. Wheelchair service provision education in academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H. Fung

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The majority of the educational institutions teach wheelchair education; however, there is great variability in what and how it is taught and evaluated. The results demonstrate the need for more in-depth investigation regarding the integration process of wheelchair education in educational institutions, with the ultimate goal of improving wheelchair service provision worldwide.

  13. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  14. Regulation of international roaming data services within the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Europe has been the first region to intervene on the market for international roaming services. The first regulation was introduced in 2007 and has since then been revised several times. The latest revision took place in the summer 2012. This paper discusses the new legislation in view of recent...... market developments from a technological, economic and a regulatory perspective. The paper concludes that roaming charges have been reduced substantially since the introduction of prices caps, but still the charges are far above a level, which can be justified by the production costs. A number...... of alternatives to tradition roaming have been developed, but so far their impact on competition have been limited, and it will take some years before the present regulation can be lifted....

  15. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rory A; De Luigi, Arthur Jason

    2014-08-01

    Wheelchair sports are an important tool in the rehabilitation of people with severe chronic disabilities and have been a driving force for innovation in technology and practice. In this paper, we will present an overview of the adaptive technology used in Paralympic sports with a special focus on wheeled technology and the impact of design on performance (defined as achieving the greatest level of athletic ability and minimizing the risk of injury). Many advances in manual wheelchairs trace their origins to wheelchair sports. Features of wheelchairs that were used for racing and basketball 25 or more years ago have become integral to the manual wheelchairs that people now use every day; moreover, the current components used on ultralight wheelchairs also have benefitted from technological advances developed for sports wheelchairs. For example, the wheels now used on chairs for daily mobility incorporate many of the components first developed for sports chairs. Also, advances in manufacturing and the availability of aerospace materials have driven current wheelchair design and manufacture. Basic principles of sports wheelchair design are universal across sports and include fit; minimizing weight while maintaining high stiffness; minimizing rolling resistance; and optimizing the sports-specific design of the chair. However, a well-designed and fitted wheelchair is not sufficient for optimal sports performance: the athlete must be well trained, skilled, and use effective biomechanics because wheelchair athletes face some unique biomechanical challenges. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 36 CFR 261.23 - Wild free-roaming horses and burros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild free-roaming horses and... AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.23 Wild free-roaming horses and burros. The following are prohibited: (a) Removing or attempting to remove a wild free-roaming horse or burro from the National Forest...

  17. 76 FR 26199 - Reexamination of Roaming Obligations of Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... to ensure that smaller, rural and mid-tier carriers invest now in LTE, they need to know that they will have access to LTE roaming once they have upgraded. 8. The availability of roaming arrangements... data roaming rule, providers will have the ability to negotiate commercially reasonable measures to...

  18. Development of Android Based Powered Intelligent Wheelchair for Quadriplegic Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tathagata; Kumar, Pradeep; Bhawna, Shruthi. S.

    2017-08-01

    Several surveys give us the view that both children and adults benefit substantially from access towards independent mobility. With the inventions of technology, no individuals are satisfied with traditional manual operated machines. To accommodate population, researchers are using technology, originally developed for mobile robots to create ‘intelligent wheelchairs’. It’s a major challenge for quadriplegic persons as they really find it difficult to manipulate powered wheelchair during the activities of their daily living. As the Smartphone era has evolved with innovative android based applications, engineers are improving and trying to make such machines simple and cheap to the next level. In this paper, we present a development of android based powered intelligent wheelchair to assist the quadriplegic person by making them self sufficient in controlling the wheelchair. The wheels of the chair can be controlled by the voice or gesture movement or by touching the screen of the android app by the challenged persons. The system uses the Bluetooth communication to interface the microcontroller and the inbuilt sensors in the android Smartphone. According to the commands received from android phone, the kinematics of the wheels are controlled.

  19. Context-Based Filtering for Assisted Brain-Actuated Wheelchair Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolf Vanacker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling a robotic device by using human brain signals is an interesting and challenging task. The device may be complicated to control and the nonstationary nature of the brain signals provides for a rather unstable input. With the use of intelligent processing algorithms adapted to the task at hand, however, the performance can be increased. This paper introduces a shared control system that helps the subject in driving an intelligent wheelchair with a noninvasive brain interface. The subject's steering intentions are estimated from electroencephalogram (EEG signals and passed through to the shared control system before being sent to the wheelchair motors. Experimental results show a possibility for significant improvement in the overall driving performance when using the shared control system compared to driving without it. These results have been obtained with 2 healthy subjects during their first day of training with the brain-actuated wheelchair.

  20. Relationship between wheelchair durability and wheelchair type and years of test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwu; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Pearlman, Jon; Cooper, Rosemarie; Jefferds, Alexandra; Connor, Sam; Cooper, Rory A

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the durability of wheelchairs according to American National Standard for Wheechairs/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (ANSI/RESNA) Wheelchair Standards and wheelchair type as well as year of test. A retrospective study design with a sample of 246 wheelchairs that were tested in accordance with the ANSI/RESNA standards from 1992 to 2008 including four types of wheelchairs: manual wheelchair (MWC), electrical powered wheelchair (EPW), scooters and pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchair (PAPAW). Unconditional binary logic regression analysis was chosen to evaluate the relationship between test results and test year as well as wheelchair type. Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center. Wheelchair durability test result (fatigue test: pass or fail) There was no significant correlation between the year when tested and equivalent cycles. A significant relation was found between test results and wheelchair type (Wald score = 10.845, degree of freedom = 3, p = 0.013) with scooters having a significantly higher pass ratio than MWC (OR = 15.629, 95% CI = 2.026-120.579). EPW also had significantly higher pass ratio than MWC (OR = 1.953, 95% CI = 1.049-3.636). No significant difference on pass ratio was found between PAPAW and MWC. No significant improvements in wheelchair test results during the time frame from 1992 to 2008 were discovered. Wheelchair standard tests should be conducted to assure minimum quality of the wheelchairs and for improving the design of wheelchairs. Although the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair durability test procedures have remained consistent, it does not appear that the introduction of new materials, designs and the availability of test data have improved wheelchair fatigue life.

  1. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  2. Impact of Mass and Weight Distribution on Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Huang, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Propulsion effort of manual wheelchairs, a major determinant of user mobility, is a function of human biomechanics and mechanical design. Human studies that investigate both variables simultaneously have resulted in largely inconsistent outcomes, motivating the implementation of a robotic propulsion system that characterizes the inherent mechanical performance of wheelchairs. This study investigates the impacts of mass and mass distribution on manual wheelchair propulsion by configuring an ultra-lightweight chair to two weights (12-kg and 17.6-kg) and two load distributions (70% and 55% on drive wheels). The propulsion torques of these four configurations were measured for a straight maneuver and a fixed-wheel turn, on both tile and carpet. Results indicated that increasing mass to 17.6-kg had the largest effect on straight acceleration, requiring 7.4% and 5.8% more torque on tile and carpet, respectively. Reducing the drive wheel load to 55% had the largest effect on steady-state straight motion and on both turning acceleration and steady-state turning; for tile and carpet, propulsion torque increased by 13.5% and 11.8%, 16.5% and 4.1%, 73% and 5.1%, respectively. These results demonstrate the robot's high sensitivity, and support the clinical importance of evaluating effects of wheelchair mass and axle position on propulsion effort across maneuvers and surfaces.

  3. The Ergonomics of Wheelchair Configuration for Optimal Performance in the Wheelchair Court Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has

  4. Improving Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeger, Thom T J; De Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; Van Der Slikke, Rienk M A; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; Hoozemans, Marco J M

    2017-10-16

    This study aimed to investigate which characteristics of athlete, wheelchair and athlete-wheelchair interface are the best predictors of wheelchair basketball mobility performance. Sixty experienced wheelchair basketball players performed a wheelchair mobility performance test to assess their mobility performance. To determine which variables were the best predictors of mobility performance, forward stepwise linear regression analyses were performed on a set of 33 characteristics, including ten athlete, nineteen wheelchair and four athlete-wheelchair interface characteristics. Eight of the characteristics turned out to be significant predictors of wheelchair basketball mobility performance. Classification, experience, maximal isometric force, wheel axis height and hand rim diameter - which both interchangeable with each other and wheel diameter - camber angle, and the vertical distance between shoulder and rear wheel axis - which was interchangeable with seat height - were positively associated with mobility performance. The vertical distance between the front seat and the footrest was negatively associated with mobility performance. With this insight, coaches and biomechanical specialists are provided with statistical findings to determine which characteristics they could focus on best to improve mobility performance. Six out of eight predictors are modifiable and can be optimized to improve mobility performance. These adjustments could be carried out both in training (maximal isometric force) and in wheelchair configurations (e.g. camber angle).

  5. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  6. Influence of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion Training in Adolescent Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Dysterheft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ten full time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13-18 completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak Resultant Force, Contact Angle, Stroke Frequency, and Velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in Contact Angle and Peak Total Force with decreased Stroke Frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in Contact Angle occurred, as well as decreases in Stroke Frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury.

  7. Brain-Computer Interface application: auditory serial interface to control a two-class motor-imagery-based wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Angevin, Ricardo; Velasco-Álvarez, Francisco; Fernández-Rodríguez, Álvaro; Díaz-Estrella, Antonio; Blanca-Mena, María José; Vizcaíno-Martín, Francisco Javier

    2017-05-30

    Certain diseases affect brain areas that control the movements of the patients' body, thereby limiting their autonomy and communication capacity. Research in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces aims to provide patients with an alternative communication channel not based on muscular activity, but on the processing of brain signals. Through these systems, subjects can control external devices such as spellers to communicate, robotic prostheses to restore limb movements, or domotic systems. The present work focus on the non-muscular control of a robotic wheelchair. A proposal to control a wheelchair through a Brain-Computer Interface based on the discrimination of only two mental tasks is presented in this study. The wheelchair displacement is performed with discrete movements. The control signals used are sensorimotor rhythms modulated through a right-hand motor imagery task or mental idle state. The peculiarity of the control system is that it is based on a serial auditory interface that provides the user with four navigation commands. The use of two mental tasks to select commands may facilitate control and reduce error rates compared to other endogenous control systems for wheelchairs. Seventeen subjects initially participated in the study; nine of them completed the three sessions of the proposed protocol. After the first calibration session, seven subjects were discarded due to a low control of their electroencephalographic signals; nine out of ten subjects controlled a virtual wheelchair during the second session; these same nine subjects achieved a medium accuracy level above 0.83 on the real wheelchair control session. The results suggest that more extensive training with the proposed control system can be an effective and safe option that will allow the displacement of a wheelchair in a controlled environment for potential users suffering from some types of motor neuron diseases.

  8. Impact of structured wheelchair services on satisfaction and function of wheelchair users in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing wheelchairs without comprehensive support services might be detrimental to user satisfaction and function. Objectives: This paper compares wheelchair user satisfaction and function before and after implementation of comprehensive wheelchair services, based on the World Health Organization guidelines on wheelchair service provision in less resourced settings, in Zimbabwe. Method: A pre- and post-test study with a qualitative component was done. Quantitative data were collected with the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology for adults and children and the ‘Functioning Every day with a Wheelchair Questionnaire’. Data were collected from 55 consecutively sampled wheelchair users, who received a new wheelchair in the study period. Qualitative data were collected through two audio recorded focus groups and two case studies and are presented through narrative examples. Results: The proportion of adult users who were satisfied significantly increased for all wheelchair and service delivery aspects (p = 0.001 - 0.008, except follow-up (p = 0.128. The same was true for children’s post-test ratings on all variables assessed (p = 0.001 - 0.04, except training in the use of the device (p = 0.052. The biggest improvement in satisfaction figures were for comfort needs (44.3%, indoor mobility (43.2%, outdoor mobility (37.2%, safe and efficient, independent operation (33.5% and transport (31.4%. The qualitative data illustrated user satisfaction with wheelchair features and services. Conclusion: The wheelchair service programme resulted in significant positive changes in user satisfaction with the wheelchair, wheelchair services and function. It is recommended that the Zimbabwean government and partner organisations continue to support and develop wheelchair services along these guidelines. Keywords: Wheelchair; service delivery; function; satisfaction

  9. The ergonomics of wheelchair configuration for optimal performance in the wheelchair court sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barry S; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focused on the role of the wheelchair and the wheelchair-user combination. This article aims to review relevant scientific literature that has investigated the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance from an ergonomics perspective. Optimizing performance from an ergonomics perspective requires a multidisciplinary approach. This has resulted in laboratory-based investigations incorporating a combination of physiological and biomechanical analyses to assess the efficiency, health/safety and comfort of various wheelchair configurations. To a lesser extent, field-based testing has also been incorporated to determine the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance specific to the wheelchair court sports. The available literature has demonstrated that areas of seat positioning, rear wheel camber, wheel size and hand-rim configurations can all influence the ergonomics of wheelchair performance. Certain configurations have been found to elevate the physiological demand of wheelchair propulsion, others have been associated with an increased risk of injury and some have demonstrated favourable performance on court. A consideration of all these factors is required to identify optimal wheelchair configurations. Unfortunately, a wide variety of different methodologies have immerged between studies, many of which are accompanied by limitations, thus making the identification of optimal configurations problematic. When investigating an area of wheelchair configuration, many studies have failed to adequately standardize other areas, which has prevented reliable cause and effect relationships being established. In addition, a large

  10. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift device intended for medical...

  11. Push Characteristics in Wheelchair Court Sport Sprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, Rienk M A; Berger, Monique; Bregman, Daan; Veeger, Dirkjan

    2016-01-01

    Short sprints are important components of most wheelchair court sports, since being faster than the opponent often determines keeping ball possession or not. Sprinting capacity is best measured during a field test, allowing the athlete to freely choose push strategies adapted to their own wheelchair

  12. Wheelchair batteries. II: Capacity, sizing, and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauzlarich, J J

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of lead-acid batteries for wheelchairs in terms of a new empirical equation for the capacity, application of the Palmgren-Miner Rule for sizing the battery, and the effect of depth of discharge on the life cycles is presented. A brief section about selecting an economical battery for an electric wheelchair is included.

  13. Wheelchair propulsion technique at different speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    1989-01-01

    To study wheelchair propulsion technique at different speeds, five well-trained subjects propelled a wheelchair on a treadmill. Measurements were made at four belt speeds of 0.56-1.39 m/s and against slopes of 2 and 3 degrees. Cardiorespiratory data were collected. Three consecutive strokes were

  14. Development of a wheelchair maintenance training programme and questionnaire for clinicians and wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Maria Luisa; Bird, Emily; Oyster, Michelle; Worobey, Lynn; Lain, Michael; Bucior, Samuel; Cooper, Rory A; Pearlman, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Purpose of state: The aims of this study were to develop a Wheelchair Maintenance Training Programme (WMTP) as a tool for clinicians to teach wheelchair users (and caregivers when applicable) in a group setting to perform basic maintenance at home in the USA and to develop a Wheelchair Maintenance Training Questionnaire (WMT-Q) to evaluate wheelchair maintenance knowledge in clinicians, manual and power wheelchair users. The WMTP and WMT-Q were developed through an iterative process. A convenience sample of clinicians (n = 17), manual wheelchair (n ∞ 5), power wheelchair users (n = 4) and caregivers (n = 4) provided feedback on the training programme. A convenience sample of clinicians (n = 38), manual wheelchair (n = 25), and power wheelchair users (n = 30) answered the WMT-Q throughout different phases of development. The subscores of the WMT-Q achieved a reliability that ranged between ICC(3,1) = 0.48 to ICC(3,1) = 0.89. The WMTP and WMT-Q were implemented with 15 clinicians who received in-person training in the USA using the materials developed and showed a significant increase in all except one of the WMT-Q subscores after the WMTP (p users. This training complements the World Health Organization basic wheelchair service curriculum, which only includes training of the clinicians, but does not include detailed information to train wheelchair users and caregivers. This training program offers a time efficient method for providing education to end users in a group setting that may mitigate adverse consequences resulting from wheelchair breakdown. This training program has significant potential for impact among wheelchair users in areas where access to repair services is limited.

  15. Utilizing Robot Operating System (ROS) in Robot Vision and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Palmer, “Development of a navigation system for semi-autonomous operation of wheelchairs,” in Proc. of the 8th IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. on Mechatronic ...and Embedded Systems and Applications, Suzhou, China, 2012, pp. 257-262. [30] G. Grisetti, C. Stachniss, and W. Burgard, “Improving grid-based SLAM...OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL by Joshua S. Lum September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun Co-Advisor: Zac Staples

  16. Wheelchair Mobility Performance enhancement by Changing Wheelchair Properties; What is the Effect of Grip, Seat Height and Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, Rienk M A; de Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; Bregman, Daan J J; Veeger, Dirk Jan H E J

    2018-02-12

    The purpose of this study was to provide insight in the effect of wheelchair settings on wheelchair mobility performance. Twenty elite wheelchair basketball athletes of low (n=10) and high classification (n=10), were tested in a wheelchair basketball directed field test. Athletes performed the test in their own wheelchair, which was modified for five additional conditions regarding seat height (high - low), mass (central - distributed) and grip. The previously developed, inertial sensor based wheelchair mobility performance monitor 1 was used to extract wheelchair kinematics in all conditions. Adding mass showed most effect on wheelchair mobility performance, with a reduced average acceleration across all activities. Once distributed, additional mass also reduced maximal rotational speed and rotational acceleration. Elevating seat height had effect on several performance aspects in sprinting and turning, whereas lowering seat height influenced performance minimally. Increased rim grip did not alter performance. No differences in response were evident between low and high classified athletes. The wheelchair mobility performance monitor showed sensitive to detect performance differences due to the small changes in wheelchair configuration made. Distributed additional mass had the most effect on wheelchair mobility performance, whereas additional grip had the least effect of conditions tested. Performance effects appear similar for both low and high classified athletes. Athletes, coaches and wheelchair experts are provided with insight in the performance effect of key wheelchair settings, and they are offered a proven sensitive method to apply in sports practice, in their search for the best wheelchair-athlete combination.

  17. Communication: Photodissociation of CH3CHO at 308 nm: Observation of H-roaming, CH3-roaming, and transition state pathways together along the ground state surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hou-Kuan; Tsai, Po-Yu; Hung, Kai-Chan; Kasai, Toshio; Lin, King-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Following photodissociation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) at 308 nm, the CO(v = 1-4) fragment is acquired using time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy. The CO(v = 1) rotational distribution shows a bimodal feature; the low- and high-J components result from H-roaming around CH3CO core and CH3-roaming around CHO radical, respectively, in consistency with a recent assignment by Kable and co-workers (Lee et al., Chem. Sci. 5, 4633 (2014)). The H-roaming pathway disappears at the CO(v ≥ 2) states, because of insufficient available energy following bond-breaking of H + CH3CO. By analyzing the CH4 emission spectrum, we obtained a bimodal vibrational distribution; the low-energy component is ascribed to the transition state (TS) pathway, consistent with prediction by quasiclassical trajectory calculations, while the high-energy component results from H- and CH3-roamings. A branching fraction of H-roaming/CH3-roaming/TS contribution is evaluated to be (8% ± 3%)/(68% ± 10%)/(25% ± 5%), in which the TS pathway was observed for the first time. The three pathways proceed concomitantly along the electronic ground state surface.

  18. Wheelchair propulsion kinematics in beginners and expert users: influence of wheelchair settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorce, P; Louis, N

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical studies have linked the handrim wheelchair propulsion with a prevalence of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the wheelchair settings on upper limb kinematics during wheelchair propulsion. Recordings were made under various wheelchair configuration conditions to understand the effect of wheelchair settings on kinematics parameters such shoulder, elbow and wrist angles. Ten experts and ten beginners' subjects propelled an experimental wheelchair on a roller ergometer system at a comfortable speed. Twelve wheelchair configurations were tested. Kinematics were recorded for each configuration. Based on the hand position relatively to the handrim, the main kinematic parameters of wheelchair propulsion were investigated on the whole propulsion cycle and a key event such as handrim contact and release. Compared to the beginner subjects, all the experts' subjects generally present higher joint amplitude and propulsion speeds. Seat height and antero-posterior axle position influence usage of the hand-rim, timing parameters and configurations of upper limb joints. Results seem to confirm that low and backward seat position allow a greater efficiency. Nevertheless, according that proximity of joint limit is a well known factor of musculoskeletal disorders, our results let us think that too low and backward seat position, increasing joints positions and amplitudes, could increase the risk of upper limb injuries in relation with manual wheelchair propulsion. Kinematic differences highlight that future studies on wheelchair propulsion should only be done with impaired experienced subjects. Furthermore, this study provides indications on how wheelchair settings can be used for upper limb injury prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Factors Affecting Trust in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    directly affects the willingness of people to accept robot -produced information, follow robots ’ suggestions, and thus benefit from the advantages inherent...perceived complexity of operation). Consequently, if the perceived risk of using the robot exceeds its perceived benefit , practical operators almost...necessary presence of a human caregiver (Graf, Hans, & Schraft, 2004). Other robotic devices, such as wheelchairs (Yanco, 2001) and exoskeletons (e.g

  20. The Middlesex University rehabilitation robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, B; White, A; Prior, S; Warner, P

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an electrically powered wheelchair-mounted manipulator for use by severely disabled persons. A detailed review is given explaining the specification. It describes the construction of the device and its control architecture. The prototype robot used several gesture recognition and other input systems. The system has been tested on disabled and non-disabled users. They observed that it was easy to use but about 50% slower than comparable systems before design modifications were incorporated. The robot has a payload of greater than 1 kg with a maximum reach of 0.7-0.9 m.

  1. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks

  2. Within-cycle characteristics of the wheelchair push in sprinting on a wheelchair ergometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    To investigate power output and torque production in wheelchair sprinting, six able-bodied subjects performed nine 20-s sprint tests on a stationary wheelchair ergometer (load 0-8 kg). Ergometer data were analyzed and combined with kinematic data and surface electromyography. Of all power and torque

  3. The accuracy of new wheelchair users' predictions about their future wheelchair use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Helen; Griffiths, Patricia; Ganesh, Shanti; Caves, Kevin; Harris, Frances

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the accuracy of new wheelchair user predictions about their future wheelchair use. This was a prospective cohort study of 84 community-dwelling veterans provided a new manual wheelchair. The association between predicted and actual wheelchair use was strong at 3 mos (ϕ coefficient = 0.56), with 90% of those who anticipated using the wheelchair at 3 mos still using it (i.e., positive predictive value = 0.96) and 60% of those who anticipated not using it indeed no longer using the wheelchair (i.e., negative predictive value = 0.60, overall accuracy = 0.92). Predictive accuracy diminished over time, with overall accuracy declining from 0.92 at 3 mos to 0.66 at 6 mos. At all time points, and for all types of use, patients better predicted use as opposed to disuse, with correspondingly higher positive than negative predictive values. Accuracy of prediction of use in specific indoor and outdoor locations varied according to location. This study demonstrates the importance of better understanding the potential mismatch between the anticipated and actual patterns of wheelchair use. The findings suggest that users can be relied upon to accurately predict their basic wheelchair-related needs in the short-term. Further exploration is needed to identify characteristics that will aid users and their providers in more accurately predicting mobility needs for the long-term.

  4. Wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist Going to an Occupational Therapist In the Band: Jens' Story Spina ... is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  5. A Novel WLAN Roaming Decision and Selection Scheme for Mobile Data Offloading

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam; Arifuzzaman, Mohammad; Sato, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    The existing IEEE and 3GPP standards have laid the foundation for integrating cellular and WiFi network to deliver a seamless experience for the end-users when roaming across multiple access networks. However, in recent studies, the issue of making roaming decision and intelligently selecting the most preferable Point of Service to optimize network resource and improve end user’s experience has not been considered properly. In this paper, we propose a novel cellular and WiFi roaming decision ...

  6. Physiological evaluation of a newly designed lever mechanism for wheelchairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); de Boer, Y; Rozendal, R H

    1993-01-01

    Lever-propelled wheelchairs have been described as more efficient and less physically demanding than hand-rim-propelled wheelchairs. To evaluate a newly designed lever mechanism (MARC) in both one- and two-arm use, a series of wheelchair exercise tests were performed on a motor-driven treadmill.

  7. New methods for mobility performance measurement in wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, MAM; Bregman, DJJ; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased professionalism in wheelchair sports demand a more precise and quantitative measure of individual wheelchair mobility performance, to allow it to be an evaluation measure of wheelchair setting or training optimization. This research describes the application of an inertial sensor based

  8. A motor learning approach to training wheelchair propulsion biomechanics for new manual wheelchair users: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kerri A; Tucker, Susan M; Klaesner, Joseph W; Engsberg, Jack R

    2017-05-01

    Developing an evidence-based approach to teaching wheelchair skills and proper propulsion for everyday wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury (SCI) is important to their rehabilitation. The purpose of this project was to pilot test manual wheelchair training based on motor learning and repetition-based approaches for new manual wheelchair users with an SCI. A repeated measures within-subject design was used with participants acting as their own controls. Six persons with an SCI requiring the use of a manual wheelchair participated in wheelchair training. The training included nine 90-minute sessions. The primary focus was on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics with a secondary focus on wheelchair skills. During Pretest 1, Pretest 2, and Posttest, wheelchair propulsion biomechanics were measured using the Wheelchair Propulsion Test and a Video Motion Capture system. During Pretest 2 and Posttest, propulsion forces using the WheelMill System and wheelchair skills using the Wheelchair Skills Test were measured. Significant changes in area of the push loop, hand-to-axle relationship, and slope of push forces were found. Changes in propulsion patterns were identified post-training. No significant differences were found in peak and average push forces and wheelchair skills pre- and post-training. This project identified trends in change related to a repetition-based motor learning approach for propelling a manual wheelchair. The changes found were related to the propulsion patterns used by participants. Despite some challenges associated with implementing interventions for new manual wheelchair users, such as recruitment, the results of this study show that repetition-based training can improve biomechanics and propulsion patterns for new manual wheelchair users.

  9. Motion analysis of wheelchair propulsion movements in hemiplegic patients: effect of a wheelchair cushion on suppressing posterior pelvic tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Kyohei; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Takanashi, Akira; Miyazima, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Sumiko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study sought to ascertain whether, in hemiplegic patients, the effect of a wheelchair cushion to suppress pelvic posterior tilt when initiating wheelchair propulsion would continue in subsequent propulsions. [Subjects] Eighteen hemiplegic patients who were able to propel a wheelchair in a seated position participated in this study. [Methods] An adjustable wheelchair was fitted with a cushion that had an anchoring function, and a thigh pad on the propulsion side was removed. Pro...

  10. Evaluation of aluminum ultralight rigid wheelchairs versus other ultralight wheelchairs using ANSI/RESNA standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-yi; Pearlman, Jonathan; Cooper, Rosemarie; Hong, Eun-kyoung; Wang, Hongwu; Salatin, Benjamin; Cooper, Rory A

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies found that select titanium ultralight rigid wheelchairs (TURWs) had fewer equivalent cycles and less value than select aluminum ultralight folding wheelchairs (AUFWs). The causes of premature failure of TURWs were not clear because the TURWs had different frame material and design than the AUFWs. We tested 12 aluminum ultralight rigid wheelchairs (AURWs) with similar frame designs and dimensions as the TURWs using the American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America and International Organization for Standardization wheelchair standards and hypothesized that the AURWs would be more durable than the TURWs. Across wheelchair models, no significant differences were found in the test results between the AURWs and TURWs, except in their overall length. Tire pressure, tube-wall thickness, and tube manufacturing were proposed to be the factors affecting wheelchair durability through comparison of the failure modes, frames, and components. The frame material did not directly affect the performance of AURWs and TURWs, but proper wheelchair manufacture and design based on mechanical properties are important.

  11. Development, construct validity and test–retest reliability of a field-based wheelchair mobility performance test for wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, AMH; Hoozemans, MJM; Berger, MAM; van der Slikke, R.M.A.; van der Woude, LHV; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation

  12. Development, construct validity and test-retest reliability of a field-based wheelchair mobility performance test for wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Slikke, Rienk M. A.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of

  13. Development, construct validity and test–retest reliability of a field-based wheelchair mobility performance test for wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M H; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Berger, Monique A M; van der Slikke, Rienk M A; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan (H E J)

    The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of

  14. Can a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J. ); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether outcomes based on stopwatch time and power output (PO) over a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint test can be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, by studying their relationship with outcomes on a Wingate-based 30s-wheelchair ergometer sprint

  15. Can a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Vegter, R.J.K.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether outcomes based on stopwatch time and power output (PO) over a 15. m-overground wheelchair sprint test can be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, by studying their relationship with outcomes on a Wingate-based 30. s-wheelchair ergometer sprint

  16. Wheelchair accessibility to public buildings in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcil, A Nilay

    2009-03-01

    Accessibility to public environment is the human right and basic need of each citizen and is one of the fundamental considerations for urban planning. The aim of this study is to determine the compliance of public buildings in central business districts (CBD) of Istanbul, Turkey, to wheelchair accessibility to the guidelines of the instrument and identify architectural barriers faced by wheelchair users. This is a descriptive study of 26 public buildings in CBD of Istanbul. The instrument used is the adapted Useh, Moyo and Munyonga questionnaire to collect the data from direct observation and measurement. Descriptive statistics of simple percentages and means are used to explain the compliance to the guidelines of the instrument and wheelchair accessibility. The descriptive survey results indicate that wheelchair users experience many accessibility problems in public environment of the most urbanised city (cultural capital of Europe in 2010) in a developing country. It is found that the major architectural barrier is the public transportation items with the lowest mean compliance (25%). Beside this, the most compliant to the instrument is entrance to building items with 79% as mean percentage. It is also found that there is an intention to improve accessibility when building construction period is investigated. This article describes the example of the compliance of public buildings accessibility when the country has legislation, but lacking regulations about accessibility for the wheelchair users.

  17. 75 FR 22263 - Reexamination of Roaming Obligations of Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... likely that leaving negotiations involving home roaming strictly to the market without any underlying... that can serve as a bar to negotiation of reasonable arrangements. 18. The Commission rejects... Commission [[Page 22267

  18. On the security of an anonymous roaming protocol in UMTS mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Wu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we first show that the privacy-preserving roaming protocol recently proposed for mobile networks cannot achieve the claimed security level. Then we suggest an improved protocol to remedy its security problems.

  19. A Privacy-Protecting Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services with Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyungho; Han, Dong-Guk; Won, Dongho

    In this work we propose a novel smart card based privacy-protecting authentication scheme for roaming services. Our proposal achieves so-called Class 2 privacy protection, i.e., no information identifying a roaming user and also linking the user's behaviors is not revealed in a visited network. It can be used to overcome the inherent structural flaws of smart card based anonymous authentication schemes issued recently. As shown in our analysis, our scheme is computationally efficient for a mobile user.

  20. MOTION STUDY OF A WHEELCHAIR PROTOTYPE FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut GEONEA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the design and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. The motion controller developed uses PWM technology (pulse wave modulation. The wheelchair has the ability of forward – backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it’s implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.

  1. Mina: A Sensorimotor Robotic Orthosis for Mobility Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Anil K.; Neuhaus, Peter D.; Moucheboeuf, Adrien M.; Noorden, Jerryll H.; Lecoutre, David V.

    2011-01-01

    While most mobility options for persons with paraplegia or paraparesis employ wheeled solutions, significant adverse health, psychological, and social consequences result from wheelchair confinement. Modern robotic exoskeleton devices for gait assistance and rehabilitation, however, can support legged locomotion systems for those with lower extremity weakness or paralysis. The Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) has developed the Mina, a prototype sensorimotor robotic ort...

  2. To move as a human. Comment on "The embodiment of assistive devices-from wheelchair to exoskeleton" by M. Pazzaglia and M. Molinari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Christina

    2016-03-01

    I agree with the authors, that ;there have been very few attempts to develop user-centered medical technologies; [1] in the field of rehabilitation for persons with disabilities and wheelchair users in particular. The human-environment context in which humans plan and inhabit their actions as wheelchair users has not been extensively studied. The authors' unique work explores how a person embodies an exoskeleton (robotic legs or a wheelchair) in their everyday life and focuses on proprioception and brain's capacity to enlarge one's body schema in order to understand users' perspectives. Ultimately, Pazzaglia and Molinari wish to support persons who use assistive devices adapt and have successful, meaningful lives. The work is neuro-scientifically grounded, but doesn't forget the emotional or affective aspects of the user.

  3. Exploratorium: Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  4. Feedback Control for a Smart Wheelchair Trainer Based on the Kinect Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Aurelia McLaughlin

    This thesis describes a Microsoft Kinect-based feedback controller for a robot-assisted powered wheelchair trainer for children with a severe motor and/or cognitive disability. In one training mode, "computer gaming" mode, the wheelchair is allowed to rotate left and right while the children use a joystick to play video games shown on a screen in front of them. This enables them to learn the use of the joystick in a motivating environment, while experiencing the sensation and dynamics of turning in a safe setting. During initial pilot testing of the device, it was found that the wheelchair would creep forward while children were playing the games. This thesis presents a mathematical model of the wheelchair dynamics that explains the origin of the creep as a center of gravity offset from the wheel axis or a mismatch of the torques applied to the chair. Given these possible random perturbations, a feedback controller was developed to cancel these effects, correcting the system creep. The controller uses a Microsoft Kinect sensor to detect the distance to the screen displaying the computer game, as well as the left-right position (parallel parking concept) with respect to the screen, and then adjusts the wheel torque commands based on this measurement. We show through experimental testing that this controller effectively stops the creep. An added benefit of the feedback controller is that it approximates a washout filter, such as those used in aircraft simulators, to convey a more realistic sense of forward/backward motion during game play.

  5. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hakjun; Lee, Donghoon; Moon, Jongho; Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Kim, Hyoungshick; Won, Dongho

    2018-01-01

    With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people's lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al's scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments.

  6. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakjun Lee

    Full Text Available With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people's lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al's scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments.

  7. Just a Body in a Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Betty

    2014-01-01

    This article has no direct link with academics, children, students or those who teach: I severed almost all such connections several years ago. It describes the rewards and challenges of leading a reminiscence group of elderly people, all of whom suffer some level of memory loss and/or severe physical disability; most are wheelchair-bound. It…

  8. Biomechanics of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Brooke A; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Aurit, Christine M; Tarima, Sergey; Vogel, Lawrence C; Harris, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is limited research of the biomechanics of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility. Specifically, the biomechanics of functional tasks and their relationship to joint pain and health is not well understood. To contribute to this knowledge gap, a quantitative rehabilitation approach was applied for characterizing upper extremity biomechanics of manual wheelchair mobility in children and adolescents during propulsion, starting, and stopping tasks. A Vicon motion analysis system captured movement, while a SmartWheel simultaneously collected three-dimensional forces and moments occurring at the handrim. A custom pediatric inverse dynamics model was used to evaluate three-dimensional upper extremity joint motions, forces, and moments of 14 children with spinal cord injury (SCI) during the functional tasks. Additionally, pain and health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed. This research found that joint demands are significantly different amongst functional tasks, with greatest demands placed on the shoulder during the starting task. Propulsion was significantly different from starting and stopping at all joints. We identified multiple stroke patterns used by the children, some of which are not standard in adults. One subject reported average daily pain, which was minimal. Lower than normal physical health and higher than normal mental health was found in this population. It can be concluded that functional tasks should be considered in addition to propulsion for rehabilitation and SCI treatment planning. This research provides wheelchair users and clinicians with a comprehensive, biomechanical, mobility assessment approach for wheelchair prescription, training, and long-term care of children with SCI.

  9. Push characteristics in wheelchair court sport sprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, Monique; Bregman, D.J.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Helm, FCT; Jansen, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Short sprints are important components of most wheelchair court sports, since being faster than the opponent often determines keeping ball possession or not. Sprinting capacity is best measured during a field test, allowing the athlete to freely choose push strategies adapted to their own

  10. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Heubers, S.; Ruitenbeek, J-R.J.A.C.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use

  11. Manoeuvring space for electric wheelchairs and scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, D.J.M.; de Jong, G.E.; Verkroost, S.

    1996-01-01

    To be universally accessible the built environment must be adequately adapted to the needs of the widest possible range of users and to the use of mobility aids such as walking sticks, rollator walkers, manual wheelchairs and electric scooters. Delft University of Technology regularly conducts

  12. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  13. Effectiveness and safety of wheelchair skills training program in improving the wheelchair skills capacity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Lin; Wang, Wei; Du, He-Ping; Wang, Yu-Ming; Xu, Yan-Bing; Li, Ping

    2017-12-01

    To comprehensively assess the effectiveness and safety of wheelchair skills training program in improving wheelchair skills capacity. PubMed, OVID, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database were searched up to March 2017. Controlled clinical trials that compared a wheelchair skills training program with a control group that received other interventions and used the wheelchair skills test scores to evaluate wheelchair skills capacity were included. Two authors independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool in randomized controlled trial (RCT) and methodological index for non-randomized studies. The data results of wheelchair skills test scores were extracted. Data from 455 individuals in 10 RCTs and from 140 participants in seven non-randomized studies were included for meta-analysis using Stata version 12.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). In the short term (immediately to one week) post-intervention, relative to a control group, manual wheelchair skills training could increase the total wheelchair skills test scores by 13.26% in RCTs (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.19%-20.34%; P skills training and the long-term (3-12 months) advantage of manual wheelchair skills training ( P = 0.755). The limited evidence suggests that wheelchair skills training program is beneficial in the short term, but its long-term effects remain unclear.

  14. Domestic dog roaming patterns in remote northern Australian indigenous communities and implications for disease modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G; Brookes, Victoria J; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2017-10-01

    Although Australia is canine rabies free, the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), Queensland and other northern Australian communities are at risk of an incursion due to proximity to rabies infected islands of Indonesia and existing disease spread pathways. Northern Australia also has large populations of free-roaming domestic dogs, presenting a risk of rabies establishment and maintenance should an incursion occur. Agent-based rabies spread models are being used to predict potential outbreak size and identify effective control strategies to aid incursion preparedness. A key component of these models is knowledge of dog roaming patterns to inform contact rates. However, a comprehensive understanding of how dogs utilise their environment and the heterogeneity of their movements to estimate contact rates is lacking. Using a novel simulation approach - and GPS data collected from 21 free-roaming domestic dogs in the NPA in 2014 and 2016 - we characterised the roaming patterns within this dog population. Multiple subsets from each individual dog's GPS dataset were selected representing different monitoring durations and a utilisation distribution (UD) and derived core (50%) and extended (95%) home ranges (HR) were estimated for each duration. Three roaming patterns were identified, based on changes in mean HR over increased monitoring durations, supported by assessment of maps of daily UDs of each dog. Stay-at-home dogs consolidated their HR around their owner's residence, resulting in a decrease in mean HR (both core and extended) as monitoring duration increased (median peak core and extended HR 0.336 and 3.696ha, respectively). Roamer dogs consolidated their core HR but their extended HR increased with longer monitoring durations, suggesting that their roaming patterns based on place of residence were more variable (median peak core and extended HR 0.391 and 6.049ha, respectively). Explorer dogs demonstrated large variability in their roaming patterns, with both core and

  15. Do wheelchairs spread pathogenic bacteria within hospital walls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Avi; Koiefman, Anna; Dinisman, Eleonora; Brodsky, Diana; Labay, Kozitta

    2014-02-01

    Transmission of nosocomial pathogens has been linked to transient colonization of health care workers, medical devices and other constituents of patients' environment. In this paper we present our findings concerning the presence of pathogenic bacteria on wheelchairs, and the possibility that wheelchairs constitute a reservoir of these bacteria and a means of spreading them. In this work we examined four wheelchairs, each from a different location: the internal medicine ward, the emergency department, the general surgery ward and wheelchair stockpile of the transportation unit of the hospital. The samples were collected and cultured on different media. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were carried out using accepted practices in the microbiology laboratory. We found that wheelchairs are contaminated with several pathogenic bacteria, among them antibiotic-resistant strains such as MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanni etc. Since there is no specific guideline protocol that deals with disinfection and cleaning frequency of wheelchairs in hospitals, we suggest each hospital to write one.

  16. Aspects of manual wheelchair configuration affecting mobility: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users' actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users' needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users' actions and mobility.

  17. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hakjun; Lee, Donghoon; Moon, Jongho; Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Kim, Hyoungshick

    2018-01-01

    With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people’s lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.’s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al’s scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments. PMID:29505575

  18. A conceptual framework to assess effectiveness in wheelchair provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepan C. Kamaraj

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: We believe that adoption of this conceptual framework could have broad applications in wheelchair provision globally to develop evidence-based practices. Such a perspective will help in the comparison of different strategies employed in wheelchair provision and further improve clinical guidelines. Further work is being conducted to test the efficacy of this conceptual framework to evaluate effectiveness of wheelchair service provision in various settings across the globe.

  19. A game theoretical approach for cooperative green mobile operators under roaming price consideration

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a green mobile operator collaborating with other traditional mobile operators. Its goal is to minimize its CO2 emissions, maximize its profit or achieve or tradeoff between both objectives by offloading its users to neighbor networks and exploiting renewable energies. On the other hand, traditional mobile operators aim to maximize their profits by attracting the maximum number of roamed users. The problem is modeled as a two-level Stackelberg game and its equilibrium is derived. A green mobile operator level that determines how many users per each base station to offload to each neighbor network, and a non-green mobile operator level where operators focus on finding the optimal roaming price. Our simulation results show a significant saving in terms of CO2 emissions compared to the non-cooperation case and that roaming decision depends essentially on the availability of renewable energy in base station sites. © 2015 IEEE.

  20. Exploring the impact of wheelchair design on user function in a rural South African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Surona; Duffield, Svenje; Unger, Mariaan

    2015-01-01

    Wheelchairs provide mobility that can enhance function and community integration. Function in a wheelchair is influenced by wheelchair design. To explore the impact of wheelchair design on user function and the variables that guided wheelchair prescription in the study setting. A mixed-method, descriptive design using convenience sampling was implemented. Quantitative data were collected from 30 wheelchair users using the functioning every day with a Wheelchair Scale and a Wheelchair Specification Checklist. Qualitative data were collected from ten therapists who prescribed wheelchairs to these users, through interviews. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to identify relationships, and content analysis was undertaken to identify emerging themes in qualitative data. Wheelchairs with urban designs were issued to 25 (83%) participants. Wheelchair size, fit, support and functional features created challenges concerning transport, operating the wheelchair, performing personal tasks, and indoor and outdoor mobility. Users using wheelchairs designed for use in semi-rural environments achieved significantly better scores regarding the appropriateness of the prescribed wheelchair than those using wheelchairs designed for urban use ( p = <0.01). Therapists prescribed the basic, four-wheel folding frame design most often because of a lack of funding, lack of assessment, lack of skills and user choice. Issuing urban type wheelchairs to users living in rural settings might have a negative effect on users' functional outcomes. Comprehensive assessments, further training and research, on long term cost and quality of life implications, regarding provision of a suitable wheelchair versus a cheaper less suitable option is recommended.

  1. 36 CFR 222.21 - Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. 222.21 Section 222.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Burros § 222.21 Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. (a) The...

  2. Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...

  3. Extent to Which Caregivers Enhance the Wheelchair Skills Capacity and Confidence of Power Wheelchair Users: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, R Lee; Rushton, Paula W; Routhier, Francois; Demers, Louise; Titus, Laura; Miller-Polgar, Jan; Smith, Cher; McAllister, Mike; Theriault, Chris; Matheson, Kara; Parker, Kim; Sawatzky, Bonita; Labbé, Delphine; Miller, William C

    2018-01-03

    To test the hypothesis that caregivers enhance the wheelchair skills capacity and confidence of the power wheelchair users to whom they provide assistance, and to describe the nature of that assistance. Multicenter cross-sectional study. Rehabilitation centers and communities. Participants (N=152) included caregivers (n=76) and wheelchair users (n=76). None. Version 4.3 of the Wheelchair Skills Test (WST) and the Wheelchair Skills Test-Questionnaire (WST-Q). For each of the 30 individual skills, we recorded data about the wheelchair user alone and in combination (blended) with the caregiver. The mean total WST capacity scores ± SD for the wheelchair users alone and blended were 78.1%±9.3% and 92.4%±6.1%, respectively, with a mean difference of 14.3%±8.7% (Pskills capacity and confidence of the power wheelchair users to whom they provide assistance, and they do so in a variety of ways. These findings have significance for wheelchair skills assessment and training. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Manon A T; de Groot, Janke F; Backx, Frank J G; Westerveld, Rosalyne A; Takken, Tim

    2015-05-01

    To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. Validity and reliability study. Young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair. Physiological responses were measured during a Graded Arm Cranking Test and a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test using a heart rate monitor and calibrated mobile gas analysis system (Cortex Metamax). For validity, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were compared using paired t-tests. For reliability, the intra-class correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement, and standard detectable change were calculated. VO2peak and HRpeak were higher during wheelchair propulsion compared with arm cranking (23.1 vs 19.5 ml/kg/min, p = 0.11; 165 vs 150 beats/min, p propulsion showed high intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for both VO2peak (ICC = 0.93) and HRpeak (ICC = 0.90). This pilot study shows higher HRpeak and a tendency to higher VO2peak in young people with spina bifida who are using a wheelchair when tested during wheelchair propulsion compared with arm cranking. Wheelchair propulsion showed good reliability. We recommend performing a wheelchair propulsion test for aerobic fitness testing in this population.

  5. Smart wheelchair: integration of multiple sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, H. E.; Almuhamed, S.; Moukadem, A.; Schacher, L.; Dieterlen, A.; Adolphe, D.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a smart wheelchair by integrating multiple sensors for measuring user’s physiological signals and subsequently transmitting and monitoring the treated signals to the user, a designated person or institution. Among other sensors, force, accelerometer, and temperature sensors are successfully integrated within both the backrest and the seat cushions of the wheelchair; while a pulse sensor is integrated within the armrest. The pulse sensor is connected to an amplification circuit board that is, in turn, placed within the armrest. The force and temperature sensors are integrated into a textile cover of the cushions by means of embroidery and sewing techniques. The signal from accelerometer is transmitted through Wi-Fi connection. The electrical connections needed for power supplying of sensors are made by embroidered conductive threads.

  6. Anthropometry and Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level.

  7. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  8. Out of the lab, onto the court : Wheelchair Mobility Performance quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, R.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Performance in wheelchair court sports is to a large extent determined by the wheelchair mobility performance, the performance measure for the wheelchair-athlete combination. So far, wheelchair mobility performance is mostly utilized as concept, rather than a well quantified measure. However, in

  9. Wheelchair accessibility to public buildings in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmos Yarfi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study show that public buildings in the Kumasi metropolis are not wheelchair accessible. An important observation made during this study was that there is an intention to improve accessibility when buildings are being constructed or renovated, but there are no laid down guidelines as how to make the buildings accessible for wheelchair users.

  10. Older people's use of powered wheelchairs for activity and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ase; Iwarsson, Susanne; Ståhle, Agneta

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate outcomes of older people's use of powered wheelchairs and risk factors for negative outcomes. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional interview-study including 111 powered wheelchair users over 65 years of age. RESULTS: All participants used t...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... platform scale. (a) Identification. A wheelchair platform scale is a device with a base designed to...

  12. Alternative modes of manual wheelchair propulsion: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    An estimated 90% of all wheelchairs are hand-rim propelled, a physically straining form of ambulation that can lead to repetitive strain injuries in the arms and, eventually, to secondary impairments and disability. Further disability in wheelchair-dependent individuals can lead to a sedentary

  13. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  14. Evaluation of manual wheelchair performance in everyday life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L.H.V.; de Groot, S.; van Drongelen, S.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Haisma, J.; Valent, L.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of wheelchair performance (capacity and skills) is crucial in the investigation of wheeled mobility in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Manual wheelchair use is a complex combination of skills, which together determine overall functioning, daily activities, participation, and

  15. Is effective force application in handrim wheelchair propulsion also efficient?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bregman, D.J.J.; van Drongelen, S.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Efficiency in manual wheelchair propulsion is low, as is the fraction of the propulsion force that is attributed to the moment of propulsion of the wheelchair. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tangential propulsion force direction leads to an increase in physiological cost,

  16. Initial skill acquisition of handrim wheelchair propulsion: A new perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, R.J.K.; De Groot, S.; Lamoth, C.J.C.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into cyclic motor learning processes, hand rim wheelchair propulsion is a suitable cyclic task, to be learned during early rehabilitation and novel to almost every individual. To propel in an energy efficient manner, wheelchair users must learn to control bimanually applied forces

  17. How many people would benefit from a smart wheelchair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Cooper, Rory A

    2008-01-01

    Independent mobility is important, but some wheelchair users find operating existing manual or powered wheelchairs difficult or impossible. Challenges to safe, independent wheelchair use can result from various overlapping physical, perceptual, or cognitive symptoms of diagnoses such as spinal cord injury, cerebrovascular accident, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. Persons with different symptom combinations can benefit from different types of assistance from a smart wheelchair and different wheelchair form factors. The sizes of these user populations have been estimated based on published estimates of the number of individuals with each of several diseases who (1) also need a wheeled mobility device and (2) have specific symptoms that could interfere with mobility device use.

  18. The diet of free-roaming Australian Central Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Leeuwen, van J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2015-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is one of the most popular pet lizards. However, little is known regarding their nutrient requirement, or their natural diet. Therefore, the stomach contents of 14 free-roaming P. vitticeps were determined by flushing. These stomach contents were

  19. A Novel Mobile Communications Authentication Scheme with Roaming Service and User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many novel, effective, and efficient applications and networking services are being developed for the Social Internet of Things. Recently, Li proposed a more secure and efficient authentication scheme with roaming service and user anonymity for mobile communications. The security analysis and discussion of the agreement phase is sufficiently safe; however, an attacker can intercept the identity of a mobile user’s home agent in the authentication phase. By using this information, the attacker can mount distributed denial-of-service attacks in the roaming phase through replay attacks targeting the network’s foreign agent and mobile user’s home agent by using their corresponding session keys. Li’s method also has some shortcomings regarding anonymity that we aim to address. To overcome these issues, this study proposes an elliptic curve–based wireless roaming anonymous login method for the authentication phase. The problems faced in the roaming phase are resolved, and this approach provides balanced session key computation between senders and receivers. Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic (BAN-logic is used to verify the security of the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme affords good security, efficiency, and integrity and maintains anonymity.

  20. A Novel WLAN Roaming Decision and Selection Scheme for Mobile Data Offloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing IEEE and 3GPP standards have laid the foundation for integrating cellular and WiFi network to deliver a seamless experience for the end-users when roaming across multiple access networks. However, in recent studies, the issue of making roaming decision and intelligently selecting the most preferable Point of Service to optimize network resource and improve end user’s experience has not been considered properly. In this paper, we propose a novel cellular and WiFi roaming decision and AP selection scheme based on state of the art, 3GPP TS24.312 and IEEE 802.11u, k standards. Our proposed scheme assists the mobile nodes to decide the right timing to make roaming decision and select preferable point of service based on the operator’s policies and real-time network condition. We also introduce our simulation model of a heterogeneous network with cellular and WiFi interworking as well as 3GPP ANDSF, TS24.312. It is a complete end-to-end system model from application to physical layer with considering user’s mobility and realistic traffic model. The proposed scheme outperformed the conventional WiFi selection scheme in terms of dynamically steering mobile node’s data traffic from macrocell to available Access Points. The proposed scheme increased the utilization and balanced the traffic load of access points and improved user’s experienced throughput.

  1. 75 FR 22338 - Reexamination of Roaming Obligations of Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... host's own proprietary information services. In addition, some commenters proposed specific measures to... Commission seeks comment on whether it should adopt any measures or restrictions to help preserve investment... such as LTE impact the technical challenges to developing such roaming arrangements or otherwise affect...

  2. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A T; De Groot, Janke F.; Backx, FJG; Westerveld, Rosalyne A.; Takken, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. Design: Validity and reliability study. Subjects: Young

  3. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.A.T.; Groot, J.F. de; Backx, F.J.G.; Westerveld, R.A.; Takken, T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. DESIGN: Validity and reliability study. SUBJECTS: Young

  4. Home in a Wheelchair: House Design Ideas for Easier Wheelchair Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasin, Joseph

    Intended to aid in the building or purchase of a home suitable for use by a handicapped individual in a wheelchair, the booklet provides detailed design guidelines. Included is information on the decision process, finances, ramps, a car shelter, doors communication devices, electrical needs, windows, elevators and chair lifts, the kitchen, an…

  5. Towards evidence-based classification in wheelchair sports: impact of seating position on wheelchair acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlandewijck, Yves C; Verellen, Joeri; Tweedy, Sean

    2011-07-01

    In most Paralympic wheelchair sports, active trunk range of movement is assessed by observing shoulder girdle excursion during active trunk movements and is a key determinant of an athlete's class. However, to date research evaluating the impact of reduced trunk range of movement on wheelchair sports performance has not been conducted. In the present study, 15 non-disabled male participants performed two 20-s sprints on a wheelchair ergometer in each of three seating positions. Positions were typical of those used to enhance sitting stability in wheelchair sport and each impacted available trunk range of movement differently: condition-90 (seated with thighs horizontal; unrestricted range of movement) condition-45 (seated with thighs in 45°), and condition-0 (seated with hips maximally flexed; minimum range of movement). In condition-90, the trunk only actively contributed to the first push; for the remainder of the sprint, the trunk was held almost isometrically at 48.2° to the horizontal (range 42.1-56.4°). Similar patterns were observed for both condition-45 and condition-0. Compared with condition-90, participants in condition-0 had reduced capacity to accelerate of statistical (P sports performance, including strapping, seating position, and impairments of trunk muscle power and coordination.

  6. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0 kg, 5 kg, or 10 kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire × mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Hands-Free Interface for Controlling Virtual Electric-Powered Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Gulrez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how to provide mobility to people with motor impairments with the integration of robotics and wearable computing systems. The burden of learning to control powered mobility devices should not fall entirely on the people with disabilities. Instead, the system should be able to learn the user's movements. This requires learning the degrees of freedom of user movement, and mapping these degrees of freedom onto electric-powered wheelchair (EPW controls. Such mapping cannot be static because in some cases users will eventually improve with practice. Our goal in this paper is to present a hands-free interface (HFI that can be customized to the varying needs of EPW users with appropriate mapping between the users' degrees of freedom and EPW controls. EPW users with different impairment types must learn how to operate a wheelchair with their residual body motions. EPW interfaces are often customized to fit their needs. An HFI utilizes the signals generated by the user's voluntary shoulder and elbow movements and translates them into an EPW control scheme. We examine the correlation of kinematics that occur during moderately paced repetitive elbow and shoulder movements for a range of motion. The output of upper-limb movements (shoulder and elbows was tested on six participants, and compared with an output of a precision position tracking (PPT optical system for validation. We find strong correlations between the HFI signal counts and PPT optical system during different upper-limb movements (ranged from r = 0.86 to 0.94. We also tested the HFI performance in driving the EPW in a virtual reality environment on a spinal-cord-injured (SCI patient. The results showed that the HFI was able to adapt and translate the residual mobility of the SCI patient into efficient control commands within a week's training. The results are encouraging for the development of more efficient HFIs, especially for wheelchair users.

  8. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail H Collins

    Full Text Available Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS and very high frequency (VHF radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.

  9. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  10. Robot engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  11. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system

  12. Hand Gesture Based Wireless Robotic Arm Control for Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Bandhyopadhyay, Shiva; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela; Juned Rahi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges in agriculture is harvesting. It is very hard and sometimes even unsafe for workers to go to each plant and pluck fruits. Robotic systems are increasingly combined with new technologies to automate or semi automate labour intensive work, such as e.g. grape harvesting. In this work we propose a semi-automatic method for aid in harvesting fruits and hence increase productivity per man hour. A robotic arm fixed to a rover roams in the in orchard and the user can control it remotely using the hand glove fixed with various sensors. These sensors can position the robotic arm remotely to harvest the fruits. In this paper we discuss the design of hand glove fixed with various sensors, design of 4 DoF robotic arm and the wireless control interface. In addition the setup of the system and the testing and evaluation under lab conditions are also presented in this paper.

  13. Impact Responses and Parameters Sensitivity Analysis of Electric Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The shock and vibration of electric wheelchairs undergoing road irregularities is inevitable. The road excitation causes the uneven magnetic gap of the motor, and the harmful vibration decreases the recovery rate of rehabilitation patients. To effectively suppress the shock and vibration, this paper introduces the DA (dynamic absorber to the electric wheelchair. Firstly, a vibration model of the human-wheelchair system with the DA was created. The models of the road excitation for wheelchairs going up a step and going down a step were proposed, respectively. To reasonably evaluate the impact level of the human-wheelchair system undergoing the step–road transition, evaluation indexes were given. Moreover, the created vibration model and the road–step model were validated via tests. Then, to reveal the vibration suppression performance of the DA, the impact responses and the amplitude frequency characteristics were numerically simulated and compared. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the impact responses to the tire static radius r and the characteristic parameters was carried out. The results show that the DA can effectively suppress the shock and vibration of the human-wheelchair system. Moreover, for the electric wheelchair going up a step and going down a step, there are some differences in the vibration behaviors.

  14. Design of Individualized Wheelchairs Using AHP and Kano Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To study how to design different grades of individualized wheelchairs according to users' needs, a personalized wheelchair design method based on AHP and Kano model is proposed. The AHP model determines the relative importance of characteristics of customers' demands. The subfunctions of manual wheelchairs and their attributes are given. The weight coefficients are calculated. 20 experts (10 are the members of the research team, 5 are doctors, and 5 are wheelchair designers are involved in the above two parts of the work. Kano model represents the types of user requirements. 30 participants' (wheelchair users needs are divided into 5 categories: M, O, E, I, and R. According to the types of user needs and the weight of each subfunction, three manual wheelchair models are built. Traditional design method usually cannot satisfy the requirements of users and product structure, so this paper makes a contribution to solve this problem. The method can be used to design individualized wheelchairs which may improve the product quality and customers' satisfaction. Meanwhile it also can reduce the design time, thereby reducing the design cost.

  15. Comparative ergonomic assessment of manual wheelchairs by paraplegic users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Agudo, Angel; Solís-Mozos, Marta; del-Ama, Antonio J; Crespo-Ruiz, Beatriz; de la Peña-González, Ana Isabel; Pérez-Nombela, Soraya

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe and test the reliability of a comprehensive product-centered approach to assessing functional performance and wheelchair user perceptions on device ergonomics and satisfaction of performance. A pilot study was implemented using this approach to evaluate differences among four manual wheelchairs. Six wheelchair users with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) at the thoracic level and with no previous upper limbs impairment were recruited for this study. After finishing circuit tasks, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about ergonomic wheelchair characteristics (manoeuvrability, stability, comfort and ease of propulsion) and satisfaction about task performance. On the other hand, objective data were recorded during user performance as the time required to complete each test, kinetic wheelchair propulsion data obtained with two SMARTWheels® and physiological parameters (heart rate and physiological index). Kuschall Champion® and Otto Bock Voyage® wheelchairs were ranked best for most ergonomic aspects specially in manoeuvrability (p importance of looking both kinds of information, user perception and user functional performance when evaluating a wheelchair or comparing across devices.

  16. A conceptual framework to assess effectiveness in wheelchair provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Bray, Nathan; Rispin, Karen; Kankipati, Padmaja; Pearlman, Jonathan; Borg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, inadequate wheelchair provision has forced many people with disabilities to be trapped in a cycle of poverty and deprivation, limiting their ability to access education, work and social facilities. This issue is in part because of the lack of collaboration among various stakeholders who need to work together to design, manufacture and deliver such assistive mobility devices. This in turn has led to inadequate evidence about intervention effectiveness, disability prevalence and subsequent costeffectiveness that would help facilitate appropriate provision and support for people with disabilities. In this paper, we describe a novel conceptual framework that can be tested across the globe to study and evaluate the effectiveness of wheelchair provision. The Comparative Effectiveness Research Subcommittee (CER-SC), consisting of the authors of this article, housed within the Evidence-Based Practice Working Group (EBP-WG) of the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP), conducted a scoping review of scientific literature and standard practices used during wheelchair service provision. The literature review was followed by a series of discussion groups. The three iterations of the conceptual framework are described in this manuscript. We believe that adoption of this conceptual framework could have broad applications in wheelchair provision globally to develop evidence-based practices. Such a perspective will help in the comparison of different strategies employed in wheelchair provision and further improve clinical guidelines. Further work is being conducted to test the efficacy of this conceptual framework to evaluate effectiveness of wheelchair service provision in various settings across the globe.

  17. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadović, Katarina; Vučinić, Marijana; Radenković-Damnjanović, Brana; Janković, Ljiljana; Teodorović, Radislava; Voslarova, Eva; Becskei, Zsolt

    2017-08-01

    One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment. The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml) was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000) 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and sedation. In both groups, the lowest values of serum cortisol

  18. Design and Evaluation of the Kinect-Wheelchair Interface Controlled (KWIC) Smart Wheelchair for Pediatric Powered Mobility Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondervan, Daniel K; Secoli, Riccardo; Darling, Aurelia Mclaughlin; Farris, John; Furumasu, Jan; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2015-01-01

    Children with severe disabilities are sometimes unable to access powered mobility training. Thus, we developed the Kinect-Wheelchair Interface Controlled (KWIC) smart wheelchair trainer that converts a manual wheelchair into a powered wheelchair. The KWIC Trainer uses computer vision to create a virtual tether with adaptive shared-control between the wheelchair and a therapist during training. It also includes a mixed-reality video game system. We performed a year-long usability study of the KWIC Trainer at a local clinic, soliciting qualitative and quantitative feedback on the device after extended use. Eight therapists used the KWIC Trainer for over 50 hours with 8 different children. Two of the children obtained their own powered wheelchair as a result of the training. The therapists indicated the device allowed them to provide mobility training for more children than would have been possible with a demo wheelchair, and they found use of the device to be as safe as or safer than conventional training. They viewed the shared control algorithm as counter-productive because it made it difficult for the child to discern when he or she was controlling the chair. They were enthusiastic about the video game integration for increasing motivation and engagement during training. They emphasized the need for additional access methods for controlling the device. The therapists confirmed that the KWIC Trainer is a useful tool for increasing access to powered mobility training and for engaging children during training sessions. However, some improvements would enhance its applicability for routine clinical use.

  19. Performance Evaluation Methods for Assistive Robotic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Katherine M.; Feil-Seifer, David J.; Matarić, Maja J.; Yanco, Holly A.

    Robots have been developed for several assistive technology domains, including intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders, eldercare, and post-stroke rehabilitation. Assistive robots have also been used to promote independent living through the use of devices such as intelligent wheelchairs, assistive robotic arms, and external limb prostheses. Work in the broad field of assistive robotic technology can be divided into two major research phases: technology development, in which new devices, software, and interfaces are created; and clinical, in which assistive technology is applied to a given end-user population. Moving from technology development towards clinical applications is a significant challenge. Developing performance metrics for assistive robots poses a related set of challenges. In this paper, we survey several areas of assistive robotic technology in order to derive and demonstrate domain-specific means for evaluating the performance of such systems. We also present two case studies of applied performance measures and a discussion regarding the ubiquity of functional performance measures across the sampled domains. Finally, we present guidelines for incorporating human performance metrics into end-user evaluations of assistive robotic technologies.

  20. Impact of Surface Type, Wheelchair Weight, and Axle Position on Wheelchair Propulsion by Novice Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Rachel E.; Nash, Mark S.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Koontz, Alicia M.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and rear axle position on older adult propulsion biomechanics. Design Crossover trial. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Participants Convenience sample of 53 ambulatory older adults with minimal wheelchair experience (65−87y); men = 20, women = 33. Intervention Participants propelled 4 different wheelchair configurations over 4 surfaces; tile, low carpet, high carpet, and an 8% grade ramp (surface, chair order randomized). Chair configurations included: (1) unweighted chair with an anterior axle position, (2) 9.05kg weighted chair with an anterior axle position, (3) unweighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m), and (4) 9.05kg weighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m). Weight was added to a titanium folding chair, simulating the weight difference between very light and depot wheelchairs. Instrumented wheels measured propulsion kinetics. Main Outcome Measures Average self-selected velocity, push-frequency, stroke length, peak resultant and tangential force. Results Velocity decreased as surface rolling resistance or chair weight increased. Peak resultant and tangential forces increased as chair weight increased, surface resistance increased, and with a posterior axle position. The effect of a posterior axle position was greater on high carpet and the ramp. The effect of weight was constant, but more easily observed on high carpet and ramp. The effects of axle position and weight were independent of one another. Conclusion Increased surface resistance decreases self-selected velocity and increases peak forces. Increased weight decreases self-selected velocity and increases forces. Anterior axle positions decrease forces, more so on high carpet. Effects of weight and axle position are independent. Greatest reductions in peak forces occur in lighter chairs with anterior axle positions. PMID:19577019

  1. Development of an alternative to mechanical shaft encoders for a “smart” wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kathleen M; Schultz, Dana L; Barrett, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    One device that is receiving a considerable amount of attention in the biomedical community is the “smart” wheelchair. “Smart” wheelchairs provide those who are unable to control the traditional joystick of a powered wheelchair with an alternative option. With minimal user input, these wheelchairs are able to autonomously navigate around a person’s environment, providing them with a higher level of mobility. The limited competition and extreme complexity of these wheelchairs propels their price outside of the affordable range for the average household. An alternative, cheaper system that could be attached to a typical powered wheelchair would be beneficial to the community.

  2. Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou estimated with fallout cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.; Whicker, F.W.; Lipscomb, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou herds in northern Alaska during 1963 to 1970 were estimated by applying a two-compartment, eight parameter cesium-137 kinetics model to measured fallout 137 Cs concentrations in lichen and caribou. Estimates for winter equilibrium periods (January to April) for each year ranged from 3.7 to 6.9 kg dry weight lichens per day for adult female caribou. Further refinement of these estimations were obtained by calculating probabilistic distributions of intake rates by stochastic processes based upon the mean and standard error intervals of the eight parameters during 1965 and 1968. A computer program generated 1,000 randomly sampled values within each of the eight parameter distributions. Results substantiate the contention that lichen forage ingestion rates by free-roaming caribou are significantly greater than previously held

  3. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.’s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1 it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2 it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3 it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.’s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme.

  4. WISDOM: wheelchair inertial sensors for displacement and orientation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansiot, J.; Zhang, Z.; Lo, B.; Yang, G. Z.

    2011-10-01

    Improved wheelchair design in recent years has significantly increased the mobility of people with disabilities, which has also enhanced the competitive advantage of wheelchair sports. For the latter, detailed assessment of biomechanical factors influencing individual performance and team tactics requires real-time wireless sensing and data modelling. In this paper, we propose the use of a miniaturized wireless wheel-mounted inertial sensor for wheelchair motion monitoring and tracking in an indoor sport environment. Based on a combined use of 3D microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes and 2D MEMS accelerometers, the proposed system provides real-time velocity, heading, ground distance covered and motion trajectory of the wheelchair across the sports court. The proposed system offers a number of advantages compared to existing platforms in terms of size, weight and ease of installation. Beyond sport applications, it also has important applications for training and rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

  5. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Malone, Laurie A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-methods analysis. The most common perceived benefit to exercise was "Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy." Post hoc comparisons of quantitative data indicated that persons with muscular dystrophy perceived exercise to be significantly less important than did other disability groups (p Exercise is hard work for me," "Exercise tires me," and "There are too few places for me to exercise" were the most common perceived barriers. These findings can assist with development of exercise opportunities for power wheelchair users.

  6. Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2, 2014 Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition Researchers funded by the National Institute of Biomedical ... significant step towards vastly improving the independence and quality of life of individuals with tetraplegia, and is ...

  7. WISDOM: wheelchair inertial sensors for displacement and orientation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansiot, J; Zhang, Z; Lo, B; Yang, G Z

    2011-01-01

    Improved wheelchair design in recent years has significantly increased the mobility of people with disabilities, which has also enhanced the competitive advantage of wheelchair sports. For the latter, detailed assessment of biomechanical factors influencing individual performance and team tactics requires real-time wireless sensing and data modelling. In this paper, we propose the use of a miniaturized wireless wheel-mounted inertial sensor for wheelchair motion monitoring and tracking in an indoor sport environment. Based on a combined use of 3D microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes and 2D MEMS accelerometers, the proposed system provides real-time velocity, heading, ground distance covered and motion trajectory of the wheelchair across the sports court. The proposed system offers a number of advantages compared to existing platforms in terms of size, weight and ease of installation. Beyond sport applications, it also has important applications for training and rehabilitation for people with disabilities

  8. Influence of handrim wheelchair propulsion training in adolescent wheelchair users, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysterheft, Jennifer L; Rice, Ian M; Rice, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Ten full-time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13-18) completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak resultant force, contact angle, stroke frequency, and velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in contact angle and peak total force with decreased stroke frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in contact angle occurred, as well as decreases in stroke frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short-term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury.

  9. Roaming behaviour of dogs in four remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia: preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S; Burleigh, A; Dürr, S; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the home range (HR) and investigate the potential predictors for roaming of 58 dogs in four Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory. Prospective study. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to the dogs for 1-4 days, recording location fixes every 1-3 min. Utilisation distributions (UDs) and extended (95% isopleth) and core (50% isopleth) HRs of dogs were determined. Potential predictors of roaming were assessed. Estimated core (median, 0.27 ha) and extended (median, 3.1 ha) HRs differed significantly (P = 0.0225 and 0.0345, respectively) between the four communities; dogs in the coastal community travelled significantly (P < 0.0001) more per day than dogs in the three inland communities studied. Significant associations were found between extended HR size and sex (P = 0.0050) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0218), and between core HR size and sex (P = 0.0010), neuter status (P = 0.0255) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0025). Entire males roamed more than neutered females. The core HR of dogs with poor/fair body condition scores (BCSs) was larger than dogs with ideal/obese BCSs (P = 0.0394). Neutered male dogs also travelled more per day than entire female dogs (P = 0.0475). Roaming information can be used to inform the management of dogs in remote communities and to design disease control programs. Widespread data collection across the Northern Territory should be undertaken to further investigate the associations found in this study, considering that data were collected during relatively short periods of time in one season. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. The Design of Wheelchair Lifting Mechanism and Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Cong; WANG Zheng-xing; JIANG Shi-hong; ZHANG Li; LIU Zheng-yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve a wheelchair lift function, this paper designs a tri-scissors mechanism. Through the so-called H-type transmission and L-type swing rod, the three scissors mechanisms lift in the same rate with only one liner motor while ensuring the stability of the lift. Finite element analysis in ANSYS is performed to verify the material strength. The control system with Sunplus SCM achieves the voice control of wheelchair walking and lifting.

  11. Injury due to uncontrolled acceleration of an electric wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D G; Washington, B V; Devlin, P M; Zook, J E; Edlich, R F

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 750,000 disabled individuals use electrical platform mobility aids (wheelchairs) for adaptive transportation. Because there are no mandatory standards for platform mobility aids and wheelchairs, these adaptive transportation aids are prone to potential design and maintenance problems. An injury caused by uncontrolled acceleration of a platform mobility aid is reported. Examination of the platform mobility aid identified a defect in its speed control regulator that has been subsequently corrected by the manufacturer.

  12. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Medola, Fausto Orsi [UNESP; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetic...

  13. Formaldehyde roaming dynamics: Comparison of quasi-classical trajectory calculations and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Paul L; Wang, Xiaohong; Ghosh, Aryya; Bowman, Joel M; Quinn, Mitchell S; Kable, Scott H

    2017-07-07

    The photodissociation dynamics of roaming in formaldehyde are studied by comparing quasi-classical trajectory calculations performed on a new potential energy surface (PES) to new and detailed experimental results detailing the CO + H 2 product state distributions and their correlations. The new PES proves to be a significant improvement over the past one, now more than a decade old. The new experiments probe both the CO and H 2 products of the formaldehyde dissociation. The experimental and trajectory data offer unprecedented detail about the correlations between internal states of the CO and H 2 dissociation products as well as information on how these distributions are different for the roaming and transition-state pathways. The data investigated include, for dissociation on the formaldehyde 2 1 4 3 band, (a) the speed distributions for individual vibrational/rotational states of the CO products, providing information about the correlated internal energy distributions of the H 2 product, and (b) the rotational and vibrational distributions for the CO and H 2 products as well as the contributions to each from both the transition state and roaming channels. The agreement between the trajectory and experimental data is quite satisfactory, although minor differences are noted. The general agreement provides support for future use of the experimental techniques and the new PES in understanding the dynamics of photodissociative processes.

  14. EOG Controlled Motorized Wheelchair for Disabled Persons

    OpenAIRE

    A. Naga Rajesh; S. Chandralingam; T. Anjaneyulu; K. Satyanarayana

    2014-01-01

    Assistive robotics are playing a vital role in advancing the quality of life for disable people. There exist wide range of systems that can control and guide autonomous mobile robots. The objective of the control system is to guide an autonomous mobile robot using the movement of eyes by means of EOG signal. The EOG signal is acquired using Ag/AgCl electrodes and this signal is processed by a microcontroller unit to calculate the eye gaze direction. Then according to the guidance control stra...

  15. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  16. Wheelchair skills training to improve confidence with using a manual wheelchair among older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Brodie M; Miller, William C; Souza, Melanie; Nikolova, Viara; Best, Krista L

    2013-06-01

    To examine the effects of wheelchair skills training on confidence in older adults who are inexperienced wheelchair users. Parallel group, single-blind randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory in a rehabilitation hospital. Participants (N=20) who were community-living older adults at least 65 years old (mean age, 70y), 50% women, and who had no experience of using a wheelchair were randomly allocated to an intervention (n=10) or control (n=10) group. The intervention group received two 1-hour training sessions that followed the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) protocol. The control group received a single socialization contact. The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale-Manual (WheelCon-M) was used to evaluate confidence with using a manual wheelchair. The WheelCon-M is a self-report questionnaire that comprises 65 items in 6 conceptual areas. A 1-way between-groups analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference in postintervention WheelCon-M scores between the intervention and control groups (F1,17=10.9, P=.004) after controlling for baseline WheelCon-M scores. A large effect size was also observed (partial η(2)=.39). Secondary analyses revealed that the WSTP had greater effects on confidence in areas related to maneuvering around the physical environment, knowledge and problem solving, advocacy, and managing emotions than in areas related to performing activities and behaving in social situations. Two 1-hour WSTP sessions improve confidence with using a manual wheelchair among older adults who are inexperienced wheelchair users. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolutionary robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to ...

  19. Robot Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    This paper considers art-based research practice in robotics through a discussion of our course and relevant research projects in autonomous art. The undergraduate course integrates basic concepts of computer science, robotic art, live performance and aesthetic theory. Through practice...... in robotics research (such as aesthetics, culture and perception), we believe robot aesthetics is an important area for research in contemporary aesthetics....

  20. Filigree Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture.......Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture....

  1. The impact of the World Health Organization 8-steps in wheelchair service provision in wheelchair users in a less resourced setting: a cohort study in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Maria L; Eke, Chika; Pearlman, Jonathan

    2016-01-22

    For people who have a mobility impairment, access to an appropriate wheelchair is an important step towards social inclusion and participation. The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Provision of Manual Wheelchairs in Less Resourced Settings emphasize the eight critical steps for appropriate wheelchair services, which include: referral, assessment, prescription, funding and ordering, product preparation,fitting and adjusting, user training, and follow-up and maintenance/repairs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the provision of wheelchairs according to the World Health Organization's service provision process by United Cerebral Palsy Wheels for Humanity in Indonesia affects wheelchair recipients compared to wait-listed controls. This study used a convenience sample (N = 344) of Children, Children with proxies, Adults, and Adults with proxies who were on a waiting list to receive a wheelchair as well as those who received one. Interviews were conducted at baseline and a 6 month follow-up to collect the following data: Demographics and wheelchair use questions, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, Functional Mobility Assessment, Craig Handicap Assessment Recording Technique Short Form. The Wheelchair Assessment Checklist and Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire were administered at follow up only. 167 participants were on the waiting list and 142 received a wheelchair. Physical health domain in the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF improved significantly for women who received a wheelchair (p = 0.044) and environmental health improved significantly for women and men who received a wheelchair as compared to those on the waiting list (p received a wheelchair reported being able to perform a "wheelie". The condition of Roughrider wheelchairs was significantly better than the condition of kids wheelchairs for Children with proxies as measured by the Wheelchair Assessment Checklist (p = 0

  2. From big data to rich data : The key features of athlete wheelchair mobility performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, MAM; Bregman, DJJ; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of an athlete׳s individual wheelchair mobility performance is one prerequisite needed to evaluate game performance, improve wheelchair settings and optimize training routines. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) based methods can be used to perform such quantitative assessment,

  3. Submaximal physical strain and peak performance in handcycling versus handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A.J.; Zentgraaff, I.D.; Zijp, N.I.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2004-01-01

    Study design: Experimental study in subjects with paraplegia and nondisabled subjects. Objective: To compare submaximal physical strain and peak performance in handcycling and handrim wheelchair propulsion in wheelchair-dependent and nondisabled control subjects Setting: Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  4. Wheeled mobility skills of wheelchair basketball players: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltan, Asuman; Bakar, Yeşim; Ankarali, Handan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of wheelchair basketball sport on the functional abilities of wheelchair users. This is a randomized controlled study. Wheelchair basketball players (n = 111) and non-player (n = 85) were included in this study. We administered the questionnaire version of the wheelchair skills test questionnaire (WST_Q), recording the participants' capacity and performance scores on each of 32 skills. Player group have the baseline values of WST_Q higher than control group. The mean total percentage score of player group was significantly greater than control group (p skills-sports relationship is reciprocal. With increased wheelchair skills, people may be more inclined to engage in sports; subsequently, with greater sports, wheelchair skills could improve. Wheelchair mobility skills during clinical rehabilitation should reflect the daily activities and needs of each wheelchair user. WST-Q provides advantages in terms of requiring less time and material in using of clinical.

  5. Developing product quality standards for wheelchairs used in less-resourced environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mhatre

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The study findings indicate the need to develop a wide range of tests, with specific tests for measuring corrosion resistance of the entire wheelchair, rolling resistance of castors and rear wheels, and durability of whole wheelchair and castor assemblies.

  6. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  7. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  8. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tarik Ozmen; Bekir Yuktasir; Necmiye Un Yildirim; Birol Yalcin; Mark ET Willems

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs) were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES); control (CN)] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Fede...

  9. A conceptual framework to assess effectiveness in wheelchair provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankipati, Padmaja

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently, inadequate wheelchair provision has forced many people with disabilities to be trapped in a cycle of poverty and deprivation, limiting their ability to access education, work and social facilities. This issue is in part because of the lack of collaboration among various stakeholders who need to work together to design, manufacture and deliver such assistive mobility devices. This in turn has led to inadequate evidence about intervention effectiveness, disability prevalence and subsequent costeffectiveness that would help facilitate appropriate provision and support for people with disabilities. Objectives In this paper, we describe a novel conceptual framework that can be tested across the globe to study and evaluate the effectiveness of wheelchair provision. Method The Comparative Effectiveness Research Subcommittee (CER-SC), consisting of the authors of this article, housed within the Evidence-Based Practice Working Group (EBP-WG) of the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP), conducted a scoping review of scientific literature and standard practices used during wheelchair service provision. The literature review was followed by a series of discussion groups. Results The three iterations of the conceptual framework are described in this manuscript. Conclusion We believe that adoption of this conceptual framework could have broad applications in wheelchair provision globally to develop evidence-based practices. Such a perspective will help in the comparison of different strategies employed in wheelchair provision and further improve clinical guidelines. Further work is being conducted to test the efficacy of this conceptual framework to evaluate effectiveness of wheelchair service provision in various settings across the globe. PMID:28936421

  10. Muscle forces analysis in the shoulder mechanism during wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hwai-Ting; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; An, Kai-Nan

    2004-01-01

    This study combines an ergometric wheelchair, a six-camera video motion capture system and a prototype computer graphics based musculoskeletal model (CGMM) to predict shoulder joint loading, muscle contraction force per muscle and the sequence of muscular actions during wheelchair propulsion, and also to provide an animated computer graphics model of the relative interactions. Five healthy male subjects with no history of upper extremity injury participated. A conventional manual wheelchair was equipped with a six-component load cell to collect three-dimensional forces and moments experienced by the wheel, allowing real-time measurement of hand/rim force applied by subjects during normal wheelchair operation. An ExpertVision six-camera video motion capture system collected trajectory data of markers attached on anatomical positions. The CGMM was used to simulate and animate muscle action by using an optimization technique combining observed muscular motions with physiological constraints to estimate muscle contraction forces during wheelchair propulsion. The CGMM provides results that satisfactorily match the predictions of previous work, disregarding minor differences which presumably result from differing experimental conditions, measurement technologies and subjects. Specifically, the CGMM shows that the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major and biceps long head are the prime movers during the propulsion phase. The middle and posterior deltoid and supraspinatus muscles are responsible for arm return during the recovery phase. CGMM modelling shows that the rotator cuff and pectoralis major play an important role during wheelchair propulsion, confirming the known risk of injury for these muscles during wheelchair propulsion. The CGMM successfully transforms six-camera video motion capture data into a technically useful and visually interesting animated video model of the shoulder musculoskeletal system. The CGMM further yields accurate

  11. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, A.M.H.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Berger, M.A.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches.

  12. Effect of holding a racket on propulsion technique of wheelchair tennis players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Bos, F.; Koopman, J.; Hoekstra, A. E.; Vegter, R. J. K.

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in propulsion technique between propelling the wheelchair with and without a racket in the hand. Eight experienced wheelchair tennis players performed three submaximal exercise tests and six sprint tests on a wheelchair ergometer.

  13. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  14. Wheel skid correction is a prerequisite to reliably measure wheelchair sports kinematics based on inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, M.A.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match could be a significant factor in performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. To date, most systems for measuring wheelchair kinematics are not suitable for match applications or lack detail in key kinematic outcomes. This study

  15. Comprehensive Needs Assessment Study and Deployment of QFD Targeted at New Wheelchair Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Desai

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: The results of this study are useful in understanding the perspective of Indian wheelchair users’ needs toward evidence-based wheelchair design. The design parameters with high absolute and relative technical importance can be selected to design new wheelchairs for Indian users in order to enhance the quality of life, comfort, and safety of people with disability.

  16. Is manual wheelchair satisfaction related to active lifestyle and participation in people with a spinal cord injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Post, M. W. M.; Bongers-Janssen, H. M. H.; Bloemen-Vrencken, J. H.; van der Woude, L. H. V.

    Study design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: To describe the satisfaction of the manual wheelchair user with hand rim wheelchair-related aspects (for example, dimensions, weight and comfort) and wheelchair service-related aspects and to determine the relationship between wheelchair users'

  17. Comparing handrim biomechanics for treadmill and overground wheelchair propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarciak, Andrew M.; Turner, Jeffrey T.; Guo, Liyun; Richter, W. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Study design Cross-sectional study. Objectives To compare handrim biomechanics recorded during overground propulsion to those recorded during propulsion on a motor-driven treadmill. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Methods Twenty-eight manual wheelchair users propelled their own wheelchairs, at a self-selected speed, on a low-pile carpet and on a wheelchair accessible treadmill. Handrim biomechanics were recorded with an OptiPush instrumented wheelchair wheel. Results Across the two conditions, all handrim biomechanics were found to be similar and highly correlated (r > 0.85). Contact angle, peak force, average force, and peak axle moment differed by 1.6% or less across the two conditions. While not significant, power output and cadence tended to be slightly higher for the treadmill condition (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively), due to limitations in adjusting the treadmill grade. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, a motor-driven treadmill can serve as a valid surrogate for overground studies of wheelchair propulsion. PMID:21042332

  18. An Omnidirectional Stereo Vision-Based Smart Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Satoh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To support safe self-movement of the disabled and the aged, we developed an electric wheelchair that realizes the functions of detecting both the potential hazards in a moving environment and the postures and gestures of a user by equipping an electric wheelchair with the stereo omnidirectional system (SOS, which is capable of acquiring omnidirectional color image sequences and range data simultaneously in real time. The first half of this paper introduces the SOS and the basic technology behind it. To use the multicamera system SOS on an electric wheelchair, we developed an image synthesizing method of high speed and high quality and the method of recovering SOS attitude changes by using attitude sensors is also introduced. This method allows the SOS to be used without being affected by the mounting attitude of the SOS. The second half of this paper introduces the prototype electric wheelchair actually manufactured and experiments conducted using the prototype. The usability of the electric wheelchair is also discussed.

  19. Manual Wheelchair Use: Bouts of Mobility in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Eve Sonenblum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to describe how people move about in manual wheelchairs (MWCs during everyday life by evaluating bouts of mobility or continuous periods of movement. Methods. A convenience sample of 28 MWC users was recruited. Participants' everyday mobility was measured using a wheel-mounted accelerometer and seat occupancy switch for 1-2 weeks. Bouts of mobility were recorded and characterized. Results. Across 29,200 bouts, the median bout lasted 21 seconds and traveled 8.6 m at 0.43 m/s. 85% of recorded bouts lasted less than 1 minute and traveled less than 30 meters. Participants' daily wheelchair activity included 90 bouts and 1.6 km over 54 minutes. Average daily occupancy time was 11 hours during which participants wheeled 10 bouts/hour and spent 10% of their time wheeling. Spearman-Brown Prophecy analysis suggested that 7 days were sufficient to achieve a reliability of 0.8 for all bout variables. Conclusions. Short, slow bouts dominate wheelchair usage in a natural environment. Therefore, clinical evaluations and biomechanical research should reflect this by concentrating on initiating movement, maneuvering wheelchairs, and stopping. Bouts of mobility provide greater depth to our understanding of wheelchair use and are a more stable metric (day-to-day than distance or time wheeled.

  20. Prediction of applied forces in handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Ju; Lin, Po-Chou; Guo, Lan-Yuen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2011-02-03

    Researchers of wheelchair propulsion have usually suggested that a wheelchair can be properly designed using anthropometrics to reduce high mechanical load and thus reduce pain and damage to joints. A model based on physiological features and biomechanical principles can be used to determine anthropometric relationships for wheelchair fitting. To improve the understanding of man-machine interaction and the mechanism through which propulsion performance been enhanced, this study develops and validates an energy model for wheelchair propulsion. Kinematic data obtained from ten able-bodied and ten wheelchair-dependent users during level propulsion at an average velocity of 1m/s were used as the input of a planar model with the criteria of increasing efficiency and reducing joint load. Results demonstrate that for both experienced and inexperienced users, predicted handrim contact forces agree with experimental data through an extensive range of the push. Significant deviations that were mostly observed in the early stage of the push phase might result from the lack of consideration of muscle dynamics and wrist joint biomechanics. The proposed model effectively verified the handrim contact force patterns during dynamic propulsion. Users do not aim to generate mechanically most effective forces to avoid high loadings on the joints. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Investigation of Bilateral Symmetry During Manual Wheelchair Propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltau, Shelby L; Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    Studies of manual wheelchair propulsion often assume bilateral symmetry to simplify data collection, processing, and analysis. However, the validity of this assumption is unclear. Most investigations of wheelchair propulsion symmetry have been limited by a relatively small sample size and a focus on a single propulsion condition (e.g., level propulsion at self-selected speed). The purpose of this study was to evaluate bilateral symmetry during manual wheelchair propulsion in a large group of subjects across different propulsion conditions. Three-dimensional kinematics and handrim kinetics along with spatiotemporal variables were collected and processed from 80 subjects with paraplegia while propelling their wheelchairs on a stationary ergometer during three different conditions: level propulsion at their self-selected speed (free), level propulsion at their fastest comfortable speed (fast), and propulsion on an 8% grade at their level, self-selected speed (graded). All kinematic variables had significant side-to-side differences, primarily in the graded condition. Push angle was the only spatiotemporal variable with a significant side-to-side difference, and only during the graded condition. No kinetic variables had significant side-to-side differences. The magnitudes of the kinematic differences were low, with only one difference exceeding 5°. With differences of such small magnitude, the bilateral symmetry assumption appears to be reasonable during manual wheelchair propulsion in subjects without significant upper-extremity pain or impairment. However, larger asymmetries may exist in individuals with secondary injuries and pain in their upper extremity and different etiologies of their neurological impairment.

  2. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Nenadovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and

  3. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users : A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G. M.; Buurke, Jaap H.; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Rietman, Johan S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an

  4. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users: A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke; Buurke, Jaap; de Vries, W.; de Vries, W.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Rietman, Johan Swanik

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an

  5. Using Self-Reliance Factors to Decide How to Share Control Between Human Powered Wheelchair Drivers and Ultrasonic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David A

    2017-08-01

    A shared-control scheme for a powered wheelchair is presented. The wheelchair can be operated by a wheelchair driver using a joystick, or directed by a sensor system, or control can be combined between them. The wheelchair system can modify direction depending on the local environment. Sharing the control allows a disabled wheelchair driver to drive safely and efficiently. The controller automatically establishes the control gains for the sensor system and the human driver by calculating a self-reliance factor for the wheelchair driver. The sensor system can influence the motion of the wheelchair to compensate for some deficiency in a disabled driver. Practical tests validate the proposed techniques and designs.

  6. Tourists' Perceptions of the Free-Roaming Dog Population in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Magnus; Hill, Kate E; Farnworth, Mark J; Bolwell, Charlotte F; Bridges, Janis; Acke, Els

    2014-09-29

    A study was undertaken to establish how visiting tourists to Samoa perceived free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris) and their management, additionally some factors that influence their perceptions were assessed. Questionnaires were administered to 281 tourists across Samoa over 5 weeks. Free-roaming dogs were seen by 98.2% (n = 269/274) of respondents, with 64.9% (n = 137/211) reporting that their presence had a negative effect on overall holiday experience. Respondents staying in the Apia (capital city) area were more likely to consider dogs a problem (p < 0.0001), and there was a significant association between whether the respondent owned a dog and if they thought dogs were a nuisance in Samoa (p < 0.003). Forty-four percent (20/89) of non-dog owners agreed that dogs were a nuisance compared to 22% (80/182) of dog owners. The majority felt that dogs required better control and management in Samoa (81%, n = 222) and that there were too many "stray" dogs (67.9%, n = 188). More respondents were negatively affected by the dogs' presence (64.9%, 137/211), and felt that the dogs made their holiday worse, than respondents that felt the dogs' presence improved their holiday experience (35.1%, 74/211). Most respondents stated that the dogs had a low impact (one to three; 68%, 187/275) on their stay in Samoa, whilst 24% (65/275) and 8% (23/275) stated they had a medium or high impact, respectively, on their stay. Respondents showed strong support for humane population management. Free-roaming dogs present a complex problem for Samoa and for its tourism industry in particular. The findings of this study further support the need for more discussion and action about the provision of veterinary services and population management for dogs in Samoa. It also provides information complementing an earlier study of the attitudes of local Samoans.

  7. Achieving population-level immunity to rabies in free-roaming dogs in Africa and Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K Morters

    Full Text Available Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least

  8. Effect of Tire Pressure to Physical Workload at Operating a Manual Wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booka, Masayuki; Yoneda, Ikuo; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Lee, Hokyoo; Oku, Hidehisa; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    It is often experienced that low tire pressure of the wheelchair not only increases running resistance, but also reduces parking brake performance. In this study, the required driving forces for different tire pressures were experimentally measured and evaluated. It was indicated from the result that the wheelchair with proper tire pressure could be run with less workload of wheelchair-user. Then it was also indicated that the wheelchair with a lower tire pressure needed more workload of wheelchair-user even on hard level surface.

  9. The health benefits and constraints of exercise therapy for wheelchair users: A clinical commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Ellapen

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Wheelchair users have a high body mass index, body fat percentage and serum lipid, cholesterol and blood glucose concentrations. Empirical investigations illustrate exercise improves their PCMRP and cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Although literature encourages regular exercise, none discusses the need to individualise chair setup in order to eliminate wheelchair pathomechanics and upper limb neuromuscular injuries. Wheelchair users must be encouraged to consult a biokineticist or physiotherapist to review their wheelchair setup so as to eliminate possible incorrect manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanics and consequent overuse injuries.

  10. Variability of peak shoulder force during wheelchair propulsion in manual wheelchair users with and without shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Y; Jayaraman, C; Hsu, I M K; Rice, I M; Hsiao-Wecksler, E T; Sosnoff, J J

    2013-01-01

    Manual wheelchair users report a high prevalence of shoulder pain. Growing evidence shows that variability in forces applied to biological tissue is related to musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the variability of forces acting on the shoulder during wheelchair propulsion as a function of shoulder pain. Twenty-four manual wheelchair users (13 with pain, 11 without pain) participated in the investigation. Kinetic and kinematic data of wheelchair propulsion were recorded for 3 min maintaining a constant speed at three distinct propulsion speeds (fast speed of 1.1 m/s, a self-selected speed, and a slow speed of 0.7 m/s). Peak resultant shoulder forces in the push phase were calculated using inverse dynamics. Within individual variability was quantified as the coefficient of variation of cycle to cycle peak resultant forces. There was no difference in mean peak shoulder resultant force between groups. The pain group had significantly smaller variability of peak resultant force than the no pain group (Ppropulsion variability could be a novel marker of upper limb pain in manual wheelchair users. © 2013.

  11. Motion analysis of wheelchair propulsion movements in hemiplegic patients: effect of a wheelchair cushion on suppressing posterior pelvic tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Kyohei; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Takanashi, Akira; Miyazima, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Sumiko

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study sought to ascertain whether, in hemiplegic patients, the effect of a wheelchair cushion to suppress pelvic posterior tilt when initiating wheelchair propulsion would continue in subsequent propulsions. [Subjects] Eighteen hemiplegic patients who were able to propel a wheelchair in a seated position participated in this study. [Methods] An adjustable wheelchair was fitted with a cushion that had an anchoring function, and a thigh pad on the propulsion side was removed. Propulsion movements from the seated position without moving through three propulsion cycles were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and electromyography was used to determine the angle of pelvic posterior tilt, muscle activity of the biceps femoris long head, and propulsion speed. [Results] Pelvic posterior tilt could be suppressed through the three propulsion cycles, which served to increase propulsion speed. Muscle activity of the biceps femoris long head was highest when initiating propulsion and decreased thereafter. [Conclusion] The effect of the wheelchair cushion on suppressing pelvic posterior tilt continued through three propulsion cycles.

  12. Overground-Propulsion Kinematics and Acceleration in Elite Wheelchair Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, David S; Pinder, Ross A; Grimshaw, Paul N; Robertson, William S P

    2018-02-01

    Maximal acceleration from standstill has been identified as a key performance indicator in wheelchair rugby; however, the impact of classification and kinematic variables on performance has received limited attention. This study aimed to investigate kinematic variables during maximal acceleration, with level of activity limitation accounted for using sport-classification scores. Based on their sporting classification scores, which reflect combined trunk, arm, and hand function, 25 elite wheelchair rugby players were analyzed in high-, mid-, and low-point groups before completing five 5-m sprints from a stationary position. Inertial measurement units and video analysis were used to monitor key kinematic variables. Significant differences in kinematic variables were evident across the classification groups, particularly for the first stroke-contact angle (1-way ANOVA F 2,122  = 51.5, P propulsion approaches exist across classification groups, with this information potentially informing individual wheelchair setups and training programs.

  13. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  14. Wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities: "That's wheelie gross!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paula; Muller, Matthew P; Prior, Betty; So, Ken; Tooze, Jane; Eum, Linda; Kachur, Oksana

    2014-11-01

    Wheelchairs are complex equipment that come in close contact with individuals at increased risk of transmitting and acquiring antibiotic-resistant organisms and health care-associated infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities. Acute care hospitals (ACHs), chronic care hospitals (CCHs), and long-term care facilities (LTCFs) were contacted and the individual responsible for oversight of wheelchair cleaning and disinfection was identified. A structured interview was conducted that focused on current practices and concerns, barriers to effective wheelchair cleaning and disinfection, and potential solutions. Interviews were completed at 48 of the 54 facilities contacted (89%), including 18 ACHs, 16 CCHs, and 14 LTCFs. Most (n = 24) facilities had 50-200 in-house wheelchairs. Respondents were very concerned about wheelchair cleaning as an infection control issue. Specific concerns included the lack of reliable systems for tracking and identifying dirty and clean wheelchairs (71%, 34/48), failure to clean and disinfect wheelchairs between patients (52%, 25/48), difficulty cleaning cushions (42%, 20/48), lack of guidelines (35%, 27/48), continued use of visibly soiled wheelchairs (29%, 14/48) and lack of resources (25%, 12/48). Our results suggest that wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is not optimally performed at many Canadian hospitals and LTCFs. Specific guidance on wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Healthcare Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Riek, Laurel D.

    2017-01-01

    Robots have the potential to be a game changer in healthcare: improving health and well-being, filling care gaps, supporting care givers, and aiding health care workers. However, before robots are able to be widely deployed, it is crucial that both the research and industrial communities work together to establish a strong evidence-base for healthcare robotics, and surmount likely adoption barriers. This article presents a broad contextualization of robots in healthcare by identifying key sta...

  16. Shoulder magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, wheelchair propulsion, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boninger, Michael L; Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A; Towers, Jeffrey D; Koontz, Alicia M; Souza, Aaron L

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between pushrim forces and the progression of shoulder injuries in manual wheelchair users. Longitudinal case series. Biomechanics laboratory and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facility at a Veterans Health Administration medical center and university hospital, respectively. Fourteen individuals with spinal cord injury (8 men, 6 women) who used manual wheelchairs. Subjects propelled their own wheelchairs on a dynamometer at 0.9 and 1.8m/s. Bilateral biomechanical data were obtained by using force and moment sensing pushrims at time 1. Bilateral shoulder MR images were also completed on 2 occasions, at time 1 and, approximately 2 years later, at time 2. The peak pushrim forces in a pushrim coordinate system were calculated, weight normalized and averaged over 5 strokes (presented as % body weight). MRI abnormalities were graded by using a summated scale. Differences between scores between times 1 and 2 were calculated. Subjects were divided into 2 groups based on change in MRI score. Seven subjects were in the group with worsening scores (MRI+; mean, 8.14 points; range, 5-16), and 7 were in the group with improving or unchanging scores (MRI-; mean, -1.00 point; range, -5 to 1). There was no significant difference between groups with respect to age, body mass index, or years from injury. There were significantly more women in the MRI+ group (6 women, 1 man) than in the MRI- group (7 men) (P=.001). The MRI+ group used significantly greater weight-normalized radial force, or force directed toward the axle at time 1, to propel their wheelchairs at each speed (Ppay particular attention to women who use wheelchairs. Reducing forces during wheelchair propulsion may minimize the likelihood of developing shoulder injuries.

  17. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  18. Mobile Augmented Reality enhances indoor navigation for wheelchair users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Chagas de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with mobility impairments associated with lower limb disabilities often face enormous challenges to participate in routine activities and to move around various environments. For many, the use of wheelchairs is paramount to provide mobility and social inclusion. Nevertheless, they still face a number of challenges to properly function in our society. Among the many difficulties, one in particular stands out: navigating in complex internal environments (indoors. The main objective of this work is to propose an architecture based on Mobile Augmented Reality to support the development of indoor navigation systems dedicated to wheelchair users, that is also capable of recording CAD drawings of the buildings and dealing with accessibility issues for that population. Methods Overall, five main functional requirements are proposed: the ability to allow for indoor navigation by means of Mobile Augmented Reality techniques; the capacity to register and configure building CAD drawings and the position of fiducial markers, points of interest and obstacles to be avoided by the wheelchair user; the capacity to find the best route for wheelchair indoor navigation, taking stairs and other obstacles into account; allow for the visualization of virtual directional arrows in the smartphone displays; and incorporate touch or voice commands to interact with the application. The architecture is proposed as a combination of four layers: User interface; Control; Service; and Infrastructure. A proof-of-concept application was developed and tests were performed with disable volunteers operating manual and electric wheelchairs. Results The application was implemented in Java for the Android operational system. A local database was used to store the test building CAD drawings and the position of fiducial markers and points of interest. The Android Augmented Reality library was used to implement Augmented Reality and the Blender open source

  19. A Star-Wheel Stair-Climbing Wheelchair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; WU Bo; JIN Ai-min; JIANG Shi-hong; ZHENG Yu-fei; ZHANG Shuai

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve a wheelchair climb stairs function, this paper designs a star-wheel stair-climbing mechanism. Through the effect of the lock coupling, the star-wheel stair-climbing mechanism is formed to be fixed axis gear train or planetary gear train achieving flat-walking and stair-climbing functions. Crossing obstacle analysis obtains the maximum height and minimum width of obstacle which the wheelchair can cross. Stress-strain analysis in Solidworks simulation is performed to verify material strength.

  20. Older people's use of powered wheelchairs for activity and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ase; Iwarsson, Susanne; Ståhle, Agneta

    2004-01-01

    research were identified. CONCLUSION: The use of powered wheelchairs is a relevant societal intervention in relation to older people with limited walking ability in order to make activity and participation possible. It is likely that a larger proportion of older people could benefit from this intervention...... not use the wheelchair for visits, and supplementary travel modes are called for. Users who could not walk at all or who could not transfer without assistance were more likely not to be able to carry out prioritized activities. Furthermore, other risk factors for negative outcomes and need for further...

  1. Population ecology of free-roaming cats and interference competition by coyotes in urban parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, Stanley D; Wilson, Evan C; Brown, Justin L; Anchor, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Free-roaming cats are a common element of urban landscapes worldwide, often causing controversy regarding their impacts on ecological systems and public health. We monitored cats within natural habitat fragments in the Chicago metropolitan area to characterize population demographics, disease prevalence, movement patterns and habitat selection, in addition to assessing the possible influence of coyotes on cats. The population was dominated by adults of both sexes, and 24% of adults were in reproductive condition. Annual survival rate was relatively high (S=0.70, SE=0.10), with vehicles and predation the primary causes of death. Size of annual home range varied by sex, but not reproductive status or body weight. We observed partitioning of the landscape by cats and coyotes, with little interspecific overlap between core areas of activity. Coyotes selected for natural habitats whereas cats selected for developed areas such as residences. Free-roaming cats were in better condition than we predicted, but their use of natural habitat fragments, and presumably their ecological impact, appeared to be limited by coyotes through intraguild competition.

  2. The Design and Implementation of Virtual Roaming in Yunnan Diqing Tibetan traditional Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Lucheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional residence is the continuation of intangible cultural heritage and the primitive soil for development. At present, the protection and inheritance of traditional villages have been impacted by the process of modernization, and the phenomenon of assimilation is very serious. This article takes the above questions as the breakthrough point, and then analyzes why and how to use virtual reality technology to better solve the above problems, and take the Yunnan Diqing Tibetan traditional dwellings as the specific example to explore. First, using VR technology, with real images and sound, the paper simulate a near real virtual world. Secondly, we collect a large amount of real image information, and make the visualization model of building by using 3DMAX software platform, UV Mapping and Rendering optimization. Finally, the Vizard virtual reality development platform was used to establish the roaming system and realize the virtual interaction. The roaming system was posted online so that overcome the disadvantages of not intuitive and low capability of interaction, and these new ideas can give a whole new meaning in the protection projects of the cultural relic buildings. At the same time, visitors could enjoy the "Dian-style" architectural style and cultural connotation of dwelling house in Diqing Yunnan.

  3. Quantifying Equid Behavior - A Research Ethogram for Free-Roaming Feral Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Cade, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are globally distributed in free-roaming populations on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide range of habitats including forest, grassland, desert, and montane environments. The largest populations occur in Australia and North America and have been the subject of scientific study for decades, yet guidelines and ethograms for feral horse behavioral research are largely absent in the scientific literature. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center conducted research on the influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on feral horse behavior from 2003-2006 in three discrete populations in the American west. These populations were the Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range in Colorado, McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area in Wyoming, and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in Montana; the research effort included over 1,800 hours of behavioral observations of 317 adult free-roaming feral horses. An ethogram was developed during the course of this study to facilitate accurate scientific data collection on feral horse behavior, which is often challenging to quantify. By developing this set of discrete behavioral definitions and a set of strict research protocols, scientists were better able to address both applied questions, such as behavioral changes related to fertility control, and theoretical questions, such as understanding networks and dominance hierarchies within social groups of equids.

  4. Assessing the Role of Free-Roaming Horses in a Social-Ecological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Jonaki; Murphy, Stephen D.

    2015-08-01

    Management actions concerning free-roaming horses attract controversy in many areas. In the Chilcotin region of British Columbia, Canada, social and cultural values influence debates about management of free-roaming horses and perceptions of their ecological impacts. A dearth of current, empirical research on the role and impacts of horses in local ecosystems results in management decisions being informed largely by studies from other ecoregions and locations, which may not accurately represent local ecological, social, cultural, and economic influences. We initiated the first socio-ecological study of horse sub-populations, their grazing habitat, and past management approaches affecting current conditions in the ?Elegesi Qayuse Wild Horse Preserve in Xeni Gwet'in (Tsilhqot'in) First Nations' territory. This exploratory study used mixed methods including a review of literature and unpublished data, assessment of vegetation in core grazing habitat, and exploration of local ecological and cultural knowledge and perceptions. Plant community composition and abundance in core grazing habitat of the Wild Horse Preserve are consistent with a structurally sound ecosystem. Socio-cultural factors are important for managers to consider in effective decision-making concerning horse populations.

  5. Enhanced Seamless Handover Algorithm for WiMAX and LTE Roaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINDIA, M. N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the ever evolving mobile communication technology, achieving a high quality seamless mobility access across mobile networks is the present challenge to research and development engineers. Existing algorithms are used to make handover while a mobile station is roaming between cells. Such algorithms have some handover instability due to method of making handover decision. This paper proposes an enhanced handover algorithm that substantially reduces the handover redundancy in vertical and horizontal handovers. Also, it enables users to select the most appropriate target network technology based on their preferences even in the worst case where the mobile station roams between cell boundaries, and has high ability to have efficient performance in the critical area full of interferences. The proposed algorithm uses additional quality of service criteria, such as cost, delay, available bandwidth and network condition with two handover thresholds to achieve a better seamless handover process. After developing and testing this algorithm, the simulation results show a major reduction in the redundant handover, so high accuracy of horizontal and vertical handovers obtained. Moreover, the signal strength is kept at a level higher than the threshold during the whole simulation period, while maintaining low delay and connection cost compared to other two algorithms in both scenarios.

  6. Population ecology of free-roaming cats and interference competition by coyotes in urban parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley D Gehrt

    Full Text Available Free-roaming cats are a common element of urban landscapes worldwide, often causing controversy regarding their impacts on ecological systems and public health. We monitored cats within natural habitat fragments in the Chicago metropolitan area to characterize population demographics, disease prevalence, movement patterns and habitat selection, in addition to assessing the possible influence of coyotes on cats. The population was dominated by adults of both sexes, and 24% of adults were in reproductive condition. Annual survival rate was relatively high (S=0.70, SE=0.10, with vehicles and predation the primary causes of death. Size of annual home range varied by sex, but not reproductive status or body weight. We observed partitioning of the landscape by cats and coyotes, with little interspecific overlap between core areas of activity. Coyotes selected for natural habitats whereas cats selected for developed areas such as residences. Free-roaming cats were in better condition than we predicted, but their use of natural habitat fragments, and presumably their ecological impact, appeared to be limited by coyotes through intraguild competition.

  7. Robot Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanišić, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of robot mechanisms, primarily considering industrial manipulators and humanoid arms. The book is intended for both teaching and self-study. Emphasis is given to the fundamentals of kinematic analysis and the design of robot mechanisms. The coverage of topics is untypical. The focus is on robot kinematics. The book creates a balance between theoretical and practical aspects in the development and application of robot mechanisms, and includes the latest achievements and trends in robot science and technology.

  8. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  9. Robotics education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, O.

    1984-01-01

    Robotics education courses are rapidly spreading throughout the nation's colleges and universities. Engineering schools are offering robotics courses as part of their mechanical or manufacturing engineering degree program. Two year colleges are developing an Associate Degree in robotics. In addition to regular courses, colleges are offering seminars in robotics and related fields. These seminars draw excellent participation at costs running up to $200 per day for each participant. The last one drew 275 people from Texas to Virginia. Seminars are also offered by trade associations, private consulting firms, and robot vendors. IBM, for example, has the Robotic Assembly Institute in Boca Raton and charges about $1,000 per week for course. This is basically for owners of IBM robots. Education (and training) can be as short as one day or as long as two years. Here is the educational pattern that is developing now

  10. Modifications in Wheelchair Propulsion Technique with Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ian M; Raina, Shashank; Requejo, Philip S; Wilcox, Rand R; Mulroy, Sara; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive loading of the upper limb joints during manual wheelchair (WC) propulsion (WCP) has been identified as a factor that contributes to shoulder pain, leading to loss of independence and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine how individual manual WC users with paraplegia modify propulsion mechanics to accommodate expected increases in reaction forces (RFs) generated at the pushrim with self-selected increases in WCP speed. Upper extremity kinematics and pushrim RFs were measured for 40 experienced manual WC users with paraplegia while propelling on a stationary ergometer at self-selected free and fast propulsion speeds. Upper extremity kinematics and kinetics were compared within subject between propulsion speeds. Between group and within-subject differences were determined (α = 0.05). Increased propulsion speed was accompanied by increases in RF magnitude (22 of 40, >10 N) and shoulder net joint moment (NJM, 15 of 40, >10 Nm) and decreases in pushrim contact duration. Within-subject comparison indicated that 27% of participants modified their WCP mechanics with increases in speed by regulating RF orientation relative to the upper extremity segments. Reorientation of the RF relative to the upper extremity segments can be used as an effective strategy for mitigating rotational demands (NJM) imposed on the shoulder at increased propulsion speeds. Identification of propulsion strategies that individuals can use to effectively accommodate for increases in RFs is an important step toward preserving musculoskeletal health of the shoulder and improving health-related quality of life.

  11. Reliability of the Spanish version of the wheelchair skills test 4.2 for manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passuni, Diego; Dalzotto, Elisa; F Gath, Christian; Buffetti, Eliana; Elizalde, Milagros; Jarmoluk, Verónica; Russo, Maria J; Intruvini, Silvia; Olmos, Lisandro E; Freixes, Orestes

    2018-05-03

    Cross-sectional. The majority of people with a spinal cord injury (SCI) are dependent on wheelchair for their mobility. Approximately, 36% of wheelchair users reported that obstacles such as curbs, uneven terrain, flooring surfaces and thresholds were barriers to mobility. Several studies have shown that assessment and training of wheelchair skills leads to improvements in those skills. The purpose of our study was to translate the Wheelchair Skill Test (4.2) and its report form into Spanish and then determine the inter-rater reliability of the WST 4.2 for manual wheelchairs operated by their users. Rehabilitation Unit, FLENI Institute, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The translation was performed by a physical therapist with advanced English language skills and specialized in the treatment of SCI subjects. We administrated and video-recorded the WST 4.2 manual Spanish version in 11 SCI subjects. Two physical therapists received specific training for administering the test and scoring the record. The reliability of the total percentage WST score were statistically quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC values for Interrater were 0.998 (p skills had a 100 percentage of agreement. Percentage of agreement in the three skills that presented less rating agreement was 73%, 81 % and 82 %, respectively. The results show that the Spanish version of WST 4.2 is a reliable assessment tool to evaluate the skills capacity of spinal cord manual wheelchair users. Implications for rehabilitation Wheelchair users require a proficient management of various wheelchair skills to achieve maximum independence in daily life. Determining which wheelchair skills should be addressed during the rehabilitation process is of great importance for their correct training. The WST 4.2 is an appropriate assessment tool to determine the functional capacity of wheelchair users. Making available the WST 4.2 in the Spanish language and demonstrating its reliability in this language

  12. Intelligent Control Wheelchair Using a New Visual Joystick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Rabhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new control system of a hand gesture-controlled wheelchair (EWC is proposed. This smart control device is suitable for a large number of patients who cannot manipulate a standard joystick wheelchair. The movement control system uses a camera fixed on the wheelchair. The patient’s hand movements are recognized using a visual recognition algorithm and artificial intelligence software; the derived corresponding signals are thus used to control the EWC in real time. One of the main features of this control technique is that it allows the patient to drive the wheelchair with a variable speed similar to that of a standard joystick. The designed device “hand gesture-controlled wheelchair” is performed at low cost and has been tested on real patients and exhibits good results. Before testing the proposed control device, we have created a three-dimensional environment simulator to test its performances with extreme security. These tests were performed on real patients with diverse hand pathologies in Mohamed Kassab National Institute of Orthopedics, Physical and Functional Rehabilitation Hospital of Tunis, and the validity of this intelligent control system had been proved.

  13. An observational study of powered wheelchair provision in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino, Claudia; Andrich, Renzo; Converti, R M; Saruggia, M

    2016-01-01

    Powered wheelchairs are complex and expensive assistive devices that must be selected and configured on the basis of individual user needs, lifestyle, motivation, driving ability, and environment. Providing agencies often require evidence that their financial investment will lead to a successful outcome. The authors surveyed a sample of 79 users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from a Regional Health Service in Italy in the period 2008-2013. Follow-up interviews were conducted at the users' homes in order to collect information about wheelchair use, and its effectiveness, usefulness, and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire, QUEST (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology), PIADS (Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale), FABS/M (Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility), and SCAI (Siva Cost Analysis Instrument). The results indicated positive outcomes, especially in relation to user satisfaction and psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings that sometimes restrict user mobility, and suggest corrective actions. The provision of a powered wheelchair generated considerable savings in social costs for most users: an average of about $38,000 per person over a projected 5-year period was estimated by comparing the cost of the intervention with that of non-intervention.

  14. HMM based automated wheelchair navigation using EOG traces in EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fayeem; Arof, Hamzah; Mokhtar, Norrima; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a wheelchair navigation system based on a hidden Markov model (HMM), which we developed to assist those with restricted mobility. The semi-autonomous system is equipped with obstacle/collision avoidance sensors and it takes the electrooculography (EOG) signal traces from the user as commands to maneuver the wheelchair. The EOG traces originate from eyeball and eyelid movements and they are embedded in EEG signals collected from the scalp of the user at three different locations. Features extracted from the EOG traces are used to determine whether the eyes are open or closed, and whether the eyes are gazing to the right, center, or left. These features are utilized as inputs to a few support vector machine (SVM) classifiers, whose outputs are regarded as observations to an HMM. The HMM determines the state of the system and generates commands for navigating the wheelchair accordingly. The use of simple features and the implementation of a sliding window that captures important signatures in the EOG traces result in a fast execution time and high classification rates. The wheelchair is equipped with a proximity sensor and it can move forward and backward in three directions. The asynchronous system achieved an average classification rate of 98% when tested with online data while its average execution time was less than 1 s. It was also tested in a navigation experiment where all of the participants managed to complete the tasks successfully without collisions.

  15. Effect of handrim velocity on mechanical efficiency in wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    To study the effect of tangential speed of the handrims independent of external power output on gross mechanical efficiency (ME), nine able-bodied subjects performed wheelchair exercise tests on a stationary ergometer. The ergometer allowed for measurement of torque and three-dimensional forces on

  16. Temporal Parameters Estimation for Wheelchair Propulsion Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Ojeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to lower limb paralysis, individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI rely on their upper limbs for mobility. The prevalence of upper extremity pain and injury is high among this population. We evaluated the performance of three triaxis accelerometers placed on the upper arm, wrist, and under the wheelchair, to estimate temporal parameters of wheelchair propulsion. Twenty-six participants with SCI were asked to push their wheelchair equipped with a SMARTWheel. The estimated stroke number was compared with the criterion from video observations and the estimated push frequency was compared with the criterion from the SMARTWheel. Mean absolute errors (MAE and mean absolute percentage of error (MAPE were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement. Results showed reasonable accuracies especially using the accelerometer placed on the upper arm where the MAPE was 8.0% for stroke number and 12.9% for push frequency. The ICC was 0.994 for stroke number and 0.916 for push frequency. The wrist and seat accelerometer showed lower accuracy with a MAPE for the stroke number of 10.8% and 13.4% and ICC of 0.990 and 0.984, respectively. Results suggested that accelerometers could be an option for monitoring temporal parameters of wheelchair propulsion.

  17. Multidimensional Self-Efficacy and Affect in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…

  18. Step-Climbing Power Wheelchairs: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, S. Andrea; Wang, Hongwu; Ding, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Power wheelchairs capable of overcoming environmental barriers, such as uneven terrain, curbs, or stairs, have been under development for more than a decade. Method: We conducted a systematic review of the scientific and engineering literature to identify these devices, and we provide brief descriptions of the mechanism and method of operation for each. We also present data comparing their capabilities in terms of step climbing and standard wheelchair functions. Results: We found that all the devices presented allow for traversal of obstacles that cannot be accomplished with traditional power wheelchairs, but the slow speeds and small wheel diameters of some designs make them only moderately effective in the basic area of efficient transport over level ground and the size and configuration of some others limit maneuverability in tight spaces. Conclusion: We propose that safety and performance test methods more comprehensive than the International Organization for Standards (ISO) testing protocols be developed for measuring the capabilities of advanced wheelchairs with step-climbing and other environment-negotiating features to allow comparison of their clinical effectiveness. PMID:29339886

  19. Clinicians’ and researchers’ perspectives on manual wheelchair data loggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routhier, François; Lettre, Josiane; Miller, William C.; Borisoff, Jaimie F.; Keetch, Kate; Mitchell, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have employed data loggers to record a wide range of, sometimes differing, objective outcomes associated with the use of manual wheelchairs. To identify which outcomes are broadly perceived to be the most important to measure when objectively documenting manual wheelchair use, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with groups of researchers and clinicians in the field of wheeled mobility. We also surveyed the challenges these groups experienced when using data loggers. The survey was informed by a previous scoping review of the scientific and gray literature. Seventy-four people, with various academic and professional backgrounds, completed the survey: 57 researchers (77.0%) and 17 clinicians (23.0%). Regarding the importance they attributed to commonly measured outcomes, the most highly rated outcome identified by both groups was “distance traveled.” There were significant differences between the groups’ perspectives in rating and ranking the importance of “pressure-relief activities”, “seat pressure” and “acceleration.” In terms of challenges or barriers associated with the use of data loggers for monitoring manual wheelchair use, it appears that researchers and clinicians have relatively similar needs and preferences. However, only clinicians reported that the time they wanted to, or could, allocate to review recorded information was a potential hardship. Our hope is that these results will help further development and increase the functionality and applicability of data loggers for manual wheelchairs in research and clinical contexts. PMID:28202382

  20. Initial Skill Acquisition of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion: A New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; Lamoth, Claudine J; Veeger, Dirkjan Hej; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into cyclic motor learning processes, hand rim wheelchair propulsion is a suitable cyclic task, to be learned during early rehabilitation and novel to almost every individual. To propel in an energy efficient manner, wheelchair users must learn to control bimanually applied forces onto the rims, preserving both speed and direction of locomotion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique during the initial stage of motor learning. Therefore, 70 naive able-bodied men received 12-min uninstructed wheelchair practice, consisting of three 4-min blocks separated by 2 min rest. Practice was performed on a motor-driven treadmill at a fixed belt speed and constant power output relative to body mass. Energy consumption and the kinetics of propulsion technique were continuously measured. Participants significantly increased their mechanical efficiency and changed their propulsion technique from a high frequency mode with a lot of negative work to a longer-slower movement pattern with less power losses. Furthermore a multi-level model showed propulsion technique to relate to mechanical efficiency. Finally improvers and non-improvers were identified. The non-improving group was already more efficient and had a better propulsion technique in the first block of practice (i.e., the fourth minute). These findings link propulsion technique to mechanical efficiency, support the importance of a correct propulsion technique for wheelchair users and show motor learning differences.

  1. Patterns of shoulder muscle coordination vary between wheelchair propulsion techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated changes in the coordination patterns of shoulder muscles and wheelchair kinetics with different propulsion techniques by comparing wheelchair users' self-selected propulsion patterns with a semicircular pattern adopted after instruction. Wheelchair kinetics data were recorded by Smart(Wheel) on an ergometer, while EMG activity of seven muscles was recorded with surface electrodes on 15 able-bodied inexperienced participants. The performance data in two sessions, first using a self-selected and then the learned semicircular pattern, were compared with a paired t-test. Muscle coordination patterns across seven muscles were analyzed by principal component analysis. The semicircular pattern was characterized by significantly lower push frequency, significantly longer push length, push duration and push distance (p propulsion technique, synergistic muscles were recruited in distinct phases and displayed a clearer separation between activities in the push phase and recovery phase muscles. An instruction session in semicircular propulsion technique is recommended for the initial use of a wheelchair after an injury.

  2. Physical and Leisure Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Canadians Who Use Wheelchairs: A Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L. Best

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical and leisure activities are proven health promotion modalities and have not been examined in older wheelchair users. Main Objectives. Examine physical and leisure activity in older wheelchair users and explore associations between wheelchair use and participation in physical and leisure activity, and wheelchair use, physical and leisure activity, and perceived health. Methods. 8301 Canadians ≥60 years of age were selected from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Sociodemographic, health-related, mobility-related, and physical and leisure activity variables were analysed using logistic regression to determine, the likelihood of participation in physical and leisure activity, and whether participation in physical and leisure activities mediates the relationship between wheelchair use and perceived health. Results. 8.3% and 41.3% older wheelchair users were physically and leisurely active. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for reduced participation in physical (OR=44.71 and leisure activity (OR=10.83. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for poor perceived health (OR=10.56 and physical and leisure activity negatively mediated the relationship between wheelchair user and perceived health. Conclusion. There is a need for the development of suitable physical and leisure activity interventions for older wheelchair users. Participation in such interventions may have associations with health benefits.

  3. Physical and leisure activity in older community-dwelling canadians who use wheelchairs: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Krista L; Miller, William C

    2011-04-13

    Background. Physical and leisure activities are proven health promotion modalities and have not been examined in older wheelchair users. Main Objectives. Examine physical and leisure activity in older wheelchair users and explore associations between wheelchair use and participation in physical and leisure activity, and wheelchair use, physical and leisure activity, and perceived health. Methods. 8301 Canadians ≥60 years of age were selected from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Sociodemographic, health-related, mobility-related, and physical and leisure activity variables were analysed using logistic regression to determine, the likelihood of participation in physical and leisure activity, and whether participation in physical and leisure activities mediates the relationship between wheelchair use and perceived health. Results. 8.3% and 41.3% older wheelchair users were physically and leisurely active. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for reduced participation in physical (OR = 44.71) and leisure activity (OR = 10.83). Wheelchair use was a risk factor for poor perceived health (OR = 10.56) and physical and leisure activity negatively mediated the relationship between wheelchair user and perceived health. Conclusion. There is a need for the development of suitable physical and leisure activity interventions for older wheelchair users. Participation in such interventions may have associations with health benefits.

  4. Detection of Babesia hongkongensis sp. nov. in a Free-Roaming Felis catus Cat in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Samson S. Y.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Hui, Janet J. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Intraerythrocytic Babesia-like trophozoites were seen in postmortem kidney sections of a free-roaming cat in Hong Kong. DNA sequences of the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome b genes had only 96.7% and 90.4% nucleotide identity with known Babesia sequences. We propose that this new species be named Babesia hongkongensis.

  5. Detection of Babesia hongkongensis sp. nov. in a free-roaming Felis catus cat in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samson S Y; Poon, Rosana W S; Hui, Janet J Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-08-01

    Intraerythrocytic Babesia-like trophozoites were seen in postmortem kidney sections of a free-roaming cat in Hong Kong. DNA sequences of the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome b genes had only 96.7% and 90.4% nucleotide identity with known Babesia sequences. We propose that this new species be named Babesia hongkongensis.

  6. Shoulder complaints in wheelchair athletes: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar W Heyward

    Full Text Available In recent years the popularity of disabled sports and competition among disabled athletes has grown considerably. With this rise in exposure of, and participation in wheelchair sports comes an increase in related stressors, including musculoskeletal load. External mechanical loading may increase the risk of shoulder complaints. The objective of this literature review was to 1 identify and describe the prevalence and/or incidence of shoulder complaints in wheelchair athletes in the literature, to 2 examine the factors and underlying mechanisms that could be potentially involved, and 3 provide some insights into the development of preventative measures.A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Embase databases, to identify relevant published articles. All articles in the English language that contained any type of shoulder complaint in relation with a wheelchair sports player, at any level of status (recreational to elite, of any sport, were included. Articles were excluded if they did not include any statistical analysis. Articles that included studies with wheelchair athletes in combination with athletes of other disability sports were excluded in order to be able to differentiate between the two. Narrative, exploratory and case studies were also excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for inclusion. Thirteen articles matched the selection criteria. These were judged on their quality by use of an adapted version of the Webster checklist.Of the included studies the overall quality was low. A relatively high prevalence of complaints was found, ranging from 16% to 76%. Pain was found to be a common complaint in wheelchair athletes. Based on the current literature the cause of shoulder problems is difficult to identify and is likely multifactorial, nevertheless characteristics of the user (i.e. increased years of disability, age and BMI were shown to increase risk. Preventative measures were indistinct. There may be

  7. Tourists’ Perceptions of the Free-Roaming Dog Population in Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Beckman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to establish how visiting tourists to Samoa perceived free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris and their management, additionally some factors that influence their perceptions were assessed. Questionnaires were administered to 281 tourists across Samoa over 5 weeks. Free-roaming dogs were seen by 98.2% (n = 269/274 of respondents, with 64.9% (n = 137/211 reporting that their presence had a negative effect on overall holiday experience. Respondents staying in the Apia (capital city area were more likely to consider dogs a problem (p < 0.0001, and there was a significant association between whether the respondent owned a dog and if they thought dogs were a nuisance in Samoa (p < 0.003. Forty-four percent (20/89 of non-dog owners agreed that dogs were a nuisance compared to 22% (80/182 of dog owners. The majority felt that dogs required better control and management in Samoa (81%, n = 222 and that there were too many “stray” dogs (67.9%, n = 188. More respondents were negatively affected by the dogs’ presence (64.9%, 137/211, and felt that the dogs made their holiday worse, than respondents that felt the dogs’ presence improved their holiday experience (35.1%, 74/211. Most respondents stated that the dogs had a low impact (one to three; 68%, 187/275 on their stay in Samoa, whilst 24% (65/275 and 8% (23/275 stated they had a medium or high impact, respectively, on their stay. Respondents showed strong support for humane population management. Free-roaming dogs present a complex problem for Samoa and for its tourism industry in particular. The findings of this study further support the need for more discussion and action about the provision of veterinary services and population management for dogs in Samoa. It also provides information complementing an earlier study of the attitudes of local Samoans.

  8. Is effective force application in handrim wheelchair propulsion also efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, D J J; van Drongelen, S; Veeger, H E J

    2009-01-01

    Efficiency in manual wheelchair propulsion is low, as is the fraction of the propulsion force that is attributed to the moment of propulsion of the wheelchair. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tangential propulsion force direction leads to an increase in physiological cost, due to (1) the sub-optimal use of elbow flexors and extensors, and/or (2) the necessity of preventing of glenohumeral subluxation. Five able-bodied and 11 individuals with a spinal cord injury propelled a wheelchair while kinematics and kinetics were collected. The results were used to perform inverse dynamical simulations with input of (1) the experimentally obtained propulsion force, and (2) only the tangential component of that force. In the tangential force condition the physiological cost was over 30% higher, while the tangential propulsion force was only 75% of the total experimental force. According to model estimations, the tangential force condition led to more co-contraction around the elbow, and a higher power production around the shoulder joint. The tangential propulsion force led to a significant, but small 4% increase in necessity for the model to compensate for glenohumeral subluxation, which indicates that this is not a likely cause of the decrease in efficiency. The present findings support the hypothesis that the observed force direction in wheelchair propulsion is a compromise between efficiency and the constraints imposed by the wheelchair-user system. This implies that training should not be aimed at optimization of the propulsion force, because this may be less efficient and more straining for the musculoskeletal system.

  9. Maps managing interface design for a mobile robot navigation governed by a BCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A [Institute of Automatic, National University of San Juan. San Martin, 1109 - Oeste 5400 San Juan (Argentina); Carelli, Ricardo [Institute of Automatic, National University of San Juan. San Martin, 1109 - Oeste 5400 San Juan (Argentina); Celeste, Wanderley Cardoso [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Espirito Santo. Fernando Ferrari, 514 29075-910 Vitoria-ES (Brazil); Freire Bastos, Teodiano [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Espirito Santo. Fernando Ferrari, 514 29075-910 Vitoria-ES (Brazil); Di Sciascio, Fernando [Institute of Automatic, National University of San Juan. San Martin, 1109 - Oeste 5400 San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    In this paper, a maps managing interface is proposed. This interface is governed by a Brain Computer Interface (BCI), which also governs a mobile robot's movements. If a robot is inside a known environment, the user can load a map from the maps managing interface in order to navigate it. Otherwise, if the robot is in an unknown environment, a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm is released in order to obtain a probabilistic grid map of that environment. Then, that map is loaded into the map database for future navigations. While slamming, the user has a direct control of the robot's movements via the BCI. The complete system is applied to a mobile robot and can be also applied to an autonomous wheelchair, which has the same kinematics. Experimental results are also shown.

  10. Maps managing interface design for a mobile robot navigation governed by a BCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A; Carelli, Ricardo; Celeste, Wanderley Cardoso; Freire Bastos, Teodiano; Di Sciascio, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a maps managing interface is proposed. This interface is governed by a Brain Computer Interface (BCI), which also governs a mobile robot's movements. If a robot is inside a known environment, the user can load a map from the maps managing interface in order to navigate it. Otherwise, if the robot is in an unknown environment, a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm is released in order to obtain a probabilistic grid map of that environment. Then, that map is loaded into the map database for future navigations. While slamming, the user has a direct control of the robot's movements via the BCI. The complete system is applied to a mobile robot and can be also applied to an autonomous wheelchair, which has the same kinematics. Experimental results are also shown

  11. Intelligent navigation and accurate positioning of an assist robot in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Bin; Rama, Endri; Capi, Genci; Jindai, Mitsuru; Tsuri, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    Intact robot's navigation and accurate positioning in indoor environments are still challenging tasks. Especially in robot applications, assisting disabled and/or elderly people in museums/art gallery environments. In this paper, we present a human-like navigation method, where the neural networks control the wheelchair robot to reach the goal location safely, by imitating the supervisor's motions, and positioning in the intended location. In a museum similar environment, the mobile robot starts navigation from various positions, and uses a low-cost camera to track the target picture, and a laser range finder to make a safe navigation. Results show that the neural controller with the Conjugate Gradient Backpropagation training algorithm gives a robust response to guide the mobile robot accurately to the goal position.

  12. Test–retest reliability and construct validity of the Aspects of Wheelchair Mobility Test as a measure of the mobility of wheelchair users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Rispin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Results support the preliminary reliability and validity of the AWMT 2.0, supporting its effectiveness in comparing the mobility provided by different wheelchair types. This information can be used to enable effective use of limited funds for wheelchair selection at individual and organisational scales.

  13. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  14. Progress in EEG-Based Brain Robot Interaction Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most popular noninvasive Brain Robot Interaction (BRI technology uses the electroencephalogram- (EEG- based Brain Computer Interface (BCI, to serve as an additional communication channel, for robot control via brainwaves. This technology is promising for elderly or disabled patient assistance with daily life. The key issue of a BRI system is to identify human mental activities, by decoding brainwaves, acquired with an EEG device. Compared with other BCI applications, such as word speller, the development of these applications may be more challenging since control of robot systems via brainwaves must consider surrounding environment feedback in real-time, robot mechanical kinematics, and dynamics, as well as robot control architecture and behavior. This article reviews the major techniques needed for developing BRI systems. In this review article, we first briefly introduce the background and development of mind-controlled robot technologies. Second, we discuss the EEG-based brain signal models with respect to generating principles, evoking mechanisms, and experimental paradigms. Subsequently, we review in detail commonly used methods for decoding brain signals, namely, preprocessing, feature extraction, and feature classification, and summarize several typical application examples. Next, we describe a few BRI applications, including wheelchairs, manipulators, drones, and humanoid robots with respect to synchronous and asynchronous BCI-based techniques. Finally, we address some existing problems and challenges with future BRI techniques.

  15. Multi-operator collaboration for green cellular networks under roaming price consideration

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the collaboration between multiple mobile operators to optimize the energy efficiency of cellular networks. Our framework studies the case of LTE-Advanced networks deployed in the same area and owning renewable energy generators. The objective is to reduce the CO2 emissions of cellular networks via collaborative techniques and using base station sleeping strategy while respecting the network quality of service. Low complexity and practical algorithm is employed to achieve green goals during low traffic periods. Cooperation decision criteria are also established basing on derived roaming prices and profit gains of competitive mobile operators. Our numerical results show a significant save in terms of CO2 compared to the non-collaboration case and that cooperative mobile operator exploiting renewables are more awarded than traditional operators.

  16. CryptoCache: A Secure Sharable File Cache for Roaming Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.

    2000-01-01

    . Conventional distributed file systems cache everything locally or not at all; there is no possibility to cache files on nearby nodes.In this paper we present the design of a secure cache system called CryptoCache that allows roaming users to cache files on untrusted file hosting servers. The system allows...... flexible sharing of cached files among unauthenticated users, i.e. unlike most distributed file systems CryptoCache does not require a global authentication framework.Files are encrypted when they are transferred over the network and while stored on untrusted servers. The system uses public key......Small mobile computers are now sufficiently powerful to run many applications, but storage capacity remains limited so working files cannot be cached or stored locally. Even if files can be stored locally, the mobile device is not powerful enough to act as server in collaborations with other users...

  17. Multi-operator collaboration for green cellular networks under roaming price consideration

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the collaboration between multiple mobile operators to optimize the energy efficiency of cellular networks. Our framework studies the case of LTE-Advanced networks deployed in the same area and owning renewable energy generators. The objective is to reduce the CO2 emissions of cellular networks via collaborative techniques and using base station sleeping strategy while respecting the network quality of service. Low complexity and practical algorithm is employed to achieve green goals during low traffic periods. Cooperation decision criteria are also established basing on derived roaming prices and profit gains of competitive mobile operators. Our numerical results show a significant save in terms of CO2 compared to the non-collaboration case and that cooperative mobile operator exploiting renewables are more awarded than traditional operators.

  18. Green collaboration in cognitive radio cellular networks with roaming and spectrum trading

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2015-08-30

    In this paper, we propose a new cognitive cellular network architecture based on the coexistence of primary and secondary networks, (PN) and (SN), respectively. The PN aims to minimize its energy consumption by switching off the maximum number of its BSs and offloading its users to the SN\\'s infrastructure to maintain its QoS. In return, the PN pays a roaming price and permits the SN to share or lease the spectrum at a certain price. We propose a low-complexity algorithm allowing the PN to minimize its energy consumption by selecting a suboptimal combination of active base stations. Our algorithm also optimizes the resource allocation of the SN to maximize its total sum-rate while respecting the minimal profit constraints for both networks. In the numerical results, we show that our proposed algorithm achieves close performances to the optimal exhaustive search algorithm. In addition, we investigate the impact of various system parameters in the collaboration decision.

  19. Supporting Local Mobility in Healthcare by Application Roaming among Heterogeneous Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind; Kjær, Thomas A.K.; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results from a research project aiming at developing an architecture supporting local mobility within hospitals. The architecture is based on fieldwork and design workshops within a large Danish hospital and it has been implemented and evaluated after a pilot phase. Our...... fieldwork has emphasised the differences between remote mobility, where users travel over long distances, and local mobility, where users walk around within a fixed set of buildings and/or places. Based on our field studies and our design work, we conclude that local mobility puts up three requirements...... for computer support; (i) it should integrate into the existing infrastructure, (ii) it should support the use of various heterogeneous devices, and (iii) it should enable seamless application roaming between these devices. The paper describes how these requirements were realized in an architecture for local...

  20. Torque and power outputs on different subjects during manual wheelchair propulsion under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Kim, Youngho

    2012-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users are at a high risk of pain and injuries to the upper extremities due to mechanical inefficiency of wheelchair propulsion motion. The kinetic analysis of the upper extremities during manual wheelchair propulsion in various conditions needed to be investigated. We developed and calibrated a wheelchair dynamometer for measuring kinetic parameters during propulsion. We utilized the dynamometer to investigate and compare the propulsion torque and power values of experienced and novice users under four different conditions. Experienced wheelchair users generated lower torques with more power than novice users and reacted alertly and sensitively to changing conditions. We expect that these basic methods and results may help to quantitatively evaluate the mechanical efficiency of manual wheelchair propulsion.

  1. Alternative input medium development for wheelchair user with severe spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Izzat Aqmar; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    Quadriplegia or tetraplegia patients have restricted four limbs as well as torso movement caused by severe spinal cord injury. Undoubtedly, these patients face difficulties when operating their powered electric wheelchair since they are unable to control the wheelchair by means of a standard joystick. Due to total loss of both sensory and motor function of the four limbs and torso, an alternative input medium for the wheelchair will be developed to assist the user in operating the wheelchair. In this framework, the direction of the wheelchair movement is determined by the user's conscious intent through a brain control interface (BCI) based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. A laser range finder (LFR) is used to perceive environment information for determining a safety distance of the wheelchair's surrounding. Local path planning algorithm will be developed to provide navigation planner along with user's input to prevent collision during control operation.

  2. Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M

    2018-04-09

    This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effects of sex and reproductive state on interactions between free-roaming domestic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sparkes

    Full Text Available Free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris are common worldwide, often maintaining diseases of domestic pets and wildlife. Management of these dogs is difficult and often involves capture, treatment, neutering and release. Information on the effects of sex and reproductive state on intraspecific contacts and disease transmission is currently lacking, but is vital to improving strategic management of their populations. We assessed the effects of sex and reproductive state on short-term activity patterns and contact rates of free-roaming dogs living in an Australian Indigenous community. Population, social group sizes and rates of contact were estimated from structured observations along walked transects. Simultaneously, GPS telemetry collars were used to track dogs' movements and to quantify the frequency of contacts between individual animals. We estimated that the community's dog population was 326 ± 52, with only 9.8 ± 2.5% confined to a house yard. Short-term activity ranges of dogs varied from 9.2 to 133.7 ha, with males ranging over significantly larger areas than females. Contacts between two or more dogs occurred frequently, with entire females and neutered males accumulating significantly more contacts than spayed females or entire males. This indicates that sex and reproductive status are potentially important to epidemiology, but the effect of these differential contact rates on disease transmission requires further investigation. The observed combination of unrestrained dogs and high contact rates suggest that contagious disease would likely spread rapidly through the population. Pro-active management of dog populations and targeted education programs could help reduce the risks associated with disease spread.

  4. Effects of sex and reproductive state on interactions between free-roaming domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Jessica; Körtner, Gerhard; Ballard, Guy; Fleming, Peter J S; Brown, Wendy Y

    2014-01-01

    Free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris) are common worldwide, often maintaining diseases of domestic pets and wildlife. Management of these dogs is difficult and often involves capture, treatment, neutering and release. Information on the effects of sex and reproductive state on intraspecific contacts and disease transmission is currently lacking, but is vital to improving strategic management of their populations. We assessed the effects of sex and reproductive state on short-term activity patterns and contact rates of free-roaming dogs living in an Australian Indigenous community. Population, social group sizes and rates of contact were estimated from structured observations along walked transects. Simultaneously, GPS telemetry collars were used to track dogs' movements and to quantify the frequency of contacts between individual animals. We estimated that the community's dog population was 326 ± 52, with only 9.8 ± 2.5% confined to a house yard. Short-term activity ranges of dogs varied from 9.2 to 133.7 ha, with males ranging over significantly larger areas than females. Contacts between two or more dogs occurred frequently, with entire females and neutered males accumulating significantly more contacts than spayed females or entire males. This indicates that sex and reproductive status are potentially important to epidemiology, but the effect of these differential contact rates on disease transmission requires further investigation. The observed combination of unrestrained dogs and high contact rates suggest that contagious disease would likely spread rapidly through the population. Pro-active management of dog populations and targeted education programs could help reduce the risks associated with disease spread.

  5. SLAM algorithm applied to robotics assistance for navigation in unknown environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Pereira Fernando

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of robotic tools with assistance technology determines a slightly explored area of applications and advantages for disability or elder people in their daily tasks. Autonomous motorized wheelchair navigation inside an environment, behaviour based control of orthopaedic arms or user's preference learning from a friendly interface are some examples of this new field. In this paper, a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM algorithm is implemented to allow the environmental learning by a mobile robot while its navigation is governed by electromyographic signals. The entire system is part autonomous and part user-decision dependent (semi-autonomous. The environmental learning executed by the SLAM algorithm and the low level behaviour-based reactions of the mobile robot are robotic autonomous tasks, whereas the mobile robot navigation inside an environment is commanded by a Muscle-Computer Interface (MCI. Methods In this paper, a sequential Extended Kalman Filter (EKF feature-based SLAM algorithm is implemented. The features correspond to lines and corners -concave and convex- of the environment. From the SLAM architecture, a global metric map of the environment is derived. The electromyographic signals that command the robot's movements can be adapted to the patient's disabilities. For mobile robot navigation purposes, five commands were obtained from the MCI: turn to the left, turn to the right, stop, start and exit. A kinematic controller to control the mobile robot was implemented. A low level behavior strategy was also implemented to avoid robot's collisions with the environment and moving agents. Results The entire system was tested in a population of seven volunteers: three elder, two below-elbow amputees and two young normally limbed patients. The experiments were performed within a closed low dynamic environment. Subjects took an average time of 35 minutes to navigate the environment and to learn how

  6. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspall, Jayme J; Seligsohn, Erin; Dao, Phuc V; Sprigle, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle) exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle) by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  7. Do tilt-in-space wheelchairs increase occupational engagement: a critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrand, Jenny; Bannigan, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    A wheelchair can enhance the quality of life of an individual with limited mobility, poor trunk control and stability, by enabling activity and participation and so occupational engagement. High specification wheelchairs which can tilt-in-space enable the position of users to be altered to suit activity and context. Despite tilt-in-space wheelchairs being expensive little is known about their therapeutic value. A critical literature review of the evidence was undertaken to evaluate whether the use of tilt-in-space increases occupational engagement. A wide ranging search strategy identified 170 articles which were screened using inclusion criteria. The eligible literature (n = 6) was analysed thematically using open coding. The majority of the participants used tilt-in-space but the data was too heterogeneous to combine. Measures of occupational engagement were not used so the therapeutic value could not be assessed. There is a lack of high quality evidence about the therapeutic benefits of tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Given the expense associated with providing these wheelchairs, and the increase in their provision, research is needed to justify provision of high specification wheelchairs to meet the occupational needs of users within the limited resources of health and social care. Implications for Rehabilitation Tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Wheelchairs are an important and essential assistive device for promoting independence and function. Suggests there are benefits for tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Identifies the need for additional large scale research.

  8. Design and development of solar power-assisted manual/electric wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Tung-Yung; Liao, Tze-Yuan; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchairs are an essential assistive device for many individuals with injury or disability. Manual wheelchairs provide a relatively low-cost solution to the mobility needs of such individuals. Furthermore, they provide an effective means of improving the user's cardiopulmonary function and upper-limb muscle strength. However, manual wheelchairs have a loss gross mechanical efficiency, and thus the risk of user fatigue and upper-limb injury is increased. Electric-powered wheelchairs reduce the risk of injury and provide a more convenient means of transportation. However, they have a large physical size and are relatively expensive. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a quality function deployment method to develop a wheelchair with a user-selectable manual/electric propulsion mode and an auxiliary solar power supply system. The auxiliary solar power supply increased the travel range of the wheelchair by approximately 26% compared with that of a wheelchair powered by battery alone. Moreover, the wheelchair has a modular design and can be disassembled and folded for ease of transportation or storage. Overall, the present results suggest that the proposed wheelchair provides an effective and convenient means of meeting the mobility needs of individuals with mobility difficulties.

  9. Robotics 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  10. Vitruvian Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    future. A real version of Ava would not last long in a human world because she is basically a solipsist, who does not really care about humans. She cannot co-create the line humans walk along. The robots created as ‘perfect women’ (sex robots) today are very far from the ideal image of Ava...

  11. Development of a sedation protocol using orally administered tiletamine-zolazepam-acepromazine in free-roaming dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Chun; Huang, Shih-Wei; Yu, Kuan-Hua; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the sedative effects in dogs of tiletamine-zolazepam-acepromazine (TZA) or ketamine-flunitrazepam (KF) administered orally and to evaluate the effectiveness of encapsulated TZA for capturing free-roaming dogs. Experimental study followed by a field trial. Six research dogs and 27 free-roaming dogs. In a pilot study, six research dogs were administered liquid TZA (20 mg kg -1 tiletamine-zolazepam and 2 mg kg -1 acepromazine) or liquid KF (50 mg kg -1 ketamine and 2 mg kg -1 flunitrazepam) orally: treatment 1, forcefully squirting liquid medication into the mouth; treatment 2, encapsulating liquid medication for administration in canned food; treatment 3, administering liquid medication mixed with gravy. Sedation was scored. A follow-up field trial attempted capture of 27 free-roaming dogs. In the pilot study, the median time (range) to lateral recumbency (% dogs) after TZA administration was: treatment 1, 47.5 (35-80) minutes (67%); treatment 2, 30 (15-65) minutes (83%); and treatment 3, 75 (45-110) minutes (100%). No dogs in KF treatment 2 or 3 achieved lateral recumbency. Based on these results, 20 free-roaming dogs were offered encapsulated TZA in canned food: TZ (20 mg kg -1 ) and acepromazine (2 mg kg -1 ). Of these, no further drugs to four dogs (one dog captured), 10 dogs were administered a second dose within 30 minutes (five dogs captured) and six dogs were administered TZ (5 mg kg -1 ) and xylazine (1.1-2.2 mg kg -1 ) intramuscularly by blow dart (six dogs captured). Seven dogs were initially offered twice the TZA dose (five dogs captured). In total, 63% free-roaming dogs were captured after administration of encapsulated TZA in canned food. Oral administration of encapsulated TZA in canned dog food can aid in the capture of free-roaming dogs, but additional drugs may be required. The sedation onset time and medication palatability influenced the capture rate. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and

  12. Medical Robotics - A Real Challenge of Present and Especially Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel STARETU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available If we make a brief scan of the field known as Medical Robotics, we find that in recent years there has been an impetuous development of applications involving medical robots. Obviously, the most spectacular are remote robotic surgery systems, which, for example, in U.S. have been used in more than 3.5-4 million interventions. The systems AESOP, da Vinci and ZEUS are currently run in minimally invasive robotic surgery. Encouraging results were obtained at MIT (USA using robots in physiotherapy. Pearl is a robot designed as personal assistant of older patients, affected by disabilities. The Universities of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon successfully develop it. In Plymouth and Aachen, researchers are involved in the creation of intelligent wheelchairs. At the University of Karlsruhe, robotic systems applicable to neurosurgery are created. Thus, the MICRoN project aims to create a robot to manipulate micron-sized objects with nanometer precision, applications including intervention in the living biological cells. In several research centers one works on the improvement of neural interfaces, from which it is expected a new generation of prostheses, controlled through functional electrical stimulation. It is also projected that the microsystem technology (MST will have a major impact in medicine through the introduction of new diagnostic techniques, dosing, remote microsurgery and neural prostheses, all based on the concept of minimally invasive therapy, mentioned above. This is the approximate image of research in Medical Robotics and obviously of some related fields, whose dynamics has been impressive lately, a trend that is maintained and even has clear signs of amplification, and fully justifies this approach. In this context, we will present the main concepts and applications of medical robotics in order to achieve a more suggestive and convincing image of this area of great interest and perspective.

  13. Robot Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Ess, Charles Melvin; Bhroin, Niamh Ni

    The world's first robot teacher, Saya, was introduced to a classroom in Japan in 2009. Saya, had the appearance of a young female teacher. She could express six basic emotions, take the register and shout orders like 'be quiet' (The Guardian, 2009). Since 2009, humanoid robot technologies have...... developed. It is now suggested that robot teachers may become regular features in educational settings, and may even 'take over' from human teachers in ten to fifteen years (cf. Amundsen, 2017 online; Gohd, 2017 online). Designed to look and act like a particular kind of human; robot teachers mediate human...... existence and roles, while also aiming to support education through sophisticated, automated, human-like interaction. Our paper explores the design and existential implications of ARTIE, a robot teacher at Oxford Brookes University (2017, online). Drawing on an initial empirical exploration we propose...

  14. Robot vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Almost all industrial robots use internal sensors such as shaft encoders which measure rotary position, or tachometers which measure velocity, to control their motions. Most controllers also provide interface capabilities so that signals from conveyors, machine tools, and the robot itself may be used to accomplish a task. However, advanced external sensors, such as visual sensors, can provide a much greater degree of adaptability for robot control as well as add automatic inspection capabilities to the industrial robot. Visual and other sensors are now being used in fundamental operations such as material processing with immediate inspection, material handling with adaption, arc welding, and complex assembly tasks. A new industry of robot vision has emerged. The application of these systems is an area of great potential

  15. Social Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us as indiv......Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us...... as individuals seems to be limited by our technical limitations and phantasy alone. This collection contributes to the field of social robotics by exploring its boundaries from a philosophically informed standpoint. It constructively outlines central potentials and challenges and thereby also provides a stable...

  16. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  17. Micro intelligence robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yon Ho

    1991-07-01

    This book gives descriptions of micro robot about conception of robots and micro robot, match rules of conference of micro robots, search methods of mazes, and future and prospect of robots. It also explains making and design of 8 beat robot like making technique, software, sensor board circuit, and stepping motor catalog, speedy 3, Mr. Black and Mr. White, making and design of 16 beat robot, such as micro robot artist, Jerry 2 and magic art of shortening distances algorithm of robot simulation.

  18. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  19. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  20. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen; Bertocci, Gina; Smalley, Craig

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD") passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82%) and manual WhMDs (80%) compared to scooters (39%), and this difference was significant (pinjuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.

  1. Oxygen uptake during peak graded exercise and single-stage fatigue tests of wheelchair propulsion in manual wheelchair users and the able-bodied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, R E; Rodgers, M M; Gardner, E R; Russell, P J

    1999-10-01

    To determine if a single-stage, submaximal fatigue test on a wheelchair ergometer would result in higher than expected energy expenditure. An experimental survey design contrasting physiologic responses during peak graded exercise tests and fatigue tests. A rehabilitation science laboratory that included a prototypical wheelchair ergometer, open-circuit spirometry system, and heart rate monitor. Nine able-bodied non-wheelchair users (the NWC group: 6 men and 3 women, mean +/- SD age 30 +/- 7yrs) and 15 manual wheelchair users (the WC group: 12 men and 3 women, age 40 +/- 9yrs, time in wheelchair 16 +/- 9yrs). No subject had any disease, medication regimen, or upper body neurologic, orthopedic, or other condition that would limit wheelchair exercise. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) for graded exercise testing and during fatigue testing, using a power output corresponding to 75% peak aerobic capacity on graded exercise test. In the WC group, VO2 at 6 minutes of fatigue testing was not significantly different from peak VO2. In the NWC group, VO2 was similar to the expected level throughout fatigue testing. Energy expenditure was higher than expected in the WC group but not in the NWC group. Fatigue testing may provide a useful evaluation of cardiorespiratory status in manual wheelchair users.

  2. Posture Detection Based on Smart Cushion for Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The postures of wheelchair users can reveal their sitting habit, mood, and even predict health risks such as pressure ulcers or lower back pain. Mining the hidden information of the postures can reveal their wellness and general health conditions. In this paper, a cushion-based posture recognition system is used to process pressure sensor signals for the detection of user’s posture in the wheelchair. The proposed posture detection method is composed of three main steps: data level classification for posture detection, backward selection of sensor configuration, and recognition results compared with previous literature. Five supervised classification techniques—Decision Tree (J48, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Naive Bayes, and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN—are compared in terms of classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. Results indicate that the J48 classifier provides the highest accuracy compared to other techniques. The backward selection method was used to determine the best sensor deployment configuration of the wheelchair. Several kinds of pressure sensor deployments are compared and our new method of deployment is shown to better detect postures of the wheelchair users. Performance analysis also took into account the Body Mass Index (BMI, useful for evaluating the robustness of the method across individual physical differences. Results show that our proposed sensor deployment is effective, achieving 99.47% posture recognition accuracy. Our proposed method is very competitive for posture recognition and robust in comparison with other former research. Accurate posture detection represents a fundamental basic block to develop several applications, including fatigue estimation and activity level assessment.

  3. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  4. Wheelchair users, access and exclusion in South African higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwandire, Desire; Vincent, Louise

    2017-01-01

    South Africa's Constitution guarantees everyone, including persons with disabilities, the right to education. A variety of laws are in place obliging higher education institutions to provide appropriate physical access to education sites for all. In practice, however, many buildings remain inaccessible to people with physical disabilities. To describe what measures South African universities are taking to make their built environments more accessible to students with diverse types of disabilities, and to assess the adequacy of such measures. We conducted semi-structured in-depth face-to-face interviews with disability unit staff members (DUSMs) based at 10 different public universities in South Africa. Challenges with promoting higher education accessibility for wheelchair users include the preservation and heritage justification for failing to modify older buildings, ad hoc approaches to creating accessible environments and failure to address access to toilets, libraries and transport facilities for wheelchair users. South African universities are still not places where all students are equally able to integrate socially. DUSMs know what ought to be done to make campuses more accessible and welcoming to students with disabilities and should be empowered to play a leading role in sensitising non-disabled members of universities, to create greater awareness of, and appreciation for, the multiple ways in which wheelchair user students continue to be excluded from full participation in university life. South African universities need to adopt a systemic approach to inclusion, which fosters an understanding of inclusion as a fundamental right rather than as a luxury.

  5. Development of New Wheel-Chair for Sports Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Shionoya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop the new wheel-chair which had the function to drive straight by one-hand operation. To perform this purpose, the driving force transmission axis (DFTA which had transmitted the driving force from the one side of wheel to another side of that was developed. The wheel-chair could drive straight by one-hand operation by the DFTA. The large torque, however, was generated in the DFTA, because the DFTA transmitted the driving force from the one side of wheel to another side by the axis of small diameter. Furthermore, the shear stress in the DFTA generated by this torque would lead to the DFTA break. The shear stress in the DFTA was calculated to examine the axial strength and durability. On the DETA of the wheelchair, the maximum shear stress calculated from the torque in driving was 39.53 MP and this was defined as the standard of the demand specifications as a strength and durability of the DFTA.

  6. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be...

  7. Wireless Power System Design for Mobile Robots used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. Y.; Yoo, S. J.; Lee, Kun J.; Rim, C. T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The robots used in nuclear power plants (NPP) have received much attention in recent years due to the Fukushima nuclear accident, which is considered as one of the worst nuclear disasters. In general, the NPP robots can play important roles in fuel exchange, repair work, radiation monitoring, rescue, and scouting out NPP. Under these conditions, human access to NPP during normal and emergency operations is strictly restricted due to the risks of high level radiation and contamination. However, in practice, robots have not been widely used in NPP because of the following limitations. First, the NPP robots cannot be of multi-purpose use because of their mission complexity and uniqueness. Second, the demand of the NPP robots is low due to the limited number of NPP over the world. Third, the NPP robots developed so far have no enough confidence in spite of the improvement of robot technology. Lastly, the NPP robots cannot carry on their mission continuously due to the limited energy capacity of the battery: mobile robots should stop working every two hours to recharge their batteries and spend least twenty minutes. As the solutions for this 'energy hungry' problem, high capacity batteries, quick battery chargers, power cables, and internal combustion engines were proposed; however, they still have the problems such as limited mission time and range, frequent recharging, or exhausting emission and noise. In this paper, the wireless power transfer systems (WPTS) for NPP robots are proposed. This technology can let NPP robots free from mission time and range limits, and exhausting emission. The requirements for the NPP robots are newly proposed, and two types of WPTS, roaming and railway, are suggested in this paper

  8. Wireless Power System Design for Mobile Robots used in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Yoo, S. J.; Lee, Kun J.; Rim, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    The robots used in nuclear power plants (NPP) have received much attention in recent years due to the Fukushima nuclear accident, which is considered as one of the worst nuclear disasters. In general, the NPP robots can play important roles in fuel exchange, repair work, radiation monitoring, rescue, and scouting out NPP. Under these conditions, human access to NPP during normal and emergency operations is strictly restricted due to the risks of high level radiation and contamination. However, in practice, robots have not been widely used in NPP because of the following limitations. First, the NPP robots cannot be of multi-purpose use because of their mission complexity and uniqueness. Second, the demand of the NPP robots is low due to the limited number of NPP over the world. Third, the NPP robots developed so far have no enough confidence in spite of the improvement of robot technology. Lastly, the NPP robots cannot carry on their mission continuously due to the limited energy capacity of the battery: mobile robots should stop working every two hours to recharge their batteries and spend least twenty minutes. As the solutions for this 'energy hungry' problem, high capacity batteries, quick battery chargers, power cables, and internal combustion engines were proposed; however, they still have the problems such as limited mission time and range, frequent recharging, or exhausting emission and noise. In this paper, the wireless power transfer systems (WPTS) for NPP robots are proposed. This technology can let NPP robots free from mission time and range limits, and exhausting emission. The requirements for the NPP robots are newly proposed, and two types of WPTS, roaming and railway, are suggested in this paper

  9. The "Tracked Roaming Transect" and distance sampling methods increase the efficiency of underwater visual censuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo J Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Underwater visual census (UVC is the most common approach for estimating diversity, abundance and size of reef fishes in shallow and clear waters. Abundance estimation through UVC is particularly problematic in species occurring at low densities and/or highly aggregated because of their high variability at both spatial and temporal scales. The statistical power of experiments involving UVC techniques may be increased by augmenting the number of replicates or the area surveyed. In this work we present and test the efficiency of an UVC method based on diver towed GPS, the Tracked Roaming Transect (TRT, designed to maximize transect length (and thus the surveyed area with respect to diving time invested in monitoring, as compared to Conventional Strip Transects (CST. Additionally, we analyze the effect of increasing transect width and length on the precision of density estimates by comparing TRT vs. CST methods using different fixed widths of 6 and 20 m (FW3 and FW10, respectively and the Distance Sampling (DS method, in which perpendicular distance of each fish or group of fishes to the transect line is estimated by divers up to 20 m from the transect line. The TRT was 74% more time and cost efficient than the CST (all transect widths considered together and, for a given time, the use of TRT and/or increasing the transect width increased the precision of density estimates. In addition, since with the DS method distances of fishes to the transect line have to be estimated, and not measured directly as in terrestrial environments, errors in estimations of perpendicular distances can seriously affect DS density estimations. To assess the occurrence of distance estimation errors and their dependence on the observer's experience, a field experiment using wooden fish models was performed. We tested the precision and accuracy of density estimators based on fixed widths and the DS method. The accuracy of the estimates was measured comparing the actual

  10. Environmental Impact and Relative Invasiveness of Free-Roaming Domestic Carnivores—a North American Survey of Governmental Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lepe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the United States and Canadian governmental agencies investigated the environmental impact and relative invasiveness of free-roaming domestic non-native carnivores—dogs, cats, and ferrets. Agencies represented wildlife, fish, game, natural or environmental resources, parks and recreation, veterinary and human health, animal control, and agriculture. Respondents were asked to document the number and frequency of sightings of unconfined animals, evidence for environmental harm, and the resulting “degree of concern” in their respective jurisdictions. Results confirmed the existence of feral (breeding cats and dogs, documenting high levels of concern regarding the impact of these animals on both continental and surrounding insular habitats. Except for occasional strays, no free-roaming or feral ferrets were reported; nor were there reports of ferrets impacting native wildlife, including ground-nesting birds, or sensitive species. This is the first study to report the relative impact of free-roaming domestic carnivores. Dogs and cats meet the current definition of “invasive” species, whereas ferrets do not. Differences in how each species impacts the North American environment highlights the complex interaction between non-native species and their environment. Public attitudes and perceptions regarding these species may be a factor in their control and agency management priorities.

  11. 49 CFR 37.91 - Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains. 37.91 Section 37.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles By Public Entities § 37.91 Wheelchair locations and food...

  12. Effect Of Variable Practice On The Motor Learning Process In Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leving, Marika T; Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. It has been suggested that a higher intra-individual variability benefits the motor learning process of wheelchair propulsion. PURPOSE: The goal of the current study was to determine the effect of

  13. Keep on rolling: functional evaluation of power-assisted wheelchair use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Prototype of newly developed power-assisted wheelchair wheels were evaluated to determine their potential alleviating value on shoulder load, daily activities and participation compared to hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Five research questions were answered: 1. What is the current knowledge of

  14. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J.M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W.J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  15. Effectiveness of an automatic manual wheelchair braking system in the prevention of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorello, Laura; Swanson, Edward

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an automatic manual wheelchair braking system in the reduction of falls for patients at high risk of falls while transferring to and from a manual wheelchair. The study design was a normative survey carried out through the use of a written questionnaire sent to 60 skilled nursing facilities to collect data from the medical charts, which identified patients at high risk for falls who used an automatic wheelchair braking system. The facilities participating in the study identified a frequency of falls of high-risk patients while transferring to and from the wheelchair ranging from 2 to 10 per year, with a median fall rate per facility of 4 falls. One year after the installation of the automatic wheelchair braking system, participating facilities demonstrated a reduction of zero to three falls during transfers by high-risk patients, with a median fall rate of zero falls. This represents a statistically significant reduction of 78% in the fall rate of high-risk patients while transferring to and from the wheelchair, t (18) = 6.39, p braking system for manual wheelchairs was installed. The application of the automatic braking system allows clients, families/caregivers, and facility personnel an increased safety factor for the reduction of falls from the wheelchair.

  16. Power Wheelchair Use in Persons With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Changes Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Amber Lea; Hammond, Sara; Holsten, Scott; Bravver, Elena; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey persons with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) at 1 and 6 months after receiving power wheelchairs to determine long-term use, comfort, and function as well as the power wheelchair's impact on daily tasks and quality of life. A 33-question survey and Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS) were sent 1 month after getting a new power wheelchair; a follow-up survey was sent at 6 months. Based on satisfaction and feature use survey results, at 1 month, 81% of users found the power wheelchair overall comfort to be high, 88% found their overall mobility to be improved, and 95% found it easy to use. Their quality of life increased and pain decreased at 1 and 6 months. According to the PIADS, the power wheelchair gave users increased ability to participate and sense of competence. This study has important results for the ALS community, as it is the first to assess power wheelchair users at 1 and 6 months after power wheelchair procurement. The results demonstrate the impact the power wheelchair has on mobility, psychosocial issues, functional abilities, and quality of life for a person with ALS.

  17. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  18. Development of an online men’s suits customizing system using heuristic procedure for wheelchair users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Minseok; Yang, Chuneun; You, Heecheon; Park, Kwangae; Lee, W.

    2016-01-01

    An online suit-customizing system for the special accessibility needs of wheelchair users should be developed because the demand for business suits by wheelchair users involved in economic activities has increased. This study
    develops a user interface an online customizing system for men's suits

  19. Everyday life for users of electric wheelchairs - a qualitative interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach Rossen, Camilla; Sørensen, Bodil; Würtz Jochumsen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how users of electric wheelchairs experience their everyday life and how their electric wheelchairs influence their daily occupation. Occupation is defined as a personalized dynamic interaction between person, task and environment, and implies the value...

  20. 78 FR 14013 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final order. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical platform... wheelchair elevators, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for exemption...

  1. 77 FR 32644 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification: Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...] Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification: Wheelchair Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug... elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical platform lifts. These devices are... behalf of Bruno Independent Living Aids, Inc., for wheelchair elevator devices (commonly known as...

  2. Patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, C.F.; de Groot, S.; Post, M.W.; Hoekstra, T.; van Asbeck, F.W.; Bongers, H.; Lindeman, E.; van der Woude, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design:

  3. Patterns of Changes in Wheelchair Exercise Capacity After Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Asbeck, Floris W.; Bongers, Helma; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Luc H.

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design:

  4. Wheelchair racing : effects of rim diameter and speed on physiology and technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; van Ingen Schenau, G J; Rooth, F; van Nierop, P

    1988-01-01

    Effects of different hand rim diameters in wheelchair racing were studied with respect to physiological and technique parameters at five speed levels (N = 8 wheelchair sportsmen). In each of five subsequent 15-min exercise tests on a treadmill, a different sized hand rim was mounted to the rear

  5. Opportunities for measuring wheelchair kinematics in match settings; reliability of a three inertial sensor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, R M A; Berger, M A M; Bregman, D J J; Lagerberg, A H; Veeger, H E J

    2015-09-18

    Knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match is prerequisite for performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. Unfortunately, no measurement system providing key kinematic outcomes proved to be reliable in competition. In this study, the reliability of estimated wheelchair kinematics based on a three inertial measurement unit (IMU) configuration was assessed in wheelchair basketball match-like conditions. Twenty participants performed a series of tests reflecting different motion aspects of wheelchair basketball. During the tests wheelchair kinematics were simultaneously measured using IMUs on wheels and frame, and a 24-camera optical motion analysis system serving as gold standard. Results showed only small deviations of the IMU method compared to the gold standard, once a newly developed skid correction algorithm was applied. Calculated Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) showed good estimates for frame displacement (RMSE≤0.05 m) and speed (RMSE≤0.1m/s), except for three truly vigorous tests. Estimates of frame rotation in the horizontal plane (RMSE0.90), rotational speed (ICC>0.99) and IRC (ICC> 0.90) showed high correlations between IMU data and gold standard. IMU based estimation of wheelchair kinematics provided reliable results, except for brief moments of wheel skidding in truly vigorous tests. The IMU method is believed to enable prospective research in wheelchair basketball match conditions and contribute to individual support of athletes in everyday sports practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Wheel Size on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Lenton, J. P.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of different wheel sizes, with fixed gear ratios, on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes. 13 highly trained wheelchair basketball players, grouped by classification level, performed a battery of 3 field tests in

  7. Influence of Glove Type on Mobility Performance for Wheelchair Rugby Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different glove types on mobility performance in a series of field tests specific to wheelchair rugby. Design: Ten international wheelchair rugby players performed three drills in each glove condition: (i) players' current

  8. Manual wheelchairs: Research and innovation in rehabilitation, sports, daily life and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L.H.V.; de Groot, S.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: Description of the principal characteristics of the wheelchairs and their technological developments. Current knowledge: Those with lower-limb disabilities are often dependent on manually propelled wheelchairs for their mobility, in Europe today some 3.3 million people. This implies a transfer

  9. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m

  10. Individual differences and their impact on the safety and the efficiency of human-wheelchair systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jipp, Meike

    2012-12-01

    The extent to which individual differences in fine motor abilities affect indoor safety and efficiency of human-wheelchair systems was examined. To reduce the currently large number of indoor wheelchair accidents, assistance systems with a high level of automation were developed. It was proposed to adapt the wheelchair's level of automation to the user's ability to steer the device to avoid drawbacks of highly automated wheelchairs. The state of the art, however, lacks an empirical identification of those abilities. A study with 23 participants is described. The participants drove through various sections of a course with a powered wheelchair. Repeatedly measured criteria were safety (numbers of collisions) and efficiency (times required for reaching goals). As covariates, the participants' fine motor abilities were assessed. A random coefficient modeling approach was conducted to analyze the data,which were available on two levels as course sections were nested within participants.The participants' aiming, precision, and armhand speed contributed significantly to both criteria: Participants with lower fine motor abilities had more collisions and required more time for reaching goals. Adapting the wheelchair's level of automation to these fine motor abilities can improve indoor safety and efficiency. In addition, the results highlight the need to further examine the impact of individual differences on the design of automation features for powered wheelchairs as well as other applications of automation. The results facilitate the improvement of current wheelchair technology.

  11. Development of a wheelchair mobility skills test for children and adolescents: combining evidence with clinical expertise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, M.E.; Vershuren, O.; Groot, L. de; Groot, J.F. de

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wheelchair mobility skills (WMS) training is regarded by children using a manual wheelchair and their parents as an important factor to improve participation and daily physical activity. Currently, there is no outcome measure available for the evaluation of WMS in children. Several

  12. Development of a wheelchair mobility skills test for children and adolescents : combining evidence with clinical expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, Marleen Elisabeth; Verschuren, Olaf; de Groot, Laura; de Groot, Janke Frederike

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wheelchair mobility skills (WMS) training is regarded by children using a manual wheelchair and their parents as an important factor to improve participation and daily physical activity. Currently, there is no outcome measure available for the evaluation of WMS in children. Several

  13. Quasi-static analysis of muscle forces in the shoulder mechanism during wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Frans C T; Veeger, H. E J

    During wheelchair propulsion the largest net joint moments and net joint powers are generated around the shoulder. The analysis of the contribution of arm- and shoulder muscles to the joint moments could explain the low efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. Basically, it is assumed that a large

  14. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Janssen, Thomas Wj; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Takken, Tim

    2014-09-01

    An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from their respective inceptions in October 2013. Exercise training studies with at least one outcome measure regarding wheelchair propulsion capacity were included. In this study wheelchair propulsion capacity includes four parameters to reflect functional wheelchair propulsion: cardio-respiratory fitness (aerobic capacity), anaerobic capacity, muscular fitness and mechanical efficiency. Articles were not selected on diagnosis, training type or mode. Studies were divided into four training types: interval, endurance, strength, and mixed training. Methodological quality was rated with the PEDro scale, and the level of evidence was determined. The 21 included studies represented 249 individuals with spinal-cord injury (50%), various diagnoses like spina bifida (4%), cerebral palsy (2%), traumatic injury, (3%) and able-bodied participants (38%). All interval training studies found a significant improvement of 18-64% in wheelchair propulsion capacity. Three out of five endurance training studies reported significant effectiveness. Methodological quality was generally poor and there were only two randomised controlled trials. Exercise training programs seem to be effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. However, there is remarkably little research, particularly for individuals who do not have spinal-cord injury. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Effect of Wheelchair Frame Material on Users’ Mechanical Work and Transmitted Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Chénier

    2014-01-01

    similar to aluminium wheelchairs. A negative correlation between VT and WN-WPM was found, which means that reducing VT may be at the expense of increasing WN-WPM. Based on our results, use of carbon in wheelchair construction seems promising to reduce VT without increasing WN-WPM.

  16. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  17. Robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwech, H.

    1989-01-01

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs

  18. Robotic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with this type of surgery give it some advantages over standard endoscopic techniques. The surgeon can make ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 87. Muller CL, Fried GM. Emerging technology in surgery: Informatics, electronics, robotics. In: ...

  19. Robotic parathyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Alexis Kofi; Sound, Sara; Berber, Eren

    2015-09-01

    Robotic parathyroidectomy has recently been described. Although the procedure eliminates the neck scar, it is technically more demanding than the conventional approaches. This report is a review of the patients' selection criteria, technique, and outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  1. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  2. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users: A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Rietman, Johan S

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an instrumented wheelchair on a treadmill while upper-extremity kinematic, kinetic and surface electromyographical data was collected during propulsion with and without power-assist. As a result during power-assisted propulsion the peak resultant force exerted at the hand-rim decreased and was performed with significantly less abduction and internal rotation at the shoulder. At shoulder level the anterior directed force and internal rotation and flexion moments decreased significantly. In addition, posterior and the minimal inferior directed forces and the external rotation moment significantly increased. The stroke angle decreased significantly, as did maximum shoulder flexion, extension, abduction and internal rotation. Stroke-frequency significantly increased. Muscle activation in the anterior deltoid and pectoralis major also decreased significantly. In conclusion, compared to hand-rim propulsion power-assisted propulsion seems effective in reducing potential risk factors of overuse injuries with the highest gain on decreased range of motion of the shoulder joint, lower peak propulsion force on the rim and reduced muscle activity. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ozmen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES; control (CN] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF classification scores. The ES group underwent 6-weeks of training, twice weekly, at 50% 1RM, 10-12 repetitions and 3-4 sets in addition to routine training. Effects of training were measured by the 20 m sprint test and Illinois agility test. RESULTS: The ES group, showed significantly higher increases in speed and agility performance (p ≤ .05. CONCLUSION: A short-duration (i.e. 6-week explosive strength training programme in wheelchair basketball athletes results in significant improvements in sprint and agility performance.

  4. Designing movement-based play with young people using powered wheelchairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerling, Kathrin M; Hicks, Kieran C; Kalyn, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    people who have special needs) and 2) three case studies (4 participants) exploring player perspectives on a set of three wheelchair-controlled casual games. Our results show that movement-based playful experiences are engaging for young people using powered wheelchairs. However, the participatory design...... in the development of accessible, empowering movement-based games, which is crucial to the wider participation of young people using powered wheelchairs in play.......Young people using powered wheelchairs have limited access to engaging leisure activities. We address this issue through a two-stage project; 1) the participatory development of a set of wheelchair-controlled, movement-based games (with 9 participants at a school that provides education for young...

  5. Prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germinal J Cantó

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53% cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30% cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23% cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45% cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13% with nematodes, 145 (40% with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P0.05. The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094.

  6. Prevalence of Fleas and Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Roaming Cats in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Germinal J.; Guerrero, Roberto I.; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M.; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282

  7. Realistic 3D Terrain Roaming and Real-Time Flight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Xiang; Liu, Gang; He, Zhenwen; Qi, Guang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an integrate method, which can provide access to current status and the dynamic visible scanning topography, to enhance the interactive during the terrain roaming and real-time flight simulation. A digital elevation model and digital ortho-photo map data integrated algorithm is proposed as the base algorithm for our approach to build a realistic 3D terrain scene. A new technique with help of render to texture and head of display for generating the navigation pane is used. In the flight simulating, in order to eliminate flying "jump", we employs the multidimensional linear interpolation method to adjust the camera parameters dynamically and steadily. Meanwhile, based on the principle of scanning laser imaging, we draw pseudo color figures by scanning topography in different directions according to the real-time flying status. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is prospective for applications and the method can improve the effect and enhance dynamic interaction during the real-time flight.

  8. Field Studies Evaluating Bait Acceptance and Handling by Free-Roaming Dogs in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwicha Kasemsuwan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: As part of the ongoing endeavor to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies in Thailand, renewed interest has been shown in oral vaccination of dogs as a supplementary tool to increase vaccination coverage of the dog population. (2 Methods: Three different bait types were tested using a hand-out model on the campus of the Kasetsart University and the surrounding temples in Thailand during September 2017, consisting of two industrial manufactured baits (fish meal and egg-flavored and one bait made from local material (boiled pig intestine placed in collagen casing. A PVC-capsule containing dyed water was inserted in the bait. (3 Results: The fishmeal bait was significantly less often accepted and consumed (50.29% than the other two baits (intestine bait—79.19%; egg bait—78.77%. Delivery and release of the dyed water in the oral cavity was highest in the egg-flavored bait (84.50%, followed by the intestine bait (76.61% and fishmeal (54.85% baits. Bait acceptance was influenced by sex, age, and body size of the dog. Also, the origin of the dogs had a significant effect: temple dogs accepted the baits more often than street dogs. (4 Conclusion: A significant portion of the free-roaming dog population in this study can be vaccinated by offering vaccine baits.

  9. Smartphone and GPS technology for free-roaming dog population surveillance - a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Shanis; Ippoliti, Carla; Di Flaviano, Daniele; De Ruvo, Andrea; Messori, Stefano; Giovannini, Armando; Dalla Villa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Free-roaming dogs (FRD) represent a potential threat to the quality of life in cities from an ecological, social and public health point of view. One of the most urgent concerns is the role of uncontrolled dogs as reservoirs of infectious diseases transmittable to humans and, above all, rabies. An estimate of the FRD population size and characteristics in a given area is the first step for any relevant intervention programme. Direct count methods are still prominent because of their non-invasive approach, information technologies can support such methods facilitating data collection and allowing for a more efficient data handling. This paper presents a new framework for data collection using a topological algorithm implemented as ArcScript in ESRI® ArcGIS software, which allows for a random selection of the sampling areas. It also supplies a mobile phone application for Android® operating system devices which integrates Global Positioning System (GPS) and Google MapsTM. The potential of such a framework was tested in 2 Italian regions. Coupling technological and innovative solutions associated with common counting methods facilitate data collection and transcription. It also paves the way to future applications, which could support dog population management systems.

  10. The diet of free-roaming Australian Central Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van Leeuwen, J P; Hendriks, W H; van der Poel, A F B

    2015-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is one of the most popular pet lizards. However, little is known regarding their nutrient requirement, or their natural diet. Therefore, the stomach contents of 14 free-roaming P. vitticeps were determined by flushing. These stomach contents were described taxonomically, and analyzed for crude protein content as well as fatty acid content and composition. Most of the dry matter intake was in the form of animal material (61%) stemming from nine arthropod orders. The most abundant were alates of the termite Drepanotermes sp., accounting for 95% of the total number of prey items and more than half of the total dry matter (DM) intake. Plant material contributed 16% of the total DM intake. The diets were high in crude protein (41-50% DM) and the total fatty acid content was 14-27% of the DM intake. The main fatty acid was C18:1n9c (51-56% of total fatty acids), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3 and n6) comprised 6-8% of the total fat intake. Our data suggest that P. vitticeps is an opportunistic predator, which exploits the seasonal availability of prey. Based on our data and other studies, a diet consisting of several insect species, supplemented with leafy vegetables, rich in n3 FA's, would best resemble the expected natural diet of P. vitticeps. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparison of Aerobic Performance Testing Protocols in Elite Male Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molik Bartosz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In wheelchair sports, aerobic performance is commonly assessed with the use of an arm crank ergometer (ACE, a wheelchair ergometer (WCE or a wheelchair treadmill (WCT. There are different protocols to identify peak oxygen uptake in wheelchair sports; however, only a few protocols have been applied to evaluate these conditions in wheelchair basketball players. The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses during maximal exercise testing with the use of ACE and WCT in wheelchair basketball players. Twelve elite male wheelchair basketball players participated in this study. The research was performed during a training camp of the Polish National Wheelchair Basketball Team. The study participants were divided into two functional categories: A (players with class 1.0 - 2.5 and B (players with class 3.0 - 4.5. Two main maximal exercise tests, i.e. wheelchair treadmill stress test (WCT test and arm crank ergometer stress test (ACE test were used to evaluate aerobic performance of the players. There were no statistically significant differences in aerobic tests between the players from both groups. The comparison of results achieved in two aerobic tests performed on WCT and ACE did not reveal any significant differences between the analyzed variables (peak heart rate (HRpeak, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, minute ventilation (VE, anaerobic threshold (AT, lactate concentration (LApeak, and a drop in lactate concentration (%LA. Strong correlations between results achieved in WCT and ACE tests were found for VO2peak, VE and LApeak. The main conclusion of the study is that both WCT and ACE tests may be useful when determining aerobic capacity of wheelchair basketball players. Moreover, both protocols can be used by athletes regardless of their functional capabilities and types of impairment.

  12. Innovative gait robot for the repetitive practice of floor walking and stair climbing up and down in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Stefan; Waldner, Andreas; Tomelleri, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Stair climbing up and down is an essential part of everyday's mobility. To enable wheelchair-dependent patients the repetitive practice of this task, a novel gait robot, G-EO-Systems (EO, Lat: I walk), based on the end-effector principle, has been designed. The trajectories of the foot plates are freely programmable enabling not only the practice of simulated floor walking but also stair climbing up and down. The article intended to compare lower limb muscle activation pat...

  13. Recent advances in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, G.; Hackwood, S.

    1984-01-01

    Featuring 10 contributions, this volume offers a state-of-the-art report on robotic science and technology. It covers robots in modern industry, robotic control to help the disabled, kinematics and dynamics, six-legged walking robots, a vector analysis of robot manipulators, tactile sensing in robots, and more

  14. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  15. Elite-adapted wheelchair sports performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Elite-adapted sports performance has considerably improved over the last decades and winning or losing races at Paralympic Games is often a matter of a split second. In other words, every single detail counts, which underlines the necessity of optimizing training interventions and equipment for athletes in order to achieve top-class performance. However, to date, studies which include Paralympic elite athletes are scarce. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify potential strategies and interventions in order to optimize elite-adapted wheelchair sports performance, whereas the focus lay on respiratory muscle training (RMT), cooling (CI) and nutritional interventions (NI) as well as on individual equipment adaptations (IEA). The total number of studies identified for the final analysis was six for RMT, two for CI, three for NI and seven for IEA, respectively. Results point predominantly towards performance enhancing benefits for CI and IEA, whereas NI and RMT provided inhomogenous findings. In comparison to the able-bodied population, research in the field of Paralympic elite sport is scarce. CI and IEA seem to have significant performance enhancing benefits, whereas NI and RMT revealed controversial findings. However, due to the limited number of elite athletes with a spinal cord injury available to participate in scientific studies, general conclusions are difficult to make at this stage and in daily practice recommendations are still given mainly on an individual basis or based on personal experiences of coaches, athletes and scientists. Implications for Rehabilitaton Based on the knowledge gained in elite sports, wheelchair equipment could be optimized also for daily use. Elite sports performance could inspire wheelchair users to achieve their personal fitness goals.

  16. Rehabilitation robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  18. Wheelchair users, access and exclusion in South African higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desire Chiwandire

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: South African universities are still not places where all students are equally able to integrate socially. DUSMs know what ought to be done to make campuses more accessible and welcoming to students with disabilities and should be empowered to play a leading role in sensitising non-disabled members of universities, to create greater awareness of, and appreciation for, the multiple ways in which wheelchair user students continue to be excluded from full participation in university life. South African universities need to adopt a systemic approach to inclusion, which fosters an understanding of inclusion as a fundamental right rather than as a luxury.

  19. Automated Robot Movement in the Mapped Area Using Fuzzy Logic for Wheel Chair Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Efendi, S.; Ramadhana, H.; Andayani, U.; Fahmi, F.

    2018-03-01

    The difficulties of the disabled to move make them unable to live independently. People with disabilities need supporting device to move from place to place. For that, we proposed a solution that can help people with disabilities to move from one room to another automatically. This study aims to create a wheelchair prototype in the form of a wheeled robot as a means to learn the automatic mobilization. The fuzzy logic algorithm was used to determine motion direction based on initial position, ultrasonic sensors reading in avoiding obstacles, infrared sensors reading as a black line reader for the wheeled robot to move smooth and smartphone as a mobile controller. As a result, smartphones with the Android operating system can control the robot using Bluetooth. Here Bluetooth technology can be used to control the robot from a maximum distance of 15 meters. The proposed algorithm was able to work stable for automatic motion determination based on initial position, and also able to modernize the wheelchair movement from one room to another automatically.

  20. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  1. Mapping and navigational control for a “smart” wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Dana L; Shea, Kathleen M; Barrett, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    A “smart” wheelchair is in development to provide mobility to those unable to control a traditional wheelchair. A “smart” wheelchair is an autonomous machine with the ability to navigate a mapped environment while avoiding obstacles. The flexibility and complex design of “smart” wheelchairs have made those currently available expensive. Ongoing research at the University of Wyoming has been aimed at designing a cheaper, alternative control system that could be interfaced with a typical powered wheelchair. The goal of this project is to determine methods for mapping and navigational control for the wheelchair. The control system acquires data from eighteen sensors and uses the data to navigate around a pre-programmed map which is stored on a micro SD card. The control system also provides a user interface in the form of a touchscreen LCD. The designed system will be an easy-to-use and cost effective alternative to current “smart” wheelchair technology.

  2. Toward brain-computer interface based wheelchair control utilizing tactually-evoked event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe disabilities, e.g. due to neurodegenerative disease, depend on technology that allows for accurate wheelchair control. For those who cannot operate a wheelchair with a joystick, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) may offer a valuable option. Technology depending on visual or auditory input may not be feasible as these modalities are dedicated to processing of environmental stimuli (e.g. recognition of obstacles, ambient noise). Herein we thus validated the feasibility of a BCI based on tactually-evoked event-related potentials (ERP) for wheelchair control. Furthermore, we investigated use of a dynamic stopping method to improve speed of the tactile BCI system. Methods Positions of four tactile stimulators represented navigation directions (left thigh: move left; right thigh: move right; abdomen: move forward; lower neck: move backward) and N = 15 participants delivered navigation commands by focusing their attention on the desired tactile stimulus in an oddball-paradigm. Results Participants navigated a virtual wheelchair through a building and eleven participants successfully completed the task of reaching 4 checkpoints in the building. The virtual wheelchair was equipped with simulated shared-control sensors (collision avoidance), yet these sensors were rarely needed. Conclusion We conclude that most participants achieved tactile ERP-BCI control sufficient to reliably operate a wheelchair and dynamic stopping was of high value for tactile ERP classification. Finally, this paper discusses feasibility of tactile ERPs for BCI based wheelchair control. PMID:24428900

  3. Collection of in-Field Impact Loads Acting on a Rugby Wheelchair Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bettella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was included in a wider project oriented to the improvement of residual neuromuscular skills in disabled athletes playing wheelchair rugby: the wheelchair rugby Italian national team was involved and tests allowed to analyse the impact loads on a rugby wheelchair frame. The frame of a rugby wheelchair offensive model, made by OffCarr Company, was instrumented with four strain gauge bridges in four different points. Then, three test types were conducted in laboratory: two static calibrations with the application of known loads, the first with horizontal load and the second with vertical load, and a dynamic horizontal calibration, impacting against a fix load cell in order to validate the results of horizontal static calibration. Finally, a test session took place in the field with the collaboration of two team players. The test consisted in voluntary frontal impacts between the two players, starting from 6 meters distance each other. The opponent of the instrumented wheelchair was a defender. From this test, the value of the horizontal load received by the frame in the impact instant was quantified. Moreover, also the vertical load acting on the wheelchair during the rebound of the player after the hit was evaluated: these informations were useful to the wheelchair frame manufacturer for the proper static, impact and fatigue design.

  4. 'Filigree Robotics'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    -scale 3D printed ceramics accompanied by prints, videos and ceramic probes, which introduce the material and design processes of the project.'Filigree Robotics' experiments with a combination of the traditional ceramic technique of ‘Overforming’ with 3d Laserscan and Robotic extrusion technique...... application of reflectivity after an initial 3d print. The consideration and integration of this material practice into a digital workflow took place in an interdisciplinary collaboration of Ceramicist Flemming Tvede Hansen from KADK Superformlab and architectural researchers from CITA (Martin Tamke, Henrik...... to the creation of the form and invites for experimentation. In Filigree Robotics we combine the crafting of the mold with a parallel running generative algorithm, which is fed by a constant laserscan of the 3d surface. This algorithm, analyses the topology of the mold, identifies high and low points and uses...

  5. A low-cost multichannel wireless neural stimulation system for freely roaming animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Monzurul; Chen, Xi; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Objectives. Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural activity are the basis of many therapies and neural prostheses. Conventional stimulation systems have a number of practical limitations, especially in experiments involving freely roaming subjects. Our main objective was to develop a modular, versatile and inexpensive multichannel wireless system able to overcome some of these constraints. Approach. We have designed and implemented a new multichannel wireless neural stimulator based on commercial components. The system is small (2 cm × 4 cm × 0.5 cm) and light in weight (9 g) which allows it to be easily carried in a small backpack. To test and validate the performance and reliability of the whole system we conducted several bench tests and in vivo experiments. Main results. The performance and accuracy of the stimulator were comparable to commercial threaded systems. Stimulation sequences can be constructed on-the-fly with 251 selectable current levels (from 0 to 250 µA) with 1 µA step resolution. The pulse widths and intervals can be as long as 65 ms in 2 µs time resolution. The system covers approximately 10 m of transmission range in a regular laboratory environment and 100 m in free space (line of sight). Furthermore it provides great flexibility for experiments since it allows full control of the stimulator and the stimulation parameters in real time. When there is no stimulation, the device automatically goes into low-power sleep mode to preserve battery power. Significance. We introduce the design of a powerful multichannel wireless stimulator assembled from commercial components. Key features of the system are their reliability, robustness and small size. The system has a flexible design that can be modified straightforwardly to tailor it to any specific experimental need. Furthermore it can be effortlessly adapted for use with any kind of multielectrode arrays.

  6. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  7. Assessment of Joystick control during the performance of powered wheelchair driving tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Routhier François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered wheelchairs are essential for many individuals who have mobility impairments. Nevertheless, if operated improperly, the powered wheelchair poses dangers to both the user and to those in its vicinity. Thus, operating a powered wheelchair with some degree of proficiency is important for safety, and measuring driving skills becomes an important issue to address. The objective of this study was to explore the discriminate validity of outcome measures of driving skills based on joystick control strategies and performance recorded using a data logging system. Methods We compared joystick control strategies and performance during standardized driving tasks between a group of 10 expert and 13 novice powered wheelchair users. Driving tasks were drawn from the Wheelchair Skills Test (v. 4.1. Data from the joystick controller were collected on a data logging system. Joystick control strategies and performance outcome measures included the mean number of joystick movements, time required to complete tasks, as well as variability of joystick direction. Results In simpler tasks, the expert group's driving skills were comparable to those of the novice group. Yet, in more difficult and spatially confined tasks, the expert group required fewer joystick movements for task completion. In some cases, experts also completed tasks in approximately half the time with respect to the novice group. Conclusions The analysis of joystick control made it possible to discriminate between novice and expert powered wheelchair users in a variety of driving tasks. These results imply that in spatially confined areas, a greater powered wheelchair driving skill level is required to complete tasks efficiently. Based on these findings, it would appear that the use of joystick signal analysis constitutes an objective tool for the measurement of powered wheelchair driving skills. This tool may be useful for the clinical assessment and training of powered

  8. Don't look at my wheelchair! The plasticity of longlasting prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Giulia; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco; Pazzaglia, Mariella

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research has consistently shown that prejudicial behaviour may contribute to discrimination and disparities in social groups. However, little is known about whether and how implicit assumptions and direct contact modulate the interaction and quality of professional interventions in education and health contexts. This study was designed to examine implicit and explicit attitudes towards wheelchair users. We investigated implicit and explicit attitudes towards wheelchair users in three different groups: patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI); health professionals with intense contact with wheelchair users, and healthy participants without personal contact with wheelchair users. To assess the short-term plasticity of prejudices, we used a valid intervention that aims to change implicit attitudes through brief direct contact with a patient who uses a wheelchair in an ecologically valid real-life interaction. We found that: (i) wheelchair users with SCI held positive explicit but negative implicit attitudes towards their novel in-group; (ii) the amount of experience with wheelchair users affected implicit attitudes among health professionals, and (iii) interacting with a patient with SCI who contradicts prejudices modulated implicit negative bias towards wheelchair users in healthy participants. The use of a wheelchair immediately and profoundly affects how a person is perceived. However, our findings highlight the dynamic nature of perceptions of social identity, which are not only sensitive to personal beliefs, but also highly permeable to intergroup interactions. Having direct contact with people with disabilities might foster positive attitudes in multidisciplinary health care teams. Such interventions could be integrated into medical education programmes to successfully prevent or reduce hidden biases in a new generation of health professionals and to increase the general acceptance of disability in patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Medical robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    In this book, we present medical robotics, its evolution over the last 30 years in terms of architecture, design and control, and the main scientific and clinical contributions to the field. For more than two decades, robots have been part of hospitals and have progressively become a common tool for the clinician. Because this domain has now reached a certain level of maturity it seems important and useful to provide a state of the scientific, technological and clinical achievements and still open issues. This book describes the short history of the domain, its specificity and constraints, and

  10. Service Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Andersen, Kim Normann

    The position presented in this paper is that in order to understand how service robots shape, and are being shaped by, the physical and social contexts in which they are used, we need to consider both work/organizational analysis and interaction design. We illustrate this with qualitative data...... and personal experiences to generate discussion about how to link these two traditions. This paper presents selected results from a case study that investigated the implementation and use of robot vacuum cleaners in Danish eldercare. The study demonstrates interpretive flexibility with variation...

  11. Robot Choreography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Damith

    2016-01-01

    We propose a robust framework for combining performance paradigms with human robot interaction (HRI) research. Following an analysis of several case studies that combine the performing arts with HRI experiments, we propose a methodology and “best practices” for implementing choreography and other...... performance paradigms in HRI experiments. Case studies include experiments conducted in laboratory settings, “in the wild”, and live performance settings. We consider the technical and artistic challenges of designing and staging robots alongside humans in these various settings, and discuss how to combine...

  12. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  13. An examination of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale using collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Mark; Dodder, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    The purpose was to examine the construct validity of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). The construct validity of the scale was examined by applying it to collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes at an NCAA sanctioned wheelchair basketball tournament at a mid-sized university in the south central United States (N=68). In accordance with previous research on the scale, Cronbach alpha was .86; confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor structure. The scale is useful for measuring global self-esteem in collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes.

  14. Free-roaming dogs control activities in one Italian province (2000-2013: Is the implemented approach effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanis Barnard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, standards for the management of free-roaming dogs (FRDs are defined by regional norms, generating a high variability of approaches around the country. Despite efforts carried out by the competent authorities, FRDs are still a reality impacting upon animal health and welfare and public costs. A similar scenario can be found in many other Mediterranean and Balkan counties. Here we present 14 years of data (2000–2013 retrieved from the admission dog registry of a public shelter (PS responsible for the collection of stray dogs from one Italian province. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the local FRD population, identifying its source and to evaluate the effectiveness of the actions implemented by the local authorities. In the investigated period, 7,475 dogs were admitted to the PS. Despite the intense sterilisation plan (mean 381.7 sterilisations per year, the overall number of dogs entering PS did not decrease consistently across the years. Results highlighted a lack of responsibility of owners by failing to sterilise and identify their dogs and allowing intact animals to roam free, therefore producing uncontrolled and unwanted litters. The current dog population management strategy, based on both sheltering and capture-neuter-release programmes, is insufficient to tackle the straying phenomenon. Educational and sterilisation programmes should be an integral part of a successfully implemented FRD control plan. Our results provide further insight on free-roaming dog population dynamics and control systems, and may have important implications for many other local contexts across Europe trying to overcome the straying phenomenon.

  15. Ecology and Demography of Free-Roaming Domestic Dogs in Rural Villages near Serengeti National Park in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupryna, Anna M; Brown, Joel S; Bigambo, Machunde A; Whelan, Christopher J; Mehta, Supriya D; Santymire, Rachel M; Lankester, Felix J; Faust, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign. We examined the effects of body condition, sex, age and village on survivorship and reproduction. Furthermore, we compared sources of mortality among villages. We found that adult dogs (>12mos) had higher survival than puppies in all villages. We observed a male-biased sex ratio across all age classes. Overall survival in one non-vaccination village was lower than in the other three villages, all of which had similar survival probabilities. In all villages, dogs in poor body condition had lower survival than dogs in ideal body condition. Sickness and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) predation were the two main causes of dog death. Within vaccination villages, vaccinated dogs had higher survivorship than unvaccinated dogs. Dog population growth, however, was similar in all the villages suggesting village characteristics and ownership practices likely have a greater impact on overall dog population dynamics than vaccination. Free-roaming domestic dogs in rural communities exist in the context of their human owners as well as the surrounding wildlife. Our results did not reveal a clear effect of vaccination programs on domestic dog population dynamics. An investigation of the role of dogs and their care within these communities could provide additional insight for planning and implementing rabies control measures such as mass dog vaccination.

  16. Robot vision for nuclear advanced robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryoichi; Okano, Hideharu; Kuno, Yoshinori; Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Shimada, Hideo; Okada, Satoshi; Kawamura, Astuo

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes Robot Vision and Operation System for Nuclear Advanced Robot. This Robot Vision consists of robot position detection, obstacle detection and object recognition. With these vision techniques, a mobile robot can make a path and move autonomously along the planned path. The authors implemented the above robot vision system on the 'Advanced Robot for Nuclear Power Plant' and tested in an environment mocked up as nuclear power plant facilities. Since the operation system for this robot consists of operator's console and a large stereo monitor, this system can be easily operated by one person. Experimental tests were made using the Advanced Robot (nuclear robot). Results indicate that the proposed operation system is very useful, and can be operate by only person. (author)

  17. Wheelchair users' perceptions of and experiences with power assist wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter R; Levy, Charles E; Dietrich, Frederick D; Winkler, Sandra Hubbard; Tillman, Mark D; Chow, John W

    2010-03-01

    To assess wheelchair users' perceptions of and experiences with power assist wheels using qualitative interview methods. Qualitative evaluations were conducted in a laboratory setting with a focus on users' experiences using power assist wheel in their naturalistic environments. Participants consisted of seven women and 13 men (M(age) = 42.75, SD = 14.68) that included one African American, one Hispanic, 17 whites, and one individual from Zambia. Qualitative interviews were conducted before, during, and after use of a power assist wheel. Main outcome measures included the wheelchair users' evaluations and experiences related to the use of power assist wheels. The primary evaluations included wheeling on challenging terrains, performance of novel activities, social/family aspects, fatigue, and pain. These descriptions indicated that most participants perceived positive experiences with the power assist wheels, including access to new and different activities. Secondary evaluations indicated that the unit was cumbersome and prohibitive for some participants because of difficulties with transport in and out of a vehicle and battery life. Most participants felt that power assist wheels provided more independence and social opportunities. The power assist wheel seems to offer physical and social benefits for most wheelers. Clinicians should consider users' home environment and overall life circumstances before prescribing.

  18. Effect of push frequency on the economy of wheelchair racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey, V L; Campbell, I G; Fowler, N E

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of varying push frequency on pushing economy (oxygen uptake at a given speed). Eight male wheelchair racers completed a series of exercise bouts on a wheelchair ergometer (Bromking Turbo Trainer, Bromakin, UK) at 6.58 m x s(-1). Initially, subjects self-selected their freely chosen push frequency (FCF); this was followed by 4 random trials pushing at 60, 80, 120, and 140% of this FCF. Steady state VO2 was determined using Douglas bags, and heart rate was recorded by telemetry. After each condition, a small capillary blood sample was obtained and analyzed for blood lactate concentration (BLa) and a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded. At 6.58 m x s(-1) oxygen uptake, RPE, and gross mechanical efficiency were nonlinearly related to push frequency. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect (P push frequency had little effect on HR although BLa increased linearly and was higher at the 140% FCF condition compared with 60% FCF (P push frequency increased. The start angle and end angle of hand contact were similar for conditions, whereas the range of trunk motion decreased with push frequency (P push frequency had an effect on pushing economy, and that the athletes' FCF was the most economical.

  19. Training and development of Canadian wheelchair basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghansai, N; Lemez, S; Wattie, N; Baker, J

    2017-06-01

    Considering the growth in research, examining the development of mainstream sport athletes over the past two decades, studies examining development of athletes with disabilities have been surprisingly limited. While similarities in developmental trajectories between the two cohorts may exist regarding factors such as the value of practice, which tend to be universal regardless of context, disability-related issues (e.g. whether the disability was congenital or acquired) may influence the course of development, affecting variables such as starting age, training and developmental milestones. Fifty-two male and female athletes training with the Wheelchair Basketball Canada National Academy provided detailed training histories. Athletes illustrated similar developmental patterns (e.g. milestones, training adjustments) as they progressed through their sporting career. However, athletes with congenital disabilities started participation in wheelchair basketball and unorganised practice at significantly younger ages (t 49  = -4.35, p training throughout their sporting career. Future work may consider examining developmental trajectories and training histories of athletes in various parasports to extend our understanding of their development and skill acquisition.

  20. Inclusive fashion, recognizing the need of the child wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Elisa de Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This project addresses social inclusion, as a resource to be stimulated by the development of fashion products. Taking into account this market demand research, part of the project, identified aspects of use, accessibility, comfort and perception of parents and therapists with regard to dress, undress and cognitive development in relation to clothing. The audience researched this project were wheelchair children with age range from eight to twelve years, parents and professionals in the health field, such as Physiotherapists, Physical Educator, Occupational Therapist and psychologists, members of institutions CEAEHH - Centro de Atividades Especiais Helena Holanda e FUNAD – Fundação Centro Integrado de Apoio ao Portador de Deficiência, João Pessoa - PB, supporters this project through the sale of infrastructure and public access. The data resulted in the development of a fashion collection with differentiated modeling, versatility of uses combined with an aesthetic framework that prioritized the inclusion of wheelchair-bound child in society through the use of the usual market trends in the children's segment.

  1. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Frost

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD" passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82% and manual WhMDs (80% compared to scooters (39%, and this difference was significant (p< 0.01. Nonuse or misuse of the occupant restraint system occurred during 88% of WhMD trips, and was most frequently due to vehicle operator neglect in applying the shoulder belt. Despite the absence of incidents or injuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.

  2. Free-roaming dog populations: a cost-benefit model for different management options, applied to Abruzzo, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, H R; Er, C; Di Nardo, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2013-11-01

    Since 1991, Italian free-roaming dogs have been under government protection and euthanasia is restricted by law. Management measures are regulated at the regional level and include: kennelling, adoptions, conversion of stray dogs into block dogs, and population control of owned dogs. "Block dogs" are free-roaming dogs that have been collected by the veterinary services, microchipped, sterilised, vaccinated, and released under the responsibility of the local municipalities. The present paper describes a cost-benefit model for different management options and applies it to two provinces in Abruzzo, central Italy. The model considers welfare, nuisance and direct costs to the municipality. Welfare is quantified based on the expert opinions of 60 local veterinarians, who were asked to assign a score for each dog category according to the five freedoms: freedom from pain, physical discomfort, disease, fear, and freedom to express normal behaviour. Nuisance was assessed only for comparisons between management options, using the number of free-roaming dogs per inhabitant as a proxy indicator. A community dog population model was constructed to predict the effect of management on the different subpopulations of dogs during a ten-year period. It is a user-friendly deterministic model in Excel, easily adaptable to different communities to assess the impact of their dog management policy on welfare, nuisance and direct monetary cost. We present results for Teramo and Pescara provinces. Today's management system is compared to alternative models, which evaluate the effect of specific interventions. These include either a 10% yearly increase in kennel capacity, an increase in adoptions from kennels, a doubling of the capture of stray dogs, or a stabilisation of the owned dog population. Results indicate that optimal management decisions are complex because welfare, nuisance and monetary costs may imply conflicting interventions. Nevertheless, they clearly indicate that

  3. Robotic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  4. Laws on Robots, Laws by Robots, Laws in Robots : Regulating Robot Behaviour by Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, R.E.; Lucivero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Speculation about robot morality is almost as old as the concept of a robot itself. Asimov’s three laws of robotics provide an early and well-discussed example of moral rules robots should observe. Despite the widespread influence of the three laws of robotics and their role in shaping visions of

  5. Characteristics of upper limb muscular strength in male wheelchair tennis players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyo-Bin; Park, Seung-Jae; Kim, Al-Chan; Jang, Jee-Hun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of muscular strength in upper limb and to present the preliminary information for development of sports injury prevention program and exercise rehabilitation program in wheelchair tennis players. Participants were 12 male wheelchair tennis players. Muscular strength was measured in shoulder and elbow joints with isokinetic dynamometer. Ipsilateral (IR) and bilateral (BR) balance ratio were calculated with isokinetic strength at 60°/sec. As a result, extension strength (ES) was significantly higher than flexion strength (FS) (Pelbow joint FS was significantly higher than ES (Pelbow joints and lower IR and BR in elbow joints could be the characteristics in male wheelchair tennis players. It is suggested that flexor strengthening program in nondominant shoulder joint, extensor strengthening program in both elbow joint, and flexor strengthening program in non-dominant elbow joint should be introduced for male wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24278887

  6. An independent shopping experience for wheelchair users through augmented reality and RFID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Zulqarnain; Pous, Rafael; Norrie, Christopher S

    2017-06-23

    People with physical and mobility impairments continue to struggle to attain independence in the performance of routine activities and tasks. For example, browsing in a store and interacting with products located beyond an arm's length may be impossible without the enabling intervention of a human assistant. This research article describes a study undertaken to design, develop, and evaluate potential interaction methods for motor-impaired individuals, specifically those who use wheelchairs. Our study includes a user-centered approach, and a categorization of wheelchair users based upon the severity of their disability and their individual needs. We designed and developed access solutions that utilize radio frequency identification (RFID), augmented reality (AR), and touchscreen technologies in order to help people who use wheelchairs to carry out certain tasks autonomously. In this way, they have been empowered to go shopping independently, free from reliance upon the assistance of others. A total of 18 wheelchair users participated in the completed study.

  7. Driving Control for Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Regenerative Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel safety driving control scheme for electric power assisted wheelchairs based on the regenerative braking system. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the safe and secure driving performance especially on downhill roads must be further improved because electric power assisted wheelchairs have no braking devices. The proposed control system automatically switches the driving mode, from “assisting mode” to “braking mode”, based on the wheelchair's velocity and the declined angle and smoothly suppresses the wheelchair's acceleration based on variable duty ratio control in order to realize the safety driving and to improve the ride quality. Some experiments on the practical roads and subjective evaluation show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  8. Wheelchair services and use outcomes: A cross-sectional survey in Kenya and the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva S. Bazant

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Select services that were associated with some better wheelchair use outcomes and should be emphasised in service delivery. Service providers should be aware that increased mobility may lead to serious falls.

  9. Probabilistic vs linear blending approaches to shared control for wheelchair driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Chinemelu; Trautman, Pete; Devigne, Louise; Bureau, Valentin; Babel, Marie; Carlson, Tom

    2017-07-01

    Some people with severe mobility impairments are unable to operate powered wheelchairs reliably and effectively, using commercially available interfaces. This has sparked a body of research into "smart wheelchairs", which assist users to drive safely and create opportunities for them to use alternative interfaces. Various "shared control" techniques have been proposed to provide an appropriate level of assistance that is satisfactory and acceptable to the user. Most shared control techniques employ a traditional strategy called linear blending (LB), where the user's commands and wheelchair's autonomous commands are combined in some proportion. In this paper, however, we implement a more generalised form of shared control called probabilistic shared control (PSC). This probabilistic formulation improves the accuracy of modelling the interaction between the user and the wheelchair by taking into account uncertainty in the interaction. In this paper, we demonstrate the practical success of PSC over LB in terms of safety, particularly for novice users.

  10. The Functional Classification and Field Test Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Susana María; Yanci, Javier; Otero, Montserrat; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina

    2015-06-27

    Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw). The IWBF class was correlated (pstaff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players.

  11. Force application during handcycling and handrim wheelchair propulsion: an initial comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnet, Ursina; van Drongelen, Stefan; Veeger, D H; van der Woude L, H V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the external applied forces, the effectiveness of force application and the net shoulder moments of handcycling in comparison with handrim wheelchair propulsion at different inclines. Ten able-bodied men performed standardized exercises on a treadmill at inclines of 1%, 2.5% and 4% with an instrumented handbike and wheelchair that measured three-dimensional propulsion forces. The results showed that during handcycling significantly lower mean forces were applied at inclines of 2.5% (P propulsion. The force effectiveness did not differ between the devices (P = .757); however, the effectiveness did increase with higher inclines during handcycling whereas it stayed constant over all inclines for wheelchair propulsion. The resulting peak net shoulder moments were lower for handcycling compared with wheelchair propulsion at all inclines (P < .001). These results confirm the assumption that handcycling is physically less straining.

  12. Flexible Wi-Fi Communication among Mobile Robots in Indoor Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetmir Haxhibeqiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to speed up industrial processes and to improve logistics, mobile robots are getting important in industry. In this paper, we propose a flexible and configurable architecture for the mobile node that is able to operate in different network topology scenarios. The proposed solution is able to operate in presence of network infrastructure, in ad hoc mode only, or to use both possibilities. In case of mixed architecture, mesh capabilities will enable coverage problem detection and overcoming. The solution is based on real requirements from an automated guided vehicle producer. First, we evaluate the overhead introduced by our solution. Since the mobile robot communication relies in broadcast traffic, the broadcast scalability in mesh network is evaluated too. Finally, through experiments on a wireless testbed for a variety of scenarios, we analyze the impact of roaming, mobility and traffic separation, and demonstrate the advantage of our approach in handling coverage problems.

  13. Micro Robotics Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our research is focused on the challenges of engineering robotic systems down to sub-millimeter size scales. We work both on small mobile robots (robotic insects for...

  14. Robots of the Future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    two main types of robots: industrial robots, and autonomous robots. .... position); it also has a virtual CPU with two stacks and three registers that hold 32-bit strings. Each item ..... just like we can aggregate images, text, and information from.

  15. Presentation robot Advee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Věchet, Stanislav; Hrbáček, J.; Ripel, T.; Ondroušek, V.; Hrbáček, R.; Schreiber, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, 5/6 (2012), s. 307-322 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : mobile robot * human - robot interface * localization Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics

  16. Towards Sociable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    This thesis studies aspects of self-sufficient energy (energy autonomy) for truly autonomous robots and towards sociable robots. Over sixty years of history of robotics through three developmental ages containing single robot, multi-robot systems, and social (sociable) robots, the main objective...... of roboticists mostly focuses on how to make a robotic system function autonomously and further, socially. However, such approaches mostly emphasize behavioural autonomy, rather than energy autonomy which is the key factor for not only any living machine, but for life on the earth. Consequently, self......-sufficient energy is one of the challenges for not only single robot or multi-robot systems, but also social and sociable robots. This thesis is to deal with energy autonomy for multi-robot systems through energy sharing (trophallaxis) in which each robot is equipped with two capabilities: self-refueling energy...

  17. A novel and facile decay path of Criegee intermediates by intramolecular insertion reactions via roaming transition states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Trong-Nghia [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Department of Physical Chemistry, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Putikam, Raghunath; Lin, M. C., E-mail: chemmcl@emory.edu [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-28

    We have discovered a new and highly competitive product channel in the unimolecular decay process for small Criegee intermediates, CH{sub 2}OO and anti/syn-CH{sub 3}C(H)OO, occurring by intramolecular insertion reactions via a roaming-like transition state (TS) based on quantum-chemical calculations. Our results show that in the decomposition of CH{sub 2}OO and anti-CH{sub 3}C(H)OO, the predominant paths directly produce cis-HC(O)OH and syn-CH{sub 3}C(O)OH acids with >110 kcal/mol exothermicities via loose roaming-like insertion TSs involving the terminal O atom and the neighboring C–H bonds. For syn-CH{sub 3}C(H)OO, the major decomposition channel occurs by abstraction of a H atom from the CH{sub 3} group by the terminal O atom producing CH{sub 2}C(H)O–OH. At 298 K, the intramolecular insertion process in CH{sub 2}OO was found to be 600 times faster than the commonly assumed ring-closing reaction.

  18. A novel and facile decay path of Criegee intermediates by intramolecular insertion reactions via roaming transition states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trong-Nghia; Putikam, Raghunath; Lin, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered a new and highly competitive product channel in the unimolecular decay process for small Criegee intermediates, CH 2 OO and anti/syn-CH 3 C(H)OO, occurring by intramolecular insertion reactions via a roaming-like transition state (TS) based on quantum-chemical calculations. Our results show that in the decomposition of CH 2 OO and anti-CH 3 C(H)OO, the predominant paths directly produce cis-HC(O)OH and syn-CH 3 C(O)OH acids with >110 kcal/mol exothermicities via loose roaming-like insertion TSs involving the terminal O atom and the neighboring C–H bonds. For syn-CH 3 C(H)OO, the major decomposition channel occurs by abstraction of a H atom from the CH 3 group by the terminal O atom producing CH 2 C(H)O–OH. At 298 K, the intramolecular insertion process in CH 2 OO was found to be 600 times faster than the commonly assumed ring-closing reaction

  19. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Embedded hardware for closing the gap between research and industry in the assistive powered wheelchair market

    OpenAIRE

    Canoz, V; Gillham, Michael; Oprea, P; Chaumont, P; Bodin, A; Laux, P; Lebigre, M; Howells, Gareth; Sirlantzis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Literature is abound with smart wheelchair platforms of various developments, yet to date there has been little technology find its way to the market place. Many trials and much research has taken place over the last few decades however the end user has benefited precious little. There exists two fundamental difficulties when developing a smart powered wheelchair assistive system, the first is need for the system to be fully compatible with all of the manufacturers, and the second is to produ...

  1. Probabilistic vs Linear Blending Approaches to Shared Control for Wheelchair Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeh , Chinemelu; Trautman , Pete; Devigne , Louise; Bureau , Valentin; Babel , Marie; Carlson , Tom

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Some people with severe mobility impairments are unable to operate powered wheelchairs reliably and effectively , using commercially available interfaces. This has sparked a body of research into " smart wheelchairs " , which assist users to drive safely and create opportunities for them to use alternative interfaces. Various " shared control " techniques have been proposed to provide an appropriate level of assistance that is satisfactory and acceptable to the user. M...

  2. The Functional Classification and Field Test Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Susana María

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw. The IWBF class was correlated (p<0.05 to the hand dynamometry (r= 0.84, the maximal pass (r=0.67 and the medicine ball throw (r= 0.67. Whereas the years of dependence on the wheelchair were correlated to the velocity (p<0.01: 5 m (r= −0.80 and 20 m (r= −0.77 and agility tests (r= −0.77, p<0.01. Also, the 20 m sprint with a ball (r= 0.68 and the T-test (r= −0.57 correlated (p<0.05 with the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. Therefore, in this team the correlations of the performance variables differed when they were related to the disability class, the years of dependence on the wheelchair and the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. These results should be taken into account by the technical staff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players.

  3. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  4. Improvement of Sprint Performance in Wheelchair Sportsmen With Caffeine Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Paulson, Terri S; Perret, Claudio; Watson, Phil; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine can be beneficial during endurance and repeated-sprint exercise in able-bodied individuals performing leg or whole-body exercise. However, little evidence exists regarding its effects during upper-body exercise. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine on sprint (SPR) and 4-min maximal-push (PUSH) performance in wheelchair sportsmen. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 male wheelchair rugby players (age 30.0 ± 7.7 y, body mass 69.6 ± 15.3 kg, training 11.1 ± 3.5 h/wk) completed 2 exercise trials, separated by 7-14 d, 70 min after ingestion of 4 mg/kg caffeine (CAF) or dextrose placebo (PLA). Each trial consisted of four 4-min PUSHes and 3 sets of 3 × 20-m SPRs, each separated by 4 min rest. Participants responded to the Felt Arousal (a measure of perceived arousal), Feeling (a measure of the affective dimension of pleasure/displeasure), and rating-of-perceived-exertion (RPE) scales. Salivary caffeine secretion rates were measured. Average SPR times were faster during CAF than PLA during SPR 1 and SPR 2 (P = .037 and .016). There was no influence of supplementation on PUSHes 2-4 (P > .099); however, participants pushed significantly farther during PUSH 1 after CAF than after PLA (mean ± SD 677 ± 107 and 653 ± 118 m, P = .047). There was no influence of CAF on arousal or RPE scores (P > .132). Feeling scores improved over the course of the CAF trial only (P = .017) but did not significantly differ between trials (P > .167). Pre-warm-up (45 min postingestion) salivary CAF secretion rates were 1.05 ± 0.94 and 0.08 ± 0.05 μg/min for CAF and PLA, respectively. Acute CAF supplementation can improve both 20-m-sprint performance and a 1-off bout of short-term endurance performance in wheelchair sportsmen.

  5. Cloud Robotics Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mester, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Robotics was born from the merger of service robotics and cloud technologies. It allows robots to benefit from the powerful computational, storage, and communications resources of modern data centres. Cloud robotics allows robots to take advantage of the rapid increase in data transfer rates to offload tasks without hard real time requirements. Cloud Robotics has rapidly gained momentum with initiatives by companies such as Google, Willow Garage and Gostai as well as more than a dozen a...

  6. Examination of Performance Levels of Wheelchair Basketball Players Playing in Different Leagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Yüksel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to examine the anthropometric and biometric features of the elite wheelchair basketball players in different league levels, and to evaluate them with regards to field tests particular to wheelchair basketball. A sample of 21 male players volunteered to participate in the research with similar classification points, 12 of whom were from Turkey Wheelchair Basketball First League and 9 of whom were from the Second League. Anthropometric measurements, biometric features of the players and their skill test scores particular to wheelchair basketball were detected. The anthropometric measurements were taken over dominant extremity. SPSS 21.0 program was used in the analysis of the data, and minimum, maximum, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation values were determined. Intergroup differences were determined with Mann–Whitney U analysis. Significance level was admitted as p < 0.05. As a conclusion, it was determined that wheelchair basketball players had similar anthropometric features in the First and Second League levels, and that there was no difference based on the league level they were playing, and moreover, that bio-motor features and skills particular to wheelchair basketball were decisive on the levels of the leagues the players were taking part.

  7. Use of Virtual Technology as an Intervention for Wheelchair Skills Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jean-François; Gosselin, Laurent; Rushton, Paula W

    2018-03-10

    To provide a comprehensive description of the current state of knowledge regarding the use of virtual technology (VT) for wheelchair skills training. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, ACM, IEEE Xplore, Inspec, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles from 1990 to February 2016. We included peer-reviewed studies or long conference proceedings that examined the use of VT as a medium to provide a wheelchair skills training intervention for any population with any diagnosis using any research design. One investigator screened the titles and abstracts, then 2 investigators independently reviewed the full-text articles. Disagreements regarding inclusion were resolved by consensus or a third reviewer. Ten studies were included out of 4994 initially identified. Two investigators extracted data to systematically assess the studies' findings into 5 tables (study design and participant characteristics, equipment and technology used, intervention characteristics, outcome measures, and outcomes). Most studies demonstrated that VT wheelchair skills training showed improved outcomes (eg, simulation score, completion time, number of collisions) in the virtual environment and/or in the real world. However, subject characteristics, equipment, virtual environment, intervention tasks, and outcome measures varied across the studies. There are a variety of studies using VT as an intervention for wheelchair skills training. Given the positive outcomes for most of the studies, it appears as though VT may indeed be a solution that can help to alleviate barriers to wheelchair skills training and subsequently improve wheelchair user skill. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of an Automatic Path Finding Wheelchair with Intelligent Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apratim MAJUMDER

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A conventional motorized wheelchair has been fitted with sensors and programmed with an intelligent guidance system to efficiently maneuver itself automatically from one point to another in a facility equipped with a grid of sensors that provide the wheelchair with the basic map of its course. The device described in this paper has been conceptualized such that once the wheelchair is given information regarding the starting and stopping point in a controlled facility, the wheelchair with this pre programmed information can efficiently construct a path towards its destination and automatically drive to that point from its present position while avoiding obstacles in its path and negotiating any turns and bends that it encounters in its course. This is achieved by means of sensors (IR and sonic located at strategic points on the chair, circuits that control the speed of the motors, and a set of microcontrollers programmed to execute the different functions of the wheelchair. The facility in which the wheelchair works has been fitted with a set of sensors that form the basis of the network which is used by the program governing the wheelchair’s automated movement to provide guidance to it by means of a course map.

  9. Equipping an automated wheelchair with an infrared encoder wheel odometer - biomed 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D; Allen, M; Barrett, S F

    2011-01-01

    Assistive technology is a rapidly growing field that provides a degree of freedom and self-sufficiency to people of limited mobility. Smart wheelchairs are a subset of assistive technology, and are designed to be operated by people who are unable to use a traditional control system. Instead, smart wheelchairs are equipped with a combination of automated functionality and steering mechanisms specialized to meet a person’s individual needs. One feature common to the automated capabilities of smart wheelchairs is the tracking system. The wheelchair’s microcontroller needs to know how far the chair has travelled, its speed, and the rotational direction of its wheels in order to successfully navigate through an environment. The purpose of this research was to develop an odometer to track the motion of a motorized wheelchair. Due to federal regulations that prohibit changing the structure or internal mechanics of a medical device, the odometer had to be designed as a separate, removable part. The final design for the odometer consisted of two infrared sensors that measure edge transitions of a segmented black and white encoder wheel. The sensor output was then run through two comparator op amps and a high pass filter to produce a clean, crisp square wave signal output. The signal was then fed to an Atmel ATmega164P microcontroller. The microcontroller was programmed to compare the sensor signal with its internal clock, sense edge transitions, and thereby extrapolate the speed, travelled distance, and rotational direction of the wheelchair.

  10. Medical devices; exemption from premarket notification; class II devices; wheelchair elevator. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing an order granting a petition requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical platform lifts. These devices are used to provide a means for a person with a mobility impairment caused by injury or other disease to move from one level to another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for exemption for this device that will provide a reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device without submission of a premarket notification (510(k)). This exemption from 510(k), subject to these conditions, is immediately in effect for wheelchair elevators. All other devices classified under FDA's wheelchair elevator regulations, including attendant-operated stair climbing devices for wheelchairs and portable platform lifts, continue to require submission of 510(k)s. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with the section of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permitting the exemption of a device from the requirement to submit a 510(k).

  11. A proposed power assisted system of manual wheelchair based on universal design for eldery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmartini, Susy; Pryadhitama, Ilham; Herdiman, Lobes; Wahyufitriani, Cindy

    2017-11-01

    Difficulties in walking is high percentage case in the limitations mobility of the elderly. An assisted technology commonly used to help the elderly who have walking difficulty is a manual wheelchair. However, the elderly frequently experiences difficulties in operating manual wheelchair due to gradually degradation of their physical condition. Preliminary study results showed that the average grip strength of the hands of seven elderly subjects was 13.8 ± 6.96 kg and the value is relatively weak. In addition, the mean maximum speed of 7 elderly subjects when doing to round the wheelchair is 0.6 ± 0.2m / s. This value is only 56.4% compared with an average speed of 20-23-year age group (8 males), which is 1.1 ± 0.1 m / s. This shows that the elderly who have walking difficulty have low grip strength and speed in operating a wheelchair. On the other hand, manual wheelchairs suffer an inadequate technology solution to solve the problem. Therefore, an assistive technology is proposed to create mobility aid to accommodate the elderly needs. One approach used is Universal Design. This paper proposes a system of intervention in the manual wheelchair through the 7 principles of Universal Design approach. The preliminary principle has not been able to accommodate the needs of the elderly will become a reference in the proposed design of this study.

  12. Upper-limb biomechanical analysis of wheelchair transfer techniques in two toilet configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Ying; Boninger, Michael L; Bass, Sarah R; Koontz, Alicia M

    2018-06-01

    Using proper technique is important for minimizing upper limb kinetics during wheelchair transfers. The objective of the study was to 1) evaluate the transfer techniques used during toilet transfers and 2) determine the impact of technique on upper limb joint loading for two different toilet configurations. Twenty-six manual wheelchair users (23 men and 3 women) performed transfers in a side and front wheelchair-toilet orientation while their habitual transfer techniques were evaluated using the Transfer Assessment Instrument. A motion analysis system and force sensors were used to record biomechanical data during the transfers. More than 20% of the participants failed to complete five transfer skills in the side setup compared to three skills in the front setup. Higher quality skills overall were associated with lower peak forces and moments in both toilet configurations (-0.68 perform these skills correctly (p ≤ 0.04). In the front setup, positioning the wheelchair within three inches of the transfer target was associated with reduced peak trailing forces and moments across all three upper limb joints (p = 0.02). Transfer skills training, making toilet seats level with the wheelchair seat, positioning the wheelchair closer to the toilet and mounting grab bars in a more ideal location for persons who do sitting pivot transfers may facilitate better quality toilet transfers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Effect of Transport Accessibility on the Social Inclusion of Wheelchair Users: A Mixed Method Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Velho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the accessibility of London buses has improved with the introduction of ramps and wheelchair priority areas. These advances are meant to remove physical barriers to entering the bus, but new conflicts have arisen particularly over the physical space aboard. We aimed to research the barriers faced by wheelchair users in public transport using a mixed methods approach to establish the breadth of issues faced by wheelchair users. To this end we quantified the push-force used alight a bus and a study to understand the coping mechanisms used by people to propel up a ramp. This quantitative approach found push forces which resulted in a load of 2 to 3 times body weight being transferred through people’s shoulders, forces which can be directly linked to shoulder injury. This could disable the user further, preventing them from being able to push their wheelchair. Alongside the quantitative study, we conducted qualitative research comprising of a number of in-depth interviews with wheelchair users about the barriers they face in public transport. Our main claim, highlighted through this interdisciplinary collaboration, is that proposed ‘solutions’ to accessibility, such as ramps, often generate problems of their own. These barriers can affect the life of wheelchair users, impacting on their confidence and causing social isolation. These can be long-term in nature or immediate.

  14. Rolling resistance and propulsion efficiency of manual and power-assisted wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Efthymia; Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2015-11-01

    Rolling resistance is one of the main forces resisting wheelchair propulsion and thus affecting stress exerted on the upper limbs. The present study investigates the differences in rolling resistance, propulsion efficiency and energy expenditure required by the user during power-assisted and manual propulsion. Different tire pressures (50%, 75%, 100%) and two different levels of motor assistance were tested. Drag force, energy expenditure and propulsion efficiency were measured in 10 able-bodied individuals under different experimental settings on a treadmill. Results showed that drag force levels were significantly higher in the 50%, compared to the 75% and 100% inflation conditions. In terms of wheelchair type, the manual wheelchair displayed significantly lower drag force values than the power-assisted one. The use of extra-power-assisted wheelchair appeared to be significantly superior to conventional power-assisted and manual wheelchairs concerning both propulsion efficiency and energy expenditure required by the user. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the use of power-assisted wheelchair was more efficient and required less energy input by the user, depending on the motor assistance provided. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wheelchair pushing and turning: lumbar spine and shoulder loads and recommended limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Eric B; Khan, Safdar N; Marras, William S

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how simulated manual wheelchair pushing influences biomechanical loading to the lumbar spine and shoulders. Sixty-two subjects performed simulated wheelchair pushing and turning in a laboratory. An electromyography-assisted biomechanical model was used to estimate spinal loads. Moments at the shoulder joint, external hand forces and net turning torque were also assessed. Multiple linear regression techniques were employed to develop biomechanically based wheelchair pushing guidelines relating resultant hand force or net torque to spinal load. Male subjects experienced significantly greater spinal loading (p pushing (p pushing and turning can pose biomechanical risk to the lumbar spine and shoulders. Psychophysically determined maximum acceptable push forces do not appear to be protective enough of this biomechanical risk. Practitioner Summary: This laboratory study investigated biomechanical risk to the low back and shoulders during simulated wheelchair pushing. Manual wheelchair pushing posed biomechanical risk to the lumbar spine (in compression and A/P shear) and to the shoulders. Biomechanically determined wheelchair pushing thresholds are presented and are more protective than the closest psychophysically determined equivalents.

  16. Using a smart wheelchair as a gaming device for floor-projected games: a mixed-reality environment for training powered-wheelchair driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secoli, R; Zondervan, D; Reinkensmeyer, D

    2012-01-01

    For children with a severe disability, such as can arise from cerebral palsy, becoming independent in mobility is a critical goal. Currently, however, driver's training for powered wheelchair use is labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist to keep the trainee safe. This paper describes the design of a mixed reality environment for semi-autonomous training of wheelchair driving skills. In this system, the wheelchair is used as the gaming input device, and users train driving skills by maneuvering through floor-projected games created with a multi-projector system and a multi-camera tracking system. A force feedback joystick assists in steering and enhances safety.

  17. Robot Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Paris, France, June, 1982, 519-530. Latoinbe, J. C. "Equipe Intelligence Artificielle et Robotique: Etat d’avancement des recherches," Laboratoire...8217AD-A127 233 ROBOT PROGRRMMING(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OFGTECHi/ CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB T LOZANO-PEREZ UNCLASSIFIED DC8 AI-9 N884...NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS ,. 545 Technology Square Cambridge

  18. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Is manual wheelchair satisfaction related to active lifestyle and participation in people with a spinal cord injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, S; Post, M W M; Bongers-Janssen, H M H; Bloemen-Vrencken, J H; van der Woude, L H V

    2011-04-01

    Cross-sectional study. To describe the satisfaction of the manual wheelchair user with hand rim wheelchair-related aspects (for example, dimensions, weight and comfort) and wheelchair service-related aspects and to determine the relationship between wheelchair users' satisfaction, personal and lesion characteristics, and active lifestyle and participation in persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with a specialized SCI unit. The Dutch version of the Quebec user evaluation of satisfaction with assistive technology (D-QUEST) was filled out by 109 participants 1 year after discharge from inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Relationships between the D-QUEST scores and personal and lesion characteristics, and active lifestyle and participation (physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities (PASIPD), Utrecht activity list (UAL), mobility range and social behavior subscales of the SIP68 (SIPSOC)) were determined. A high level of satisfaction was found with wheelchair-related aspects. The participants were less satisfied with the service-related aspects. Participants with an incomplete lesion were slightly more satisfied regarding both aspects than those with a complete lesion. A higher satisfaction regarding wheelchair dimensions and a higher overall satisfaction were related to a more active lifestyle. Persons who were more satisfied with the simplicity of use of the wheelchair had a better participation score. Dutch persons with SCI are in general quite satisfied with their hand rim wheelchair. Some aspects of the wheelchair (dimensions and simplicity of use) are important to optimize as these are related to an active lifestyle and participation.

  20. Robust Bio-Signal Based Control of an Intelligent Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyi Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive human-machine interaction (HMI method that is based on surface electromyography (sEMG signals is proposed for the hands-free control of an intelligent wheelchair. sEMG signals generated by the facial movements are obtained by a convenient dry electrodes sensing device. After the signals features are extracted from the autoregressive model, control data samples are updated and trained by an incremental online learning algorithm in real-time. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the classification accuracy and training speed. Moreover, this method can effectively reduce the influence of muscle fatigue during a long time operation of sEMG-based HMI.

  1. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Samani; Elham Saadatian; Natalie Pang; Doros Polydorou; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Ryohei Nakatsu; Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  2. Physiological and perceptual effects of precooling in wheelchair basketball athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpa, Kate; Knight, Emma; Miller, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physiological and perceptual effects of three precooling strategies during pre-exercise rest in athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Randomized, counterbalanced. Participants were precooled, then rested for 60 minutes (22.7 ± 0.2°C, 64.2 ± 2.6%RH). Setting National Wheelchair Basketball Training Centre, Australia. Participants Sixteen wheelchair basketball athletes with a SCI. Interventions Participants were precooled through; 1) 10 minutes of 15.8°C cold water immersion (CWI), 2) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of slushie (S) from sports drink; 3) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of slushie with application of iced towels to the legs, torso and back/arms (ST); or 4) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of room temperature (22.3°C) sports drink (CON). Outcome measures Core temperature (Tgi), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), and thermal and gastrointestinal comfort. Results Following CWI, a significant reduction in Tgi was observed compared to CON, with a greatest reduction of 1.58°C occurring 40 minutes post-cooling (95% CI [1.07, 2.10]). A significant reduction in Tgi following ST compared to CON was also observed at 20 minutes (0.56°C; [0.03, 1.09]) and 30 minutes (0.56°C; [0.04, 1.09]) post-cooling. Additionally, a significant interaction between impairment level and time was observed for Tgi and HR, demonstrating athletes with a higher level of impairment experienced a greater reduction in HR and significant decrease in rate of decline in Tgi, compared to lesser impaired athletes. Conclusion CWI and ST can effectively lower body temperature in athletes with a SCI, and may assist in tolerating warm conditions. PMID:27192132

  3. UXC55 Non-Magnetic Robot

    CERN Document Server

    Najjar, Tony

    2017-01-01

    As part of the collaboration between CMS and the Lebanese American University, we are looking into building a non-magnetic inspection rover capable of roaming around UXC55 and specifically under the detector. The robot should be specifically tailored and engineered to cope with the strong magnetic field in the cavern (300 G on average with peaks up to 1500 G) as well as other constraints such as flammability and geometry. Moreover, we are also taking part in the development of the instrumentation and wireless communication of the rover. The biggest challenge in setting up a non-magnetic rover lies in the actuation mechanism, in other words, getting it to move; motors are rotary actuators that rely on the concept of a rotor “trying to catch up” to a rotating magnetic field. We quickly realize the complication with using this popular technology; the strong field created by the CMS magnet greatly interferes with the motor, rendering it utterly stalled. Our approach, on the other hand, consists of using compl...

  4. Evaluation of an intelligent wheelchair system for older adults with cognitive impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Older adults are the most prevalent wheelchair users in Canada. Yet, cognitive impairments may prevent an older adult from being allowed to use a powered wheelchair due to safety and usability concerns. To address this issue, an add-on Intelligent Wheelchair System (IWS) was developed to help older adults with cognitive impairments drive a powered wheelchair safely and effectively. When attached to a powered wheelchair, the IWS adds a vision-based anti-collision feature that prevents the wheelchair from hitting obstacles and a navigation assistance feature that plays audio prompts to help users manoeuvre around obstacles. Methods A two stage evaluation was conducted to test the efficacy of the IWS. Stage One: Environment of Use – the IWS’s anti-collision and navigation features were evaluated against objects found in a long-term care facility. Six different collision scenarios (wall, walker, cane, no object, moving and stationary person) and three different navigation scenarios (object on left, object on right, and no object) were performed. Signal detection theory was used to categorize the response of the system in each scenario. Stage Two: User Trials – single-subject research design was used to evaluate the impact of the IWS on older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants were asked to drive a powered wheelchair through a structured obstacle course in two phases: 1) with the IWS and 2) without the IWS. Measurements of safety and usability were taken and compared between the two phases. Visual analysis and phase averages were used to analyze the single-subject data. Results Stage One: The IWS performed correctly for all environmental anti-collision and navigation scenarios. Stage Two: Two participants completed the trials. The IWS was able to limit the number of collisions that occurred with a powered wheelchair and lower the perceived workload for driving a powered wheelchair. However, the objective performance (time to complete course

  5. The influence of neighbourhood socio-demographic factors on densities of free-roaming cat populations in an urban ecosystem in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkler, H.; Hatna, E.; Terkel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Free-roaming cat populations are abundant in many urban ecosystems worldwide. Their management is necessary for reasons of public health, risk of wildlife predation and cat welfare related to their high densities. Trap-neuter-return (TNR) programs are now the main cat population control strategy in

  6. Participatory methods for the assessment of the ownership status of free-roaming dogs in Bali, Indonesia, for disease control and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morters, M K; Bharadwaj, S; Whay, H R; Cleaveland, S; Damriyasa, I Md; Wood, J L N

    2014-09-01

    The existence of unowned, free-roaming dogs capable of maintaining adequate body condition without direct human oversight has serious implications for disease control and animal welfare, including reducing effective vaccination coverage against rabies through limiting access for vaccination, and absolving humans from the responsibility of providing adequate care for a domesticated species. Mark-recapture methods previously used to estimate the fraction of unowned dogs in free-roaming populations have limitations, particularly when most of the dogs are owned. We used participatory methods, described as Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), as a novel alternative to mark-recapture methods in two villages in Bali, Indonesia. PRA was implemented at the banjar (or sub-village)-level to obtain consensus on the food sources of the free-roaming dogs. Specific methods included semi-structured discussion, visualisation tools and ranking. The PRA results agreed with the preceding household surveys and direct observations, designed to evaluate the same variables, and confirmed that a population of unowned, free-roaming dogs in sufficiently good condition to be sustained independently of direct human support was unlikely to exist. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Calibration of Robot Reference Frames for Enhanced Robot Positioning Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Frank Shaopeng

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed the importance and methods of conducting robot workcell calibration for enhancing the accuracy of the robot TCP positions in industrial robot applications. It shows that the robot frame transformations define the robot geometric parameters such as joint position variables, link dimensions, and joint offsets in an industrial robot system. The D-H representation allows the robot designer to model the robot motion geometry with the four standard D-H parameters. The robot k...

  8. Unmatched speed perceptions between overground and treadmill manual wheelchair propulsion in long-term manual wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénier, Félix; Champagne, Audrey; Desroches, Guillaume; Gagnon, Dany H

    2018-03-01

    Manual wheelchair (MWC) propulsion is increasingly assessed on a motorized treadmill (TM), which is often considered more ecologically valid than stationary rollers. However, no clear consensus on the similarities between overground (OG) and TM propulsion has yet been reached. Furthermore, no study has investigated the participants' perceptions of propelling a MWC on a TM compared to OG. The present study aims to assess the perception of speed when propelling on a TM vs OG, and to relate this perception to measured spatiotemporal variables, kinetics and work. In this repeated-measures study, the propulsion's spatiotemporal variables, kinetics, and work of nineteen experienced wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury were compared between three conditions: 1) OG at a self-selected speed, 2) on a TM at a self-selected speed perceived as being similar to the OG speed (TM perceived ), and 3) on a TM at the same speed as OG (TM matched ). Each variable was compared between conditions using an analysis of variance for repeated measures. All participants selected a lower speed for TM perceived than OG, with a difference of -0.6 m/s (-44%). This adaptation may be due to a combination of two factors: 1) the absence of speed information, and 2) the feeling of urgency to grab the wheels during the recovery phase. The power output, work per cycle, and work per minute were also much lower on TM perceived than OG. However, in contrast to other work on MWC propulsion on a TM, the kinetic variables assessed were all similar between the OG and TM matched conditions. Training on a TM should be performed at a speed that matches the OG speed and not at a self-selected speed on the TM, which would reduce the power output and work and therefore reduce the efficiency of the training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Manual Wheelchair Performance in Everyday Life Lucas van der Woude, Sonja de Groot, Stefan van Drongelen, Thomas Janssen, Janneke Haisma, Linda Valent and Dirkjan Veeger

    OpenAIRE

    van der Woude, Lucas; de Groot, Sonja; van Drongelen, Stefan; Janssen, Thomas W.; Haisma, Janneke A.; Valent, Linda J M; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of wheelchair performance (capacity and skills) is crucial in the investigation of wheeled mobility in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Manual wheelchair use is a complex combination of skills, which together determine overall functioning, daily activities, participation, and quality of life. The evaluation of wheelchair performance requires a systematic biophysical approach that appreciates the importance of the individual elements of the wheelchair-user combination: the wh...

  10. Validity of consumer-grade activity monitor to identify manual wheelchair propulsion in standardized activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leving, Marika T; Horemans, Henricus L D; Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2018-01-01

    Hypoactive lifestyle contributes to the development of secondary complications and lower quality of life in wheelchair users. There is a need for objective and user-friendly physical activity monitors for wheelchair-dependent individuals in order to increase physical activity through self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback provision. To determine the validity of Activ8 Activity Monitors to 1) distinguish two classes of activities: independent wheelchair propulsion from other non-propulsive wheelchair-related activities 2) distinguish five wheelchair-related classes of activities differing by the movement intensity level: sitting in a wheelchair (hands may be moving but wheelchair remains stationary), maneuvering, and normal, high speed or assisted wheelchair propulsion. Sixteen able-bodied individuals performed sixteen various standardized 60s-activities of daily living. Each participant was equipped with a set of two Activ8 Professional Activity Monitors, one at the right forearm and one at the right wheel. Task classification by the Active8 Monitors was validated using video recordings. For the overall agreement, sensitivity and positive predictive value, outcomes above 90% are considered excellent, between 70 and 90% good, and below 70% unsatisfactory. Division in two classes resulted in overall agreement of 82.1%, sensitivity of 77.7% and positive predictive value of 78.2%. 84.5% of total duration of all tasks was classified identically by Activ8 and based on the video material. Division in five classes resulted in overall agreement of 56.6%, sensitivity of 52.8% and positive predictive value of 51.9%. 59.8% of total duration of all tasks was classified identically by Activ8 and based on the video material. Activ8 system proved to be suitable for distinguishing between active wheelchair propulsion and other non-propulsive wheelchair-related activities. The ability of the current system and algorithms to distinguish five various wheelchair-related activities

  11. Development and evaluation of a gyroscope-based wheel rotation monitor for manual wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A

    2013-07-01

    To develop and evaluate a wireless gyroscope-based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) that can estimate speeds and distances traveled by wheelchair users during regular wheelchair propulsion as well as wheelchair sports such as handcycling, and provide users with real-time feedback through a smartphone application. The speeds and the distances estimated by the G-WRM were compared with the criterion measures by calculating absolute difference, mean difference, and percentage errors during a series of laboratory-based tests. Intraclass correlations (ICC) and the Bland-Altman plots were also used to assess the agreements between the G-WRM and the criterion measures. In addition, battery life and wireless data transmission tests under a number of usage conditions were performed. The percentage errors for the angular velocities, speeds, and distances obtained from three prototype G-WRMs were less than 3% for all the test trials. The high ICC values (ICC (3,1) > 0.94) and the Bland-Altman plots indicate excellent agreement between the estimated speeds and distances by the G-WRMs and the criterion measures. The battery life tests showed that the device could last for 35 hours in wireless mode and 139 hours in secure digital card mode. The wireless data transmission tests indicated less than 0.3% of data loss. The results indicate that the G-WRM is an appropriate tool for tracking a spectrum of wheelchair-related activities from regular wheelchair propulsion to wheelchair sports such as handcycling. The real-time feedback provided by the G-WRM can help wheelchair users self-monitor their everyday activities.

  12. Comparison of shoulder load during power-assisted and purely hand-rim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Eising, Hilde; Schaake, Leendert; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S

    2012-06-01

    Repetitive forces and moments are among the work requirements of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion that are related to shoulder injuries. No previous research has been published about the influence of power-assisted wheelchair propulsion on these work requirements. The purpose of our study was therefore to determine the influence of power-assisted propulsion on shoulder biomechanics and muscle activation patterns. We also explored the theoretical framework for the effectiveness of power-assisted propulsion in preventing shoulder injuries by decreasing the work requirements of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Nine non-wheelchair users propelled a hand-rim wheelchair on a treadmill at 0.9 m/s. Shoulder biomechanics, and muscle activation patterns, were compared between propulsion with and without power-assist. Propulsion frequency did not differ significantly between the two conditions (Wilcoxon Signed Rank test/significance level/effect size:4/.314/-.34). During power-assisted propulsion we found significantly decreased maximum shoulder flexion and internal rotation angles (1/.015/-.81 and 0/.008/-.89) and decreased peak force on the rim (0/.008/-.89). This resulted in decreased shoulder flexion, adduction and internal rotation moments (2/.021/-.77; 0/.008/-.89 and 1/.011/-.85) and decreased forces at the shoulder in the posterior, superior and lateral directions (2/.021/-.77; 2/.008/-.89 and 2/.024/-.75). Muscle activation in the pectoralis major, posterior deltoid and triceps brachii was also decreased (2/.038/-.69; 1/.015/-.81 and 1/.021/-.77). Power-assist influenced the work requirements of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion by healthy subjects. It was primarily the kinetics at rim and shoulder which were influenced by power-assisted propulsion. Additional research with actual hand-rim wheelchair users is required before extrapolation to routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of synchronous versus asynchronous mode of propulsion on wheelchair basketball sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Meyer, Christophe; Gorce, Philippe; Watelain, Eric

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to first investigate synchronous (SYN) versus asynchronous (ASY) mode of propulsion and, second, investigate the wheel camber effects on sprinting performance as well as temporal parameters. Seven wheelchair basketball players performed four maximal eight-second sprints on a wheelchair ergometer. They repeated the test according to two modes of propulsion (SYN and ASY) and two wheel cambers (9° and 15°). The mean maximal velocity and push power output was greater in the synchronous mode compared to the asynchronous mode for both camber angles. However, the fluctuation in the velocity profile is inferior for ASY versus SYN mode for both camber angles. Greater push time/cycle time (Pt/Ct) and arm frequency (AF) for synchronous mode versus asynchronous mode and inversely, lesser Ct and rest time (Rt) values for the synchronous mode, for which greater velocity were observed. SYN mode leads to better performance than ASY mode in terms of maximal propulsion velocity. However, ASY propulsion allows greater continuity of the hand-rim force application, reducing fluctuations in the velocity profile. The camber angle had no effect on ASY and SYN mean maximal velocity and push power output. The study of wheelchair propulsion strategies is important for better understanding physiological and biomechanical impacts of wheelchair propulsion for individuals with disabilities. From a kinematical point of view, this study highlights synchronous mode of propulsion to be more efficient, with regards to mean maximal velocity reaching during maximal sprinting exercises. Even if this study focuses on well-trained wheelchair athletes, results from this study could complement the knowledge on the physiological and biomechanical adaptations to wheelchair propulsion and therefore, might be interesting for wheelchair modifications for purposes of rehabilitation.

  14. Shoulder pain and jerk during recovery phase of manual wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Beck, Carolyn L; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2015-11-05

    Repetitive loading of the upper limb due to wheelchair propulsion plays a leading role in the development of shoulder pain in manual wheelchair users (mWCUs). There has been minimal inquiry on understanding wheelchair propulsion kinematics from a human movement ergonomics perspective. This investigation employs an ergonomic metric, jerk, to characterize the recovery phase kinematics of two recommended manual wheelchair propulsion patterns: semi-circular and the double loop. Further it examines if jerk is related to shoulder pain in mWCUs. Data from 22 experienced adult mWCUs was analyzed for this study (semi-circular: n=12 (pain/without-pain:6/6); double-loop: n=10 (pain/without-pain:4/6)). Participants propelled their own wheelchair fitted with SMARTWheels on a roller dynamometer at 1.1 m/s for 3 min. Kinematic and kinetic data of the upper limbs were recorded. Three dimensional absolute jerk experienced at the shoulder, elbow and wrist joint during the recovery phase of wheelchair propulsion were computed. Two-way ANOVAs were conducted with the recovery pattern type and shoulder pain as between group factors. (1) Individuals using a semi-circular pattern experienced lower jerk at their arm joints than those using a double loop pattern (Ppropulsion was able to distinguish between pattern types (semi-circular and double loop) and the presence of shoulder pain. Jerk provides novel insights into wheelchair propulsion kinematics and in the future it may be beneficial to incorporate jerk based metric into rehabilitation practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Scapular kinematics during manual wheelchair propulsion in able-bodied participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Michel J; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Scheer, Jan W; Hartog, Johanneke; de Groot, Sonja; de Vries, Wiebe; Arnet, Ursina; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2018-05-01

    Altered scapular kinematics have been associated with shoulder pain and functional limitations. To understand kinematics in persons with spinal cord injury during manual handrim wheelchair propulsion, a description of normal scapular behaviour in able-bodied persons during this specific task is a prerequisite for accurate interpretation. The primary aim of this study is to describe scapular kinematics in able-bodied persons during manual wheelchair propulsion. Sixteen able-bodied, novice wheelchair users without shoulder complaints participated in the study. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during a standardized pose in the anatomic posture, frontal-plane arm elevation and low-intensity steady-state handrim wheelchair propulsion and upper-body Euler angles were calculated. Scapulothoracic joint orientations in a static position were 36.7° (SD 5.4°), 6.4° (SD 9.1°) and 9.1° (SD 5.7°) for respectively protraction, lateral rotation and anterior tilt. At 80° of arm elevation in the frontal plane, the respective values of 33.4° (SD 8.0°), 23.9° (SD 5.4°) and 4.1° (SD 11.3°) were found. During the push phase of manual wheelchair propulsion, the mean scapular rotations were respectively 32.7° (SD 7.1°), 7.1° (SD 9.2°) and 9.8° (SD 8.3°). The orientation of the scapula in a static pose, during arm elevation and in manual wheelchair propulsion in able-bodied participants showed similar patterns to a previous study in persons with para- and tetraplegia. These values provide a reference for the investigation of the scapular movement pattern in wheelchair-dependent persons and its relation to shoulder complex abnormalities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Educational Robotics as Mindtools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Bellou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    Although there are many studies on the constructionist use of educational robotics, they have certain limitations. Some of them refer to robotics education, rather than educational robotics. Others follow a constructionist approach, but give emphasis only to design skills, creativity and collaboration. Some studies use robotics as an educational…

  17. ROILA : RObot Interaction LAnguage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubin, O.

    2011-01-01

    The number of robots in our society is increasing rapidly. The number of service robots that interact with everyday people already outnumbers industrial robots. The easiest way to communicate with these service robots, such as Roomba or Nao, would be natural speech. However, the limitations

  18. Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  19. ROAM: A Radial-Basis-Function Optimization Approximation Method for Diagnosing the Three-Dimensional Coronal Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmasse, Kevin; Nychka, Douglas W.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Fan, Yuhong; Flyer, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    The Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) routinely performs coronal polarimetric measurements using the Fe XIII 10747 and 10798 lines, which are sensitive to the coronal magnetic field. However, inverting such polarimetric measurements into magnetic field data is a difficult task because the corona is optically thin at these wavelengths and the observed signal is therefore the integrated emission of all the plasma along the line of sight. To overcome this difficulty, we take on a new approach that combines a parameterized 3D magnetic field model with forward modeling of the polarization signal. For that purpose, we develop a new, fast and efficient, optimization method for model-data fitting: the Radial-basis-functions Optimization Approximation Method (ROAM). Model-data fitting is achieved by optimizing a user-specified log-likelihood function that quantifies the differences between the observed polarization signal and its synthetic/predicted analog. Speed and efficiency are obtained by combining sparse evaluation of the magnetic model with radial-basis-function (RBF) decomposition of the log-likelihood function. The RBF decomposition provides an analytical expression for the log-likelihood function that is used to inexpensively estimate the set of parameter values optimizing it. We test and validate ROAM on a synthetic test bed of a coronal magnetic flux rope and show that it performs well with a significantly sparse sample of the parameter space. We conclude that our optimization method is well-suited for fast and efficient model-data fitting and can be exploited for converting coronal polarimetric measurements, such as the ones provided by CoMP, into coronal magnetic field data.

  20. An Intelligent Space for Mobile Robot Localization Using a Multi-Camera System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rampinelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an intelligent space, whose objective is to localize and control robots or robotic wheelchairs to help people. Such an intelligent space has 11 cameras distributed in two laboratories and a corridor. The cameras are fixed in the environment, and image capturing is done synchronously. The system was programmed as a client/server with TCP/IP connections, and a communication protocol was defined. The client coordinates the activities inside the intelligent space, and the servers provide the information needed for that. Once the cameras are used for localization, they have to be properly calibrated. Therefore, a calibration method for a multi-camera network is also proposed in this paper. A robot is used to move a calibration pattern throughout the field of view of the cameras. Then, the captured images and the robot odometry are used for calibration. As a result, the proposed algorithm provides a solution for multi-camera calibration and robot localization at the same time. The intelligent space and the calibration method were evaluated under different scenarios using computer simulations and real experiments. The results demonstrate the proper functioning of the intelligent space and validate the multi-camera calibration method, which also improves robot localization.

  1. An intelligent space for mobile robot localization using a multi-camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampinelli, Mariana; Covre, Vitor Buback; de Queiroz, Felippe Mendonça; Vassallo, Raquel Frizera; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano Freire; Mazo, Manuel

    2014-08-15

    This paper describes an intelligent space, whose objective is to localize and control robots or robotic wheelchairs to help people. Such an intelligent space has 11 cameras distributed in two laboratories and a corridor. The cameras are fixed in the environment, and image capturing is done synchronously. The system was programmed as a client/server with TCP/IP connections, and a communication protocol was defined. The client coordinates the activities inside the intelligent space, and the servers provide the information needed for that. Once the cameras are used for localization, they have to be properly calibrated. Therefore, a calibration method for a multi-camera network is also proposed in this paper. A robot is used to move a calibration pattern throughout the field of view of the cameras. Then, the captured images and the robot odometry are used for calibration. As a result, the proposed algorithm provides a solution for multi-camera calibration and robot localization at the same time. The intelligent space and the calibration method were evaluated under different scenarios using computer simulations and real experiments. The results demonstrate the proper functioning of the intelligent space and validate the multi-camera calibration method, which also improves robot localization.

  2. Assistance dogs provide a useful behavioral model to enrich communicative skills of assistance robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácsi, Márta; Szakadát, Sára; Miklósi, Adám

    2013-01-01

    These studies are part of a project aiming to reveal relevant aspects of human-dog interactions, which could serve as a model to design successful human-robot interactions. Presently there are no successfully commercialized assistance robots, however, assistance dogs work efficiently as partners for persons with disabilities. In Study 1, we analyzed the cooperation of 32 assistance dog-owner dyads performing a carrying task. We revealed typical behavior sequences and also differences depending on the dyads' experiences and on whether the owner was a wheelchair user. In Study 2, we investigated dogs' responses to unforeseen difficulties during a retrieving task in two contexts. Dogs displayed specific communicative and displacement behaviors, and a strong commitment to execute the insoluble task. Questionnaire data from Study 3 confirmed that these behaviors could successfully attenuate owners' disappointment. Although owners anticipated the technical competence of future assistance robots to be moderate/high, they could not imagine robots as emotional companions, which negatively affected their acceptance ratings of future robotic assistants. We propose that assistance dogs' cooperative behaviors and problem solving strategies should inspire the development of the relevant functions and social behaviors of assistance robots with limited manual and verbal skills.

  3. Modular Robotic Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....

  4. Hexapod Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  5. An Analysis of Basic Construction Variables of Racing Wheelchairs Used in the 1984 International Games for the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherril L.; Kimura, Iris F.

    1987-01-01

    A photographic analysis of racing wheelchairs used by cerebral palsy class four athletes and amputee athletes at the 1984 International Games for the Disabled was undertaken in order to analyze seven wheelchair construction variables in relation to performance outcome, distance raced, and type of disability of the user. (Author/MT)

  6. 49 CFR 39.93 - What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a passenger vessel? 39.93 Section 39.93 Transportation Office of the... and Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.93 What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may...

  7. Effect of push handle height on net moments and forces on the musculoskeletal system during standardized wheelchair pushing tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Woude, L H; Van Koningsbruggen, C M; Kroes, A L; Kingma, I

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the external forces and biomechanical loading on the musculoskeletal system during wheelchair pushing, in relation to different push handle heights. In addition, recommendations for wheelchair pushing in accordance with push handle height are made. Eight

  8. Sprint performance and propulsion asymmetries on an ergometer in trained high- and low-point wheelchair rugby players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Vegter, Riemer J K; Mason, Barry S; Paulson, Thomas A W; Lenton, John P; van der Scheer, Jan W; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    The purpose of this study was to examine the propulsion asymmetries of wheelchair athletes while sprinting on an instrumented, dual-roller ergometer system. Eighteen experienced wheelchair rugby players (8 low point (LP) (class 1.5) and 10 high point (HP) (class 2.0)) performed a 15-second sprint in

  9. Development and validation of rear impact computer simulation model of an adult manual transit wheelchair with a seated occupant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salipur, Zdravko; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that ANSI WC19 transit wheelchairs that are crashworthy in frontal impact exhibit catastrophic failures in rear impact and may not be able to provide stable seating support and thus occupant protection for the wheelchair occupant. Thus far only limited sled test and computer simulation data have been available to study rear impact wheelchair safety. Computer modeling can be used as an economic and comprehensive tool to gain critical knowledge regarding wheelchair integrity and occupant safety. This study describes the development and validation of a computer model simulating an adult wheelchair-seated occupant subjected to a rear impact event. The model was developed in MADYMO and validated rigorously using the results of three similar sled tests conducted to specifications provided in the draft ISO/TC 173 standard. Outcomes from the model can provide critical wheelchair loading information to wheelchair and tiedown manufacturers, resulting in safer wheelchair designs for rear impact conditions. (c) 2009 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-up on select indoor and outdoor surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koontz, AM; Cooper, RA; Boninger, ML; Yang, YS; Impink, BG; van der Woude, LHV

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-LIP on select indoor and Outdoor surfaces. Eleven manual wheelchairs were fitted with a SMART(Wheel) and their users were asked to Push on a Course consisting of high- and low-pile carpet,

  11. Integrated modeling and design for realizing a two-wheeled wheelchair for disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalmas, Tareq; Aula, Abqori; Ahmad, Salmiah; Tokhi, M O; Akmeliawati, Rini

    2016-01-01

    Two-wheeled wheelchairs are considered highly nonlinear and complex systems. The systems mimic a double-inverted pendulum scenario and will provide better maneuverability in confined spaces and also to reach higher level of height for pick and place tasks. The challenge resides in modeling and control of the two-wheeled wheelchair to perform comparably to a normal four-wheeled wheelchair. Most common modeling techniques have been accomplished by researchers utilizing the basic Newton's Laws of motion and some have used 3D tools to model the system where the models are much more theoretical and quite far from the practical implementation. This article is aimed at closing the gap between the conventional mathematical modeling approaches where the integrated 3D modeling approach with validation on the actual hardware implementation was conducted. To achieve this, both nonlinear and a linearized model in terms of state space model were obtained from the mathematical model of the system for analysis and, thereafter, a 3D virtual prototype of the wheelchair was developed, simulated, and analyzed. This has increased the confidence level for the proposed platform and facilitated the actual hardware implementation of the two-wheeled wheelchair. Results show that the prototype developed and tested has successfully worked within the specific requirements established.

  12. The Smart Wheelchair: is it an appropriate mobility training tool for children with physical disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Sarah; Moir, Lois; Girdler, Sonya

    2012-09-01

    To describe the impact of a mobility training program using the Smart Wheelchair on the driving skills and psychosocial outcomes of children with physical disabilities. A multiple case study design using mixed methods was used. Four children with physical disabilities were recruited through The Centre for Cerebral Palsy in Western Australia. The intervention was a 16 session Smart Wheelchair mobility training program. Data was collected using a quantitative driving skills assessment, field notes and qualitative parent interviews. Three out of four children gained independence in at least three driving skills or more, whilst one child was competent with verbal prompts. Three out of four mothers reported positive changes in their child's confidence, motivation and affect. The Smart Wheelchair has the ability to uncover learning potential and facilitate the recognition of abilities in children previously excluded from access to independent mobility. Given the significant limitation that restrictions in mobility pose to participation for children with physical disabilities, therapists must begin to understand the effectiveness of interventions such as the Smart Wheelchair. The descriptive findings of this study allow for future, more rigorous research, to be conducted on the effectiveness of the Smart Wheelchair as a mobility training tool.

  13. Joystick-controlled video console game practice for developing power wheelchairs users' indoor driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei Pin; Wang, Chia Cheng; Hung, Jo Hua; Chien, Kai Chun; Liu, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Ng, How-Hing; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of joystick-controlled video console games in enhancing subjects' ability to control power wheelchairs. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy young adults without prior experience of driving power wheelchairs were recruited. Four commercially available video games were used as training programs to practice joystick control in catching falling objects, crossing a river, tracing the route while floating on a river, and navigating through a garden maze. An indoor power wheelchair driving test, including straight lines, and right and left turns, was completed before and after the video game practice, during which electromyographic signals of the upper limbs were recorded. The paired t-test was used to compare the differences in driving performance and muscle activities before and after the intervention. [Results] Following the video game intervention, participants took significantly less time to complete the course, with less lateral deviation when turning the indoor power wheelchair. However, muscle activation in the upper limbs was not significantly affected. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates the feasibility of using joystick-controlled commercial video games to train individuals in the control of indoor power wheelchairs.

  14. Individual muscle contributions to push and recovery subtasks during wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Richter, W Mark; Neptune, Richard R

    2011-04-29

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable physical demand on the upper extremity and is one of the primary activities associated with the high prevalence of upper extremity overuse injuries and pain among wheelchair users. As a result, recent effort has focused on determining how various propulsion techniques influence upper extremity demand during wheelchair propulsion. However, an important prerequisite for identifying the relationships between propulsion techniques and upper extremity demand is to understand how individual muscles contribute to the mechanical energetics of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to use a forward dynamics simulation of wheelchair propulsion to quantify how individual muscles deliver, absorb and/or transfer mechanical power during propulsion. The analysis showed that muscles contribute to either push (i.e., deliver mechanical power to the handrim) or recovery (i.e., reposition the arm) subtasks, with the shoulder flexors being the primary contributors to the push and the shoulder extensors being the primary contributors to the recovery. In addition, significant activity from the shoulder muscles was required during the transition between push and recovery, which resulted in increased co-contraction and upper extremity demand. Thus, strengthening the shoulder flexors and promoting propulsion techniques that improve transition mechanics have much potential to reduce upper extremity demand and improve rehabilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Innovative Design and Prototype Verification of Wheelchair with One Degree of Freedom to Perform Lifting and Standing Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Long-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Hsia

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, the mechanism of wheelchair with lifting and standing functions has 2 degrees of freedom, and used 2 power sources to perform these 2 motion function. The purpose of this paper is to invent new wheelchair with 1 degree of freedom to perform these 2 motion functions. Hence, we can use only 1 power source to drive the mechanism to achieve lifting and standing motion functions. The new design has the advantages of simple operation, more stability, and more safety. For traditional standing wheelchair, its’ centre of gravity moves forward when standing up and it needs 2 auxiliary wheels to prevent dumping. In this paper, by using the checklist method of Osborn, the wheelchair with 1 DOF is invented to perform lifting and standing functions. The centre of gravity of this new wheelchair after standing up still located between the front and rear wheels, no auxiliary wheels needed. Finally, the prototype is manufactured to verify the theoretical results.

  16. Next generation light robotic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Palima, Darwin; Banas, Andrew Rafael

    2017-01-01

    -assisted surgery imbibes surgeons with superhuman abilities and gives the expression “surgical precision” a whole new meaning. Still in its infancy, much remains to be done to improve human-robot collaboration both in realizing robots that can operate safely with humans and in training personnel that can work......Conventional robotics provides machines and robots that can replace and surpass human performance in repetitive, difficult, and even dangerous tasks at industrial assembly lines, hazardous environments, or even at remote planets. A new class of robotic systems no longer aims to replace humans...... with so-called automatons but, rather, to create robots that can work alongside human operators. These new robots are intended to collaborate with humans—extending their abilities—from assisting workers on the factory floor to rehabilitating patients in their homes. In medical robotics, robot...

  17. Distributed Robotics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Distributed robotics takes many forms, for instance, multirobots, modular robots, and self-reconfigurable robots. The understanding and development of such advanced robotic systems demand extensive knowledge in engineering and computer science. In this paper, we describe the concept of a distribu......Distributed robotics takes many forms, for instance, multirobots, modular robots, and self-reconfigurable robots. The understanding and development of such advanced robotic systems demand extensive knowledge in engineering and computer science. In this paper, we describe the concept...... to be changed, related to multirobot control and human-robot interaction control from virtual to physical representation. The proposed system is valuable for bringing a vast number of issues into education – such as parallel programming, distribution, communication protocols, master dependency, connectivity...

  18. An Adaptive Robot Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal is to im......The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...

  19. Robotic intelligence kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  20. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  1. Mina: A Sensorimotor Robotic Orthosis for Mobility Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While most mobility options for persons with paraplegia or paraparesis employ wheeled solutions, significant adverse health, psychological, and social consequences result from wheelchair confinement. Modern robotic exoskeleton devices for gait assistance and rehabilitation, however, can support legged locomotion systems for those with lower extremity weakness or paralysis. The Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC has developed the Mina, a prototype sensorimotor robotic orthosis for mobility assistance that provides mobility capability for paraplegic and paraparetic users. This paper describes the initial concept, design goals, and methods of this wearable overground robotic mobility device, which uses compliant actuation to power the hip and knee joints. Paralyzed users can balance and walk using the device over level terrain with the assistance of forearm crutches employing a quadrupedal gait. We have initiated sensory substitution feedback mechanisms to augment user sensory perception of his or her lower extremities. Using this sensory feedback, we hypothesize that users will ambulate with a more natural, upright gait and will be able to directly control the gait parameters and respond to perturbations. This may allow bipedal (with minimal support gait in future prototypes.

  2. Development of custom measurement system for biomechanical evaluation of independent wheelchair transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Alicia M; Lin, Yen-Sheng; Kankipati, Padmaja; Boninger, Michael L; Cooper, Rory A

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a new custom measurement system designed to investigate the biomechanics of sitting-pivot wheelchair transfers and assesses the reliability of selected biomechanical variables. Variables assessed include horizontal and vertical reaction forces underneath both hands and three-dimensional trunk, shoulder, and elbow range of motion. We examined the reliability of these measures between 5 consecutive transfer trials for 5 subjects with spinal cord injury and 12 nondisabled subjects while they performed a self-selected sitting pivot transfer from a wheelchair to a level bench. A majority of the biomechanical variables demonstrated moderate to excellent reliability (r > 0.6). The transfer measurement system recorded reliable and valid biomechanical data for future studies of sitting-pivot wheelchair transfers.We recommend a minimum of five transfer trials to obtain a reliable measure of transfer technique for future studies.

  3. Mechanical design and simulation of two-wheeled wheelchair using solidworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalmas, T. M.; Ahmad, S.; Aula, A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Sidek, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    This article is presented a new design of two-wheeled wheelchair that can balance on two wheels to make it suitable in the narrow areas, especially in the domestic environments; it has the ability to extend the height of the chair to help the user to act independently in the life for example, in the library to pick and put books on the shelves. The 3D model has been built up using SolidWorks Software. Nowadays, SolidWorks environment is considered as a powerful tool that is helping designer to design products and attain its performance before physical prototype stage. SolidWorks simulation model has been employed to test the frame of the wheelchair under the weight of the human body and the upper part of the wheelchair. The static analysis has been done on the frame using steel and aluminium; however the aluminium material has been selected due to its light weight

  4. The physiological and biomechanical effects of forwards and reverse sports wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barry S; Lenton, John P; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-07-01

    To explore the physiological and biomechanical differences between forwards (FOR) and reverse (REV) sports wheelchair propulsion. Fourteen able-bodied males with previous wheelchair propulsion experience pushed a sports wheelchair on a single-roller ergometer in a FOR and REV direction at three sub-maximal speeds (4, 6, and 8 km/hour). Each trial lasted 3 minutes, and during the final minute physiological and biomechanical measures was collected. The physiological results revealed that oxygen uptake (1.51 ± 0.29 vs. 1.38 ± 0.26 L/minute, P = 0.005) and heart rate (121 ± 19 vs. 109 ± 14 beats/minute, P 0.05). However, greater mean resultant forces were applied during FOR (P kinematic adaptations in order to maintain constant speeds in REV.

  5. A test of self-determination theory with wheelchair basketball players with and without disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Stephane; Vallarand, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    Guided by Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the present study examined the sport motivation and coping skills of male and female wheelchair basketball players with and without disability (N = 72). In line with SDT, results showed that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as well as amotivation was found to be present in this sample of wheelchair basketball players. Results also demonstrated that the participants surveyed in the present study scored higher on self-determined types of motivation than non self-determined types of motivation, thus replicating past research with athletes without disability. Furthermore, wheelchair basketball players with and without disability did not differ significantly with respect to sport motivation and coping skills, suggesting that they are more alike than dissimilar. Finally, results revealed that self-determined motivation is associated with enhanced psychological functioning.

  6. Use of a design challenge to develop postural support devices for intermediate wheelchair users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda N. Onguti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The provision of an appropriate wheelchair, one that provides proper fit and postural support, promotes wheelchair users’ physical health and quality of life. Many wheelchair users have postural difficulties, requiring supplemental postural support devices for added trunk support. However, in many low- and middle-income settings, postural support devices are inaccessible, inappropriate or unaffordable. This article describes the use of the design challenge model, informed by a design thinking approach, to catalyse the development of an affordable, simple and robust postural support device for low- and middle-income countries. The article also illustrates how not-for-profit organisations can utilise design thinking and, in particular, the design challenge model to successfully support the development of innovative solutions to product or process challenges.

  7. Robotics Potential Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Lucero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This problem was to calculate the path a robot would take to navigate an obstacle field and get to its goal. Three obstacles were given as negative potential fields which the robot avoided, and a goal was given a positive potential field that attracted the robot. The robot decided each step based on its distance, angle, and influence from every object. After each step, the robot recalculated and determined its next step until it reached its goal. The robot's calculations and steps were simulated with Microsoft Excel.

  8. Designing Emotionally Expressive Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiourti, Christiana; Weiss, Astrid; Wac, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Socially assistive agents, be it virtual avatars or robots, need to engage in social interactions with humans and express their internal emotional states, goals, and desires. In this work, we conducted a comparative study to investigate how humans perceive emotional cues expressed by humanoid...... robots through five communication modalities (face, head, body, voice, locomotion) and examined whether the degree of a robot's human-like embodiment affects this perception. In an online survey, we asked people to identify emotions communicated by Pepper -a highly human-like robot and Hobbit – a robot...... for robots....

  9. Development of a Low-Cost Electronic Wheelchair with Obstacle Avoidance Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Romeroso Arboleda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  A low-cost electronic wheelchair was designed and developed which can perform the similar functions and features as a commercially available wheelchair. It also provides obstacle avoidance capability as added value. The electronic wheelchair was  realized by modification of a lightweight manual wheelchair. It uses two electric motors each of 320 W 24 V DC, 5-24 VDC 6 A H-bride drivers, and a 12 V 17 Ah rechargeable lead acid battery. It equipped with switches, joystick, infrared sensors and ultrasonic sensors. A GizduinoAtMega 328 microcontroller is used to read and interpret commands. User’s acceptance evaluation results shows that the developed low-cost wheelchair is able to receive and interpret commands provided by the joystick, detect if a person  is seated on it, navigate to avoid obstacles as well as to detect edge and stairs. Technical evaluation result shows that on a flat surface it could move at the speed of around 39.9 m/minute without load and 32 m/minute with 80 kg load. At 10 degrees inclined surface, the maximum weight limit is 30 kg with the speed of 12 m/minute. At 20 degrees inclined surface, the maximum weight limit is 10 kg with the speed of 3 m/minute. Regarding cost, it is just a fraction of a cost compared to the commercially available model. Therefore, the developed wheelchair offers an option for potential users who cannot afford to buy the commercially available one.

  10. Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling in Wheelchair Racing Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Claudio; Wenger, Martin; Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2016-01-01

    In wheelchair racing, respiratory muscles of the rib cage are concomitantly involved in non-ventilatory functions during wheelchair propulsion. However, the relationship between locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC: the ratio between push and breathing frequency), respiratory parameters and work efficiency is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the LRC in wheelchair racers over different race distances. Eight trained and experienced wheelchair racers completed three time-trials over the distances of 400, 800, and 5000 m on a training roller in randomized order. During the time trials, ventilatory and gas exchange variables as well as push frequency were continuously registered to determine possible LRC strategies. Four different coupling ratios were identified, namely 1:1; 2:1, 3:1 as well as a 1:1/2:1 alternating type, respectively. The 2:1 coupling was the most dominant type. The 1:1/2:1 alternating coupling type was found predominantly during the 400 m time-trial. Longer race distances tended to result in an increased coupling ratio (e.g., from 1:1 toward 2:1), and an increase in coupling ratio toward a more efficient respiration was found over the 5000 m distance. A significant correlation (r = 0.80, p respiratory frequency and the respiratory equivalent for oxygen was found for the 400 m and the 800 m time-trials. These findings suggest that a higher coupling ratio indicates enhanced breathing work efficiency with a concomitant deeper and slower respiration during wheelchair racing. Thus, the selection of an appropriate LRC strategy may help to optimize wheelchair racing performance.

  11. Advanced mechanics in robotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nava Rodríguez, Nestor Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Illustrates original and ambitious mechanical designs and techniques for the development of new robot prototypes Includes numerous figures, tables and flow charts Discusses relevant applications in robotics fields such as humanoid robots, robotic hands, mobile robots, parallel manipulators and human-centred robots

  12. Real-time head movement system and embedded Linux implementation for the control of power wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H T; King, L M; Knight, G

    2004-01-01

    Mobility has become very important for our quality of life. A loss of mobility due to an injury is usually accompanied by a loss of self-confidence. For many individuals, independent mobility is an important aspect of self-esteem. Head movement is a natural form of pointing and can be used to directly replace the joystick whilst still allowing for similar control. Through the use of embedded LINUX and artificial intelligence, a hands-free head movement wheelchair controller has been designed and implemented successfully. This system provides for severely disabled users an effective power wheelchair control method with improved posture, ease of use and attractiveness.

  13. Experimental Studies of Wheelchair and Walker Users Passing Through Doors with Different Opening Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersveen, Jonny

    2016-01-01

    Users of walkers and users of different categories of wheelchairs tested doors with different opening force, aiming to reveal the limit that these groups of people could manage on an everyday basis. 94.7% of the wheelchair users reported that a door opening force of 30 N was acceptable, while as 92.1% of this group described 40 N as acceptable. Similarly, 100% of the walker users reported that a door opening force of 30 N was acceptable, while as 87,5% of this group described 40 N as acceptable.

  14. Infrared Non-Contact Head Sensor for Control of Wheelchair Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Vie; Garcia, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new human-machine interface for controlling a wheelchair by head movements. The position of the head is determined by use of infrared sensors, with no parts attached to the head of the user. The placement of the infrared sensors are behind the head of the user, so that the f......This paper presents a new human-machine interface for controlling a wheelchair by head movements. The position of the head is determined by use of infrared sensors, with no parts attached to the head of the user. The placement of the infrared sensors are behind the head of the user, so...

  15. Promoting Physical Activity Through a Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Intervention in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Ian M; Rice, Laura A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    To examine the efficacy and feasibility of a multifactorial intervention to increase lifestyle physical activity in nonambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) based on wheelchair optimization, propulsion skill/technique training, and behavioral strategies based on social cognitive theory. Randomized controlled trial, 3-month postintervention follow-up. Home and general community, and university research laboratory. Nonambulatory individuals with MS (N=14; mean age ± SD, 53.6±8.7y) were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). After baseline testing, the IG participants received custom-fit, ultralightweight manual wheelchairs with propulsion/skills training, followed by 3 months of at-home use with the custom ultralightweight wheelchair and weekly phone calls to deliver support through a multifactorial intervention. The CG participants received no training and used their own wheelchairs at home during this time. All subjects were assessed at baseline and 3 months later for fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), upper extremity strength (digital handheld dynamometer), and propulsion technique (on a treadmill [0.5m/s] with instrumented wheels). Two 1-week bouts of physical activity were measured in both groups from home with wrist-worn accelerometry at the beginning (IG and CG in own wheelchairs) and end (IG in study wheelchair, CG in own) of the 3-month period of home use. The intervention was well tolerated, and no adverse events were reported. The IG demonstrated increased strength (P=.008) and a trend toward less fatigue (P=.068), both with large effect sizes (d>0.8), as well as reduced application of braking torque during propulsion (P=.003) with a moderate/large effect size (d=.73), compared with the CG. Findings suggest a 3-month physical activity intervention based on manual wheelchair propulsion and training is safe and feasible for some wheelchair users living with MS and may produce secondary benefits in strength

  16. Robotics_MobileRobot Navigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots and rovers exploring planets need to autonomously navigate to specified locations. Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) and the University of Minnesota...

  17. Robots Social Embodiment in Autonomous Mobile Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Duffy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at demonstrating the inherent advantages of embracing a strong notion of social embodiment in designing a real-world robot control architecture with explicit ?intelligent? social behaviour between a collective of robots. It develops the current thinking on embodiment beyond the physical by demonstrating the importance of social embodiment. A social framework develops the fundamental social attributes found when more than one robot co-inhabit a physical space. The social metaphors of identity, character, stereotypes and roles are presented and implemented within a real-world social robot paradigm in order to facilitate the realisation of explicit social goals.

  18. Photodissociation of CH3CHO at 248 nm by time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy: Verification of roaming and triple fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kai-Chan; Tsai, Po-Yu; Li, Hou-Kuan; Lin, King-Chuen

    2014-02-01

    By using time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy, the HCO fragment dissociated from acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) at 248 nm is found to partially decompose to H and CO. The fragment yields are enhanced by the Ar addition that facilitates the collision-induced internal conversion. The channels to CH2CO + H2 and CH3CO + H are not detected significantly. The rotational population distribution of CO, after removing the Ar collision effect, shows a bimodal feature comprising both low- and high-rotational (J) components, sharing a fraction of 19% and 81%, respectively, for the vibrational state v = 1. The low-J component is ascribed to both roaming pathway and triple fragmentation. They are determined to have a branching ratio of 0.06, respectively, relative to the whole v = 1 population. The CO roaming is accompanied by a highly vibrational population of CH4 that yields a vibrational bimodality.

  19. Springer handbook of robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of this handbook provides a state-of-the-art cover view on the various aspects in the rapidly developing field of robotics. Reaching for the human frontier, robotics is vigorously engaged in the growing challenges of new emerging domains. Interacting, exploring, and working with humans, the new generation of robots will increasingly touch people and their lives. The credible prospect of practical robots among humans is the result of the scientific endeavour of a half a century of robotic developments that established robotics as a modern scientific discipline. The ongoing vibrant expansion and strong growth of the field during the last decade has fueled this second edition of the Springer Handbook of Robotics. The first edition of the handbook soon became a landmark in robotics publishing and won the American Association of Publishers PROSE Award for Excellence in Physical Sciences & Mathematics as well as the organization’s Award for Engineering & Technology. The second edition o...

  20. Project ROBOTICS 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    Mathematical modelling of Alto Robot, direct- and inverse kinematic transformation,simulation and path control applying MATLAB/SIMULINK.......Mathematical modelling of Alto Robot, direct- and inverse kinematic transformation,simulation and path control applying MATLAB/SIMULINK....

  1. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  2. CMS cavern inspection robot

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Robots which are immune to the CMS cavern environment, wirelessly controlled: -One actuated by smart materials (Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites and Macro Fiber Composites) -One regular brushed DC rover -One servo-driven rover -Stair-climbing robot

  3. A Comparative Study of Enumeration Techniques for Free-Roaming Dogs in Rural Baramati, District Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar Tiwari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of unvaccinated free-roaming dogs (FRD amidst human settlements is a major contributor to the high incidence of rabies in countries such as India, where the disease is endemic. Estimating FRD population size is crucial to the planning and evaluation of interventions, such as mass immunisation against rabies. Enumeration techniques for FRD are resource intensive and can vary from simple direct counts to statistically complex capture-recapture techniques primarily developed for ecological studies. In this study we compared eight capture-recapture enumeration methods (Lincoln–Petersen’s index, Chapman’s correction estimate, Beck’s method, Schumacher-Eschmeyer method, Regression method, Mark-resight logit normal method, Huggin’s closed capture models and Application SuperDuplicates on-line tool using direct count data collected from Shirsuphal village of Baramati town in Western India, to recommend a method which yields a reasonably accurate count to use for effective vaccination coverage against rabies with minimal resource inputs. A total of 263 unique dogs were sighted at least once over 6 observation occasions with no new dogs sighted on the 7th occasion. Besides this direct count, the methods that do not account for individual heterogeneity yielded population estimates in the range of 248–270, which likely underestimate the real FRD population size. Higher estimates were obtained using the Huggin’s Mh-Jackknife (437 ± 33, Huggin’s Mth-Chao (391 ± 26, Huggin’s Mh-Chao (385 ± 30, models and Application “SuperDuplicates” tool (392 ± 20 and were considered more robust. When the sampling effort was reduced to only two surveys, the Application SuperDuplicates online tool gave the closest estimate of 349 ± 36, which is 74% of the estimated highest population of free-roaming dogs in Shirsuphal village. This method may thus be considered the most reliable method for estimating the FRD population with

  4. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  5. Micro robot bible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin Yeong

    2000-08-01

    This book deals with micro robot, which tells of summary of robots like entertainment robots and definition of robots, introduction of micro mouse about history, composition and rules, summary of micro controller with its history, appearance and composition, introduction of stepping motor about types, structure, basic characteristics, and driving ways, summary of sensor section, power, understanding of 80C196KC micro controller, basic driving program searching a maze algorithm, smooth turn and making of tracer line.

  6. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program

  7. Two Legged Walking Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a two-legged wirelessly controlled walking robot. This paper describes the construction of the robot, its control electronics, and the solution of the wireless control. The article also includes a description of the application to control the robot. The control electronics of the walking robot are built using the development kit Arduino Mega, which is enhanced with WiFi module allowing the wireless control, a set of ultrasonic sensors for detecting obstacl...

  8. Micro robot bible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin Yeong

    2000-08-15

    This book deals with micro robot, which tells of summary of robots like entertainment robots and definition of robots, introduction of micro mouse about history, composition and rules, summary of micro controller with its history, appearance and composition, introduction of stepping motor about types, structure, basic characteristics, and driving ways, summary of sensor section, power, understanding of 80C196KC micro controller, basic driving program searching a maze algorithm, smooth turn and making of tracer line.

  9. Robots at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Graetz, Georg; Michaels, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Despite ubiquitous discussions of robots' potential impact, there is almost no systematic empirical evidence on their economic effects. In this paper we analyze for the first time the economic impact of industrial robots, using new data on a panel of industries in 17 countries from 1993-2007. We find that industrial robots increased both labor productivity and value added. Our panel identification is robust to numerous controls, and we find similar results instrumenting increased robot use wi...

  10. Robots in the Roses

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    2014-04 Robots in the Roses A CRUSER Sponsored Event. The 4th Annual Robots in the Roses provides a venue for Faculty & NPS Students to showcase unmanned systems research (current or completed) and recruit NPS Students to join in researching on your project. Posters, robots, vehicles, videos, and even just plain humans welcome! Families are welcome to attend Robots in the Roses as we'll have a STEM activity for children to participate in.

  11. Modular robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs

  12. The potential impact of intelligent power wheelchair use on social participation: perspectives of users, caregivers and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paula W; Kairy, Dahlia; Archambault, Philippe; Pituch, Evelina; Torkia, Caryne; El Fathi, Anas; Stone, Paula; Routhier, François; Forget, Robert; Pineau, Joelle; Gourdeau, Richard; Demers, Louise

    2015-05-01

    To explore power wheelchair users', caregivers' and clinicians' perspectives regarding the potential impact of intelligent power wheelchair use on social participation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with power wheelchair users (n = 12), caregivers (n = 4) and clinicians (n = 12). An illustrative video was used to facilitate discussion. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified based on the experiences of the power wheelchair users, caregivers and clinicians: (1) increased social participation opportunities, (2) changing how social participation is experienced and (3) decreased risk of accidents during social participation. Findings from this study suggest that an intelligent power wheelchair would enhance social participation in a variety of important ways, thereby providing support for continued design and development of this assistive technology. An intelligent power wheelchair has the potential to: Increase social participation opportunities by overcoming challenges associated with navigating through crowds and small spaces. Change how social participation is experienced through "normalizing" social interactions and decreasing the effort required to drive a power wheelchair. Decrease the risk of accidents during social participation by reducing the need for dangerous compensatory strategies and minimizing the impact of the physical environment.

  13. Relationship between linear velocity and tangential push force while turning to change the direction of the manual wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Lin, Yen-Sheng; Hogaboom, Nathan S; Wang, Lin-Hwa; Koontz, Alicia M

    2017-08-28

    Wheelchair propulsion is a major cause of upper limb pain and injuries for manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Few studies have investigated wheelchair turning biomechanics on natural ground surfaces. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tangential push force and linear velocity of the wheelchair during the turning portions of propulsion. Using an instrumented handrim, velocity and push force data were recorded for 25 subjects while they propel their own wheelchairs on a concrete floor along a figure-eight-shaped course at a maximum velocity. The braking force (1.03 N) of the inside wheel while turning was the largest of all other push forces (p<0.05). Larger changes in squared velocity while turning were significantly correlated with higher propulsive and braking forces used at the pre-turning, turning, and post-turning phases (p<0.05). Subjects with less change of velocity while turning needed less braking force to maneuver themselves successfully and safely around the turns. Considering the magnitude and direction of tangential force applied to the wheel, it seems that there are higher risks of injury and instability for upper limb joints when braking the inside wheel to turn. The results provide insight into wheelchair setup and mobility skills training for wheelchair users.

  14. A technique for the determination of center of gravity and rolling resistance for tilt-seat wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, E D; Lamontagne, M; Barclay, H W; John, T; Martel, G

    1991-01-01

    A balance platform setup was defined for use in the determination of the center of gravity in the sagittal plane for a wheelchair and patient. Using the center of gravity information, measurements from the wheelchair and patient (weight, tire coefficients of friction), and various assumptions (constant speed, level-concrete surface, patient-wheelchair system is a rigid body), a method for estimating the rolling resistance for a wheelchair was outlined. The center of gravity and rolling resistance techniques were validated against criterion values (center of gravity error = 1 percent, rolling resistance root mean square error = 0.33 N, rolling resistance Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.995). Consistent results were also obtained from a test dummy and five subjects. Once the center of gravity is known, it is possible to evaluate the stability of a wheelchair (in terms of tipping over) and the interaction between the level of stability and rolling resistance. These quantitative measures are expected to be of use in the setup of wheelchairs with a variable seat angle and variable wheelbase length or when making comparisons between different wheelchairs.

  15. The effect of shaped wheelchair cushion and lumbar supports on under-seat pressure, comfort, and pelvic rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Kersti; Björk, Maarit; Erdugan, Ann-Marie; Hansson, Anna-Karin; Rustner, Birgitta

    2009-09-01

    A wheelchair seat and position help clients perform daily activities. The comfort of the wheelchair can encourage clients to participate in daily activities and can help prevent future complications. This study evaluates how a shaped seat-cushion and two different back supports affect under-seat pressure, comfort, and pelvic rotation. Thirty healthy subjects were tested using two differently equipped manual wheelchairs. One wheelchair had a Velcro adjustable back seat and a plane seat-cushion. The other wheelchair had a non-adjustable sling-back seat and a plane cushion. The second wheelchair was also equipped with a shaped cushion and/or a detachable lumbar support. Under-seat pressure, estimated comfort, and pelvic rotation were measured after 10 min in each wheelchair outfit. Peak pressure increased with the shaped cushion compared to the plane cushion. No significant difference in estimated comfort was found. Pelvic posterior-rotation was reduced with the adjustable or detachable back-support irrespective of the shape of the seat cushion. To support a neutral pelvic position and spinal curvature, a combination of a shaped cushion and a marked lumbar support is most effective.

  16. Speech-Based Human and Service Robot Interaction: An Application for Mexican Dysarthric People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Omar Caballero Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder due to weakness or poor coordination of the speech muscles. This condition can be caused by a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or by a degenerative neurological disease. Commonly, people with this disorder also have muscular dystrophy, which restricts their use of switches or keyboards for communication or control of assistive devices (i.e., an electric wheelchair or a service robot. In this case, speech recognition is an attractive alternative for interaction and control of service robots, despite the difficulty of achieving robust recognition performance. In this paper we present a speech recognition system for human and service robot interaction for Mexican Spanish dysarthric speakers. The core of the system consisted of a Speaker Adaptive (SA recognition system trained with normal-speech. Features such as on-line control of the language model perplexity and the adding of vocabulary, contribute to high recognition performance. Others, such as assessment and text-to-speech (TTS synthesis, contribute to a more complete interaction with a service robot. Live tests were performed with two mild dysarthric speakers, achieving recognition accuracies of 90–95% for spontaneous speech and 95–100% of accomplished simulated service robot tasks.

  17. Robot 2015 : Second Iberian Robotics Conference : Advances in Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreira, António; Lima, Pedro; Montano, Luis; Muñoz-Martinez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers accepted for presentation and discussion at ROBOT 2015: Second Iberian Robotics Conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, November 19th-21th, 2015. ROBOT 2015 is part of a series of conferences that are a joint organization of SPR – “Sociedade Portuguesa de Robótica/ Portuguese Society for Robotics”, SEIDROB – Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo de la Robótica/ Spanish Society for Research and Development in Robotics and CEA-GTRob – Grupo Temático de Robótica/ Robotics Thematic Group. The conference organization had also the collaboration of several universities and research institutes, including: University of Minho, University of Porto, University of Lisbon, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, University of Aveiro, University of Zaragoza, University of Malaga, LIACC, INESC-TEC and LARSyS. Robot 2015 was focussed on the Robotics scientific and technological activities in the Iberian Peninsula, although open to research and delegates from other...

  18. Human-machine interfaces based on EMG and EEG applied to robotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarcinelli-Filho Mario

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two different Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs were developed, both based on electro-biological signals. One is based on the EMG signal and the other is based on the EEG signal. Two major features of such interfaces are their relatively simple data acquisition and processing systems, which need just a few hardware and software resources, so that they are, computationally and financially speaking, low cost solutions. Both interfaces were applied to robotic systems, and their performances are analyzed here. The EMG-based HMI was tested in a mobile robot, while the EEG-based HMI was tested in a mobile robot and a robotic manipulator as well. Results Experiments using the EMG-based HMI were carried out by eight individuals, who were asked to accomplish ten eye blinks with each eye, in order to test the eye blink detection algorithm. An average rightness rate of about 95% reached by individuals with the ability to blink both eyes allowed to conclude that the system could be used to command devices. Experiments with EEG consisted of inviting 25 people (some of them had suffered cases of meningitis and epilepsy to test the system. All of them managed to deal with the HMI in only one training session. Most of them learnt how to use such HMI in less than 15 minutes. The minimum and maximum training times observed were 3 and 50 minutes, respectively. Conclusion Such works are the initial parts of a system to help people with neuromotor diseases, including those with severe dysfunctions. The next steps are to convert a commercial wheelchair in an autonomous mobile vehicle; to implement the HMI onboard the autonomous wheelchair thus obtained to assist people with motor diseases, and to explore the potentiality of EEG signals, making the EEG-based HMI more robust and faster, aiming at using it to help individuals with severe motor dysfunctions.

  19. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  20. Open middleware for robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namoshe, M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available and their technologies within the field of multi-robot systems to ease the difficulty of realizing robot applications. And lastly, an example of algorithm development for multi-robot co-operation using one of the discussed software architecture is presented...

  1. Learning robotics using Python

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Lentin

    2015-01-01

    If you are an engineer, a researcher, or a hobbyist, and you are interested in robotics and want to build your own robot, this book is for you. Readers are assumed to be new to robotics but should have experience with Python.

  2. Robots de servicio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aracil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El término Robots de Servicio apareció a finales de los años 80 como una necesidad de desarrollar máquinas y sistemas capaces de trabajar en entornos diferentes a los fabriles. Los Robots de Servicio tenían que poder trabajar en entornos noestructurados, en condiciones ambientales cambiantes y con una estrecha interacción con los humanos. En 1995 fue creado por la IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, el Technical Committee on Service Robots, y este comité definió en el año 2000 las áreas de aplicación de los Robots de Servicios, que se pueden dividir en dos grandes grupos: 1 sectores productivos no manufactureros tales como edificación, agricultura, naval, minería, medicina, etc. y 2 sectores de servicios propiamente dichos: asistencia personal, limpieza, vigilancia, educación, entretenimiento, etc. En este trabajo se hace una breve revisión de los principales conceptos y aplicaciones de los robots de servicio. Palabras clave: Robots de servicio, robots autónomos, robots de exteriores, robots de educación y entretenimiento, robots caminantes y escaladores, robots humanoides

  3. Beyond Speculative Robot Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Van der Plas, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we develop a dialogue model for robot technology experts and designated users to discuss visions on the future of robotics in long-term care. Our vision assessment study aims for more distinguished and more informed visions on future robots. Surprisingly, our experiment also lead to

  4. Robotic hand and fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  5. External And Internal Work Of A T-6 Paraplegic Propelling A Wheelchair And Arm Cranking A Cycle Ergometer: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Charles W.

    1982-02-01

    In this, the International Year of the Disabled, attention is directed among other areas toward rehabilitation and sports participation of wheelchair users. As an application of movement analysis in medicine and rehabilitation and as an application of sports research using biomechanics, this investigation was performed to compare the results of two methods of gathering data on the stress of wheelchair propelling at equivalent work loads and to account for differences in physiological responses with a mechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling. Physiological data collected were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate-pressure product. A biomechanical cinematography analysis was used to determine external work in wheelchair propelling and to determine the extent to which modifications in segment actionsoccurred during increasing magnitude of work. A cycle ergometer was adjusted to replicate external work loads performed during wheelchair propelling. A t-test of equivalent external work loads indicated that heart rate was not different between the two exercise modes at the .05 level of significance. The t-test did indicate a significant difference in systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product at the .05 level of significance. The biomechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling established that an increase in external work was accomplished by a decrease in the range of motion and an increase in the speed of movement. During cycle ergometry the range and speed of movement remained the same while resistance was increased. Results of the study established that while heart rate for equivalent external work loads was the same for wheelchair propelling and arm cranking cycle ergometry, systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product were not the same. The suggestion was that some means of propelling a wheelchair other than that which is con-sidered "standard" might be considered which produces less stressful responses in wheelchair users.

  6. Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Moore, Jamie L; MacWilliams, Joel B

    2010-04-01

    In-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes involve detailed inspection, measurement, and photodocumentation of vehicle exterior and interior damage, evidence of belt-restraint use, and evidence of occupant contacts with the vehicle interior. Results of in-depth investigations thereby provide the most objective way to identify current and emerging injury problems and issues in occupant safety and crash protection, and provide important feedback on the real-world performance of the latest restraint-system and vehicle crashworthiness technologies. To provide an objective understanding of real-world transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers, the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) has been conducting and assembling data from in-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes and non-crash adverse moving-vehicle incidents, such as emergency vehicle braking, turning, and swerving, in which there was at least one vehicle occupant sitting in a wheelchair. The results of 39 investigations involving 42 wheelchair-seated occupants have been assembled and entered into a wheelchair-occupant crash/injury database. In addition, a biomechanical analysis of each case has been performed to identify key safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers. The wheelchairs of 34 of the 42 occupants who were seated in wheelchairs while traveling in motor vehicles were effectively secured by either a four-point, strap-type tiedown system or a docking securement device, and all but one of these properly secured wheelchairs remained in place during the crash or non-collision event. However, 30 of the 42 occupants were improperly restrained, either because of non-use or incomplete use of available belt restraints, or because the belt restraints were improperly positioned on the occupant's body. Twenty-six of the 42 occupants sustained significant injuries and 10 of these occupants died as a direct result of injuries sustained, or from

  7. Reducing risk of pressure sores: effects of watch prompts and alarm avoidance on wheelchair push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G W; Mathews, R M; Fawcett, S B

    1989-01-01

    People who use wheelchairs are at risk for developing pressure sores. Regular pressure relief, in the form of a wheelchair push-up, is one way to reduce the likelihood of pressure sores. We examined the effects of antecedent (i.e., instructions, audible prompts) and consequent (i.e., alarm avoidance) events on wheelchair push-ups, using a multiple baseline analysis with 2 participants with spina bifida. Results suggest that the combined procedure was more effective than either antecedent or consequent events alone, and there is some evidence suggesting maintenance of effects over time. PMID:2793635

  8. A Modeling Framework to Investigate the Radial Component of the Pushrim Force in Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of tangential to total pushrim force, the so-called Fraction Effective Force (FEF, has been used to evaluate wheelchair propulsion efficiency based on the fact that only the tangential component of the force on the pushrim contributes to actual wheelchair propulsion. Experimental studies, however, consistently show low FEF values and recent experimental as well as modelling investigations have conclusively shown that a more tangential pushrim force direction can lead to a decrease and not increase in propulsion efficiency. This study aims at quantifying the contributions of active, inertial and gravitational forces to the normal pushrim component. In order to achieve this goal, an inverse dynamics-based framework is proposed to estimate individual contributions to the pushrim forces using a model of the wheelchair-user system. The results show that the radial pushrim force component arise to a great extent due to purely mechanical effects, including inertial and gravitational forces. These results corroborate previous findings according to which radial pushrim force components are not necessarily a result of inefficient propulsion strategies or hand-rim friction requirements. This study proposes a novel framework to quantify the individual contributions of active, inertial and gravitational forces to pushrim forces during wheelchair propulsion.

  9. Intelligent power wheelchair use in long-term care: potential users' experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paula W; Mortenson, Ben W; Viswanathan, Pooja; Wang, Rosalie H; Miller, William C; Hurd Clarke, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residents with cognitive impairments frequently experience limited mobility and participation in preferred activities. Although a power wheelchair could mitigate some of these mobility and participation challenges, this technology is often not prescribed for this population due to safety concerns. An intelligent power wheelchair (IPW) system represents a potential intervention that could help to overcome these concerns. The purpose of this study was to explore a) how residents experienced an IPW that used three different modes of control and b) what perceived effect the IPW would have on their daily lives. We interviewed 10 LTC residents with mild or moderate cognitive impairment twice, once before and once after testing the IPW. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim for thematic analyses. Our analyses identified three overarching themes: (1) the difference an IPW would make, (2) the potential impact of the IPW on others and (3) IPW-related concerns. Findings from this study confirm the need for and potential benefits of IPW use in LTC. Future studies will involve testing IPW improvements based on feedback and insights from this study. Implications for rehabilitation Intelligent power wheelchairs may enhance participation and improve safety and feelings of well-being for long-term care residents with cognitive impairments. Intelligent power wheelchairs could potentially have an equally positive impact on facility staff, other residents, and family and friends by decreasing workload and increasing safety.

  10. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Hansen, Sabrina S.; Hansen, Line S.

    Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). Larsen CM1,2; Hansen SS2; Hansen LH2; Bruun P1; Juul-Kristensen B1,3. 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark. 2Health Sciences Research...

  11. Effects of Offense, Defense, and Ball Possession on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Berger, Monique A. M.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Veeger, Dirkjan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine to what extent mobility performance is influenced by offensive or defensive situations and ball possession and to what extent these actions are different for the field positions. From video analysis, the relative duration of the various wheelchair movements

  12. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  13. Wheelchair pushrim kinetics measurement: A method to cancel inaccuracies due to pushrim weight and wheel camber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénier, Félix; Aissaoui, Rachid; Gauthier, Cindy; Gagnon, Dany H

    2017-02-01

    The commercially available SmartWheel TM is largely used in research and increasingly used in clinical practice to measure the forces and moments applied on the wheelchair pushrims by the user. However, in some situations (i.e. cambered wheels or increased pushrim weight), the recorded kinetics may include dynamic offsets that affect the accuracy of the measurements. In this work, an automatic method to identify and cancel these offsets is proposed and tested. First, the method was tested on an experimental bench with different cambers and pushrim weights. Then, the method was generalized to wheelchair propulsion. Nine experienced wheelchair users propelled their own wheelchairs instrumented with two SmartWheels with anti-slip pushrim covers. The dynamic offsets were correctly identified using the propulsion acquisition, without needing a separate baseline acquisition. A kinetic analysis was performed with and without dynamic offset cancellation using the proposed method. The most altered kinetic variables during propulsion were the vertical and total forces, with errors of up to 9N (p<0.001, large effect size of 5). This method is simple to implement, fully automatic and requires no further acquisitions. Therefore, we advise to use it systematically to enhance the accuracy of existing and future kinetic measurements. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A depressurization assistance control based on the posture of a seated patient on a wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugo, Daisuke; Fujita, Kazuya; Sakaida, Yuki; Yokota, Sho; Takase, Kunikatsu

    2011-01-01

    For reducing the risk of pressure sore caused by long period sitting on a wheelchair, we develop a depressurization motion assistance system which is low cost and suitable for practical use. Our developing system consists of a seating cushion which the patient sits on and four air cells which can lift or incline the seating cushion. Each air cell is actuated by small air compressor, which can drive using batteries on the wheelchair respectively, and each compressor has a pressure sensor on its body. In this paper, our key ideas are two topics. One topic is mechanical design for practical use. We realize thin mechanism which enables easy implementation to the general wheelchair. For realizing this thinly design, we develop the tilt mechanism using elasticity of acrylic resin and the controller which uses only pressure sensors for estimating its lifting height and inclination. The other topic is assistance control scheme based on the patient's depressurization operation for increasing a rehabilitation performance. For realizing the proposed control scheme, we analyze the hip depressurization operation by the nursing specialists and use its results for estimating the patient's condition. Using our system, the patient can depressurize by his own will on the general wheelchair easily. The performance of our system is verified by experiments using our prototype. © 2011 IEEE

  15. Hand-Rim Forces and Gross Mechanical Efficiency in Asynchronous and Synchronous Wheelchair Propulsion : A Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenton, J. P.; Fowler, N.; Nicholson, G.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.; van der Woude, Lucas

    To compare the force application characteristics at various push frequencies of asynchronous (ASY) and synchronous (SYN) hand-rim propulsion, 8 able-bodied participants performed a separate sub-maximal exercise test on a wheelchair roller ergometer for each propulsion mode. Each test consisted of a

  16. Wheelchair exercise capacity in spinal cord injury up to five years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W. M.; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; Spijkerman, Dorien; Faber, Willemijn X. M.; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To elucidate the course and determinants of wheelchair exercise capacity in spinal cord injury up to 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and to describe loss to follow-up. Design: Prospective cohort study, with measurements at the start and discharge from inpatient

  17. Assistive Technology and specific care in the granting of wheelchairs in Rio Grande do Norte state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Cabral Galvão

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Orthesis and Prosthesis Grant Program from Rio Grande do Norte State was restructured by a team of occupational and physical therapists specialized in Assistive Technology. The sector has a showroom for the equipment, prepares prescriptions, and makes deliveries after individual assessment made by the team. The work is developed in conjunction with orthopedic workshop technicians to adjust and adapt the wheelchairs when necessary. Social workers guide and follow the bureaucratic processes of documentation and purchasing, which allows the handing in of wheelchairs throughout the year. This program is considered distinctive compared to programs from other states. In this work, a study was conducted to characterize the demand for locomotion assistance devices, such as wheelchairs, and describe the delivery and acquisition process of the Orthesis and Prosthesis Grant Program from Rio Grande do Norte State. The study was carried out after analyzing and correlating information on the wheelchair delivery process in the past three years. A discussion on the organizational structure, operation, and acquisition facilities of this program is presented in order to promote the social inclusion of people with special needs.

  18. The Relationship between Wheelchair Mobility Patterns and Community Participation among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rory A.; Ferretti, Eliana; Oyster, Michelle; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rosemarie

    2011-01-01

    Participation is considered the most meaningful outcome of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were correlations between wheelchair activity recorded with a data logger and community participation as measured by the Participation Survey/Mobility. Data from 16 participants were included in this study. Data…

  19. Assessment of Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Wheelchair Movement in a Child with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Kahng, SungWoo; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Sveinsdottir, Ingibjorg; Sadler, Christine

    2003-01-01

    An adolescent with developmental disabilities who used a wheelchair was anecdotally observed to display little aggressive behavior when being pushed, but higher rates when movement was terminated. A functional analysis confirmed the elevated aggression and the child was taught to request movement through appropriate means. Aggression decreased…

  20. Anaerobic power output and propulsion technique in spinal cord injured subjects during wheelchair ergometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A J; Kappe, Y J; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Janssen, T W; van der Woude, L H

    1994-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the level of the spinal cord injury (SCI) on anaerobic or short-term power production and propulsion technique, 23 male SCI subjects performed a 30-second sprint test on a stationary wheelchair ergometer. Kinematic parameters were studied both inter- and