Khatib, Oussama
2014-01-01
The topics addressed in this book cover the whole range of kinematic analysis, synthesis and design and consider robotic systems possessing serial, parallel and cable driven mechanisms. The robotic systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained. The fifty-six contributions report the latest results in robot kinematics with emphasis on emerging areas such as design and control of humanoids or humanoid subsystems. The book is of interest to researchers wanting to bring their knowledge up to date regarding modern topics in one of the basic disciplines in robotics, which relates to the essential property of robots, the motion of mechanisms.
Claudiu Pozna
2007-08-01
Full Text Available The present paper intention is to develop a kinematical foundation for our nextworks in industrial robots (IR modular design. The goal of this works is todevelop cheap and improved robots which are adapted to the costumer needs. Inorder to achieve the mentioned goal, in [43], we have started a bibliographicalresearch of the main modular design aspects. The mentioned analyze of the actualresults in modular robots design gives us the possibility to establish our researchprogram. The idea of this paper is to develop a kinematical formalism which willbe use in the next dedicated to this subject.
Latest Advances in Robot Kinematics
Husty, Manfred
2012-01-01
This book is of interest to researchers inquiring about modern topics and methods in the kinematics, control and design of robotic manipulators. It considers the full range of robotic systems, including serial, parallel and cable driven manipulators, both planar and spatial. The systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained. In addition to recognized areas, this book also presents recent advances in emerging areas such as the design and control of humanoids and humanoid subsystems, and the analysis, modeling and simulation of human body motions, as well as the mobility analysis of protein molecules and the development of machines which incorporate man.
A Novel Algorithm for the Generation of Distinct Kinematic Chain
Medapati, Sreenivasa Reddy; Kuchibhotla, Mallikarjuna Rao; Annambhotla, Balaji Srinivasa Rao
2016-07-01
Generation of distinct kinematic chains is an important topic in the design of mechanisms for various industrial applications i.e., robotic manipulator, tractor, crane etc. Many researchers have intently focused on this area and explained various processes of generating distinct kinematic chains which are laborious and complex. It is desirable to enumerate the kinematic chains systematically to know the inherent characteristics of a chain related to its structure so that all the distinct chains can be analyzed in depth, prior to the selection of a chain for a purpose. This paper proposes a novel and simple method with set of rules defined to eliminate isomorphic kinematic chains generating distinct kinematic chains. Also, this method simplifies the process of generating distinct kinematic chains even at higher levels i.e., 10-link, 11-link with single and multiple degree of freedom.
Direct Kinematic modeling of 6R Robot using Robotics Toolbox
Prashant Badoni
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The traditional approaches are insufficient to solve the complex kinematics problems of the redundant robotic manipulators. To overcome such intricacy, Peter Corke’s Robotics Toolbox [1] is utilized in the present study. This paper aims to model the direct kinematics of a 6 degree of freedom (DOF Robotic arm. The Toolbox uses the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH Methodology [2] to compute the kinematic model of the robot.
Direct Kinematic modeling of 6R Robot using Robotics Toolbox
Prashant Badoni
2016-01-01
The traditional approaches are insufficient to solve the complex kinematics problems of the redundant robotic manipulators. To overcome such intricacy, Peter Corke’s Robotics Toolbox [1] is utilized in the present study. This paper aims to model the direct kinematics of a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) Robotic arm. The Toolbox uses the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) Methodology [2] to compute the kinematic model of the robot.
Automated kinematic generator for surgical robotic systems.
Jung, David L; Dixon, Warren E; Pin, François G
2004-01-01
Unlike traditional assembly line robotic systems that have a fixed kinematic structure associated with a single tool for a structured task, next-generation robotic surgical assist systems will be required to use an array of end-effector tools. Once a robot is connected with a tool, the kinematic equations of motion are altered. Given the need to accommodate evolving surgical challenges and to alleviate the restrictions imposed by the confined minimally invasive environment, new surgical tools may resemble small flexible snakes rather than rigid, cable driven instruments. Connecting to these developing articulated tools will significantly alter the overall kinematic structure of a robotic system. In this paper we present a technique for real-time automated generation and evaluation of manipulator kinematic equations that exhibits the combined advantages of existing methods-speed and flexibility to kinematic change--without their disadvantages.
张铁; 应灿; 翟敬梅
2013-01-01
With the development of welding automation,multi-robot collaborative welding has become a research hotspot in the field of welding robots.In this paper,based on the coupling and decoupling idea of kinematic chain ends,a robot workstation is regarded as the combination of several open kinematic chains connected with joints,the general constraints that must be satisfied by the kinematic chain ends in the welding process are analyzed,and the coupling/decoupling method of master/slave kinematic chains is explored.Thus,a collaborative welding algorithm of robot workstation is proposed.In this algorithm,the kinematic chain for grasping weldments is taken as the main chain and the discrete points of welding seam are successively replaced and adjusted to the optimal welding pose, while the other kinematic chains are responsible for the tracking of current discrete points of the welding seam.Mo-reover,by taking a dual-welding robot workstation with one positioner as an example,the effectiveness of the pro-posed algorithm is verified through simulation.%随着焊接自动化进程的不断推进，多机器人协同焊接作业成为了焊接机器人领域的研究热点。文中基于运动链末端耦合与解耦的思想，将机器人工作站视为若干条通过关节连接而成的开式运动链的组合，通过分析各运动链末端在协同焊接过程中必须满足的通用约束，研究机器人工作站中各主/从运动链的耦合与解耦方法，进而提出了一种机器人工作站协同焊接算法。该算法以负责夹持焊件的运动链为主运动链，使焊缝离散点依次更替并调整到最佳焊接位姿，其他运动链末端跟踪当前焊缝离散点。文中还以变位双焊接机器人工作站为例，通过仿真验证了所提出的协同焊接算法的有效性。
The Maiden Voyage of a Kinematics Robot
Greenwolfe, Matthew L.
2015-04-01
In a Montessori preschool classroom, students work independently on tasks that absorb their attention in part because the apparatus are carefully designed to make mistakes directly observable and limit exploration to one aspect or dimension. Control of error inheres in the apparatus itself, so that teacher intervention can be minimal.1 Inspired by this example, I created a robotic kinematics apparatus that also shapes the inquiry experience. Students program the robot by drawing kinematic graphs on a computer and then observe its motion. Exploration is at once limited to constant velocity and constant acceleration motion, yet open to complex multi-segment examples difficult to achieve in the lab in other ways. The robot precisely and reliably produces the motion described by the students' graphs, so that the apparatus itself provides immediate visual feedback about whether their understanding is correct as they are free to explore within the hard-coded limits. In particular, the kinematic robot enables hands-on study of multi-segment constant velocity situations, which lays a far stronger foundation for the study of accelerated motion. When correction is anonymous—just between one group of lab partners and their robot—students using the kinematic robot tend to flow right back to work because they view the correction as an integral part of the inquiry learning process. By contrast, when correction occurs by the teacher and/or in public (e.g., returning a graded assignment or pointing out student misconceptions during class), students all too often treat the event as the endpoint to inquiry. Furthermore, quantitative evidence shows a large gain from pre-test to post-test scores using the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K).
Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator
Ikhsan Eka Prasetia
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desired position by Denso robot manipulator. Forward kinematics produce the desired position by the end-effector. Inverse kinematics produce joint angle, where the inverse kinematics produce eight conditions obtained from closed form solution with geometry approach to reach the desired position by the end-effector.
Generic robotic kinematic generator for virtual environment interfaces
Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Piguet, Laurent; Baur, Charles
1996-12-01
The expansion of robotic systems' performance, as well as the need for such machines to work in complex environments (hazardous, small, distant, etc.), involves the need for user interfaces which permit efficient teleoperation. Virtual Reality based interfaces provide the user with a new method for robot task planning and control: he or she can define tasks in a very intuitive way by interacting with a 3D computer generated representation of the world, which is continuously updated thanks to multiple sensors fusion and analysis. The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has successfully tested different kinds of teleoperations. In the early 90s, a transatlantic teleoperation of a conventional robot manipulator with a vision feedback system to update the virtual world was achieved. This approach was then extended to perform teleoperation of several mobile robots (Khepera, Koala) as well as to control microrobots used for microsystems' assembly in the micrometer range. One of the problems encountered with such an approach is the necessity to program a specific kinematic algorithm for each kind of manipulator. To provide a more general solution, we started a project aiming at the design of a 'kinematic generator' (CINEGEN) for the simulation of generic serial and parallel mechanical chains. With CINEGEN, each manipulator is defined with an ascii file description and its attached graphics files; inserting a new manipulator simply requires a new description file, and none of the existing tools require modification. To have a real time behavior, we have chosen a numerical method based on the pseudo-Jacobian method to generate the inverse kinematics of the robot. The results obtained with an object-oriented implementation on a graphic workstation are presented in this paper.
Kinematics analysis of a robotic rock grinder
无
2007-01-01
With the aim to discover water, life and resources in other planets, robotic sampling instrument is a crucial part of the space exploration robot. To remove dusty and weathered surfaces and expose the fresh rock underneath the planetary surface, a robotic rock grinder is considered to replace the geologist's rock hammer to carry out the geological investigation. A primary prototype of the robotic rock grinder with three degrees of freedom has been developed in this paper. Planetary transmission system is used in the grinding driving system with two inputs (rotation motor and revolution motor) and two outputs (grinding wheel and cutting brush). The grinding wheel with two teeth has been used to abrade the rock. The cutting brush is used to sweep the debris. The third actuator is to feed the grinding system. Kinematics of the grinding system has been analyzed. To get a continuous and smooth fresh face over the rock, grinding trajectory of the grinding wheel has been discussed and planned. Lastly, abrasion experiments have been made to testify the feasibility and the basic function of this system.
Identifying the Isomorphism of Kinematic Chains
Romaniak Krystyna
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Identification of isomorphic kinematic chains is one of the key issues in researching the structure of mechanisms. As a result the structures which duplicate are eliminated and further research is carried out on kinematic chains that do not duplicate. This dilemma has been taken up by many scholars who have come up with a variety of ideas how to solve it. The review of the methods for identifying the isomorphism of kinematic chains suggested by researchers is contained in this study, including Hamming Number Technique, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, perimeter graphs, dividing and matching vertices. The spectrum of methods applied to the issue of identifying the iso-morphism of mechanisms reflects the researchers’ efforts to obtain a precise result in the shortest time possible.
Differential Kinematics Of Contemporary Industrial Robots
Szkodny T.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a simple method of avoiding singular configurations of contemporary industrial robot manipulators of such renowned companies as ABB, Fanuc, Mitsubishi, Adept, Kawasaki, COMAU and KUKA. To determine the singular configurations of these manipulators a global form of description of the end-effector kinematics was prepared, relative to the other links. On the basis of this description , the formula for the Jacobian was defined in the end-effector coordinates. Next, a closed form of the determinant of the Jacobian was derived. From the formula, singular configurations, where the determinant’s value equals zero, were determined. Additionally, geometric interpretations of these configurations were given and they were illustrated. For the exemplary manipulator, small corrections of joint variables preventing the reduction of the Jacobian order were suggested. An analysis of positional errors, caused by these corrections, was presented
FORWARD KINEMATICS ANALYSIS OF 6-DOF ARC WELDING ROBOT
DR. ANURAG VERMA
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The forward kinematics problem is concerned with the relationship between the individual joints of the robot manipulator and the position and orientation of the tool or end-effector. Stated more formally, the forward kinematics problem is to determine the position and orientation of the end-effector, given the values for the jointvariables of the robot. Present work is an attempt to develop kinematic model of a 6 DOF robot which is used for arc welding operation. Developed model will determine position and orientation of the end-effector with respect to various joint variables. The said analysis is carried out in Matlab.
A New Topological Description Method of Kinematic Chain
Ding Huafeng; Huang Zhen; Cao Yi
2004-01-01
This paper presents a novel method for the description of kinematic chains, namely the canonical description of kinematic chains including the synthetic degree-sequences and the canonical adjacency matrices sets of kinematic chains. The most important characteristic of this new description method is its uniqueness. Based on the new principle the isomorphism identification becomes easy and the structures of all kinds of kinematic chains can be stored in computer for the benefits of the realization of automation and intelligence of machine design.
New Methods for Kinematic Modelling and Calibration of Robots
Søe-Knudsen, Rune
2014-01-01
the functionality of an non-calibrated robot when the robot's physical structure changes due to repairs. In order to improve the robot's accuracy, we have also analysed the encoder and introduced a self-calibration method to identify and compensate for encoder eccentricity in joints of the robot. This dissertation......Improving a robot's accuracy increases its ability to solve certain tasks, and is therefore valuable. Practical ways of achieving this improved accuracy, even after robot repair, is also valuable. In this work, we introduce methods that improve the robot's accuracy and make it possible to maintain...... the accuracy in an easy and accessible way. The required equipment is accessible, since the cost is held to a minimum and can be made with conventional processing equipment. Our first method calibrates the kinematics of a robot using known relative positions measured with the robot itself and a plate...
Nozzle Mounting Method Optimization Based on Robot Kinematic Analysis
Chen, Chaoyue; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain; Deng, Sihao
2016-08-01
Nowadays, the application of industrial robots in thermal spray is gaining more and more importance. A desired coating quality depends on factors such as a balanced robot performance, a uniform scanning trajectory and stable parameters (e.g. nozzle speed, scanning step, spray angle, standoff distance). These factors also affect the mass and heat transfer as well as the coating formation. Thus, the kinematic optimization of all these aspects plays a key role in order to obtain an optimal coating quality. In this study, the robot performance was optimized from the aspect of nozzle mounting on the robot. An optimized nozzle mounting for a type F4 nozzle was designed, based on the conventional mounting method from the point of view of robot kinematics validated on a virtual robot. Robot kinematic parameters were obtained from the simulation by offline programming software and analyzed by statistical methods. The energy consumptions of different nozzle mounting methods were also compared. The results showed that it was possible to reasonably assign the amount of robot motion to each axis during the process, so achieving a constant nozzle speed. Thus, it is possible optimize robot performance and to economize robot energy.
CONTINUATION METHOD APPLIED IN KINEMATICS OF PARALLEL ROBOT
董滨; 张祥德
2001-01-01
Continuation method solving forward kinematics problem of parallel robot was discussed. And through a coefficient-parameter continuation method the efficiency and feasibility of continuation method were improved. Using this method all forward solutions of a new parallel robot model which was put forward lately by Robot Open Laboratory of Science Institute of China were obtained. Therefore it provided the basis of mechanism analysis and real-time control for new model.
Generation of closed-form inverse kinematics for reconfigurable robots
Jie ZHAO; Weizhong WANG; Yongsheng GAO; Hegao CAI
2008-01-01
For reconfigurable robots, the automatic gen-eration of inverse kinematics is a key problem, because such robots may assume various configurations. In this paper, the screw and product-of-exponentials (POE) formula are used to model the kinematics of reconfigurable robots. The POE formula can be converted to canonical subproblems through decomposition and adjoint transfor-mation. Three classes and 28 types of subproblems containing geometric or algebraic solutions are identified and solved, which can be reused in different configurations. A generalized, decomposable, and reusable approach for close-form inverse kinematics of reconfigurable robots is developed based on POE and subproblems. The effective-ness of this method is shown in an example.
杨改云; 郭长江
2001-01-01
A new solution for inverse kinematics equation of 6 DOF robotic manipulator wi th local closed chain is presented. It is based on the D-H model and doesnt n eed to change the coordinates of manipulator and effector. Additionally it avoid s much inverse matrices multiplication in the course of deduction. So it is simp le and suitable for simulation and control.%给出了机器人逆运动问题中六自由度局部闭链操作臂逆运动方程的一种新解法．该 方法是基于D-H方法模型，在求解中只需一次逆乘，不需要对操作臂末端位姿进行坐标变换 ，避免了大量的逆矩阵相乘运算，便于编程和控制．
Real time markerless motion tracking using linked kinematic chains
Luck, Jason P.; Small, Daniel E.
2007-08-14
A markerless method is described for tracking the motion of subjects in a three dimensional environment using a model based on linked kinematic chains. The invention is suitable for tracking robotic, animal or human subjects in real-time using a single computer with inexpensive video equipment, and does not require the use of markers or specialized clothing. A simple model of rigid linked segments is constructed of the subject and tracked using three dimensional volumetric data collected by a multiple camera video imaging system. A physics based method is then used to compute forces to align the model with subsequent volumetric data sets in real-time. The method is able to handle occlusion of segments and accommodates joint limits, velocity constraints, and collision constraints and provides for error recovery. The method further provides for elimination of singularities in Jacobian based calculations, which has been problematic in alternative methods.
PRINCIPLE,CONSTRUCTION AND KINEMATIC ANALYSIS FOR THE OMNIDIRECTIONAL MOBILE ROBOT--ICE-SKATER ROBOT
宋立博; 吕恬生; 费燕琼; 袁池
2002-01-01
Three main basic types of locomotion for a mobile robot were introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of a legged mobile robot, a wheeled mobile robot and an articulated mobile robot were also discussed. A new type of leg-wheeled mobile robot was introduced which combines the adaptability of legged robot with the stability of wheeled robot. On the basis of the structure of the wheels, the paper described the principle of the iceskater robot developed from Roller-walker and ALDURO and its construction. The paper also established an inertia coordinate system and a wheel coordinate system, and analyzed the configuration or the posture and the related kinematic constraints of the robot according to some assumptions. Based on the motion principle, a logic-based coordinated control system and corresponded flowchart were designed. At last, taking the ice-skater robot as an example the paper expounded its application and the actual experiment proved its feasibility.
A comparative study of three methods for robot kinematics.
Aspragathos, N A; Dimitros, J K
1998-01-01
Three methods for the formulation of the kinematic equations of robots with rigid links are presented in this paper. The first and most common method in the robotics community is based on 4x4 homogeneous matrix transformation, the second one is based on Lie algebra, and the third one on screw theory expressed via dual quaternions algebra. These three methods are compared in this paper for their use in the kinematic analysis of robot arms. The basic theory and the transformation operators, upon which every method is based, are referenced. Three analytic algorithms are presented for the solution of the direct kinematic problem corresponding to each method, and the geometric significance of the transformation operators and parameters is explained. Finally, a comparative study on the computation and storage requirements for the three methods is worked out.
Exploiting Bird Locomotion Kinematics Data for Robotics Modeling
Hugel, Vincent; Abourachid, Anick
2008-01-01
We present here the results of an analysis carried out by biologists and roboticists with the aim of modeling bird locomotion kinematics for robotics purposes. The aim was to develop a bio-inspired kinematic model of the bird leg from biological data. We first acquired and processed kinematic data for sagittal and top views obtained by X-ray radiography of quails walking. Data processing involved filtering and specific data reconstruction in three dimensions, as two-dimensional views cannot be synchronized. We then designed a robotic model of a bird-like leg based on a kinematic analysis of the biological data. Angular velocity vectors were calculated to define the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) at each joint and the orientation of the rotation axes.
Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators With Uncertain Kinematics and Dynamics
Wang, Hanlei
2014-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the adaptive control problem for robot manipulators with both the uncertain kinematics and dynamics. We propose two adaptive control schemes to realize the objective of task-space trajectory tracking irrespective of the uncertain kinematics and dynamics. The proposed controllers have the desirable separation property, and we also show that the first adaptive controller with appropriate modifications can yield improved performance, without the expense of conservat...
Kinematics Analysis Based on Screw Theory of a Humanoid Robot
MAN Cui-hua; FAN Xun; LI Cheng-rong; ZHAO Zhong-hui
2007-01-01
A humanoid robot is a complex dynamic system for its idiosyncrasy. This paper aims to provide a mathematical and theoretical foundation for the design of the configuration, kinematics analysis of a novel humanoid robot. It has a simplified configuration and design for entertainment purpose. The design methods, principle and mechanism are discussed. According to the design goals of this research, there are ten degrees of freedom in the two bionic arms.Modularization, concurrent design and extension theory methods were adopted in the configuration study and screw theory was introduced into the analysis of humanoid robot kinematics. Comparisons with other methods show that: 1) only two coordinates need to be established in the kinematics analysis of humanoid robot based on screw theory; 2) the spatial manipulator Jacobian obtained by using twist and exponential product formula is succinct and legible; 3) adopting screw theory to resolve the humanoid robot arms kinematics question can avoid singularities; 4) using screw theory can solve the question of specification insufficiency.
Human Hand Kinematic Modeling Based on Robotic Concepts for Digit Animation with Dynamic Constraints
Tondu, Bertrand
The recent development of highly anthropomorphic avatars in computer graphics has emphasized the importance of accurate hand kinematic models. Although kinematic methods derived from robotics have recently been applied to the modeling of hands, we consider that original/new and relevant results can be brought into play with the use of more advanced applications of robotic techniques to human hand kinematic modeling. Our chapter analyses some of these questions both in the non-differential and differential fields. More specifically, we study how to integrate the peculiar natural digit movement constraints into robotics-based inverse kinematic modeling. As a result, we propose an original approach based on an interpretation of each joint dynamic constraint as a linear joint synergy. This leads to defining the considered digit as a serial chain kinematically redundant in position and reducing the dimension of its joint space by associated joint synergies. The method is applied to the Cartesian positioning simulation of a 4 d.o.f. index model; a comparison with a Jacobian pseudo-inverse-based approach emphasizes its relevance.
Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators
Erling Lunde
1987-07-01
Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.
Loop theory and applications to some key problems of kinematic structure of kinematic chains
Huafeng DING; Zhen HUANG
2009-01-01
Structure synthesis of mechanisms is a pivotal issue in the field of mechanical innovation and mechanical conceptual design. In this paper, a new loop theory of kinematic chains is proposed. Based on this theory, some key problems that hamper computer-based automatic synthesis of mechanisms are solved. 1) The open problem of isomorphism of kinematic chains that has lasted for more than four decades is successfully solved. 2) A new rigid sub-chain detection method that is especially suitable for complex chains is proposed. 3) The characteristic representation code remains the same even if the drawing modes and labeling ways of a chain are changed, and an atlas database of kinematic chains is established. The multi-value problem for the representation of kinematic chains is solved. The results in this paper will benefit the digitization and computerization of mechanical conceptual design.
Inverse Kinematics of a New Quadruped Robot Control Method
Cai RunBin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Design of redudant joints has been widely used in quadruped robots, so new kinds of techniques for sloving inverse kinematics are needed. In this paper we propose a new control method called Time‐Pose control method and choose the enhanced extended jacobian matrix method for inverse kinematics. We deduce extended jacobian matrix method again so that it can be applicable for arbitrary joint length. It is argued that because the method can generate close joint angle path. With Time‐Pose control method, such kind of inverse kinematics method has been used for trot gait on the flat ground. Simulations and experiments are performed, which prove the extended jacobian matrix method to be realizable for the quadruped robot.
Peña, César; Aracil Santonja, Rafael; Saltaren Pazmiño, Roque Jacinto; Banfield, Ilka
2008-01-01
This paper presents the teleoperation method of manipulators which have different kinematics with respect of the master robots using bilateral control by state convergence. This method makes a relation between the kinematics of the master and slave robot using a virtual robot. This method allows controlling manipulators which are a part of different kinds of robot as: climber robots, underwater robots, human robots, etc.
Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot
Amici Cinzia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.
Motion Planning of Kinematically Redundant 12-tetrahedral Rolling Robot
Xingbo Wang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The 12-tetrahedral robot is an addressable reconfigurable technology (ART-based variable geometry truss mechanism with 26 extensible struts and nine nodes arranged in a tetrahedral mesh. The robot has the capability of configuring its shape to adapt to environmental requirements, which makes it suitable for space exploration. This paper considers the motion planning problem for the robot in terms of gait planning and trajectory planning. First, a gait planning method is developed that limits the forward falling angles to only 25 degrees. Then, according to the given gait, the jerk-bounded method and inverse kinematics are utilized to calculate the trajectories of the nodes and the struts, respectively. A robot system model was built in ADAMS and simulations were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the motion planning method.
Biologically inspired kinematic synergies enable linear balance control of a humanoid robot.
Hauser, Helmut; Neumann, Gerhard; Ijspeert, Auke J; Maass, Wolfgang
2011-05-01
Despite many efforts, balance control of humanoid robots in the presence of unforeseen external or internal forces has remained an unsolved problem. The difficulty of this problem is a consequence of the high dimensionality of the action space of a humanoid robot, due to its large number of degrees of freedom (joints), and of non-linearities in its kinematic chains. Biped biological organisms face similar difficulties, but have nevertheless solved this problem. Experimental data reveal that many biological organisms reduce the high dimensionality of their action space by generating movements through linear superposition of a rather small number of stereotypical combinations of simultaneous movements of many joints, to which we refer as kinematic synergies in this paper. We show that by constructing two suitable non-linear kinematic synergies for the lower part of the body of a humanoid robot, balance control can in fact be reduced to a linear control problem, at least in the case of relatively slow movements. We demonstrate for a variety of tasks that the humanoid robot HOAP-2 acquires through this approach the capability to balance dynamically against unforeseen disturbances that may arise from external forces or from manipulating unknown loads.
Robot Kinematics Identification: KUKA LWR4+ Redundant Manipulator Example
Kolyubin, Sergey; Paramonov, Leonid; Shiriaev, Anton
2015-11-01
This work is aimed at a comprehensive discussion of algorithms for the kinematic parameters identification of robotic manipulators. We deal with an open-loop geometric calibration task, when a full 6D robot's end-effector pose is measured. Effective solutions of such a task is of high interest in many practical applications, because it can dramatically improve key robot characteristics. On the first step, we select optimal calibration configurations. A comparative analysis of three different algorithms and two observability indexes used for numerical optimization is provided. Afterwards, using the acquired and pre-processed experimental data we identify modified Denavit-Hartenberg parameters of the manipulator. Estimates are obtained resolving original nonlinear forward kinematics relations. Finally, we compare nominal and calibrated geometric parameters and show how much deviations in these parameters affect robot positioning accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, such integrated efforts are new for the KUKA LWR4+ robot and Nikon K610 optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM), which were used in the study. Discussion of practical issues on how to organise the experiment is an additional contribution of this work. The proposed procedure is highly automated and can be implemented to improve manipulator's performance on a periodic basis.
Kinematic Control of Wheeled Snake-Like Mobile Robot
无
2001-01-01
From a bionics viewpoint , this paper proposes a mechanical model of a wheeled snake-like mobile mechanism. On the hypothesis of the existing non-holonomic constraints on the robot kinematics, we set up the relationship among the kinetic control parameters in the snake-like movement using Lie group and Lie algebra of the principle fiber bundle and provide some theoretical control methods to realize the snake-like locomotion.
Kinematics and Dynamics of an Asymmetrical Parallel Robotic Wrist
Wu, Guanglei
2014-01-01
This paper introduces an asymmetrical parallel robotic wrist, which can generate a decoupled unlimited-torsion motion and achieve high positioning accuracy. The kinematics, dexterity, and singularities of the manipulator are investigated to visualize the performance contours of the manipulator....... Using the method of Lagrange multipliers and considering all the mobile components, the equations of motion of the manipulator are derived to investigate the dynamic characteristics efficiently. The developed dynamic model is numerically illustrated and compared with its simplified formulation to show...
Kinematic Chains in Ski Jumping In-run Posture.
Janurová, Eva; Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Vařeka, Ivan; Elfmark, Milan
2013-12-18
The concept of kinematic chains has been systematically applied to biological systems since the 1950s. The course of a ski jump can be characterized as a change between closed and open kinematic chains. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship between adjacent segments within the ski jumper's body's kinematic chain during the in-run phase of the ski jump. The in-run positions of 267 elite male ski jumpers who participated in the FIS World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, between 1992 and 2001 were analyzed (656 jumps). Two-dimensional (2-D) kinematic data were collected from the bodies of the subjects. Relationships between adjacent segments of the kinematic chain in the ski jumper's body at the in-run position are greater nearer the chain's ground contact. The coefficient of determination between the ankle and knee joint angles is 0.67. Changes in the segments' positions in the kinematic chain of the ski jumper's body are stable during longitudinal assessment. Changes in shank and thigh positions, in the sense of increase or decrease, are the same.
Kinematics and trajectory synthesis of manipulation robots
Vukobratović, Miomir
1986-01-01
A few words about the series "Scientific Fundamentals of Robotics" should be said on the occasion of publication of the present monograph. This six-volume series has been conceived so as to allow the readers to master a contemporary approach to the construction and synthesis of con trol for manipulation ~obots. The authors' idea was to show how to use correct mathematical models of the dynamics of active spatial mecha nisms for dynamic analysis of robotic systems, optimal design of their mechanical parts based on the accepted criteria and imposed constraints, optimal choice of actuators, synthesis of dynamic control algorithms and their microcomputer implementation. In authors' oppinion this idea has been relatively successfully realized within the six-volume mono graphic series. Let us remind the readers of the books of this series. Volumes 1 and 2 are devoted to the dynamics and control algorithms of manipulation ro bots, respectively. They form the first part of the series which has a certain topic...
IMU-Based Online Kinematic Calibration of Robot Manipulator
Guanglong Du
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Robot calibration is a useful diagnostic method for improving the positioning accuracy in robot production and maintenance. An online robot self-calibration method based on inertial measurement unit (IMU is presented in this paper. The method requires that the IMU is rigidly attached to the robot manipulator, which makes it possible to obtain the orientation of the manipulator with the orientation of the IMU in real time. This paper proposed an efficient approach which incorporates Factored Quaternion Algorithm (FQA and Kalman Filter (KF to estimate the orientation of the IMU. Then, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used to estimate kinematic parameter errors. Using this proposed orientation estimation method will result in improved reliability and accuracy in determining the orientation of the manipulator. Compared with the existing vision-based self-calibration methods, the great advantage of this method is that it does not need the complex steps, such as camera calibration, images capture, and corner detection, which make the robot calibration procedure more autonomous in a dynamic manufacturing environment. Experimental studies on a GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that this method has better accuracy, convenience, and effectiveness than vision-based methods.
IMU-based online kinematic calibration of robot manipulator.
Du, Guanglong; Zhang, Ping
2013-01-01
Robot calibration is a useful diagnostic method for improving the positioning accuracy in robot production and maintenance. An online robot self-calibration method based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) is presented in this paper. The method requires that the IMU is rigidly attached to the robot manipulator, which makes it possible to obtain the orientation of the manipulator with the orientation of the IMU in real time. This paper proposed an efficient approach which incorporates Factored Quaternion Algorithm (FQA) and Kalman Filter (KF) to estimate the orientation of the IMU. Then, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate kinematic parameter errors. Using this proposed orientation estimation method will result in improved reliability and accuracy in determining the orientation of the manipulator. Compared with the existing vision-based self-calibration methods, the great advantage of this method is that it does not need the complex steps, such as camera calibration, images capture, and corner detection, which make the robot calibration procedure more autonomous in a dynamic manufacturing environment. Experimental studies on a GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that this method has better accuracy, convenience, and effectiveness than vision-based methods.
End-Effector Position Analysis Using Forward Kinematics For 5 Dof Pravak Robot Arm
Jolly Atit Shah
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the kinematic analysis of a Pravak Robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The Pravak Robot Arm is a 5-DOF robot having all the joints revolute. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H model is used to model robot links and joints. Pravak Robot Arm is a simple and safe robotic system designed for laboratory training and research applications. This robot allows to gain theoretical and practical experience in robotics, automation and control systems. The MATLAB R2007 is used to analyse end effectors position for a set of joint parameter.
A Kinematic Calibration Process for Flight Robotic Arms
Collins, Curtis L.; Robinson, Matthew L.
2013-01-01
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) robotic arm is ten times more massive than any Mars robotic arm before it, yet with similar accuracy and repeatability positioning requirements. In order to assess and validate these requirements, a higher-fidelity model and calibration processes were needed. Kinematic calibration of robotic arms is a common and necessary process to ensure good positioning performance. Most methodologies assume a rigid arm, high-accuracy data collection, and some kind of optimization of kinematic parameters. A new detailed kinematic and deflection model of the MSL robotic arm was formulated in the design phase and used to update the initial positioning and orientation accuracy and repeatability requirements. This model included a higher-fidelity link stiffness matrix representation, as well as a link level thermal expansion model. In addition, it included an actuator backlash model. Analytical results highlighted the sensitivity of the arm accuracy to its joint initialization methodology. Because of this, a new technique for initializing the arm joint encoders through hardstop calibration was developed. This involved selecting arm configurations to use in Earth-based hardstop calibration that had corresponding configurations on Mars with the same joint torque to ensure repeatability in the different gravity environment. The process used to collect calibration data for the arm included the use of multiple weight stand-in turrets with enough metrology targets to reconstruct the full six-degree-of-freedom location of the rover and tool frames. The follow-on data processing of the metrology data utilized a standard differential formulation and linear parameter optimization technique.
Design of a Two-Step Calibration Method of Kinematic Parameters for Serial Robots
WANG, Wei; WANG, Lei; YUN, Chao
2017-03-01
Serial robots are used to handle workpieces with large dimensions, and calibrating kinematic parameters is one of the most efficient ways to upgrade their accuracy. Many models are set up to investigate how many kinematic parameters can be identified to meet the minimal principle, but the base frame and the kinematic parameter are indistinctly calibrated in a one-step way. A two-step method of calibrating kinematic parameters is proposed to improve the accuracy of the robot's base frame and kinematic parameters. The forward kinematics described with respect to the measuring coordinate frame are established based on the product-of-exponential (POE) formula. In the first step the robot's base coordinate frame is calibrated by the unit quaternion form. The errors of both the robot's reference configuration and the base coordinate frame's pose are equivalently transformed to the zero-position errors of the robot's joints. The simplified model of the robot's positioning error is established in second-power explicit expressions. Then the identification model is finished by the least square method, requiring measuring position coordinates only. The complete subtasks of calibrating the robot's 39 kinematic parameters are finished in the second step. It's proved by a group of calibration experiments that by the proposed two-step calibration method the average absolute accuracy of industrial robots is updated to 0.23 mm. This paper presents that the robot's base frame should be calibrated before its kinematic parameters in order to upgrade its absolute positioning accuracy.
A Novel Kinematic Model for Rough Terrain Robots
Auchter, Joseph; Moore, Carl A.; Ghosal, Ashitava
We describe in detail a novel kinematic simulation of a three—wheeled mo bile robot moving on extremely uneven terrain. The purpose of this simulation is to test a new concept, called Passive Variable Camber (PVC), for reducing undesir able wheel slip. PVC adds an extra degree of freedom at each wheel/platform joint, thereby allowing the wheel to tilt laterally. This extra motion allows the vehicle to better adapt to uneven terrain and reduces wheel slip, which is harmful to vehicle efficiency and performance.
Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives
Fuglede, Niels
with a clear derivation of the seating and release configurations, as well as the driven sprocket angular position, velocity and discontinuous acceleration. The approximate analysis allows for simple expressions describing the seating and release configurations and shows the influence of main design parameters...... is presented, which also allows for exact sprocket center positions for a chain with a given number of links. Results show that the total chain wrapping length varies periodically with the tooth frequency. These results are of practical importance to both the design, installation and operation of roller chain...
Kinematic evaluation of mobile robotic platforms for overground gait neurorehabilitation
Alias, N. Akmal; Huq, M. Saiful; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.; Omar, Rosli
2017-09-01
Gait assistive devices offer a great solution to the walking re-education which reduce patients theoretical limit by aiding the anatomical joints to be in line with the rehabilitation session. Overground gait training, which is differs significantly from body-weight supported treadmill training in many aspects, essentially consists of a mobile robotic base to support the subject securely (usually with overhead harness) while its motion and orientation is controlled seamlessly to facilitate subjects free movement. In this study, efforts have been made for evaluation of both holonomic and nonholonomic drives, the outcome of which may constitute the primarily results to the effective approach in designing a robotic platform for the mobile rehabilitation robot. The sets of kinematic equations are derived using typical geometries of two different drives. The results indicate that omnidirectional mecanum wheel platform is capable for more sophisticated discipline. Although the differential drive platform happens to be more simple and easy to construct, but it is less desirable as it has limited number of motions applicable to the system. The omnidirectional robot consisting of mecanum wheels, which is classified as holonomic is potentially the best solution in terms of its capability to move in arbitrary direction without concerning the changing of wheel's direction.
Agent Control for Reconfigurable Open Kinematic Chain Manipulators
Janez Sluga
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the autonomous control of differently structured open kinematic chains based on multi-agent system technology. The appropriate level of distributing local autonomy (agents to a manipulative structure is defined, which makes it possible to dynamically change the number, type and structure of manipulative components without modifying their behavioural logic. To achieve fast reconfigurable and scalable manipulative systems, a new multi-agent method is developed for controlling the manipulator kinematics. The new method enables independent manipulator structure from the control system because of its structural and system modularity. The proposed method consists of kinematic equations for use in an agent environment, agent motion-planning algorithms, evaluation functions, agent control logic and kinematic algorithms. The results of simulations and real- world experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the approach for different non-redundant and redundant manipulation structures.
Kinematic Analysis of 3-DOF Planer Robot Using Artificial Neural Network
Jolly Atit Shah
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the forward and inverse kinematics of 3-DOF robotic manipulator with revolute joints. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H model is used to model robot links and joints. Also forward and inverse kinematics solution has been achieved using Artificial Neural Networks for 3-DOF robotic manipulator. It shows that by using artificial neural network the solution we get is faster, acceptable and has zero error.
Kinematics of roller chain drives - Exact and approximate analysis
Fuglede, Niels; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2016-01-01
An exact and approximate kinematic analysis of a roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism is presented. The span connects the sprockets such that they rotate in the same direction, and the sprocket size, number of teeth, and shaft center distance can be arbitrary. The driven sprocket...
Study of the Redundant Robotic Manipulator’s Kinematics Performance Index
Ge Xinfeng; Zhao Dongbiao; Lu Yonghua; Liu Kai
2012-01-01
The kinematics equations of robotic manipulator is derived according to moving frame system method in this study; volume element is defined employing exterior differential and moving frame system and is taken as kinematics performance index measuring redundant robotic manipulator’s manipulability. Then take the 7-DOF automatic fiber placement robotic manipulator as an example and obtain the volume element function of it. Compared the volume element function which derived with Yoshikawa's mani...
STRUCTURAL IDENTIFICATION OF DISTINCT INVERSIONS OF PLANAR KINEMATIC CHAINS
Dr. Shubhashis Sanyal
2011-12-01
Full Text Available 0 0 1 171 979 International Islamic University 8 2 1148 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Inversions are various structural possibilities of a kinematic chain. The number of inversions depends on the number of links of a kinematic chain. At the stage of structural synthesis, identification of distinct structural inversions of a particular type of kinematic chain is necessary. Various researchers have proposed methods for identification of distinct inversions. Present method based on Link joint connectivity is proposed to identify the distinct inversions of a planar kinematic chain. Method is tested successfully on single degree and multiple degree of freedom planar kinematic chains. ABSTRAK: Penyonsangan merupakan kebarangkalian pelbagai struktur suatu rangkaian kinematik. Jumlah songsangan bergantung kepada jumlah hubungan suatu rangkaian kinematik. Pada peringkat sintesis struktur, pengenalan songsangan struktur yang berbeza untuk suatu jenis rangkaian kinematik adalah perlu. Ramai penyelidik telah mencadangkan pelbagai kaedah pengenalan songsangan yang berbeza. Kaedah terkini berdasarkan hubungan kesambungan bersama telah dicadangkan untuk mengenalpasti songsangan yang berbeza dalam suatu satah rangkaian kinematik.
Ge Xinfeng
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The method is proposed based on volume element in order to measure the manipulator’s robotic kinematics manipulability. Then studied the series redundant automatic fiber placement robotic manipulator’s operation space, draw the conclusion that the greater of the robotic manipulator’s operation space volume, the better of the robotic manipulator’s manipulability, volume element based on redundant robotic manipulator’s kinematics is proposed as an operational performance index. n-DOF serial robotic manipulator’s operation space is n-dimensional Riemannian manifold, the n-dimensional Riemannian manifold volume is calculated using the moving coordinate system and the exterior product definition in differential geometry and get the robotic manipulator’s operation space volume then compared the obtained results with the operation space volume using inner product determinant in the literature, it shows that the volume element as a kinematics operational performance index is feasible.
Structure and kinematic analysis of a novel 2-DOF translational parallel robot
无
2007-01-01
This paper addresses the analysis of a novel parallel robot with 2 translational degrees of freedom (DOFs). The robot can position a rigid body in a plane with constant orientation. The kinematic structure of the robot is first described in detail. Some kinematic problems, such as the inverse and forward kinematics, velocity, and singularity are then analyzed. The working and assembly modes are discussed. Since it is the most important index to design a robot, the workspace of the robot is studied systematically in this paper.Based on the analysis of reachable workspace and singularity, a kind of workspace concept characterizing the region that the end-effector of the robot can reach in practice is defined. The results of this paper will be very useful for the design and application of the robot.
The kinematics modeling based on Spinor theory for CT-guided hybrid robot
Tang Can; Liu Da; Wang Tianmiao; Yun Chao
2009-01-01
This paper focused on a simplified method for solving the hybrid robot kinematics in CT-guided (computerized tomography, CT) surgery. By position constraint introduced, the hybrid robot can be transformed as a redundant serial 7-DOF robot. The forward displacement calculation was developed based on the product-of-exponential formula (POE). Because of the kinematics complexity of the hybrid and redundant robot, the combination technique of Ulrich two-step iteration method and paul variables detachment method (UTI-PVD) was introduced to fulfill the inverse kinematics of redundant robot, the novelty of which lay in the flexibility of various robots structures and in high calculation efficiency for real-time control. The process of solving the inverse displacement was analyzed. The UTI-PVD method can be applicable to kinematics of many robots, especially for redundant robots with more than 6DOF. The kinematics simulation was provided, and robot dexterity analysis was presented. The results indicated that the hybrid robot could implement the minimally invasive CT-guided surgery.
Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for parameter estimation of a novel hybrid redundant robot
Wang Yongbo, E-mail: yongbo.wang@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Intelligent Machine, Lappeenranta University of Technology, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Wu Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki [Laboratory of Intelligent Machine, Lappeenranta University of Technology, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)
2011-10-15
This paper presents a statistical method for the calibration of a redundantly actuated hybrid serial-parallel robot IWR (Intersector Welding Robot). The robot under study will be used to carry out welding, machining, and remote handing for the assembly of vacuum vessel of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The robot has ten degrees of freedom (DOF), among which six DOF are contributed by the parallel mechanism and the rest are from the serial mechanism. In this paper, a kinematic error model which involves 54 unknown geometrical error parameters is developed for the proposed robot. Based on this error model, the mean values of the unknown parameters are statistically analyzed and estimated by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The computer simulation is conducted by introducing random geometric errors and measurement poses which represent the corresponding real physical behaviors. The simulation results of the marginal posterior distributions of the estimated model parameters indicate that our method is reliable and robust.
Kinematics of Hex-Piderix - A Six-Legged Robot - Using Screw Theory
Xochitl Yamile Sandoval-Castro
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the kinematic analysis of a six-legged robot, hereafter named Hex-piderix, is carried out. A three revolute (3R chain has been chosen for each limb in order to mimic the leg structure of an insect. The rotation matrix, with unitary vectors, and the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H conventions are used to find the pose of the thorax. The problem of inverse position is solved by geometrical analysis. The direct and inverse infinitesimal kinematics are obtained by the reciprocal screw theory, considering a suction cup attached to each leg and modelling it as a UP linkage. A numerical example of the thorax pose was made by solving the equations obtained from the direct position analysis. The equations of the inverse position analysis were solved to obtain the angles of the joints. Finally, the velocity values of the thorax obtained from the infinitesimal kinematics were validated by simulating the movements of Hex-piderix using specialized software.
Kinematics of Hex-Piderix - A Six-Legged Robot - Using Screw Theory
Xochitl Yamile Sandoval-Castro
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the kinematic analysis of a six‐legged robot, hereafter named Hex‐piderix, is carried out. A three revolute (3R chain has been chosen for each limb in order to mimic the leg structure of an insect. The rotation matrix, with unitary vectors, and the Denavit‐Hartenberg (D‐H conventions are used to find the pose of the thorax. The problem of inverse position is solved by geometrical analysis. The direct and inverse infinitesimal kinematics are obtained by the reciprocal screw theory, considering a suction cup attached to each leg and modelling it as a UP linkage. A numerical example of the thorax pose was made by solving the equations obtained from the direct position analysis. The equations of the inverse position analysis were solved to obtain the angles of the joints. Finally, the velocity values of the thorax obtained from the infinitesimal kinematics were validated by simulating the movements of Hex‐piderix using specialized software.
Kinematics/statics analysis of a novel serial-parallel robotic arm with hand
Lu, Yi; Dai, Zhuohong; Ye, Nijia; Wang, Peng [Yanshan University, Hebei (China)
2015-10-15
A robotic arm with fingered hand generally has multi-functions to complete various complicated operations. A novel serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is proposed and its kinematics and statics are studied systematically. A 3D prototype of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is constructed and analyzed by simulation. The serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is composed of an upper 3RPS parallel manipulator, a lower 3SPR parallel manipulator and a hand with three finger mechanisms. Its kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of are derived. Its statics formula for solving the active/constrained forces is derived. Its reachable workspace and orientation workspace are constructed and analyzed. Finally, an analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand and the analytic solutions are verified by a simulation mechanism.
Digital Hardware Realization of Forward and Inverse Kinematics for a Five-Axis Articulated Robot Arm
Bui Thi Hai Linh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available When robot arm performs a motion control, it needs to calculate a complicated algorithm of forward and inverse kinematics which consumes much CPU time and certainty slows down the motion speed of robot arm. Therefore, to solve this issue, the development of a hardware realization of forward and inverse kinematics for an articulated robot arm is investigated. In this paper, the formulation of the forward and inverse kinematics for a five-axis articulated robot arm is derived firstly. Then, the computations algorithm and its hardware implementation are described. Further, very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL is applied to describe the overall hardware behavior of forward and inverse kinematics. Additionally, finite state machine (FSM is applied for reducing the hardware resource usage. Finally, for verifying the correctness of forward and inverse kinematics for the five-axis articulated robot arm, a cosimulation work is constructed by ModelSim and Simulink. The hardware of the forward and inverse kinematics is run by ModelSim and a test bench which generates stimulus to ModelSim and displays the output response is taken in Simulink. Under this design, the forward and inverse kinematics algorithms can be completed within one microsecond.
Guiyang Xin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hexapod robot, hereafter named PH-Robot, with three degrees of freedom (3-DOF parallel leg mechanisms based on the concept of an integrated limb mechanism (ILM for the integration of legged locomotion and arm manipulation. The kinematic model plays an important role in the parametric optimal design and motion planning of robots. However, models of parallel mechanisms are often difficult to obtain because of the implicit relationship between the motions of actuated joints and the motion of a moving platform. In order to derive the kinematic equations of the proposed hexapod robot, an extended hierarchical kinematic modelling method is proposed. According to the kinematic model, the geometrical parameters of the leg are optimized utilizing a comprehensive objective function that considers both dexterity and payload. PH-Robot has distinct advantages in accuracy and load ability over a robot with serial leg mechanisms through the former's comparison of performance indices. The reachable workspace of the leg verifies its ability to walk and manipulate. The results of the trajectory tracking experiment demonstrate the correctness of the kinematic model of the hexapod robot.
Fu, Zhongtao; Yang, Wenyu; Yang, Zhen
2013-08-01
In this paper, we present an efficient method based on geometric algebra for computing the solutions to the inverse kinematics problem (IKP) of the 6R robot manipulators with offset wrist. Due to the fact that there exist some difficulties to solve the inverse kinematics problem when the kinematics equations are complex, highly nonlinear, coupled and multiple solutions in terms of these robot manipulators stated mathematically, we apply the theory of Geometric Algebra to the kinematic modeling of 6R robot manipulators simply and generate closed-form kinematics equations, reformulate the problem as a generalized eigenvalue problem with symbolic elimination technique, and then yield 16 solutions. Finally, a spray painting robot, which conforms to the type of robot manipulators, is used as an example of implementation for the effectiveness and real-time of this method. The experimental results show that this method has a large advantage over the classical methods on geometric intuition, computation and real-time, and can be directly extended to all serial robot manipulators and completely automatized, which provides a new tool on the analysis and application of general robot manipulators.
Analysis and Development of Walking Algorithm Kinematic Model for 5-Degree of Freedom Bipedal Robot
Gerald Wahyudi Setiono
2012-12-01
Full Text Available A design of walking diagram and the calculation of a bipedal robot have been developed. The bipedal robot was designed and constructed with several kinds of servo bracket for the legs, two feet and a hip. Each of the bipedal robot leg was 5-degrees of freedom, three pitches (hip joint, knee joint and ankle joint and two rolls (hip joint and ankle joint. The walking algorithm of this bipedal robot was based on the triangle formulation of cosine law to get the angle value at each joint. The hip height, height of the swinging leg and the step distance are derived based on linear equation. This paper discussed the kinematic model analysis and the development of the walking diagram of the bipedal robot. Kinematics equations were derived, the joint angles were simulated and coded into Arduino board to be executed to the robot.
Inverse Kinematics Using Neuro-Fuzzy Intelligent Technique for Robotic Manipulator
Shiv Manjaree
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Inverse Kinematics of robotic manipulators is a complex task. For higher degree of freedom robotic manipulators, the algebra related to traditional approaches become highly complex. This has led to the usage of artificial intelligence techniques. In this paper, the hybrid combination of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic Intelligent Technique has been applied for 3 degree of freedom robotic manipulator. The variations of joint angles obtained in the results show the effective implementation of artificial intelligence.
Kinematic performance analysis of a parallel-chain hexapod machine
Jing Song; Jong-I Mou; Calvin King
1998-05-18
Inverse and forward kinematic models were derived to analyze the performance of a parallel-chain hexapod machine. Analytical models were constructed for both ideal and real structures. Performance assessment and enhancement algorithms were developed to determine the strut lengths for both ideal and real structures. The strut lengths determined from both cases can be used to analyze the effect of structural imperfections on machine performance. In an open-architecture control environment, strut length errors can be fed back to the controller to compensate for the displacement errors and thus improve the machine's accuracy in production.
New Methods for Kinematic Modelling and Calibration of Robots
Søe-Knudsen, Rune
2014-01-01
Improving a robot's accuracy increases its ability to solve certain tasks, and is therefore valuable. Practical ways of achieving this improved accuracy, even after robot repair, is also valuable. In this work, we introduce methods that improve the robot's accuracy and make it possible to maintai...... is our contribution to push the boundaries of user-friendly maintenance of industrial robots without expensive equipment....
A. K. Kovalchuk
2015-01-01
Full Text Available To build mathematical models of actuating mechanisms (AM of robots with linear kinematic structure, J. Denavit and R.S. Hartenberg (D-H proposed to use a special coordinate system (CS. It uses a matrix of homogeneous transformation and provides clear and unambiguous rules to build mathematical models of robot actuating mechanisms. Developers widely use this approach because of its clarity and binding to AM design parameters. However, its use to describe robots the AM of which has a spatial tree-like kinematic structure revealed the certain hardship.The paper offers a method for building a modified D-H coordinate system. Its using allows to create mathematical models of robot AM, having spatial kinematic structure. The method is based on using both the graphs theory and the known D-H coordinate system jointly.The paper defines concepts of main and auxiliary coordinate systems and the order of their location on the tree-like AM. The values of the modified parameters of D-H are obtained. There its known parameters are complemented by parameters f(i, which determine the father number of the link i, and ns(i, that shows, which son in succession is the link i for the link f(i. An algorithm to form the matrix of reachability and the graph of reachability of the tree-like AM is proposed.It is proved that the use of the modified D-H coordinate system allows us to record in a block-matrix form both kinematic and dynamic equations for all links of the tree-like AM of robot. The use of these equations together with D'Alembert principle allowed us to write the equations of the tree-like AM dynamics of robot in the form traditional for recording the AM dynamics equations with open kinematic structure.Via examples of mathematically described kinematics and dynamics of tree-like AM of specific robots (robot-dog, robot-crab, anthropomorphic walking robot, etc. the paper shows efficiency of modified D-H coordinate system.Obtained research results of the medical
Miguel G. Villarreal-Cervantes
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Mobile robots with omnidirectional wheels are expected to perform a wide variety of movements in a narrow space. However, kinematic mobility and dexterity have not been clearly identified as an objective to be considered when designing omnidirectional redundant robots. In light of this fact, this article proposes to maximize the dexterity of the mobile robot by properly locating the omnidirectional wheels. In addition, four hybrid differential evolution (DE algorithm based on the synergetic integration of different kinds of mutation and crossover are presented. A comparison of metaheuristic and gradient-based algorithms for kinematic dexterity maximization is also presented.
An Analytic Method for the Kinematics and Dynamics of a Multiple-Backbone Continuum Robot
Bin He
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Continuum robots have been the subject of extensive research due to their potential use in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we propose a new continuum robot with three backbones, and provide a unified analytic method for the kinematics and dynamics of a multiple‐backbone continuum robot. The robot achieves actuation by independently pulling three backbones to carry out a bending motion of two‐degrees‐of‐freedom (DoF. A three‐dimensional CAD model of the robot is built and the kinematical equation is established on the basis of the Euler‐Bernoulli beam. The dynamical model of the continuum robot is constructed by using the Lagrange method. The simulation and the experiment’s validation results show the continuum robot can exactly bend into pre‐set angles in the two‐dimensional space (the maximum error is less than 5% of the robot length and can make a circular motion in three‐dimensional space. The results demonstrate that the proposed analytic method for the kinematics and dynamics of a continuum robot is feasible.
Kinematics, dynamics and control design of 4WIS4WID mobile robots
Ming-Han Lee
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Kinematic and dynamic modelling and corresponding control design of a four-wheel-independent steering and four-wheel-independent driving (4WIS4WID mobile robot are presented in this study. Different from the differential or car-like mobile robot, the 4WIS4WID mobile robot is controlled by four steering and four driving motors, so the control scheme should possess the ability to integrate and manipulate the four independent wheels. A trajectory tracking control scheme is developed for the 4WIS4WID mobile robot, where both non-linear kinematic control and dynamic sliding-mode control are designed. All of the stabilities of the kinematic and dynamic control laws are proved by Lyapunov stability analysis. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the proposed trajectory tracking control scheme are confirmed through computer simulations.
Kinematics and dynamics analysis of a quadruped walking robot with parallel leg mechanism
Wang, Hongbo; Sang, Lingfeng; Hu, Xing; Zhang, Dianfan; Yu, Hongnian
2013-09-01
It is desired to require a walking robot for the elderly and the disabled to have large capacity, high stiffness, stability, etc. However, the existing walking robots cannot achieve these requirements because of the weight-payload ratio and simple function. Therefore, Improvement of enhancing capacity and functions of the walking robot is an important research issue. According to walking requirements and combining modularization and reconfigurable ideas, a quadruped/biped reconfigurable walking robot with parallel leg mechanism is proposed. The proposed robot can be used for both a biped and a quadruped walking robot. The kinematics and performance analysis of a 3-UPU parallel mechanism which is the basic leg mechanism of a quadruped walking robot are conducted and the structural parameters are optimized. The results show that performance of the walking robot is optimal when the circumradius R, r of the upper and lower platform of leg mechanism are 161.7 mm, 57.7 mm, respectively. Based on the optimal results, the kinematics and dynamics of the quadruped walking robot in the static walking mode are derived with the application of parallel mechanism and influence coefficient theory, and the optimal coordination distribution of the dynamic load for the quadruped walking robot with over-determinate inputs is analyzed, which solves dynamic load coupling caused by the branches’ constraint of the robot in the walk process. Besides laying a theoretical foundation for development of the prototype, the kinematics and dynamics studies on the quadruped walking robot also boost the theoretical research of the quadruped walking and the practical applications of parallel mechanism.
Santosh Kumar Nanda
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In robotic applications and research, inverse kinematics is one of the most important problems in terms of robot kinematics and control. Consequently, finding the solution of Inverse Kinematics in now days is considered as one of the most important problems in robot kinematics and control. As the intricacy of robot manipulator increases, obtaining the mathematical, statistical solutions of inverse kinematics are difficult and computationally expensive. For that reason, now soft-computing based highly intelligent based model applications should be adopted to getting appropriate solution for inverse kinematics. In this paper, a novel application of artificial neural network is used for controlling a robotic manipulator. The proposed methods are based on the establishments of the non-linear mapping between Cartesian and joint coordinates using multi layer perceptron and functional link artificial neural network.
Markus Wünschel
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Cadaveric in vitro studies are essential to test hypotheses concerning surgical manipulations in the same individual. Robotic technologies as well as different knee-models have been developed to get an in-depth comprehension of knee joint kinematics. The purpose of this study was to compare utilization of these different established principles. Ten human cadaveric knee specimens were used to measure the kinematics during a weight-bearing flexion in a 6-degrees-of-freedom knee simulator. While flexing the knee, joint quadriceps muscle forces were dynamically simulated to reach a vertical ground reaction force of 100N. Fourteen knee specimens were mounted in 6-degrees-of-freedom robotic manipulator with a universal force sensor. The unloaded flexing motion of each specimen was measured by finding positions for each degree of flexion where all forces are minimal (passive path. The kinematic data of the kneesimulator and the robot concerning internal-external rotation, anterior-posterior translation, varus-valgus motion, and medial-lateral translation was examined. For all investigated degrees of freedom the kinematics of the robotic passive path differed from the loaded kinematics in the knee simulator. Simulated bodyweight as well as the examination method used has a substantial influence on joint kinematics during flexion which has to be considered when interpreting biomechanical studies as well as clinical tests.
Kinematic primitives for walking and trotting gaits of a quadruped robot with compliant legs.
Spröwitz, Alexander T; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ijspeert, Auke Jan
2014-01-01
In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2-3 primitives) than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (νm4 primitives), although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.
Kinematic primitives for a quadruped robot walk and trot with compliant legs
Alexander Thomas Sprowitz
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2 to 3 primitives than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (4 primitives, although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.
Dong, Gangqi; Zhu, Z. H.
2016-04-01
This paper proposed a new incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo approach for robotic manipulators to capture a non-cooperative target autonomously. The target's pose and motion are estimated by a vision system using integrated photogrammetry and EKF algorithm. Based on the estimated pose and motion of the target, the instantaneous desired position of the end-effector is predicted by inverse kinematics and the robotic manipulator is moved incrementally from its current configuration subject to the joint speed limits. This approach effectively eliminates the multiple solutions in the inverse kinematics and increases the robustness of the control algorithm. The proposed approach is validated by a hardware-in-the-loop simulation, where the pose and motion of the non-cooperative target is estimated by a real vision system. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed estimation approach for the target and the incremental control strategy for the robotic manipulator.
Solution for Ill-Posed Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm by Network Inversion
Takehiko Ogawa
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of controlling a robot arm with multiple joints, the method of estimating the joint angles from the given end-effector coordinates is called inverse kinematics, which is a type of inverse problems. Network inversion has been proposed as a method for solving inverse problems by using a multilayer neural network. In this paper, network inversion is introduced as a method to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm with multiple joints, where the joint angles are estimated from the given end-effector coordinates. In general, inverse problems are affected by ill-posedness, which implies that the existence, uniqueness, and stability of their solutions are not guaranteed. In this paper, we show the effectiveness of applying network inversion with regularization, by which ill-posedness can be reduced, to the ill-posed inverse kinematics of an actual robot arm with multiple joints.
Kinematics and the Implementation of a Modular Caterpillar Robot in Trapezoidal Wave Locomotion
Hongxing Wei
2013-08-01
Full Text Available With the development of bionic engineering, research into bionic robots has become a popular topic. In this field, the design of robotic mechanisms to realize the locomotion of insects forms a significant research branch. The current paper presents a caterpillar robotic mechanism that is composed of our newly-developed\tself-assembly\tmodular\trobots (Sambot. A trapezoidal wave locomotion gait is planned for the caterpillar mechanism and the kinematics equations are established and solved analytically for such locomotion. The variations of the kinematics quantities are illustrated and discussed. The variation of the jump of the angular acceleration indicates that it is better to apply the trapezoidal wave gait to low velocity situations. Finally, the obtained data of the kinematics quantities is used to perform the gait control locomotion experiment and the errors of the experimental data are analysed in depth.
Sergi, Fabrizio; Accoto, Dino; Tagliamonte, Nevio L.; Carpino, Giorgio; Guglielmelli, Eugenio
2011-03-01
The choice of non-anthropomorphic kinematic solutions for wearable robots is motivated both by the necessity of improving the ergonomics of physical Human-Robot Interaction and by the chance of exploiting the intrinsic dynamical properties of the robotic structure so to improve its performances. Under these aspects, this new class of robotic solutions is potentially advantageous over the one of anthropomorphic robotic orthoses. However, the process of kinematic synthesis of non-anthropomorphic wearable robots can be too complex to be solved uniquely by relying on conventional synthesis methods, due to the large number of open design parameters. A systematic approach can be useful for this purpose, since it allows to obtain the complete list of independent kinematic solutions with desired properties. In this perspective, this paper presents a method, which allows to generalize the problem of kinematic synthesis of a non-anthropomorphic wearable robot for the assistance of a specified set of contiguous body segments. The methodology also includes two novel tests, specifically devised to solve the problem of enumeration of kinematic structures of wearable robots: the HR-isomorphism and the HR-degeneracy tests. This method has been implemented to derive the atlas of independent kinematic solutions suitable to be used for the kinematic design of a planar wearable robot for the lower limbs.
Design and Kinematic Analysis of a Novel Humanoid Robot Eye Using Pneumatic Artificial Muscles
Xuan-yin Wang; Yang Zhang; Xiao-jie Fu; Gui-shan Xiang
2008-01-01
This paper proposed a novel humanoid robot eye, which is driven by six Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs) and rotates with 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF). The design of the mechanism and motion type of the robot eye are inspired by that of human eyes. The model of humanoid robot eye is established as a parallel mechanism, and the inverse-kinematic problem of this flexible tendons driving parallel system is solved by the analytical geometry method. As an extension, the simulation result for saccadic movement is presented under three conditions. The design and kinematic analysis of the prototype could be a sig nificant step towards the goal of building an autonomous humanoid robot eye with the movement and especially the visual functions similar to that of human.
A force commanded impedance control for a robot finger with uncertain kinematics
Doulgeri, Z.; Arimoto, Suguru
1999-10-01
The authors consider the problem of impedance control for the physical interaction between the soft tip of a robot finger, where the nonlinear characteristics of the reproducing force and the finger dynamic parameters are unknown, and a rigid object or environment under kinematic uncertainties arising from both uncertain contact point location and uncertain rigid object geometry. An adaptive controller is proposed, and the asymptotic stability of the force regulation problem is shown for the planar case even when finger kinematics and rigid surface orientation are uncertain. Confirmation of the theoretical findings is done through simulation of a 3-degree-of-freedom planar robotic finger.
Tree Climbing Robot Design, Kinematics and Motion Planning
Lam, Tin Lun
2012-01-01
Climbing robot is a challenging research topic that has gained much attention from researchers. Most of the robots reported in the literature are designed to climb on manmade structures, but seldom robots are designed for climbing natural environment such as trees. Trees and manmade structures are very different in nature. It brings different aspects of technical challenges to the robot design. In this book, you can find a collection of the cutting edge technologies in the field of tree-climbing robot and the ways that animals climb. It provides a valuable reference for robot designers to select appropriate climbing methods in designing tree-climbing robots for specific purposes. Based on the study, a novel bio-inspired tree-climbing robot with several breakthrough performances has been developed and presents in this book. It is capable of performing various actions that is impossible in the state-of-the-art tree-climbing robots, such as moving between trunk and branches. This book also proposes several appro...
Kinematically optimal robot placement for minimum time coordinated motion
Feddema, J.T.
1995-10-01
This paper describes an algorithm for determining the optimal placement of a robotic manipulator within a workcell for minimum time coordinated motion. The algorithm uses a simple principle of coordinated motion to estimate the time of a joint interpolated motion. Specifically, the coordinated motion profile is limited by the slowest axis. Two and six degree of freedom (DOF) examples are presented. In experimental tests on a FANUC S-800 arm, the optimal placement of the robot can improve cycle time of a robotic operation by as much as 25%. In high volume processes where the robot motion is currently the limiting factor, this increased throughput can result in substantial cost savings.
Kinematic analysis and simulation of a substation inspection robot guided by magnetic sensor
Xiao, Peng; Luan, Yiqing; Wang, Haipeng; Li, Li; Li, Jianxiang
2017-01-01
In order to improve the performance of the magnetic navigation system used by substation inspection robot, the kinematic characteristics is analyzed based on a simplified magnetic guiding system model, and then the simulation process is executed to verify the reasonability of the whole analysis procedure. Finally, some suggestions are extracted out, which will be helpful to guide the design of the inspection robot system in the future.
Kinematic-Kinetic-Rigidity Evaluation of a Six Axis Robot Performing a Task
H. Karagulle
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Six axis serial robots of different sizes are widely used for pick and place, welding and various other operations in industry. Developments in mechatronics, which is the synergistic integration of mechanism, electronics and computer control to achieve a functional system, offer effective solutions for the design of such robots. The integrated analysis of robots is usually used in the design stage. In this study, it is offered that the integrated analysis of robots can also be used at the application stage. SolidWorks, CosmosMotion and ABAQUS programs are used with an integrated approach. Integration software (IS is developed in Visual Basic by using the application programming interface (API capabilities of these programs. An ABB-IRB1400 industrial robot is considered for the study. Different trajectories are considered. Each task is first evaluated by a kinematic analysis. If the task is out of the workspace, then the task is cancelled. This evaluation can also be done by robot programs like Robot Studio. It is proposed that the task must be evaluated by considering the limits for velocities, motor actuation torques, reaction forces, natural frequencies, displacements and stresses due to the flexibility. The evaluation is done using kinematic, kinetic and rigidity evaluation charts. The approach given in this work can be used for the optimal usage of robots.
Analysis of the Kinematic Accuracy Reliability of a 3-DOF Parallel Robot Manipulator
Guohua Cui
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Kinematic accuracy reliability is an important performance index in the evaluation of mechanism quality. By using a 3- DOF 3-PUU parallel robot manipulator as the research object, the position and orientation error model was derived by mapping the relation between the input and output of the mechanism. Three error sensitivity indexes that evaluate the kinematic accuracy of the parallel robot manipulator were obtained by adapting the singular value decomposition of the error translation matrix. Considering the influence of controllable and uncontrollable factors on the kinematic accuracy, the mathematical model of reliability based on random probability was employed. The measurement and calculation method for the evaluation of the mechanism’s kinematic reliability level was also provided. By analysing the mechanism’s errors and reliability, the law of surface error sensitivity for the location and structure parameters was obtained. The kinematic reliability of the parallel robot manipulator was statistically computed on the basis of the Monte Carlo simulation method. The reliability analysis of kinematic accuracy provides a theoretical basis for design optimization and error compensation.
A constrained generalised-α method for coupling rigid parallel chain kinematics and elastic bodies
Gransden, D.I.; Burkhard Bornemann, P.; Rose, M.; Nitzsche, F.
2015-01-01
A problem arises from combining flexible rotorcraft blades with stiffer mechanical links, which form a parallel kinematic chain. This paper introduces a method for solving index-3 differential algebraic equations for coupled stiff and elastic body systems with closed-loop kinematics. Rigid body dynamics and elastic body mechanics are independently described according to convenient mathematical measures. Holonomic constraint equations couple both the parallel chain kinematics and describe the ...
Almusawi, Ahmed R J; Dülger, L Canan; Kapucu, Sadettin
2016-01-01
This paper presents a novel inverse kinematics solution for robotic arm based on artificial neural network (ANN) architecture. The motion of robotic arm is controlled by the kinematics of ANN. A new artificial neural network approach for inverse kinematics is proposed. The novelty of the proposed ANN is the inclusion of the feedback of current joint angles configuration of robotic arm as well as the desired position and orientation in the input pattern of neural network, while the traditional ANN has only the desired position and orientation of the end effector in the input pattern of neural network. In this paper, a six DOF Denso robotic arm with a gripper is controlled by ANN. The comprehensive experimental results proved the applicability and the efficiency of the proposed approach in robotic motion control. The inclusion of current configuration of joint angles in ANN significantly increased the accuracy of ANN estimation of the joint angles output. The new controller design has advantages over the existing techniques for minimizing the position error in unconventional tasks and increasing the accuracy of ANN in estimation of robot's joint angles.
Yanhuo Zou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Isomorphism identification of kinematic chains is one of the most important and challenging mathematical problems in the field of mechanism structure synthesis. In this paper, a new algorithm to identify the isomorphism of planar multiple joint and gear train kinematic chains has been presented. Firstly, the topological model (TM and the corresponding weighted adjacency matrix (WAM are introduced to describe the two types of kinematic chains, respectively. Then, the equivalent circuit model (ECM of TM is established and solved by using circuit analysis method. The solved node voltage sequence (NVS is used to determine the correspondence of vertices in two isomorphism identification kinematic chains, so an algorithm to identify two specific types of isomorphic kinematic chains has been obtained. Lastly, some typical examples are carried out to prove that it is an accurate, efficient, and easy mathematical algorithm to be realized by computer.
Wang, Tianmiao; Wu, Yao; Liang, Jianhong; Han, Chenhao; Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Qiteng
2015-04-24
Skid-steering mobile robots are widely used because of their simple mechanism and robustness. However, due to the complex wheel-ground interactions and the kinematic constraints, it is a challenge to understand the kinematics and dynamics of such a robotic platform. In this paper, we develop an analysis and experimental kinematic scheme for a skid-steering wheeled vehicle based-on a laser scanner sensor. The kinematics model is established based on the boundedness of the instantaneous centers of rotation (ICR) of treads on the 2D motion plane. The kinematic parameters (the ICR coefficient , the path curvature variable and robot speed ), including the effect of vehicle dynamics, are introduced to describe the kinematics model. Then, an exact but costly dynamic model is used and the simulation of this model's stationary response for the vehicle shows a qualitative relationship for the specified parameters and . Moreover, the parameters of the kinematic model are determined based-on a laser scanner localization experimental analysis method with a skid-steering robotic platform, Pioneer P3-AT. The relationship between the ICR coefficient and two physical factors is studied, i.e., the radius of the path curvature and the robot speed . An empirical function-based relationship between the ICR coefficient of the robot and the path parameters is derived. To validate the obtained results, it is empirically demonstrated that the proposed kinematics model significantly improves the dead-reckoning performance of this skid-steering robot.
Human Gait Feature Extraction Including a Kinematic Analysis Toward Robotic Power Assistance
Mario I. Chacon-Murguia
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The present work proposes a method for human gait and kinematic analysis. Gait analysis consists of the determination of hip, knee and ankle positions through video analysis. Gait kinematic for the thigh and knee is then generated from this data. Evaluations of the gait analysis method indicate an acceptable performance of 86.66% for hip and knee position estimation, and comparable findings with other reported works for gait kinematic. A coordinate systems assignment is performed according to the DH algorithm and a direct kinematic model of the legs is obtained. The legs’ angles obtained from the video analysis are applied to the kinematic model in order to revise the application of this model to robotic legs in a power assisted system.
Direct and Inverse Kinematic Analysis of a Leg-wheeled Passive Wheel Mobile Robot--Ice-skater Robot
宋立博; 张家梁; 吕恬生; 陆顺寿
2003-01-01
A new passive wheel type of leg-wheeled mobile robot based on rolling principle was introduced. To enhance the stability and maintain vertical to the ground of wheels, four passive wheels were installed at the end of four legs respectively and parallel mechanisms were used as legs. And an inertia coordinate system and a robot coordinate system were established, the related kinematic equation of the robot was gotten according to some assumptions after the configuration or the posture of wheels and legs was analyzed. At the same time, the turning conditions of the robot were also obtained. Based on the motion principle, the VSS-based logic control system was designed and the skating straight experiments and the turning experiments were conducted. And some conclusions were drawn.
Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Lum, Peter S; Cooper, Rory A; Brewer, Bambi R
2013-06-01
Abnormal kinematics and the use of compensation strategies during training limit functional improvement from therapy. The Kinect is a low cost ($100) sensor that does not require any markers to be placed on the user. Integration of this sensor into currently used therapy systems can provide feedback about the user's movement quality, and the use of compensatory strategies to complete tasks. This paper presents a novel technique of adding the Kinect to an end effector robot to limit compensation strategies and to train normal joint coordination during movements with an end effector robot. This methodology has wider implications for other robotic and passively actuated end effector rehabilitation devices.
A Smooth Tour Construction Approach for a Mobile Robot with Kinematic Constraints
Ahmet Yazici
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Mobile robots are increasingly used for service-like applications in which the service points are known and the mobile robot starts from a starting location, visits all the service points requested and returns to the starting location. The tour construction problem in these applications can be treated as a Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. Classical tour construction algorithms that are proposed for the TSP find tours do not consider robot kinematic constraints. These tours may have sharp turns at some service points. When a mobile robot follows such a tour, it stops, turns and speeds up again. Therefore, the robots waste a considerable amount of power and time. In these cases, tour smoothing can be used to overcome this problem. However, smoothing an existing tour may result in unnecessarily long tours. In this study, a Smooth Tour Construction (STC approach is proposed for mobile robots with kinematic constraints. The STC approach considers tour construction and tour smoothing concurrently. The logic behind the tour construction part of the approach is based on the Savings Algorithm (SA. The tour smoothing is based on Dubins’ arc-line approach. Experiments are conducted for P3-DX robots in a laboratory environment. Comparisons are also drawn with various tour smoothing algorithms in simulation environments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed STC approach.
Effects of robotically modulating kinematic variability on motor skill learning and motivation.
Duarte, Jaime E; Reinkensmeyer, David J
2015-04-01
It is unclear how the variability of kinematic errors experienced during motor training affects skill retention and motivation. We used force fields produced by a haptic robot to modulate the kinematic errors of 30 healthy adults during a period of practice in a virtual simulation of golf putting. On day 1, participants became relatively skilled at putting to a near and far target by first practicing without force fields. On day 2, they warmed up at the task without force fields, then practiced with force fields that either reduced or augmented their kinematic errors and were finally assessed without the force fields active. On day 3, they returned for a long-term assessment, again without force fields. A control group practiced without force fields. We quantified motor skill as the variability in impact velocity at which participants putted the ball. We quantified motivation using a self-reported, standardized scale. Only individuals who were initially less skilled benefited from training; for these people, practicing with reduced kinematic variability improved skill more than practicing in the control condition. This reduced kinematic variability also improved self-reports of competence and satisfaction. Practice with increased kinematic variability worsened these self-reports as well as enjoyment. These negative motivational effects persisted on day 3 in a way that was uncorrelated with actual skill. In summary, robotically reducing kinematic errors in a golf putting training session improved putting skill more for less skilled putters. Robotically increasing kinematic errors had no performance effect, but decreased motivation in a persistent way.
Improved Inverse Kinematics Algorithm Using Screw Theory for a Six-DOF Robot Manipulator
Qingcheng Chen
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Based on screw theory, a novel improved inverse-kinematics approach for a type of six-DOF serial robot, “Qianjiang I”, is proposed in this paper. The common kinematics model of the robot is based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH notation method while its inverse kinematics has inefficient calculation and complicated solution, which cannot meet the demands of online real-time application. To solve this problem, this paper presents a new method to improve the efficiency of the inverse kinematics solution by introducing the screw theory. Unlike other methods, the proposed method only establishes two coordinates, namely the inertial coordinate and the tool coordinate; the screw motion of each link is carried out based on the inertial coordinate, ensuring definite geometric meaning. Furthermore, we adopt a new inverse kinematics algorithm, developing an improved sub-problem method along with Paden-Kahan sub-problems. This method has high efficiency and can be applied in real-time industrial operation. It is convenient to select the desired solutions directly from among multiple solutions by examining clear geometric meaning. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability performance of the new algorithm are analysed and verified in comparative experiments carried out on the six-DOF serial robot “Qianjiang I”.
A New Artificial Neural Network Approach in Solving Inverse Kinematics of Robotic Arm (Denso VP6242
Ahmed R. J. Almusawi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel inverse kinematics solution for robotic arm based on artificial neural network (ANN architecture. The motion of robotic arm is controlled by the kinematics of ANN. A new artificial neural network approach for inverse kinematics is proposed. The novelty of the proposed ANN is the inclusion of the feedback of current joint angles configuration of robotic arm as well as the desired position and orientation in the input pattern of neural network, while the traditional ANN has only the desired position and orientation of the end effector in the input pattern of neural network. In this paper, a six DOF Denso robotic arm with a gripper is controlled by ANN. The comprehensive experimental results proved the applicability and the efficiency of the proposed approach in robotic motion control. The inclusion of current configuration of joint angles in ANN significantly increased the accuracy of ANN estimation of the joint angles output. The new controller design has advantages over the existing techniques for minimizing the position error in unconventional tasks and increasing the accuracy of ANN in estimation of robot’s joint angles.
Fused Smart Sensor Network for Multi-Axis Forward Kinematics Estimation in Industrial Robots
Rene de Jesus Romero-Troncoso
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Flexible manipulator robots have a wide industrial application. Robot performance requires sensing its position and orientation adequately, known as forward kinematics. Commercially available, motion controllers use high-resolution optical encoders to sense the position of each joint which cannot detect some mechanical deformations that decrease the accuracy of the robot position and orientation. To overcome those problems, several sensor fusion methods have been proposed but at expenses of high-computational load, which avoids the online measurement of the joint’s angular position and the online forward kinematics estimation. The contribution of this work is to propose a fused smart sensor network to estimate the forward kinematics of an industrial robot. The developed smart processor uses Kalman filters to filter and to fuse the information of the sensor network. Two primary sensors are used: an optical encoder, and a 3-axis accelerometer. In order to obtain the position and orientation of each joint online a field-programmable gate array (FPGA is used in the hardware implementation taking advantage of the parallel computation capabilities and reconfigurability of this device. With the aim of evaluating the smart sensor network performance, three real-operation-oriented paths are executed and monitored in a 6-degree of freedom robot.
Stoica, Alin; Pisla, Doina; Andras, Szilaghyi; Gherman, Bogdan; Gyurka, Bela-Zoltan; Plitea, Nicolae
2013-03-01
In the last ten years, due to development in robotic assisted surgery, the minimally invasive surgery has greatly changed. Until now, the vast majority of robots used in surgery, have serial structures. Due to the orientation parallel module, the structure is able to reduce the pressure exerted on the entrance point in the patient's abdominal wall. The parallel robot can also handle both a laparoscope as well an active instrument for different surgical procedures. The advantage of this parallel structure is that the geometric model has been obtained through an analytical approach. The kinematic modelling of a new parallel architecture, the inverse and direct geometric model and the inverse and direct kinematic models for velocities and accelerations are being determined. The paper will demonstrate that with this parallel structure, one can obtain the necessary workspace required for a minimally invasive operation. The robot workspace was generated using the inverse geometric model. An indepth study of different types of singularity is performed, allowing the development of safe control algorithms of the experimental model. Some kinematic simulation results and the experimental model of the robot are presented in the paper.
The effect of limb kinematics on the speed of a legged robot on granular media
Li, Chen; Komsuoglu, Haldun; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1007/s11340-010-9347-1
2013-01-01
Achieving effective locomotion on diverse terrestrial substrates can require subtle changes of limb kinematics. Biologically inspired legged robots (physical models of organisms) have shown impressive mobility on hard ground but suffer performance loss on unconsolidated granular materials like sand. Because comprehensive limb-ground interaction models are lacking, optimal gaits on complex yielding terrain have been determined empirically. To develop predictive models for legged devices and to provide hypotheses for biological locomotors, we systematically study the performance of SandBot, a small legged robot, on granular media as a function of gait parameters. High performance occurs only in a small region of parameter space. A previously introduced kinematic model of the robot combined with a new anisotropic granular penetration force law predicts the speed. Performance on granular media is maximized when gait parameters minimize body acceleration and limb interference, and utilize solidification features o...
James, Jonathan A. [Open University, Materials Engineering, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.a.j.james@open.ac.uk; Edwards, Lyndon [Open University, Materials Engineering, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)
2007-02-11
Neutron stress measurements require specimens of complex geometry to be speedily and accurately positioned and oriented with respect to the neutron beam. Recognition that a majority of the specimen positioning systems in use at strain scanning facilities are effectively serial robot manipulators, suggests that the methods of serial robot kinematic modelling may be applied to advantage. The adoption of robotics methods provides a simple and reliable framework for controlling positioning systems of arbitrary geometry and complexity. In addition the numerical solution of the inverse kinematic problem is facilitated, allowing specimens to be automatically positioned and orientated so that pre-determined strain components are measured. It is also shown that, given sufficient degrees of freedom, a secondary characteristic of the measurement position such as the measurement count time may be simultaneously optimised.
Sensor module design and forward and inverse kinematics analysis of 6-DOF sorting transferring robot
Zhou, Huiying; Lin, Jiajian; Liu, Lei; Tao, Meng
2017-09-01
To meet the demand of high strength express sorting, it is significant to design a robot with multiple degrees of freedom that can sort and transfer. This paper uses infrared sensor, color sensor and pressure sensor to receive external information, combine the plan of motion path in advance and the feedback information from the sensors, then write relevant program. In accordance with these, we can design a 6-DOF robot that can realize multi-angle seizing. In order to obtain characteristics of forward and inverse kinematics, this paper describes the coordinate directions and pose estimation by the D-H parameter method and closed solution. On the basis of the solution of forward and inverse kinematics, geometric parameters of links and link parameters are optimized in terms of application requirements. In this way, this robot can identify route, sort and transfer.
Neural Behavior Chain Learning of Mobile Robot Actions
Lejla Banjanovic-Mehmedovic
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a visual/motor behavior learning approach, based on neural networks. We propose Behavior Chain Model (BCM in order to create a way of behavior learning. Our behavior-based system evolution task is a mobile robot detecting a target and driving/acting towards it. First, the mapping relations between the image feature domain of the object and the robot action domain are derived. Second, a multilayer neural network for offline learning of the mapping relations is used. This learning structure through neural network training process represents a connection between the visual perceptions and motor sequence of actions in order to grip a target. Last, using behavior learning through a noticed action chain, we can predict mobile robot behavior for a variety of similar tasks in similar environment. Prediction results suggest that the methodology is adequate and could be recognized as an idea for designing different mobile robot behaviour assistance.
Kinematic and dynamic modeling and approximate analysis of a roller chain drive
Fuglede, Niels; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2016-01-01
A simple roller chain drive consisting of two sprockets connected by tight chain spans is investigated. First, a kinematic model is presented which include both spans and sprockets. An approach for calculating the chain wrapping length is presented, which also allows for the exact calculation of ...
Satish Kumar
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, a method of artificial neural network applied for the solution of inverse kinematics of 2-link serial chain manipulator. The method is multilayer perceptrons neural network has applied. This unsupervised method learns the functional relationship between input (Cartesian space and output (joint space based on a localized adaptation of the mapping, by using the manipulator itself under joint control and adapting the solution based on a comparison between the resulting locations of the manipulator's end effectors in Cartesian space with the desired location. Even when a manipulator is not available; the approach is still valid if the forward kinematic equations are used as a model of the manipulator. The forward kinematic equations always have a unique solution, and the resulting Neural net can be used as a starting point for further refinement when the manipulator does become available. Artificial neural network especially MLP are used to learn the forward and the inverse kinematic equations of two degrees freedom robot arm. A set of some data sets were first generated as per the formula equation for this the input parameter X and Y coordinates in inches. Using these data sets was basis for the training and evaluation or testing the MLP model. Out of the sets data points, maximum were used as training data and some were used for testing for MLP. Backpropagation algorithm was used for training the network and for updating the desired weights. In this work epoch based training method was applied.
A constrained generalised-α method for coupling rigid parallel chain kinematics and elastic bodies
Gransden, D.I.; Burkhard Bornemann, P.; Rose, M.; Nitzsche, F.
2015-01-01
A problem arises from combining flexible rotorcraft blades with stiffer mechanical links, which form a parallel kinematic chain. This paper introduces a method for solving index-3 differential algebraic equations for coupled stiff and elastic body systems with closed-loop kinematics. Rigid body dyna
A constrained generalised-α method for coupling rigid parallel chain kinematics and elastic bodies
Gransden, D.I.; Burkhard Bornemann, P.; Rose, M.; Nitzsche, F.
2015-01-01
A problem arises from combining flexible rotorcraft blades with stiffer mechanical links, which form a parallel kinematic chain. This paper introduces a method for solving index-3 differential algebraic equations for coupled stiff and elastic body systems with closed-loop kinematics. Rigid body
Chen, Yu-Che; Walker, Ian D.; Cheatham, John B., Jr.
1992-01-01
We present a unified formulation for the inverse kinematics of redundant arms, based on a special formulation of the null space of the Jacobian. By extending (appropriately re-scaling) previously used null space parameterizations, we obtain, in a unified fashion, the manipulability measure, the null space projector, and particular solutions for the joint velocities. We obtain the minimum norm pseudo-inverse solution as a projection from any particular solution, and the method provides an intuitive visualization of the self-motion. The result is a computationally efficient, consistent approach to computing redundant robot inverse kinematics.
无
2001-01-01
Off-line programming provides an essential link between CAD and CAM, whose development will result in greater use of robotic arc welding. An arc welding system with a robot and a rotating/tilting positioner is one of the most typical workcells. The inverse kinematics of robot and positioner is the foundation of the off-line programming system. The previous researchers only focused on a special solution of the positioner inverse kinematics, which is the solution at down-hand welding position. In this paper, we introduce a method for representing welding position. Then a general algorithm of rotating/tilting positioner inverse kinematics is presented, and an approach to find the unique solution of the inverse kinematics is discussed. The simulation experiment results show that the general algorithm can improve the ability of robotic arc welding off-line programming system to program all types of welding positions.
Study on general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots
Tsukishima, T. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Sakai, K.; Takano, M.; Inouse, K. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)
1992-03-30
The general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots (WMR) was proposed. Various configurations of WMRs were modeled as planar linkage mechanism (tree-structure-link) which is composed of branching multiple links and whose end corresponds to wheels on a floor. The difference of the mechanism from robotic manipulators was clarified which are modeled as 3-D serial link mechanism. In dynamics of WMRs, the equation of motion of WMRs was derived for joint input torques, and forces and moments acting on wheels were determined as a function of a slip velocity, assuming the slippage of wheels was essential in dynamics of WMRs. The kinematics of WMRs was obtained as a special case of dynamics where wheel motion is assumed to have no slippage. In addition, since most of industrial motors are velocity-controlled, the equation of motion was rewritten in velocity input form, and the proposed theory was verified by numerical simulation. 11 refs., 15 figs.
Inverse Kinematics of a Humanoid Robot with Non-Spherical Hip: A Hybrid Algorithm Approach
2013-01-01
This paper describes an approach to solve the inverse kinematics problem of humanoid robots whose construction shows a small but non negligible offset at the hip which prevents any purely analytical solution to be developed. Knowing that a purely numerical solution is not feasible due to variable efficiency problems, the proposed one first neglects the offset presence in order to obtain an approximate “solution” by means of an analytical algorithm based on screw theory, a...
Marco Ceccarelli
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper a conceptual kinematic design of a chameleonlike robot with proper mobility capacity is presented for service applications in space stations as result of design considerations with biomimetic inspiration by looking at chameleons. Requirements and characteristics are discussed with the aim to identify design problems and operation features. A study of feasibility is described through performance evaluation by using simulations for a basic operation characterization.
Hand-Eye Calibration and Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm using Neural Network
Wu, Haiyan; Tizzano, Walter; Andersen, Thomas Timm
2013-01-01
tasks. This paper describes the theory and implementation of neural networks for hand-eye calibration and inverse kinematics of a six degrees of freedom robot arm equipped with a stereo vision system. The feedforward neural network and the network training with error propagation algorithm are applied......Traditional technologies for solving hand-eye calibration and inverse kinematics are cumbersome and time consuming due to the high nonlinearity in the models. An alternative to the traditional approaches is the articial neural network inspired by the remarkable abilities of the animals in dierent....... The proposed approaches are validated in experiments. The results indicate that the hand-eye calibration with simple neural network outperforms the conventional method. Meanwhile, the neural network exhibits a promising performance in solving inverse kinematics....
Human-robot interaction: kinematics and muscle activity inside a powered compliant knee exoskeleton.
Knaepen, Kristel; Beyl, Pieter; Duerinck, Saartje; Hagman, Friso; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain
2014-11-01
Until today it is not entirely clear how humans interact with automated gait rehabilitation devices and how we can, based on that interaction, maximize the effectiveness of these exoskeletons. The goal of this study was to gain knowledge on the human-robot interaction, in terms of kinematics and muscle activity, between a healthy human motor system and a powered knee exoskeleton (i.e., KNEXO). Therefore, temporal and spatial gait parameters, human joint kinematics, exoskeleton kinetics and muscle activity during four different walking trials in 10 healthy male subjects were studied. Healthy subjects can walk with KNEXO in patient-in-charge mode with some slight constraints in kinematics and muscle activity primarily due to inertia of the device. Yet, during robot-in-charge walking the muscular constraints are reversed by adding positive power to the leg swing, compensating in part this inertia. Next to that, KNEXO accurately records and replays the right knee kinematics meaning that subject-specific trajectories can be implemented as a target trajectory during assisted walking. No significant differences in the human response to the interaction with KNEXO in low and high compliant assistance could be pointed out. This is in contradiction with our hypothesis that muscle activity would decrease with increasing assistance. It seems that the differences between the parameter settings of low and high compliant control might not be sufficient to observe clear effects in healthy subjects. Moreover, we should take into account that KNEXO is a unilateral, 1 degree-of-freedom device.
Tianmiao Wang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Skid-steering mobile robots are widely used because of their simple mechanism and robustness. However, due to the complex wheel-ground interactions and the kinematic constraints, it is a challenge to understand the kinematics and dynamics of such a robotic platform. In this paper, we develop an analysis and experimental kinematic scheme for a skid-steering wheeled vehicle based-on a laser scanner sensor. The kinematics model is established based on the boundedness of the instantaneous centers of rotation (ICR of treads on the 2D motion plane. The kinematic parameters (the ICR coefficient , the path curvature variable and robot speed , including the effect of vehicle dynamics, are introduced to describe the kinematics model. Then, an exact but costly dynamic model is used and the simulation of this model’s stationary response for the vehicle shows a qualitative relationship for the specified parameters and . Moreover, the parameters of the kinematic model are determined based-on a laser scanner localization experimental analysis method with a skid-steering robotic platform, Pioneer P3-AT. The relationship between the ICR coefficient and two physical factors is studied, i.e., the radius of the path curvature and the robot speed . An empirical function-based relationship between the ICR coefficient of the robot and the path parameters is derived. To validate the obtained results, it is empirically demonstrated that the proposed kinematics model significantly improves the dead-reckoning performance of this skid–steering robot.
Real-time Adaptive Kinematic Model Estimation of Concentric Tube Robots.
Kim, Chunwoo; Ryu, Seok Chang; Dupont, Pierre E
2015-01-01
Kinematic models of concentric tube robots have matured from considering only tube bending to considering tube twisting as well as external loading. While these models have been demonstrated to approximate actual behavior, modeling error can be significant for medical applications that often call for positioning accuracy of 1-2mm. As an alternative to moving to more complex models, this paper proposes using sensing to adaptively update model parameters during robot operation. Advantages of this method are that the model is constantly tuning itself to provide high accuracy in the region of the workspace where it is currently operating. It also adapts automatically to changes in robot shape and compliance associated with the insertion and removal of tools through its lumen. As an initial exploration of this approach, a recursive on-line estimator is proposed and evaluated experimentally.
Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xin-Jun
2016-06-01
This study introduces a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion. This robot exhibits a promising prospect in realizing high-speed pick-andplace manipulation for packaging production lines. The robot has four identical limbs and a single platform. Its compact structure and single-platform concept provides this robot with good dynamic response potential. A line graph method based on Grassmann line geometry is used to investigate the mobility characteristics of the proposed robot. A generalized Blanding rule is also introduced into this procedure to realize mutual conversion between the line graphs for motions and constraints. Subsequently, the inverse kinematics is derived, and the singularity issue of the robot is investigated using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Input and output transmission singularity indices are defined based on the reciprocal product in screw theory and the virtual coefficient by considering motion/force transmission performance. Thereafter, the singular loci of the proposed robot with specific geometric parameters are derived. The mobility analysis, inverse kinematics modeling, and singularity analysis conducted in this study are helpful in developing the robot.
Path planning algorithms for assembly sequence planning. [in robot kinematics
Krishnan, S. S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.
1991-01-01
Planning for manipulation in complex environments often requires reasoning about the geometric and mechanical constraints which are posed by the task. In planning assembly operations, the automatic generation of operations sequences depends on the geometric feasibility of paths which permit parts to be joined into subassemblies. Feasible locations and collision-free paths must be present for part motions, robot and grasping motions, and fixtures. This paper describes an approach to reasoning about the feasibility of straight-line paths among three-dimensional polyhedral parts using an algebra of polyhedral cones. A second method recasts the feasibility conditions as constraints in a nonlinear optimization framework. Both algorithms have been implemented and results are presented.
Upper-limb kinematic reconstruction during stroke robot-aided therapy.
Papaleo, E; Zollo, L; Garcia-Aracil, N; Badesa, F J; Morales, R; Mazzoleni, S; Sterzi, S; Guglielmelli, E
2015-09-01
The paper proposes a novel method for an accurate and unobtrusive reconstruction of the upper-limb kinematics of stroke patients during robot-aided rehabilitation tasks with end-effector machines. The method is based on a robust analytic procedure for inverse kinematics that simply uses, in addition to hand pose data provided by the robot, upper arm acceleration measurements for computing a constraint on elbow position; it is exploited for task space augmentation. The proposed method can enable in-depth comprehension of planning strategy of stroke patients in the joint space and, consequently, allow developing therapies tailored for their residual motor capabilities. The experimental validation has a twofold purpose: (1) a comparative analysis with an optoelectronic motion capturing system is used to assess the method capability to reconstruct joint motion; (2) the application of the method to healthy and stroke subjects during circle-drawing tasks with InMotion2 robot is used to evaluate its efficacy in discriminating stroke from healthy behavior. The experimental results have shown that arm angles are reconstructed with a RMSE of 8.3 × 10(-3) rad. Moreover, the comparison between healthy and stroke subjects has revealed different features in the joint space in terms of mean values and standard deviations, which also allow assessing inter- and intra-subject variability. The findings of this study contribute to the investigation of motor performance in the joint space and Cartesian space of stroke patients undergoing robot-aided therapy, thus allowing: (1) evaluating the outcomes of the therapeutic approach, (2) re-planning the robotic treatment based on patient needs, and (3) understanding pathology-related motor strategies.
Verification of forward kinematics of the numerical and analytical model of Fanuc AM100iB robot
Cholewa, A.; Świder, J.; Zbilski, A.
2016-08-01
The article presents the verification of forward kinematics of Fanuc AM100iB robot. The developed kinematic model of the machine was verified using tests on an actual robot model. The tests consisted in positioning the robot operating in the mode of controlling the values of natural angles in selected points of its workspace and reading the indications of the coordinate values of the TCP point in the robot's global coordinate system on the operator panel. Validation of the model consisted of entering the same values of natural angles that were used for positioning the robot in its inputs and calculating the coordinate values of the TCP of the machine's CAE model, and then comparing the results obtained with the values read. These results are the introduction to the partial verification of the dynamic model of the analysed device.
Hennessey, Michael P.; Huang, Paul C.; Bunnell, Charles T.
1989-01-01
An efficient approach to cartesian motion and force control of a 7 degree of freedom (DOF) manipulator is presented. It is based on extending the active stiffness controller to the 7 DOF case in general and use of an efficient version of the gradient projection technique for solving the inverse kinematics problem. Cooperative control is achieved through appropriate configuration of individual manipulator controllers. In addition, other aspects of trajectory generation using standard techniques are integrated into the controller. The method is then applied to a specific manipulator of interest (Robotics Research T-710). Simulation of the kinematics, dynamics, and control are provided in the context of several scenarios: one pertaining to a noncontact pick and place operation; one relating to contour following where contact is made between the manipulator and environment; and one pertaining to cooperative control.
Bionic Mechanism and Kinematics Analysis of Hopping Robot Inspired by Locust Jumping
Diansheng Chen; Junmao Yin; Kai Zhao; Wanjun Zheng; Tianmiao Wang
2011-01-01
A flexible-rigid hopping mechanism which is inspired by the locust jumping was proposed,and its kinematic characteristics were analyzed.A series of experiments were conducted to observe locust morphology and jumping process.According to classic mechanics,the jumping process analysis was conducted to build the relationship of the locust jumping parameters.The take-off phase was divided into four stages in detail.Based on the biological observation and kinematics analysis,a mechanical model was proposed to simulate locust jumping.The forces of the flexible-rigid hopping mechanism at each stage were analyzed.The kinematic analysis using pseudo-rigid-body model was described by D-H method.It is confirmed that the proposed bionic mechanism has the similar performance as the locust hind leg in hopping.Moreover,the jumping angle which decides the jumping process was discussed,and its relation with other parameters was established.A calculation case analysis corroborated the method.The results of this paper show that the proposed bionic mechanism which is inspired by the locust hind limb has an excellent kinematics performance,which can provide a foundation for design and motion planning of the hopping robot.
Foot bone kinematics as measured in a cadaveric robotic gait simulator.
Whittaker, Eric C; Aubin, Patrick M; Ledoux, William R
2011-04-01
The bony motion of the foot during the stance phase of gait is useful to further our understanding of joint function, disease etiology, injury prevention and surgical intervention. In this study, we used a 10-segment in vitro foot model with anatomical coordinate systems and a robotic gait simulator (RGS) to measure the kinematics of the tibia, talus, calcaneus, cuboid, navicular, medial cuneiform, first metatarsal, hallux, third metatarsal, and fifth metatarsal from six cadaveric feet. The RGS accurately reproduced in vivo vertical ground reaction force (5.9% body weight RMS error) and tibia to ground kinematics. The kinematic data from the foot model generally agree with invasive in vivo descriptions of bony motion and provides the most realistic description of bony motion currently available for an in vitro model. These data help to clarify the function of several joints that are difficult to study in vivo; for example, the combined range of motion of the talonavicular, naviculocuneiform, metatarsocuneiform joints provided more sagittal plane mobility (27.4°) than the talotibial joint alone (23.2°). Additionally, the anatomical coordinate systems made it easier to meaningfully determine bone-to-bone motion, describing uniplanar motion as rotation about a single axis rather than about three. The data provided in this study allow for many kinematic interpretations to be made about dynamic foot bone motion, and the methodology presents a means to explore many invasive foot biomechanics questions under near-physiologic conditions.
An Efficient Inverse Kinematic Algorithm for a PUMA560-Structured Robot Manipulator
Huashan Liu
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient inverse kinematics (IK approach which features fast computing performance for a PUMA560‐structured robot manipulator. By properties of the orthogonal matrix and block matrix, the complex IK matrix equations are transformed into eight pure algebraic equations that contain the six unknown joint angle variables, which makes the solving compact without computing the reverses of the 4×4 homogeneous transformation matrices. Moreover, the appropriate combination of related equations ensures that the solutions are free of extraneous roots in the solving process, and the wrist singularity problem of the robot is also addressed. Finally, a case study is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
An Algorithm of Inverse Kinematics for the Automated Fiber Placement Robotic Manipulator
G.E. Xin-Feng
2012-08-01
Full Text Available To solve inverse kinematics of the automated fiber placement robotic manipulator, an algorithm based on the position vector and posture transformation matrix is proposed. According to the structural characteristics of three revolute joint axes of the automated fiber placement robotic manipulator intersect at one point, three displacement joint variables and three revolute joint variables are calculated, respectively using the position vector and posture transformation matrix. Compared with the general iterative algorithm, the algorithm proposed in this paper reduces the number of solving inverse matrices, increases solving speed and is expressed more simply. The algorithm is verified by simulation and the simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm in this study is correct.
Inverse Kinematics of a Humanoid Robot with Non-Spherical Hip: A Hybrid Algorithm Approach
Rafael Cisneros Limón
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to solve the inverse kinematics problem of humanoid robots whose construction shows a small but non negligible offset at the hip which prevents any purely analytical solution to be developed. Knowing that a purely numerical solution is not feasible due to variable efficiency problems, the proposed one first neglects the offset presence in order to obtain an approximate “solution” by means of an analytical algorithm based on screw theory, and then uses it as the initial condition of a numerical refining procedure based on the Levenberg‐Marquardt algorithm. In this way, few iterations are needed for any specified attitude, making it possible to implement the algorithm for real‐time applications. As a way to show the algorithm’s implementation, one case of study is considered throughout the paper, represented by the SILO2 humanoid robot.
Kinematics and Dynamics of a New 16 DOF Humanoid Biped Robot with Active Toe Joint
C. Hernández-Santos
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Humanoid biped robots are typically complex in design, having numerous Degrees-of-Freedom (DOF due to the ambitious goal of mimicking the human gait. The paper proposes a new architecture for a biped robot with seven DOF per each leg and one DOF corresponding to the toe joint. Furthermore, this work presents close equations for the forward and inverse kinematics by dividing the walking gait into the Sagittal and Frontal planes. This paper explains the mathematical model of the dynamics equations for the legs into the Sagittal and Frontal planes by further applying the principle of Lagrangian dynamics. Finally, a control approach using a PD control law with gravity compensation was recurred in order to control the desired trajectories and finding the required torque by the joints. The paper contains several simulations and numerical examples to prove the analytical results, using SimMechanics of MATLAB toolbox and SolidWorks to verify the analytical results.
Kinematics design and human motion transfer for a humanoid service robot arm
Dube, C
2009-11-01
Full Text Available should have a struc- ture and range of motion similar to that of a human. This paper focuses on the kinematic design of a humanoid robot arm for human environments and the transferring of hu- man motion to the humanoid arm via visual motion capture... frame for the shoulder girdle DOFs a method of extracting ster- num position information from the motion capture data is for- mulated. Finally the formulation is compared against a test data set in order to verify the formulation (Section 6). 2...
Kinematics Modeling of an Omnidirectional Autonomous Mobile Robot with Castor Wheels
Peng Yiqiang
2006-01-01
The kinematics model of an omnidirectional wheeled mobile robot (WMR) platform with 3 castor wheels was built, which includes the actuated inverse solution and the sensed forward solution. Motion simulations verify the consistency between the actuated inverse solution and the sensed forward solution. Analysis results show that the WMR possesses 3 degrees of freedom, and its motion trajectory is a straight line. The "pushing" and "pulling" motion patterns of the WMR can be generated by using different wheel orientations. It can be used in the places where the space is limited.
Kinematics and Dynamics of a Translational Parallel Robot Based on Planar Mechanisms
Mario A. Garcia-Murillo
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this contribution, a novel translational parallel robot composed of an arrangement of mechanisms with planar motion is presented. Its mobility is analyzed and the position analysis is solved by using equations derived from mechanical constraints. Furthermore, the analysis of velocity and acceleration are solved by means of the screw theory. For completeness, the inverse dynamics are also presented and solved by means of an interesting combination of the screw theory and the virtual work principle. Finally, a numerical example is included to show the application of the kinematic model, which is verified with the aid of a commercially available software.
Metrological Evaluation of a Novel Medical Robot and Its Kinematic Calibration
Longfei Zhao
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The vessels are twisted in a longitudinal 3D space in the lower limbs of humans. Thus, it is difficult to perform an ultrasound scanning examination in this area. In this paper, a new medical parallel robot is introduced to effectively diagnose vessel disease in the lower limbs. The robot’s position repeatability and accuracy are evaluated. Furthermore, the robot’s accuracy is improved through a calibration process in which the kinematic parameters are identified through a simple identification approach.
Vibration Suppression for Improving the Estimation of Kinematic Parameters on Industrial Robots
David Alejandro Elvira-Ortiz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Vibration is a phenomenon that is present on every industrial system such as CNC machines and industrial robots. Moreover, sensors used to estimate angular position of a joint in an industrial robot are severely affected by vibrations and lead to wrong estimations. This paper proposes a methodology for improving the estimation of kinematic parameters on industrial robots through a proper suppression of the vibration components present on signals acquired from two primary sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. A Kalman filter is responsible for the filtering of spurious vibration. Additionally, a sensor fusion technique is used to merge information from both sensors and improve the results obtained using each sensor separately. The methodology is implemented in a proprietary hardware signal processor and tested in an ABB IRB 140 industrial robot, first by analyzing the motion profile of only one joint and then by estimating the path tracking of two welding tasks: one rectangular and another one circular. Results from this work prove that the sensor fusion technique accompanied by proper suppression of vibrations delivers better estimation than other proposed techniques.
Influence of Attachment Pressure and Kinematic Configuration on pHRI with Wearable Robots
André Schiele
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to show the influence of exoskeleton attachment, such as the pressure on the fixation cuffs and alignment of the robot joint to the human joint, on subjective and objective performance metrics (i.e. comfort, mental load, interface forces, tracking error and available workspace during a typical physical human-robot interaction (pHRI experiment. A mathematical model of a single degree of freedom interaction between humans and a wearable robot is presented and used to explain the causes and characteristics of interface forces between the two. The pHRI model parameters (real joint offsets, attachment stiffness are estimated from experimental interface force measurements acquired during tests with 14 subjects. Insights gained by the model allow optimisation of the exoskeleton kinematics. This paper shows that offsets of more than ±10 cm exist between human and robot axes of rotation, even if a well-designed exoskeleton is aligned properly before motion. Such offsets can create interface loads of up to 200 N and 1.5 Nm in the absence of actuation. The optimal attachment pressure is determined to be 20 mmHg and the attachment stiffness is about 300 N/m. Inclusion of passive compensation joints in the exoskeleton is shown to lower the interaction forces significantly, which enables a more ergonomic pHRI.
Manoj K Lohumi; Aas Mohammad; Irshad A Khan
2015-04-01
Some new invariants like chain string, link identiﬁcation string, loop participation of joint frequency string and loop size frequency string of simple jointed kinematic chains are presented. The ﬁrst step of the proposed method is to identify all possible loops of a kinematic chain and then these new invariants are developed. A modiﬁed loop-joint approach is proposed in this work as compared to the previous work in literature where loop-link matrix is formulated to search all the loops present in a kinematic chain. A computer program has been developed for formulating loop-joint matrix of kinematic chain and its all invariants. This method takes into consideration all the loops present, associated joints and links and is able to test isomorphism among kinematic chains and their inversions and also to detect type of mobility of multi degree of freedom kinematic chains. The proposed method is successfully tested for all kinematic chains upto ﬁve independent loops having any number of degree of freedom and no counter example is found. The detailed results of 9-link, M = 2 (mobility) and 10 link, M = 3 kinematic chains are provided with ﬁve types of mobility and results are in accordance with the results published in literature. The method is also explained with the help of some complex examples and presented in this paper.
Duret, Christophe; Courtial, Ophélie; Grosmaire, Anne Gaelle
2016-01-01
Kinematic assessments are increasingly used as motor outcome measures during upper limb robot-assisted training, in addition to clinical scales. However, their relevance has not been evaluated much. Thirty-eight patients with severe sub-acute stroke (age 56 ± 17 [19-87] years; time since stroke, 55 ± 22 days) carried out 16 sessions (average 3/week, 35 ± 15 days) of upper limb robot-assisted training combined with standard therapy. Pre/post motor performance was evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale, Motor Status Scale (MSS) and kinematic measures. Motor outcomes were compared and relationships between clinical and kinematic outcomes were analyzed. All clinical and kinematic outcomes improved after training (p < 0.01). FM score increased from 17.7 ± 10.0 to 28.6 ± 15.4. All baseline kinematic measures were strongly correlated with clinical scores. Correlations between clinical and kinematic changes were moderate (r = -0.65 for change in FM Proximal score and change in accuracy measure). However, smoothness and accuracy indicators were shown to be responsive measures. This study demonstrated that baseline kinematic measures and their pre/post training changes were significantly correlated with clinical motor outcome measures. However, even if kinematic measures are valid for the evaluation of motor impairment we cannot propose to substitute common clinical measures of motor function which also evaluate functional abilities of the upper limb.
A constrained generalised- method for coupling rigid parallel chain kinematics and elastic bodies
Gransden, Derek I.; Bornemann, P. Burkhard; Rose, Michael; Nitzsche, Fred
2015-03-01
A problem arises from combining flexible rotorcraft blades with stiffer mechanical links, which form a parallel kinematic chain. This paper introduces a method for solving index-3 differential algebraic equations for coupled stiff and elastic body systems with closed-loop kinematics. Rigid body dynamics and elastic body mechanics are independently described according to convenient mathematical measures. Holonomic constraint equations couple both the parallel chain kinematics and describe the coupling between the rigid and continuum bodies. Lagrange multipliers enforce the kinetic conditions for both sets of constraints. Additionally, to prevent numerical inaccuracy from inverting stiff mechanical matrices, a scaling factor normalises the dynamic tangential stiffness matrix. Finally, example tests show the verification of the algorithm with respect to existing computational tests and the accuracy of the model for cases relevant to the problem definition.
Clifford algebras geometric modelling and chain geometries with application in kinematics
Klawitter, Daniel
2015-01-01
After revising known representations of the group of Euclidean displacements Daniel Klawitter gives a comprehensive introduction into Clifford algebras. The Clifford algebra calculus is used to construct new models that allow descriptions of the group of projective transformations and inversions with respect to hyperquadrics. Afterwards, chain geometries over Clifford algebras and their subchain geometries are examined. The author applies this theory and the developed methods to the homogeneous Clifford algebra model corresponding to Euclidean geometry. Moreover, kinematic mappings for special Cayley-Klein geometries are developed. These mappings allow a description of existing kinematic mappings in a unifying framework. Contents Models and representations of classical groups Clifford algebras, chain geometries over Clifford algebras Kinematic mappings for Pin and Spin groups Cayley-Klein geometries Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of mathematics, physics, and mechanical engineering About...
Hsu-Chih Huang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid Taguchi deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA swarm intelligence for solving the inverse kinematics redundancy problem of six degree-of-freedom (DOF humanoid robot arms. The inverse kinematics problem of the multi-DOF humanoid robot arm is redundant and has no general closed-form solutions or analytical solutions. The optimal joint configurations are obtained by minimizing the predefined performance index in DNA algorithm for real-world humanoid robotics application. The Taguchi method is employed to determine the DNA parameters to search for the joint solutions of the six-DOF robot arms more efficiently. This approach circumvents the disadvantage of time-consuming tuning procedure in conventional DNA computing. Simulation results are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness and merit of the proposed methods. This Taguchi-based DNA (TDNA solver outperforms the conventional solvers, such as geometric solver, Jacobian-based solver, genetic algorithm (GA solver and ant, colony optimization (ACO solver.
Theory of loop algebra on multi-loop kinematic chains and its application
2007-01-01
Based on the mathematic representation of loops of kinematic chains, this paper proposes the " ⊕ " operation of loops and its basic laws and establishes the basic theorem system of the loop algebra of kinematic chains. Then the basis loop set and its determination conditions, and the ways to obtain the crucial perimeter topological graph are presented. Furthermore, the characteristic perimeter topo-logical graph and the characteristic adjacency matrix are also developed. The most important characteristic of this theory is that for a topological graph which is drawn or labeled in any way, both the resulting characteristic perimeter topological graph and the characteristic adjacency matrix obtained through this theory are unique, and each has one-to-one correspondence with its kinematic chain. This character-istic dramatically simplifies the isomorphism identification and establishes a theoretical basis for the numeralization of topological graphs, and paves the way for numeralization and computerization of the structural synthesis and mechanism design further. Finally, this paper also proposes a concise isomorphism identifica-tion method of kinematic chains based on the concept of characteristic adjacency matrix.
Theory of loop algebra on multi-loop kinematic chains and its application
HUANG Zhen; DING HuaFeng
2007-01-01
Based on the mathematic representation of loops of kinematic chains, this paper proposes the "" operation of loops and its basic laws and establishes the basic theorem system of the loop algebra of kinematic chains. Then the basis loop set and its determination conditions, and the ways to obtain the crucial perimeter topological graph are presented. Furthermore, the characteristic perimeter topological graph and the characteristic adjacency matrix are also developed. The most important characteristic of this theory is that for a topological graph which is drawn or labeled in any way, both the resulting characteristic perimeter topological graph and the characteristic adjacency matrix obtained through this theory are unique, and each has one-to-one correspondence with its kinematic chain. This characteristic dramatically simplifies the isomorphism identification and establishes a theoretical basis for the numeralization of topological graphs, and paves the way for numeralization and computerization of the structural synthesis and mechanism design further. Finally, this paper also proposes a concise isomorphism identification method of kinematic chains based on the concept of characteristic adjacency matrix.
The kinematic preshaping of triggered self-adaptive linkage-driven robotic fingers
L. Birglen
2011-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of the kinematic – as opposed to dynamic – preshaping of self-adaptive robotic fingers driven by linkages is discussed. A method to obtain designs of these fingers capable of various behaviours during their closing motions is presented. The method is based on using triggered passive elements in carefully selected joints of the finger and the selection or optimization of geometric parameters to obtain particular kinematic relationships between the motions of the phalanges. This method is very general and can be applied to any self-adaptive robotic finger in order to obtain many different types of closing motions. Examples given in this paper are focusing on two different preshaping motions, the first one aims at allowing pinch grasps while the second mimics a human finger. The fundamental aim of this paper is to show that various preshapings of self-adaptive fingers are possible, not just one, and to give two step-by-step examples.
This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.
Stiffness Analysis Of Multi-Chain Parallel Robotic Systems
Pashkevich, Anatoly; Chablat, Damien; Wenger, Philippe
2009-01-01
The paper presents a new stiffness modelling method for multi-chain parallel robotic manipulators with flexible links and compliant actuating joints. In contrast to other works, the method involves a FEA-based link stiffness evaluation and employs a new solution strategy of the kinetostatic equations, which allows computing the stiffness matrix for singular postures and to take into account influence of the external forces. The advantages of the developed technique are confirmed by application examples, which deal with stiffness analysis of a parallel manipulator of the Orthoglide family
Stiffness Analysis Of Multi-Chain Parallel Robotic Systems
Pashkevich, Anatoly; Wenger, Philippe
2008-01-01
The paper presents a new stiffness modelling method for multi-chain parallel robotic manipulators with flexible links and compliant actuating joints. In contrast to other works, the method involves a FEA-based link stiffness evaluation and employs a new solution strategy of the kinetostatic equations, which allows computing the stiffness matrix for singular postures and to take into account influence of the internal forces. The advantages of the developed technique are confirmed by application examples, which deal with stiffness analysis of the Orthoglide manipulator.
Lerner, Zachary F; Damiano, Diane L; Bulea, Thomas C
2016-08-01
A robotic exoskeleton was designed for individuals with crouch gait caused by cerebral palsy with the intent to supplement existing muscle function during walking. The aim of this study was to evaluate how powered knee extension assistance provided during stance and swing phases of the gait cycle affect knee kinematics, and knee flexor and extensor muscle activity. Muscle activity and kinematic data were collected from four individuals with crouch gait from cerebral palsy during their normal walking condition and while walking with the exoskeleton under stance, swing, and stance & swing assistance. The exoskeleton was effective in reducing crouch by an average of 13.8° in three of the four participants when assistance was provided during the stance phase; assistance during the swing phase alone was ineffective. Peak knee extensor activity was maintained for all of the conditions during the stance and swing phases. Integrated (i.e. area under the curve) knee extensor activity decreased in two of the subjects indicating a more well-modulated activation pattern. Modest increases in peak and integrated antagonist knee flexor activity were exhibited in all participants; the subject without kinematic improvement had the greatest increase. While the exoskeleton was well tolerated, additional training with a focus on reducing knee flexor activity may lead to further improvements in crouch gait reduction.
Lerner, Zachary F; Damiano, Diane L; Bulea, Thomas C; Lerner, Zachary F; Damiano, Diane L; Bulea, Thomas C; Damiano, Diane L; Lerner, Zachary F; Bulea, Thomas C
2016-08-01
A robotic exoskeleton was designed for individuals with crouch gait caused by cerebral palsy with the intent to supplement existing muscle function during walking. The aim of this study was to evaluate how powered knee extension assistance provided during stance and swing phases of the gait cycle affect knee kinematics, and knee flexor and extensor muscle activity. Muscle activity and kinematic data were collected from four individuals with crouch gait from cerebral palsy during their normal walking condition and while walking with the exoskeleton under stance, swing, and stance & swing assistance. The exoskeleton was effective in reducing crouch by an average of 13.8° in three of the four participants when assistance was provided during the stance phase; assistance during the swing phase alone was ineffective. Peak knee extensor activity was maintained for all of the conditions during the stance and swing phases. Integrated (i.e. area under the curve) knee extensor activity decreased in two of the subjects indicating a more well-modulated activation pattern. Modest increases in peak and integrated antagonist knee flexor activity were exhibited in all participants; the subject without kinematic improvement had the greatest increase. While the exoskeleton was well tolerated, additional training with a focus on reducing knee flexor activity may lead to further improvements in crouch gait reduction.
Screw Representation of the Robotic Manipulator' s Kinematics%机器人运动学的旋量表述
葛洪央; 葛新锋
2012-01-01
The robotic manipulator' s rigid body motions were described using Lie groups knowledge and screw theory,established the robotic manipulator's kinematics algorithm,and realized the algorithm using Mathematics; the representative robotic manipulator was selected and its kinematics were analyzed, and the algorithm and procedures were verified. Finally, the screw exponential product method of the robotic manipulator's kinematics and the traditional D-H parameters method were compared and analyzed, moreover, the advantages of screw exponential product methoj of the robotic manipulator' s kinematics were elaborated from two aspects,namely the geometric description of kinematics parameters and the impact of kinematics relations on latetime analysis.%应用李群知识和旋量理论描述了串联机器人的刚体运动,建立了机器人运动学关系的算法,并利用软件Mathematica进行了算法的实现；选取了具有代表性的串联机器人进行了运动学关系的分析,对算法和程序进行了验证；最后将运动学关系式的旋量指数积方法与传统的D-H参数方法进行了比较分析,从运动学参数的几何描述以及运动学关系式对后期分析的影响2个方面分别阐述了旋量指数积描述方法的优势.
Isaac-Lowry, Oran Jacob; Okamoto, Steele; Pedram, Sahba Aghajani; Woo, Russell; Berkelman, Peter
2017-03-27
To date a variety of teleoperated surgical robotic systems have been developed to improve a surgeon's ability to perform demanding single-port procedures. However typical large systems are bulky, expensive, and afford limited angular motion, while smaller designs suffer complications arising from limited motion range, speed, and force generation. This work was to develop and validate a simple, compact, low cost single site teleoperated laparoendoscopic surgical robotic system, with demonstrated capability to carry out basic surgical procedures. This system builds upon previous work done at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and includes instrument and endoscope manipulators as well as compact articulated instruments designed to overcome single incision geometry complications. A robotic endoscope holder was used for the base, with an added support frame for teleoperated manipulators and instruments fabricated mostly from 3D printed parts. Kinematics and control methods were formulated for the novel manipulator configuration. Trajectory following results from an optical motion tracker and sample task performance results are presented. Results indicate that the system has successfully met the goal of basic surgical functionality while minimizing physical size, complexity, and cost. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Knaepen, Kristel; Michielsen, Marc; Clijsen, Ron; Beckwée, David; Kerckhofs, Eric
2015-03-01
Little attention has been devoted to the thorax and pelvis movements during gait. The aim of this study is to compare differences in the thorax and pelvis kinematics during unassisted walking on a treadmill and during walking with robot assistance (Lokomat-system (Hocoma, Volketswil, Switzerland)). 18 healthy persons walked on a treadmill with and without the Lokomat system at 2kmph. Three different conditions of guidance force (30%, 60% and 100%) were used during robot-assisted treadmill walking (30% body weight support). The maximal movement amplitudes of the thorax and pelvis were measured (Polhemus Liberty™ (Polhemus, Colchester, Vermont, USA) (240/16)). A repeated measurement ANOVA was conducted. Robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force showed significantly smaller maximal movement amplitudes for thorax and pelvis, compared to treadmill walking. Only the antero-posterior tilting of the pelvis was significantly increased during robot-assisted treadmill walking compared to treadmill walking. No significant changes of kinematic parameters were found between the different levels of guidance force. With regard to the thorax and pelvis movements, robot-assisted treadmill walking is significantly different compared to treadmill walking. It can be concluded that when using robot assistance, the thorax is stimulated in a different way than during walking without robot assistance, influencing the balance training during gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emre Sariyildiz
2011-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we compare three inverse kinematic formulation methods for the serial industrial robot manipulators. All formulation methods are based on screw theory. Screw theory is an effective way to establish a global description of rigid body and avoids singularities due to the use of the local coordinates. In these three formulation methods, the first one is based on quaternion algebra, the second one is based on dual‐quaternions, and the last one that is called exponential mapping method is based on matrix algebra. Compared with the matrix algebra, quaternion algebra based solutions are more computationally efficient and they need less storage area. The method which is based on dual‐quaternion gives the most compact and computationally efficient solution. Paden‐Kahan sub‐problems are used to derive inverse kinematic solutions. 6‐DOF industrial robot manipulator's forward and inverse kinematic equations are derived using these formulation methods. Simulation and experimental results are given.
From salps to robots: estimating thrust in propulsive pulsed jets using wake kinematics
Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas
2016-11-01
Both animals and robots can achieve high maneuverability underwater by using pulsed jets for propulsion. However, in cases where multiple jets are required, it remains unclear how jet placement and timing will affect propulsive performance. In recent experiments, we demonstrate how vortex interactions reduce thrust production for simultaneously pulsed jets. Our results rely on force estimates using high-speed laser fluorescence imaging of the jet wakes. By combining measurements of wake kinematics with analytical models, we are able to estimate force production from just the fluorescence videos. In this talk, I will discuss the force estimation technique, and how this approach helped to reveal design strategies that would benefit from the wake interactions. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research.
Kinematic design of a finger abduction mechanism for an anthropomorphic robotic hand
L.-A. A. Demers
2011-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic design of an abduction mechanism for the fingers of an underactuated anthropomorphic robotic hand. This mechanism will enhance the range of feasible grasps of the underactuated hand without significantly increasing its complexity. The analysis of the link between the index finger and the third finger is first assessed, where the parameters are studied in order to follow the amplitude constraint and to minimize the coordination error. Then, the study of the mechanism joining the third finger and the little finger is summarized. Finally, a prototype of the finger's abduction system is presented.
This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.
The Development of Instructional Model Based on an Experiential Learning in Robot Kinematics
Numchoke Wattananaiya
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This research aimed to develop an instructional model in Robot Kinematics under experiential learning. The procedure of this research included analysis, and synthesis of the instructional model designed by PIRAMID Model. After that, all materials were evaluated by 9 experts from both education and engineering sides. The instructional model was applied to a sampling group of 27 undergraduate electrical engineering students. The evaluation methods consisted of product assessment, process assessment, test score differences between pretest and posttest, and learning satisfaction evaluation. The results showed that the Instructional model in experiential learning with a seven-step ; 1 Promote, 2 Information, 3 Respond, 4 Acting, 5 Manipulate, 6 Inspiration, and 7 Development. The process had efficiency of 79.40 / 75.65 ; higher than the 70/70 expected criteria. The test score difference provided statistically significant level at .05. The students were satisfied in the instructional model at high level.
Kinematics and control of redundant robotic arm based on dielectric elastomer actuators
Branz, Francesco; Antonello, Andrea; Carron, Andrea; Carli, Ruggero; Francesconi, Alessandro
2015-04-01
Soft robotics is a promising field and its application to space mechanisms could represent a breakthrough in space technologies by enabling new operative scenarios (e.g. soft manipulators, capture systems). Dielectric Elastomers Actuators have been under deep study for a number of years and have shown several advantages that could be of key importance for space applications. Among such advantages the most notable are high conversion efficiency, distributed actuation, self-sensing capability, multi-degree-of-freedom design, light weight and low cost. The big potentialities of double cone actuators have been proven in terms of good performances (i.e. stroke and force/torque), ease of manufacturing and durability. In this work the kinematic, dynamic and control design of a two-joint redundant robotic arm is presented. Two double cone actuators are assembled in series to form a two-link design. Each joint has two degrees of freedom (one rotational and one translational) for a total of four. The arm is designed to move in a 2-D environment (i.e. the horizontal plane) with 4 DoF, consequently having two degrees of redundancy. The redundancy is exploited in order to minimize the joint loads. The kinematic design with redundant Jacobian inversion is presented. The selected control algorithm is described along with the results of a number of dynamic simulations that have been executed for performance verification. Finally, an experimental setup is presented based on a flexible structure that counteracts gravity during testing in order to better emulate future zero-gravity applications.
Fernini Brahim
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Simulation of robot systems which is getting very popular, especially with the lowering cost of computers, can be used for layout evaluation, feasibility studies, presentations with animation and off-line programming. Object staging modelisation using robots holds, wether for the object or the robot, the following models: The geometric one, the kinematics one and the dynamic one. To do so, the modelisation of a 2-R robot type is being implemented. Comparing between two robot postures with the same trajectory (path and for the same length of time and establishing a computing code to obtain the kinematic and dynamic parameters are the main tasks. SolidWorks and Matlab/Simulink softwares are used to check the theory and the robot motion simulation. The verification of the obtained results by both softwares allows us to, qualitatively evaluate ,underline the rightness of the chosen model and to get the right conclusions. The results of simulations were discussed. An agreement between the two softwares is certainly Obtained.
Path Planning of Free-Floating Robot in Cartesian Space Using Direct Kinematics
Wenfu Xu
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamic singularities make it difficult to plan the Cartesian path of freefloating robot. In order to avoid its effect, the direct kinematic equations are used for path planning in the paper. Here, the joint position, rate and acceleration are bounded. Firstly, the joint trajectories are parameterized by polynomial or sinusoidal functions. And the two parametric functions are compared in details. It is the first contribution of the paper that polynomial functions can be used when the joint angles are limited(In the similar work of other researchers, only sinusoidla functions could be used. Secondly, the joint functions are normalized and the system of equations about the parameters is established by integrating the differential kinematics equations. Normalization is another contribution of the paper. After normalization, the boundary of the parameters is determined beforehand, and the general criterion to assign the initial guess of the unknown parameters is supplied. The criterion is independent on the planning conditions such as the total time tf. Finally, the parametes are solved by the iterative Newtonian method. Modification of tf may not result in the recalculation of the parameters. Simulation results verify the path planning method.
Mahmoud Gouasmi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The simulation of robot systems is becoming very popular, especially with the lowering of the cost of computers, and it can be used for layout evaluation, feasibility studies, presentations with animation and off-line programming. The trajectory planning of redundant manipulators is a very active area since many tasks require special characteristics to be satisfied. The importance of redundant manipulators has increased over the last two decades because of the possibility of avoiding singularities as well as obstacles within the course of motion. The angle that the last link of a 2 DOF manipulator makes with the x-axis is required in order to find the solution for the inverse kinematics problem. This angle could be optimized with respect to a given specified key factor (time, velocity, torques while the end-effector performs a chosen trajectory (i.e., avoiding an obstacle in the task space. Modeling and simulation of robots could be achieved using either of the following models: the geometrical model (positions, postures, the kinematic model and the dynamic model. To do so, the modelization of a 2-R robot type is implemented. Our main tasks are comparing two robot postures with the same trajectory (path and for the same length of time, and establishing a computing code to obtain the kinematic and dynamic parameters. SolidWorks and MATLAB/Simulink softwares are used to check the theory and the robot motion simulation. This could be easily generalized to a 3-R robot and possibly therefore to any serial robot (Scara, Puma, etc.. The verification of the obtained results by both softwares allows us to qualitatively evaluate and underline the validityof the chosen model and obtain the right conclusions. The results of the simulations are discussed and an agreement between the two softwares is certainly obtained.
Youngjin Moon
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new end-effector as a key component for a robotic needle insertion-type intervention system and its kinematic analysis. The mechanism is designed as a spherical mechanism with a revolute joint and a curved sliding joint, and its links always move on the surface of a sphere. The remote centre of motion (RCM of the designed mechanism is placed below the base of the mechanism to avoid contact with the patient’s body, unlike the conventional end-effectors developed for needle insertion. For the proposed mechanism, the forward kinematics are solved in terms of input joint parameters and then the reverse kinematics are solved by using the cross-product relation‐ ship between each joint vector and a vector mutually perpendicular to the vectors. The kinematic solutions are confirmed by numerical examples.
Chelnokov, Yu. N.
2013-01-01
The problem of reducing the body-attached coordinate system to the reference (programmed) coordinate system moving relative to the fixed coordinate system with a given instantaneous velocity screw along a given trajectory is considered in the kinematic statement. The biquaternion kinematic equations of motion of a rigid body in normalized and unnormalized finite displacement biquaternions are used as the mathematical model of motion, and the dual orthogonal projections of the instantaneous velocity screw of the body motion onto the body coordinate axes are used as the control. Various types of correction (stabilization), which are biquaternion analogs of position and integral corrections, are proposed. It is shown that the linear (obtained without linearization) and stationary biquaternion error equations that are invariant under any chosen programmed motion of the reference coordinate system can be obtained for the proposed types of correction and the use of unnormalized finite displacement biquaternions and four-dimensional dual controls allows one to construct globally regular control laws. The general solution of the error equation is constructed, and conditions for asymptotic stability of the programmed motion are obtained. The constructed theory of kinematic control of motion is used to solve inverse problems of robot-manipulator kinematics. The control problem under study is a generalization of the kinematic problem [1, 2] of reducing the body-attached coordinate system to the reference coordinate system rotating at a given (programmed) absolute angular velocity, and the presentedmethod for solving inverse problems of robotmanipulator kinematics is a development of the method proposed in [3-5].
无
2001-01-01
The spanning tree method of identifying isomorphism and topological symmetry to planar kinematic chain with multiple joint is presented. Directly using the kinematic-chain’s structural graph in the mechanism motion sketch or its inversion,the connected relations of components and joints can be presented through the spanning tree constructed by Depth-First traversal the graph and the distribution of back-edge. Then, whether two graph isomorphism and components’topological symmertry can be identified through comparing the structural characteristic of spanning tree and the distribution characteristic of back-edge. The study shows that the method is effective, directly perceptible, simple and convenient, and easily dealt with by computer.
a Six-Link Kinematic Chain Model of Human Body Using Kane's Method
Rambely, A. S.; Fazrolrozi
A biomechanics model of six-link kinematic chain of human body is developed by using Kane's method. The kinematic data comprise of six segments; foot, calf, thigh, trunk, upper arm and forearm, are obtained through data collection of walking, running and jumping using the Vicon Nexus system. The motion capture system uses 12 Vicon MX-3+ cameras and 12 Vicon MX-F40 cameras, two DV (50 Hz) cameras and a force plate (100 Hz). Inverse dynamics approach is used to obtain the unknown value of torques produced by joint segments during walking, running and jumping activities. The results show that the largest value of torques produced occurs at the foot segment.
四足变结构机器人的运动学分析%Kinematics analysis of a quadruped robot with variable structure
陈浩; 丁希仑
2012-01-01
A novel quadruped robot with variable structure was analyzed by kinematic methods. First, the velocity of a single leg was studied. Then the kinematics of the whole robot was discussed, and a globe velocity equation was proposed and established with considering the transformation and motion of the robot＇ s body and four legs. At last, the method of velocity decomposition control, which is usually used in the serial-chain manipulator control, was generalized to the legged mobile robot （serial and parallel hybrid mechanism） control through applying the globe velocity equation. The contraction of the robot＇ s body with four feet fixed on the ground was taken as an example to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.%对一种新型的四足变结构机器人进行了运动学分析．首先建模分析了单条腿的运动速度；然后综合考虑机器人车身本体的运动和变形以及四条腿的运动状态，对机器人整体进行了运动学分析，提出并建立了机器人的全局速度方程；最后将全局速度方程应用到机器人的速度分解控制中，使该控制方法的应用领域从串联机器人扩展到多足移动（串并混联）机器人，并以变结构四足机器人的车身原地收缩运动为例，验证了这种方法的可行性．
基于MATLAB的移栽机械臂运动学分析与仿真%Kinematics Analysis and Simulation of Transplanting Robot Arm Based on MATLAB
胡飞; 尹文庆; 陈彩蓉
2012-01-01
为了实现对四自由度移栽机械臂的精确控制,采用D-H法建立机械臂的连杆坐标系和运动学方程,实现了机械臂运动学正解.根据移栽机械臂的特点及参数,用解析法求得移栽机械臂的运动学逆解.运用MATLAB中的Robotics Toolbox工具箱对移栽机械臂进行运动学仿真,验证了所求得的正解和逆解.%In order to control the four - dimension transplanting robot arm accurately, the kinematics equation and the joint coordinate system of robot arm were established by using Denavit - Hartenberg method, and the forward solution of the kinematic equation was solved. According to the characteristics and parameters of transplanting robot arm, the inverse solution of the kinematics equation was solved by using the analytic method. The forward and inverse kinematics solutions of transplanting robot arm were proved by the kinematics simulation with Robotics Toolbox of MATLAB, which provided a theoretical foundation for trajectory planning and precise controlling of transplanting robot arm.
阳涵疆; 李立君; 高自成
2016-01-01
arm part respectively. It makes the wrist part decrease by 2 degrees of freedom, lightens the burden of the arm, and also reduces the adverse effect of high-frequency vibration when the robot harvests camellia oleifera fruit. The screw theory and a kind of kinematics analysis method for hybrid robot were introduced. With the proposed method, firstly, the open chain from the waist part to the end effector of the manipulator was defined, which contained the vertical slider as major chain, and the kinematic analysis problem of hybrid robot was turned to the sub-problems of the kinematic analysis of an open major chain and a single closed chain; secondly, the kinematics equation of the closed chain and major chain was established, and then the conversion formula between the driving joint variable in closed chain and the passive joint variable in major chain was obtained by figuring out the equation of the closed chain; thirdly, the position of the end effector was got from the kinematics analysis of the closed chain by using the Lie group, Lie algebra, screw theory and product-of-exponential formula; and finally the positive kinematics equation for the position of the end effector was obtained from the synthesized results of the kinematic analysis of the major chain and closed chain. The first-order and second-order derivative of the position equation were the velocity equation and acceleration equation of the manipulator respectively. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method and the correctness of the kinematics equation, select a group of joint variable values, and then figure out the theoretical position coordinate of the end effector by putting the values into the kinematical equation in Matlab. A test platform for kinematics experiment was built, which consists of a three-dimensional position measuring instrument and a camellia oleifera fruit hybrid harvesting robot. The three-dimensional position measuring instrument was used to measure the actual
SYSTEMS FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF THE MAIN KINEMATIC CHAIN OF THE VERTICAL TURNING LATHES
Dan PRODAN
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paperwork presents some systems for the adjustment of the main kinematic chains of theVertical Turning Lathes that have been used within the last 20 years. There are presented adjustment systemsused when having the machine equipped with older type motors, with only one speed, and also modern systemsfor which A.C. motors with the speed adjustable by frequency variation are needed. It insists on the presentrole of the “gearboxes” as torque multipliers and not as speed reducer.
A Generic Approach to Self-localization and Mapping of Mobile Robots Without Using a Kinematic Model
Kesper, Patrick; Berscheid, Lars; Wörgötter, Florentin;
2015-01-01
In this paper a generic approach to the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) problem is proposed. The approach is based on a probabilistic SLAM algorithm and employs only two portable sensors, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a laser range finder (LRF) to estimate the state and envi......In this paper a generic approach to the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) problem is proposed. The approach is based on a probabilistic SLAM algorithm and employs only two portable sensors, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a laser range finder (LRF) to estimate the state...... and environment of a robot. Scan-matching is applied to compensate for noisy IMU measurements. This approach does not require any robot-specific characteristics, e.g. wheel encoders or kinematic models. In principle, this minimal sensory setup can be mounted on different robot systems without major modifications...
Vibration-Based Adaptive Novelty Detection Method for Monitoring Faults in a Kinematic Chain
Jesus Adolfo Cariño-Corrales
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive novelty detection methodology applied to a kinematic chain for the monitoring of faults. The proposed approach has the premise that only information of the healthy operation of the machine is initially available and fault scenarios will eventually develop. This approach aims to cover some of the challenges presented when condition monitoring is applied under a continuous learning framework. The structure of the method is divided into two recursive stages: first, an offline stage for initialization and retraining of the feature reduction and novelty detection modules and, second, an online monitoring stage to continuously assess the condition of the machine. Contrary to classical static feature reduction approaches, the proposed method reformulates the features by employing first a Laplacian Score ranking and then the Fisher Score ranking for retraining. The proposed methodology is validated experimentally by monitoring the vibration measurements of a kinematic chain driven by an induction motor. Two faults are induced in the motor to validate the method performance to detect anomalies and adapt the feature reduction and novelty detection modules to the new information. The obtained results show the advantages of employing an adaptive approach for novelty detection and feature reduction making the proposed method suitable for industrial machinery diagnosis applications.
Inverse Kinematics Analysis for Humanoid Running Robot%人形跑步机器人的逆运动学分析
王利平; 魏航信; 刘明治
2011-01-01
提出一种人形跑步机器人逆运动学的分析方法.由于机器人在跑步时存在一个双脚离地的腾空阶段,因此建立了惯性坐标系、参考坐标系和物体坐标系,用来确定机器人身体各个部分的相对位置.采用齐次坐标转换矩阵分析机器人质心和双脚轨迹与机器人各个关节角度、角速度、角加速度等的关系,并用Newton-Raphson方法根据机器人质心轨迹和双脚轨迹计算出各个关节的运动参数,完成逆运动学分析.并通过算例验证这种方法的有效性.%An analysis method of inverse kinematics for humanoid running robot was proposed. Inertia coordinates, reference coordinates and body coordinates were built to determine relative position of each part on body of the robot since there was a flight phase of two feet lifting off ground while it was running. By using homogeneous transformation matrix, the relationships between the center of mass (COM) of the robot with trajectories of two feet and each joint angle, angular velocity, angular acceleration were analyzed. The Newton-Raphson algorithm was used to calculate the kinematic parameters of each joint according to the trajectories of COM of the robot and its two feet. So the inverse kinematics analysis was accomplished. A simulation was made to verify effectiveness of the method.
Jose Mauricio S.T. Motta
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the results of an ongoing R&D project aiming to design and build a fully automated prototype of a specialized spherical robotic welding system for repairing hydraulic turbine surfaces eroded by cavitation pitting and/or cracks produced by cyclic loading. The system has an embedded vision sensor built to acquire range images by laser scanning over the blade’s surface and produce 3D models to locate the damaged spots to be registered in a 3D coordinate system into the robot controller, enabling the robot to repair the flaws automatically by welding in layers. The paper is focused on the robot kinematic model and describes an iterative algorithm to process the inverse kinematics with only five degrees-of-freedom. The algorithm makes use of data collected from a vision sensor to ensure that the welding gun axis is perpendicular to the blade’s surface. Besides this, it proposes a modelling and optimization mathematical routine for more efficient robot calibration, which can be used with any type of robot. This robot calibration optimization scheme finds the optimal error parameter vector based on the condition number of the manipulator transformation composed from the partial derivatives of the error parameters. Experimental results proved both the iterative algorithm to perform the inverse kinematics and the technique to optimize robot calibration to be very efficient.
Delta并联机器人运动学与动力学仿真研究%Kinematics and dynamics simulation analysis of Delta parallel robot
宫赤坤; 熊吉光; 黄成林
2013-01-01
Based on Delta parallel robot,its model is established by the Pro/E software.Through simplifying the institutional model,the kinematic equations are established by D-H matrix method,and the trajectory is planned according to the given motion trail of the moving platform.Then the drive angle of each branched chain is calculated in Matlab,so that the model and the calculation results are imported to ADAMS with constraint and drive added.Finally,the kinematics and dynamics are analyzed through simulation.According to the consistency of the theoretical result and the realistic result,the reference bases are provided for the Delta parallel robot design,optimization and motion control.%以Delta并联机器人为研究对象,用三维设计软件Pro/E建立其样机模型,通过简化Delta并联机器人机构模型,用D-H矩阵法建立其运动学方程,得出正、逆解,给定动平台的运动轨迹进行轨迹规划,用Matlab软件计算出各支链的驱动臂张角,将样机模型和计算结果导入到ADAMS软件中,添加约束驱动等,进行运动学和动力学仿真分析,所得结果与理论计算结果一致,为Delta并联机器人的设计、优化和运动控制提供依据.
Omisore, Olatunji Mumini; Han, Shipeng; Ren, Lingxue; Zhang, Nannan; Ivanov, Kamen; Elazab, Ahmed; Wang, Lei
2017-08-01
Snake-like robot is an emerging form of serial-link manipulator with the morphologic design of biological snakes. The redundant robot can be used to assist medical experts in accessing internal organs with minimal or no invasion. Several snake-like robotic designs have been proposed for minimal invasive surgery, however, the few that were developed are yet to be fully explored for clinical procedures. This is due to lack of capability for full-fledged spatial navigation. In rare cases where such snake-like designs are spatially flexible, there exists no inverse kinematics (IK) solution with both precise control and fast response. In this study, we proposed a non-iterative geometric method for solving IK of lead-module of a snake-like robot designed for therapy or ablation of abdominal tumors. The proposed method is aimed at providing accurate and fast IK solution for given target points in the robot's workspace. n-1 virtual points (VPs) were geometrically computed and set as coordinates of intermediary joints in an n-link module. Suitable joint angles that can place the end-effector at given target points were then computed by vectorizing coordinates of the VPs, in addition to coordinates of the base point, target point, and tip of the first link in its default pose. The proposed method is applied to solve IK of two-link and redundant four-link modules. Both two-link and four-link modules were simulated with Robotics Toolbox in Matlab 8.3 (R2014a). Implementation result shows that the proposed method can solve IK of the spatially flexible robot with minimal error values. Furthermore, analyses of results from both modules show that the geometric method can reach 99.21 and 88.61% of points in their workspaces, respectively, with an error threshold of 1 mm. The proposed method is non-iterative and has a maximum execution time of 0.009 s. This paper focuses on solving IK problem of a spatially flexible robot which is part of a developmental project for abdominal
The Kinematics and Dynamics of Undulatory Motion of a Tuna-mimetic Robot
Sayyed Farideddin Masoomi; Stefanie Gutschmidt; XiaoQi Chen; Mathieu Sellier
2015-01-01
This paper presents the steps for the mathematical modelling of a fish robot with four degrees of freedom (DOF) called UC-Ika 1. The swimming motion of the robot, which is inspired by tuna fish, needs to generate an undulatory motion by its tail peduncle and caudal fin. Hence, the robot has the benefit of a tail mechanism that plays a determining role in the dynamic behaviour of the robot. Analysing this tail mechanism and the hydrodynamic forces acting upon the fish robot, the governing equa...
The Kinematics and Dynamics of Undulatory Motion of a Tuna-mimetic Robot
Sayyed Farideddin Masoomi; Stefanie Gutschmidt; XiaoQi Chen; Mathieu Sellier
2015-01-01
This paper presents the steps for the mathematical modelling of a fish robot with four degrees of freedom (DOF) called UC-Ika 1. The swimming motion of the robot, which is inspired by tuna fish, needs to generate an undulatory motion by its tail peduncle and caudal fin. Hence, the robot has the benefit of a tail mechanism that plays a determining role in the dynamic behaviour of the robot. Analysing this tail mechanism and the hydrodynamic forces acting upon the fish robot, the governing equa...
The Kinematics and Dynamics of Undulatory Motion of a Tuna-Mimetic Robot
Sayyed Farideddin Masoomi
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the steps for the mathematical modelling of a fish robot with four degrees of freedom (DOF called UC-Ika 1. The swimming motion of the robot, which is inspired by tuna fish, needs to generate an undulatory motion by its tail peduncle and caudal fin. Hence, the robot has the benefit of a tail mechanism that plays a determining role in the dynamic behaviour of the robot. Analysing this tail mechanism and the hydrodynamic forces acting upon the fish robot, the governing equations of motion of the robot are derived. Solving these dynamic equations reveals that the robot has a cruising speed of 0.29 m/s, a slight oscillation in the Y direction, and a small swing around its centre of mass. These results are validated by the experimental results of UC-Ika 1.
Interoperability of Standards for Robotics in CIME
Sørensen, Torben
1996-01-01
geometry, kinematics, robotics, dynamics, and control, hence on a coherent neutral information model of the process chain from design to manufacturing. The second main goal was to increase the accuracy of off-line programmed robots. The results were demonstrated in industrial applications....
Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Pruszowski, Przemysław
2016-01-01
Inertial orientation tracking is still an area of active research, especially in the context of out-door, real-time, human motion capture. Existing systems either propose loosely coupled tracking approaches where each segment is considered independently, taking the resulting drawbacks into account, or tightly coupled solutions that are limited to a fixed chain with few segments. Such solutions have no flexibility to change the skeleton structure, are dedicated to a specific set of joints, and have high computational complexity. This paper describes the proposal of a new model-based extended quaternion Kalman filter that allows for estimation of orientation based on outputs from the inertial measurements unit sensors. The filter considers interdependencies resulting from the construction of the kinematic chain so that the orientation estimation is more accurate. The proposed solution is a universal filter that does not predetermine the degree of freedom at the connections between segments of the model. To validation the motion of 3-segments single link pendulum captured by optical motion capture system is used. The next step in the research will be to use this method for inertial motion capture with a human skeleton model.
Reliability analysis of kinematic accuracy of 6-DOF arc welding robot%六自由度弧焊机器人的运动可靠性分析
张晓瑾; 谢里阳; 李佳; 武滢; 张宇
2011-01-01
Although a few studies have analyzed repeatability, accuracy, errors and safety of robot, little attention has been paid to the stochastic approach with open-loop mechanisms, especially robot manipulators. Considering the random nature of dimensional tolerance and clearance in manufacturing and assembling operations, a stochastic approach to figure out reliabilitv of the robot should be required. In this paper, reliability is used to reflect the ability of 6-DOF arc welding robot in completing tasks safely and accurately. With the assumption that all kinematic parameters are independent random variables following normal distribution, the kinematic accuracy error model and reliability model are presented based on the Denavt-Hartenberg ( D-H) representation and error propagation theory.
Kurt E. Clothier
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a geometric approach to solve the unknown joint angles required for the autonomous positioning of a robotic arm. A plethora of complex mathematical processes is reduced using basic trigonometric in the modeling of the robotic arm. This modeling and analysis approach is tested using a five-degree-of-freedom arm with a gripper style end effector mounted to an iRobot Create mobile platform. The geometric method is easily modifiable for similar robotic system architectures and provides the capability of local autonomy to a system which is very difficult to manually control.
2011-03-07
Bibliography [1] J. Carlson, R. Murphy, and A. Nelson. How UGVs physically fail in the field. IEEE Transactions on Robotics , 21(3):423 – 437, June 2005...Design, 110(1):35–41, 1988. [7] C. Gosselin and J. Angeles. Singularity analysis of closed-loop kinematic chains. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...locked joint failures. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 13(4):622–629, August 1997. [11] Jean-Pierre Merlet. Parallel Robots. Kluwer
Sung, Paul S; Maxwell, Michael J
2017-07-05
Although subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP) demonstrate altered trunk control, the kinematic and kinetic responses of the trunk have not been carefully investigated. This study was conducted to compare the standing time, spine range of motion (ROM), and dynamic postural steadiness index (DPSI) based on visual condition between subjects with and without recurrent LBP during upright one leg standing. Sixty-three individuals participated in the study, including 34 control subjects and 29 subjects with recurrent LBP. The DPSI was a composite of the medio-lateral (MLSI), anterior-posterior (APSI), and vertical steadiness indices (VSI) on a force platform. The control group demonstrated longer standing time (s) during the eyes-open condition than the LBP group (26.82±6.03 vs. 19.87±9.36; t=2.96, p=0.01). Regarding spine ROM, visual condition was significantly different between groups (F=7.09, p=0.01) and demonstrated interactions with spine region and group (F=5.53, p=0.02). For the kinetic measures, there was a significant interaction between visual conditions and indices (F=25.30, p=0.001). In the LBP group, the DPSI was significantly correlated with the MLSI (r=0.59, p=0.002), APSI (r=0.44, p=0.03), and VSI (r=0.98, p=0.01) in the eyes-closed condition. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the LBP group decreased thorax and lumbar spine rotations during the eyes-closed condition. The LBP group also demonstrated positive correlations with the kinetic indices, enhancing dynamic postural steadiness in the eyes-closed condition in order to possibly avoid pain or further injury. This dynamic postural steadiness strategy is necessary to improve kinetic and kinematic chain reactions in the LBP group. This compensatory pattern supports the development of optimal postural correction strategies to prevent LBP recurrence and might represent a chain reaction to protect trunk control without visual input. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lucian, P.; Gheorghe, S.
2017-08-01
This paper presents a new method, based on FRISCO formula, for optimizing the choice of the best control system for kinematical feed chains with great distance between slides used in computer numerical controlled machine tools. Such machines are usually, but not limited to, used for machining large and complex parts (mostly in the aviation industry) or complex casting molds. For such machine tools the kinematic feed chains are arranged in a dual-parallel drive structure that allows the mobile element to be moved by the two kinematical branches and their related control systems. Such an arrangement allows for high speed and high rigidity (a critical requirement for precision machining) during the machining process. A significant issue for such an arrangement it’s the ability of the two parallel control systems to follow the same trajectory accurately in order to address this issue it is necessary to achieve synchronous motion control for the two kinematical branches ensuring that the correct perpendicular position it’s kept by the mobile element during its motion on the two slides.
Kinematic Modeling of Industrial Robot Manipulator%工业机器人机械手的运动学建模研究
阳夏冰
2014-01-01
This paper analyzes the development trend of industrial robot and introduces a medical robot for establish-ment of kinematic model of Medical robot TUTO3-A with the "D-H Rule", and adopts a new type of methods to get its anti-solution on the basis of "Paul Algebraic Approach", which simplifies the process of kinematic inverse solution.%文章在分析工业机器人发展趋势的基础上，引入医疗机器人，利用D-H法则建立TUT03-A医疗机器人的运动学模型，并在Paul代数法的基础上采用一种新的方法求解其反解，简化运动学反解的过程。
Issa Ahmed Abed
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A new modification of Electromagnetism-like (EM algorithm which incorporating the Record-to-Record Travel (RRT local search algorithm; namely MEMR has been developed to solve the problem of Inverse Kinematics (IK for a four Degree-of-Freedom (DOF manipulator. The proposed method is able to generate multiple robot configurations for the IK test performed at different end effect or positions. In addition, the comparison between the proposed MEMR and Genetic Algorithm (GA was carried out using two mathematical test functions; De Jong and Rastrigin. The tests results show that the proposed MEMR is comparable in performance to GA in terms of both convergence speed and error rate.
A self-calibrating robot based upon a virtual machine model of parallel kinematics
Pedersen, David Bue; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard
2016-01-01
A delta-type parallel kinematics system for Additive Manufacturing has been created, which through a probing system can recognise its geometrical deviations from nominal and compensate for these in the driving inverse kinematic model of the machine. Novelty is that this model is derived from...... a virtual machine of the kinematics system, built on principles from geometrical metrology. Relevant mathematically non-trivial deviations to the ideal machine are identified and decomposed into elemental deviations. From these deviations, a routine is added to a physical machine tool, which allows...... it to recognise its own geometry by probing the vertical offset from tool point to the machine table, at positions in the horizontal plane. After automatic calibration the positioning error of the machine tool was reduced from an initial error after its assembly of ±170 µm to a calibrated error of ±3 µm...
A Simulation Environment for Bio-inspired Heterogeneous Chained Modular Robots
Alberto Brunete
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new simulation environment aimed at heterogeneous chained modular robots. This simulator allows for the testing of the feasibility of the design, the checking of how the modules will perform in the field, and the verifying of the hardware, electronics and communication designs before the prototype is built, saving time and resources. The paper shows how the simulator is built and how it can be set up to adapt to new designs. It also gives some examples of its use showing different heterogeneous modular robots running in different environments.
Backstepping based Trajectory Tracking Control of a Four Wheeled Mobile Robot
Nagarajan Sukavanam
2008-11-01
Full Text Available For a four wheeled mobile robot a trajectory tracking concept is developed based on its kinematics. A trajectory is a time?indexed path in the plane consisting of position and orientation .The mobile robot is modeled as a non holonomic system subject to pure rolling , no slip constraints.To facilitate the controller design the kinematic equation can be converted into chained form using some change of co-ordinates.From the kinematic model of the robot a backstepping based tracking controller is derived. Simulation results demonstrate such trajectory tracking strategy for the kinematics indeed gives rise to an effective methodology to follow the desired trajectory asymptotically.
The effect of a robot-assisted surgical system on the kinematics of user movements.
Nisky, Ilana; Hsieh, Michael H; Okamura, Allison M
2013-01-01
Teleoperated robot-assisted surgery (RAS) offers many advantages over traditional minimally invasive surgery. However, RAS has not yet realized its full potential, and it is not clear how to optimally train surgeons to use these systems. We hypothesize that the dynamics of the master manipulator impact the ability of users to make desired movements with the robot. We compared freehand and teleoperated movements of novices and experienced surgeons. To isolate the effects of dynamics from procedural knowledge, we chose simple movements rather than surgical tasks. We found statistically significant effects of teleoperation and user expertise in several aspects of motion, including target acquisition error, movement speed, and movement smoothness. Such quantitative assessment of human motor performance in RAS can impact the design of surgical robots, their control, and surgeon training methods, and eventually, improve patient outcomes.
Kinematic Characteristics Analysis of 6-DOF Robot Based on Matlab%基于matlab的六自由度机器人运动特性分析
苏学满; 孙丽丽; 杨明; 许德章
2013-01-01
6R robot joint coordinate systems were established and link parameters were determined by Denavit-Hartenberg method, and the robot forward and inverse kinematics model were established. In the MATLAB,the workspace of the robot was calculated by the Monte Carlo method.The forward kinematics and inverse kinematics were simulated, and trajectories of workspace and joint space were planned by the Robotics Toolbox,so as to verify the rationality of the design of the structure. The necessary foundation was laid for dynamics analysis,offline programming, based on force feedback of the robot dynamic control and the dynamic design of the robot structure.%应用Denavit-Hartenberg法建立6R机器人的关节坐标系并确定杆件参数,建立机器人的正逆运动学模型,在Matlab环境下利用Monte Carlo法计算出机器人的工作空间,并用Robotics Toolbox对机器人正逆运动学进行仿真,并对工作空间及关节空间的运动轨迹进行规划,从而验证机器人结构设计的合理性.为动力学分析、离线编程、基于力反馈机器人动态控制以及机器人结构的动态设计的研究奠定必要的基础.
Structural synthesis of linkages for quadruped bio-robot legs
Antonescu, O.; Robu, C.; Antonescu, P.
2016-08-01
The paper presents a few kinematic schemes of planar mechanisms with bars (linkages) used as part of the quadruped robot legs. The Dunshee linkage having only four elements as crank-rocker mechanism is analyzed. Further, the Klann linkage, which is accomplished by amplifying the crank-rocker mechanism with a dyadic kinematic chain, is also presented. More than that, the Jansen linkage, which is obtained by extending and amplifying the crank-rocker mechanism with two dyadic kinematic chains, is also analyzed. At the end of the paper, the authors present a novel linkage application consisting of a quadric kinematic chain.
The Kinematics of Manipulators Built From Closed Planar Mechanisms
Slutski, Leonid; Angeles, Jorge
1999-01-01
The paper discusses the kinematics of manipulators builts of planar closed kinematic chains. A special kinematic scheme is extracted from the array of these mechanisms that looks the most promising for the creation of different types of robotic manipulators. The structural features of this manipulator determine a number of its original properties that essentially simplify its control. These features allow the main control problems to be effectively overcome by application of the simple kinematic problems. The workspace and singular configurations of a basic planar manipulator are studied. By using a graphic simulation method, motions of the designed mechanism are examined. A prototype of this mechanism was implemented to verify the proposed approach.
Francisco J. González-Álvarez
2016-01-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Few studies have explored the effects of stretching techniques on diaphragm and spine kinematics. Objective To determine whether the application of diaphragm stretching resulted in changes in posterior chain muscle kinematics and ribcage and abdominal excursion in healthy subjects. Method Eighty healthy adults were included in this randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, which received a diaphragmatic stretching technique, or the placebo group, which received a sham-ultrasound procedure. The duration of the technique, the position of participants, and the therapist who applied the technique were the same for both treatments. Participant assessment (cervical range of movement, lumbar flexibility, flexibility of the posterior chain, and rib cage and abdominal excursion was performed at baseline and immediately after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Results The mean between-group difference [95% CI] for the ribcage excursion after technique at xiphoid level was 2.48 [0.97 to 3.99], which shows significant differences in this outcome. The remaining between-group analysis showed significant differences in cervical extension, right and left flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level (p<0.05 in favor of the experimental group. Conclusion Diaphragm stretching generates a significant improvement in cervical extension, right and left cervical flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level compared to a placebo technique in healthy adults.
Kinematic analysis of motor performance in robot-assisted surgery: a preliminary study.
Nisky, Ilana; Patil, Sangram; Hsieh, Michael H; Okamura, Allison M
2013-01-01
The inherent dynamics of the master manipulator of a teleoperated robot-assisted surgery (RAS) system can affect the movements of a human operator, in comparison with free-space movements. To measure the effects of these dynamics on operators with differing levels of surgical expertise, a da Vinci Si system was instrumented with a custom surgeon grip fixture and magnetic pose trackers. We compared users' performance of canonical motor control movements during teleoperation with the manipulator and freehand cursor control, and found significant differences in several aspects of motion, including target acquisition error, movement speed, and acceleration. In addition, there was preliminary evidence for differences between experts and novices. These findings could impact robot design, control, and training methods for RAS.
Shirota, C; Tucker, M R; Lambercy, O; Gassert, R
2017-07-01
The capabilities of robotic gait assistive devices are ever increasing; however, their adoption outside of the lab is still limited. A critical barrier for the functionality of these devices are the still unknown mechanical properties of the human leg during dynamic conditions such as walking. We built a robotic knee exoskeleton to address this problem. Here, we present the effects of our device on the walking pattern of four subjects. We assessed the effects after a short period of acclimation as well as after a 1.5h walking protocol. We found that the knee exoskeleton decreased (towards extension) the peak hip extension and peak knee flexion of the leg with the exoskeleton, while minimally affecting the non-exoskeleton leg. Comparatively smaller changes occurred after prolonged walking. These results suggest that walking patterns attained after a few minutes of acclimation with a knee exoskeleton are stable for at least a couple of hours.
Ding, Jienan; Goldman, Roger E.; Kai XU; Allen, Peter K.; Fowler, Dennis L.; Simaan, Nabil
2013-01-01
Single port access surgery (SPAS) presents surgeons with added challenges that require new surgical tools and surgical assistance systems with unique capabilities. To address these challenges, we designed and constructed a new insertable robotic end-effectors platform (IREP) for SPAS. The IREP can be inserted through a Ø15 mm trocar into the abdomen and it uses 21 actuated joints for controlling two dexterous arms and a stereo-vision module. Each dexterous arm has a hybrid mechanical architec...
Conrad, Finn
Mathematical modelling of Alto Robot, direct- and inverse kinematic transformation,simulation and path control applying MATLAB/SIMULINK.......Mathematical modelling of Alto Robot, direct- and inverse kinematic transformation,simulation and path control applying MATLAB/SIMULINK....
Popov, E. P.; Iurevich, E. I.
The history and the current status of robotics are reviewed, as are the design, operation, and principal applications of industrial robots. Attention is given to programmable robots, robots with adaptive control and elements of artificial intelligence, and remotely controlled robots. The applications of robots discussed include mechanical engineering, cargo handling during transportation and storage, mining, and metallurgy. The future prospects of robotics are briefly outlined.
六自由度工业机器人运动学标定方法%Method of kinematic calibration for the 6-DOF industrial robot
杨小磊; 丛明; 刘冬; 白云飞
2015-01-01
The SR165 robot with six degrees was chosen as the research object to build a robotic kine-matic model combined with D-H model and MD-H model.Based on the kinematics equation total dif-ferential was applied to derivate the robot error equation.Both the least square method and Leven-berg-Marquardt were applied to conduct the kinematic calibration simulation,thus achieved a better i-dentification result of Levenberg-Marquardt method.By using laser tracker,the kinematic calibration experiment was conducted and the maximum error and average error of the end of the robot are re-duced 86.79% and 92.67%.%以 SR165型六自由度工业机器人为研究对象，建立了 D-H 模型和 MD-H 模型相结合的机器人运动学模型，在运动学方程的基础上运用全微分推导机器人误差方程．运用最小二乘法和 Levenberg-Marquardt 法分别进行运动学标定仿真，得到 Levenberg-Marquardt 法的辨识效果更好．利用激光跟踪仪设计了运动学标定实验，标定后机器人末端最大误差和平均误差分别减小86．79％和92．67％．
四自由度机器人的建模和仿真%Modelling and Kinematics Simulation of 4-DOF Robot
石磊; 金忠全
2012-01-01
Kinematic simulation for robot is on of the important research. In this paper, 3D model of SCARA robot is build in Pro/E. And then a method of transferring Scara models in Pro/E to MATLAB is carried out. In addition, Typical D-H method is applied to set up the kinematics model of SCARA robot in this paper. Forward and inverse kinematic is computed for satisfied the need of position and posture of the SCARA robot. The results of the kinematic simulation shows the validity and facilities of the programs.%以SCARA四自由度机器人为研究对象,利用Pro/E软件建立了四自由度SCARA机器人的各连杆模型,并将各连杆装配为三维模型导入到MATLAB软件中.采用D-H方法建立了四自由度机器人的运动学模型,对四自由度机器人展开了运动学分析,描述了四自由度机器人末端位姿,对四自由度机器人操作界面进行了设计,并构建了四自由度机器人仿真平台.目前阶段得出的仿真结果表明了四自由度机器人仿真平台的可操作性,仿真方法是有效的.
Sina Askari, MS
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Results of previous studies raise the question of how timing neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (FES to limb movements during stepping might alter neuromuscular control differently than patterned stimulation alone. We have developed a prototype FES system for a rodent model of spinal cord injury (SCI that times FES to robotic treadmill training (RTT. In this study, one group of rats (n = 6 was trained with our FES+RTT system and received stimulation of the ankle flexor (tibialis anterior [TA] muscle timed according to robot-controlled hind-limb position (FES+RTT group; a second group (n = 5 received a similarly patterned stimulation, randomly timed with respect to the rats’ hind-limb movements, while they were in their cages (randomly timed stimulation [RS] group. After 4 wk of training, we tested treadmill stepping ability and compared kinematic measures of hind-limb movement and electromyography (EMG activity in the TA. The FES+RTT group stepped faster and exhibited TA EMG profiles that better matched the applied stimulation profile during training than the RS group. The shape of the EMG profile was assessed by "gamma," a measure that quantified the concentration of EMG activity during the early swing phase of the gait cycle. This gamma measure was 112% higher for the FES+RTT group than for the RS group. The FES+RTT group exhibited burst-to-step latencies that were 41% shorter and correspondingly exhibited a greater tendency to perform ankle flexion movements during stepping than the RS group, as measured by the percentage of time the hind limb was either dragging or in withdrawal. The results from this study support the hypothesis that locomotor training consisting of FES timed to hind-limb movement improves the activation of hind-limb muscle more so than RS alone. Our rodent FES+RTT system can serve as a tool to help further develop this combined therapy to target appropriate neurophysiological changes for locomotor control.
Askari, Sina; Chao, TeKang; de Leon, Ray D; Won, Deborah S
2013-01-01
Results of previous studies raise the question of how timing neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (FES) to limb movements during stepping might alter neuromuscular control differently than patterned stimulation alone. We have developed a prototype FES system for a rodent model of spinal cord injury (SCI) that times FES to robotic treadmill training (RTT). In this study, one group of rats (n = 6) was trained with our FES+RTT system and received stimulation of the ankle flexor (tibialis anterior [TA]) muscle timed according to robot-controlled hind-limb position (FES+RTT group); a second group (n = 5) received a similarly patterned stimulation, randomly timed with respect to the rats' hind-limb movements, while they were in their cages (randomly timed stimulation [RS] group). After 4 wk of training, we tested treadmill stepping ability and compared kinematic measures of hind-limb movement and electromyography (EMG) activity in the TA. The FES+RTT group stepped faster and exhibited TA EMG profiles that better matched the applied stimulation profile during training than the RS group. The shape of the EMG profile was assessed by "gamma," a measure that quantified the concentration of EMG activity during the early swing phase of the gait cycle. This gamma measure was 112% higher for the FES+RTT group than for the RS group. The FES+RTT group exhibited burst-to-step latencies that were 41% shorter and correspondingly exhibited a greater tendency to perform ankle flexion movements during stepping than the RS group, as measured by the percentage of time the hind limb was either dragging or in withdrawal. The results from this study support the hypothesis that locomotor training consisting of FES timed to hind-limb movement improves the activation of hind-limb muscle more so than RS alone. Our rodent FES+RTT system can serve as a tool to help further develop this combined therapy to target appropriate neurophysiological changes for locomotor control.
Virtual Sensor for Kinematic Estimation of Flexible Links in Parallel Robots
Pablo Bengoa
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The control of flexible link parallel manipulators is still an open area of research, endpoint trajectory tracking being one of the main challenges in this type of robot. The flexibility and deformations of the limbs make the estimation of the Tool Centre Point (TCP position a challenging one. Authors have proposed different approaches to estimate this deformation and deduce the location of the TCP. However, most of these approaches require expensive measurement systems or the use of high computational cost integration methods. This work presents a novel approach based on a virtual sensor which can not only precisely estimate the deformation of the flexible links in control applications (less than 2% error, but also its derivatives (less than 6% error in velocity and 13% error in acceleration according to simulation results. The validity of the proposed Virtual Sensor is tested in a Delta Robot, where the position of the TCP is estimated based on the Virtual Sensor measurements with less than a 0.03% of error in comparison with the flexible approach developed in ADAMS Multibody Software.
A Reconfigurable System Approach to the Direct Kinematics of a 5 D.o.f Robotic Manipulator
Diego F. Sánchez
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Hardware acceleration in high performance computer systems has a particular interest for many engineering and scientific applications in which a large number of arithmetic operations and transcendental functions must be computed. In this paper a hardware architecture for computing direct kinematics of robot manipulators with 5 degrees of freedom (5 D.o.f using floating-point arithmetic is presented for 32, 43, and 64 bit-width representations and it is implemented in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs. The proposed architecture has been developed using several floating-point libraries for arithmetic and transcendental functions operators, allowing the designer to select (pre-synthesis a suitable bit-width representation according to the accuracy and dynamic range, as well as the area, elapsed time and power consumption requirements of the application. Synthesis results demonstrate the effectiveness and high performance of the implemented cores on commercial FPGAs. Simulation results have been addressed in order to compute the Mean Square Error (MSE, using the Matlab as statistical estimator, validating the correct behavior of the implemented cores. Additionally, the processing time of the hardware architecture was compared with the same formulation implemented in software, using the PowerPC (FPGA embedded processor, demonstrating that the hardware architecture speeds-up by factor of 1298 the software implementation.
基于倍四元数的机器人运动灵活性评价%Kinematic dexterity measures for robot manipulators based on double quaternion
杜滨; 赵京
2012-01-01
In view of the fact that the dexterity evaluation on robots cannot be made due to the dimensional inhomogeneity of Jacobian, a new approach to formulation of the dimensional homogeneous Jacobian and kinematic dexterity measure for the robot with mixed joints is proposed. According to the double quaternion, the rotation and translation in three-dimensional Euclidean spaces are converted to the pure rotation in four-dimensional Euclidean spaces. The u-niversal transformational expression of the link coordinate system is derived based on double quaternion. Then the kinematics model of robot is developed and the non-dimensional Jacobian is obtained by this approach. Furthermore, a new performance index is proposed. The new approach can solve the dimensional inhomogeneity of Jacobian which occurs for robots with mixed joints. Finally, the kinematic dexterity of spatial 3R and the spatial RPR robot is analyzed by numerical simulation. The results show that this approach is not only applicable to the robot with same joints, but also to the robot with mixed joints.%针对机器人的雅可比矩阵量纲不统一而不能对其进行灵活性评价这一问题,提出了一种新的雅可比矩阵量纲统一及评价方法.首先基于倍四元数,将三维空间的旋转和平移统一为四维空间的纯转动,推导了基于倍四元数的连杆坐标系变换通式.然后利用该方法对机器人进行了运动学建模,得到了具有统一量纲的雅可比矩阵,并根据该矩阵定义了新的评价指标.该方法解决了混合关节机器人建模时所产生的雅可比矩阵量纲不统一的问题.最后,对空间3R机器人和空间RPR机器人的灵活性进行了数值仿真分析,结果表明该评价方法不仅适用于相同类型关节的机器人,同时适用于混合关节类型的机器人.
Kinematic and Kinetic Study of Rescue Robot by SolidWorks Software
Elaheh Hassanzadeh
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this study, the studied software as the Product Data Management (PDM provides solutions for helping to control designing data. Users can be sure of storing their own designing data for quick retrieval of data and reducing the concerns about control of edited data and losing data and even sharing and collaborating in online projects with members of local networks. If the designers want to change their way in analyzing every component of mechanical mechanism, the selected component should be studied for the Finite Element Analysis (FEA in order to be analyzed structurally. Finite element analysis is a numerical method for structural analysis and leads to the dominant approach of “Computer Aided Engineering” (CAE for study of structure. Finite element analysis can evaluate a variety of motion, component analysis, stresses and vibrations from the under-load static and dynamic bracket. As the result of motion simulation, the input data, necessary for the structural analysis done by FEA, is provided. Providing the simulation and study of integrated and simultaneous motion is among the features of software SolidWorks. By this feature of Software SolidWorks, the designers will be able to reduce the number of required pilots. This study provides the suggestions for development of designing and working in the field of building the rescue robots for relevant organizations.
苗学刚; 邓建春
2012-01-01
Gamma-knife for breast cancer is a new developed radioactive treatment equipment, starting with the practice that using of robot to replace radioactive梥ources of the Gamma梜nife equipment for breast cancer,according to the structure characteristics of the robot, then the D-H link-pole coordinate system and robot kinematics equations are established,and robot kinematics and the inverse kinematics problems are analyzed.By using of MATLAB the inverse kinematics is solved,and the working process of using robot to replace radioactive -source is analyzed.Meanwhile the robot motion trajectory is planned as well,and the kinematics process of replacing radioactive-sources with robot is simulated in COSMOSMo-tion, the kinematics curves of robot are analyzed, which provides technical support for studying the truth of replacing radioactive-source.%乳腺癌伽玛刀是一种新研制的治疗乳腺癌的放射性治疗设备,针对利用工业机器人更换乳腺癌伽玛刀放射源的实际要求,根据机器人的结构特点,建立机器人D-H连杆坐标系和机器人运动学方程,并对机器人运动学正问题和逆问题进行分析,利用MATLAB编程求解机器人运动学逆解,分析了机器人更换乳腺癌伽玛刀放射源的工作过程,规划了机器人换源运动轨迹,在COSMOSMotion中仿真机器人换源的运动过程,分析了机器人关节的运动曲线,为研究真实的换源情况提供技术支持.
Shi, Zhong; Huang, Xuexiang; Hu, Tianjian; Tan, Qian; Hou, Yuzhuo
2016-10-01
Space teleoperation is an important space technology, and human-robot motion similarity can improve the flexibility and intuition of space teleoperation. This paper aims to obtain an appropriate kinematics mapping method of coupled Cartesian-joint space for space teleoperation. First, the coupled Cartesian-joint similarity principles concerning kinematics differences are defined. Then, a novel weighted augmented Jacobian matrix with a variable coefficient (WAJM-VC) method for kinematics mapping is proposed. The Jacobian matrix is augmented to achieve a global similarity of human-robot motion. A clamping weighted least norm scheme is introduced to achieve local optimizations, and the operating ratio coefficient is variable to pursue similarity in the elbow joint. Similarity in Cartesian space and the property of joint constraint satisfaction is analysed to determine the damping factor and clamping velocity. Finally, a teleoperation system based on human motion capture is established, and the experimental results indicate that the proposed WAJM-VC method can improve the flexibility and intuition of space teleoperation to complete complex space tasks.
小型仿人机器人逆运动学分析及步态规划%Inverse Kinematics Analysis and Gait Planning of Small Humanoid Robot
王勇; 闫腾达; 付庄; 赵言正
2011-01-01
In this paper, based on the theory of robotics, the analysis of robot structure and walking characteristics, joined the constraints of mechanical structure, discussed the sources of these constraints and use the "sliding bar" simplified method to do the inverse kinematics transformation, got the inverse solution applications of the inverse kinematics equations. On this basis, achieved the robot gait planning, and validated the inverse solution.%基于机器入学的理论基础,在对小型仿人机器人几何机构和行走特点进行分析的基础上,加入了机构的约束条件,讨论了这些约束条件的来源,并用“滑移杆”化简方法进行了逆运动学变换,得到了逆运动学方程的反解.在此基础上实现对机器人步态规划,并且进行了验证.
Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanišić, Michael M
2013-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of robot mechanisms, primarily considering industrial manipulators and humanoid arms. The book is intended for both teaching and self-study. Emphasis is given to the fundamentals of kinematic analysis and the design of robot mechanisms. The coverage of topics is untypical. The focus is on robot kinematics. The book creates a balance between theoretical and practical aspects in the development and application of robot mechanisms, and includes the latest achievements and trends in robot science and technology.
Oscar D Moran
2011-01-01
Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo que se presenta fue implementar el control cinemático para que el extremo del robot CXN-I siga una trayectoria rectilínea controlando la aceleración y velocidad a lo largo de la misma. A la recta definida por dos puntos solicitados por un usuario se le aplica un interpolador de segmento lineal con transiciones parabólicas. Se muestrea esta curva y mediante la cinemática inversa se obtienen las coordenadas articulares que son unidas utilizando un interpolador de polinomios cúbicos. De estas curvas se extraen las variables de control, las cuáles son ingresadas en un modelo computacional, obteniéndose las coordenadas de la trayectoria real e ideal. Basado en los resultados se concluye que se ha logrado implementar el control desarrollado y que este método se podría hacer extensivo a otros tipos de trayectorias y de robots.The purpose of this work was to implement the kinematic control of the CXN-I robot so it follows a straight line trajectory, controlling both acceleration and speed along it. A linear segment with parabolic transitions interpolator is applied to the line defined by the requested points. This curve is sampled and the joints coordinates obtained through the inverse kinematic equations are then connected using a cubic polynomial interpolator. The references for the control system obtained from these curves are entered into a computer model of the robot, obtaining the cartesian coordinates of the real and ideal trajectory. Based on the results, it is concluded that the implementation of the proposed control was successfully achieved and that this method could be extended to other types of trajectories and robots.
Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis of Oil Tank Cleaning Robot%油罐清洗机器人运动学及动力学分析
付贵永; 周利坤; 李悦
2013-01-01
Oil tank cleaning robot is a kind of special one which is researched and developed to implement automatic cleaning of its bottom sludge.The appropriate coordinate system is established and kinematics analysis is carried out by the method of D-H parameters,the pose equation of end actuators is obtained and the system dynamics equation is concluded by Normal Lagrange of the robot.Through the computer simulation,the accuracy of the kinematics and dynamics equations is verified.The movement characteristics of oil tank cleaning robot can be accurately described by the equations,and it has a certain referenced value of the robot motion control and system stability analysis.%油罐清洗机器人是一种针对油罐罐底油泥实施自动化清洗而研发的特殊机器人.通过建立适当坐标系,运用D-H参数法对其进行了运动学分析,得出末端执行装置位姿方程,运用拉格朗日方法求解得出其整体动力学方程.通过计算机仿真实验,验证了运动学方程和动力学方程的准确性,能够描述油罐清洗机器人的运动特性,在该机器人的运动控制和系统稳定性分析方面具有一定的参考价值.
Kinematics Analysis of Grading Robot for Eggs Suction and Transportation%禽蛋吸运分级机械手运动学分析
张兴国; 倪远征
2011-01-01
After analyzing the system structure, technical parameters of grading robot for eggs suction and transportation, the local coordinate system of the robot links was established based on the D - H transformation matrix. The geometrical parameters of the links and variables of the joints were gained. And more, the kinematics equation providing mathematic model for path planning and motion controlling of the robot was ratiocinated here. It is propitious to utilizing the robot system and promoting the using of eggs grading, suction and transportation.%通过对禽蛋吸运分级机械手的结构组成、技术参数等的分析,采用D-H法建立了机械手的连杆坐标系,得到机械手的杆件几何参数和关节变量,进而推导出其运动学方程,为机械手的轨迹规划、运动控制提供数学模型基础,便于更好地对其进行开发利用,实现禽蛋检测的分级吸运.
Manipulator design and kinematics analysis for hazardous operation robot%危险作业机器人机械臂设计及其运动学分析
赵亮亮; 马振书; 穆希辉; 杜峰坡
2011-01-01
从危险作业机器人的任务需求出发创新设计了一种带有平移自由度的六自由度机械臂,建立了机械臂的虚拟样机模型,机械手工作域的仿真分析表明较好的满足了设计要求.同时,运用D-H法建立机器人的连杆坐标系,进行了正向运动学分析,推导出机械臂的运动学方程以及手爪坐标系相对于基坐标系的位姿矩阵,针对运动学方程的特点,提出了解析法和基于正向运动学分析的可行解估计法相结合的试探搜索算法进行逆运动学求解,实例分析和编程验算表明该方法稳健可靠,计算精度和处理速度能够满足机器人实时在线控制的要求,并且可以应用于机器人轨迹规划和跟踪控制.%Considering the formidable task for the hazardous operation robot,a kind of manipulator of six DOF with sliding freedom,is designed in this paper,where the virtual robot arm model is drawn and simulation results of manipulator's working range show that the design requirement is basically satisfied.In addition,joint coordinate system of the robot arm is established based on the Denavit-Hartenberg method, the direct kinematics problem is analyzed, kinematics equations of the robot arm and position-orientation matrix of tool frame in the base reference coordinate are deduced as well.A new algorithm defined as testing search method to solve the inverse kinematics problem is proposed, which is a combination of analytic algorithm and estimating feasible solutions algorithm based on the analytical results of direct problem.At last, the results of checking calculation confirm that the algorithm is stable and reliable and the processing speed and calculation accuracy can meet the requirements of the robot controlled online,which can also be applied into trajectory planning and tracking control.
脐橙采摘机器人运动分析与研究%Kinematic Analysis and Study of Navel Orange Picking Robot
吴翠琴; 刘祚时
2014-01-01
农业采摘机器人是21世纪精准农业的重要装备之一，采用仿真模拟机器人运动，合理规划机器人的运动轨迹成为采摘机器人行业发展的方向。采用D-H方法分析三自由度脐橙采摘机器人的变换矩阵，得到三自由度脐橙采摘机器人执行末端位移。采用微分变换的方法求解三自由度脐橙采摘机器人的雅克比矩阵，得到执行末端线速度和角速度。基于Mat-lab中M语言自编程建立其运动模型，对其运动轨迹及速度进行仿真。通过对脐橙采摘机器人的构造原理分析，为脐橙采摘机器人的调试和实际操作提供仿真模型。%Agricultural picking robot is one of the important equipment of precision agriculture in the 21st century. These has be-come the developing direction of the picking robot industry that the simulation robot movement and the reasonable planning of the robot trajectory. The D-H method was used to analyze three degrees of freedom (3-DOF)of the transformation matrix of navel orange picking robots,and the displacement of end manipulation of 3-DOF navel orange picking robots was obtained. The Jacobi matrix of the 3-DOF navel orange picking robots was solved by using differential transform method,and the angular and linear velocities of end manipulation were obtained. The trajectory and speed were simulated based on M language of MATLAB for self-programming to establish kinematic model of the robot. Through analysis of the theory of the structure of navel orange picking robots,the debugging and actual operation simulation model are provided.
胡峰; 骆德渊; 段栋栋; 付书阁
2012-01-01
针对“三自由度并联机器人的运动空间比传统六自由度并联机器人受到更多约束,以及其运动特性也更加复杂”的问题,将可视化运动仿真分析技术应用到并联机器人的研究上.以三自由度Delta并联机器人为例,在复杂轨迹下其整体位姿难以直观想象;为了便捷、高效地实现Delta并联机器人可视化运动仿真分析,结合SimMechanics Link接口软件,以Pro/E与Simulink/Sim Mechanics为仿真开发平台,提出了采用三维模型转换成SimMechanics模型的建模方法,并建立了SimMechanics模型,进行了仿真.研究结果表明,该方法能够直观地对Delta并联机器人进行可视化运动仿真分析,进而可为并联机器人机构的选型及优化、控制器的设计提供参考依据.%Aiming at the problem that the motion of 3DOF parallel robot bears more constrains,compared to the traditional 6DOF parallel robot, the technology of visual kinematics simulation was investigated on 3D0F parallel robot. Taking 3DOF Delta parallel robot for example,it is hard to image its motion gesture directly,when it traces a complex track. In order to conveniently and rapidly achieve visual kinematics simulation of Delta parallel robot, combining with SimMechanics link, the method of modeling which translates CAD assemblies into SimMechanics model based on Pro/E and Simulink/SimMechanies was presented, the modeling of SimMechanics was established, and simulation of it was done. The experimental results show that it can directly get the kinetic characteristic of the Delta parallel robot and provide the reference parameters of the design.
外骨骼康复机械手的结构设计及仿真分析%Design and Kinematical Analysis of Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot Hand
李超; 袁锐波; 丘世因; 刘永亮
2016-01-01
为解决中风患者传统康复训练效率低、成本高、不易在家中操作等问题，提出了外骨骼康复机械手的研究，首先建立了人手正逆运动学模型，然后以食指为例设计了外骨骼康复机械手结构，最后利用ADAMS 软件进行运功学仿真，从而验证了设计结果的正确性。为控制系统的设计和物理样机的制造提供了理论依据。%In this paper,the exoskeleton rehabilitation robot hand is studied in order to solve its prob-lems of low efficiency,high cost,difficult home use etc.in the traditional rehabilitation process.First, the kinematical model of the human hand is built;then the structure of exoskeleton rehabilitation robot hand is designed with the index finger as example;finally,the correctness of design results is verified by ADAMS kinematic analysis.This provides theoretical basis for control system design and physical proto-type manufacturing.
Svoboda Zdenek
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Lots of athletic skills performed during practice or competition are initiated by the legs, where athletes either walk or run prior to executing specific skills. Kinematic chains are used to describe the relationships between body segments and joints during movement. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between movements of lower limb segments and the pelvis in open and closed kinematic chains while walking. The experimental group consisted of 32 males (age 23.3 ± 2.5 years, body mass 78.1 ± 8.7 kg, body height 182 ± 6 cm. For 3D analysis, an optoelectronic system Vicon MX (7 cameras, frequency 200 Hz was used. Positioning of the segments was determined by the PlugInGait Model. Each participant executed five trials at speeds ranging from 1.38 to 1.52 m·s-1. The relationships between angle variables of the lower limbs and the pelvis in selected gait cycle phases were evaluated using STATISTICA software (version 10.0 and the Spearman correlation. The highest numbers of moderate and large correlations were found at opposite toe off, heel rise and initial contact for the sagittal and transversal planes in comparison to the frontal plane. The closed kinematic chain had a stronger impact on determining the movement pattern. The instructions or interventions focusing on closed kinematic chain alternation are more effective for changes in a movement pattern. The preferred limb initiates kinematics in the direction of propulsion, while the non-preferred limb in internal and external rotation.
Kadivar, Z; Sullivan, J L; Eng, D P; Pehlivan, A U; O'Malley, M K; Yozbatiran, N; Francisco, G E
2011-01-01
Regaining upper extremity function is the primary concern of persons with tetraplegia caused by spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic rehabilitation has been inadequately tested and underutilized in rehabilitation of the upper extremity in the SCI population. Given the acceptance of robotic training in stroke rehabilitation and SCI gait training, coupled with recent evidence that the spinal cord, like the brain, demonstrates plasticity that can be catalyzed by repetitive movement training such as that available with robotic devices, it is probable that robotic upper-extremity training of persons with SCI could be clinically beneficial. The primary goal of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of using a novel robotic device for the upper extremity (RiceWrist) and to evaluate robotic rehabilitation using the RiceWrist in a tetraplegic person with incomplete SCI. A 24-year-old male with incomplete SCI participated in 10 sessions of robot-assisted therapy involving intensive upper limb training. The subject successfully completed all training sessions and showed improvements in movement smoothness, as well as in the hand function. Results from this study provide valuable information for further developments of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation in persons with SCI. © 2011 IEEE
Automatic Generation of the Reconfigurable Robot Forward and Inverse Kinematics%可重组机器人运动学正逆解的自动生成
费燕琼; 冯光涛; 赵锡芳; 徐卫良
2000-01-01
When the configuration of reconfigurable modular robot is finalized, the link module and joint module are gained. The PME method is adopted. So the forward kinematics is generated automatically. As for the inverse kinematics, this paper transferred the body coordinate system to the fixed coordinate system and found the rules, then divided them into 4 sub-problems. With the PME method, the inverse kinematics algorithm (PMEI method) was got. Under Windows environment some examples were given.%可重组模块机器人构形确定后，找出依序的连杆、关节模块，采用指数积(PME)法，自动生 成运动学正方程．把运动学正方程转换成相对于固定坐标系的方程，找出规律，分成4个子问题，成 功地运用PME法得到自动求模块机器人逆解的算法—逆运动学指数积(PMEI)法．windows环 境下正逆解的自动生成说明了该方法的可行性．
Bier, J
2000-05-01
Content of this paper is the current state of the art of robots in surgery and the ongoing work on the field of surgical robotics at the Clinic for Maxillofacial Surgery at the Charité. Robots in surgery allows the surgeon to transform the accuracy of the imaging systems directly during the intervention and to plan an intervention beforehand. In this paper firstly the state of the art is described. Subsequently the scientific work at the clinic is described in detail. The paper closes with a outlook for future applications of robotics systems in maxillofacial surgery.
Dynamical modelling of coordinated multiple robot systems
Hayati, Samad
1987-01-01
The state of the art in the modeling of the dynamics of coordinated multiple robot manipulators is summarized and various problems related to this subject are discussed. It is recognized that dynamics modeling is a component used in the design of controllers for multiple cooperating robots. As such, the discussion addresses some problems related to the control of multiple robots. The techniques used to date in the modeling of closed kinematic chains are summarized. Various efforts made to date for the control of coordinated multiple manipulators is summarized.
Parallel kinematics type, kinematics, and optimal design
Liu, Xin-Jun
2014-01-01
Parallel Kinematics- Type, Kinematics, and Optimal Design presents the results of 15 year's research on parallel mechanisms and parallel kinematics machines. This book covers the systematic classification of parallel mechanisms (PMs) as well as providing a large number of mechanical architectures of PMs available for use in practical applications. It focuses on the kinematic design of parallel robots. One successful application of parallel mechanisms in the field of machine tools, which is also called parallel kinematics machines, has been the emerging trend in advanced machine tools. The book describes not only the main aspects and important topics in parallel kinematics, but also references novel concepts and approaches, i.e. type synthesis based on evolution, performance evaluation and optimization based on screw theory, singularity model taking into account motion and force transmissibility, and others. This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and postgraduates or above with interes...
Analysis of Inverse Kinematics about Stanford Robot Based on Screw Theory%基于旋量理论的Stanford机器人的逆运动学分析
王晓磊; 李晓丹
2015-01-01
Based on screw theory, the inverse solution of Stanford robot movement was solved by adoptting the method of Paden⁃Kahan subproblems according to the structural feature of Stanford robot joints. The research shows that the multi⁃joint coupling variables is eliminated, the amount of calculation is greatly simplified, the calculation accuracy is high by the method, and a new method is pro⁃vided for solving the kinematics inverse solution of the Stanford robot.%针对Stanford机器人关节的结构特点，基于旋量理论，采用Paden⁃Kahan子问题的方法求解Stanford机器人的运动反解。研究表明：该方法可消除多关节耦合变量，大大简化计算量，计算精度高，为求解Stanford机器人的运动学逆解提供了一种新方法。
Experiments and kinematics analysis of a hand rehabilitation exoskeleton with circuitous joints.
Zhang, Fuhai; Fu, Yili; Zhang, Qinchao; Wang, Shuguo
2015-01-01
Aiming at the hand rehabilitation of stroke patients, a wearable hand exoskeleton with circuitous joint is proposed. The circuitous joint adopts the symmetric pinion and rack mechanism (SPRM) with the parallel mechanism. The exoskeleton finger is a serial mechanism composed of three closed-chain SPRM joints in series. The kinematic equations of the open chain of the finger and the closed chains of the SPRM joints were built to analyze the kinematics of the hand rehabilitation exoskeleton. The experimental setup of the hand rehabilitation exoskeleton was built and the continuous passive motion (CPM) rehabilitation experiment and the test of human-robot interaction force measurement were conducted. Experiment results show that the mechanical design of the hand rehabilitation robot is reasonable and that the kinematic analysis is correct, thus the exoskeleton can be used for the hand rehabilitation of stroke patients.
席雷平; 陈自力; 田庆民
2012-01-01
The correlative problem of robotic manipulators kinematics model is discussed for Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle in this paper. Considering the structure of robotic manipulators, the kinematics model is established with D-H method. Based on it,the forward and inverse kinematics equations are solved. Then,simulation and verification is performed by Robotics Toolbox of Matlab software for the structure and kinematics analysis. The results show that this method is correct and feasible.%以某地面无人作战系统中的机械臂为研究对象,探讨其运动学模型建立中的相关问题.结合该机械臂的结构特点,利用D-H方法建立其相应的运动学模型,并在该基础上求解机械臂的正、逆运动学方程.最后在Matlab环境下,借助Robotics Toolbox工具箱对该机械臂的结构和运动学问题进行验证和仿真.仿真结果表明:该设计方法是正确可行的.
The Kinematics Analysis of A Cable-driven Soft Robotic Manipulator%线驱动柔性机械臂的运动学分析
俞晓瑾
2013-01-01
Differ from traditional rigid manipulators which consist of links and joints,the soft robotic manipulator designed in this paper has no any rigid structure.The peripheral actuation system connects with the soft robotic manipulator by the cables embedded in the manipulator,and the position and orientation of the end-effector of the soft robotic manipulator can be adjusted by controlling the length variables of the cables.The soft robotic manipulator is made of elastic materials and has infinite degree of freedom,which make it to be highly safe and dexterous.However,at the same time,some difficulties rise such as building kinematic and dynamic models and motion control.Based on piecewise constant curvature hypothesis,a kinematic model is proposed.In this method,three spaces namely actuation space,virtual joint space,task space and two mappings namely actuation space-virtual joint space mapping,virtual joint space-task space mapping are established to obtain the relationship between the length variables of the cables and the position and orientation of the end-effector of the soft robotic manipulator.The simulation results demonstrate that the kinematic model of the cable-driven soft robotic manipulator can truly simulate the shape of the manipulator and compute the position and orientation of the end-effector when cable lengths vary.%与传统的由连杆和关节构成的刚性机械臂不同,设计的柔性机械臂无任何刚性结构,外围驱动装置通过嵌在机械臂内部的拉线与柔性机械臂相联系,控制拉线长度的变化量即可调整柔性机械臂末端执行器的位置和姿态.柔性机械臂由弹性材料制作而成,拥有无穷多个自由度,在确保了高安全性、高灵活性的同时,随之也带来运动学和动力学建模复杂、控制难度大等问题.基于分段常曲率的假设,提出了一种运动学建模方法,通过建立3个空间,即驱动空间、虚拟关节空间、任务空间,以及两个映射,即驱
基于运动学的Delta机器人优化设计%Optimization design of Delta parallel robot based on the kinematics
宫赤坤; 蓝黎恩
2013-01-01
机器人雅克比矩阵最小奇异值与条件数是其工作性能的重要评价指标.因此,针对研发的Delta机器人进行运动学分析,根据Delta机器人雅克比矩阵奇异值随尺度参数的变化规律曲线,确定一组最优设计尺度参数.同时对该Delta机器人进行全域条件数分析,得到Delta机器人操作性能在全域的变化规律,根据这一变化规律能有效地提高Delta机器人的工作性能.通过上述分析能够很好地对Delta机器人进行优化设计.%The singular value and conditional number of the Jacobian matrix are the main evaluation index of the Delta robot' s working performance.Therefore,kinematics analysis is done for the Delta robot.Based on the rule curve,which the singular value of Jacobian matrix changes along with the scale parameter,a group of the optimal scaling parameters is confirmed.Meanwhile the conditional number of the mechanism is analyzed to acquire the change rule of the operating performance in the universe.According to the rule,the work performance of robot can be increased effectively.Based on the analysis,some optimization designs can be done in the Delta robot.
Hadi Kalani
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction we aimed to introduce a 6-universal-prismatic-spherical (UPS parallel mechanism for the human jaw motion and theoretically evaluate its kinematic problem. We proposed a strategy to provide a fast and accurate solution to the kinematic problem. The proposed strategy could accelerate the process of solution-finding for the direct kinematic problem by reducing the number of required iterations in order to reach the desired accuracy level. Materials and Methods To overcome the direct kinematic problem, an artificial neural network and third-order Newton-Raphson algorithm were combined to provide an improved hybrid method. In this method, approximate solution was presented for the direct kinematic problem by the neural network. This solution could be considered as the initial guess for the third-order Newton-Raphson algorithm to provide an answer with the desired level of accuracy. Results The results showed that the proposed combination could help find a approximate solution and reduce the execution time for the direct kinematic problem, The results showed that muscular actuations showed periodic behaviors, and the maximum length variation of temporalis muscle was larger than that of masseter and pterygoid muscles. By reducing the processing time for solving the direct kinematic problem, more time could be devoted to control calculations.. In this method, for relatively high levels of accuracy, the number of iterations and computational time decreased by 90% and 34%, respectively, compared to the conventional Newton method. Conclusion The present analysis could allow researchers to characterize and study the mastication process by specifying different chewing patterns (e.g., muscle displacements.
Yi Gu
2008-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a novel radius-variable-gripper (RVG for use as end-effector of highvoltage hot-line cleaning robot (HVCR. A eight-bar linkage mechanism is proposed to obtain the aim of 1-dof acutuation. According to the shape of insulators, the dimension design and kinematic analysis of RVG have been carried out. The optimization is performed to locate the joint points of arm segments, on which the brushes are mounted, approximately on the position circles in the whole opening-and-closing process of RVG. The prototype has been given finally, and it is showed that RVG is feasible to this special application.
Multi-objective Design Optimization of a Parallel Schönflies-motion Robot
Wu, Guanglei; Bai, Shaoping; Hjørnet, Preben
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a parallel Schoenflies-motion robot with rectangular workspace, which is suitable for pick-and-place operations. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to optimize the robot's geometric parameters with consideration of kinematic and dynamic performances....... The dynamic performance is concerned mainly the capability of force transmission in the parallel kinematic chain, for which transmission indices are defined. The Pareto-front is obtained to investigate the influence of the design variables to the robot performance. Dynamic characteristics for three Pareto...
Planning of a supply chain for anti-personal landmine disposal by means of robots
Rafael Guillermo García-Cáceres
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The current paper presents a Mixed-Integer-Linear Programming Model (MIP which incorporates strategic and tactical management decisions into the supply chain of an anti-personal landmine robotic detection and disposal system. Originally based on a mixed-integer-non-linear programming model (MINLP with stochastic elements, of which it is an approximation, the MIP model is obtained by means of two solution procedures that include redefining variables, treating stochastic and non-linear constraints, and incorporating valid constraints. The model included considerations such as uncertain procurement, stochastic inventories in plants, production scales, supply-production-distribution capacities, particular distribution-production infrastructure, locationallocation considerations, stochastic demand, and BOM. Additionally, the models detail optimal helicopter operation by considering each period’s trip frequency during the planning horizon. Finally, a sensibility analysis of the way in which parameters variations affect overall costs is presented. The suggested solution procedure is considered satisfactory in terms of time for the analyzed example.
Modelling and control of two coordinated robot arms
Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.
1988-01-01
Two coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the two arms as working on the same object simultaneously and as a closed kinematic chain. In both formulations, a novel dynamic control method is used which is based on feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling.
Direct Kinematic Analysis of Delta Robot Based on Exponential Product%基于指数积的Delta机器人运动学正解建模
宫金良; 黄风安; 张彦斐
2013-01-01
For kinematics analysis of parallel mechanism,there exist two kinds of methods:D-H parameters method and vector method.The former has the shortcoming that each link's local coordinate system should be established and kinematic equation be obtained according to the transformation between link coordinates,which makes the process to be relatively complicated.The latter can solve the problem of multiple solutions in the positive kinematics,but it cannot represent the end attitude of the actuator,which is lack of generality.This paper presents an exponential product (POE) method based on screw theory.The method makes kinematics model simple by establishing inertial coordination system { S} and tool coordination system { T}.It has a clear physical and geometric meaning.Then the positive kinematics and working space of typical Delta parallel robot could be solved based on POE method.%对于并联机构的运动学分析,D-H参数法需要对每个连杆建立局部坐标系,通过各连杆的坐标转换来建立运动学方程,过程较为繁琐,而矢量法虽然能够避免正解多解的取舍问题,但是不能完整地表达出末端的姿态,缺乏通用性.作者采用基于旋量理论的指数积,只需建立惯性坐标系{S}和工具坐标系{T}两个坐标系,使得运动学模型更为简单,且具有更明确的物理和几何意义.最后应用该方法求解了典型Delta机器人的运动学正解和工作空间,并进行了机器人样机的运动控制实验.
Culmer, P R; Jackson, A E; Makower, S G; Cozens, J A; Levesley, M C; Mon-Williams, M; Bhakta, B
2011-04-30
We developed a system for quantitatively measuring arm movement. Our approach provides a method to simultaneously capture upper limb kinetic and kinematic data during assisted passive arm movements. Data are analysed with respect to Cartesian and upper limb coordinate systems to obtain upper limb joint angles and torques. We undertook an evaluation of the system in participants with stroke to show the feasibility of this approach. During rehabilitation after stroke, one aspect of treatment includes the physiotherapist applying assistive forces to move the impaired arm of the patient who remains passive. There is a dearth of published data on the relationship between upper limb kinematics and the underlying forces (kinetics) in this mode of physiotherapy treatment. Such quantitative data are crucial in facilitating research into therapy practice, for example by measuring variation in practice and determining dosage. An experienced therapist prescribed passive movements tailored to the needs of 16 participants with stroke (41-81 years) with a range of anthropometric sizes and motor impairments. Our novel measurement tool recorded kinematic and kinetic data at 100 Hz for 6-11 movements per participant. The kinetic data show that the majority of movements fall within upper limits of 36.7 N in shoulder elevation, 22.4N in shoulder protraction, 4.6 Nm in shoulder abduction, 12.8 Nm in shoulder flexion, 2.4 Nm in shoulder rotation and 5.5 Nm in elbow flexion. These data show the potential of this system to better understand arm movement, in particular to objectively evaluate physical therapy treatments and support development of robotic devices to facilitate upper limb rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Use of symbolic computation in robotics education
Vira, Naren; Tunstel, Edward
1992-01-01
An application of symbolic computation in robotics education is described. A software package is presented which combines generality, user interaction, and user-friendliness with the systematic usage of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence techniques. The software utilizes MACSYMA, a LISP-based symbolic algebra language, to automatically generate closed-form expressions representing forward and inverse kinematics solutions, the Jacobian transformation matrices, robot pose error-compensation models equations, and Lagrange dynamics formulation for N degree-of-freedom, open chain robotic manipulators. The goal of such a package is to aid faculty and students in the robotics course by removing burdensome tasks of mathematical manipulations. The software package has been successfully tested for its accuracy using commercially available robots.
Asseldonk, van Edwin H.F.; Veneman, Jan F.; Ekkelenkamp, Ralf; Buurke, Jaap H.; Helm, van der Frans C.T.; Kooij, van der Herman
2008-01-01
“Assist as needed” control algorithms promote activity of patients during robotic gait training. Implementing these requires a free walking mode of a device, as unassisted motions should not be hindered. The goal of this study was to assess the normality of walking in the free walking mode of the LO
Kinematic Analysis of VibroBot: a Soft, Hopping Robot with Stiffness- and Shape-Changing Abilities
Djen Timo Kühnel
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Bouncing locomotion is used frequently in the animal kingdom for high speed movement over land. Animals also change their stiffness and shape to improve their locomotion ability. Both bouncing movement and stiffness- and shape-changing capabilities have been recently explored in robotics. In this paper a novel soft locomotion robot, VibroBot, is presented, capable of moving using a bouncing gait by inducing whole-body oscillations through rotation of an internal out-of-balance mass. VibroBot is capable of changing both its stiffness and shape to tackle challenging terrain and to overcome obstacles. When the robot is stiff, it is capable of high-frequency oscillatory locomotion suited to movement on hard surfaces, while in a compliant state it uses a lower-frequency higher-amplitude hopping gait suitable for travelling over soft or loose ground. Forward speeds of 8.5 cm/s (0.34 body lengths per second on hard floor in VibroBot’s stiff state and 5 cm/s (0.2 body lengths per second on sand in its compliant state were recorded. VibroBot can also selectively change its shape to climb obstacles with heights up to 3 cm (20% of the robot’s height in its stiff state, far greater than its hopping apex height (1 cm. Both simple bouncing gaits and stiffness- and shape-changing abilities show great promise for improving the locomotion abilities of soft robots.
The Industrial Robot Kinematics Calibration Based on the Position Constraint%基于位置约束的工业机器人运动学标定∗
熊杰; 杨东升; 王允森; 袁晓慧
2016-01-01
Given the standard DH method was limited to describe parallel joint, MDH method was adopted to establish the robot kinematics. Based on the end position constraint, a general method was proposed to es-tablish the linear equations for structure parameter identification. To solve the degradation problems in the coefficient matrix of the equations, starting from the Jacobian matrix of the kinematics, the reasons for the degradation was analyzed. It was the theoretical basis to select the structural parameters. The conversion be-tween robot base coordinate system and the measurement coordinate system was discussed and then a simple calibration method based on the cross-bar was designed without coordinate conversion. After the simulation conducted in matlab, MOTOMAN-MH6 robot was calibrated by this method. After calibration, the cross bar length error calculated under teaching readings reduced from 4mm to less than 1mm. The results show that the calibration method is effective.%鉴于标准DH方法在描述平行关节时存在问题，采用MDH方法建立机器人的运动学，提出基于末端位置约束关系建立线性方程组进行结构参数辨识的一般方法。针对方程组系数矩阵退化的问题，从运动学的雅可比矩阵入手，分析了退化的原因，为结构参数选择提供了理论依据。讨论了机器人基坐标系和测量坐标系转换的问题，设计了一种无需坐标系转换的基于十字型杆件的简易标定方法。基于matlab进行仿真后，采用该方法标定MOTOMAN-MH6机器人，标定后，按照示教器读数计算的十字型杆件长度误差从4 mm降低到1 mm以内，说明该方法是有效的。
驷萍
1997-01-01
一篇介绍机器人的文章写得如此耐读,如此清新！ 首先.我们弄清了robot一词的来历: It was used first in 1920 in a play by Czcchoslovak writer Karel Capek.The wordrobot comes from the Czech word for slave. 上句提供了一个时间:1920。文章接着便抓住这个时间做文章: 且The word robot.and robots themselves are less than 100 years old.But humanshave been dreaming of real and imaginary copies of themselves for thousands of years. 文章就这样写出了波澜,1920年和 thousands of years自然而然构成了强烈对比。1954年和1960s是两个谈及机器人时不得不一提的时间: In 1954,the world’s first robot was produced in the United States. During the 1960s,the first industrial robots appeared beside human workers infactories.下面这句让我们体味到 the Czech word for slave中的 slave不仅言之有理,而且影视和小说里的机器人“造反”,进而 killed the humans who made them的情节也“事出有因”: What do today’s robots do?Robots do work.Work that human consideruninteresting or dangerous.…do many jobs that people consider tiring. 本文将机器人的“功过”放在一起写,笔
陈科尹; 邹湘军; 彭红星; 覃德泽
2016-01-01
According to the cumbersome and adaptive deficiencies of the picking robot kinematic inverse solution process , a picking robot kinematic inverse solution seeking method was presented based on the differential evolution algorithm . This method first utilizes picking robot motion positive equation to construct the objective function for solving picking robot motion inverse solution , and then uses the generalization and self-adaptive of the differential evolution algorithm to opti-mize the objective function , thus the picking robot kinematic inverse solution was solved .And in order to analyze the per-formance of this methodology , the traditional picking robot kinematic inverse solution and the picking robot kinematic in-verse solution based on the differential evolution algorithm were also respectively tested , which verified the effectiveness and robustness of the method in this paper .%针对传统的采摘机器人运动反解求法的求解过程过于繁琐及自适应性等不足，提出了一种基于微分进化的采摘机器人运动反解求取方法。该方法首先利用采摘机器人运动正解方程构造出求解采摘机器人运动反解的目标函数，然后运用微分进化算法的泛化性和自适应性对该目标函数进行优化处理，从而求解出采摘机器人运动反解。同时，为了分析该方法的性能，还分别对传统的采摘机器人运动反解和基于微分进化的采摘机器人运动反解进行了对比试验，从而验证了该方法的有效性和鲁棒性。
Kinematic Analysis of a Throwable Spherical Robot with a Variable Structure%变结构可抛掷球形机器人的运动分析
叶长龙; 梁海超; 于苏洋; 姜春英
2016-01-01
针对灾后、战后等复杂地面环境，开发了一种能够以抛掷或发射方式进入工作区域进行作业的变结构机器人。该机器人能够以球形结构通过抛掷或发射的方式越过现有大部分地面移动机器人无法通过的地面障碍。同时，在到达工作区域后，机器人能够变形为具有2个被动自由度的四轮移动机器人以完成移动作业。为了对机器人进行有效的运动控制，针对展开结构建立了考虑前、后车体几何约束及驱动轮无横向滑移约束的运动学模型，分析了机器人在进行曲线运动时产生轨迹误差的原因。仿真得到了机器人做正弦曲线运动时的轨迹误差，并分析了误差的影响因素。通过实验对建立的模型和仿真结果进行了验证，证明机器人具有较好的运动灵活性。%In view of the complex ground environment after disasters or wars, a robot with a variable structure is developed, which can be thrown or fired into the working area. The robot adopting spherical structure can be thrown or fired across some obstacles which are difficult for most existing robots to cross. After going into the working area, the robot can adopt the four-wheel structure with two passive degrees of freedom to realize the moving work. In order to control movement of the robot effectively, a kinematic model is established, in which the geometric constraint and the non lateral slip constraint of the front and rear bodies are considered for the unfolded structure, and the cause of the robot’s trajectory error along a curved path is analyzed. The simulation for the robot to follow a sinusoidal trajectory is performed, and the trajectory error and its influencing factors are studied. An experiment is performed to verify the presented model and the simulation results, and good mobility of the robot is demonstrated.
2013-01-01
Dexterous movements performed by the human hand are by far more sophisticated than those achieved by current humanoid robotic hands and systems used to control them. This work aims at providing a contribution in order to overcome this gap by proposing a bio-inspired control architecture that captures two key elements underlying human dexterity. The first is the progressive development of skilful control, often starting from - or involving - cyclic movements, based on trial-and-error learning ...
Sina Askari, MS; TeKang Chao; Ray D. de Leon, PhD; Deborah S. Won, PhD
2013-01-01
Results of previous studies raise the question of how timing neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (FES) to limb movements during stepping might alter neuromuscular control differently than patterned stimulation alone. We have developed a prototype FES system for a rodent model of spinal cord injury (SCI) that times FES to robotic treadmill training (RTT). In this study, one group of rats (n = 6) was trained with our FES+RTT system and received stimulation of the ankle flexor (tibia...
Abdelhakim Cherfia
2007-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a geometrical model of a constrained robot of three degrees of freedom (d.o.f added to a PPP passive central segment. This structure provides a pure translation motion. We will also determine the relations between generalized and articular velocities by using the inverse Jacobian matrix. Further, we determine the reciprocal relations between cartesian and angular velocities of the end-effector via articular velocities by simple derivation of the direct geometrical model expressions. A determination of the workspace based on the geometrical model analysis is derived followed by a numerical calculation of all the atteignables points enabling a graphical visualisation of such a workspace. Moreover, the analysis of the Jacobian matrix has permitted to ensure that there are no singularities of type 1 and 2 in such a structure. A prototype of a parallel robot has been built up in our laboratory in order to validate the proposed models.Este trabajo presenta el modelo geométrico de un robot paralelo con tres grados de libertad (d.o.f agregados a un segmento central pasivo del PPP. Esta estructura proporciona un movimiento de translación pura. También determinaremos las relaciones entre las velocidades generalizadas y articulares usando la matriz Jacobiana inversa. Además, determinamos las relaciones recíprocas entre las velocidades cartesianas y angulares del end-effector vía velocidades articulares por la derivación simple de las expresiones del modelo geométrico directo. Una determinación del espacio de trabajo basado en el análisis del modelo geométrico es derivado seguido por un cálculo numérico de todos los puntos que deben alcanzarse permitiendo una visualización gráfica de tal espacio de trabajo. Por otra parte, el análisis de los coeficientes de la matriz Jacobiana permite asegurar que no haya singularidades del tipo 1 y 2 en tal estructura. Se ha realizado un prototipo de robot paralelo en nuestro laboratorio
Tondu, Bertrand
2003-05-01
The mathematical modelling of industrial robots is based on the vectorial nature of the n-dimensional joint space of the robot, defined as a kinematic chain with n degrees of freedom. However, in our opinion, the vectorial nature of the joint space has been insufficiently discussed in the literature. We establish the vectorial nature of the joint space of an industrial robot from the fundamental studies of B. Roth on screws. To cite this article: B. Tondu, C. R. Mecanique 331 (2003).
A Back-stepping Based Trajectory Tracking Controller for a Non-chained Nonholonomic Spherical Robot
Zhan Qiang; Liu Zengbo; Cai Yao
2008-01-01
Spherical robot has good static and dynamic stability, which provides it with strong viability in hostile environment, but the lack of effective control methods has hindered its application and development. This article deals with the dynamic trajectory tracking problem of the spherical robot BHQ-2 designed for unmanned environment exploration. The dynamic model of the spherical robot is established with a simplified Boltzmann-Hamel equation, based on which a trajectory tracking controller is designed by using the back-stepping method. The convergence of the controller is proved with the Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical simulations show that with the controller the robot can globally and asymptotically track desired trajectories, both linear and circular.
计算机视觉在并联机器人运动学标定中的应用%Application of the Computer Vision in Kinematic Calibration of Parallel Robot
董旭明; 李志斌
2016-01-01
In order to improve the running accuracy of parallel robot,the method of using computer vision to calibrate kinematics parameters of parallel robot is researched. Firstly,kinematics analysis of Delta type parallel robot Sensor with three degrees of freedom is conducted. Then, using optical camera as the sensor, the calibration plate fixed on the moving platform is photographed under different state of pose, and the position of the center of moving platform in the base coordinate system is figured out through the camera calibration and the corresponding coordinate transformation method. Finally, using robot inverse kinematics model, customized error equation, and nonlinear least squares estimation,the kinematics parameters are obtained. The experiments verify calibration method is low cost,and its calibration is simplicity and effectiveness.%为提高并联机器人运行精度，研究利用计算机视觉标定并联机器人运动学参数的方法。首先对Delta型三自由度并联机器人进行运动学分析。然后采用光学照相机为传感器，在机构处于不同位姿状态下对固定于动平台上的标定板进行拍照，通过相机标定以及相应的坐标变换方法，求出动平台中心在基坐标系中的位置。最后利用机器人逆运动学模型、自定义的误差方程和非线性最小二乘估计，获得运动学参数。实验结果表明，该标定方法成本较低，标定方法简单、有效。
Workspace and Payload-Capacity of a New Reconfigurable Delta Parallel Robot
Mauro Maya
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the workspace and payload capacity of a new design of reconfigurable Delta‐type parallel robot is analysed. The reconfiguration is achieved by adjusting the length of the kinematic chains of a given robot link simultaneously and symmetrically during the operation of the robot. This would produce a dynamic workspace in shape and volume. A numerical analysis of the variation of shape and volume of the workspace and payload capacity of the robot is presented. Based both on the results of this analysis and on practical requirements, a proposal for the design of a reconfiguring mechanism is presented.
Workspace and Payload-Capacity of a New Reconfigurable Delta Parallel Robot
Mauro Maya
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the workspace and payload capacity of a new design of reconfigurable Delta-type parallel robot is analysed. The reconfiguration is achieved by adjusting the length of the kinematic chains of a given robot link simultaneously and symmetrically during the operation of the robot. This would produce a dynamic workspace in shape and volume. A numerical analysis of the variation of shape and volume of the workspace and payload capacity of the robot is presented. Based both on the results of this analysis and on practical requirements, a proposal for the design of a reconfiguring mechanism is presented.
Vukobratovic, M.
1989-01-01
This book is organized into nine chapters. Chapter 1 presents general robot characteristics concerning the classification of robot systems, the general specification of robot mechanisms and the specification of manipulation robots. Chapter 2 is devoted to manipulation robot kinematics. It treats the kinematic structure of manipulation robots, the types of kinematic configurations, the kinematic model of manipulation robots, based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (homogeneous) coordinates. The inverse problem of kinematics is formulated and the basic principles of robot trajectory synthesis are given. Chapter 3 contains the fundamentals of studying robot dynamics. It presents the automated construction of the dynamic equations of motion, the modelling of actuator dynamics and the effect of fundamental vibration on the robot dynamics. The class of tasks involving constrained gripper motion is also presented. The problems of manipulation robot control are discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 is devoted to the microcomputer implementation of control algorithms. It presents the basic elements of today's robot control systems as well as software modules among which communication-command module, kinematic module and dynamic (servosystem) module deserve to be especially mentioned. Manipulation robot programming is treated in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 deals with the sensors used in robotics: position sensors (potentiometers, encoders, resolvers), environment sensors (force sensors, tactile sensors, proximity sensors) and vision sensors (scene illumination, special vision sensors, lasers). The elements of industrial robot design and application are discussed in Chapter 8. In Chapter 9 the authors try to unify in a systematic way major problems (and possible solutions) encountered with factory automation by integrating one or more robots and several machine tools into work cell, flexible manufacturing line and assembly systems. (orig./HP) With 228 figs.
喻敏; 李成刚; 李富中; 王正军; 马越民
2015-01-01
In order to break the foreign technical monopoly of robot simulation and control software , it develops the kinematic control and calibration software for industrial serial robot based on MFC and OpenGL in VC 6 .0 platform .The functions of this system include the robotics selection , kinematics simulation , the measurement of terminal position , the calibration for the base coordinate system and the tool coordinate system , the accuracy a-nalysis, the identification of error parameter , the error compensation and effect verification .The data communi-cation between interface and controller is done based onRS 232 serial port communication .With 3D model display and kinematic simulation , the system can realize online planning for robot terminal position trajectory , the robot calibration , motion control and other functions .%为打破国外机器人仿真控制软件的技术垄断，利用OpenGL及MFC在VC6．0平台上开发了一款工业串联机器人的运动控制及标定软件。其人机交互的实现包括机器人选型、运动学仿真、末端位置测量、基坐标系和工具坐标系标定、精度分析、误差参数辨识、误差补偿及效果验证9大流程。通过RS232串口通讯实现界面和控制器的数据通讯，同时结合3 D模型的显示及动作模拟，可实现机器人末端轨迹的在线规划、机器人标定、运动控制等功能。
Interoperability of Standards for Robotics in CIME
Sørensen, Torben
1996-01-01
The ESPRIT project 6457 (InterRob) has as its first goal the development of standardized interfaces and their software implementations for ISO 10303 STEP and DIN 66312 IRL and continued previous Esprit projects CAD*I and NIRO. The InterRob approach is based on standardized models for product...... geometry, kinematics, robotics, dynamics, and control, hence on a coherent neutral information model of the process chain from design to manufacturing. The second main goal was to increase the accuracy of off-line programmed robots. The results were demonstrated in industrial applications....
Juan Jose Saucedo-Dorantes
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Gearboxes and induction motors are important components in industrial applications and their monitoring condition is critical in the industrial sector so as to reduce costs and maintenance downtimes. There are several techniques associated with the fault diagnosis in rotating machinery; however, vibration and stator currents analysis are commonly used due to their proven reliability. Indeed, vibration and current analysis provide fault condition information by means of the fault-related spectral component identification. This work presents a methodology based on vibration and current analysis for the diagnosis of wear in a gearbox and the detection of bearing defect in an induction motor both linked to the same kinematic chain; besides, the location of the fault-related components for analysis is supported by the corresponding theoretical models. The theoretical models are based on calculation of characteristic gearbox and bearings fault frequencies, in order to locate the spectral components of the faults. In this work, the influence of vibrations over the system is observed by performing motor current signal analysis to detect the presence of faults. The obtained results show the feasibility of detecting multiple faults in a kinematic chain, making the proposed methodology suitable to be used in the application of industrial machinery diagnosis.
Hiromi Matsumoto
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the musculoskeletal and physical strain on healthcare workers, by measuring range of motion (ROM, muscle activity, and heart rate (HR, during transfer of a simulated patient using either a robotic wheelchair (RWC or a conventional wheelchair (CWC. Methods. The subjects were 10 females who had work experience in transferring patients and another female adult as the simulated patient to be transferred from bed to a RWC or a CWC. In both experimental conditions, ROM, muscle activity, and HR were assessed in the subjects using motion sensors, electromyography, and electrocardiograms. Results. Peak ROM of shoulder flexion during assistive transfer with the RWC was significantly lower than that with the CWC. Values for back muscle activity during transfer were lower with the RWC than with the CWC. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the RWC may decrease workplace injuries and lower back pain in healthcare workers.
Application of Inverse Kinematic of 6R Series Robot Based on Quaternion%基于四元数的6R串联机器人运动学逆解应用
陈爱; 冯桑; 何春; 陆晓
2013-01-01
针对6R串联机器人运动学求解计算量大、传统方法求解困难以及涉及多解和奇异性等问题，在普吕克坐标系（Plücker Coordinate）下描述了刚体运动，建立刚体运动的四元数数学模型，进一步建立了6R串联机器人运动学几何数学模型，从而可以方便的求得6R串联机器人8组运动学逆解。最后，以一种串联机器人为例，利用Matlab/Simulink模型进行算法计算，最后用Matlab/robot toolbox进行结果验证。与传统方法相比，采用该方法求解串联机器人运动学，计算简洁、精度高、具有普遍通用性，有利于改善计算机控制的实时性。%For the calculating of 6R series robot kinematics is an arduous task , it is hard to deal with the multiple solutions and the singularity problem in the way of traditional method to calculating of 6R series robot kinematics , this paper describes the rigid body motion in Plücker coordinate,establishes the rigid body motion of the mathematical model based on quaternions , further establishes 6R serial robot kinematics geometry mathematical model, which can be easily to solve the 6R serial robot inverse kinematics and get the 8 group’s conclusions . By the presented method, the inverse kinematics of a serial mechanism is given as an example. The results show that compared with traditional methods, the method is simple, high accuracy, of universal used, will do work to improve the real-time computer control.
Interoperability of Standards for Robotics in CIME
Kroszynski, Uri; Sørensen, Torben; Ludwig, Arnold
1997-01-01
Esprit Project 6457 "Interoperability of Standards for Robotics in CIME (InterRob)" belongs to the Subprogramme "Integration in Manufacturing" of Esprit, the European Specific Programme for Research and Development in Information Technology supported by the European Commision.The first main goal...... of InterRob was to close the information chain between product design, simulation, programming, and robot control by developing standardized interfaces and their software implementation for standards STEP (International Standard for the Exchange of Product model data, ISO 10303) and IRL (Industrial Robot...... Language, DIN 66312). This is a continuation of the previous Esprit projects CAD*I and NIRO, which developed substantial basics of STEP.The InterRob approach is based on standardized models for product geometry, kinematics, robotics, dynamics and control, hence on a coherent neutral information model...
Interoperability of Standards for Robotics in CIME
Kroszynski, Uri; Sørensen, Torben; Ludwig, Arnold
1997-01-01
Esprit Project 6457 "Interoperability of Standards for Robotics in CIME (InterRob)" belongs to the Subprogramme "Integration in Manufacturing" of Esprit, the European Specific Programme for Research and Development in Information Technology supported by the European Commision.The first main goal...... of InterRob was to close the information chain between product design, simulation, programming, and robot control by developing standardized interfaces and their software implementation for standards STEP (International Standard for the Exchange of Product model data, ISO 10303) and IRL (Industrial Robot...... Language, DIN 66312). This is a continuation of the previous Esprit projects CAD*I and NIRO, which developed substantial basics of STEP.The InterRob approach is based on standardized models for product geometry, kinematics, robotics, dynamics and control, hence on a coherent neutral information model...
Kinematics Simulation of Chain Transmission Based on CATIA%基于CATIA的链传动仿真
王佞
2013-01-01
介绍了利用CATIA DMU及CATIA DMU Kinematics Simulator模块在CATIA中建立链传动模型的方法,说明了链传动模型中运动副的使用及机构自由度的控制,提出了一些简单的机构仿真分析方法.
Chatterjee, Sromona; Nachstedt, Timo; Tamosiunaite, Minija
2015-01-01
Motor primitives provide a modular organization to complex behaviours in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Inspired by this, here we generate motor primitives for a complex snake-like robot with screw-drive units, and thence chain and combine them, in order to provide a versatile, goal-directed......Motor primitives provide a modular organization to complex behaviours in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Inspired by this, here we generate motor primitives for a complex snake-like robot with screw-drive units, and thence chain and combine them, in order to provide a versatile, goal...
Kinematic synthesis of a new 3D printing solution
Giberti Hermes
2016-01-01
The object of this article is the kinematic synthesis of a 5Dofs robot, based on two PKM machines, for additive manufacturing in order to compliant with the requirements of this new technology. Robot kinematics have been optimized by genetic algorithm in order to cover the required workspace and the design of the robot and outline of the control system are also given.
六足步行机器人腿部机构运动学分析%Kinematic analysis of leg mechanism of six-legged walking robot
张金柱; 金振林; 陈广广
2016-01-01
In order to increase the automation level of agricultural operations, broaden the application scope of agricultural robot, and improve the ability of adapting to the different working environment and flexible work, a novel three-degree-of-freedom leg mechanism used in the six-legged walking robot is introduced. This leg mechanism comprised a drive mechanism based on 2RUS+RU parallel manipulator and a traveling mechanism based on parallelogram mechanism. The motor of drive mechanism is fixed on body frame. This leg mechanism has not only the advantage of parallel mechanism, but also a good protectiveness. In this paper, kinematic analysis and simulation of leg mechanism of six-legged walking robot is accomplished. Firstly, based on the intrinsic relationbetween the angular velocity and the angular velocity of Euler angles of the dynamic platform, the relationship matrix between linear velocity and angular velocity of driving mechanism is established. Based on that, the entireJacbian matrix in the 3×3 form of the leg mechanism is deduced by using the relationship matrix derivative method, and the explicit Hessian matrix in the 3×3×3 form of the parallel drive mechanism and the leg walking mechanism is obtained, which also adopts the method of derivative matrix. Secondly, with the rationed rotation angle of the revolute joint ranging in [-45°, 45°], a distribution diagram of condition number of the integral Jacobian matrix is drawn. The condition number of integral Jacobian matrix is changed slowly and smaller in the central region of the workspace in this diagram, so that the mechanism flexibility is good in this area and can meet the requirements of the robot movement. Lastly, under the conditions that were step increment of 300 mm and crossing obstacle height of 200 mm, the trajectory planning of the foot end is accomplished and the track function of the foot end is presented based on the method of combined polynomial, which can make the robot stable and free
Crawling gait realization of the mini-modular climbing caterpillar robot
Wei Wang; Kun Wang; Houxiang Zhang
2009-01-01
The concept of a modular climbing caterpillar robot is inspired by the kinematics of real caterpillars,Two typical kinematics models and gaits are investigated based on the crawling motion of the inchworm and the tobacco hornworm.Due to the fixed constraints between the suckers and the wall,the gait of a caterpillar robot engages a changing kinematic chain which is from an open chain to a closed chain,and then to an open chain in order.During the open chain periods,an unsymmetrical phase method (UPM) is used to ensure the reliable attachment of the passive suckers to the wall.In the closed-chain state,a four-link kinematics model is adopted to fulfill the fixed constraints,By combining the two methods together,the complete joint control trajectories are acquired for a modular caterpillar robot with seven joints.At last,on-site tests confirm the proposed principles and the validity of the climbing gait.
Fani, Simone; Bianchi, Matteo; Jain, Sonal; Pimenta Neto, José Simões; Boege, Scott; Grioli, Giorgio; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco
2016-01-01
Myoelectric artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human-robot interactions. Therefore, to reduce early abandonment of terminal devices, we propose that controllers should be designed so as to ensure effective task accomplishment in a natural fashion. In this work, we have analyzed and compared the performance of three types of myoelectric controller algorithms based on surface electromyography to control an underactuated and multi-degrees of freedom prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro. The goal of the present study was to identify the myoelectric algorithm that best mimics the native hand movements. As a preliminary step, we first quantified the repeatability of the SoftHand Pro finger movements and identified the electromyographic recording sites for able-bodied individuals with the highest signal-to-noise ratio from two pairs of muscles, i.e., flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis, and flexor carpi radialis/extensor carpi ulnaris. Able-bodied volunteers were then asked to execute reach-to-grasp movements, while electromyography signals were recorded from flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis as this was identified as the muscle pair characterized by high signal-to-noise ratio and intuitive control. Subsequently, we tested three myoelectric controllers that mapped electromyography signals to position of the SoftHand Pro. We found that a differential electromyography-to-position mapping ensured the
A vision-based self-calibration method for robotic visual inspection systems.
Yin, Shibin; Ren, Yongjie; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Shourui; Ye, Shenghua
2013-12-03
A vision-based robot self-calibration method is proposed in this paper to evaluate the kinematic parameter errors of a robot using a visual sensor mounted on its end-effector. This approach could be performed in the industrial field without external, expensive apparatus or an elaborate setup. A robot Tool Center Point (TCP) is defined in the structural model of a line-structured laser sensor, and aligned to a reference point fixed in the robot workspace. A mathematical model is established to formulate the misalignment errors with kinematic parameter errors and TCP position errors. Based on the fixed point constraints, the kinematic parameter errors and TCP position errors are identified with an iterative algorithm. Compared to the conventional methods, this proposed method eliminates the need for a robot-based-frame and hand-to-eye calibrations, shortens the error propagation chain, and makes the calibration process more accurate and convenient. A validation experiment is performed on an ABB IRB2400 robot. An optimal configuration on the number and distribution of fixed points in the robot workspace is obtained based on the experimental results. Comparative experiments reveal that there is a significant improvement of the measuring accuracy of the robotic visual inspection system.
Rothschild, Lynn J.
2012-01-01
Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.
Coordinated Resolved Motion Control of Dual-arm Manipulators with Closed Chain
Tianliang Liu; Yan Lei; Liang Han; Wenfu Xu; Huaiwu Zou
2016-01-01
When applied to some tasks, such as payload handling, assembling, repairing and so on, the two arms of a humanoid robot will form a closed kinematic chain. It makes the motion planning and control for dual‐arm coordination very complex and difficult. In this paper, we present three types of resolved motion control methods for a humanoid robot during coordinated manipulation. They are, respectively, position‐level, velocity‐level and acceleration‐level resolved motion control methods. The desi...
Fani, Simone; Bianchi, Matteo; Jain, Sonal; Pimenta Neto, José Simões; Boege, Scott; Grioli, Giorgio; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco
2016-01-01
Myoelectric artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human–robot interactions. Therefore, to reduce early abandonment of terminal devices, we propose that controllers should be designed so as to ensure effective task accomplishment in a natural fashion. In this work, we have analyzed and compared the performance of three types of myoelectric controller algorithms based on surface electromyography to control an underactuated and multi-degrees of freedom prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro. The goal of the present study was to identify the myoelectric algorithm that best mimics the native hand movements. As a preliminary step, we first quantified the repeatability of the SoftHand Pro finger movements and identified the electromyographic recording sites for able-bodied individuals with the highest signal-to-noise ratio from two pairs of muscles, i.e., flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis, and flexor carpi radialis/extensor carpi ulnaris. Able-bodied volunteers were then asked to execute reach-to-grasp movements, while electromyography signals were recorded from flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis as this was identified as the muscle pair characterized by high signal-to-noise ratio and intuitive control. Subsequently, we tested three myoelectric controllers that mapped electromyography signals to position of the SoftHand Pro. We found that a differential electromyography-to-position mapping ensured
Simone Fani
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Myoelectric-artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human-likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human-robot interactions. Therefore, to reduce early abandonment of terminal devices, we propose that controllers should be designed such as to ensure effective task accomplishment in a natural fashion. In this work, we have analyzed and compared the performance of three types of myoelectric controller algorithms based on surface electromyography to control an under-actuated and multi-degrees of freedom prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro. The goal of the present study was to identify the myoelectric algorithm that best mimics the native hand movements. As a preliminary step, we first quantified the repeatability of the SoftHand Pro finger movements and identified the electromyographic recording sites for able-bodied individuals with the highest signal-to-noise ratio from two pairs of muscles, i.e. flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis, and flexor carpi radialis/extensor carpi ulnaris. Able-bodied volunteers were then asked to execute reach-to-grasp movements, while electromyography signals were recorded from flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis as this was identified as the muscle pair characterized by high signal-to-noise ratio and intuitive control. Subsequently, we tested three myoelectric controllers that mapped electromyography signals to position of the SoftHand Pro. We found that a differential electromyography
靳龙; 邱敏敏; 胡迎春
2013-01-01
Harvesting robot has great potential on agricultural robot .The kinematics analysis is carried out in order to control the accurately for apple picking robot .Most scholars have studied the kinematics analysis of the harvesting robot by using the method of Denavit-Hartenberg , but which has low efficiency and complex counting process , for the mechaFTnical engineer is not a very good choice .This paper introduce the CAD variable geometric method by the exam-ple of the harvesting robot .Firstly he method of Denavit-Hartenberg is introduced , then based on the CAD variable geo-metric method for solving kinematics analysis of Harvesting Robot , which makes people knows the advantages and disad-vantages of those method .%采摘机器人作为农业机器人的重要类型，具有很大的发展潜力。为了实现对苹果采摘机器人的精确控制，对机构进行了运动学分析。多数学者对采摘机器人进行运动学分析都是基于Denavit-Hartenberg方法，该方法效率较低，计算较复杂，对于广大的机械工程师来说不是一个很好的选择。为此，以苹果采摘机器人为例，介绍了CAD变量几何法的应用。首先，给出了传统的Denavit-Hartenberg（D-H）对苹果采摘机器人的运动学分析，然后用CAD变量几何法对采摘机器人进行了运动学分析。通过两种方法的直观对比，可以明显地看出各自的优缺点。
Martín, Fernando; Moreno, Luis; Garrido, Santiago; Blanco, Dolores
2015-09-16
One of the most important skills desired for a mobile robot is the ability to obtain its own location even in challenging environments. The information provided by the sensing system is used here to solve the global localization problem. In our previous work, we designed different algorithms founded on evolutionary strategies in order to solve the aforementioned task. The latest developments are presented in this paper. The engine of the localization module is a combination of the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling technique and the Differential Evolution method, which results in a particle filter based on the minimization of a fitness function. The robot's pose is estimated from a set of possible locations weighted by a cost value. The measurements of the perceptive sensors are used together with the predicted ones in a known map to define a cost function to optimize. Although most localization methods rely on quadratic fitness functions, the sensed information is processed asymmetrically in this filter. The Kullback-Leibler divergence is the basis of a cost function that makes it possible to deal with different types of occlusions. The algorithm performance has been checked in a real map. The results are excellent in environments with dynamic and unmodeled obstacles, a fact that causes occlusions in the sensing area.
权龙哲; 张冬冬; 查绍辉; 奚德君; 王昊
2015-01-01
In Greenhouses, the management of fruits and vegetable production involves many tasks, such as picking, spraying, cutting and so on. However, the agricultural robots currently available mainly focus on one specific task. This research focused on a new multifunctional agricultural robot with three arms. Each of its robotic arms has its own function for a different end use. The robot not only can complete one task by collaboration of two different robotic arms but also can fulfill spraying, cutting and picking tasks in the same area. So by using such robot, output productivity can be improved effectively and the cost would be reduced. The robot comprises caterpillar chassis, height-adjustable torso, mechanical structure with three arms, machine-vision system and control system. When at the state of working, the robot uses its machine-vision system to recognize targets. At the moment when targets are found, the robot adjusts its position in order to do tasks correspondingly. Setting up kinematics model of the agricultural robot is the precondition of realizing the system multi-functions. In this paper, we set up the link coordinate system of agricultural robot based on D-H approach. Homogeneous transforming matrixes of adjacent link were established according to the linkage parameters and joint variables. Kinematics equations of visual system, cutting end effector, picking end effector and spraying end effector were deducted and solved, respectively. So the relationship between the position and posture of end effects and linkage parameters and joint variables were determined. The closed-form inverse kinematics was presented by algebraic method and the value of joint variables was calculated according to the certain position and posture of end effects. Kinematics experiments were carried out to verify the correctness of kinematics algorithm and accuracy in application. Matlab software was used to help the calculation of the enveloping space of end effects in the mode
五自由度采摘机械臂运动学通用算法应用%Application for the General Kinematics of 5DOF Picking Robot Manipulator
汪雨萌; 钱桦; 谭月胜; 周满平
2012-01-01
通过建立通用采摘机械臂运动学模型,构造初始矢量方程,完成求解,验证了基于Groebner基法的运动学算法的可行性,为采摘机械臂结构设计与控制研究提供了参考数据.%Through establishing the general kinematics module of the 5DOF picking robot manipulator, vector equation is established and'can be solved by separating the Groebner Basis of the equation. This has proved the feasibility of the algorithm, which provides reference data for the research of picking robot manipulator' s structuring and controlling.
Herder, J.L.; Van der Wijk, V.
2010-01-01
The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at le
Herder, J.L.; Van der Wijk, V.
2010-01-01
The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at le
Kinematics analysis of the 3-RRS parallel robot based on screw theory%基于螺旋理论的3-RRS 并联机器人运动学分析
毕亚东
2013-01-01
提出了一种新的3-RRS 并联机器人运动学分析方法：应用螺旋理论建立了螺旋和反螺旋模型，通过模型分析得其运动自由度与 Kutzbach Grubler 公式计算结果一致；推导了并联机器人的位置正反解模型，用仿真软件 Matlab 中牛顿迭代法进行了先正解后反解和先反解后正解计算，验证了数值的正确性。该方法同样适用其他并联机器人，具有应用价值。%A new type of 3-RRS parallel robot kinematics analysis method was proposed.Based on the screw theory,a 3-RRS parallel robot kinematics and anti-helix spiral model was established,obtaining the freedom of movement through the model analysis and Kutzbach Grubler calculated results,deriving a paral-lel position of the robot inverse solution models.Using Newton′s iterative method of simulation software Matlab,the first positive solution and then inverse solution and then inverse solution after the first positive solution were calculated to verify the numerical accuracy.The 3-RRS method also applied to other parallel robots,and had application value.
庄未; 黄用华
2011-01-01
Research on quadruped robot is mostly made based on the same bend directions of four legs. For redundant quadruped robot, its two forelegs and rear legs become symmetry flections in steady poses. For studying a leg motion and the body motion of hydraulic actuated redundant quadruped robot, kinematic model of quadruped robot was established based on screw theory in this paper, which includes inverse kinematics solution of a single leg and forward solution of the parallel body. Then, the angle ranges of coax joints and knee joints of two rear legs were designed according to the walking plan of robot. Furthermore, the joint variables of two forelegs and the poses of the body were obtained by the mathematical model. Finally, the body posture in a walking plan was compared by MATLAB calculation and ADAMS simulation, and the kinematics model was validated.%四足机器人的各种研究大多基于四条腿弯曲方向一致展开的.对于液压驱动且具有冗余度的四足机器人,静止姿态下,其前面两条腿与后面两条腿成对称弯曲状.为了研究这种机器人单腿运动和躯体运动状态,文中建立了基于螺旋理论的液压驱动四足机器人运动学模型,包括给出了单腿串联运动学逆解和躯体并联运动学正解.然后根据机器人行走过程设计出后面两条腿的髋关节与膝关节摆幅角度,通过建立的运动学模型,得到前面两条腿的关节变量及躯体姿态.最后通过MATLAB数值仿真和ADAMS虚拟样机实验,对机器人在一种行走方案下的躯体运动姿态进行仿真对比,验证了所建运动学模型的可靠性.
Insights into mechanism kinematics for protein motion simulation.
Diez, Mikel; Petuya, Víctor; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso; Hernández, Alfonso
2014-06-12
The high demanding computational requirements necessary to carry out protein motion simulations make it difficult to obtain information related to protein motion. On the one hand, molecular dynamics simulation requires huge computational resources to achieve satisfactory motion simulations. On the other hand, less accurate procedures such as interpolation methods, do not generate realistic morphs from the kinematic point of view. Analyzing a protein's movement is very similar to serial robots; thus, it is possible to treat the protein chain as a serial mechanism composed of rotational degrees of freedom. Recently, based on this hypothesis, new methodologies have arisen, based on mechanism and robot kinematics, to simulate protein motion. Probabilistic roadmap method, which discretizes the protein configurational space against a scoring function, or the kinetostatic compliance method that minimizes the torques that appear in bonds, aim to simulate protein motion with a reduced computational cost. In this paper a new viewpoint for protein motion simulation, based on mechanism kinematics is presented. The paper describes a set of methodologies, combining different techniques such as structure normalization normalization processes, simulation algorithms and secondary structure detection procedures. The combination of all these procedures allows to obtain kinematic morphs of proteins achieving a very good computational cost-error rate, while maintaining the biological meaning of the obtained structures and the kinematic viability of the obtained motion. The procedure presented in this paper, implements different modules to perform the simulation of the conformational change suffered by a protein when exerting its function. The combination of a main simulation procedure assisted by a secondary structure process, and a side chain orientation strategy, allows to obtain a fast and reliable simulations of protein motion.
金玉阳; 张明路; 高庆吉; 于常娟
2014-01-01
Focusing on 5-DOF cleaning robot for aircraft surfaces,the screw theory and exponen-tials formula are used for the forward kinematics solution of robot.And the configuration of the end-effector relative to inertial coordinate frame was obtained.Besides,Jacobian matrix of for-ward kinematics is obtained by the twists,which establishes a basis of singularity of mechanism, future real-time control,and manipulability.%针对5自由度飞机表面清洗机器人，通过旋量和指数积公式求解了运动学正解，得出末端执行器相对惯性坐标系的位形。采用运动螺旋求解了运动学正解的雅可比矩阵，为机构的奇异性、实时控制、可操作性的研究提供了理论基础。
基于D-H法的挤奶机器人机械臂运动学分析%Analysis on Kinematics of Milking Robot Mechanical Arm based on D-H Method
刘俊杰; 杨圣虎; 蔡晓华; 吴泽全
2015-01-01
为了保证挤奶机器人的机械臂能够满足使用要求和精度,并快速可靠地工作,对其进行运动学分析. 采用D-H法对机械臂的位姿和坐标变换进行建模,通过设置机械臂各杆件坐标系,确定各杆件的齐次坐标变换矩阵,并建立挤奶机器人机械臂运动学方程. 分析结果表明,所设计的机械臂能够满足使用要求.%In order to ensure the mechanical arm of milking robot can meet the requirement of using and accuracy, and can work speedily and reliably, the article did the analysis of kinematics for it. It took D-H method to make model for pose and coordinate transformation of mechanical arm, determined the homogeneous coordinate transformation matrix of each bar by setting each link coordinate system for the mechanical arm, and established kinematics equation for milking robot mechanical arm. The analysis result showed that the design of mechanical arm can meet the request of using.
Parallel Rolling Robot with Hydraulic Driven Expandable Chain%液压驱动缩放支链的并联式滚动机器人
沈海阔; 丁万; 仝龙飞; 黄齐来; 姚燕安
2015-01-01
A novel three degrees of freedom (DOF) parallel rolling robot is proposed. The main consideration for proposing the robot aims at acquiring large deformation capability, powerful strength output, rapid response and flexible locomotion. The robot adopts the parallel mechanism as its architecture to guarantee the stiffness of the robot. The large deformation capability is obtained by taking advantage of the planar expandable mechanism as the extension ratio enlarging mechanism. The usage of the hydraulic actuation as the telescopic input increases the locomotion flexibility and the strength output of the robot. The robot rolls by properly planning and controlling the relations between the center of mass (CM) of the robot and the supporting region. The mechanical construction and configuration of the robot is described, the rolling gaits are planned, and the optimal locomotion rule is given. Based on the rule, the kinematic model of the robot is built. The correctness of the kinematic model is verified by the given numerical example. The locomotion feasibility of the two locomotion periods is analysed. A set of experimental system including the hydraulic system and robotic system is built. Four rolling experiments are carried out accordingly. The experimental results demonstrate that the experimental system is reliable and possesses the rapid response capability, and verify that the validity and feasibility of the theoretical analysis and the rolling locomotion.%提出一种新型三自由度并联式滚动机器人。该机器人以大变形、强力输出、快速响应和运动灵活为目标，构型上采用提出的新型并联机构为本体以保证机构整体刚度，设计上应用平面缩放支链作为伸缩比放大机构以获得大变形能力，驱动上利用液压执行元件作为伸缩驱动输入以增强滚动机器人运动的灵活性与力量输出。其翻滚运动是通过合理规划与控制机器人质心与支撑区域之间关系而
董伟光; 王洪光; 姜勇
2015-01-01
针对一种具有轮足复合式移动机构的爬壁机器人的运动学问题开展相关研究。通过变换矩阵将2种基本运动模式的运动学表达式关联起来，同时引入附着面倾角，构建复合运动模式的运动学模型。在逆运动学分析中，基于给定任务建立了一种运动模式判断流程。针对复合运动模式逆运动学求解中的多解问题，提出一种基于吸附安全性考虑的求解优化方案。最后通过壁面凹过渡仿真实验对所提方法进行验证，结果显示机器人可以成功实现壁面过渡，表明文中所述运动学分析方法的正确性与有效性。%The kinematics of the wall⁃climbing robot with a biped⁃wheel hybrid locomotion mechanism is studied. The kinematic equations of the two basic locomotion modes are integrated using a transformation matrix. In addition, the tilt angle of the attachment wall is introduced to the kinematic expression to build the kinematics model of hy⁃brid locomotion mode. A judgment process of locomotion modes is built based on a given task in the inverse kine⁃matics. Aiming at the multi⁃solution problem in solving inverse kinematics of the hybrid locomotion mode, an opti⁃mization method is proposed considering adsorption safety. Finally, the method is verified through simulation of wall concave transition. The results showed that the wall transition of the robot can be achieved successfully and the method proposed is practical and effective for the hybrid locomotion mechanism.
Biped walking robot based on a 2-UPU+2-UU parallel mechanism
Miao, Zhihuai; Yao, Yan'an; Kong, Xianwen
2014-03-01
Existing biped robots mainly fall into two categories: robots with left and right feet and robots with upper and lower feet. The load carrying capability of a biped robot is quite limited since the two feet of a walking robot supports the robot alternatively during walking. To improve the load carrying capability, a novel biped walking robot is proposed based on a 2-UPU+2-UU parallel mechanism. The biped walking robot is composed of two identical platforms(feet) and four limbs, including two UPU(universal-prismatic-universal serial chain) limbs and two UU limbs. To enhance its terrain adaptability like articulated vehicles, the two feet of the biped walking robot are designed as two vehicles in detail. The conditions that the geometric parameters of the feet must satisfy are discussed. The degrees-of-freedom of the mechanism is analyzed by using screw theory. Gait analysis, kinematic analysis and stability analysis of the mechanism are carried out to verify the structural design parameters. The simulation results validate the feasibility of walking on rugged terrain. Experiments with a physical prototype show that the novel biped walking robot can walk stably on smooth terrain. Due to its unique feet design and high stiffness, the biped walking robot may adapt to rugged terrain and is suitable for load-carrying.
Some issues of the human arm motion obtained from its kinematic model
Lenarčič, Jadran
1998-07-01
A possible direction in the development of future robot manipulators is in the so-called humanoid robot systems. The objective is to develop robots that behave, work, and communicate like humans. This will open a new era in robot applications, in particular in service robotics, will facilitate robot programming, and create a more effective human-robot interface. This paper presents some potential motion properties of a future humanoid robot manipulator retrieved from kinematical models of the human arm, such as the kinematic redundancy, the workspace properties, and the velocity-torque capabilities. Special attention is given to the utilisation of the kinematic singularities in handling heavy objects. Based on experiments, it is unequivocally demonstrated that the human arm takes advantage of the kinematic singularities in order to compensate weak actuation, while in the actual robotic practice the kinematic singularities are avoided.
Chu, Jinkui; Zhang, Ran; Chen, Zhaopeng
2011-05-01
This paper presents a new systematic design and optimization procedure used for the microgrippers driven by a chevron electrothermal actuator. The procedure includes three steps: first, a suitable rigid-body gripper mechanism is selected using the type synthesis of the kinematic chain method; then, the rigid-body mechanism is transferred into a compliant microgripper; finally, by the stiffness matrix model and the genetic algorithm, a geometry parametric optimization with the high output stiffness objective is carried out. Using this procedure, a novel SU-8 electrothermal microgripper is obtained. According to the FEM simulation, the microgripper meets the design requirements and satisfies the constraints. To eliminate the out-of-plane actuation, a novel processing technology is implemented to fabricate the microgripper with a sandwich structure actuator. The experimental results demonstrate that a jaw gap change of 107.5 µm requires only 73.6 mV, 25.61 mW and only 44.92 °C temperature increase at the actuator and the out-of-plane actuation is almost eliminated. A micromanipulation of a micro blood vessel specimen and a micro-assembly for micro-tensile testing studies of fine hair are demonstrated. Hence, the design procedure is valid to generate novel compliant micro mechanisms. The fabrication process can be used in the fabrication of other SU-8 MEMS devices actuated by the electrothermal actuator.
Fernando Martín
2015-09-01
Full Text Available One of the most important skills desired for a mobile robot is the ability to obtain its own location even in challenging environments. The information provided by the sensing system is used here to solve the global localization problem. In our previous work, we designed different algorithms founded on evolutionary strategies in order to solve the aforementioned task. The latest developments are presented in this paper. The engine of the localization module is a combination of the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling technique and the Differential Evolution method, which results in a particle filter based on the minimization of a fitness function. The robot’s pose is estimated from a set of possible locations weighted by a cost value. The measurements of the perceptive sensors are used together with the predicted ones in a known map to define a cost function to optimize. Although most localization methods rely on quadratic fitness functions, the sensed information is processed asymmetrically in this filter. The Kullback-Leibler divergence is the basis of a cost function that makes it possible to deal with different types of occlusions. The algorithm performance has been checked in a real map. The results are excellent in environments with dynamic and unmodeled obstacles, a fact that causes occlusions in the sensing area.
贠今天; 武爱华; 桑宏强
2016-01-01
针对需要护理的环境背景及机器人的作业要求，提出了一种全方位护理移动机器人的设计方法，运用solidworks进行了各部分结构初期设计，并在ADAMS中对该虚拟样机进行了动力学仿真，完成了对选型的电机进行了验证；利用D-H方法建立了机器人上肢单臂运动学模型，得到了机器人的运动学正逆解；通过对上肢双臂建立两杆避碰模型，提出了两种相碰的检验条件，选出了最佳检测避碰方案，解决了约束条件下双臂的逆运动学问题；在Matlab环境下，利用蒙特卡罗法计算出工作空间，为确定机器人构形、参数和杆长的优化提供了依据；基于移动机器人在特定环境中的运行稳定性、应用范围、承载能力等特点，对机器人下肢移动方式进行了优化选择，采用全方位移动的完整约束Mecanum轮结构并建立下肢运动学模型，通过对其逆运动学速度雅可比矩阵秩的计算，结合具体结构的分析，优选出四轮全方位运动系统的最佳结构布局形式，提高了机器人运动过程中的稳定性。%Based on the environmental background, a service robot was designed. Each part of the robot was constructed by solidworks. The dynamic simulation was done in ADAMS for the virtual prototype and the verification to the motor selection was completed; Upper limb kinematics model was set up by using D-H method and solutions to the forward&inverse kinematics of the robot was obtained. By building the collision model of arbitrary arm links of double arms, the model of collision check factor was suggested and the better scheme was selected for avoiding collision, solving the analysis of inverse kinematics for double arms under the constraint condition. Based on Monte Carlo method, the robot′s working space was planned in Matlab, providing the basis for identifying the robot configuration, parameters, and the rod length optimization. According to
冯李航; 张为公; 林国余; 龚宗洋; 陈刚
2014-01-01
为了有效地导出 Delta 机器人的解析解并实现运动控制，基于多体机械系统线性图论及其运动方程自动生成技术，将符号计算运用到 Delta 机器人上。首先建立了 Delta 机构的线性图解表达，利用符号计算引擎Maple 可对图解的约束方程进行数学描述，并最终求得了逆运动解的精确显式表达式，从而可直接地实现驱动控制和运动轨迹跟踪。用平面圆弧和 Adept 抓放2种实际工程的机械手运动模型，对 Delta 机器人的符号计算解进行了仿真分析。结果表明，用于 Delta 机器人驱动控制的符号解误差较小，满足快速运动的需求，从而确认了约束方程的运动学响应精度，并验证了显式符号解的正确性。%In order to effectively derive the inverse kinematic solution of the Delta robot and realize actuator control a description of the linear graph principle for automatically generating kinematic equations in a mechanical system as well as the symbolic computation implementation of this procedure is reviewed and projected into the Delta robot. Based on the established linear graph representation the explicit symbolic expression of constraint equations and inverse kinematic solutions are obtained successfully using a symbolic computation engine Maple so that actuator control and trajectory tracking can be directly realized.Two practical motions the circular path and Adept motion are simulated for the validation of symbolic solutions respectively.Results indicate that the simulation satisfies the requirement of the quick motion within an acceptable threshold. Thus the precision of kinematic response can be confirmed and the correctness of inverse solution is verified.
An approach to error elimination for multi-axis CNC machining and robot manipulation
XIONG; CaiHua
2007-01-01
The geometrical accuracy of a machined feature on a workpiece during machining processes is mainly affected by the kinematic chain errors of multi-axis CNC machines and robots, locating precision of fixtures, and datum errors on the workpiece. It is necessary to find a way to minimize the feature errors on the workpiece. In this paper, the kinematic chain errors are transformed into the displacements of the workpiece. The relationship between the kinematic chain errors and the displacements of the position and orientation of the workpiece is developed. A mapping model between the displacements of workpieces and the datum errors, and adjustments of fixtures is established. The suitable sets of unit basis twists for each of the commonly encountered types of feature and the corresponding locating directions are analyzed, and an error elimination (EE) method of the machined feature is formulated. A case study is given to verify the EE method.
Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System
Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John
2013-01-01
The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.
Kinematic analysis of 3-RPS type parallel robot based on screw theory%基于螺旋理论的3-RPS型并联机器人运动学分析
朱大昌; 张国新
2011-01-01
3-RPS type parallel mechanism is of three limbs symmetrical in structure in which each is connected with the base through a revolute pair and a spherical pair is connected with moving platform,While the revolute pair is connected with the spherical pair through a moving pair. Screw theory and spatial mechanism structure theory are adopted to derive the characteristic of motion of the robot through constraints. By applying vector analysis method the normallinverse solution of this mechanism can be derived respectively to obtain a kinematical equation for the mechanism. Furthermore ,the kinematic singularities for the structure of the robot are analyzed based on Jacobine matrix of the mechanism symmetrical with inhomogeneity and imperfect DOF.%3-RPS型并联机构具有三个结构对称的支链形式,各支链由一个转动副连接机座、一个球面副与动平台相连接,转动副与球面副由移动副所连接.采用螺旋理论及空间机构构型原理,通过约束形式分析得出该类型并联机器人运动性质,采用矢量分析方法对其运动学正解/反解进行求解,得出该并联机构运动学方程.基于对称非齐次性少自由度并联机构Jacobine矩阵,进一步对该类型并联机器人结构奇异性进行分析与总结.
空间机器人系统的简化动力学模型与应用研究%The Kinematics and Dynamics Model of Space Robot System and Its Application
高海波; 朱利民; 熊有伦
2001-01-01
This paper presents the kinematics and dynamics model of space robot system. The orientation of the vehicle and the position of the end effector can be adjusted by controlling joint variables in this system. This model can be used in the field of satellite configuration redressing, space robot landing and manipulator path planning, the computation example testifying the validity of the model.%建立了空间机器人系统的简化动力学模型，论述了可以通过控制关节变量的办法来改变载体姿态和抓手路径，从而在实践中可用于研究卫星姿态的调整、空间机器人着地姿态控制和太空机械臂的路径规划等，算例验证了这种简化模型的有效性.
Sahoo, Raghunath
2016-01-01
This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.
董金波
2011-01-01
双足机器人有良好的地面适应能力,它可以通过改变腿部结构来达到跨越不同的障碍物,具有广阔的应用前景.针对双足机器人结构复杂,运动控制困难的特点,研究了其单腿的运动学模型并利用Matlab中的Simulink和 SimMechanics工具箱建立了单腿的可参数化的仿真模型.对腿部的运动情况和控制输入输出进行仿真,仿真结果表明腿部的结构参数能够实现预定的运动.为双足机器人腿部参数的优化和样机的研制提供了理论依据.%The biped robot has better adaptability to ground , it has wide application prospect , it may reach over various obstacles by changing the structure of the legs.Aimming at the complicated structure and control difficulties of the robot , the kinematic model of the single leg is studied and the parametric simulation model of the leg is built based on the toolbox of Simulink and SimMechanics of the Matlab software.Simulation is carried to the input and output of the leg' s motion , the results indicate the parameters of the leg can achieve the expected motion.Theoretical basis is provided for the optimization of the robot parameters and prototype development.
康件丽; 陈国强; 赵俊伟
2014-01-01
在3-PRS并联机器人设计与控制过程中，求解其输入与末端位姿之间速度及加速度的传递关系是工作重点，但该解析表达式比较复杂。通过直接采用对时间求导数的方法，得到3-PRS并联机器人速度运动学的解析表达式。针对推导复杂的问题，利用MATLAB提供的符号推导函数，直接求得输入输出间速度与加速度关系表达式中矩阵的解析表达式；用替换函数将变量替换为具体的数值得到最终的数值解。给出了具体计算程序，最后用算例验证了该方法的可行性及程序的有效性。结果表明：采用MATLAB的符号推导功能，可以方便地用解析法及数值法对3-PRS的速度运动学进行研究。%The transmission relationship of velocities and accelerations between the input parameter and end orientation of manip-ulator is one key task in design and control process of 3-PRS parallel robot,but the analytic expression is rather complex. The velocity kinematics analytic expression of 3-PRS parallel robot was gotten through directly using the method of differentiating with respect to time. Aiming at complexity problem of derivation,the analytic expression of matrixes in the expression of transmission relationship of velocities and accelerations between input and output was gotten directly using the symbolic derivation function provided in MATLAB. The final numerical solution was gotten by replacing all the variables with actual values by using replacing function. The detailed calcu-lation program was presented,and the feasibility of the method and the effectiveness of the program were verified through computing ex-amples finally. The result shows that using the symbolic derivation computation functions of MATLAB can facilitate study on velocity ki-nematics of 3-PRS parallel robot using analytic and numerical method.
Nath, Vishnu
2014-01-01
This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the objec
Wisneski Kimberly J
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects, with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability. In combining these two therapy techniques, we seek to develop a new model for trajectory generation that will support functional movements to real objects during robot training. We studied natural movements to real objects and report on how initial reaching movements are affected by real objects and how these movements deviate from the straight line paths predicted by the minimum jerk model, typically used to generate trajectories in robot training environments. We highlight key issues that to be considered in modelling natural trajectories. Methods Movement data was collected as eight normal subjects completed ADLs such as drinking and eating. Three conditions were considered: object absent, imagined, and present. This data was compared to predicted trajectories generated from implementing the minimum jerk model. The deviations in both the plane of the table (XY and the saggital plane of torso (XZ were examined for both reaches to a cup and to a spoon. Velocity profiles and curvature were also quantified for all trajectories. Results We hypothesized that movements performed with functional task constraints and objects would deviate from the minimum jerk trajectory model more than those performed under imaginary or object absent conditions. Trajectory deviations from the predicted minimum jerk model for these reaches were shown to depend on three variables: object presence, object orientation, and plane of movement. When subjects completed the cup reach their movements were more curved than for the spoon reach. The object present condition for the cup
March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dubey, R.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
1992-08-01
A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.
March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dubey, R.V. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)
1992-08-01
A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.
基于SimMechanics的仿人机器人运动学仿真%Kinematics Simulation of Humanoid Robot Based on SimMechanics
江乐果; 朱华炳
2014-01-01
The SimMechanics of Matlab toolbox is used to build the simulation model of humanoid robot mechanism. According to the model diagram,the humanoid robot dynamic walking process was observed intuitively,and the angular acceleration of robot body center of gravity and torque variation map of hip joint were solved. A planner five-bar mechanism motion model simulating to the instan-taneous state of humanoid robot was established,based on Kane method to solve the dynamic equation of the mechanism. The SimMe-chanics simulation tools are applied in the mechanism analysis,which provides a convenient and simple method for the mechanical sys-tem simulation.%利用Matlab／SimMechanics机构仿真工具建立了仿人机器人机构的仿真模型，并由模型图直观地观察仿人机器人的动态步行过程，求出了机器人躯体重心的角加速度和髋关节的扭矩变化图。建立了仿人机器人的瞬时状态的平面五杆机构运动模型，根据Kane法求解出了机构的动力学方程。在机构分析中应用SimMechanics仿真工具，为机械系统的仿真提供一种十分简便的方法。
A New Method For Solving Kinematics Model Of An RA-02
B. Siva Kumar
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The kinematics miniature are established for a 4 DOF robotic arm. Denavit-Hartenberg (DH convention and the product of exponential formula are used for solving kinematic problem based on screw theory. For acquiring simple matrix for inverse kinematics a new simple method is derived by solving problems like robot base movement, actuator restoration. Simulations are done by using MATlab programming for the kinematics exemplary.
刘士才; 谈大龙; 刘光军
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study the problem of modeling and controlling leader-follower formation of mobile robots. First, a novel kinematics model for leader-follower robot formation is formulated based on the relative motion states between the robots and the local motion of the follower robot. Using this model, the relative centripetal and Coriolis accelerations between robots are computed directly by measuring the relative and local motion sensors, and utilized to linearize the nonlinear system equations. A formation controller, consisting of a feedback linearization part and a sliding mode compensator, is designed to stabilize the overall system including the internal dynamics. The control gains are determined by solving a robustness inequality and assumed to satisfy a cooperative protocol that guarantees the stability of the zero dynamics of the formation system. The proposed controller generates the commanded acceleration for the follower robot and makes the formation control system robust to the effect of unmeasured acceleration of the leader robot. Furthermore, a robust adaptive controller is developed to deal with parametric uncertainty in the system. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
D.A Tibaduiza
2011-12-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra el desarrollo e implementación de la lógica difusa como herramienta de control de posición para cada una de las articulaciones de un robot tipo PUMA. Se hace una descripción general del robot y se muestra el cálculo del volumen de trabajo, el cual es usado para la fuzzificación en el desarrollo del controlador. Finalmente es mostrado el desarrollo y la simulación del controlador usando la toolbox fuzzy de Matlab, así como la descripción de una implementación realizada en un PLC.In this article, the development and implementation of a fuzzy logic system as position control tool of each one of the joints in a PUMA robot is shown. A general description, which include general descriptions about the robot as workspace and therefore the development of the strategy of control with the definition of the rules in the fuzzification process is also included. Finally are shown the development and simulation of the controller using the fuzzy control toolbox of Matlab and the description of a implementation in a PLC.
The Mechanical Properties of a Wall-Climbing Caterpillar Robot: Analysis and Experiment
Kun Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper builds the kinematic model of a wall‐climbing caterpillar robot to reveal the validity and the benefits of the closed‐chain kinematics of the four‐linkage mechanism to a crawling gait. The caterpillar robot can climb on a vertical wall by coordinating the rotations of one active joint and three passive joints. The mechanical property of the closed‐chain kinematics of the four‐linkage model is analysed. Furthermore, the relation between the driving joint torque and joint angle in the wall‐climbing process is deduced based on the coplanar arbitrary force system. Afterwards, the joint control method is discussed in order to coordinate the rotation of the four joints so as to realize a reasonable wall climbing gait. To testify to the availability of the closed‐chain four‐ linkage model, a wall‐climbing caterpillar robot is developed with three different adhesion modules based on the vibrating suction method. A successful wall‐climbing test confirms both the practicality of the four‐linkage model and the validity of the adhesion modules based on the vibrating suction method. The results also show the reasonableness of the driving joint selection rule for ensuring a safe and reliable wall‐climbing procedure.
Tick, David; Satici, Aykut C; Shen, Jinglin; Gans, Nicholas
2013-08-01
This paper presents a novel navigation and control system for autonomous mobile robots that includes path planning, localization, and control. A unique vision-based pose and velocity estimation scheme utilizing both the continuous and discrete forms of the Euclidean homography matrix is fused with inertial and optical encoder measurements to estimate the pose, orientation, and velocity of the robot and ensure accurate localization and control signals. A depth estimation system is integrated in order to overcome the loss of scale inherent in vision-based estimation. A path following control system is introduced that is capable of guiding the robot along a designated curve. Stability analysis is provided for the control system and experimental results are presented that prove the combined localization and control system performs with high accuracy.
牛永刚; 赵焕彬
2016-01-01
From the human body structure composed of kinematic chain and its relationship with body functional training,this paper uses the method of documents and materials,logic analysis and other research methods,combined with the theoretical knowledge of functional anatomy, fascia, sports biomechanics, logic and other disciplines,to analyze the weak link and motion compensation in the functional training from kinematic chain perspective,and the core strength and stability in the role of functional training from the perspective of fascia chain.Also,the reasons for the weak link or even damage in the open chain and closed chain were analyzed and discussed, which has a positive practical significance in preventing and reducing sports inj uries, improving training efficiency and effectiveness.%从人体运动链构成的结构及其与身体功能性训练的关系入手，运用文献资料、逻辑分析等研究方法，综合借鉴功能解剖学、筋膜学、运动生物力学、逻辑学等学科的理论知识，以运动链的视角审视和分析功能性训练中的弱链、动作代偿等问题，运用筋膜链的视角对核心力量与稳定性在功能性训练中的作用，以及在开链－闭链在转链环节时出现弱链及损伤的原因进行分析与讨论，对于预防和减少运动损伤，提高训练效率和效益有着积极的现实意义。
李盛前; 谢小鹏
2015-01-01
The traditional denalit-hartenber (D-H) method is very popular to set up kinematic model for robot, but this method has lots of disadvantages, which include complexity, singularity and difficulties in inverse kinematic model solving. therefore the kinematic model of six degree freedom robot using traditional denalit-hartenber (D-H) method, can not get the high precision for inverse solution, and make the robot instantaneity for working. This article applied a product-of-exponential (POE) kinematic model based on screw theory for multi-degree of freedom series robots. Firstly, we used the screw theory to set up model for every joint of robot; then put matrix of every joint model multiply, which could get the POE of kinematic model for multi degree of freedom series robot. As we known from the above, the screw theory method was not limited by the form of joint, and could set up the kinematic model of robot very conveniently. This method was applicable to all types of multi degree of freedom series robot with versatility. Then the sylvester resultant method was used to solve these equations. The sylvester resultant method could solve high-dimensional nonlinear equations in advantage, and get the result of the nonlinear equations fast. The process of solving was used Maple software to calculate, due to the Maple software can use the symbol instead of the number to algorithm. Finally, in order to prove this method was correct and useful, we got special data, which was put into the forward kinematics formula to calculate the terminal attitude of robot, then we put this result of terminal attitude into the inverse kinematics formula, and got turning angle of each joint for the 6R robot, which was correct in the result from the calculation. In order to prove this method is correct further, we calculated from the perspective of geometry, which was through the geometric relationship of the robot to calculate each joint turning angle, and this result was as the same. At last
Christos E. Syrseloudis
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to propose a new 2-DOF robotic platform with hybrid parallel-serial structure and to undertake its parametric design so that it can follow the whole range of ankle related foot movements. This robot can serve as a human ankle rehabilitation device. The existing ankle rehabilitation devices present typically one or more of the following shortcomings: redundancy, large size, or high cost, hence the need for a device that could offer simplicity, modularity, and low cost of construction and maintenance. In addition, our targeted device must be safe during operation, disallow undesirable movements of the foot, while adaptable to any human foot. Our detailed study of foot kinematics has led us to a new hybrid architecture, which strikes a balance among all aforementioned goals. It consists of a passive serial kinematics chain with two adjustable screws so that the axes of the chain match the two main ankle-axes of typical feet. An active parallel chain, which consists of two prismatic actuators, provides the movement of the platform. Thus, the platform can follow the foot movements, thanks to the passive chain, and also possesses the advantages of parallel robots, including rigidity, high stiffness and force capabilities. The lack of redundancy yields a simpler device with lower size and cost. The paper describes the kinematics modelling of the platform and analyses the force and velocity transmission. The parametric design of the platform is carried out; our simulations confirm the platform's suitability for ankle rehabilitation.
Accurate multi-robot targeting for keyhole neurosurgery based on external sensor monitoring.
Comparetti, Mirko Daniele; Vaccarella, Alberto; Dyagilev, Ilya; Shoham, Moshe; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; De Momi, Elena
2012-05-01
Robotics has recently been introduced in surgery to improve intervention accuracy, to reduce invasiveness and to allow new surgical procedures. In this framework, the ROBOCAST system is an optically surveyed multi-robot chain aimed at enhancing the accuracy of surgical probe insertion during keyhole neurosurgery procedures. The system encompasses three robots, connected as a multiple kinematic chain (serial and parallel), totalling 13 degrees of freedom, and it is used to automatically align the probe onto a desired planned trajectory. The probe is then inserted in the brain, towards the planned target, by means of a haptic interface. This paper presents a new iterative targeting approach to be used in surgical robotic navigation, where the multi-robot chain is used to align the surgical probe to the planned pose, and an external sensor is used to decrease the alignment errors. The iterative targeting was tested in an operating room environment using a skull phantom, and the targets were selected on magnetic resonance images. The proposed targeting procedure allows about 0.3 mm to be obtained as the residual median Euclidean distance between the planned and the desired targets, thus satisfying the surgical accuracy requirements (1 mm), due to the resolution of the diffused medical images. The performances proved to be independent of the robot optical sensor calibration accuracy.
6-PTS 并联机器人机构逆向运动学分析与仿真*1%Inverse kinematics analysis and simulation of 6-PTS parallel robot
张锋涛
2015-01-01
Objective—To put forward the algorithm of kinematic relationship between the parallel robot components.Methods—The composite joint of 6-PTS parallel robot's structure was equivalently processed into single DOF (degree of freedom)joint,then D-H (Denavic-Hartenberg)method was used to define the local coordinate system and kinematic parameters of each linkage.Finally mecha-nism constraint equations was established according to the motion equivalence condition and the solu-tion was obtained with reverse homogeneous transformation.Results and Conclusion—The variables of all joint and the position of each linkage were solved successively.On this basis,the influence coeffi-cient theory was utilized to build the transitive relationships of the velocity and acceleration between moving platform and each linkage to provide the basis for the dynamic modeling and control problem of the mechanism.%目的：提出建立并联机器人构件之间运动学关系的算法。方法将6-PTS 并联机器人机构的复合关节等效地处理成单自由度关节，利用 D-H（Denavic-Hartenberg）方法定义每个连杆的局部坐标系和运动学参数，根据运动等同性条件建立机构约束方程，利用逆向齐次变换的方法求解。结果与结论依次求解出全部关节变量和每个连杆的位置表示，在此基础上，应用影响系数理论，建立了动平台与每个连杆之间的速度和加速度的传递关系，为该机构的动力学建模及控制等问题提供了基础。
张文昌; 梅江平; 刘艺; 张新
2013-01-01
The kinematics error model of Delta parallel robot was established first,and then the geometric errors affecting the precision of the end-effector were analyzed and simplified to 18 ones. By taking a laser tracker as meas-urement tool,a stepping iterative method is proposed to identify the geometric errors. Considering the non-linear mapping from the actuated variables in joint space to the pose of the end-effector in Cartesian space,the geometric errors were iterated by using the residual errors of the distances between every two measuring points as optimization index,and then the kinematic model of the robot was modified. The precision of the end effector is dramatically im-proved to the order of 0.1,mm from 1.0,mm after calibration,thus verifies the effectiveness and generality of this method.% 以 Delta 并联机构为研究对象,建立了 Delta 并联机构的运动学误差模型,对影响其末端精度的几何误差源进行了分析,并指出这些几何误差源可简化为18项.以激光跟踪仪作为测量工具,提出一种步进迭代的误差参数辨识方法,该方法利用 Delta 并联机构操作空间与关节空间之间的映射关系,通过优化多个检测点相互之间的理论距离与实际距离的残差,计算出 Delta 并联机构的各项几何误差参数,进而修正 Delta 并联机构的运动学模型,标定后机构末端精度由1.0,mm 数量级提高至0.1,mm 数量级,实验结果表明了文中所述方法的有效性和普遍性.
Wheeled foot quadruped robot HITAN-I
Wang Pengfei; Sun Lining
2006-01-01
In view of the robot running environment, the structure of wheeled foot and quadruped are adopted in this robot system, which combines the priorities of both wheeled robot and legged robot. Based on CAN bus, the two-class robot control system using multiple controllers and drivers is constructed. At the same time, serial inverse kinematics of swaying leg and parallel inverse kinematics of supporting legs are analyzed independently. The forward gait and turning gait are planned and experiment image is given at last.
Reasons for singularity in robot teleoperation
Marhenke, Ilka; Fischer, Kerstin; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth
2014-01-01
In this paper, the causes for singularity of a robot arm in teleoperation for robot learning from demonstration are analyzed. Singularity is the alignment of robot joints, which prevents the configuration of the inverse kinematics. Inspired by users' own hypotheses, we investigated speed and delay...
The Mobile Robot HILARE: Dynamic Modeling and Motion Simulation
M. Ghazal; A. Talezadeh; Taheri, M.; M. Nazemi-Zade
2014-01-01
To perform mission in variant environment, several types of mobile robot has been developed an implemented. The mobile robot HILARE is a known wheeled mobile robot which has two fixed wheels and an off-entered orientable wheel. Due to extended application of this robot, its dynamic analysis has attracted a great deal of interests. This article investigates dynamic modeling and motion analysis of the mobile robot HILARE. As the wheels of the robot have kinematic constraints, the constraints of...
DIDACTIC AUTOMATED STATION OF COMPLEX KINEMATICS
Mariusz Sosnowski
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the design, control system and software that controls the automated station of complex kinematics. Control interface and software has been developed and manufactured in the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin in the Department of Automated Manufacturing Systems Engineering and Quality. Conducting classes designed to teach programming and design of structures and systems for monitoring the robot kinematic components with non-standard structures was the reason for installation of the control system and software.
张松; 乔凤斌; 刘玉来; 张华德
2012-01-01
The software ADAMS has powerful function on the analysis of the institutions of the kinematics and dynamics.According to friction stir welding robot dynamic problems in design process,established its dynamics model,and using Pro/E software built its 3D entity model into ADAMS for dynamic analysis.Give the track of the corresponding vice curve equation to each joint movement,and make it movement according to specified movement way.Get and analysis the dynamic properties of each joint of the robot by the simulation and of the movement process, which provides a reliable powerful basis for further research and development of the friction stir welding robot equipment such as the accurately and selection of the motor system and the design of the control system.Have a very vital significance to ensure the performance of mechanical system and its reliability.%ADAMS软件在分析机构的运动学和动力学方面有着强大的功能；针对搅拌摩擦点焊机器人的设计问题,首先建立其动力学模型,然后利用Pro/E软件建立了机器人的三维实体模型,将其导入到ADAMS中进行动力学分析,给各个关节运动副加上相应的轨迹曲线方程,使其按照指定的运动方式运动.通过仿真得到并分析了机器人各关节在运动过程中各阶段的动力学特性,为电机系统的精确选型及控制系统的设计等进一步研发搅拌摩擦点焊机器人设备提供了可靠有力的依据,对于保证其机械系统的性能以及提高其可靠性等具有十分重要的意义.
Fundamentals of robotic mechanical systems theory, methods, and algorithms
Angeles, Jorge
2014-01-01
The 4th edition includes updated and additional examples and exercises on the core fundamental concepts of mechanics, robots, and kinematics of serial robots. New images of CAD models and physical robots help to motivate concepts being introduced. Each chapter of the book can be read independetly of others as it addresses a seperate issue in robotics.
Configuration Synthesis and Efficient Motion Programming of Robot Manipulators
1991-03-15
pensation. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15, NUMBER OF PAGES ?v’Yv .c , Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynamics , Robot Parameters, Numerical Methods, Jacobians :S. PRICE...The first order differential analysis of the manipulator is a basic step in robot dynamics and control. The velocity Jacobian of the manipulator
Analysis of Hexapod Robot Locomotion
Tomas Luneckas
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Hexapod robot locomotion is analyzed. Trajectory forming method for one leg is introduced. Servo angles are expressed using geometric inverse kinematics method. Forming of tripod gait is described and a diagram representing it is presented. Servo control parameters are defined to ensure fluent and versatile robot control. Several servo control methods are presented. After testing robot movement using different servo control methods, gait generation is corrected and control method that meets servo control parameters is chosen.Article in Lithuanian
Modelling of cooperating robotized systems with the use of object-based approach
Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Banas, W.; Sekala, A.; Hryniewicz, P.
2015-11-01
Today's robotized manufacturing systems are characterized by high efficiency. The emphasis is placed mainly on the simultaneous work of machines. It could manifest in many ways, where the most spectacular one is the cooperation of several robots, during work on the same detail. What's more, recently a dual-arm robots are used that could mimic the manipulative skills of human hands. As a result, it is often hard to deal with the situation, when it is necessary not only to maintain sufficient precision, but also the coordination and proper sequence of movements of individual robots’ arms. The successful completion of this task depends on the individual robot control systems and their respective programmed, but also on the well-functioning communication between robot controllers. A major problem in case of cooperating robots is the possibility of collision between particular links of robots’ kinematic chains. This is not a simple case, because the manufacturers of robotic systems do not disclose the details of the control algorithms, then it is hard to determine such situation. Another problem with cooperation of robots is how to inform the other units about start or completion of part of the task, so that other robots can take further actions. This paper focuses on communication between cooperating robotic units, assuming that every robot is represented by object-based model. This problem requires developing a form of communication protocol that the objects can use for collecting the information about its environment. The approach presented in the paper is not limited to the robots and could be used in a wider range, for example during modelling of the complete workcell or production line.
Anderson, Edward
2016-01-01
We consider here kinematical quantization: a first and often overlooked step in quantization procedures. $\\mathbb{R}$, $\\mathbb{R}_+$ and the interval are considered, as well as direct (Cartesian) products thereof. Some simple minisuperspace models, and mode by mode consideration of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology, have indefinite signature versions of such kinematical quantizations. The examples in the current paper build in particular toward the case of vacuum $\\mathbb{S}^3$ slightly inhomogeneous cosmology's mode configuration space, which is mathematically a finite time interval slab of Minkowski spacetime.
尤跃东; 殷跃红
2012-01-01
为满足神经受损患者下肢康复训练需要,设计了外骨骼下肢康复机器人,建立了其运动学解析关系；对患者的康复策略进行了分析选择,并对康复策略的轨迹控制方法进行了研究,详细讨论了基于固高GUC -8轴嵌入式运动控制器的主被动控制实现方法.%To satisfy training demands for walking patients with impaired cranial nerves,a lower extremity exoskeleton rehabilitation robot was designed and its kinematics was deduced. After analyzing and choosing the recovery strategy for patients,the trajectory control methods were researched. The active and passive control methods based on Googol 8 axes embedded motion controller are discussed in detail.
Motion error compensation of multi-legged walking robots
Wang, Liangwen; Chen, Xuedong; Wang, Xinjie; Tang, Weigang; Sun, Yi; Pan, Chunmei
2012-07-01
Existing errors in the structure and kinematic parameters of multi-legged walking robots, the motion trajectory of robot will diverge from the ideal sports requirements in movement. Since the existing error compensation is usually used for control compensation of manipulator arm, the error compensation of multi-legged robots has seldom been explored. In order to reduce the kinematic error of robots, a motion error compensation method based on the feedforward for multi-legged mobile robots is proposed to improve motion precision of a mobile robot. The locus error of a robot body is measured, when robot moves along a given track. Error of driven joint variables is obtained by error calculation model in terms of the locus error of robot body. Error value is used to compensate driven joint variables and modify control model of robot, which can drive the robots following control model modified. The model of the relation between robot's locus errors and kinematic variables errors is set up to achieve the kinematic error compensation. On the basis of the inverse kinematics of a multi-legged walking robot, the relation between error of the motion trajectory and driven joint variables of robots is discussed. Moreover, the equation set is obtained, which expresses relation among error of driven joint variables, structure parameters and error of robot's locus. Take MiniQuad as an example, when the robot MiniQuad moves following beeline tread, motion error compensation is studied. The actual locus errors of the robot body are measured before and after compensation in the test. According to the test, variations of the actual coordinate value of the robot centroid in x-direction and z-direction are reduced more than one time. The kinematic errors of robot body are reduced effectively by the use of the motion error compensation method based on the feedforward.
Kinematic Analysis of 5-DOF Serial-parallel Robot%五自由度混联机器人运动学分析
刘文红; 薛美风; 吴优; 付庄; 赵言正; 闫维新
2015-01-01
介绍了一种新型五自由度混联机器人,将三自由度的Delta机器人变成工作空间更大、应用范围更加广泛的五自由度混联机器人.用三维设计软件Solidworks建立了该混联机器人的样机模型,运用D-H矩阵法对机器人的逆运动学进行了详细的分析,在此基础上通过MATLAB工具箱Robotics Toolbox对机器人末端运动进行轨迹规划,为后续的控制工作奠定了基础,并且对串并联的研究也提供了一定的参考.
Angeles, Jorge
1988-01-01
A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...
Self-Motions of General 3-RPR Planar Parallel Robots
Briot, Sébastien; Chablat, Damien; Wenger, Philippe; Arakelian, Vigen
2008-01-01
This paper studies the kinematic geometry of general 3-RPR planar parallel robots with actuated base joints. These robots, while largely overlooked, have simple direct kinematics and large singularity-free workspace. Furthermore, their kinematic geometry is the same as that of a newly developed parallel robot with SCARA-type motions. Starting from the direct and inverse kinematic model, the expressions for the singularity loci of 3-RPR planar parallel robots are determined. Then, the global behaviour at all singularities is geometrically described by studying the degeneracy of the direct kinematic model. Special cases of self-motions are then examined and the degree of freedom gained in such special configurations is kinematically interpreted. Finally, a practical example is discussed and experimental validations performed on an actual robot prototype are presented.
Pyrotechnic robot - constructive design and command
Ionel A. Staretu
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Pyrotechnic robots are service robots used to reduce the time for intervention of pyrotechnic troops and to diminish the danger for the operators. Pyrotechnic robots are used to inspect dangerous areas or/and to remove and to distroy explosive or suspicious devices/objects. These robots can be used to make corridors through mined battle fields, for manipulation and neutralization of unexploded ammunition, for inspection of vehicles, trains, airplanes and buildings. For these robots, a good functional activity is determined with regard to work space dimensions,, robotic arm kinematics and gripper characteristics. The paper shows the structural, kinematic, static synthesis and analysis as well as the design and functional simulation of the robotic arm and the grippers attached on the pyrotechnic robot designed by the authors.
Simulation of a Hybrid Locomotion Robot Vehicle
Aarnio, P.
2002-10-01
This study describes a simulation process of a mobile robot. The focus is in kinematic and dynamic behavior simulations of hybrid locomotion robot vehicles. This research is motivated by the development needs of the WorkPartner field service robot. The whole robot system consists of a mobile platform and a two-hand manipulator. The robot platform, called Hybtor, is a hybrid locomotion robot capable of walking and driving by wheels as well as combining these two locomotion modes. This study describes first the general problems and their solutions in the dynamic simulation of mobile robots. A kinematic and dynamic virtual model of the Hybtor robot was built and simulations were carried out using one commercial simulation tool. Walking, wheel driven and rolking mode locomotion, which is a special hybrid locomotion style, has been simulated and analyzed. Position and force control issues during obstacle overrun and climbing were also studied.
SOLVING INVERSE KINEMATICS OF REDUNDANT MANIPULATOR BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK
无
2003-01-01
For the redundant manipulators, neural network is used to tackle the velocity inverse kinematics of robot manipulators. The neural networks utilized are multi-layered perceptions with a back-propagation training algorithm. The weight table is used to save the weights solving the inverse kinematics based on the different optimization performance criteria. Simulations verify the effectiveness of using neural network.
Brand, Judith, Ed.
2002-01-01
This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…
Formal Kinematic Analysis of a General 6R Manipulator Using the Screw Theory
Aixuan Wu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Kinematic analysis is a significant method when planning the trajectory of robotic manipulators. The main idea behind kinematic analysis is to study the motion of the robot based on the geometrical relationship of the robotic links and their joints, such as the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters. Given the continuous nature of kinematic analysis and the shortcoming of the traditional verification methods, we propose to use high-order-logic theorem proving for conducting formal kinematic analysis. Based on the screw theory in HOL4, which is newly developed by our research institute, we utilize the geometrical theory of HOL4 to develop formal reasoning support for the kinematic analysis of a robotic manipulator. To illustrate the usefulness of our fundamental formalization, we present the formal kinematic analysis of a general 6R manipulator.
基于向量法解决机器人正向运动学教学难题%To solve the forward kinematics of robotics based on method of vectors
荆学东
2013-01-01
The configuration matrix of a rigid body relative to a fixed coordinate system has been derived based on the definition of vector; and then,the transformation matrix of a rigid body along an arbitrary axle in space has also been put forward; moreover,the essence of the left-hand and the right-hand multiplications of rigid body transformation with current configuration matrix of a rigid body has also been formulated; and finally the forward kinematic equation of a robot has been successfully presented with the right-hand multiplication of four matrices.These contents are not only inherent of the pre-courses engineering mathematics,but also embody and expand the application of this course,which reveals the important role that the engineering mathematics plays in the whole curricular system of engineering disciplines.%为解决机器人正向运动学教学中大学生对位姿矩阵以及刚体变换难以理解的难题,以向量法建立了刚体的位姿矩阵,并以向量法推导了刚体绕空间任意轴线旋转的变换矩阵.以此为基础,证明了矩阵左乘和右乘所对应的不同刚体运动,最终利用矩阵右乘导出了D-H变换矩阵,从而建立机器人学正向运动学方程.
Soft Robotics: new perspectives for robot bodyware and control
Cecilia eLaschi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The remarkable advances of robotics in the last fifty years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others, but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more, is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control.The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation, and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments.
Singularities of robot mechanisms numerical computation and avoidance path planning
Bohigas, Oriol; Ros, Lluís
2017-01-01
This book presents the singular configurations associated with a robot mechanism, together with robust methods for their computation, interpretation, and avoidance path planning. Having such methods is essential as singularities generally pose problems to the normal operation of a robot, but also determine the workspaces and motion impediments of its underlying mechanical structure. A distinctive feature of this volume is that the methods are applicable to nonredundant mechanisms of general architecture, defined by planar or spatial kinematic chains interconnected in an arbitrary way. Moreover, singularities are interpreted as silhouettes of the configuration space when seen from the input or output spaces. This leads to a powerful image that explains the consequences of traversing singular configurations, and all the rich information that can be extracted from them. The problems are solved by means of effective branch-and-prune and numerical continuation methods that are of independent interest in themselves...
A SIMULATOR FOR EDUCATION OF ROBOTICS
Erkan KAPLANOGLU
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, an education simulator is designed for Mitsubishi RV-E2 ( 6 DOF manipulator’ s model at Marmara University Department of Mechatronics Education. Robot manipulator can be control with joystick and kinematics - inverse kinematics equations can be solved. This simulator also has a robotics education presentation slides. Students can easily reach all documents when they make their experiments. Simulator is designed under LabVIEW 7.1® software.
Robot Control Overview: An Industrial Perspective
T. Brogårdh
2009-07-01
Full Text Available One key competence for robot manufacturers is robot control, defined as all the technologies needed to control the electromechanical system of an industrial robot. By means of modeling, identification, optimization, and model-based control it is possible to reduce robot cost, increase robot performance, and solve requirements from new automation concepts and new application processes. Model-based control, including kinematics error compensation, optimal servo reference- and feed-forward generation, and servo design, tuning, and scheduling, has meant a breakthrough for the use of robots in industry. Relying on this breakthrough, new automation concepts such as high performance multi robot collaboration and human robot collaboration can be introduced. Robot manufacturers can build robots with more compliant components and mechanical structures without loosing performance and robots can be used also in applications with very high performance requirements, e.g., in assembly, machining, and laser cutting. In the future it is expected that the importance of sensor control will increase, both with respect to sensors in the robot structure to increase the control performance of the robot itself and sensors outside the robot related to the applications and the automation systems. In this connection sensor fusion and learning functionalities will be needed together with the robot control for easy and intuitive installation, programming, and maintenance of industrial robots.
Introduction to humanoid robotics
Kajita, Shuuji; Harada, Kensuke; Yokoi, Kazuhito
2014-01-01
This book is for researchers, engineers, and students who are willing to understand how humanoid robots move and be controlled. The book starts with an overview of the humanoid robotics research history and state of the art. Then it explains the required mathematics and physics such as kinematics of multi-body system, Zero-Moment Point (ZMP) and its relationship with body motion. Biped walking control is discussed in depth, since it is one of the main interests of humanoid robotics. Various topics of the whole body motion generation are also discussed. Finally multi-body dynamics is presented to simulate the complete dynamic behavior of a humanoid robot. Throughout the book, Matlab codes are shown to test the algorithms and to help the reader´s understanding.
Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids
Farrugia, Claire
2014-01-01
Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/
Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids
Farrugia, Claire; Duca, Edward
2014-01-01
Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/
Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies
Jochum, Elizabeth
This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...
Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies
Jochum, Elizabeth
This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...
PARAMETRIC DESIGN OF DELTA ROBOT
Mert Gürgen
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This article describes a sophisticated determination and presentation of a workspace volume for a delta robot, with consideration of its kinematic behavior. With the help of theoretical equations, optimization is performed with the aid of the stiffness and dexterity analysis. Theoretical substructure is coded in Matlab and three-dimensional (3D data for delta robot are developed in computer-aided design (CAD environment. In later stages of the project, both 3D and theoretical data are linked together and thus, with the changing design parameter of the robot itself, the Solidworks CAD output adapts and regenerates output with a new set of parameters. To achieve an optimum workspace volume with predefined parameters, a different set of robot parameters are iterated through design optimization in Matlab, and the delta robot design is finalized and illustrated in the 3D CAD environment, Solidworks. This study provides a technical solution to accomplish a generic delta robot with optimized workspace volume.
JFKengine: A Jacobian and Forward Kinematics Generator
Fischer, K.N.
2003-02-13
During robot path planning and control the equations that describe the robot motions are determined and solved. Historically these expressions were derived analytically off-line. For robots that must adapt to their environment or perform a wide range of tasks, a way is needed to rapidly re-derive these expressions to take into account the robot kinematic changes, such as when a tool is added to the end-effector. The JFKengine software was developed to automatically produce the expressions representing the manipulator arm motion, including the manipulator arm Jacobian and the forward kinematic expressions. Its programming interface can be used in conjunction with robot simulation software or with robot control software. Thus, it helps to automate the process of configuration changes for serial robot manipulators. If the manipulator undergoes a geometric change, such as tool acquisition, then JFKengine can be invoked again from the control or simulation software, passing it parameters for the new arm configuration. This report describes the automated processes that are implemented by JFKengine to derive the kinematic equations and the programming interface by which it is invoked. Then it discusses the tree data structure that was chosen to store the expressions, followed by several examples of portions of expressions as represented in the tree. The C++ classes and their methods that implement the expression differentiation and evaluation operations are described. The algorithms used to construct the Jacobian and forward kinematic equations using these basic building blocks are then illustrated. The activity described in this report is part of a larger project entitled ''Multi-Optimization Criteria-Based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning'' that focuses on the development of a methodology for the generalized resolution of robot motion equations with time-varying configurations, constraints, and task objective criteria. A specific
Mtshali, M
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...
NONE
2000-03-01
This R and D project is aimed at development of the human-cooperative/coexisting robot systems with high safety and reliability, capable of performing complicated works cooperatively and in a coexisting manner with humans in human working and living spaces, in order to help improve safety and efficiency in various industrial areas, improve services and convenience in manufacturing and service areas, and create new industries. The trend surveys cover humanoid robot systems, remote control systems and simulators, and the application surveys cover services for humans, basic humanoids and entertainment communication. The 1998 R and D efforts include research and development, fabrication and surveys for the following themes; (1) fabrication of robot platforms for supporting manual works, (2) development of surrounded visual display systems, (3) development of robot arm manipulation and force displaying systems, (4) development of a dynamic simulator, (5) development of a distributed software platform, (6) researches and development of computation algorithm for kinematic chain dynamics, (7) development of motion teaching system for multi-functional robots, (8) investigation of trends in robotics technology, and (9) researches and surveys of robot application. (NEDO)
Modelling and Control of a Mobile Robot
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
1998-01-01
In order to control a mobile robot, kinematic odels as well as dynamic models are required. This parer describes these basic models for an experimental mobile robot under construction at the Department of Control and Engineering Design. A description of a set of trajectory control rules is given...
State estimation for a hexapod robot
Lubbe, Estelle
2015-09-01
Full Text Available on a quadruped. The EKF fuses the kinematic model with on-board IMU measurements to estimate the pose of the robot. The methodology was tested with experiments using a physical hexapod robot and validated with independent ground truth measurements....
High precision detector robot arm system
Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong
2017-01-31
A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.
High precision detector robot arm system
Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong
2017-01-31
A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.
Design of Kalman filters for mobile robots
Larsen, Thomas Dall; Hansen, Karsten L.; Andersen, Nils Axel
1999-01-01
Kalman filters have for a long time been widely used on mobile robots as a location estimator. Many different Kalman filter designs have been proposed, using models of various complexity. In this paper, two different design methods are evaluated and compared. Focus is put on the common setup where...... the mobile robot is equipped with a dual encoder system supported by some additional absolute measurements. A common filter type for this setup is the odometric filter, where readings from the odometry system on the robot are used together with the geometry of the robot movement as a model of the robot....... If additional kinematic assumptions are made, for instance regarding the velocity of the robot, an augmented model can be used instead. This kinematic filter has some advantages when used intelligently, and it is shown how this type of filter can be used to suppress noise on encoder readings and velocity...
Development of a continuum robot for colonoscopy
Hu Haiyan; Li Mantian; Wang Pengfei; Feng Yuan; Sun Lining
2009-01-01
A novel continuum robot for colonoscopy is presented. The aim is to develop a robot for colonoscopy which can provide the same functions as conventional colonoscope, but much less pain and discomfort for patient. In contrast to traditional rigid-link robot, the robot features a continuous backbone with no joints. The continuum robot is 300 mm in total length and 12 mm in diameter that is less than the average diameter of human colon (20 mm). The robot has a total of 4 DOF (degrees of freedom) and is actuated remotely by 6 hybrid step motors through super-elastic NiTi wires. Its shape can be changed with high dexterity, therefore ensuring its adaptability to the tortuous shape of human colon. The mechanical structure, kinematics and DSP-based control system are discussed; prototype experiments are carried out to validate the kinematics model and to show the motion performances.
Design of a Backdrivable Triglide Robot
Angsupasirikul Natthapong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a novel Triglide robot that gives low inertia and low friction, back-drivability, no backlash, but stiffness in vertical direction. These features give the robot to be a good candidate as a collaborative assembly robot. A brief kinematics is also included. Compared to the other three translational degrees of freedom (DOF parallel robots, the proposed Triglide is easier to construct and gives a higher stiffness in vertical direction. Its forward kinematics is also easier compared to those robots. Three experiments are used to demonstrate the capability of the robot including (1 Cascade Step response, (2 Record and Playback with a virtual wall and (3 Force control of the back-drivable Triglide.
Kinematic Analysis and Experimental Verification on the Locomotion of Gecko
Woochul Nam; TaeWon Seo; Byungwook Kim; Dongsu Jeon; Kyu-Jin Cho; Jongwon Kim
2009-01-01
This paper presents a kinematic analysis of the locomotion of a gecko, and experimental verification of the kinematic model. Kinematic analysis is important for parameter design, dynamic analysis, and optimization in biomimetic robot research. The proposed kinematic analysis can simulate, without iteration, the locomotion of gecko satisfying the constraint conditions that maintain the position of the contacted feet on the surface. So the method has an advantage for analyzing the climbing motion of the quadruped mechanism in a real time application. The kinematic model of a gecko consists of four legs based on 7-degrees of freedom spherical-revolute-spherical joints and two revolute joints in the waist. The motion of the kinematic model is simulated based on measurement data of each joint. The motion of the kinematic model simulates the investigated real gecko's motion by using the experimental results. The analysis solves the forward kinematics by considering the model as a combination of closed and open serial mechanisms under the condition that maintains the contact positions of the attached feet on the ground. The motions of each joint are validated by comparing with the experimental results. In addition to the measured gait, three other gaits are simulated based on the kinematic model. The maximum strides of each gait are calculated by workspace analysis. The result can be used in biomimetic robot design and motion planning.
A Perturbation Approach to Robot Calibration.
1985-04-01
Robotica 2(4):205-209. 12. Lenarcic, J. 1984. Kinematic Equations of Robot Manipulator. Digital Systems for Industrial Automation 2(2):133-151. - 13. Luh...manipulators. 12th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, Paris, France. Bedford: IFS Publications, pp. 469-478. * 15. Mooring, B. W. 1983 (August 7-11). The...Society of Manufacturing Engineers, pp. 147-152. - 25. Whitney, D. E., and Lozinski, C. A. 1984. Industrial Robot Calibration Methods and Results
Modelling of industrial robot in LabView Robotics
Banas, W.; Cwikła, G.; Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Monica, Z.; Sekala, A.
2017-08-01
Currently can find many models of industrial systems including robots. These models differ from each other not only by the accuracy representation parameters, but the representation range. For example, CAD models describe the geometry of the robot and some even designate a mass parameters as mass, center of gravity, moment of inertia, etc. These models are used in the design of robotic lines and sockets. Also systems for off-line programming use these models and many of them can be exported to CAD. It is important to note that models for off-line programming describe not only the geometry but contain the information necessary to create a program for the robot. Exports from CAD to off-line programming system requires additional information. These models are used for static determination of reachability points, and testing collision. It’s enough to generate a program for the robot, and even check the interaction of elements of the production line, or robotic cell. Mathematical models allow robots to study the properties of kinematic and dynamic of robot movement. In these models the geometry is not so important, so are used only selected parameters such as the length of the robot arm, the center of gravity, moment of inertia. These parameters are introduced into the equations of motion of the robot and motion parameters are determined.
LINKAGES FOR QUADRUPED BIO-ROBOT WALKING
Ovidiu ANTONESCU
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the Jansen mechanism. It then presents a few pictures of a mobile quadruped robot, which will help to describe how the robot moves. We take into consideration the kinematic scheme of the spatial mechanism with bars (spatial linkage, which is used for each of the four robot legs. Each leg mechanism is driven by two rotate brushless actuators that include a spur gear low-ratio transmission. By means of analyzing the kinematic scheme, the spatial mechanism mobility that operates in both horizontal and vertical plane is calculated
The Maiden Voyage of a Kinematics Robot
Greenwolfe, Matthew L.
2015-01-01
In a Montessori preschool classroom, students work independently on tasks that absorb their attention in part because the apparatus are carefully designed to make mistakes directly observable and limit exploration to one aspect or dimension. Control of error inheres in the apparatus itself, so that teacher intervention can be minimal. Inspired by…
The Maiden Voyage of a Kinematics Robot
Greenwolfe, Matthew L.
2015-01-01
In a Montessori preschool classroom, students work independently on tasks that absorb their attention in part because the apparatus are carefully designed to make mistakes directly observable and limit exploration to one aspect or dimension. Control of error inheres in the apparatus itself, so that teacher intervention can be minimal. Inspired by…
A focused bibliography on robotics
Mergler, H. W.
1983-08-01
The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.
Design of dead reckoning system for mobile robot
YU Jin-xia; CAI Zi-xing; DUAN Zhuo-hua; ZOU Xiao-bing
2006-01-01
A dead reckoning system for a wheeled mobile robot was designed, and the method for robot's pose estimation in the 3D environments was presented on the basis of its rigid-body kinematic equations. After analyzing the locomotion architecture of mobile robot and the principle of proprioceptive sensors, the kinematics model of mobile robot was built to realize the relative localization. Considering that the research on dead reckoning of mobile robot was confined to the 2 dimensional planes, the locomotion of mobile robot in the 3 coordinate axis direction was thought over in order to estimate its pose on uneven terrain. Because the computing method in a plane is rather mature, the calculation in height direction is emphatically represented as a key issue. With experimental results obtained by simulation program and robot platform, the position of mobile robot can be reliably estimated and the localization precision can be effectively improved, so the effectiveness of this dead reckoning system is demonstrated.
6th International Workshop on Computational Kinematics
Gracia, Alba
2014-01-01
Computational kinematics is an enthralling area of science with a rich spectrum of problems at the junction of mechanics, robotics, computer science, mathematics, and computer graphics. The covered topics include design and optimization of cable-driven robots, analysis of parallel manipulators, motion planning, numerical methods for mechanism calibration and optimization, geometric approaches to mechanism analysis and design, synthesis of mechanisms, kinematical issues in biomechanics, construction of novel mechanical devices, as well as detection and treatment of singularities. The results should be of interest for practicing and research engineers as well as Ph.D. students from the fields of mechanical and electrical engineering, computer science, and computer graphics. Indexed in Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S).
Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.
Platooning strategy of mobile robot: simulation and experiment
Baarath K.; Zakaria Muhammad Aizzat; Suparmaniam M.V.; Abu Mohd Yazid bin
2017-01-01
Concurrent studies show vehicle platooning system as a promising approach for a new transportation system. The platooning strategy can be also applied to automated mobile robots. Including dynamic modelling in the simulation with kinematic model would yield a different result as the dynamic modelling would include the physical parameters of the mobile robot. The aim is to create a model that describes the motion of a robot that follows another robot based on predetermined distance. Dynamic mo...
Fugal, Mario
2012-10-01
In order to create precision magnets for an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a new reverse engineering method has been proposed that uses the magnetic scalar potential to solve for the currents necessary to produce the desired field. To make the magnet it is proposed to use a copper coated G10 form, upon which a drill, mounted on a robotic arm, will carve wires. The accuracy required in the manufacturing of the wires exceeds nominal robot capabilities. However, due to the rigidity as well as the precision servo motor and harmonic gear drivers, there are robots capable of meeting this requirement with proper calibration. Improving the accuracy of an RX130 to be within 35 microns (the accuracy necessary of the wires) is the goal of this project. Using feedback from a displacement sensor, or camera and inverse kinematics it is possible to achieve this accuracy.
Inverse Kinematics of a Manipulator for Minimally Invasive Surgery
Hermann Mayer; Istvan Nagy; Alois Knoll
2017-01-01
In this report we describe the inverse kinematics of our robotic system for minimally invasive surgery. Special respect is given to an intuitive operability of the user interface. Therefore we apply the concept of so-called trocar kinematics. Meaning that the manipulator (in our case an instrument for minimally invasive surgery) has to pass a fixed opening through the surface of the patient's body. It is the principle idea of minimally invasive surgery to perform all surgical tasks through sm...
Camilo Cortés
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR is relevant for treating patients affected by nervous system injuries (e.g., stroke and spinal cord injury. The accurate estimation of the joint angles of the patient limbs in RAR is critical to assess the patient improvement. The economical prevalent method to estimate the patient posture in Exoskeleton-based RAR is to approximate the limb joint angles with the ones of the Exoskeleton. This approximation is rough since their kinematic structures differ. Motion capture systems (MOCAPs can improve the estimations, at the expenses of a considerable overload of the therapy setup. Alternatively, the Extended Inverse Kinematics Posture Estimation (EIKPE computational method models the limb and Exoskeleton as differing parallel kinematic chains. EIKPE has been tested with single DOF movements of the wrist and elbow joints. This paper presents the assessment of EIKPE with elbow-shoulder compound movements (i.e., object prehension. Ground-truth for estimation assessment is obtained from an optical MOCAP (not intended for the treatment stage. The assessment shows EIKPE rendering a good numerical approximation of the actual posture during the compound movement execution, especially for the shoulder joint angles. This work opens the horizon for clinical studies with patient groups, Exoskeleton models, and movements types.
Cortés, Camilo; de los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Scorza, Davide; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Carrasco, Eduardo; Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Ruiz-Salguero, Oscar; Flórez, Julián
2016-01-01
Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) is relevant for treating patients affected by nervous system injuries (e.g., stroke and spinal cord injury). The accurate estimation of the joint angles of the patient limbs in RAR is critical to assess the patient improvement. The economical prevalent method to estimate the patient posture in Exoskeleton-based RAR is to approximate the limb joint angles with the ones of the Exoskeleton. This approximation is rough since their kinematic structures differ. Motion capture systems (MOCAPs) can improve the estimations, at the expenses of a considerable overload of the therapy setup. Alternatively, the Extended Inverse Kinematics Posture Estimation (EIKPE) computational method models the limb and Exoskeleton as differing parallel kinematic chains. EIKPE has been tested with single DOF movements of the wrist and elbow joints. This paper presents the assessment of EIKPE with elbow-shoulder compound movements (i.e., object prehension). Ground-truth for estimation assessment is obtained from an optical MOCAP (not intended for the treatment stage). The assessment shows EIKPE rendering a good numerical approximation of the actual posture during the compound movement execution, especially for the shoulder joint angles. This work opens the horizon for clinical studies with patient groups, Exoskeleton models, and movements types. PMID:27403420
Cortés, Camilo; de Los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Scorza, Davide; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Carrasco, Eduardo; Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Ruiz-Salguero, Oscar; Flórez, Julián
2016-01-01
Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) is relevant for treating patients affected by nervous system injuries (e.g., stroke and spinal cord injury). The accurate estimation of the joint angles of the patient limbs in RAR is critical to assess the patient improvement. The economical prevalent method to estimate the patient posture in Exoskeleton-based RAR is to approximate the limb joint angles with the ones of the Exoskeleton. This approximation is rough since their kinematic structures differ. Motion capture systems (MOCAPs) can improve the estimations, at the expenses of a considerable overload of the therapy setup. Alternatively, the Extended Inverse Kinematics Posture Estimation (EIKPE) computational method models the limb and Exoskeleton as differing parallel kinematic chains. EIKPE has been tested with single DOF movements of the wrist and elbow joints. This paper presents the assessment of EIKPE with elbow-shoulder compound movements (i.e., object prehension). Ground-truth for estimation assessment is obtained from an optical MOCAP (not intended for the treatment stage). The assessment shows EIKPE rendering a good numerical approximation of the actual posture during the compound movement execution, especially for the shoulder joint angles. This work opens the horizon for clinical studies with patient groups, Exoskeleton models, and movements types.
Path planning and kinematics simulation of surfacing cladding for hot forging die
Wang, Huajun; Fu, Wanxia; Ou, Hengan; Tang, Xuan
2015-01-01
.... Based on technological requirements of surface cladding for die cavity, the coupled movement equation of weld torch was established, and the trajectory of welding positioner and Cartesian robot kinematics was solved...
Lower-Limb Rehabilitation Robot Design
Bouhabba, E. M.; Shafie, A. A.; Khan, M. R.; Ariffin, K.
2013-12-01
It is a general assumption that robotics will play an important role in therapy activities within rehabilitation treatment. In the last decade, the interest in the field has grown exponentially mainly due to the initial success of the early systems and the growing demand caused by increasing numbers of stroke patients and their associate rehabilitation costs. As a result, robot therapy systems have been developed worldwide for training of both the upper and lower extremities. This paper investigates and proposes a lower-limb rehabilitation robot that is used to help patients with lower-limb paralysis to improve and resume physical functions. The proposed rehabilitation robot features three rotary joints forced by electric motors providing linear motions. The paper covers mechanism design and optimization, kinematics analysis, trajectory planning, wearable sensors, and the control system design. The design and control system demonstrate that the proposed rehabilitation robot is safe and reliable with the effective design and better kinematic performance.
PENGEMBANGAN ROBOT HEXAPOD UNTUK MELACAK SUMBER GAS
Hani Avrilyantama
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Saat ini untuk mengevaluasi kebocoran pipa gas atau minyak bahan bakar dilakukan oleh manusia. Robot dapat diimplementasikan untuk mengganti tugas manusia dalam hal pencarian lokasi kebocoran gas. Pada dasarnya tiap robot memiliki implementasi yang berbeda, seperti robot yang mampu bergerak di jalan yang licin dan ada pula robot yang mampu bergerak di jalan yang kasar. Robot beroda mampu berjalan di tempat yang licin tetapi tidak bisa berjalan di tempat yang kasar dan berlumpur. Untuk keperluan investigasi kebocoran pipa gas tersebut maka diperlukan sistem robot berkaki hexapod. Pada penelitian ini telah dirancang dan dibuat robot berkaki hexapod dilengkapi dengan sensor gas yang digunakan untuk mendeteksi adanya titik bocor gas dengan menggunakan garis hitam sebagai garis panduan dan sistem jalan robot dengan menggunakan metode inverse kinematics. Sensor gas yang digunakan adalah TGS 2620 dan pergerakkan robot mengikuti garis hitam, ketika ada sumber gas maka robot akan berhenti. Dari hasil percobaan pada pencarian gas alkohol sebanyak 20 kali, robot dapat mendeteksi gas dengan keberhasilan 90% . Kesalahan dalam pencarian gas dipengaruhi oleh ketidakstabilan robot dalam berjalan dikarenakan torsi motor servo lebih kecil dibandingkan torsi beban pada robot.
张江龙; 韩伟; 张欣然
2013-01-01
The whip leg action is the core of Sanda technology, in order to concise descriptions, the Sanda whip leg movement is simplified into a two link kinematic chain model. Whip leg movements of the hip, knee and thigh, calf links determine the position vector in three-dimensional plane, and by these to determine the whip leg movements the kinematics parameters of each joint, and links, and then determine the objective function (terminal velocity V), three-dimensional kinematics equation of human body whip leg action is established, and makes whip leg movement of each aspect have mathematical description. The study results include that: 1) the angular velocity of the thigh leg whip action is determined by the angular velocity and angular velocity of hip joint the calf, angular velocity is determined by the angular velocity of thigh and knee, work closely with the three determines the whip leg tip speed;2) in the T1 stage, leg dive after the curvature should less than 450°, while in the time of attacking leg leaving off the ground, the angular velocity greater than that of the leg link thigh, which is the most beneficial to increase the knee joint speed, and the angular velocity of knee joint as leg attack back away is mainly decided by leg pedaling the ground reaction force;3) in the T2 stage, the fully folding the leg and thigh is in favor of knee joint angular velocity Increase;4) in the whip leg link chain model of human body, the principle theory of whip compliance follows the momentum transfer from proximal to distal link by link, timely and effective braking cocoa hip to have knee momentum increase, the brake of the knee joint can make the momentum transfer to the end, and lead to the end acceleration. 5) in the chain model of Sanda whip leg links only links and joints having time coordination can they play the best effect at the end attack.% 鞭腿动作是散打腿法技术的核心，将散打鞭腿动作简化为一个二环节运动链模型，对散
Fable: Design of a Modular Robotic Playware Platform
Pacheco, Moises; Moghadam, Mikael; Magnússon, Arnþór;
2013-01-01
We are developing the Fable modular robotic system as a playware platform that will enable non-expert users to develop robots ranging from advanced robotic toys to robotic solutions to problems encountered in their daily lives. This paper presents the mechanical design of Fable: a chain-based sys...
Analysis of Robot Accuracy Assessed via its Joint Clearance by Virtual Prototyping Method
GUO Ling; WANG Li-hong; ZHANG Yu-ru
2004-01-01
This paper discusses how joint clearance influences robot end effector positioning accuracy and a robot accuracy analysis approach based on a virtual prototype is proposed. First, a 5-DOF( Degree of freedom) rneurosurgery robot was introduced. Then we built its virtual prototype, made movement planning and measured the manipulator tip accuracy, through which this robot accuracy portrait was obtained. Finally,in order to validate the robot accuracy analysis approach which is based on a virtual prototype, the result was compared with that from a model built by robot forward kinematics and robot differential kinematics.The robot accuracy analysis approach presented in this paper gives a new way to enhance robot design quality, and help to optimize the control and programming of the robot.
Minimizing Hexapod Robot Foot Deviations Using Multilayer Perceptron
Vytautas Valaitis
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Rough-terrain traversability is one of the most valuable characteristics of walking robots. Even despite their slower speeds and more complex control algorithms, walking robots have far wider usability than wheeled or tracked robots. However, efficient movement over irregular surfaces can only be achieved by eliminating all possible difficulties, which in many cases are caused by a high number of degrees of freedom, feet slippage, frictions and inertias between different robot parts or even badly developed inverse kinematics (IK. In this paper we address the hexapod robot-foot deviation problem. We compare the foot-positioning accuracy of unconfigured inverse kinematics and Multilayer Perceptron-based (MLP methods via theory, computer modelling and experiments on a physical robot. Using MLP-based methods, we were able to significantly decrease deviations while reaching desired positions with the hexapod’s foot. Furthermore, this method is able to compensate for deviations of the robot arising from any possible reason.
Task-space sensory feedback control of robot manipulators
Cheah, Chien Chern
2015-01-01
This book presents recent advances in robot control theory on task space sensory feedback control of robot manipulators. By using sensory feedback information, the robot control systems are robust to various uncertainties in modelling and calibration errors of the sensors. Several sensory task space control methods that do not require exact knowledge of either kinematics or dynamics of robots, are presented. Some useful methods such as approximate Jacobian control, adaptive Jacobian control, region control and multiple task space regional feedback are included. These formulations and methods give robots a high degree of flexibility in dealing with unforeseen changes and uncertainties in its kinematics and dynamics, which is similar to human reaching movements and tool manipulation. It also leads to the solution of several long-standing problems and open issues in robot control, such as force control with constraint uncertainty, control of multi-fingered robot hand with uncertain contact points, singularity i...
Freeing the Serial Mechanism Designer from Inverse Kinematic Solvability Constraints
Diana C. W. Friedman
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a fast numerical solution for the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The method is implemented on the C-arm, a manipulator designed for use in robotic surgery. The inverse kinematics solution provides all possible solutions for any six degree-of-freedom serial manipulator, assuming that the forward kinematics are known and that it is possible to solve for the remaining joint angles if one joint angle’s value is known. With a fast numerical method and the current levels of computing power, designing a manipulator with closed-form inverse kinematics is no longer necessary. When designing the C-arm, we therefore chose to weigh other factors, such as actuator size and patient safety, more heavily than the ability to find a closed-form inverse kinematics solution.
21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop
2013-01-01
21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...
2nd Conference on Interdisciplinary Applications in Kinematics
Flores, Francisco
2015-01-01
This book collects a number of important contributions presented during the Second Conference on Interdisciplinary Applications of Kinematics (IAK 2013) held in Lima, Peru. The conference brought together scientists from several research fields, such as computational kinematics, multibody systems, industrial machines, robotics, biomechanics, mechatronics, computational chemistry, and vibration analysis, and embraced all key aspects of kinematics, namely, theoretical methods, modeling, optimization, experimental validation, industrial applications, and design. Kinematics is an exciting area of computational mechanics and plays a central role in a great variety of fields and industrial applications nowadays. Apart from research in pure kinematics, the field deals with problems of practical relevance that need to be solved in an interdisciplinary manner in order for new technologies to develop. The results presented in this book should be of interest for practicing and research engineers as well as Ph.D. stud...
Inferring 3D Articulated Models for Box Packaging Robot
Yang, Heran; Cong, Matthew; Saxena, Ashutosh
2011-01-01
Given a point cloud, we consider inferring kinematic models of 3D articulated objects such as boxes for the purpose of manipulating them. While previous work has shown how to extract a planar kinematic model (often represented as a linear chain), such planar models do not apply to 3D objects that are composed of segments often linked to the other segments in cyclic configurations. We present an approach for building a model that captures the relation between the input point cloud features and the object segment as well as the relation between the neighboring object segments. We use a conditional random field that allows us to model the dependencies between different segments of the object. We test our approach on inferring the kinematic structure from partial and noisy point cloud data for a wide variety of boxes including cake boxes, pizza boxes, and cardboard cartons of several sizes. The inferred structure enables our robot to successfully close these boxes by manipulating the flaps.
A PSO-Optimized Reciprocal Velocity Obstacles Algorithm for Navigation of Multiple Mobile Robots
Ziyad Allawi; Turki Abdalla
2015-01-01
In this paper, a new optimization method for the Reciprocal Velocity Obstacles (RVO) is proposed. It uses the well-known Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for navigation control of multiple mobile robots with kinematic constraints. The RVO is used for collision avoidance between the robots, while PSO is used to choose the best path for the robot maneuver to avoid colliding with other robots and to get to its goal faster. This method was applied on 24 mobile robots facing each other. Simulatio...
Coordinated Resolved Motion Control of Dual-arm Manipulators with Closed Chain
Tianliang Liu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available When applied to some tasks, such as payload handling, assembling, repairing and so on, the two arms of a humanoid robot will form a closed kinematic chain. It makes the motion planning and control for dual‐arm coordination very complex and difficult. In this paper, we present three types of resolved motion control methods for a humanoid robot during coordinated manipulation. They are, respectively, position‐level, velocity‐level and acceleration‐level resolved motion control methods. The desired pose, velocity and acceleration of each end‐effector are then resolved according to the desired motion of the payload and the constraints on the closed‐chain system without consideration of the internal force. Corresponding to the three cases above, the joint variables of each arm are then calculated using the inverse kinematic equations, at position‐level, velocity‐level or acceleration‐level. Finally, a dynamic modelling and simulation platform is established based on ADAMS and Matlab software. The proposed methods are verified by typical cases. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can realize the dual‐arm coordinated operation and the internal force of the closed chain during the operation is controlled in a reasonable range at the same time.
STATICS ANALYSIS AND OPENGL BASED 3D SIMULATION OF COLLABORATIVE RECONFIGURABLE PLANETARY ROBOTS
Zhang Zheng; Ma Shugen; Li Bin; Zhang Liping; Cao Binggang
2006-01-01
Objective To study mechanics characteristics of two cooperative reconfigurable planetary robots when they get across an obstacle, and to find out the relationship between the maximum height of a stair with the configuration of the two-robot, and to find some restrictions of kinematics for the cooperation. Methods Multirobot cooperation theory is used in the whole study process. Inverse kinematics of the robot is used to form a desired configuration in the cooperation process. Static equations are established to analyze the relations between the friction factor, the configuration of robots and the maximum height of a stair. Kinematics analysis is used to find the restrictions of the two collaborative robots in position, velocity and acceleration. Results 3D simulation shows that the two cooperative robots can climb up a stair under the condition of a certain height and a certain friction factor between robot wheel and the surface of the stair. Following the restrictions of kinematics, the climbing mission is fulfilled successfully and smoothly. Conclusion The maximum height of a stair, which the two cooperative robots can climb up, is involved in the configuration of robots, friction factor between the stair and the robots. The most strict restriction of the friction factor does not appear in the horizontal position. In any case, the maximum height is smaller than half of the distance between the centroid of robot1 with the centroid of robot2. However, the height can be higher than the radius of one robot wheel, which profit from the collaboration.
Efficient inverse position transformation for TR 4000S robot manipulator
Kesheng Wang
1989-04-01
Full Text Available An efficient method is developed for computing the inverse kinematic position solution with a closed form for the TR 4000S spray painting robot manipulator with five degrees of freedom and non-spherical wrist construction. The inverse kinematic problem is defined as the transformation from Cartesian space to the joint space. The solution is based on the geometrical separation of the arm and wrist of a robot manipulator and shows that it is very systematic, efficient and easily derived.
Survey of Robot 3D Path Planning Algorithms
Liang Yang; Juntong Qi; Dalei Song; Jizhong Xiao; Jianda Han; Yong Xia
2016-01-01
Robot 3D (three-dimension) path planning targets for finding an optimal and collision-free path in a 3D workspace while taking into account kinematic constraints (including geometric, physical, and temporal constraints). The purpose of path planning, unlike motion planning which must be taken into consideration of dynamics, is to find a kinematically optimal path with the least time as well as model the environment completely. We discuss the fundamentals of these most successful robot 3D path...
Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance Jonathan
This paper considers art-based research practice in robotics through a discussion of our course and relevant research projects in autonomous art. The undergraduate course integrates basic concepts of computer science, robotic art, live performance and aesthetic theory. Through practice...... in robotics research (such as aesthetics, culture and perception), we believe robot aesthetics is an important area for research in contemporary aesthetics....
Hua Chen
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the global finite-time partial stabilization problem is discussed for a class of nonholonomic mobile wheeled robots with continuous pure state feedback and subject to input saturation. Firstly, for the mobile robot kinematic model, a “3 inputs, 2 chains, 1 generator" nonholonomic chained form systems can be obtained by using a state and input transformation. The continuous, saturated pure state feedback control law is proposed such that the special chained form systems can be stabilized to zero (except an angle variable in a finite time, i.e., finite-time partial stabilization. Secondly, the rigorous stability analysis of the corresponding closed-loop system is presented by applying Lyapunov theorem combined with the finite-time control theory, and the angle variable can be proved to converge to a constant, moreover, its convergent limit may be accurately estimated in advance. Finally, the simulation results show the correctness and the validity of the proposed controller not only for the chained system but also for the original mobile robots system.
Model-based Kinematics Generation for Modular Mechatronic Toolkits
Bordignon, M.; Schultz, U. P.; Stoy, K.
2011-01-01
Modular robots are mechatronic devices that enable the construction of highly versatile and flexible robotic systems whose mechanical structure can be dynamically modified. The key feature that enables this dynamic modification is the capability of the individual modules to connect to each other...... in multiple ways and thus generate a number of different mechanical systems, in contrast with the monolithic, fixed structure of conventional robots. The mechatronic flexibility, however, complicates the development of models and programming abstractions for modular robots, since manually describing...... the Modular Mechatronics Modelling Language (M3L). M3L is a domain-specific language, which can model the kinematic structure of individual robot modules and declaratively describe their possible interconnections, rather than requiring the user to enumerate them in their entirety. From this description, the M...
Diffusion coefficient for reptation of polymers with kinematic disorder
2002-01-01
We give a lower bound on the diffusion coefficient of a polymer chain in an entanglement network with kinematic disorder, which is obtained from an exact calculation in a modified Rubinstein-Duke lattice gas model with periodic boundary conditions. In the limit of infinite chain length we show the diffusive motion of the polymer to be slowed down by kinematic disorder by the same factor as for a single particle in a random barrier model. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics.
Fuzzy logic based robotic controller
Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.
1994-01-01
Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.
Mbali Mtshali
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging and complex task. With a number of existing architectures and tools to choose from, a review of the existing robotic architecture is essential. This paper surveys the different paradigms in robotic architectures. A classification of the existing robotic architectures and comparison of different proposals attributes and properties have been carried out. The paper also provides a view on the current state of designing robot architectures. It also proposes a conceptual model of a generalised robotic architecture for mobile autonomous robots.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.15-22, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.96
Development of automation and robotics for space via computer graphic simulation methods
Fernandez, Ken
1988-01-01
A robot simulation system, has been developed to perform automation and robotics system design studies. The system uses a procedure-oriented solid modeling language to produce a model of the robotic mechanism. The simulator generates the kinematics, inverse kinematics, dynamics, control, and real-time graphic simulations needed to evaluate the performance of the model. Simulation examples are presented, including simulation of the Space Station and the design of telerobotics for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle.
任满迎; 刘颖; 刘桂成; 王国庆
2011-01-01
通过对核心运动链的概念进行界定,认为核心运动链是由肩带、腰腹、骨盆和髋关节构成的一个整体,其包含的肌群范围由肩到髋,包括正面、两侧和背面能够稳定人体核心部位、控制重心运动、传递上下肢力量的肌肉系统。通过解剖学和运动生物力学角度分析,对核心运动链诊断的测试仪器系统、测试动作、测试模式和测试指标进行了确定,并提出了测试分析思路。运用核心运动链肌力诊断的新方法对国家体操队两名重点运动员滕××和何××进行测试分析,同时与教练员及运动员本人进行沟通交流基本验证了测试结果的准确性及该方法手段的可行性。%This research used literature and logical reasoning to give a preliminary definition of the concept of core kinematic chain.It reckons that chain is an entirety composed strap,waist,pelvis and hip joint.Its muscles system,ranging from shoulder to hip,including front side and back of the core kinematic chain,can stabilize the core parts of the body and control the movement of body center and transfer the power from the up to lower limb.It initially establishes the test apparatus,test motions,test modes and test index of core kinematic chain with the analysis from the views of anatomy and biomechanics,and proposes the analysis ideas of the test results.It conducts applied study of core kinematic chain strength diagnosis methods to test Teng×× and He××,two top gymnasts of China＇s national team.And through communications with coaches and the athletes,it verifies the accuracy of the results and the feasibility of this new method.
The calculation of robot dynamics using articulated-body inertias
Featherstone, R.
1983-05-01
This paper describes a new method for calculating the acceleration of a robot in response to given actuator forces. The method is applicable to open-loop kinematic chains containing revolute and prismatic joints. The algorithm is based on recursive formulas involving quantities called articulated-body inertias, which represent the inertia properties of collections of rigid bodies connected together by joints allowing constrained relative motion between the bodies. A new, matrix-based notation is introduced to represent articulated-body inertias and other spatial quantities. This notation is used to develop the algorithm, and results in a compact representation of the equations. The new algorithm has a computational requirement that varies linearly with the number of joints, and its efficiency is compared with other published algorithms.
Humanoid Robot RH-1 for Collaborative Tasks: A Control Architecture for Human-Robot Cooperation
Concepción A. Monje
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The full-scale humanoid robot RH-1 has been totally developed in the University Carlos III of Madrid. In this paper we present an advanced control system for this robot so that it can perform tasks in cooperation with humans. The collaborative tasks are carried out in a semi-autonomous way and are intended to be put into operation in real working environments where humans and robots should share the same space. Before presenting the control strategy, the kinematic model and a simplified dynamic model of the robot are presented. All the models and algorithms are verified by several simulations and experimental results.
Zhang, Jian-dong; Chen, Bin
2017-01-01
The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,R) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.
Sensor Fusion and Model Verification for a Mobile Robot
Bisgaard, Morten; Vinther, Dennis; Østergaard, Kasper Zinck
2005-01-01
This paper presents the results of modeling, sensor fusion and model verification for a four-wheel driven, four-wheel steered mobile robot moving in outdoor terrain. The model derived for the robot describes the actuator and wheel dynamics and the vehicle kinematics, and includes friction terms...
Geometric problems in molecular biology and robotics.
Parsons, D; Canny, J
1994-01-01
Some of the geometric problems of interest to molecular biologists have macroscopic analogues in the field of robotics. Two examples of such analogies are those between protein docking and model-based perception, and between ring closure and inverse kinematics. Molecular dynamics simulation, too, has much in common with the study of robot dynamics. In this paper we give a brief survey of recent work on these and related problems.
Stabilized Feedback Control of Unicycle Mobile Robots
Khoukhi Amar
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a stabilized feedback control is designed for a class of unicycle non‐holonomic mobile robots. The approach is based on kinematic polar coordinate transformations. The suggested control scheme allows the robot to achieve stabilized near‐ optimal trajectories, while satisfying the hard constraints of specified initial and final postures (positions and orientations. Simulation experiments showing the effectiveness of the proposed technique are provided and discussed.
NOVEL FORMULATION OF STATIC STABILITY FOR A WALKING QUADRUPED ROBOT
无
2003-01-01
By defining the static stable area for foot placement, a new approach to analysis of quadruped robot stability is presented.Unlike conventionally, the method avoids solving complicated direct kinematics of quadruped robot and shows the information on the robot stability and the selection of swing leg.Especially, the proposed algorithm can be used as real-time operation for on-line gait generation and control for quadruped robots.The effectiveness of the proposed approach is shown through a practical crawling experiment of the quadruped robot TITAN-VIII.
Study of an inchworm-like micro-robot
Li Mantian; Guo Wei; Sun Lining
2006-01-01
A micro-robot with 4 DOFs is presented in this paper. An inchworm-like biped mechanical structure is selected with the advantages of small size and minimal weight. It can walk on wall as an inchworm with two different locomotion modes such as crawling and overturn. With rotation mode, this robot can change it's motion direction. The robot can also transit between different surfaces. The kinematics model of the robot has been analyzed. A DSP based embedded controller is used for minimal power consumption and efficient control. The micro-robot can move flexibly and fit complicated un-structural environment well.
Intelligent robot trends for 1998
Hall, Ernest L.
1998-10-01
An intelligent robot is a remarkably useful combination of a manipulator, sensors and controls. The use of these machines in factory automation can improve productivity, increase product quality and improve competitiveness. This paper presents a discussion of recent technical and economic trends. Technically, the machines are faster, cheaper, more repeatable, more reliable and safer. The knowledge base of inverse kinematic and dynamic solutions and intelligent controls is increasing. More attention is being given by industry to robots, vision and motion controls. New areas of usage are emerging for service robots, remote manipulators and automated guided vehicles. Economically, the robotics industry now has a 1.1 billion-dollar market in the U.S. and is growing. Feasibility studies results are presented which also show decreasing costs for robots and unaudited healthy rates of return for a variety of robotic applications. However, the road from inspiration to successful application can be long and difficult, often taking decades to achieve a new product. A greater emphasis on mechatronics is needed in our universities. Certainly, more cooperation between government, industry and universities is needed to speed the development of intelligent robots that will benefit industry and society.
Motion Performance Analyses of Valve Welding Robots%阀体焊接机器人运动性能分析
许勇; 程浩; 章兵; 王春燕; 吴永博; 曹银冬
2016-01-01
基于弗莱那雪列(Frenet-Serret)矢量理论，获得了离散焊点处的切向、法向和次法向矢量，据此可求得焊枪焊点间的相对位姿。基于变位机机器人主从运动链末端的耦合约束关系，提出以船型焊为最佳焊位时的协同焊接运动学模型及参数求解流程。在求解焊接机器人工作空间的基础上，依据球形手腕六关节串联机器人处于奇异位形的几何条件，归纳得出焊接机器人的10种独立的奇异位形。协同焊接阀体密封面的运动仿真和现场试验表明，该变位机机器人焊接系统能够平稳、准确地完成预期焊接任务，证实了提出的协同焊接运动学模型及参数求解方法正确可行。%The tangential vectors,normal vectors and auxiliary normal vectors of the discrete solder j oints were solved based on Frenet-Serret’s vector theory.Thus the relative positions and orien-tations between welding point and welding torch will be derived more easily.Based on the coupling constraint relationship between the ends of the active positioner kinematic chain and the driven robot kinematic chain,the coordinated welding kinematic model and the corresponding parameter solving process were presented for the optimum ship-welding position.On the basis of solving the working space of the welding robot,according to the geometric conditions of the singular positions for the spherical wrist 6-joint series robot,10 independent singular positions of the welding robot were ob-tained.The motion simulation and field tests of the robot-positioner coordinated welding operation show that the system may smoothly and accurately complete the coordinated welding tasks of valve sealing surface.These results confirm that the proposed kinematic model and parameter solving process are correct and feasible.
Artificial Neural Networks in Applications of Industrial Robots
王克胜; JonathanLienhardt; 袁庆丰; 方明伦
2004-01-01
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used to solve a number of problems to which analytical solutions are difficult to obtain using traditional mathematical approaches.Such problems exist also in the analysis of industrial robots. This paper presents an overview of ANN applications to robot kinematics, dynamics,control, trajectory and path planning, and sensing. Reasons for using or not using ANNs to industrial robots are explained as well.
Sensor Fusion and Model Verification for a Mobile Robot
Bisgaard, Morten; Vinther, Dennis; Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
2005-01-01
This paper presents the results of modeling, sensor fusion and model verification for a four-wheel driven, four-wheel steered mobile robot moving in outdoor terrain. The model derived for the robot describes the actuator and wheel dynamics and the vehicle kinematics, and includes friction terms as well as slip. An Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) based on the dynamic model is used for sensor fusion, feeding sensor measurements back to the robot controller in an intelligent manner. Through practi...
Towards a Unified Representation of Mechanisms for Robotic Control Software
Antonio Diaz-Calderon
2008-11-01
Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the Mechanism Model paradigm. The mechanism model paradigm provides a framework to modeling mechanisms for robotic control. The emphasis is on the unification of mathematical models of kinematics/dynamics, geometric information and control system parameters for a variety of robotic systems (including serial manipulators, wheeled and legged locomotors, with algorithms that are needed for typical robot control applications.
A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A LEGO DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE ROBOT
Gheorghe GÎLCĂ
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper details the development of a model for a mobile robot constructed from Lego® Mindstorms®. The equations representing the dynamics and kinematics of the robot are derived. In addition, the motors and wheels are represented in the model. The mobile robot is programmed in graphical programming language NXT-G and can follow a black line without problems, even if the route to achieve is difficult.
Development of a Self-Stabilizing Robotic Chassis for Industry
Ryadchikov Igor
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Presented the description of the bipedal robotic chassis with the unique kinematic scheme which has the possibility to locomote in complicated multi-level environment. AnyWalker is equipped with the system of compensation of external impacts with motor-wheels which can self-stabilize the robotic system in 3 dimensions. Presented chassis suggests to have open software and hardware architecture in order to become the universal walking platform for service and industry robots.
Motor Driving Leg Design for Bionic Crab-like Robot
Wang; Li-quan; Qu; Xiao-rong; Meng; Qing-xin; Yuan; Peng; Wang; Mo-nan
2002-01-01
The paper presents the design of walking leg for bionics crab-like robot, which is driven with micro servo motor. The kinematic characteristics of the bionics machine are analysed for optimized structure parameters, which has been used in the robot design. A three closed loop motor control system structure for joint driver is also given, as well as the multi-joint driving system for walking robot leg.
Zhang, Jian-dong
2016-01-01
The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincar\\'e disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincar\\'e disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the $SL(2,\\mathbb{R})$ leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore...
Design and Rolling Analysis of a Novel Deformable Polyhedron Robot
Yaobin Tian
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new rolling robot is proposed. The mechanism of the robot consists of eight links with three degrees of freedom (DOFs. The shape of each link of the robot is an equilateral triangle. The robot realizes its direction switching function by deforming into different modes of planar parallelogram mechanisms (PPM. In any deterministic mode, the robot can roll on the ground. The motion of the robot is studied based on the kinematic and zero moment point (ZMP analyses. Though the robot has three DOFs, we show that it can realize flexible mobility via direction switching and rolling functions with two DOFs and one DOF, respectively. A prototype robot was manufactured. A series of simulations and experiments done using this prototype is reported, verifying the feasibility of the design.
Kinematics theory and applications
Wittenburg, Jens
2016-01-01
The book deals with kinematics of mechanisms. It focuses on a solid theoretical foundation and on mathematical methods applicable to the solution of problems of very diverse nature. Applications are demonstrated in a large number of fully worked-out problems. In kinematics a wide variety of mathematical tools is applicable. In this book, wherever possible vector equations are formulated instead of lengthy scalar coordinate equations. The principle of transference is applied to problems of very diverse nature. 15 chapters of the book are devoted to spatial kinematics and three chapters to planar kinematics. In Chapt. 19 nonlinear dynamics equations of motion are formulated for general spatial mechanisms. Nearly one half of the book is dealing with position theory and the other half with motion. The book is intended for use as reference book for researchers and as textbook in advanced courses on kinematics of mechanisms.
Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben
2016-01-01
Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture....
2009-10-07
Army Robotics 07 October 2009 Dr. Grant Gerhart, Senior Research Scientist Bernard Theisen, Joint Center for Robotics DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A... Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grant Gerhart; Bernard Theisen 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...CBRNE • IED Defeat Systems • Disarm / Disrupt • Reconnaissance • Investigation • Explosive Sniffer • Common Robotic Kit • EOD • Convoy • Log
2010-01-12
unclassified TARDEC Robotics Dr. James L. Overholt Director, Joint Center for Robotics US Army TARDEC Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) James L. Overholt... Robotics , Network and Control Components with a Focus on Customer Driven Requirements to Provide Full System Solutions to the War Fighter Technology
Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann;
Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance i...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....
Wolfe, W.J.; Marquina, N.
1986-01-01
This book presents papers given at a conference on mobile robots. Topics the conference included are the following: mobility systems for robotic vehicles; detection and control of mobile robot motion by real-time computer vision, obstacle avoidance algorithms for an autonomous land vehicle; hierarchical processor and matched filters for range image processing; asynchronous distributed control system for a mobile robot, and, planning in a hierarchical nested autonomous control system.
Real-time Position Control of Concentric Tube Robots.
Dupont, Pierre E; Lock, Jesse; Itkowitz, Brandon
2010-05-03
A novel approach to constructing robots is based on concentrically combining pre-curved elastic tubes. By rotating and extending the tubes with respect to each other, their curvatures interact elastically to position and orient the robot's tip, as well as to control the robot's shape along its length. Since these robots form slender curves, they are well suited for minimally invasive medical procedures. A substantial challenge to their practical use is the real-time solution of their kinematics that are described by differential equations with split boundary equations. This paper proposes a numerically efficient approach to real-time position control. It is shown that the forward kinematics are smooth functions that can be pre-computed and accurately approximated using Fourier series. The inverse kinematics can be solved in real time using root finding applied to the functional approximation. Experimental demonstration of real-time position control using this approach is also described.
Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction
Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen
2009-01-01
’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments......Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot...... uses observed information from a laser range finder to detect persons and their position relative to the robot. This information together with the motion of the robot itself is fed through a Kalman filter, which utilizes a model of the human kinematic movement to produce an estimate of the person...
Experiments in cooperative-arm object manipulation with a two-armed free-flying robot. Ph.D. Thesis
Koningstein, Ross
1990-01-01
Developing computed-torque controllers for complex manipulator systems using current techniques and tools is difficult because they address the issues pertinent to simulation, as opposed to control. A new formulation of computed-torque (CT) control that leads to an automated computer-torque robot controller program is presented. This automated tool is used for simulations and experimental demonstrations of endpoint and object control from a free-flying robot. A new computed-torque formulation states the multibody control problem in an elegant, homogeneous, and practical form. A recursive dynamics algorithm is presented that numerically evaluates kinematics and dynamics terms for multibody systems given a topological description. Manipulators may be free-flying, and may have closed-chain constraints. With the exception of object squeeze-force control, the algorithm does not deal with actuator redundancy. The algorithm is used to implement an automated 2D computed-torque dynamics and control package that allows joint, endpoint, orientation, momentum, and object squeeze-force control. This package obviates the need for hand-derivation of kinematics and dynamics, and is used for both simulation and experimental control. Endpoint control experiments are performed on a laboratory robot that has two arms to manipulate payloads, and uses an air bearing to achieve very-low drag characteristics. Simulations and experimental data for endpoint and object controllers are presented for the experimental robot - a complex dynamic system. There is a certain rather wide set of conditions under which CT endpoint controllers can neglect robot base accelerations (but not motions) and achieve comparable performance including base accelerations in the model. The regime over which this simplification holds is explored by simulation and experiment.
王国富; 高峰; 徐国艳
2012-01-01
提出了一种腿式机器人与转向盘复合的全方位步行机构，介绍了其独特的运动特点和转向性能；为了实现对其良好的运动控制，建立了该步行机器人转向机构在运动过程中的等效机构模型，采用拉格朗日力学法推导出操作臂的动力学方程；通过对样机模型的运动规划和实验研究，证明了转向盘式全方位机器人具有简单灵活、精确的方向可操控性。%An omnidirectional walking mechanism which synthesizes legged robot and steering-wheel was proposed, the specific motion features and steering performance were introduced. To achieve a good result of motion control, equivalent manipulator model of the steering mechanism was built, and the dynamics were developed by means of Lagrangian dynamic approach. The motion planning and experiments on the prototype validate that the omnidirectional robot with a steering wheel can be manipulated simply, flexibly and accurately.
Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann
Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....
Design and Implementation of a New DELTA Parallel Robot in Robotics Competitions
Jonqlan Lin; Ci-Huang Luo; Kao-Hui Lin
2015-01-01
This investigation concerns the design and implementation of the DELTA parallel robot, covering the entire mechatronic process, involving kinematics, control design and optimizing methods. To accelerate the construction of the robot, 3D printing is used to fabricate end effector parts. The parts are modular, low-cost, reconfigurable and can be assembled in less time than is required for conventionally fabricated parts. The controller, including the control algorithm and human-machine interfac...
The Summer Robotic Autonomy Course
Nourbakhsh, Illah R.
2002-01-01
We offered a first Robotic Autonomy course this summer, located at NASA/Ames' new NASA Research Park, for approximately 30 high school students. In this 7-week course, students worked in ten teams to build then program advanced autonomous robots capable of visual processing and high-speed wireless communication. The course made use of challenge-based curricula, culminating each week with a Wednesday Challenge Day and a Friday Exhibition and Contest Day. Robotic Autonomy provided a comprehensive grounding in elementary robotics, including basic electronics, electronics evaluation, microprocessor programming, real-time control, and robot mechanics and kinematics. Our course then continued the educational process by introducing higher-level perception, action and autonomy topics, including teleoperation, visual servoing, intelligent scheduling and planning and cooperative problem-solving. We were able to deliver such a comprehensive, high-level education in robotic autonomy for two reasons. First, the content resulted from close collaboration between the CMU Robotics Institute and researchers in the Information Sciences and Technology Directorate and various education program/project managers at NASA/Ames. This collaboration produced not only educational content, but will also be focal to the conduct of formative and summative evaluations of the course for further refinement. Second, CMU rapid prototyping skills as well as the PI's low-overhead perception and locomotion research projects enabled design and delivery of affordable robot kits with unprecedented sensory- locomotory capability. Each Trikebot robot was capable of both indoor locomotion and high-speed outdoor motion and was equipped with a high-speed vision system coupled to a low-cost pan/tilt head. As planned, follow the completion of Robotic Autonomy, each student took home an autonomous, competent robot. This robot is the student's to keep, as she explores robotics with an extremely capable tool in the
Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting
2011-01-01
This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to
一种机器人末端执行器的运动学分析和实际应用%Kinematics Research and Practical Application of a Robot Actuator
龚智强; 陈进; 尹小琴; 马履中
2012-01-01
Firstly, a new type of Massage robot actuator is introduced. The screw theory is applied to calculating DOF of parallel mechanism and analysizing motion characteristics of the moving platform, so the operation of Traditional Chinese Medical Massage can be achieved through theoretical analysis. Secondly, vector closed form method and homogeneous coordinate transformation method are used for positions on the parallel mechanism of positive and negative solutions. Thus the correspondent mathematical expressions can be obtained and through derivation both the velocity and acceleration solution can be gotten. Finally, MATLAB and ADAMS are used for joint simulation, where not only the Traditional Chinese Medicine Massage robot effector can be proved, but also the Chinese Medicine Massage operations can be achieved. Therefore the theoretical basis is provided for dynamic and practical application of the Traditional Chinese Medical Massage robot actuator.%首先,介绍了一种新型推拿机器人末端执行器,运用螺旋理论分析了该末端执行器并联机构自由度及动平台的运动特性,通过理论分析可以实现相应中医推拿的动作要求.其次,用矢量封闭形方法对并联机构进行位置正反解分析,得到相应的位置方程,并对其求导得到了机构的速度、加速度正反解数学表达式.最后,采用MATLAB与ADAMS进行了联合仿真,证明了该中医推拿机器人末端执行器可以实现中医推拿操作,为该中医推拿机器人末端执行器的动力学建模和实际应用提供了理论基础.
Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions
Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten
In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....... suite, developed in this project and in [4]. Source code developed for this project includes the CCD method , improvements on the BFGS method and Jacobian inverse originally developed in [4]....
Diana, M; Marescaux, J
2015-01-01
Proficiency in minimally invasive surgery requires intensive and continuous training, as it is technically challenging for unnatural visual and haptic perceptions. Robotic and computer sciences are producing innovations to augment the surgeon's skills to achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery. This article reviews the current use of robotically assisted surgery, focusing on technology as well as main applications in digestive surgery, and future perspectives. The PubMed database was interrogated to retrieve evidence-based data on surgical applications. Internal and external consulting with key opinion leaders, renowned robotics laboratories and robotic platform manufacturers was used to produce state-of-the art business intelligence around robotically assisted surgery. Selected digestive procedures (oesophagectomy, gastric bypass, pancreatic and liver resections, rectal resection for cancer) might benefit from robotic assistance, although the current level of evidence is insufficient to support widespread adoption. The surgical robotic market is growing, and a variety of projects have recently been launched at both academic and corporate levels to develop lightweight, miniaturized surgical robotic prototypes. The magnified view, and improved ergonomics and dexterity offered by robotic platforms, might facilitate the uptake of minimally invasive procedures. Image guidance to complement robotically assisted procedures, through the concepts of augmented reality, could well represent a major revolution to increase safety and deal with difficulties associated with the new minimally invasive approaches. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Learning from Fish: Kinematics and Experimental Hydrodynamics for Roboticists
George V. Lauder; Peter G. A. Madden
2006-01-01
Over the past 20 years, experimental analyses of the biomechanics of locomotion in fishes have generated a number of key findings that are relevant to the construction of biomimetic fish robots. In this paper, we present 16 results from recent experimental research on the mechanics, kinematics, fluid dynamics, and control of fish locomotion that summarize recent work on fish biomechanics. The findings and principles that have emerged from biomechanical studies of fish locomotion provide important insights into the functional design of fishes and suggest specific design features relevant to construction of robotic fish-inspired vehicles that underlie the high locomotor performance exhibited by fishes.
Bo Zhou; Jianda Han; Xianzhong Dai
2011-01-01
While the nonholonomic robots with no-slipping constraints are studied extensively nowadays, the slipping effect is inevitable in many practical applications and should be considered necessarily to achieve autonomous navigation and control purposes especially in outdoor environments. In this paper the robust point stabilization problem of a tracked mobile robot is discussed in the presence of track slipping, which can be treated as model perturbation that violates the pure nonholonomic constraints. The kinematic model of the tracked vehicle is created, in which the slipping is assumed to be a time-varying parameter under certain assumptions of track-soil interaction. By transforming the original system to the special chained form of nonholonomic system, the integrator backstepping procedure with a state-scaling technique is used to construct the controller to stabilize the system at the kinematic level. The global exponential stability of the final system can be guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. Simulation results with different initial states and slipping parameters demonstrate the fast convergence, robustness and insensitivity to the initial state of the proposed method.
Design Analysis and Dynamic Modeling of a High-Speed 3T1R Pick-and-Place Parallel Robot
2015-01-01
This paper introduces a four degree-of-freedom parallel robot producing three translation and one rotation (Schönflies motion). This robot can generate a rectangular workspace that is close to the applicable work envelope and suitable for pick-and-place operations. The kinematics of the robot is ...
MOTION PLANNING OF MULTIPLE MOBILE ROBOTS COOPERATIVELY TRANSPORTING A COMMON OBJECT
无
2000-01-01
Many applications above the capability of a single robot need the cooperation of multiple mobile robots, but effective cooperation is hard to achieve. In this paper, a master-slave method is proposed to control the motions of multiple mobile robots that cooperatively transport a common object from a start point to a goal point. A noholonomic kinematic model to constrain the motions of multiple mobile robots is built in order to achieve cooperative motions of them, and a "Dynamic Coordinator" strategy is used to deal with the collision-avoidance of the master robot and slave robot individually. Simulation results show the robustness and effectiveness of the method.
Bier, H.H.
2014-01-01
Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp
Bier, H.H.
2014-01-01
Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp
Williams, P.; Sagraniching, E.; Bennett, M.; Singh, R.
1991-01-01
A walking robot was designed, analyzed, and tested as an intelligent, mobile, and a terrain adaptive system. The robot's design was an application of existing technologies. The design of the six legs modified and combines well understood mechanisms and was optimized for performance, flexibility, and simplicity. The body design incorporated two tripods for walking stability and ease of turning. The electrical hardware design used modularity and distributed processing to drive the motors. The software design used feedback to coordinate the system and simple keystrokes to give commands. The walking machine can be easily adapted to hostile environments such as high radiation zones and alien terrain. The primary goal of the leg design was to create a leg capable of supporting a robot's body and electrical hardware while walking or performing desired tasks, namely those required for planetary exploration. The leg designers intent was to study the maximum amount of flexibility and maneuverability achievable by the simplest and lightest leg design. The main constraints for the leg design were leg kinematics, ease of assembly, degrees of freedom, number of motors, overall size, and weight.
A New Full Pose Measurement Method for Robot Calibration
Hee-Jun Kang
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Identification of robot kinematic errors during the calibration process often requires accurate full pose measurements (position and orientation of robot end-effectors in Cartesian space. This paper proposes a new method of full pose measurement of robot end-effectors for calibration. This method is based on an analysis of the features of a set of target points (placed on a rotating end-effector on a circular trajectory. The accurate measurement is validated by computational simulation results from the Puma robot. Moreover, experimental calibration and validation results for the Hyundai HA-06 robot prove the effectiveness, correctness, and reliability of the proposed method. This method can be applied to robots that have entirely revolute joints or to robots for which only the last joint is revolute.
Approaches to probabilistic model learning for mobile manipulation robots
Sturm, Jürgen
2013-01-01
Mobile manipulation robots are envisioned to provide many useful services both in domestic environments as well as in the industrial context. Examples include domestic service robots that implement large parts of the housework, and versatile industrial assistants that provide automation, transportation, inspection, and monitoring services. The challenge in these applications is that the robots have to function under changing, real-world conditions, be able to deal with considerable amounts of noise and uncertainty, and operate without the supervision of an expert. This book presents novel learning techniques that enable mobile manipulation robots, i.e., mobile platforms with one or more robotic manipulators, to autonomously adapt to new or changing situations. The approaches presented in this book cover the following topics: (1) learning the robot's kinematic structure and properties using actuation and visual feedback, (2) learning about articulated objects in the environment in which the robot is operating,...
Quasistatic Modeling of Concentric Tube Robots with External Loads.
Lock, Jesse; Laing, Genevieve; Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E
2010-12-03
Concentric tube robots are a subset of continuum robots constructed by combining pre-curved elastic tubes. As the tubes are rotated and translated with respect to each other, their curvatures interact elastically, enabling control of the robot's tip configuration as well as the curvature along its length. This technology is projected to be useful in many types of minimally invasive medical procedures. Because these robots are flexible by design, they deflect considerably when applying forces to the external environment. Thus, in contrast to rigid-link robots, their kinematic and static force models are coupled. This paper derives a multi-tube quasistatic model that relates tube rotations and translations together with externally applied loads to robot shape and tip configuration. The model can be applied in robot design, procedure planning as well as control. For validation, the multi-tube model is compared experimentally to a computationally-efficient single-tube approximate model.
Exact Computation of Parallel Robot's Generalized Inertia Matrix
ZHAO Yongjie; YANG Zhiyong; MEI Jiangping; HUANG Tian
2005-01-01
According to the definition of the new hypothetical states which have obvious physical significance and are termed as no-gravity static and accelerated states, a method for exact computation of the parallel robot's generalized inertia matrix is presented. Based on the matrix theory, the generalized inertia matrix of the parallel robot can be computed on the assumption that the robot is in these new hypothetical states respectively. The approach is demonstrated by the Delta robot as an example. Based on the principle of the virtual work, the inverse dynamics model of the robot is formulized after the kinematics analysis. Finally, a numerical example is given and the element distribution of the Delta robot's inertia matrix in the workspace is studied. The method has computational advantage of numerical accuracy for the Delta robot and can be parallelized easily.
Motion Synthesis of a Self-Steered Mobile Robot
Roseborrough, Michael; Phillips, Keith
1987-02-01
Until the late 1950's there was an almost exclusive use of graphical methods in the kinematic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. With the increasing availability of high-speed digital computers there was a major reawakening of interest in a field con-sidered by many to be mature and dormant. Today the birth of advanced robotic systems has heightened the interest in applications of kinematic analysis and synthesis. This paper discusses the application of kinematics to the path planning model of a three wheeled, self-steering, mobile robot. The problem is formulated through a kinematic analysis of the path curvature and the synthesis of a set of equivalent linkages. The equivalent linkages facilitate a direct relationship between the path and the robot steering control mechanism. This is accomplished through the kinematic param-eters displacement, velocity and acceleration. The mathematical model is presented in a generalized format with the robot represented as a rigid body. Examples are shown which solve the problem of moving the robot through a crowded environment and arriving at its destination in a predetermined orientation.
Measurement of the Robot Motor Capability of a Robot Motor System: A Fitts’s-Law-Inspired Approach
C. S. George Lee
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Robot motor capability is a crucial factor for a robot, because it affects how accurately and rapidly a robot can perform a motion to accomplish a task constrained by spatial and temporal conditions. In this paper, we propose and derive a pseudo-index of motor performance (pIp to characterize robot motor capability with robot kinematics, dynamics and control taken into consideration. The proposed pIp provides a quantitative measure for a robot with revolute joints, which is inspired from an index of performance in Fitts’s law of human skills. Computer simulations and experiments on a PUMA 560 industrial robot were conducted to validate the proposed pIp for performing a motion accurately and rapidly.
Measurement of the robot motor capability of a robot motor system: a Fitts's-law-inspired approach.
Lin, Hsien-I; Lee, C S George
2013-07-02
Robot motor capability is a crucial factor for a robot, because it affects how accurately and rapidly a robot can perform a motion to accomplish a task constrained by spatial and temporal conditions. In this paper, we propose and derive a pseudo-index of motor performance (pIp) to characterize robot motor capability with robot kinematics, dynamics and control taken into consideration. The proposed pIp provides a quantitative measure for a robot with revolute joints, which is inspired from an index of performance in Fitts's law of human skills. Computer simulations and experiments on a PUMA 560 industrial robot were conducted to validate the proposed pIp for performing a motion accurately and rapidly.
Design and Engineering of a Chess-Robotic Arm
Elouafiq, Ali
2012-01-01
In the scope of the "Chess-Bot" project, this study's goal is to choose the right model for the robotic arm that the "the Chess-Bot" will use to move the pawn from a cell to another. In this paper, there is the definition and the structure of a robot arm. Also, the different engineering and kinematics fundamentals of the robot and its components will be detailed. Furthermore, the different structures of robotic arms will be presented and compared based on different criteria. Finally, a model for "the Chess-Bot" arm will be synthesized based on accurate algorithms and equations.
2nd International Conference on Cable-Driven Parallel Robots
Bruckmann, Tobias
2015-01-01
This volume presents the outcome of the second forum to cable-driven parallel robots, bringing the cable robot community together. It shows the new ideas of the active researchers developing cable-driven robots. The book presents the state of the art, including both summarizing contributions as well as latest research and future options. The book cover all topics which are essential for cable-driven robots: Classification Kinematics, Workspace and Singularity Analysis Statics and Dynamics Cable Modeling Control and Calibration Design Methodology Hardware Development Experimental Evaluation Prototypes, Application Reports and new Application concepts
Domenico Parisi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Che cosa e' un robot? A che cosa serve un robot? Un robot e' qualcosa di fisico, costruito da noi, che somiglia a un organismo vivente e si comporta come un organismo vivente. Gli organismi viventi comprendono gli animali e le piante, ma i robot riproducono gli animali piuttosto che le piante, anche se ci sono tentativi di costruire robotpiante. Comportarsi come un animale significa avere degli organi sensoriali con cui ricevere informazioni dall'ambiente e degli organi motori che permettono di spostarsi nell'ambiente o di muovere una qualche parte del proprio corpo, ad esempio la testa o un braccio, in maniera non programmata, ma autonoma, cioe' rispondendo agli stimoli che arrivano momento per momento ai sensori del robot. Questo risponde alla domanda "Che cosa e' un robot?".
一种自主研磨作业机器人动力学仿真%The dynamics simulation of an autonomous grinding robot
王文忠
2014-01-01
研究了一种由直角坐标机构、转动机构和摆动机构构成的自主研磨作业机器人的运动学和动力学分析，以支链构件相对坐标和动平台绝对坐标作为广义坐标，结合Lagrange方法建立了运动学和动力学模型，并利用M atlab软件平台进行了运动学及动力学仿真，仿真结果说明了该模型的正确性与实效性，进而为自主作业机器人的轨迹规划及控制研究提供参考。%T he kinematics and dynamics analysis of an autonomous grinding robot consisted by rectangular coordinates agencies ,rotating mechanism ,and swing mechanism in this paper .The branched-chain member coordinates and moving platform absolute coordinates are used as generalized coordinates .T he kinematics and dynamics models combining with Lagrange method ,and kinematics and dynamics simulations have been made to by using Matlab software platform .The simulation results show the correctness and the effective-ness of the proposed models .Furthermore ,they are the very valuable references for contrail plan and mo-tion control design of the autonomous robot .
Design and Implementation of a New DELTA Parallel Robot in Robotics Competitions
Jonqlan Lin
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This investigation concerns the design and implementation of the DELTA parallel robot, covering the entire mechatronic process, involving kinematics, control design and optimizing methods. To accelerate the construction of the robot, 3D printing is used to fabricate end effector parts. The parts are modular, low-cost, reconfigurable and can be assembled in less time than is required for conventionally fabricated parts. The controller, including the control algorithm and human-machine interface (HMI, is coded using the Borland C++ Builder 6 Personal software environment. The integration of the motion controller with image recognition into an opto-mechatronics system is presented. The robot system has been entered into robotic competitions in Taiwan. The experimental results reveal that the proposed DELTA robot completed the tasks in those competitions successfully.
Design and Implementation of a New DELTA Parallel Robot in Robotics Competitions
Jonqlan Lin
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This investigation concerns the design and implementation of the DELTA parallel robot, covering the entire mechatronic process, involving kinematics, control design and optimizing methods. To accelerate the construction of the robot, 3D printing is used to fabricate end-effector parts. The parts are modular, low-cost, reconfigurable and can be assembled in less time than is required for conventionally fabricated parts. The controller, including the control algorithm and human-machine interface (HMI, is coded using the Borland C++ Builder 6 Personal software environment. The integration of the motion controller with image recognition into an opto-mechatronics system is presented. The robot system has been entered into robotic competitions in Taiwan. The experimental results reveal that the proposed DELTA robot completed the tasks in those competitions successfully.
Human-robot interaction tests on a novel robot for gait assistance.
Tagliamonte, Nevio Luigi; Sergi, Fabrizio; Carpino, Giorgio; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio
2013-06-01
This paper presents tests on a treadmill-based non-anthropomorphic wearable robot assisting hip and knee flexion/extension movements using compliant actuation. Validation experiments were performed on the actuators and on the robot, with specific focus on the evaluation of intrinsic backdrivability and of assistance capability. Tests on a young healthy subject were conducted. In the case of robot completely unpowered, maximum backdriving torques were found to be in the order of 10 Nm due to the robot design features (reduced swinging masses; low intrinsic mechanical impedance and high-efficiency reduction gears for the actuators). Assistance tests demonstrated that the robot can deliver torques attracting the subject towards a predicted kinematic status.
Inverse Kinematic Control of Humanoids Under Joint Constraints
Inhyeok Kim
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an inverse kinematic control framework for a position controlled humanoid robot with bounded joint range, velocity, and acceleration limits. The proposed framework comprises two components, an inverse kinematics algorithm and a damping controller. The proposed IKTC (Inverse Kinematics with Task Corrections algorithm is based on the second order task‐ priority method in order to ensure the velocity‐continuity of the solution. When the minimum norm solution exceeds the joint bounds, the problem is treated as a quadratic optimization problem with box constraints; an optimal task correction that lets the solution satisfy the constraints is found. In order to express the three kinds of joint constraints as a second order box constraint, a novel method is also proposed. The joint stiffness of a position controlled humanoid robot necessitates a damping controller to attenuate jolts caused by repeated contacts. We design a damping controller by using an inverted pendulum model with a compliant joint that takes into account the compliance around the foot. By using ZMP [20] measurement, the proposed damping controller is applicable not only in SSP (Single Support Phase but also in DSP (Double Support Phase. The validity of the proposed methods is shown by imitating a captured whole‐body human motion with a position controlled humanoid robot.
Computed torque control of an under-actuated service robot platform modeled by natural coordinates
Zelei, Ambrus; Kovács, László L.; Stépán, Gábor
2011-05-01
The paper investigates the motion planning of a suspended service robot platform equipped with ducted fan actuators. The platform consists of an RRT robot and a cable suspended swinging actuator that form a subsequent parallel kinematic chain and it is equipped with ducted fan actuators. In spite of the complementary ducted fan actuators, the system is under-actuated. The method of computed torques is applied to control the motion of the robot. The under-actuated systems have less control inputs than degrees of freedom. We assume that the investigated under-actuated system has desired outputs of the same number as inputs. In spite of the fact that the inverse dynamical calculation leads to the solution of a system of differential-algebraic equations (DAE), the desired control inputs can be determined uniquely by the method of computed torques. We use natural (Cartesian) coordinates to describe the configuration of the robot, while a set of algebraic equations represents the geometric constraints. In this modeling approach the mathematical model of the dynamical system itself is also a DAE. The paper discusses the inverse dynamics problem of the complex hybrid robotic system. The results include the desired actuator forces as well as the nominal coordinates corresponding to the desired motion of the carried payload. The method of computed torque control with a PD controller is applied to under-actuated systems described by natural coordinates, while the inverse dynamics is solved via the backward Euler discretization of the DAE system for which a general formalism is proposed. The results are compared with the closed form results obtained by simplified models of the system. Numerical simulation and experiments demonstrate the applicability of the presented concepts.
Dynamics of parallel robots from rigid bodies to flexible elements
Briot, Sébastien
2015-01-01
This book starts with a short recapitulation on basic concepts, common to any types of robots (serial, tree structure, parallel, etc.), that are also necessary for computation of the dynamic models of parallel robots. Then, as dynamics requires the use of geometry and kinematics, the general equations of geometric and kinematic models of parallel robots are given. After, it is explained that parallel robot dynamic models can be obtained by decomposing the real robot into two virtual systems: a tree-structure robot (equivalent to the robot legs for which all joints would be actuated) plus a free body corresponding to the platform. Thus, the dynamics of rigid tree-structure robots is analyzed and algorithms to obtain their dynamic models in the most compact form are given. The dynamic model of the real rigid parallel robot is obtained by closing the loops through the use of the Lagrange multipliers. The problem of the dynamic model degeneracy near singularities is treated and optimal trajectory planning for cro...
Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)
2003-01-01
A robot having a plurality of interconnected sections is disclosed. Each of the sections includes components which are moveable relative to components of an adjacent section. A plurality of electric motors are operably connected to at least two of said relatively moveable components to effect relative movement. A fitted, removable protective covering surrounds the sections to protect the robot.
Sultan, Alan
2011-01-01
Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…
Bier, H.H.
2011-01-01
Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating mec
Qualitative Kinematics of Linkages
1990-05-01
links and the connections between them, the following algorithm computes an envisionment for that system . lotatioa(P1,P2) - CCV lotatioa(P1,P2) CCV...1988 Appendix A : Slider-Crank Envisionment Each qualitative state consists of a kinematic state representing the orientation of each link, and a...8 +++ 6 -- . f. 6 000 , 7 --0 7 ++0 8 +- -+ > 1 000 1 +0+ 8 000 8 000 7 --0 7 000 8 --- m 8 +++ Appendix B : Drag-Link Envisionment Kinematic State
Kinematic analysis of parallel manipulators by algebraic screw theory
Gallardo-Alvarado, Jaime
2016-01-01
This book reviews the fundamentals of screw theory concerned with velocity analysis of rigid-bodies, confirmed with detailed and explicit proofs. The author additionally investigates acceleration, jerk, and hyper-jerk analyses of rigid-bodies following the trend of the velocity analysis. With the material provided in this book, readers can extend the theory of screws into the kinematics of optional order of rigid-bodies. Illustrative examples and exercises to reinforce learning are provided. Of particular note, the kinematics of emblematic parallel manipulators, such as the Delta robot as well as the original Gough and Stewart platforms are revisited applying, in addition to the theory of screws, new methods devoted to simplify the corresponding forward-displacement analysis, a challenging task for most parallel manipulators. Stands as the only book devoted to the acceleration, jerk and hyper-jerk (snap) analyses of rigid-body by means of screw theory; Provides new strategies to simplify the forward kinematic...
Hao-Ting Lin
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot’s end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H∞ tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end
Computed torque control of a free-flying cooperat ing-arm robot
Koningstein, Ross; Ullman, Marc; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.
1989-01-01
The unified approach to solving free-floating space robot manipulator end-point control problems is presented using a control formulation based on an extension of computed torque. Once the desired end-point accelerations have been specified, the kinematic equations are used with momentum conservation equations to solve for the joint accelerations in any of the robot's possible configurations: fixed base or free-flying with open/closed chain grasp. The joint accelerations can then be used to calculate the arm control torques and internal forces using a recursive order N algorithm. Initial experimental verification of these techniques has been performed using a laboratory model of a two-armed space robot. This fully autonomous spacecraft system experiences the drag-free, zero G characteristics of space in two dimensions through the use of an air cushion support system. Results of these initial experiments are included which validate the correctness of the proposed methodology. The further problem of control in the large where not only the manipulator tip positions but the entire system consisting of base and arms must be controlled is also presented. The availability of a physical testbed has brought a keener insight into the subtleties of the problem at hand.
Research on one Bio-inspired Jumping Locomotion Robot for Search and Rescue
Dunwen Wei
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Jumping locomotion is much more effective than other locomotion means in order to tackle the unstructured and complex environment in research and rescue. Here, a bio-inspired jumping robot with a closed-chain mechanism is proposed to achieve the power amplification during taking-off. Through actuating one variable transmission mechanism to change the transmission ratio, the jumping robot reveals biological characteristics in the phase of posture adjustment when adjusting the height and distance of one jump. The kinematics and dynamics of the simplified jumping mechanism model in one jumping cycle sequence are analysed. A compliant contact model considering nonlinear damping is investigated for jumping performance under different terrain characteristics. The numerical simulation algorithm with regard to solving the dynamical equation is described and simulation results are discussed. Finally, one primary prototype and experiment are described. The experimental results show the distance of jumping in the horizontal direction increases with the increasing gear ratio, while the height of jumping decreases in reverse. The jumping robot can enhance the capability to adapt to unknown cluttered environments, such as those encountered in research and rescue, using this strategy.
曹凯; 徐林森; 沈惠平; 魏鲜明
2013-01-01
设计了仿生双足水上行走机器人行走机构,导出了两脚掌中心的运动轨迹方程、速度及加速度方程;以模拟蛇怪蜥蜴脚掌的运动轨迹为目标,选取给定脚掌拍击和扑打阶段的运动轨迹参数,进行给定轨迹的最优化设计,得到腿部机构的各个杆长参数.根据优化结果制作样机,并分析证明该仿生机构脚杆的运动能够满足蛇怪蜥蜴脚掌的运动轨迹要求.%A walking mechanism of bionic biped water-walking robot is designed; the equations of the location,velocity and acceleration is derived.To simulate the foot trajectory of basilisk lizard's,all the leg length parameters are achieved by optimizing the design of a given trajectory which is obtained by the set foot trajectory of impact and beat phase.The curve of angle between the feet of prototype and the horizontal is completed by the test of prototype and realized according to the optimized result.The simulation results show that the movement of this bionic walking mechanism can meet the basilisk lizards'foot trajectory.
Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim
2009-01-01
Written by Jim and Jane Nelson, Teaching About Kinematics is the latest AAPT/PTRA resource book. Based on physics education research, the book provides teachers with the resources needed to introduce students to some of the fundamental building blocks of physics. It is a carefully thought-out, step-by-step laboratory-based introduction to the…
A Novel Design of Aircraft Fuel Tank Inspection Robot
Guochen Niu
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Aircraft fuel tank leakage is a very common maintenance problem. A continuum robot is designed for troubleshooting of leaks for fuel tank which has strong constraints and is also explosive. The biomimetic robot with several flexible sections applies actuation redundancy through pulling its four independent driving cables to realize bending motion of two degrees of freedom (DOF. The forward kinematics about the relations of cables lengths, angles and tip coordinates of single section is established using projection curvature method and coordinates transformation method. The decoupled multi-section kinematics function is deduced based on the kinematics analysis of single section. Simulations of single section motion are presented. We demonstrate finally the correctness of kinematics method through prototype experiments.
Bayesian kinematic earthquake source models
Minson, S. E.; Simons, M.; Beck, J. L.; Genrich, J. F.; Galetzka, J. E.; Chowdhury, F.; Owen, S. E.; Webb, F.; Comte, D.; Glass, B.; Leiva, C.; Ortega, F. H.
2009-12-01
Most coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic slip models are based on highly regularized optimizations which yield one solution which satisfies the data given a particular set of regularizing constraints. This regularization hampers our ability to answer basic questions such as whether seismic and aseismic slip overlap or instead rupture separate portions of the fault zone. We present a Bayesian methodology for generating kinematic earthquake source models with a focus on large subduction zone earthquakes. Unlike classical optimization approaches, Bayesian techniques sample the ensemble of all acceptable models presented as an a posteriori probability density function (PDF), and thus we can explore the entire solution space to determine, for example, which model parameters are well determined and which are not, or what is the likelihood that two slip distributions overlap in space. Bayesian sampling also has the advantage that all a priori knowledge of the source process can be used to mold the a posteriori ensemble of models. Although very powerful, Bayesian methods have up to now been of limited use in geophysical modeling because they are only computationally feasible for problems with a small number of free parameters due to what is called the "curse of dimensionality." However, our methodology can successfully sample solution spaces of many hundreds of parameters, which is sufficient to produce finite fault kinematic earthquake models. Our algorithm is a modification of the tempered Markov chain Monte Carlo (tempered MCMC or TMCMC) method. In our algorithm, we sample a "tempered" a posteriori PDF using many MCMC simulations running in parallel and evolutionary computation in which models which fit the data poorly are preferentially eliminated in favor of models which better predict the data. We present results for both synthetic test problems as well as for the 2007 Mw 7.8 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake, the latter of which is constrained by InSAR, local high
Lob, W S
1990-09-01
Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions.
Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture
2013-01-01
In this paper, we have investigated the concept of "Cultural Robotics" with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...
Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot
Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.
Line of sight robot navigation toward a moving goal.
Belkhouche, Fethi; Belkhouche, Boumediene; Rastgoufard, Parviz
2006-04-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of robot tracking and navigation toward a moving goal. The goal's maneuvers are not a priori known to the robot. Thus, off-line strategies are not effective. To model the robot and the goal, we use geometric rules combined with kinematics equations expressed in a polar representation. The intent of the strategy is to keep the robot between a reference point, called the observer, and the goal. We prove under certain assumptions that the robot navigating using this strategy reaches the moving goal successfully. In the presence of obstacles, the method is combined with an obstacle avoidance algorithm. The robot then moves in two modes, the navigation mode and the obstacle avoidance mode. Simulation of various scenarios highlights the efficiency of the method and provides an instructive comparison between the paths obtained for different reference points.
Smart Material-actuated Flexible Tendon-based Snake Robot
Mohiuddin Ahmed
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A flexible snake robot has better navigation ability compare with the existing electrical motor-based rigid snake robot, due to its excellent bending capability during navigation inside a narrow maze. This paper discusses the modelling, simulation and experiment of a flexible snake robot. The modelling consists of the kinematic analysis and the dynamic analysis of the snake robot. A platform based on the Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM is proposed, which uses the external force provided by a compliant flexible beam in each of the actuators. The compliant central column allows the configuration to achieve three degrees of freedom (3DOFs with three tendons. The proposed flexible snake robot has been built using smart material, such as electroactive polymers (EAPs, which can be activated by applying power to it. Finally, the physical prototype of the snake robot has been built. An experiment has been performed in order to justify the proposed model.
COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF FAULT-TOLERANT PROPERTIES OF REDUNDANT ROBOTS
ZHAO Jing; FENG Dengdian
2008-01-01
When a redundant robot performs a fault-tolerant operation for locked joint failures, its fault tolerant properties should include dexterity and sudden change of joint velocity at the moment of locking failed joints and the dexterity during the post-failure. Firstly three fault-tolerant indexes, reduced condition number, sudden change of relative joint velocity and centrality are proposed, which can comprehensively evaluate the kinematical performance of a redundant robot during its entire fault-tolerant operations. Then, the influence of the initial postures of robot's end-effector on these fault-tolerant indexes is analyzed with a planar robot and a spatial robot. Simulation results show that for a given task the joint trajectory with the best comprehensive effect of fault tolerance can be determined by optimizing the initial posture of a robot.
Sociable Robots through Self-maintained Energy
Henrik Schioler
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.
Sociable Robots Through Self-Maintained Energy
Trung Dung Ngo
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.
Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us...... as individuals seems to be limited by our technical limitations and phantasy alone. This collection contributes to the field of social robotics by exploring its boundaries from a philosophically informed standpoint. It constructively outlines central potentials and challenges and thereby also provides a stable...
An Augmented Discrete-Time Approach for Human-Robot Collaboration
Peidong Liang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Human-robot collaboration (HRC is a key feature to distinguish the new generation of robots from conventional robots. Relevant HRC topics have been extensively investigated recently in academic institutes and companies to improve human and robot interactive performance. Generally, human motor control regulates human motion adaptively to the external environment with safety, compliance, stability, and efficiency. Inspired by this, we propose an augmented approach to make a robot understand human motion behaviors based on human kinematics and human postural impedance adaptation. Human kinematics is identified by geometry kinematics approach to map human arm configuration as well as stiffness index controlled by hand gesture to anthropomorphic arm. While human arm postural stiffness is estimated and calibrated within robot empirical stability region, human motion is captured by employing a geometry vector approach based on Kinect. A biomimetic controller in discrete-time is employed to make Baxter robot arm imitate human arm behaviors based on Baxter robot dynamics. An object moving task is implemented to validate the performance of proposed methods based on Baxter robot simulator. Results show that the proposed approach to HRC is intuitive, stable, efficient, and compliant, which may have various applications in human-robot collaboration scenarios.
Situated robotics: from learning to teaching by imitation.
Urdiales, Cristina; Cortés, Ulises
2005-09-01
This paper presents an approach to imitation learning in robotics focusing on low level behaviours, so that they do not need to be encoded into sets and rules, but learnt in an intuitive way. Its main novelty is that, rather than trying to analyse natural human actions and adapting them to robot kinematics, humans adapt themselves to the robot via a proper interface to make it perform the desired action. As an example, we present a successful experiment to learn a purely reactive navigation behaviour using robotic platforms. Using Case Based Reasoning, the platform learns from a human driver how to behave in the presence of obstacles, so that no kinematics studies or explicit rules are required.
Design of a Parallel Robotic Manipulator using Evolutionary Computing
António M. Lopes; Solteiro Pires, E. J.; Manuel R. Barbosa
2012-01-01
In this paper the kinematic design of a 6-dof parallel robotic manipulator is analysed. Firstly, the condition number of the inverse kinematic jacobian is considered as the objective function, measuring the manipulator's dexterity and a genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. In a second approach, a neural network model of the analytical objective function is developed and subsequently used as the objective function in the genetic algorithm optimization search process. It...
Humanoid Robot 3 -D Motion Simulation for Hardware Realization
CAO Xi; ZHAO Qun-fei; MA Pei-sun
2007-01-01
In this paper, three dimensions kinematics andkinetics simulation arc discussed for hardware realization ofa physical biped walking-chair robot. The direct and inverseclose-form kinematics solution of the biped walking-chairis deduced. Several gaits are realized with thekinematics solution, including walking straight on levelfloor, going up stair, squatting down and standing up. ZeroMoment Point(ZMP) equation is analyzed considering themovement of the crew. The simulated biped walking-chairrobot is used for mechanical design, gaits development andvalidation before they are tested on real robot.
Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin
Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...
Representation and shape estimation of Odin, a parallel under-actuated modular robot
Lyder, Andreas; Petersen, Henrik Gordon; Støy, Kasper
2009-01-01
To understand the capabilities and behavior of a robot it is important to have knowledge about its physical structure and how its actuators control its shape. In this paper we analyze the kinematics and develop a general representation of a configuration of the heterogeneous modular robot Odin. T...
Robot Control Based On Spatial-Operator Algebra
Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Jain, Abhinandan
1992-01-01
Method for mathematical modeling and control of robotic manipulators based on spatial-operator algebra providing concise representation and simple, high-level theoretical frame-work for solution of kinematical and dynamical problems involving complicated temporal and spatial relationships. Recursive algorithms derived immediately from abstract spatial-operator expressions by inspection. Transition from abstract formulation through abstract solution to detailed implementation of specific algorithms to compute solution greatly simplified. Complicated dynamical problems like two cooperating robot arms solved more easily.
Mechanical design and optimal control of humanoid robot (TPinokio)
Teck Chew Wee
2014-01-01
The mechanical structure and the control of the locomotion of bipedal humanoid is an important and challenging domain of research in bipedal robots. Accurate models of the kinematics and dynamics of the robot are essential to achieve bipedal locomotion. Toe-foot walking produces a more natural and faster walking speed and it is even possible to perform stretch knee walking. This study presents the mechanical design of a toe-feet bipedal, TPinokio and the implementation of some optimal walking...
Development of RT-components for the M-3 Strawberry Harvesting Robot
Yamashita, Tomoki; Tanaka, Motomasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Saito, Sadafumi; Sugano, Shigeki
We are now developing the strawberry harvest robot called “M-3” prototype robot system under the 4th urgent project of MAFF. In order to develop the control software of the M-3 robot more efficiently, we innovated the RT-middleware “OpenRTM-aist” software platform. In this system, we developed 9 kind of RT-Components (RTC): Robot task sequence player RTC, Proxy RTC for image processing software, DC motor controller RTC, Arm kinematics RTC, and so on. In this paper, we discuss advantages of RT-middleware developing system and problems about operating the RTC-configured robotic system by end-users.
A PSO-Optimized Reciprocal Velocity Obstacles Algorithm for Navigation of Multiple Mobile Robots
Ziyad Allawi
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new optimization method for the Reciprocal Velocity Obstacles (RVO is proposed. It uses the well-known Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO for navigation control of multiple mobile robots with kinematic constraints. The RVO is used for collision avoidance between the robots, while PSO is used to choose the best path for the robot maneuver to avoid colliding with other robots and to get to its goal faster. This method was applied on 24 mobile robots facing each other. Simulation results have shown that this method outperforms the ordinary RVO when the path is heuristically chosen.
Adaptive trajectory tracking control of two-wheeled self-balance robot
Qin Yong; Zang Xizhe; Wang Xiaoyu; Li Tian; Zhao Jie
2009-01-01
Wheeled mobile robot is one of the well-known nonholonomic systems. A two-wheeled self-balance robot is taken as the research objective. This paper carried out a detailed force analysis of the robot and established a non-linear dynamics model. An adaptive tracking controller for the kinematic model of a nonholonomic mobile robot with unknown parameters is also proposed. Using control Lyapunov function (CLF), the controller's global asymptotic stability has been proven. The adaptive trajectory tracking controller decreases the disturbance in the course of tracking control and enhances the real-time control characteristics. The simulation result indicated that the wheeled mobile robot tracking can be effectively controlled.
Prospects of robotics in food industry
Jamshed IQBAL
Full Text Available Abstract Technological advancements in various domains have broadened the application horizon of robotics to an incredible extent. Highlighting a very recent application area, this paper presents a comprehensive review of robotics application in food industry. Robots essentially have the potential to transform the processes in food processing and handling, palletizing and packing and food serving. Therefore, recent years witnessed tremendously increased trend of robots deployment in food sector. Consequently, the aspects related with robot kinematics, dynamics, hygiene, economic efficiency, human-robot interaction, safety and protection and operation and maintenance are of critical importance and are discussed in the present review. A comparison of actual robots being used in the industry is also presented. The review reveals that the food serving sector is the new potential area in which ample research opportunities exist by integrating advancements from various technology domains. It is anticipated that wider dissemination of research developments in ‘robo-food’ will stimulate more collaborations among the research community and contribute to further developments.
Parallel Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation Exercises
Saadat, Mozafar; Borboni, Alberto
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the capability of a 6-DoF parallel robot to perform various rehabilitation exercises. The foot trajectories of twenty healthy participants have been measured by a Vicon system during the performing of four different exercises. Based on the kinematics and dynamics of a parallel robot, a MATLAB program was developed in order to calculate the length of the actuators, the actuators' forces, workspace, and singularity locus of the robot during the performing of the exercises. The calculated length of the actuators and the actuators' forces were used by motion analysis in SolidWorks in order to simulate different foot trajectories by the CAD model of the robot. A physical parallel robot prototype was built in order to simulate and execute the foot trajectories of the participants. Kinect camera was used to track the motion of the leg's model placed on the robot. The results demonstrate the robot's capability to perform a full range of various rehabilitation exercises. PMID:27799727
Parallel Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation Exercises.
Rastegarpanah, Alireza; Saadat, Mozafar; Borboni, Alberto
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the capability of a 6-DoF parallel robot to perform various rehabilitation exercises. The foot trajectories of twenty healthy participants have been measured by a Vicon system during the performing of four different exercises. Based on the kinematics and dynamics of a parallel robot, a MATLAB program was developed in order to calculate the length of the actuators, the actuators' forces, workspace, and singularity locus of the robot during the performing of the exercises. The calculated length of the actuators and the actuators' forces were used by motion analysis in SolidWorks in order to simulate different foot trajectories by the CAD model of the robot. A physical parallel robot prototype was built in order to simulate and execute the foot trajectories of the participants. Kinect camera was used to track the motion of the leg's model placed on the robot. The results demonstrate the robot's capability to perform a full range of various rehabilitation exercises.
Levesque, Hector J.; Lakemeyer, Gerhard
2010-01-01
This chapter is dedicated to the memory of Ray Reiter. It is also an overview of cognitive robotics, as we understand it to have been envisaged by him.1 Of course, nobody can control the use of a term or the direction of research. We apologize in advance to those who feel that other approaches to cognitive robotics and related problems are inadequately represented here.
Introduction to autonomous manipulation case study with an underwater robot, SAUVIM
Marani, Giacomo
2014-01-01
“Autonomous manipulation” is a challenge in robotic technologies. It refers to the capability of a mobile robot system with one or more manipulators that performs intervention tasks requiring physical contacts in unstructured environments and without continuous human supervision. Achieving autonomous manipulation capability is a quantum leap in robotic technologies as it is currently beyond the state of the art in robotics. This book addresses issues with the complexity of the problems encountered in autonomous manipulation including representation and modeling of robotic structures, kinematic and dynamic robotic control, kinematic and algorithmic singularity avoidance, dynamic task priority, workspace optimization and environment perception. Further development in autonomous manipulation should be able to provide robust improvements of the solutions for all of the above issues. The book provides an extensive tract on sensory-based autonomous manipulation for intervention tasks in unstructured environment...
4th IFToMM International Symposium on Robotics and Mechatronics
Laribi, Med; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2016-01-01
This volume contains papers that have been selected after review for oral presentation at ISRM 2015, the Fourth IFToMM International Symposium on Robotics and Mechatronics held in Poitiers, France 23-24 June 2015. These papers provide a vision of the evolution of the disciplines of robotics and mechatronics, including but not limited to: mechanism design; modeling and simulation; kinematics and dynamics of multibody systems; control methods; navigation and motion planning; sensors and actuators; bio-robotics; micro/nano-robotics; complex robotic systems; walking machines, humanoids-parallel kinematic structures: analysis and synthesis; smart devices; new design; application and prototypes. The book can be used by researchers and engineers in the relevant areas of robotics and mechatronics.
Morring, Frank, Jr.
2004-01-01
Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.
Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, César David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín
2014-12-01
Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robot´s success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: - Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. - Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. - Allowing depth perception (3D images). - Magnifying strength and movement limits. - Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era.
Kinematic Stirling Engine Performance
Tew, J. R. C.
1986-01-01
Computer program developed for analyzing thermodynamic characteristics of kinematic Stirling engine. Computes time-varying piston positions, pressures, and gas temperatures in each of gas-control volumes into which engine working space is divided. Engine performance characterized by calculations of power and efficiency (both indicated and brake). Inputs to code are engine geometrical parameter, engine-operating conditions, and indexes that specify various options available.
Analisys and Choice of the Exoskeleton’s Actuator Kinematic Structure
A. A. Vereikin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The urgency of designing of robotic exoskeletons as one of the most prospective means of modern robotics is proved. A literature review concerning the design issues of anthropomorphic walking robots and exoskeletons is performed. Some problems, accompanying the designing process of exoskeleton actuator, are highlighted. Among them synthesis of its tree-like kinematic structure takes leading place. Its complication is explained by the specific human-machine interaction.The problem of exoskeleton actuator kinematic scheme synthesis is formulated and possible approaches to its solution are shown. The paper presents the synthesis results obtained using the software complex CATIA-based means of ergonomic design. It investigates the degrees of freedom of human-operator’s foot, shin, and thigh. And it identifies a number of shortcomings of this software complex associated with the ambiguity to solve the inverse kinematics problem, leading to a significant complication of kinematics synthesis.A model of human lower limb on which further studies of the exoskeleton actuator kinematic scheme, ensuring fulfillment of the human-operator standard movements (squats, kick their feet, bending body, walking, running stairs, etc., are based, is developed in SolidWorks software complex. The reasonability of the exoskeleton kinematic scheme synthesis in software package SolidWorks using anthropometric data from the software complex CATIA, is justified.The proposed method allows to analyze different kinematic schemes of actuator for the stage of conceptual design and to choose the best of them in accordance with established criterions. Thus, the developer receives the final version of the kinematic scheme before the detailed design of the actuator starts, thus significantly reducing its labor costs.
Research on Centroid Position for Stairs Climbing Stability of Search and Rescue Robot
Yan Guo; Aiguo Song; Jiatong Bao; Huatao Zhang; Hongru Tang
2010-01-01
This paper represents the relationship between the stability of stairs climbing and the centroid position of the search and rescue robot. The robot system is considered as a mass point-plane model and the kinematics features are analyzed to find the relationship between centroid position and the maximal pitch angle of stairs the robot could climb up. A computable function about this relationship is given in this paper. During the stairs climbing, there is a maximal stability-keeping angle dep...
Adaptive Trajectory Tracking Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots with Nonholonomic Constraint
LI Jian-hua; WANG Sun-an
2005-01-01
A mobile robot is one of the well-known nonholonomic systems. In this paper, a new adaptive tracking controller for the kinematic model of a nonholonomic mobile robot with unknown parameters is proposed. Stability of the rule is proved through the use of a Liapunov function. The artificial electrostatic field cooperates with error posture in steering in the controller. At last, this method is implemented on the simulations and the wheeled mobile robot. Results show the effectiveness of the controllers.
On the adequation of dynamic modelling and control of parallel kinematic manipulators.
Ozgür, Erol; Andreff, Nicolas; Martinet, Philippe
2010-01-01
International audience; This paper addresses the problem of controlling the dynamics of parallel kinematic manipulators from a global point of view, where modeling, sensing and control are considered simultaneously. The methodology is presented through the examples of the Gough-Stewart manipulator and the Quattro robot.
Intelligent Mobile Robot Control in Unknown Environments
Mester, Gyula
This paper gives the fuzzy reactive control of a wheeled mobile robot motion in an unknown environment with obstacles. The model of the vehicle has two driving wheels and the angular velocities of the two wheels are independently controlled. When the vehicle is moving towards the target and the sensors detect an obstacle, an avoiding strategy is necessary. We proposed a fuzzy reactive navigation strategy of collision-free motion in an unknown environment with obstacles. First, the vehicle kinematics constraints and kinematics model are analyzed. Then the fuzzy reactive control of a wheeled mobile robot motion in an unknown environment with obstacles is proposed. Output of the fuzzy controller is the angular speed difference between the left and right wheels (wheel angular speed correction) of the vehicle. The simulation results show the effectiveness and the validity of the obstacle avoidance behavior in an unknown environment of the proposed fuzzy control strategy.
Dynamics of the Orthoglide parallel robot
Chablat, Damien; Staicu, Stefan
2009-01-01
Recursive matrix relations for kinematics and dynamics of the Orthoglide parallel robot having three concurrent prismatic actuators are established in this paper. These are arranged according to the Cartesian coordinate system with fixed orientation, which means that the actuating directions are normal to each other. Three identical legs connecting to the moving platform are located on three planes being perpendicular to each other too. Knowing the position and the translation motion of the platform, we develop the inverse kinematics problem and determine the position, velocity and acceleration of each element of the robot. Further, the principle of virtual work is used in the inverse dynamic problem. Some matrix equations offer iterative expressions and graphs for the input forces and the powers of the three actuators.
Design and Rolling Analysis of a Novel Deformable Mobile Polyhedron Robot
Yaobin Tian
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new rolling robot is proposed. The mechanism of the robot consists of eight links with three degrees of freedom (DOFs. The shape of each link of the robot is an equilateral triangle. The robot realizes its direction switching function by deforming into different modes of planar parallelogram mechanisms (PPM. In any deterministic mode, the robot can roll on the ground. The motion of the robot is studied based on the kinematic and zero moment point (ZMP analyses. Though the robot has three DOFs, we show that it can realize flexible mobility via direction switching and rolling functions with two DOFs and one DOF, respectively. A prototype robot was manufactured. A series of simulations and experiments done using this prototype is reported, verifying the feasibility of the design.
Massie, Crystal L; Du, Yue; Conroy, Susan S; Krebs, H Igo; Wittenberg, George F; Bever, Christopher T; Whitall, Jill
2016-09-01
Robots designed for rehabilitation of the upper extremity after stroke facilitate high rates of repetition during practice of movements and record precise kinematic data, providing a method to investigate motor recovery profiles over time. To determine how motor recovery profiles during robotic interventions provide insight into improving clinical gains. A convenience sample (n = 22), from a larger randomized control trial, was taken of chronic stroke participants completing 12 sessions of arm therapy. One group received 60 minutes of robotic therapy (Robot only) and the other group received 45 minutes on the robot plus 15 minutes of translation-to-task practice (Robot + TTT). Movement time was assessed using the robot without powered assistance. Analyses (ANOVA, random coefficient modeling [RCM] with 2-term exponential function) were completed to investigate changes across the intervention, between sessions, and within a session. Significant improvement (P stroke robotic interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Collaborative Assembly Operation between Two Modular Robots Based on the Optical Position Feedback
Liying Su
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the cooperation between two master-slave modular robots. A cooperative robot system is set up with two modular robots and a dynamic optical meter-Optotrak. With Optotrak, the positions of the end effectors are measured as the optical position feedback, which is used to adjust the robots' end positions. A tri-layered motion controller is designed for the two cooperative robots. The RMRC control method is adopted to adjust the master robot to the desired position. With the kinematics constraints of the two robots including position and pose, joint velocity, and acceleration constraints, the two robots can cooperate well. A bolt and nut assembly experiment is executed to verify the methods.