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Sample records for robin interface conditions

  1. Born series for the Robin boundary condition

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Manabu; Nakamura, Gen

    2017-01-01

    We solve the diffusion equation by constructing the Born series for the Robin boundary condition. We develop a general theory for arbitrary domains with smooth enough boundaries and explore the convergence. The proposed Born series is validated by numerical calculation in the three-dimensional half space. We show that in this case the Born series converges regardless the value of the impedance term in the Robin boundary condition. We point out that the solution from the so-called extrapolated...

  2. Logarithmic Minimal Models with Robin Boundary Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Tartaglia, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We consider general logarithmic minimal models ${\\cal LM}(p,p')$, with $p,p'$ coprime, on a strip of $N$ columns with the $(r,s)$ Robin boundary conditions introduced by Pearce, Rasmussen and Tipunin. The associated conformal boundary conditions are labelled by the Kac labels $r\\in{\\Bbb Z}$ and $s\\in{\\Bbb N}$. The Robin vacuum boundary condition, labelled by $(r,s\\!-\\!\\frac{1}{2})=(0,\\mbox{$\\textstyle \\frac{1}{2}$})$, is given as a linear combination of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The general $(r,s)$ Robin boundary conditions are constructed, using fusion, by acting on the Robin vacuum boundary with an $(r,s)$-type seam consisting of an $r$-type seam of width $w$ columns and an $s$-type seam of width $d=s-1$ columns. The $r$-type seam admits an arbitrary boundary field which we fix to the special value $\\xi=-\\tfrac{\\lambda}{2}$ where $\\lambda=\\frac{(p'-p)\\pi}{2p'}$ is the crossing parameter. The $s$-type boundary introduces $d$ defects into the bulk. We consider the associated quantum Hamiltoni...

  3. Theory of a curved planar waveguide with Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendski, O.; Mikhailovska, L.

    2010-03-01

    A model of a thin straight strip with a uniformly curved section and with boundary requirements zeroing at the edges a linear superposition of the wave function and its normal derivative (Robin boundary condition) is analyzed theoretically within the framework of the linear Schrödinger equation and is applied to the study of the processes in the bent magnetic multilayers, superconducting films and metallic ferrite-filled waveguides. In particular, subband thresholds of the straight and curved parts of the film are calculated and analyzed as a function of the Robin parameter 1/Λ , with Λ being an extrapolation length entering Robin boundary condition. For the arbitrary Robin coefficients which are equal on the opposite interfaces of the strip and for all bend parameters the lowest-mode energy of the continuously curved duct is always smaller than its straight counterpart. Accordingly, the bound state below the fundamental propagation threshold of the straight arms always exists as a result of the bend. In terms of the superconductivity language it means an increased critical temperature of the curved film compared to its straight counterpart. Localized-level dependence on the parameters of the curve is investigated with its energy decreasing with increasing bend angle and decreasing bend radius. Conditions of the bound-state existence for the different Robin parameters on the opposite edges are analyzed too; in particular, it is shown that the bound state below the first transverse threshold of the straight arm always exists if the inner extrapolation length is not larger than the outer one. In the opposite case there is a range of the bend parameters where the curved film cannot trap the wave and form the localized mode; for example, for the fixed bend radius the bound state emerges from the continuum at some nonzero bend angle that depends on the difference of the two lengths Λ at the opposite interfaces. Various transport properties of the film such as

  4. A novel method for modeling Neumann and Robin boundary conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Amon, Cristina

    2010-12-01

    We present a novel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method for diffusion equations subject to Neumann and Robin boundary conditions. The Neumann and Robin boundary conditions are common to many physical problems (such as heat/mass transfer), and can prove challenging to implement in numerical methods when the boundary geometry is complex. The new method presented here is based on the approximation of the sharp boundary with a diffuse interface and allows an efficient implementation of the Neumann and Robin boundary conditions in the SPH method. The paper discusses the details of the method and the criteria for the width of the diffuse interface. The method is used to simulate diffusion and reactions in a domain bounded by two concentric circles and reactive flow between two parallel plates and its accuracy is demonstrated through comparison with analytical and finite difference solutions. To further illustrate the capabilities of the model, a reactive flow in a porous medium was simulated and good convergence properties of the model are demonstrated.

  5. Negative bending mode curvature via Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Samuel D. M.; Craster, Richard V.; Guenneau, Sébastien

    2009-06-01

    We examine the band spectrum, and associated Floquet-Bloch eigensolutions, arising in straight walled acoustic waveguides that have periodic structure along the guide. Homogeneous impedance (Robin) conditions are imposed along the guide walls and we find that in certain circumstances, negative curvature of the lowest (bending) mode can be achieved. This is unexpected, and has not been observed in a variety of physical situations examined by other authors. Further unexpected properties include the existence of the bending mode only on a subset of the Brillouin zone, as well as permitting otherwise unobtainable velocities of energy transmission. We conclude with a discussion of how such boundary conditions might be physically reproduced using effective conditions and homogenization theory, although the methodology to achieve these effective conditions is an open problem. To cite this article: S.D.M. Adams et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  6. Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin Study - Vibration Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) tested two identical gearboxes. One was tested on the NWTCs 2.5 MW dynamometer and the other was field tested in a turbine in a nearby wind plant. In the field, the test gearbox experienced two oil loss events that resulted in damage to its internal bearings and gears. Since the damage was not severe, the test gearbox was removed from the field and retested in the NWTCs dynamometer before it was disassembled. During the dynamometer retest, some vibration data along with testing condition information were collected. These data enabled NREL to launch a Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin project, as described in this report. The main objective of this project was to evaluate different vibration analysis algorithms used in wind turbine condition monitoring (CM) and find out whether the typical practices are effective. With involvement of both academic researchers and industrial partners, the project sets an example on providing cutting edge research results back to industry.

  7. Instability of asymptotically anti de Sitter black holes under Robin conditions at the timelike boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Araneda, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The static region outside the event horizon of an asymptotically anti de Sitter black hole has a conformal timelike boundary $\\mathscr{I}$, the evolution from initial data of linear fields satisfying hyperbolic equations is a well posed problem only after imposing boundary conditions at $\\mathscr{I}$. Boundary conditions preserving the action of the background isometry group on the solution space are limited to the homogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin types. We study, scalar and Maxwell fields and gravitational perturbations on asymptotically AdS black holes arising in Einstein and Lovelock theories. A decomposition in modes transforms the field equations into a set of wave equations with time independent potentials for auxiliary fields in the $x<0$ half of 1+1 Minkowski spacetime. We study systematically these equations for the case of potentials not diverging at the boundary and prove that there is always an instability if Robin boundary conditions with large $\\gamma$ (the quotient between the derivat...

  8. FINITE VOLUME NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR PARABOLIC EQUATION WITH ROBIN BOUNDARY CONDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Cui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, finite volume method on unstructured meshes is studied for a parabolic convection-diffusion problem on an open bounded set of Rd (d = 2 or 3) with Robin boundary condition. Upwinding approximations are adapted to treat both the convection term and Robin boundary condition. By directly getting start from the formulation of the finite volume scheme, numerical analysis is done. By using several discrete functional analysis techniques such as summation by parts, discrete norm inequality, et al, the stability and error estimates on the approximate solution are established, existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution and the 1st order temporal norm and L2 and H1 spacial norm convergence properties are obtained.

  9. Cubic Hermite Collocation Method for Solving Boundary Value Problems with Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad Ganaie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cubic Hermite collocation method is proposed to solve two point linear and nonlinear boundary value problems subject to Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin conditions. Using several examples, it is shown that the scheme achieves the order of convergence as four, which is superior to various well known methods like finite difference method, finite volume method, orthogonal collocation method, and polynomial and nonpolynomial splines and B-spline method. Numerical results for both linear and nonlinear cases are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

  10. Exact solutions of multi-term fractional diffusion-wave equations with Robin type boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jing LIU; Ji-zeng WANG; Xiao-min WANG; You-he ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    General exact solutions in terms of wavelet expansion are obtained for multi-term time-fractional diffusion-wave equations with Robin type boundary conditions. By proposing a new method of integral transform for solving boundary value problems, such fractional partial differential equations are converted into time-fractional ordinary differ-ential equations, which are further reduced to algebraic equations by using the Laplace transform. Then, with a wavelet-based exact formula of Laplace inversion, the resulting exact solutions in the Laplace transform domain are reversed to the time-space domain. Three examples of wave-diffusion problems are given to validate the proposed analytical method.

  11. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics continuous boundary force method for Navier-Stokes equations subject to a Robin boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2014-02-01

    A Robin boundary condition for the Navier-Stokes equations is used to model slip conditions at the fluid-solid boundaries. A novel continuous boundary force (CBF) method is proposed for solving the Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Robin boundary condition. In the CBF method, the Robin boundary condition is replaced by the homogeneous Neumann boundary condition and a volumetric force term added to the momentum conservation equation. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to solve the resulting Navier-Stokes equations. We present solutions for two- and three-dimensional flows subject to various forms of the Robin boundary condition in domains bounded by flat and curved boundaries. The numerical accuracy and convergence are examined through comparison of the SPH-CBF results with the solutions of finite difference or finite-element method. Considering the no-slip boundary condition as a special case of the slip boundary condition, we demonstrate that the SPH-CBF method accurately describes both the no-slip and slip conditions.

  12. $\\delta-\\delta^\\prime$ generalized Robin boundary conditions and quantum vacuum fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Castaneda, J M

    2014-01-01

    The effects induced by the quantum vacuum fluctuations of one massless real scalar field on a configuration of two partially transparent plates are investigated. The physical properties of the infinitely thin plates are simulated by means of Dirac-$\\delta-\\delta^\\prime$ point interactions. It is shown that the distortion caused on the fluctuations by this external background gives rise to a generalization of Robin boundary conditions. The $T$-operator for potentials concentrated on points with non defined parity is computed with total generality. The quantum vacuum interaction energy between the two plates is computed using the $TGTG$ formula to find positive, negative, and zero Casimir energies. The parity properties of the $\\delta-\\delta^\\prime$ potential allow repulsive quantum vacuum force between identical plates.

  13. Critical dense polymers with Robin boundary conditions, half-integer Kac labels and Z{sub 4} fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Paul A., E-mail: p.pearce@ms.unimelb.edu.au [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rasmussen, Jørgen, E-mail: j.rasmussen@uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Tipunin, Ilya Yu., E-mail: tipunin@gmail.com [TAMM Theory Division, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninski Pr., 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    For general Temperley–Lieb loop models, including the logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p{sup ′}) with p,p{sup ′} coprime integers, we construct an infinite family of Robin boundary conditions on the strip as linear combinations of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are Yang–Baxter integrable and allow loop segments to terminate on the boundary. Algebraically, the Robin boundary conditions are described by the one-boundary Temperley–Lieb algebra. Solvable critical dense polymers is the first member LM(1,2) of the family of logarithmic minimal models and has loop fugacity β=0 and central charge c=−2. Specialising to LM(1,2) with our Robin boundary conditions, we solve the model exactly on strips of arbitrary finite size N and extract the finite-size conformal corrections using an Euler–Maclaurin formula. The key to the solution is an inversion identity satisfied by the commuting double row transfer matrices. This inversion identity is established directly in the Temperley–Lieb algebra. We classify the eigenvalues of the double row transfer matrices using the physical combinatorics of the patterns of zeros in the complex spectral parameter plane and obtain finitised characters related to spaces of coinvariants of Z{sub 4} fermions. In the continuum scaling limit, the Robin boundary conditions are associated with irreducible Virasoro Verma modules with conformal weights Δ{sub r,s−1/2} =1/(32) (L{sup 2}−4) where L=2s−1−4r, r∈Z, s∈N. These conformal weights populate a Kac table with half-integer Kac labels. Fusion of the corresponding modules with the generators of the Kac fusion algebra is examined and general fusion rules are proposed.

  14. Critical dense polymers with Robin boundary conditions, half-integer Kac labels and $\\mathbb{Z}_4$ fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Paul A; Tipunin, Ilya Yu

    2014-01-01

    For general Temperley-Lieb loop models, including the logarithmic minimal models $\\mathcal{LM}(p,p')$ with $p,p'$ coprime integers, we construct an infinite family of Robin boundary conditions on the strip as linear combinations of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are Yang-Baxter integrable and allow loop segments to terminate on the boundary. Algebraically, the Robin boundary conditions are described by the one-boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra. Solvable critical dense polymers is the first member $\\mathcal{LM}(1,2)$ of the family of logarithmic minimal models and has loop fugacity $\\beta=0$ and central charge $c=-2$. Specializing to $\\mathcal{LM}(1,2)$ with our Robin boundary conditions, we solve the model exactly on strips of arbitrary finite size $N$ and extract the finite-size conformal corrections using an Euler-Maclaurin formula. The key to the solution is an inversion identity satisfied by the commuting double row transfer matrices. This inversion identity is establis...

  15. Pierre Robin sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Robin syndrome; Pierre Robin complex; Pierre Robin anomaly ... The exact causes of Pierre Robin sequence are unknown. It may be part of many genetic syndromes. The lower jaw develops slowly before birth, but may grow ...

  16. PSI contribution to the CASTOC round robin on EAC of low-alloy RPV steels under BWR conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S

    2001-08-01

    Within the CASTOC-project (5th EU FW programme), the environmentally-assisted crack growth (EAC) behaviour of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is experimentally investigated under simulated transient and steady-state BWR power operation conditions by 6 European laboratories. The present report contains a summary of the PSI contribution to the Working Package 1 (WP1) of this project. WP1 is an interlaboratory round robin EAC test in simulated BWR/NWC environment under cyclic and static loading conditions. The round robin shall demonstrate the applicability of the used advanced test technique and establishes the technical basis for the decision of test conditions in the other working packages. In the first part of the report, the PSI testing facility/measurement instruments and the applied test and evaluation procedure are discussed in detail. In the second part, the exact test conditions and test results with detailed post-test fractographical evaluation in the SEM are presented. The test results are compared with other PSI results, literature data and nuclear codes. Stable and stationary test conditions within the specified range could be achieved in the PSI test during the whole conditioning and experimental phase. The cyclic crack growth rate results agree well with recent PSI results at a higher dissolved oxygen content of 8 ppm and are slightly below the 'high-sulphur line' of the PLEDGE-model. The crack growth rates are significantly above the ASME XI 'wet' curve. Compared to fatigue crack growth rates in air under otherwise identical test conditions, the effect of the high-temperature water environment resulted in an acceleration of crack growth by a factor of 150-250 under these low-cyclic loading conditions. The test results at constant load confirm the extremely low susceptibility to SCC crack growth under static load at 288 {sup o}C observed in tests at MPA, PSI and in a European Round Robin. They agree well with the RPV

  17. Flexible DCP interface. [environmental sensor and signal conditioning interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system (DCS) must supply the sensors and signal-conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform. A universal signal-conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  18. Condition and Health of Rufous Bush Robin (Cercotrichas galactotes) Nestlings in a Polluted Oasis Habitat in Southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaya-Ltifi, Leila; Hayder-Benyahya, Nawel; Selmi, Slaheddine

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether the proximity to the Gabès-Ghannouche factory complex of phosphate treatment, in south-eastern Tunisia, was associated with notable changes in the condition and health of Rufous bush robin (Cercotrichas galactotes) nestlings hatched in the neighbouring oasis habitat. Results demonstrated that excrements of nestlings hatched in one oasis close to the factory complex contained higher concentrations of lead and zinc than the excrements of nestlings from one oasis situated 20 km away. Furthermore, when effects of age and nestling number in the nest were controlled, nestlings hatched near the factory complex showed reduced tarsus length, rectrix length, haematocrit level and haemoglobin concentration, but higher levels of fluctuating asymmetry compared to those from the more distant oasis. Overall, results suggest that the proximity to the factory complex was associated with increased exposure to metals and deterioration in nestling condition and development.

  19. High-order finite-volume solutions of the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Qinghai

    2017-09-01

    We propose high-order finite-volume schemes for numerically solving the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions. Although the original motivation comes from a mathematical model of blood clotting, the nonlinear boundary conditions may also apply to other scientific problems. The main contribution of this work is a generic algorithm for generating third-order, fourth-order, and even higher-order explicit ghost-filling formulas to enforce nonlinear Robin boundary conditions in multiple dimensions. Under the framework of finite volume methods, this appears to be the first algorithm of its kind. Numerical experiments on boundary value problems show that the proposed fourth-order formula can be much more accurate and efficient than a simple second-order formula. Furthermore, the proposed ghost-filling formulas may also be useful for solving other partial differential equations.

  20. Linear Approximation and Asymptotic Expansion of Solutions for a Nonlinear Carrier Wave Equation in an Annular Membrane with Robin-Dirichlet Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Phuong Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of a nonlinear Carrier wave equation in an annular membrane associated with Robin-Dirichlet conditions. Existence and uniqueness of a weak solution are proved by using the linearization method for nonlinear terms combined with the Faedo-Galerkin method and the weak compact method. Furthermore, an asymptotic expansion of a weak solution of high order in a small parameter is established.

  1. Asymptotic Expansions of the Heat Kernel of the Laplacian for General Annular Bounded Domains with Robin Boundary Conditions: Further Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. M. E. ZAYED

    2003-01-01

    The asymptotic expansions of the trace of the heat kernel Θ(t) = ∑∞ν=1 exp(-tλν) for smallpositive t, where {λν} are the eigenvalues of the negative Laplacian -△n = - ∑n i=1 ( / xi )2 in Rn(n= 2or 3), are studied for a general annular bounded domain Ω with a smooth inner boundary (e)Ω1 and asmooth outer boundary (e)Ω2, where a finite number of piecewise smooth Robin boundary conditions((e)/(e)nj+rj)φ=0 on the components γj(j = 1, ..., k)of (e)Ω1 and on teh components γj(j = 1, ..., m) of (e)Ω2 are considered such that( (e)Ω1+ukj=1 Fj and (e)Ω2=Umj=k+1Fj )and where the coefficients (rj(j=1,…,m))are piecewise smooth positive functions. Some applications of Θ(t) for an ideal gasenclosed in the general annular bounded domain Ω are given. Further results are also obtained.

  2. Oberbeck–Boussinesq free convection of water based nanoliquids in a vertical channel using Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions on temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Asiah Mohd Makhatar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation is carried out into the flow and heat transfer within a fully-developed mixed convection flow of water–alumina (Al2O3–water, water–titania (TiO2–water and water–copperoxide (CuO–water in a vertical channel by considering Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions. Actual values of thermophysical quantities are used in arriving at conclusions on the three nanoliquids. The Biot number influences on velocity and temperature distributions are opposite in regions close to the left wall and the right wall. Robin condition is seen to favour symmetry in the flow velocity whereas Dirichlet and Neumann conditions skew the flow distribution and push the point of maximum velocity to the right of the channel. A reversal of role is seen between them in their influence on the flow in the left-half and the right-half of the channel. This leads to related consequences in heat transport. Viscous dissipation is shown to aid flow and heat transport. The present findings reiterate the observation on heat transfer in other configurations that only low concentrations of nanoparticles facilitate enhanced heat transport for all three temperature conditions. Significant change was observed in Neumann condition, whereas the changes are too extreme in Dirichlet condition. It is found that Robin condition is the most stable condition. Further, it is also found that all three nanoliquids have enhanced heat transport compared to that by base liquid, with CuO–water nanoliquid shows higher enhancement in its Nusselt number, compared to Al2O3 and TiO2.

  3. Multigrid technique and Optimized Schwarz method on block-structured grids with discontinuous interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmogorov, Dmitry; Sørensen, Niels N.; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    An Optimized Schwarz method using Robin boundary conditions for relaxation scheme is presented in the frame of Multigrid method on discontinuous grids. At each iteration the relaxation scheme is performed in two steps: one step with Dirichlet and another step with Robin boundary conditions at inner...... block boundaries. A Robin parameter that depends on grid geometry and grid discontinuity at block interfaces is introduced. The general solution algorithm is based on SIMPLE method and a conservative _nite-volume scheme on block-structured grids with discontinuous interfaces. The multigrid method...

  4. Analytical solutions for anisotropic time-dependent heat equations with Robin boundary condition for cubic-shaped solid-state laser crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaeian, Mohammad

    2012-10-20

    The problem of finding analytical solutions for time-dependent or time-independent heat equations, especially for solid-state laser media, has required a lot of work in the field of thermal effects. However, to calculate the temperature distributions analytically, researchers often have to make some approximations or employ complex methods. In this work, we present full analytical solutions for anisotropic time-dependent heat equations in the Cartesian coordinates with various source terms corresponding to various pumping schemes. Moreover, the most general boundary condition of Robin (or impedance boundary condition), corresponding to the convection cooling mechanism, was applied. This general condition can be easily switched to constant temperature and thermal insulation as special cases. To this end, we first proposed a general approach to solving time-dependent heat equations with an arbitrary heat source. We then applied our approach to explore the temperature distribution for three cases: steady-state pumping or long transient, single-shot pumping or short transient, and repetitively pulsed pumping. Our results show the possibility of an easier and more accurate approach to analytical calculations of the thermal dispersion, thermal stresses (strains), thermal bending, thermal phase shift, and other thermal effects.

  5. Epizootic podoknemidokoptiasis in American robins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Danny B.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Brugger, Kristin E.; Fischer, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Epizootics of scaly leg disease caused by infection with the submacroscopic mite Knemidokoptes jamaicensis (Acari: Knemidokoptidae) in migratory American robins (Turdus migratorius) from a residential area of Tulsa (Oklahoma, USA) are documented during the winters (December through February) of 1993–94 and 1994–95. Estimates of 60 to >80% of the birds in several different flights arriving in the area had lesions consistent with knemidokoptic mange. Epizootic occurrence of K. jamaicensis also is confirmed incidentally in American robins from Georgia (USA) in 1995 and 1998 and in Florida (USA) in 1991. These are the first confirmed epizootics of scaly leg attributed to infections with mites specifically identified as K. jamaicensis in North America. Severity of observed lesions in American robins ranged from scaly hyperkeratosis of the feet and legs to extensive proliferative lesions with loss of digits or the entire foot in some birds. Histologically, there was severe diffuse hyperkeratosis of the epidermis which contained numerous mites and multifocal aggregates of degranulating to degenerating eosinophilic heterophils; there was mild to severe superficial dermatitis with aggregates of eosinophilic heterophils and some mononuclear cells. Based on limited data from affected captive birds in Florida, we questioned the efficacy of ivermectin as an effective acaricide for knemidokoptiasis and propose that conditions associated with captivity may exacerbate transmission of this mite among caged birds. While knemidokoptic mange apparently can result in substantial host morbidity and possibly mortality, the ultimate impact of these epizootics on American robin populations presently is unknown.

  6. Postulated Role of Vasoactive Neuropeptide-Related Immunopathology of the Blood Brain Barrier and Virchow-Robin Spaces in the Aetiology of Neurological-Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Staines

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, as well as immune and nociception modulators. They have key roles in blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS including maintaining functional integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB and blood spinal barrier (BSB. VNs are potent activators of adenylate cyclase and thus also have a key role in cyclic AMP production affecting regulatory T cell and other immune functions. Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS and contain VNs. Autoimmunity of VNs or VN receptors may affect BBB and VRS function and, therefore, may contribute to the aetiology of neurological-related conditions including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VN autoimmunity will likely affect CNS and immunological homeostasis. Various pharmacological and immunological treatments including phosphodiesterase inhibitors and plasmapheresis may be indicated.

  7. Stability of Numerical Interface Conditions for Fluid/Structure Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, J W; Sjogreen, B

    2009-08-13

    In multi physics computations, where a compressible fluid is coupled with a linearly elastic solid, it is standard to enforce continuity of the normal velocities and of the normal stresses at the interface between the fluid and the solid. In a numerical scheme, there are many ways that the velocity- and stress-continuity can be enforced in the discrete approximation. This paper performs a normal mode analysis to investigate the stability of different numerical interface conditions for a model problem approximated by upwind type of finite difference schemes. The analysis shows that depending on the ratio of densities between the solid and the fluid, some numerical interface conditions are stable up to the maximal CFL-limit, while other numerical interface conditions suffer from a severe reduction of the stable CFL-limit. The paper also presents a new interface condition, obtained as a simplified charcteristic boundary condition, that is proved to not suffer from any reduction of the stable CFL-limit. Numerical experiments in one space dimension show that the new interface condition is stable also for computations with the non-linear Euler equations of compressible fluid flow coupled with a linearly elastic solid.

  8. Round Robin Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Presented is a computer program written in BASIC that covers round-robin schedules for team matches in competitions. The program was originally created to help teams in a tennis league play one match against every other team. Part of the creation of the program involved use of modulo arithmetic. (MP)

  9. MIMIC en Robin Hood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans); F. van der Ploeg (Ploeg)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractVerlaging van het belastingtarief in de eerste schijf, gefinancierd met verhoging van het tarief in de andere schijven, is in het MIMIC-model van het Centraal Planbureau goed voor de werkgelegenheid. Onlangs werd .in E5B betwijfeld of het CPB de gevolgen van zo'n 'Robin Hood'- beleid

  10. Matched interface and boundary (MIB) for the implementation of boundary conditions in high-order central finite differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Wei, G W

    2009-03-19

    High-order central finite difference schemes encounter great difficulties in implementing complex boundary conditions. This paper introduces the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method as a novel boundary scheme to treat various general boundary conditions in arbitrarily high-order central finite difference schemes. To attain arbitrarily high order, the MIB method accurately extends the solution beyond the boundary by repeatedly enforcing only the original set of boundary conditions. The proposed approach is extensively validated via boundary value problems, initial-boundary value problems, eigenvalue problems, and high-order differential equations. Successful implementations are given to not only Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions, but also more general ones, such as multiple boundary conditions in high-order differential equations and time-dependent boundary conditions in evolution equations. Detailed stability analysis of the MIB method is carried out. The MIB method is shown to be able to deliver high-order accuracy, while maintaining the same or similar stability conditions of the standard high-order central difference approximations. The application of the proposed MIB method to the boundary treatment of other non-standard high-order methods is also considered.

  11. The optimal modified variational iteration method for the Lane-Emden equations with Neumann and Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Das, Nilima; Kumar, Jitendra

    2017-06-01

    An effective analytical technique is proposed for the solution of the Lane-Emden equations. The proposed technique is based on the variational iteration method (VIM) and the convergence control parameter h . In order to avoid solving a sequence of nonlinear algebraic or complicated integrals for the derivation of unknown constant, the boundary conditions are used before designing the recursive scheme for solution. The series solutions are found which converges rapidly to the exact solution. Convergence analysis and error bounds are discussed. Accuracy, applicability of the method is examined by solving three singular problems: i) nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation, ii) distribution of heat sources in the human head, iii) second-kind Lane-Emden equation.

  12. Shock solution for quasilinear singularly perturbed Robin problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The shock solution for the quasilinear singularly perturbed Robin problem is considered. Under suitable conditions and using the theory of differential inequalities the existence and asymptotic behavior of the shock solution for the original boundary value problems are studied.

  13. MIMIC en Robin Hood

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Ruud; Bovenberg, Lans; Ploeg, Ploeg

    1994-01-01

    textabstractVerlaging van het belastingtarief in de eerste schijf, gefinancierd met verhoging van het tarief in de andere schijven, is in het MIMIC-model van het Centraal Planbureau goed voor de werkgelegenheid. Onlangs werd .in E5B betwijfeld of het CPB de gevolgen van zo'n 'Robin Hood'- beleid goed weergeeft. Het is echter de vraag of de niet-kwantificeerbare effecten wel van zo 'n groot belang zijn.

  14. Juhtimisguru Robin Sharma naudib vaikusehetki / Robin Sharma ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sharma, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. märts lk. 12. Juhtimisguru Robin Sharma leiab, et inimesed peaksid leidma päevas tunni iseenese jaoks, sest see aitab leida õiged perspektiivid ning loob eelduse heade ideede tekkeks. Lisa: Robin S. Sharma. Kommenteerivad Kadri Arula ja Asko Talu

  15. Robin Sharma : juhtimine on lihtne / Robin Sharma ; intervjueerinud Nelli Pello

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sharma, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Eestit külastanud maailma tunnustatumaid koolitajaid Robin Sharma, kes viis läbi seminari "Eestvedamise meistriklass", vastab küsimustele Eesti-muljete ja juhtimise kohta. Lisa: Robin Sharma mõtteteri. Kommenteerivad: Indrek Pertelson, Anne Samlik

  16. Juhtimisguru Robin Sharma naudib vaikusehetki / Robin Sharma ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sharma, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. märts lk. 12. Juhtimisguru Robin Sharma leiab, et inimesed peaksid leidma päevas tunni iseenese jaoks, sest see aitab leida õiged perspektiivid ning loob eelduse heade ideede tekkeks. Lisa: Robin S. Sharma. Kommenteerivad Kadri Arula ja Asko Talu

  17. Robin Sharma : juhtimine on lihtne / Robin Sharma ; intervjueerinud Nelli Pello

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sharma, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Eestit külastanud maailma tunnustatumaid koolitajaid Robin Sharma, kes viis läbi seminari "Eestvedamise meistriklass", vastab küsimustele Eesti-muljete ja juhtimise kohta. Lisa: Robin Sharma mõtteteri. Kommenteerivad: Indrek Pertelson, Anne Samlik

  18. Wild robins (Petroica longipes) respond to human gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Armstrong, Nicola; Burns, Kevin C

    2014-09-01

    Gaze following and awareness of attentional cues are hallmarks of human and non-human social intelligence. Here, we show that the North Island robin (Petroica longipes), a food-hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, responds to human eyes. Robins were presented with six different conditions, in which two human experimenters altered the orientation or visibility of their body, head or eyes in relation to mealworm prey. One experimenter had visual access to the prey, and the second experimenter did not. Robins were then given the opportunity to 'steal' one of two mealworms presented by each experimenter. Robins responded by preferentially choosing the mealworm in front of the experimenter who could not see, in all conditions but one. Robins failed to discriminate between experimenters who were facing the mealworm and those who had their head turned 90° to the side. This may suggest that robins do not make decisions using the same eye visibility cues that primates and corvids evince, whether for ecological, experiential or evolutionary reasons.

  19. THE SMITHSONS AT ROBIN HOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Furse, John

    1982-01-01

    This thesis The Smithsons at Robin Hood can be seen as a logical continuation of This Was Tomorrow, in that it deals specifically with that tomorrow: the culmination of the Smithsons' thinking, on the problem of mass working-class housing, in the built form of Robin Hood Gardens, Poplar, London E.14., completed in 1972. It is the purpose of this thesis to argue that the Smithsons' intentions were indeed a dream, and that Robin Hood is an ideological fragment of that dream...

  20. Smirnov's Observable for Free Boundary Conditions, Interfaces and Crossing Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izyurov, Konstantin

    2015-07-01

    We prove convergence results for variants of Smirnov's fermionic observable in the critical planar Ising model in the presence of free boundary conditions. One application of our analysis is a simple proof of a theorem by Hongler and Kytölä on convergence of critical Ising interfaces with plus-minus-free boundary conditions to dipolar SLE(3), and a generalization of this result to an arbitrary number of arcs carrying plus, minus or free boundary conditions. Another application is a computation of scaling limits of crossing probabilities in the critical FK-Ising model with an arbitrary number of alternating wired/free boundary arcs. We also deduce a new crossing formula for the spin Ising model.

  1. The Pt(111)/Electrolyte Interface under Oxygen Reduction Reaction Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondarenko, A.S.; Stephens, Ifan; Hansen, Heine Anton;

    2011-01-01

    between the adsorbate and Pt surface atoms (0.45−1.15 V vs RHE). An equivalent electric circuit is proposed to model the Pt(111)/electrolyte interface under ORR conditions within the selected potential window. This equivalent circuit reflects three processes with different time constants, which occur...... simultaneously during the ORR at Pt(111). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to correlate and interpret the results of the measurements. The calculations indicate that the coadsorption of ClO4* and Cl* with OH* is unlikely. Our analysis suggests that the two-dimensional (2D) structures formed...

  2. Wild North Island Robins (Petroica longipes respond to Prey Animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Garland

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available North Island robins of New Zealand are a food hoarding species, which is unique in that they almost exclusively cache highly perishable hunted insects for later retrieval. In order to do so, they either kill and dismember or paralyze their prey for caching, depending on the prey size and kind. The present study comprises two experiments, using a Violation of Expectancy (VoE paradigm to examine variation in search behavior response to different prey conditions. The first experiment presents three different types of prey (mealworms, earthworms and locusts in expected (present and unexpected (absent conditions. The second experiment presents prey in varying states of animacy (alive and whole, dead and whole, dead and halved, and an inanimate stick and reveals prey in expected (same state or unexpected (differing state conditions. While robins did not respond with differential search times to different types of unexpectedly missing prey in Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 robins searched longer in conditions where prey was found in a differing state of animacy than initially shown. Robins also searched longer for prey when immediately consuming retrieved prey than when caching retrieved prey. Results indicate that North Island robins may be sensitive to prey animacy upon storage and retrieval of insect prey; such information could play a role in storage, pilfering and retrieval strategies of such a perishable food source.

  3. Multigrid technique and Optimized Schwarz method on block-structured grids with discontinuous interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmogorov, Dmitry; Sørensen, Niels N.; Shen, Wen Zhong;

    2013-01-01

    An Optimized Schwarz method using Robin boundary conditions for relaxation scheme is presented in the frame of Multigrid method on discontinuous grids. At each iteration the relaxation scheme is performed in two steps: one step with Dirichlet and another step with Robin boundary conditions at inner...... block boundaries. A Robin parameter that depends on grid geometry and grid discontinuity at block interfaces is introduced. The general solution algorithm is based on SIMPLE method and a conservative _nite-volume scheme on block-structured grids with discontinuous interfaces. The multigrid method...... is used to obtain the solution of pressure-correction equation where an Incomplete Block LU factorization is used as the relaxation scheme. Solution on the coarsest grid is done with an Incomplete Block LU preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method. Results from computations of laminar ows around a circular...

  4. SOPHIA CPV module round robin: Power rating at CSOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefer, Gerald; Steiner, Marc; Baudrit, Mathieu; Dominguez, César; Antón, Igancio; Nuñez, Ruben; Roca, Franco; Pugliatti, Paola Maria; Stefano, Agnese Di; Kenny, Robert; Morabito, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module measurement round robin has been initiated. The round robin includes measurements of four CPV modules at seven different test laboratories located in Europe. IV curves of the modules are measured with different measurement equipment under various climatic conditions. The aim of this activity is to perform at each site a rating of the modules at concentrator standard operating conditions CSOC according to IEC 62670-1. The outcome of the round robin is intended for direct feedback to the current draft standard IEC 62670-3 "Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Performance Testing - Performance Measurements and Power Rating". The paper discusses initial results from the first three partners that have already finished the measurements up to now.

  5. Hætten af for Robin Hood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2010-01-01

    En historisk gennemgang af Robin Hood myten i anledning af den kommende Hood film med Russell Crowe i hovedrollen.......En historisk gennemgang af Robin Hood myten i anledning af den kommende Hood film med Russell Crowe i hovedrollen....

  6. MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS TO AN ASYMPTOTICALLY LINEAR ROBIN BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Under some weaker conditions,we prove the existence of at least two solutions to an asymptotically linear elliptic problem with Robin boundary value condition,using truncation arguments.Our results are also valid for the case of the so-called resonance at infinity.

  7. Is Robin Hood Alive in Your Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Sharon E.

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the tales of Robin Hood should be presented as fact or fiction. Discusses the appropriateness of the tales for use in literature programs. Presents arguments for Robin Hood as fact and arguments for Robin Hood as fiction. Considers different versions of the tale. (SG)

  8. Pierre Robin Sequence: a perioperative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladis, Franklyn; Kumar, Anand; Grunwaldt, Lorelei; Otteson, Todd; Ford, Matthew; Losee, Joseph E

    2014-08-01

    The clinical triad of micrognathia (small mandible), glossoptosis (backward, downward displacement of the tongue), and airway obstruction defines the Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). Airway obstruction and respiratory distress are clinical hallmarks. Patients may present with stridor, retractions, and cyanosis. Severe obstruction results in feeding difficulty, reflux, and failure to thrive. Treatment options depend on the severity of airway obstruction and include prone positioning, nasopharyngeal airways, tongue lip adhesion, mandibular distraction osteogenesis, and tracheostomy. The neonate and infant with PRS require care from multiple specialists including anesthesiology, plastic surgery, otolaryngology, speech pathology, gastroenterology, radiology, and neonatology. The anesthesiologist involved in the care of patients with PRS will interface with a multidisciplinary team in a variety of clinical settings. This perioperative review is a collaborative effort from multiple specialties including anesthesiology, plastic surgery, otolaryngology, and speech pathology. We will discuss the background and clinical presentation of patients with PRS, as well as some of the controversies regarding their care.

  9. Medical Signal-Conditioning and Data-Interface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jeffrey; Jacobus, charles; Booth, Scott; Suarez, Michael; Smith, Derek; Hartnagle, Jeffrey; LePrell, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    A general-purpose portable, wearable electronic signal-conditioning and data-interface system is being developed for medical applications. The system can acquire multiple physiological signals (e.g., electrocardiographic, electroencephalographic, and electromyographic signals) from sensors on the wearer s body, digitize those signals that are received in analog form, preprocess the resulting data, and transmit the data to one or more remote location(s) via a radiocommunication link and/or the Internet. The system includes a computer running data-object-oriented software that can be programmed to configure the system to accept almost any analog or digital input signals from medical devices. The computing hardware and software implement a general-purpose data-routing-and-encapsulation architecture that supports tagging of input data and routing the data in a standardized way through the Internet and other modern packet-switching networks to one or more computer(s) for review by physicians. The architecture supports multiple-site buffering of data for redundancy and reliability, and supports both real-time and slower-than-real-time collection, routing, and viewing of signal data. Routing and viewing stations support insertion of automated analysis routines to aid in encoding, analysis, viewing, and diagnosis.

  10. A Paired Compositions Model for Round-Robin Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, John R.; Halperin, Silas

    1975-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of a series of treatment conditions upon some social behaviors may require observation of subjects mutually paired, in round-robin fashion. Data arising from such experiments are difficult to analyze, partly because they do not fit neatly into standard designs. A model is presented. (Author/BJG)

  11. Round robin scheduling - a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther; Trick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive survey on the literature considering round robin tournaments. The terminology used within the area has been modified over time and today it is highly inconsistent. By presenting a coherent explanation of the various notions we hope that this paper will help to ...

  12. Robin Hood Comes of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Considers how while some Robin Hood books are clearly intended for young readers, others blur the boundaries, sometimes in ways that help break down artificial boundaries dividing fiction for children from that for adults. Explores the legend's long history to help understand why the story lends itself to such a wide variety of retellings.…

  13. "Ameeriklane" Robin Hood / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilmi "Robin Hood : varaste prints" võtetest. Režissöör Kevin Reynolds, peaosas Kevin Costner, USA 1991. Järg: Teleleht nr. 14, 11. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill ja Teleleht nr. 15, 18. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill

  14. "Ameeriklane" Robin Hood / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilmi "Robin Hood : varaste prints" võtetest. Režissöör Kevin Reynolds, peaosas Kevin Costner, USA 1991. Järg: Teleleht nr. 14, 11. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill ja Teleleht nr. 15, 18. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill

  15. Robin Hood Comes of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Considers how while some Robin Hood books are clearly intended for young readers, others blur the boundaries, sometimes in ways that help break down artificial boundaries dividing fiction for children from that for adults. Explores the legend's long history to help understand why the story lends itself to such a wide variety of retellings.…

  16. Nonlinear predator-prey singularly perturbed Robin Problems for reaction diffusion systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫嘉琪; 韩祥临

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear predator-prey reaction diffusion systems for singularly perturbed Robin Problems are considered. Under suitable conditions, the theory of differential inequalities can be used to study the asymptotic behavior of the solution for initial boundary value problems.

  17. The Nonlinear Predator-Prey Singularly Perturbed Robin Initial Boundary Value Problems for Reaction Diffusion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫嘉琪

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear predator-prey singularly perturbed Robin initial boundary value problems for reaction diffusion systems were considered. Under suitable conditions, using theory of differential inequalities the existence and asymptotic behavior of solution for initial boundary value problems were studied.

  18. A CLASS OF SINGULARLY PERTURBED ROBIN BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS FOR SEMILINEAR ELLIPTIC EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MoJiaqi

    2001-01-01

    The singularly perturbed Robin boundary value problems for the semilinear elliptic equation are considered. Under suitable conditions and by using the fixed point theorem the existence ,uniqueness and asymptotic behavior of solution for the boundary value problems are studied.

  19. THE CORNER LAYER SOLUTION TO ROBIN PROBLEM FOR REACTION DIFFUSION EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A class of Robin boundary value problem for reaction diffusion equation is considered. Under suitable conditions, using the theory of differential inequalities the existence and asymptotic behavior of the corner layer solution to the initial boundary value problem are studied.

  20. Robins gather in a tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In a wooded area of Kennedy Space Center, robins gather on a tree branch just beginning to show new Spring growth. A member of the thrush family, robins inhabit towns, gardens, open woodlands and agricultural lands. They range through most of North America, spending winters in large roosts mostly in the United States but also Newfoundland, southern Ontario and British Columbia. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a haven and habitat for more than 331 species of birds. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are also a habitat for 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  1. Flexible DCP interface. [signal conditioning system for use with Kansas environmental sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemasu, E. T. (Principal Investigator); Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system must supply the sensors and signal conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform (DCP). A universal signal conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  2. Werkt een Robin Hood beleid?

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Ruud; Bovenberg, Lans; Ploeg, Ploeg

    1994-01-01

    textabstractEen verschuiving in de belastingdruk van de lagere arbeidsinkomens naar het middenkader heeft volgens het model MIMIC van het CPBpositieve effecten op de werkgelegenheid. Dit hangt vooral samenn met het loonmatigende effect van hogere marginale tarieven in het model. Echter, MIMIC houdt geen rekening met een aantal ontmoedigende effecten van hogere marginale tarieven. Het totale effect van een 'Robin Hood'-beleid is niet op voorhand duidelijk.

  3. Efficient interface conditions for the finite difference beam propagation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Hugo; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lambeck, Paul

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that by adapting the refractive indexes in the vicinity of interfaces, the 2-D beam propagation method based on the finite-difference (FDBPM) scheme can be made much more effective. This holds especially for TM modes propagating in structures with high-index contrasts, such as surface

  4. Two-dimensional trace-normed canonical systems of differential equations and selfadjoint interface conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Snoo, H; Winkler, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The class of two-dimensional trace-normed canonical systems of differential equations on R is considered with selfadjoint interface conditions at 0. If one or both of the intervals around 0 are H-indivisible the interface conditions which give rise to selfadjoint relations (multi-valued operators) a

  5. A smartcard conditional access interface scheme for conditional access subsystem separation in digital TV broadcasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Qiang; ZHENG Shi-bao; YU Xiao-jing

    2006-01-01

    Conditional access system (CAS) is a key technical component in digital TV broadcasting through which TV operators manage the appropriate rights of different subscribers in order to protect their commercial benefits. The normal digital TV receiver can only receive and decode the pay TV programs scrambled by one specific CAS. In this paper, the authors proposed a smartcard conditional access interface (SCAI) scheme in order to make the digital TV receiver be a common receiving platform independent of any specific CAS employed at the broadcasting head-end. As a result, it only needs to include a common conditional access software package (CCAP) without any requirement of hardware modification in the receiver. Comparison between the two mentioned DVB-CI-based schemes showed that the cost of such kind receiver is greatly reduced. The main design points of the proposed scheme and its reference implementation's architecture are presented in this paper. This scheme is also one of the candidate national standards for Chinese digital TV broadcasting industry.

  6. Pierre Robin Sequence: A Familial, Clinical, and Pathoanatomical Record of an Affected Dachshund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Enio; Wagner, José L; Cirio, Silvana M; Pimpão, Cláudia T

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a spontaneous case of Pierre Robin sequence in a nonhuman animal species. A miniature dachshund with micrognathia developed glossoptosis, respiratory distress, dysphagia, temporomandibular ankylosis, and a misaligned upper jaw. The severity of this condition resulted in death by obstructive apnea at the age of 8 mo. Dogs with Pierre Robin sequence can provide further knowledge and a greater understanding of this abnormality, leading to better management of affected individuals and improvement of therapeutic methods.

  7. Round-robin tournaments with homogeneous rounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, Bregje; Holland, van Erik; Post, Gerhard; Smit, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We study single and double round-robin tournaments for n teams, where in each round a fixed number (g) of teams is present and each team present plays a fixed number (m) of matches in this round. In a single, respectively double, round-robin tournament each pair of teams play one, respectively two,

  8. Round-robin tournaments with homogeneous rounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, Bregje; Holland, van Erik; Post, Gerhard; Smit, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We study single and double round-robin tournaments for n teams, where in each round a fixed number (g) of teams is present and each team present plays a fixed number (m) of matches in this round. In a single, respectively double, round-robin tournament each pair of teams play one, respectively two,

  9. Pierre Robin syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Gupta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Robin syndrome is characterized by micrognathia, glossoptosis and palatal malformation. We report a case of a 6 day neonate who presented with complaints of feeding and respiratory difficulty and was later diagnosed as case of Pierre Robin syndrome. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3432-3434

  10. A minicomputer interface for realtime operations: an application to operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S J; Wilson, J

    1975-09-01

    A PDP-12 interface was designed, constructed, and tested for realtime imput and output of binary information. Within limits this interface can be used with any peripheral device which operates in the binary mode. In addition to its generality of application the interface features include ease of expansion and low cost. A description of its design and operation is give here is terms of a typical application: the control of behavioral equipment (i.e. "Skinner Boxes") for operant conditioning.

  11. Inorganic Polymer Matrix Composite Strength Related to Interface Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bridge

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin transfer molding of an inorganic polymer binder was successfully demonstrated in the preparation of ceramic fiber reinforced engine exhaust valves. Unfortunately, in the preliminary processing trials, the resulting composite valves were too brittle for in-engine evaluation. To address this limited toughness, the effectiveness of a modified fiber-matrix interface is investigated through the use of carbon as a model material fiber coating. After sequential heat treatments composites molded from uncoated and carbon coated fibers are compared using room temperature 3-point bend testing. Carbon coated Nextel fiber reinforced geopolymer composites demonstrated a 50% improvement in strength, versus that of the uncoated fiber reinforced composites, after the 250 °C postcure.

  12. Equilibrium Conditions at a Solid-Solid Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JeeYeon N. Plohr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive the thermodynamic conditions necessary for two elastoplastic solid phases to coexist in equilibrium. Beyond temperature, velocity, and traction continuity, these conditions require continuity of a generalization of the specific Gibbs free energy. We express this quantity in the Eulerian frame as well as the Lagrangian frame. We also show that two approaches in deriving the equilibrium conditions, one on the continuum level and the other on the atomistic scale, yield the same results. Finally, we discuss two possible interpretations for the Gibbs free energy, which lead to distinct generalizations, except in the case of inviscid fluids, where they coincide.

  13. Anisotropic 2-dimensional Robin Hood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldyrev, Sergey; Cwilich, Gabriel; Zypman, Fredy

    2009-03-01

    We have considered the Robin Hood model introduced by Zaitsev[1] to discuss flux creep and depinning of interfaces in a two dimensional system. Although the model has been studied extensively analytically in 1-d [2], its scaling laws have been verified numerically only in that case. Recent work suggest that its properties might be important to understand surface friction[3], where its 2-dimensional properties are important. We show that in the 2-dimensional case scaling laws can be found provided one considers carefully the anisotropy of the model, and different ways of introducing that anisotropy lead to different exponents and scaling laws, in analogy with directed percolation, with which this model is closely related[4]. We show that breaking the rotational symmetry between the x and y axes does not change the scaling properties of the model, but the introduction of a preferential direction of accretion (``robbing'' in the language of the model) leads to new scaling exponents. [1] S.I.Zaitsev, Physica A189, 411 (1992) [2] M. Pacuzki, S. Maslov and P.Bak, Phys Rev. E53, 414 (1996) [3] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E64, 066110 (2006) [4] G. Odor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 663 (2004) .

  14. Modelling of the Contact Condition at the Tool/Matrix Interface in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper; Wert, John

    2003-01-01

    generation is closely related to the friction condition at the contact interface between the FSW tool and the weld piece material as well as the material flow in the weld matrix, since the mechanisms for heat generation by frictional and plastic dissipation are different. The heat generation from the tool...... a known contact condition at the contact interface, e.g. either as pure sliding or sticking. The present model uses Coulomb’s law of friction for the sliding condition and the material yield shear stress for the sticking condition to model the contact forces. The model includes heat generation...

  15. Boundary Conditions for Free Interfaces with the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bogner, Simon; Rüde, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the boundary treatment of the Lattice Boltzmann method for simulating 3D flows with free surfaces. The widely used free surface boundary condition of K\\"orner et al. (2005) is shown to be first order accurate. The article presents new free surface boundary schemes that are suitable for the lattice Boltzmann method and that have second order spatial accuracy. The new method takes the free boundary position and orientation with respect to the computational lattice into account. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical findings and illustrate the the difference between the old and the new method.

  16. Modelling thermomechanical conditions at the tool/matrix interface in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In friction stir welding the material flow is among others controlled by the contact condition at the tool interface, the thermomechanical state of the matrix and the welding parameters. The conditions under which the deposition process is successful are not fully understood and in most models...... presented previously in literature, the modelling of the material flow at the tool interface has been prescribed as boundary conditions, i.e. the material is forced to keep contact with the tool. The objective of the present work is to analyse the thermomechanical conditions under which a consolidated weld...... frictional and plastic dissipation. Of special interest is the contact condition along the shoulder/matrix and probe/matrix interfaces, as especially the latter affects the efficiency of the deposition process. The thermo-mechanical state in the workpiece is established by modelling both the dwell and weld...

  17. Modelling thermomechanical conditions at the tool/matrix interface in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In friction stir welding the material flow is among others controlled by the contact condition at the tool interface, the thermomechanical state of the matrix and the welding parameters. The conditions under which the deposition process is successful are not fully understood and in most models...... frictional and plastic dissipation. Of special interest is the contact condition along the shoulder/matrix and probe/matrix interfaces, as especially the latter affects the efficiency of the deposition process. The thermo-mechanical state in the workpiece is established by modelling both the dwell and weld...... presented previously in literature, the modelling of the material flow at the tool interface has been prescribed as boundary conditions, i.e. the material is forced to keep contact with the tool. The objective of the present work is to analyse the thermomechanical conditions under which a consolidated weld...

  18. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computerens interface eller grænseflade har spredt sig overalt. Mobiltelefoner, spilkonsoller, pc'er og storskærme indeholder computere – men computere indbygges også i tøj og andre hverdagslige genstande, så vi konstant har adgang til digitale data. Interface retter fokus mod, hvordan den digita...

  19. Boundary conditions at the cartilage-synovial fluid interface for joint lubrication and theoretical verifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, J S; Holmes, M H; Lai, W M; Mow, V C

    1989-02-01

    The objective of this study is to establish and verify the set of boundary conditions at the interface between a biphasic mixture (articular cartilage) and a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid (synovial fluid) such that a set of well-posed mathematical problems may be formulated to investigate joint lubrication problems. A "pseudo-no-slip" kinematic boundary condition is proposed based upon the principle that the conditions at the interface between mixtures or mixtures and fluids must reduce to those boundary conditions in single phase continuum mechanics. From this proposed kinematic boundary condition, and balances of mass, momentum and energy, the boundary conditions at the interface between a biphasic mixture and a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid are mathematically derived. Based upon these general results, the appropriate boundary conditions needed in modeling the cartilage-synovial fluid-cartilage lubrication problem are deduced. For two simple cases where a Newtonian viscous fluid is forced to flow (with imposed Couette or Poiseuille flow conditions) over a porous-permeable biphasic material of relatively low permeability, the well known empirical Taylor slip condition may be derived using matched asymptotic analysis of the boundary layer at the interface.

  20. Quasilinear Robin Problem with Boundary Perturbation%具有边界摄动的拟线性Robin问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪东

    2006-01-01

    A class of quasilinear Robin problems with boundary perturbation are considered.Under suitable conditions, using theory of differential inequalities the asymptotic behavior of solution for the boundary value problem is studied.

  1. Robin Cook tundis Eestis kodusoojust / Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Kaarel, 1978-

    1999-01-01

    Suurbritannia välisministri Robin Cooki visiit kulmineerus uue saatkonna ametliku avamisega. Kommentaar kahe riigi suhetest : A. Tarand, S. Lõoke, A. Laaneots, G. Aarma. Lisa : Välisriikide ametnike visiidid Eestisse 1996-1999

  2. Round Robin Reading as a Teaching Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that Round Robin Reading is a widely used method of teaching science and social studies in the intermediate grades. Discusses the effects of this method of instruction and provides alternatives for it. (FL)

  3. Robin Cook tundis Eestis kodusoojust / Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Kaarel, 1978-

    1999-01-01

    Suurbritannia välisministri Robin Cooki visiit kulmineerus uue saatkonna ametliku avamisega. Kommentaar kahe riigi suhetest : A. Tarand, S. Lõoke, A. Laaneots, G. Aarma. Lisa : Välisriikide ametnike visiidid Eestisse 1996-1999

  4. Improved Round Robin Policya Mathematical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Prof . D. Pandey; Vandana

    2010-01-01

    This work attempts to mathematically formulize the computation of waiting time of any process in a static n-process, CPU-bound round robin scheme. That in effect, can calculate other performance measures also. An improvement in the existing round robin algorithm has also been worked out that provides priority to processes nearing completion. The suggested approach uses two ready queues, wherein a process is returned to the second ready queue after the completion of its penultimate round. This...

  5. Open boundary conditions for the Diffuse Interface Model in 1-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, J. L.; Kuerten, J. G. M.

    2014-04-01

    New techniques are developed for solving multi-phase flows in unbounded domains using the Diffuse Interface Model in 1-D. They extend two open boundary conditions originally designed for the Navier-Stokes equations. The non-dimensional formulation of the DIM generalizes the approach to any fluid. The equations support a steady state whose analytical approximation close to the critical point depends only on temperature. This feature enables the use of detectors at the boundaries switching between conventional boundary conditions in bulk phases and a multi-phase strategy in interfacial regions. Moreover, the latter takes advantage of the steady state approximation to minimize the interface-boundary interactions. The techniques are applied to fluids experiencing a phase transition and where the interface between the phases travels through one of the boundaries. When the interface crossing the boundary is fully developed, the technique greatly improves results relative to cases where conventional boundary conditions can be used. Limitations appear when the interface crossing the boundary is not a stable equilibrium between the two phases: the terms responsible for creating the true balance between the phases perturb the interior solution. Both boundary conditions present good numerical stability properties: the error remains bounded when the initial conditions or the far field values are perturbed. For the PML, the influence of its main parameters on the global error is investigated to make a compromise between computational costs and maximum error. The approach can be extended to multiple spatial dimensions.

  6. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computerens interface eller grænseflade har spredt sig overalt. Mobiltelefoner, spilkonsoller, pc'er og storskærme indeholder computere – men computere indbygges også i tøj og andre hverdagslige genstande, så vi konstant har adgang til digitale data. Interface retter fokus mod, hvordan den digitale...... kunst og kultur skabes, spredes og opleves igennem interfaces. Forfatterne undersøger og diskuterer interfacets æstetik, ideologi og kultur – og analyserer aktuel interfacekunst på tværs af musik, kunst, litteratur og film. Bogen belyser interfacets oprindelse i den kolde krigs laboratorier og dets...

  7. Need for velopharyngeal management following palatoplasty: an outcome analysis of syndromic and nonsyndromic patients with Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, P D; Myckatyn, T; Marsh, J L; Grames, L M; Dowton, S B

    1997-05-01

    The Robin sequence is a pathogenetically and etiologically heterogeneous condition that can be a nonsyndromic anomaly or one feature of many syndromes. Little information is available regarding the distribution of patients having Robin sequence, with or without associated syndromes, who develop velopharyngeal dysfunction. In order to discern whether patients with Robin sequence, nonsyndromic and/or syndromic, have different velopharyngeal dysfunction rates from those observed among all patients undergoing palatoplasty during the same time period, a retrospective study was undertaken. The charts of 873 patients with overt clefts of the secondary palate managed at a single cleft center between 1978 and 1992 were reviewed. Diagnostic criteria for Robin sequence included cleft palate without cleft lip, microretrognathia, and perinatal respiratory and/or feeding difficulties; 79 such patients (9 percent) were identified from the initial group of 873. Of these, 58 patients (7 percent) were at least 3 years of age and had sufficient follow-up to allow for evaluation of speech outcome by an experienced speech pathologist through a variety of methodologies (videonasendoscopy, speech videofluoroscopy, perceptual speech characteristics). This group comprised the Robin sequence study population. All Robin sequence patients' charts were reviewed by a medical geneticist to confirm the presence or absence of a syndrome. Of the original 873 patients, there were 127 non-Robin sequence patients who were sufficiently cooperative in diagnostic testing to yield definitive information. This group comprised the non-Robin sequence study population. Among nonsyndromic Robin sequence patients, 15 of 34 (44 percent) developed velopharyngeal dysfunction and required velopharyngeal management, while 2 of 24 syndromic patients (8 percent) developed velopharyngeal dysfunction (p = 0.003). Of the 127 non-Robin sequence isolated cleft palate patients, 113 were nonsyndromic, of whom 18 percent (20

  8. The ATLAS ROBIN. A high-performance data-acquisition module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, Andreas

    2009-08-19

    This work presents the re-configurable processor ROBIN, which is a key element of the data-acquisition-system of the ATLAS experiment, located at the new LHC at CERN. The ATLAS detector provides data over 1600 channels simultaneously towards the DAQ system. The ATLAS dataflow model follows the ''PULL'' strategy in contrast to the commonly used ''PUSH'' strategy. The data volume transported is reduced by a factor of 10, however the data must be temporarily stored at the entry to the DAQ system. The input layer consists of approx. 160 ROS read-out units comprising 1 PC and 4 ROBIN modules. Each ROBIN device acquires detector data via 3 input channels and performs local buffering. Board control is done via a 64-bit PCI interface. Event selection and data transmission runs via PCI in the baseline bus-based ROS. Alternatively, a local GE interface can take over part or all of the data traffic in the switch-based ROS, in order to reduce the load on the host PC. The performance of the ROBIN module stems from the close cooperation of a fast embedded processor with a complex FPGA. The efficient task-distribution lets the processor handle all complex management functionality, programmed in ''C'' while all movement of data is performed by the FPGA via multiple, concurrently operating DMA engines. The ROBIN-project was carried-out by and international team and comprises the design specification, the development of the ROBIN hardware, firmware (VHDL and C-Code), host-code (C++), prototyping, volume production and installation of 700 boards. The project was led by the author of this thesis. The hardware platform is an evolution of a FPGA processor previously designed by the author. He has contributed elementary concepts of the communication mechanisms and the ''C''-coded embedded application software. He also organised and supervised the prototype and series productions including the various design

  9. The ATLAS ROBIN – A High-Performance Data-Acquisition Module

    CERN Document Server

    Kugel, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the re-configurable processor ROBIN, which is a key element of the data-acquisition-system of the ATLAS experiment, located at the new LHC at CERN. The ATLAS detector provides data over 1600 channels simultaneously towards the DAQ system. The ATLAS dataflow model follows the “PULL” strategy in contrast to the commonly used “PUSH” strategy. The data volume transported is reduced by a factor of 10, however the data must be temporarily stored at the entry to the DAQ system. The input layer consists of approx. 160 ROS read-out units comprising 1 PC and 4 ROBIN modules. Each ROBIN device acquires detector data via 3 input channels and performs local buffering. Board control is done via a 64-bit PCI interface. Event selection and data transmission runs via PCI in the baseline bus-based ROS. Alternatively, a local GE interface can take over part or all of the data traffic in the switch-based ROS, in order to reduce the load on the host PC. The performance of the ROBIN module stems from the...

  10. Nonequilibrium kinetic boundary condition at the vapor-liquid interface of argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Fujikawa, Shigeo; Kurz, Thomas; Lauterborn, Werner

    2013-10-01

    A boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation (kinetic boundary condition, KBC) at the vapor-liquid interface of argon is constructed with the help of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The KBC is examined at a constant liquid temperature of 85 K in a wide range of nonequilibrium states of vapor. The present investigation is an extension of a previous one by Ishiyama, Yano, and Fujikawa [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 084504 (2005)] and provides a more complete form of the KBC. The present KBC includes a thermal accommodation coefficient in addition to evaporation and condensation coefficients, and these coefficients are determined in MD simulations uniquely. The thermal accommodation coefficient shows an anisotropic behavior at the interface for molecular velocities normal versus tangential to the interface. It is also found that the evaporation and condensation coefficients are almost constant in a fairly wide range of nonequilibrium states. The thermal accommodation coefficient of the normal velocity component is almost unity, while that of the tangential component shows a decreasing function of the density of vapor incident on the interface, indicating that the tangential velocity distribution of molecules leaving the interface into the vapor phase may deviate from the tangential parts of the Maxwell velocity distribution at the liquid temperature. A mechanism for the deviation of the KBC from the isotropic Maxwell KBC at the liquid temperature is discussed in terms of anisotropic energy relaxation at the interface. The liquid-temperature dependence of the present KBC is also discussed.

  11. Slip, immiscibility, and boundary conditions at the liquid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R

    2006-02-03

    The conventional boundary conditions at the interface between two flowing liquids include continuity of the tangential velocity. We have tested this assumption with molecular dynamics simulations of Couette and Poiseuille flows of two-layered liquid systems, with various molecular structures and interactions. When the total liquid density near the interface drops significantly compared to the bulk values, the tangential velocity varies very rapidly there, and would appear discontinuous at continuum resolution. The value of this apparent slip is given by a Navier boundary condition.

  12. Condition of Mechanical Equilibrium at the Phase Interface with Arbitrary Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, V. V.; Zubkova, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors produced an expression for the mechanical equilibrium condition at the phase interface within the force definition of surface tension. This equilibrium condition is the most general one from the mathematical standpoint and takes into account the three-dimensional aspect of surface tension. Furthermore, the formula produced allows describing equilibrium on the fractal surface of the interface. The authors used the fractional integral model of fractal distribution and took the fractional order integrals over Euclidean space instead of integrating over the fractal set.

  13. Adiabatic evolution of 1D shape resonances: an artificial interface conditions approach

    CERN Document Server

    Faraj, Ali; Nier, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Artificial interface conditions parametrized by a complex number $\\theta_{0}$ are introduced for 1D-Schr{\\"o}dinger operators. When this complex parameter equals the parameter $\\theta\\in i\\R$ of the complex deformation which unveils the shape resonances, the Hamiltonian becomes dissipative. This makes possible an adiabatic theory for the time evolution of resonant states for arbitrarily large time scales. The effect of the artificial interface conditions on the important stationary quantities involved in quantum transport models is also checked to be as small as wanted, in the polynomial scale $(h^N)_{N\\in \\N}$ as $h\\to 0$, according to $\\theta_{0}$.

  14. International Technical Working Group Round Robin Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.

    2003-02-01

    The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases.

  15. Canonical systems of differential equations with self-adjoint interface conditions on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Snoo, H; Winkler, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    For n canonical systems of differential equations, the corresponding n copies of their domain [0,∞) are thought of as a graph with vertex 0. An interface condition at 0 is given by a so-called Nevanlinna pair. Explicit formulae are deduced for the spectral representation of the corresponding underly

  16. Deficiency indices of a differential operator satisfying certain matching interface conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Kumar Baruah

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A pair of differential operators with matching interface conditions appears in many physical applications such as: oceanography, the study of step index fiber in optical fiber communication, and one dimensional scattering in quantum theory. Here we initiate the study the deficiency index theory of such operators which precedes the study of the spectral theory.

  17. Non-linear imaging condition to image fractures as non-welded interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minato, S.; Ghose, R.

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic properties of a fractured reservoir are often controlled by large fractures. In order to seismically detect and characterize them, a high-resolution imaging method is necessary. We apply a non-linear imaging condition to image fractures, considered as non-welded interfaces. We derive the i

  18. Influence of Friction Interface Contact on Ultrasonic Motor Efficiency Under Static Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yifeng; ZhangWu; XiaoAiwu; Zhu Meng; Pan Yunhua; Zhang Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    The friction interface matching plays a deterministic role in the motor efficiency ,and the microcosmic contact status of friction interface should be investigated to improve the ultrasonic motor performance .The main purpose is to improve the effective output power of ultrasonic motor .Hence ,one studies the contact condition of the friction interface of the ultrasonic motor ,analyzes the micro condition of contact interface through finite ele-ment analysis ,optimizes unreasonable structures ,and compares the two different-structure ultrasonic motors through experiments .The results reflect the necessity of optimization .After optimization ,the stator and rotor de-form after pre-pressure and the contact interface of them full contact theoretically .When reaching heat balance the effective output of the motor is 37% ,and the average effective output efficiency is 2 .384 times higher than that of the unoptimized .It can be seen that the total consumption of the ultrasonic motor system decreases significantly . Therefore ,when using in certain system the consumption taken from the system will decreases largely ,especially in the system with a strict consumption control .

  19. Nager syndrome and Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Guimarães, Victória Bernardes; Beltrão, Luciana Amorim; Trombetta, Júlia Santana; Lliguin, Karen Lizeth Puma; de Mattos, Vinicius Freitas; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-04-01

    Nager syndrome is considered a rare genetic syndrome characterized by craniofacial and radial anomalies. Pierre Robin sequence is a triad that includes micrognathia, cleft palate and glossoptosis. The present patient had typical findings of Nager syndrome and Pierre Robin sequence. He progressed to severe respiratory distress, requiring mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. At 1 year and 11 months, he had episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest and died. In the literature review, we identified the clinical description of 44 patients with Nager syndrome. Among them, 93.1% had micrognathia, 38.6% cleft palate and 11.3% glossoptosis. Only one (2.3%) had all three features, as observed in the present patient. Therefore, despite the fact that the features of Pierre Robin sequence are common, there are few patients who have the complete triad. It is noteworthy, however, that they may be associated with respiratory distress, which may put the patient's life at risk.

  20. Improved Round Robin Policya Mathematical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof . D. Pandey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts to mathematically formulize the computation of waiting time of any process in a static n-process, CPU-bound round robin scheme. That in effect, can calculate other performance measures also. An improvement in the existing round robin algorithm has also been worked out that provides priority to processes nearing completion. The suggested approach uses two ready queues, wherein a process is returned to the second ready queue after the completion of its penultimate round. This policy reduces the average waiting timeand increases the throughput, in comparison to the conventional round robin scheme, while maintaining the same level of CPU utilization and no substantial increase in the overheads. The mathematical formulation of this policy is transparent enough; it provides, for each process, the actual order of shifting to the second queue and also the order of termination.

  1. interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipayan Sanyal

    2005-01-01

    macroscopic conservation equations with an order parameter which can account for the solid, liquid, and the mushy zones with the help of a phase function defined on the basis of the liquid fraction, the Gibbs relation, and the phase diagram with local approximations. Using the above formalism for alloy solidification, the width of the diffuse interface (mushy zone was computed rather accurately for iron-carbon and ammonium chloride-water binary alloys and validated against experimental data from literature.

  2. Robin Hood caught in Wonderland: brain SPECT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, David; Wolff, Valérie; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Marescaux, Christian; Namer, Izzie Jacques

    2013-12-01

    We present the case of a 53-year-old woman presenting several episodes of body image distortions, ground deformation illusions, and problems assessing distance in the orthostatic position corresponding to the Alice in Wonderland syndrome. No symptoms were reported when sitting or lying down. She had uncontrolled hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and a history of head trauma. Her condition had been diagnosed with left internal carotid artery dissection 2 years earlier. Brain SPECT with 99mTc-ECD performed after i.v. injection of the radiotracer in supine and in standing positions showed hypoperfusion in the healthy contralateral frontoparietal operculum (Robin Hood syndrome), deteriorating when standing up.

  3. Bilateral maculopathy associated with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Matthew T; Vasan, Ryan; Levy, Richard; Davis, Jessica; Chan, R V Paul

    2012-08-01

    Pierre Robin sequence has been associated with a number of ocular complications, including myopia, strabismus, Möbius syndrome, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, glaucoma, cataract, microphthalmos, coloboma of choroid, and retinal detachment. We report a 10-day-old boy who presented with micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate as well as multiple congenital anomalies. Ophthalmic examination was notable for bilateral maculopathy, with focal areas of retinal and retinal pigment epithelial atrophy. The association of Pierre Robin sequence and maculopathy has been reported only twice previously.

  4. 怀念Robin Milner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    本期的封面人物是刚刚去世的1991年图灵奖得主Robin Milner,他于2010年5月20日心脏病发而过世。文章形容他是“一个优雅的实用主义者”,并追忆了他对早期计算机的理论和实践做出的突出贡献。Robin Milner一开始认为计算机编程“极其不优雅”,

  5. Numerical simulations of the 2-dimensional Robin-Hood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwilich, Gabriel; Fox, Perry; Zypman, Fredy; Buldyrev, Sergey

    2007-03-01

    The Robin Hood, or Zaitsev model [1] has been successfully used to model depinning of interfaces, friction, dislocation motion and flux creep, because it is one of the simplest extremal models for self-organized criticallity Until now, its properties have been well understood theoretically in one dimension and its scaling laws numerically verified. It is important to extend the range of validity of these laws into higher dimensions, to find precise values for the scaling exponents, and to investigate how they depend on the details of the model (like anisotropy). The case of two dimensions is of particular importance when studying surface friction [2]. Here, we numerically evaluate high precision scaling exponents for the avalanche size distribution, the avalanche fractal dimension, and the Levy flight-like distribution of the jumps between extremal active sites. [1] S.I. Zaitsev , Physica A 189, 411 (1992). [2] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E (accepted)

  6. Quantum evolution in the regime of quantum wells in a semiclassical island with artificial interface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantile, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.mantile@univ-reims.fr [Laboratoire de Mathématiques de Reims, EA-4535 and FR ARC CNRS-3399, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2014-09-15

    We introduce a modified Schrödinger operator where the semiclassical Laplacian is perturbed by artificial interface conditions occurring at the boundaries of the potential's support. The corresponding dynamics is analyzed in the regime of quantum wells in a semiclassical island. Under a suitable energy constraint for the initial states, we show that the time propagator is stable with respect to the non-self-adjont perturbation, provided that this is parametrized through infinitesimal functions of the semiclassical parameter “h.” It has been recently shown that h-dependent artificial interface conditions allow a new approach to the adiabatic evolution problem for the shape resonances in models of resonant heterostructures. Our aim is to provide with a rigorous justification of this method.

  7. Characterization of Interface Strength as Function of Temperature and Moisture Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.D. van Driel; P.J.J.H.A. Habets; M.A.J. van Gils; G.Q. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Since Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL) tests are part of the international reliability qualification standards, all the microelectronics components/products have to pass these specifications. Therefore, it is important to be able to efficiently and accurately characterize and predict the moisture related material and interface behavior in the real manufacturing, processing, testing and application conditions. The success of interfacial fracture mechanics approach to analyze moisture-induced failures in IC packaging strongly depend on accurate characterization of the critical adhesion strength, Gc. However, its measurement is complicated by the fact that adhesion depends not only on moisture concentration, C, but also temperature, T, and mode mixity, ψ. This paper described our research to develop a reliable methodology for interface toughness evaluation as function of temperature, humidity and mode mixity. Our methodology includes using the four-point bending test and shaft-loaded-blister method. Dedicated specimens consisting of various types of moulding compounds bonded onto leadframe are manufactured. Besides temperature, moisture content and mode mixity effects, also the influences of surface treatment (leadframe oxidation and contamination) and production process on the interface fracture toughness are evaluated. Multi-physics-based numerical methods are used to transfer the experimental critical loads to an interface strength parameter. These analysis covers mechanical,moisture diffusion, vapor pressure, hygro-swelling and CTE-mismatch modeling. To test and improve the methodology, various effects are evaluated, such as crack-length dependency, material properties, specimenwidth, displacement-rate of the upper support/shaft, etc. The results of the proposed methodology indicate, as expected, a change in interface toughness by mode mixity, moisture content and temperature. It is found that Gc decreases with increasing moisture content and temperature. The

  8. A Program to Perform Analyses of Variance for Data from Round-robin Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A round-robin experiment involves observation of all possible pairs of subjects within each experimental condition. A program is described which performs analyses of variance for such data. Output includes an ANOVA summary table, exact or quasi-F statistics for tests of various hypotheses, and least squares estimates of relevant parameters.…

  9. Robin Wood, "Rio Bravo," and Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The film scholar Robin Wood, who died recently, taught me English during the mid-1960s at Welwyn Garden City High School (now Sir Frederick Osborn Comprehensive). He was one of those teachers who "made a difference". He helped me learn that it was all right for a boy from a working-class home to study stuff such as literature. But it was…

  10. The "Virtues" of Round Robin Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Timothy C.; Towner, John C.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that round robin reading is valuable because it prepares students for "the real world" by exposing them to boredom, teaching them to look alert when they are not, teaching the skills of oneupmanship, and teaching inference skills (since it often obscures the story line of a work). (FL)

  11. Robin Hoodist Oidipuseni / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    1996-01-01

    'Ugala' külalisetendused Tallinnas: David Neilsoni 'Robin Hood' (lav. Peeter Tammearu); Mihhail Bulgakovi 'Poolearuline Jourdain' (lav. Üllar Saaremäe); Tirso de Molina 'Kadunud sõrmus' (lav. Andres Noormets); Talvo Pabuti 'Oidipuse kompleks' (lav. Andres Lepik); Anton Tshehhovi 'Kirsiaed' (lav. Kaarin Raid)

  12. Round-Robin Tournaments with homogenous rounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, Bregje; Holland, van Erik; Post, Gerhard; Smit, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    We study round-robin tournaments for n teams, where in each round a fixed number (g) of teams is present and each team present plays a fixed number (m) of matches in this round. In the tournament each match between two teams is either played once or twice, in the latter case in different rounds. We

  13. Rx for Round Robin Oral Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Jerry L.

    1982-01-01

    Concludes that, as it is commonly practiced today, round robin oral reading is merely a vehicle for assessing accuracy in calling words. Argues that such a purpose can be achieved better on a one-to-one basis between teacher and student. (FL)

  14. Robin Hoodist Oidipuseni / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    1996-01-01

    'Ugala' külalisetendused Tallinnas: David Neilsoni 'Robin Hood' (lav. Peeter Tammearu); Mihhail Bulgakovi 'Poolearuline Jourdain' (lav. Üllar Saaremäe); Tirso de Molina 'Kadunud sõrmus' (lav. Andres Noormets); Talvo Pabuti 'Oidipuse kompleks' (lav. Andres Lepik); Anton Tshehhovi 'Kirsiaed' (lav. Kaarin Raid)

  15. Ecological investigation of a hazardous waste site, Warner Robins, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Billig, P. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Landfill No. 4 and the sludge lagoon at Robins Air Force Base, Warner Robins, Georgia, were added to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List in 1987 because of highpotential for contaminant migration. Warner Robins is located approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta. In 1990 CH2M HILL conducted a Remedial Investigation at the base that recommended that further ecological assessment investigations be conducted (CH2M HILL 1990). The subject paper is the result of this recommendation. The ecological study was carried out by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)Division of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., working jointly with its subcontractor CDM (CDM 1992a). The primary area of investigation (Zone 1) included the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two sewage treatment ponds), and the area between Hannah Road and Horse Creek (Fig. 1). The bottomland forest wetlands of Zone 1 extend from the landfill east to Horse Creek. Surface water and groundwater flow across Zone 1 is generally in an easterly direction toward Horse Creek. Horse Creek is a south-flowing tributary of the Ocmulgee River Floodplain. The objective of the study was to perform a quantitative analysis of ecological risk associated with the ecosystems present in Zone 1. This investigation was unique because the assessment was to be based upon many measurement endpoints resulting in both location-specific data and data that would assess the condition of the overall ecosystem. The study was segregated into five distinct field investigations: hydrology, surface water and sediment, aquatic biology, wetlands ecology, and wildlife biology.

  16. Mathematical Modelling of the Evaporating Liquid Films on the Basis of the Generalized Interface Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional films, flowing down an inclined, non-uniformly heated substrate are studied. The results contain the new mathematical models developed with the help of the long-wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes and heat transfer equations or Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations in the case, when the generalized conditions are formulated at thermocapillary interface. The evolution equations for the film thickness include the effects of gravity, viscosity, capillarity, thermocapillarity, additional stress effects and evaporation.

  17. Pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures: effect of bone-implant interface conditions on fracture stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamdan, Ron; Liebergall, Meir; Gefen, Amit; Symanovsky, Naum; Peleg, Eran

    2013-12-01

    Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation with Kirschner wires (KWs) is the standard of care of pediatric supra-condylar humerus fractures (SCHFs). Failure modes leading to loss of reduction are not clear and have not been quantified. Multiple factors may weaken the KW-bone interface bonding conditions. To the best of our knowledge, the possible effect of this decrease on different KW configurations and fracture stability has never been studied. To investigate the effect of bone-KW friction conditions on SCHF post-operative mechanical stability and to formulate clinical guidelines for KW configuration under different conditions. Finite element-based model of a fixated SCHF was used to simulate structure stability for two lateral divergent versus crossed lateral and medial KW configurations under varying KW-bone friction conditions. Finite element simulations demonstrated that crossed KWs provide superior stability compared with the divergent configuration when KW-bone bonding is compromised. When KW-bone bonding conditions are adequate, crossed and divergent KW configurations provide similar, sufficient fracture stability. Under normal bone-implant interface conditions, the two diverging lateral KW configuration offers satisfactory mechanical stability and may be the preferred choice of SCHF fixation. When KW-bone bonding is suboptimal, as when one or more of the lateral KWs are re-drilled, addition of a medial KW should be considered in order to improve stability despite risk to ulnar nerve.

  18. Bond-Slip Models for FPR-Concrete Interfaces Subjected to Moisture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental related durability issues have been of great concerns in the structures strengthened with the fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs. In marine environment, moisture is one of the dominant factors that adversely affect the material properties and the bond interfaces. Several short-term and long-term laboratory experimental investigations have been conducted to study such behaviors but, still, there are insufficient constitutive bond models which could incorporate moisture exposure conditions. This paper proposed a very simple approach in determining the nonlinear bond-slip models for the FRP-concrete interface considering the effect of moisture conditions. The proposed models are based on the strain results of the experimental investigation conducted by the authors using 6 different commercial FRP systems exposed to the moisture conditions for the maximum period of 18 months. The exposure effect in the moisture conditions seems to have great dependency on the FRP system. Based on the contrasting differences in the results under moisture conditions, separate bond-slip models have been proposed for the wet-layup FRP and prefabricated FRP systems. As for the verification of the proposed model under moisture conditions, predicted pull-out load was compared with the experimental pull-out load. The results showed good agreement for all the FRP systems under investigation.

  19. Neural Operant Conditioning as a Core Mechanism of Brain-Machine Interface Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakurai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of changing the neuronal activity of the brain to acquire rewards in a broad sense is essential for utilizing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs, which is essentially operant conditioning of neuronal activity. Currently, this is also known as neural biofeedback, and it is often referred to as neurofeedback when human brain activity is targeted. In this review, we first illustrate biofeedback and operant conditioning, which are methodological background elements in neural operant conditioning. Then, we introduce research models of neural operant conditioning in animal experiments and demonstrate that it is possible to change the firing frequency and synchronous firing of local neuronal populations in a short time period. We also debate the possibility of the application of neural operant conditioning and its contribution to BMIs.

  20. Boundary and Interface Conditions for High Order Finite Difference Methods Applied to the Euler and Navier-Strokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Jan; Carpenter, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    Boundary and interface conditions for high order finite difference methods applied to the constant coefficient Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are derived. The boundary conditions lead to strict and strong stability. The interface conditions are stable and conservative even if the finite difference operators and mesh sizes vary from domain to domain. Numerical experiments show that the new conditions also lead to good results for the corresponding nonlinear problems.

  1. Conditioning of Si-interfaces by wet-chemical oxidation: Electronic interface properties study by surface photovoltage measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, Heike

    2014-09-01

    The field-modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) method, a very surface sensitive technique, was utilized to determine electronic interface properties on wet-chemically oxidized and etched silicon (Si) interfaces. The influence of preparation-induced surface micro-roughness and un-stoichiometric oxides on the resulting the surface charge, energetic distribution Dit(E), and density Dit,min of rechargeable states was studied by simultaneous, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements on polished Si(111) and Si(100) substrates. Based on previous findings and new research, a study of conventional and newly developed wet-chemical oxidation methods was established, correlating the interactions between involved oxidizing and etching solutions and the initial substrate morphology to the final surface conditioning. It is shown, which sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and oxide removal, have to be combined in order to achieve atomically smooth, hydrogen terminated surfaces, as well as ultra-thin oxide layers with low densities of rechargeable states on flat, saw damage etched, and textured Si substrates, as commonly applied in silicon device and solar cell manufacturing. These conventional strategies for wet-chemical pre-treatment are mainly based on concentrated solutions. Therefore, special attention was put on the development of more environmentally acceptable processes, utilizing e.g. hot pure water with low contents of oxygen or hydrochloric acid, and of ozone, working at ambient temperatures. According to our results, these methods could be a high quality and low cost alternative to current approaches with liquid chemicals for the preparation of hydrophobic Si substrate surfaces and ultra-thin passivating oxide layers. As demonstrated for selected examples, the effect of optimized wet-chemical pre-treatments can be preserved during subsequent soft plasma enhanced chemical vapor depositions of Si oxides (SiOx), or amorphous materials such as Si (a-Si:H), Si nitride (a

  2. The Interface Conditions for Pressures at Oil-water Flood Front in the Porous Media Considering Capillary Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaolong; Du, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Flood front is the jump interface where fluids distribute discontinuously, whose interface condition is the theoretical basis of a mathematical model of the multiphase flow in porous medium. The conventional interface condition at the jump interface is expressed as the continuous Darcy velocity and fluid pressure (named CPVCM). This paper has inspected it via the studying the water-oil displacement in one dimensional reservoir with considering capillary pressure but ignoring the compressibility and gravity. It is proved theoretically that the total Darcy velocity and total pressure (defined by Antoncev etc.), instead of the Darcy velocities and pressures of water and oil, are continuous at the flood front without considering the compressibility of fluid and porous media. After that, new interface conditions for the pressures and Darcy velocity of each fluid are established, which are collectively named as Jump Pressures and Velocities Conditions Model (JPVCM) because the model has shown the jump pressures and...

  3. Modelling of the Contact Condition at the Tool/Matrix Interface in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper; Wert, John

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the heat generation and contact condition during Friction Stir Welding (FSW). For this purpose, an analytical model is developed for the heat generation and this is combined with a Eulerian FE-analysis of the temperature field. The heat...... generation is closely related to the friction condition at the contact interface between the FSW tool and the weld piece material as well as the material flow in the weld matrix, since the mechanisms for heat generation by frictional and plastic dissipation are different. The heat generation from the tool...... is governed by the contact condition, i.e. whether there is sliding, sticking or partial sliding/sticking. The contact condition in FSW is complex (dependent on alloy, welding parameters, tool design etc.), and previous models (both analytical and numerical) for simulation of the heat generation assume...

  4. Interface Condition for the Darcy Velocity at the Water-oil Flood Front in the Porous Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaolong; Liang, Baosheng

    2016-01-01

    Flood front is the jump interface where fluids distribute discontinuously, whose interface condition is the theoretical basis of a mathematical model of the multiphase flow in porous medium. The conventional interface condition at the jump interface is expressed as the continuous Darcy velocity and fluid pressure (named CVCM ). Our study has inspected this conclusions. First, it is revealed that the principle of mass conservation has no direct relation to the velocity conservation, and the former is not the true foundation of the later, because the former only reflects the kinetic characteristic of the fluid particles at one position(the interface), but not the neighborhood of the interface which required by the later. Then the reasonableness of CVCM is queried from the following three aspects:(1)Using Mukat's two phase seepage equation and the mathematical method of apagoge, we have disproved the continuity of each fluid velocity;(2)Since the analytical solution of the equation of Buckley-Leveret equations i...

  5. International round-robin study on the Ames fluctuation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifferscheid, G; Maes, H M; Allner, B; Badurova, J; Belkin, S; Bluhm, K; Brauer, F; Bressling, J; Domeneghetti, S; Elad, T; Flückiger-Isler, S; Grummt, H J; Gürtler, R; Hecht, A; Heringa, M B; Hollert, H; Huber, S; Kramer, M; Magdeburg, A; Ratte, H T; Sauerborn-Klobucar, R; Sokolowski, A; Soldan, P; Smital, T; Stalter, D; Venier, P; Ziemann, Chr; Zipperle, J; Buchinger, S

    2012-04-01

    An international round-robin study on the Ames fluctuation test [ISO 11350, 2012], a microplate version of the classic plate-incorporation method for the detection of mutagenicity in water, wastewater and chemicals was performed by 18 laboratories from seven countries. Such a round-robin study is a precondition for both the finalization of the ISO standardization process and a possible regulatory implementation in water legislation. The laboratories tested four water samples (spiked/nonspiked) and two chemical mixtures with and without supplementation of a S9-mix. Validity criteria (acceptable spontaneous and positive control-induced mutation counts) were fulfilled by 92-100%, depending on the test conditions. A two-step method for statistical evaluation of the test results is proposed and assessed in terms of specificity and sensitivity. The data were first subjected to powerful analysis of variance (ANOVA) after an arcsine-square-root transformation to detect significant differences between the test samples and the negative control (NC). A threshold (TH) value based on a pooled NC was then calculated to exclude false positive test results. Statistically, positive effects observed by the William's test were considered negative, if the mean of all replicates of a sample did not exceed the calculated TH. By making use of this approach, the overall test sensitivity was 100%, and the test specificity ranged from 80 to 100%.

  6. Pierre Robin sequence: review of diagnostic and treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Aurore; Fanous, Amanda; Almajed, Athari; Lacroix, Yolène

    2015-04-01

    Pierre Robin sequence is not a rare condition and paediatric specialists caring for respiratory related issues are likely to encounter cases in their practice. There have been a few recent reviews on the topic, mostly focusing on the surgical interventions performed for cases with severe airway obstruction. In the present review, we will highlight the different challenges that remain today in the global evaluation of infants afflicted with this condition through a thorough review of the medical literature, giving the clinician a full scope of the disease and of the various management options. The need for an improved objective evaluation of airway obstruction and for a better classification will be emphasized. We are therefore proposing a novel classification scheme that will better account for respiratory and feeding difficulties in these infants. Finally, many knowledge gaps persist regarding this condition, underlining the necessity for further research both in the genetic field and regarding the outcome of therapy.

  7. Exact field-driven interface dynamics in the two-dimensional stochastic Ising model with helicoidal boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    de Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the interface dynamics of the two-dimensional stochastic Ising model in an external field under helicoidal boundary conditions. At sufficiently low temperatures and fields, the dynamics of the interface is described by an exactly solvable high-spin asymmetric quantum Hamiltonian that is the infinitesimal generator of the zero range process. Generally, the critical dynamics of the interface fluctuations is in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class of critical behavior. We re...

  8. INTERFACE BEHAVIOR OF COMPRESSIBLE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS WITH DISCONTINUOUS BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND VACUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhenhua; He Wen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study a one-dimensional motion of viscous gas near vacuum. We are interested in the case that the gas is in contact with the vacuum at a finite interval. This is a free boundary problem for the one-dimensional isentropic Navier-Stokes equations, and the free boundaries are the interfaces separating the gas from vacuum, across which the density changes discontinuosly. Smoothness of the solutions and the uniqueness of the weak solutions are also discussed. The present paper extends results in Luo-Xin-Yang [12] to the jump boundary conditions case.

  9. Semantic classical conditioning and brain-computer interface (BCI control: Encoding of affirmative and negative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin A. Ruf

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate conditioned electroencephalographic (EEG responses to factually correct and incorrect statements in order to enable binary communication by means of a brain-computer interface (BCI. In two experiments with healthy participants true and false statements (serving as conditioned stimuli, CSs were paired with two different tones which served as unconditioned stimuli (USs. The features of the USs were varied and tested for their effectiveness to elicit differentiable conditioned reactions (CRs. After acquisition of the CRs, these CRs to true and false statements were classified offline using a radial basis function kernel support vector machine. A mean single-trial classification accuracy of 50.5% was achieved for differentiating conditioned yes versus no thinking and mean accuracies of 65.4% for classification of yes and 68.8% for no thinking (both relative to baseline were found using the best US. Analysis of the area under the curve of the conditioned EEG responses revealed significant differences between conditioned yes and no answers. Even though improvements are necessary, these first results indicate that the semantic conditioning paradigm could be a useful basis for further research regarding BCI communication in patients with complete locked-in syndrome (CLIS.

  10. Semantic Classical Conditioning and Brain-Computer Interface Control: Encoding of Affirmative and Negative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Carolin A.; De Massari, Daniele; Furdea, Adrian; Matuz, Tamara; Fioravanti, Chiara; van der Heiden, Linda; Halder, Sebastian; Birbaumer, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate conditioned electroencephalography (EEG) responses to factually correct and incorrect statements in order to enable binary communication by means of a brain-computer interface (BCI). In two experiments with healthy participants true and false statements (serving as conditioned stimuli, CSs) were paired with two different tones which served as unconditioned stimuli (USs). The features of the USs were varied and tested for their effectiveness to elicit differentiable conditioned reactions (CRs). After acquisition of the CRs, these CRs to true and false statements were classified offline using a radial basis function kernel support vector machine. A mean single-trial classification accuracy of 50.5% was achieved for differentiating conditioned “yes” versus “no” thinking and mean accuracies of 65.4% for classification of “yes” and 68.8% for “no” thinking (both relative to baseline) were found using the best US. Analysis of the area under the curve of the conditioned EEG responses revealed significant differences between conditioned “yes” and “no” answers. Even though improvements are necessary, these first results indicate that the semantic conditioning paradigm could be a useful basis for further research regarding BCI communication in patients in the complete locked-in state. PMID:23471568

  11. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Gourab, E-mail: bansal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 380025 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm{sup 2} as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated.

  12. Theory of the Robin quantum wall in a linear potential. I. Energy spectrum, polarization and quantum-information measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendski, O.

    2016-12-01

    Information-theoretical concepts are employed for the analysis of the interplay between a transverse electric field $\\mathscr{E}$ applied to a one-dimensional surface and Robin boundary condition (BC), which with the help of the extrapolation length $\\Lambda$ zeroes at the interface a linear combination of the quantum mechanical wave function and its spatial derivative, and its influence on the properties of the structure. For doing this, exact analytical solutions of the corresponding Schr\\"{o}dinger equation are derived and used for calculating energies, dipole moments, position $S_x$ and momentum $S_k$ quantum information entropies and their Fisher information $I_x$ and $I_k$ and Onicescu information energies $O_x$ and $O_k$ counterparts. It is shown that the weak (strong) electric field changes the Robin wall into the Dirichlet, $\\Lambda=0$ (Neumann, $\\Lambda=\\infty$), surface. This transformation of the energy spectrum and associated waveforms in the growing field defines an evolution of the quantum-information measures; for example, it is proved that for the Dirichlet and Neumann BCs the position (momentum) quantum information entropy varies as a positive (negative) natural logarithm of the electric intensity what results in their field-independent sum $S_x+S_k$. Analogously, at $\\Lambda=0$ and $\\Lambda=\\infty$ the position and momentum Fisher informations (Onicescu energies) depend on the applied voltage as $\\mathscr{E}^{2/3}$ ($\\mathscr{E}^{1/3}$) and its inverse, respectively, leading to the field-independent product $I_xI_k$ ($O_xO_k$). Peculiarities of their transformations at the finite nonzero $\\Lambda$ are discussed and similarities and differences between the three quantum-information measures in the electric field are highlighted with the special attention being paid to the configuration with the negative extrapolation length.

  13. Results of the LIRES Round Robin test on high temperature reference electrodes for LWR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.W. [SCK.CEN, Nuclear Research Centre Belgium, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Nagy, G. [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia KFKI Atomenergia Kutatointezet, AEKI, Konkoly Thege ut 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Feron, D. [CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Navas, M. [CIEMAT, Edificio 30, Dpto. Fision Nuclear, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, (Spain); Bogaerts, W. [KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Karnik, D. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Dorsch, T. [Framatone ANP, Inc., Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Molander, A. [Studsvik AB SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Maekelae, K. [Materials and Structural Integrity, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Kemistintie 3, P.O. Box 1704, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    A European sponsored research project has been started on 1 October 2000 to develop high temperature reference electrodes that can be used for in-core electrochemical measurements in Light Water Reactors (LWR's). This LIRES-project (Development of Light Water Reactor Reference Electrodes) consists of 9 partners (SCK-CEN, AEKI, CEA, CIEMAT, KU Leuven, NRI Rez, Framatone ANP, Studsvik Nuclear and VTT) and will last for four years. The main objective of this LIRES project is to develop a reference electrode, which is robust enough to be used inside a LWR. Emphasize is put on the radiation hardness of both the mechanical design of the electrode as the proper functioning of the electrode. A four steps development trajectory is foreseen: (1) To set a testing standard for a Round Robin, (2) To develop different reference electrodes, (3) To perform a Round Robin test of these reference electrodes followed by selection of the best reference electrode(s), (4) To perform irradiation tests under appropriate LWR conditions in a Material Test Reactor (MTR). Four different high temperature reference electrodes have been developed and are being tested in a Round Robin test. These electrodes are: A Ceramic Membrane Electrode (CME), a Rhodium electrode, an external Ag/AgCl electrode and a Palladium electrode. The presentation will focus on the results obtained with the Round Robin test. (authors)

  14. Reasoning about “Capability”: Wild Robins Respond to Limb Visibility in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Garland

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Little comparative work has focused on what nonhumans understand about what physical acts others are capable of performing, and none has yet done so in the wild, or within a competitive framework. This study shows that North Island robins visually attend to human limbs in the context of determining who to steal food from. We presented 24 wild North Island Robins (Petroica longipes with two experimenters. Robins could choose to steal a mealworm from one of two experimenters: one whose limbs were exposed and one who underwent a range of visual obstructions in two experiments. In most conditions, robins preferred to steal food located near the experimenter whose limbs were obscured by a cloth or board rather than food located near the experimenter whose limbs were not obscured. The robins’ responses indicate that human limb visibility is associated with reduced access to food. Current findings lay the groundwork for a closer look at the potential general use of causal reasoning in an inter-specific context of using limbs to perform physical acts, specifically within the context of pilfering. This study presents one of the first tests of the role of visual attendance of potential limb availability in a competitive context, and could provide an alternative hypothesis for how other species have passed tests designed to examine what individuals understand about the physical acts others are capable of performing.

  15. Reasoning about “Capability”: Wild Robins Respond to Limb Visibility in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Little comparative work has focused on what nonhumans understand about what physical acts others are capable of performing, and none has yet done so in the wild, or within a competitive framework. This study shows that North Island robins visually attend to human limbs in the context of determining who to steal food from. We presented 24 wild North Island Robins (Petroica longipes) with two experimenters. Robins could choose to steal a mealworm from one of two experimenters: one whose limbs were exposed and one who underwent a range of visual obstructions in two experiments. In most conditions, robins preferred to steal food located near the experimenter whose limbs were obscured by a cloth or board rather than food located near the experimenter whose limbs were not obscured. The robins’ responses indicate that human limb visibility is associated with reduced access to food. Current findings lay the groundwork for a closer look at the potential general use of causal reasoning in an inter-specific context of using limbs to perform physical acts, specifically within the context of pilfering. This study presents one of the first tests of the role of visual attendance of potential limb availability in a competitive context, and could provide an alternative hypothesis for how other species have passed tests designed to examine what individuals understand about the physical acts others are capable of performing. PMID:27455334

  16. U-value measurements on ISO round Robin window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1997-01-01

    9 laboratories in 6 european and 2 north american countries have participated in a round robin U-value test of a standard facade window. The objective of the round robin test was to verify that the ISO/CEN proposals for U-value measurement standard is robust.......9 laboratories in 6 european and 2 north american countries have participated in a round robin U-value test of a standard facade window. The objective of the round robin test was to verify that the ISO/CEN proposals for U-value measurement standard is robust....

  17. Spectral asymptotics for Robin problems with a discontinuous coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    For spektret af differensen mellem resolventerne for Neumann-problemet og et Robin-problem vises, at de kendte asymptotiske formler i glatte tilfælde også gælder i tilfælde hvor Robin-koefficienten har et spring.......For spektret af differensen mellem resolventerne for Neumann-problemet og et Robin-problem vises, at de kendte asymptotiske formler i glatte tilfælde også gælder i tilfælde hvor Robin-koefficienten har et spring....

  18. U-value measurements on ISO round Robin window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1997-01-01

    9 laboratories in 6 european and 2 north american countries have participated in a round robin U-value test of a standard facade window. The objective of the round robin test was to verify that the ISO/CEN proposals for U-value measurement standard is robust.......9 laboratories in 6 european and 2 north american countries have participated in a round robin U-value test of a standard facade window. The objective of the round robin test was to verify that the ISO/CEN proposals for U-value measurement standard is robust....

  19. Reaction and transport in wellbore interfaces under CO2 storage conditions: Experiments simulating debonded cement-casing interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, T.K.T.; Peach, C.J.; Spiers, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Debonding-defects at the interfaces between wellbore casing and cement are widely recognized as providing potential pathways for CO2 escape from geological storage systems. This study addresses how chemical reaction between CO2, cement and steel may affect the transport properties of such defects un

  20. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  1. Biofilm-induced bioclogging produces sharp interfaces in hyporheic flow, redox conditions, and microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alice; Boano, Fulvio; Ridolfi, Luca; Chopp, David L.; Packman, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    Riverbed sediments host important biogeochemical processes that play a key role in nutrient dynamics. Sedimentary nutrient transformations are mediated by bacteria in the form of attached biofilms. The influence of microbial metabolic activity on the hydrochemical conditions within the hyporheic zone is poorly understood. We present a hydrobiogeochemical model to assess how the growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass affects the transport and transformation of dissolved nitrogen compounds in bed form-induced hyporheic zones. Coupling between hyporheic exchange, nitrogen metabolism, and biomass growth leads to an equilibrium between permeability reduction and microbial metabolism that yields shallow hyporheic flows in a region with low permeability and high rates of microbial metabolism near the stream-sediment interface. The results show that the bioclogging caused by microbial growth can constrain rates and patterns of hyporheic fluxes and microbial transformation rate in many streams.

  2. Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom......Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization...... that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential...

  3. A sharp interface immersed boundary method for solving flow with arbitrarily irregular and changing geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Huangrui; Zhang, Fan; Cronin, Duane S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a sharp interface immersed boundary method is developed for efficiently and robustly solving flow with arbitrarily irregular and changing geometries. The proposed method employs a three-step prediction-correction flow reconstruction scheme for boundary treatment and enforces Dirichlet, Neumann, Robin, and Cauchy boundary conditions in a straightforward and consistent manner. Numerical experiments concerning flow of two and three space dimensions, stationary and moving objects, convex and concave geometries, no-slip and slip wall boundary conditions are conducted to demonstrate the proposed method.

  4. Robin Lopez 发泄怒气

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Husky

    2010-01-01

    本季初,太阳队的年轻中锋R.洛佩斯(Robin Lopez)在练球时因为输掉三对三斗牛而动怒,把训练场地一扇门甩得满地碎玻璃,被教练们给训了一顿,总教练金特里(Alvin Gentry)就说:"我们不会容忍他的行为,如果他想继续进步,成为一个好球员的话,就必须学会控制自己的脾气。"

  5. Robin Hood as self-organized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, S. I.

    1992-11-01

    It is shown that a wide class of physical processes named low-temperature creep (or Robin Hood systems) has to demonstrate self-organized criticality. At least “real” and “toy” models (1D and 2D) demonstrate long range (restricted by the model size only) spatial correlation in Monte Carlo simulation. The models can be used for investigation of such phenomena as dislocation glide, movement of flux in superconductors, movement of domain walls in magnetics, grain boundaries in polycrystals, plastic deformation and so on.

  6. Winterkill indicator model, Crop Condition Assessment Division (CCAD) data base interface driver, user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the Winterkill indicator model CCAD data base interface driver. The purpose of the system is to interface the Winterkill Indicator Model with the CCAD operational data base. The interface driver routine decides what meteorological stations should be processed and calls the proper subroutines to process the stations.

  7. Wheat stress indicator model, Crop Condition Assessment Division (CCAD) data base interface driver, user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of the wheat stress indicator model CCAD data base interface driver is described. The purpose of this system is to interface the wheat stress indicator model with the CCAD operational data base. The interface driver routine decides what meteorological stations should be processed and calls the proper subroutines to process the stations.

  8. Predicting Solvation Free Energies and Thermodynamics in Polar Solvents and Mixtures Using a Solvation-Layer Interface Condition

    CERN Document Server

    Tabrizi, Amirhossein Molavi; Rahimi, Ali Mehdizadeh; Knepley, Matthew G; Bardhan, Jaydeep P

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that with two small modifications, the popular dielectric continuum model is capable of predicting, with high accuracy, ion solvation thermodynamics in numerous polar solvents, and ion solvation free energies in water--co-solvent mixtures. The first modification involves perturbing the macroscopic dielectric-flux interface condition at the solute--solvent interface with a nonlinear function of the local electric field, giving what we have called a solvation-layer interface condition (SLIC). The second modification is a simple treatment of the microscopic interface potential (static potential). We show that the resulting model exhibits high accuracy without the need for fitting solute atom radii in a state-dependent fashion. Compared to experimental results in nine water--co-solvent mixtures, SLIC predicts transfer free energies to within 2.5 kJ/mol. The co-solvents include both protic and aprotic species, as well as biologically relevant denaturants such as urea and dimethylformamide. Furthermo...

  9. A framework for computing effective boundary conditions at the interface between free fluid and a porous medium

    CERN Document Server

    Lācis, Uǧis

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial boundary conditions determined from empirical or ad-hoc models remain the standard approach to model fluid flows over porous media, even in situations where the topology of the porous medium is known. We propose a non-empirical and accurate method to compute the effective boundary conditions at the interface between a porous surface and an overlying flow. Using multiscale expansion (homogenization) approach, we derive a tensorial generalized version of the empirical condition suggested by Beavers & Joseph (1967). The components of the tensors determining the effective slip velocity at the interface are obtained by solving a set of Stokes equations in a small computational domain near the interface containing both free flow and porous medium. Using the lid-driven cavity flow with a porous bed, we demonstrate that the derived boundary condition is accurate and robust by comparing an effective model to direct numerical simulations. Finally, we provide an open source code that solves the microscal...

  10. Surgical management of a large cleft palate in a Pierre Robin sequence: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sherry; Sam, Mathew; Krishnan, Ramesh; Ramesh, Maya; Kunjappan, Shiji M

    2015-08-01

    Pierre Robin syndrome or Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a congenital etiologically heterogeneous condition presenting with various malformations. Here we are reporting the surgical management of an 18-month-old female baby who was referred from Department of Pediatrics with a complaint of a large cleft palate. She was taken up for palatoplasty with consent for elective tracheostomy. After genetic evaluation, the authors conclude that the presented case was a PRS in isolation with mild cardiac anomalies and an inferiorly placed hypoplastic epiglottis. Patient should be followed up and growth modifications of the jaws should be done.

  11. 75 FR 12229 - Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application March 5, 2010. Take notice that on March 3, 2010, Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Sea Robin), PO Box 4967, Houston, Texas... Gas Act (NGA) requesting authorization to abandon by removal Sea Robin's East Cameron Block 265...

  12. The EWGRD Round Robin Measurement Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D. A.; Wagemans, J.; Fernandes, A. C.; Girard, J. M.; Kis, D. P.; Klupák, V.; Mutnuru, R.; Philibert, H.; Rousseau, G.; Santos, J. P.; Serén, T.; Zsolnay, E. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a round robin exercise carried out to compare specific activity measurements performed by eight European organisations on a set of ten neutron activation detectors containing the radio-nuclides 110mAg, 60Co, 54Mn, 46Sc and 94Nb. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate the level of consistency between the participating organisations in blind tests of measurements relevant to reactor metrology. The samples used were selected from a stock of pre-existing irradiated material held at SCK•CEN. Taking turns over a period of approximately 9 months, the participating organisations received the samples, measured them and provided their results to an independent referee who collated and compared the data. The inter-comparison has demonstrated good agreement between the participants with standard deviations for each dosimeter varying between 1.6% and 3.1%. The paper provides results of the EWGRD Round Robin in an anonymised form together with discussion and conclusions which may be drawn from the exercise.

  13. A MATLAB Graphical User Interface Dedicated to the Optimal Design of the High Power Induction Motor with Heavy Starting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brojboiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Matlab graphical user interface dedicated to the optimal design of the high power induction motor with heavy starting conditions is presented. This graphical user interface allows to input the rated parameters, the selection of the induction motor type and the optimization criterion of the induction motor design also. For the squirrel cage induction motor the graphical user interface allows the selection of the rotor bar geometry, the material of the rotor bar as well as the fastening technology of the shorting ring on the rotor bar. The Matlab graphical user interface is developed and applied to the general optimal design program of the induction motor described in [1], [2].

  14. Interface boundary conditions for dynamic magnetization and spin wave dynamics in a ferromagnetic layer with the interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostylev, M. [School of Physics, M013, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, Western Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-21

    In this work, we derive the interface exchange boundary conditions for the classical linear dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnetic layers with the interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI). We show that IDMI leads to pinning of dynamic magnetization at the interface. An unusual peculiarity of the IDMI-based pinning is that its scales as the spin-wave wave number. We incorporate these boundary conditions into an existing numerical model for the dynamics of the Damon-Eshbach spin wave in ferromagnetic films. IDMI affects the dispersion and the frequency non-reciprocity of the travelling Damon-Eshbach spin wave. For a broad range of film thicknesses L and wave numbers, the results of the numerical simulations of the spin wave dispersion are in a good agreement with a simple analytical expression, which shows that the contribution of IDMI to the dispersion scales as 1/L, similarly to the effect of other types of interfacial anisotropy. Suggestions to experimentalists how to detect the presence of IDMI in a spin wave experiment are given.

  15. Socket Interface Pressure and Amputee Reported Outcomes for Comfortable and Uncomfortable Conditions of Patellar Tendon Bearing Socket: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Tafti, Nahid; Aminian, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to compare intra-socket pressure differences between comfortable and uncomfortable socket conditions, and the usefulness of subject perception of satisfaction, activity limitations, and socket comfort in distinguishing between these two socket conditions. Five unilateral trans-tibial amputees took part in the study. They answered the Socket Comfort Score (SCS) and Trinity Amputation and Prosthetic Experience Scale (TAPES) questionnaires before the interface pressure (in standing and walking) was measured for the uncomfortable socket condition at five regions of the residual limb. Participants were then provided with a comfortable socket and wore it for two weeks. Participants who were satisfied with the socket fit after two weeks repeated the SCS and TAPES questionnaires and interface pressure measurements. The differences between the test results of the two conditions were not statistically significant, except for the interface pressure at the popliteal region during the early stance phase, TAPES socket fit subscale, and the SCS. Due to large variability of the data and the lack of statistical significance, no firm conclusion can be made on the possible relationship between the interface pressure values and the patient-reported outcomes of the two socket conditions. A larger sample size and longer acclimation period are required to locate significant differences.

  16. Geometry of the melting interface in cylindrical metal rods under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicolas R.; Steinberg, Ted A.

    2007-05-01

    The melting interface geometries present within cylindrical iron rods in microgravity are examined. Melting samples are quenched in microgravity by immersion in a water bath. Samples are sectioned on multiple planes and photo microscopy analysis is used to determine the shape of the melting interface on each plane. Images from multiple cross-sections are assembled to produce a three-dimensional representation of the melting interface present in microgravity. Iron rods are shown to have an asymmetric, convex melting interface in microgravity, with a significantly different (increased) heat transfer area compared to the planar normal-gravity case. The change in surface area of the melting interface between normal gravity and microgravity is shown to provide excellent agreement with the observed change in melting rate, as predicted by simple one-dimensional heat transfer analysis. To cite this article: N.R. Ward, T.A. Steinberg, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  17. Round-robin multiple-source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzel, William; Romberg, Justin; Sabra, Karim G

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a round-robin approach for multi-source localization based on matched-field processing. Each new source location is estimated from the ambiguity function after nulling from the data vector the current source location estimates using a robust projection matrix. This projection matrix effectively minimizes mean-square energy near current source location estimates subject to a rank constraint that prevents excessive interference with sources outside of these neighborhoods. Numerical simulations are presented for multiple sources transmitting through a fixed (and presumed known) generic Pekeris ocean waveguide in the single-frequency and broadband-coherent cases that illustrate the performance of the proposed approach which compares favorably against other previously published approaches. Furthermore, the efficacy with which randomized back-propagations may also be incorporated for computational advantage is also presented.

  18. Pierre Robin sequence and obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Reimão

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 12-year-old female patient with Pierre Robin sequence is reported, in which reduction of the pharyngeal airway leads to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and excessive daytime sleepiness. Radiological evaluation, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance image showed bilateral temporomandibular ankylosis. Cephalometric data evidenced marked reduction of the posterior airway space. Three all-night polysomnographic evaluations detected severe OSAS with decrease in oxygen saturation. The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT perfomed on two separate days objectively quantified the excessive daytime sleepiness with short sleep latencies; stage REM was not present. Polysomnography, MSLT and thorough radiologic studies, in this case, made it possible to determine the severity of OSAS, the site of obstruction, and the associated malformations.

  19. An Optimized Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm for CPU Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Singh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to develop a new approach for round robin scheduling which help to improve the CPU efficiency in real time and time sharing operating system. There are many algorithms available for CPU scheduling. But we cannot implemented in real time operating system because of high context switch rates, large waiting time, large response time, large trn around time and less throughput. The proposed algorithm improves all the drawback of simple round robin architecture. The author have also given comparative analysis of proposed with simple round robin scheduling algorithm. Therefore, the author strongly feel that the proposed architecture solves all the problem encountered in simple round robin architecture by decreasing the performance parameters to desirable extent and thereby increasing the system throughput.

  20. Round robin performance testing of organic photovoltaic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Zubillaga, Oihana; de Seoane, José María Vega

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of poor intercomparability of measurements of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices among different laboratories. We present a round robin performance testing of novel OPV devices among 16 laboratories, organized within the framework of European Research Infrastructure...

  1. PENDEKATAN BRAINSTORMINGROUND-ROBIN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN KOMUNIKASIMATEMATIS SISWA SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Siti Rohmah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa yang pembelajarannya menggunakan Brainstorming Round-Robin dibandingkan dengan siswa yang pembelajarannya konvensional. Penelitian kuasi eksperimen ini mengambil populasi siswa kelas VII pada salah satu SMP di kabupaten Bandung Barat dengan sampel 2 kelas. Dari dua kelas yang dipilih dalam penelitian ini, salah satunya digunakan sebagai kelas eksperimen yang memperoleh pembelajaran dengan pendekatan Brainstorming Round-Robin, sedangkan kelas lainnnya sebagai kelas kontrol yang pembelajarannya konvensional. Kedua kelompok diberikan pretes dan postes kemampuan komunikasi matematis. Data N-gain yang diperoleh diuji secara kuantitatif dengan uji perbedaan rerata nonparametrik Mann-Whitney. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa yang mendapat pembelajaran dengan menggunakan pendekatan Brainstorming Round-Robin lebih baik daripada siswa yang pembelajarannya konvensional. Kata Kunci    :     Brainstorming Round-Robin, KomunikasiMatematis     ABSTRACT The aims of these research are to determine anincrease in mathematics communication of students who obtain learning using Round-Robin Brainstormingbetter thanstudents who receivedconventional learning. This quasi experimental take population all students at class VII in one of public secondary school in West Bandung district with 2 classes as sample. From this 2 classes choosen in this research, one of them as an experimental classthatacquirelearningwithRound-Robin Brainstormingapproach, and the other one as acontrol class that receive conventional learning. Both groups weregiven thepretest and posttest of mathematics communication. N-gain data obtainedquantitatively,testedwitha meandifference testnonparametricMann-Whitney. The results showedthat an achievement and increase inmathematics communication of students thatgetslearning usingRound-Robin

  2. Sufficient condition for the existence of interface states in some two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueqin; Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Chan, C. T.

    2014-08-01

    There is no assurance that interface states can be found at the boundary separating two materials. While a strong perturbation typically favors wave localization, we show on the contrary that in some two-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) possessing a Dirac-like cone at k = 0 derived from monopole and dipoles excitation, a small perturbation is sufficient to create interface states. The conical dispersion together with the flat band at the zone center generates the existence of gaps in the projected band structure and the existence of single mode interface states inside the projected band gaps stems from the geometric phases of the bulk bands. The underlying physics for the existence of an interface state is related to the sign change of the surface impedance in the gaps above and below the flat band. The established results are applicable for long wavelength regimes where there is only one propagating diffraction order for an interlayer scattering.

  3. Nuclear Waste Analytical Round Robins 1-6 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.L.; Marschman, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    The MCC has conducted six round robins for the waste management, research, and development community from 1987 to present. The laboratories participating regularly are Ames, Argonne, Catholic University, Lawrence Livermore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Savannah River, and West Valley Nuclear. Glass types analyzed in these round robins all have been simulated nuclear waste compositions expected from vitrification of high-level nuclear waste. A wide range of analytical procedures have been used by the participating laboratories including Atomic Absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, direct current plasma-emission spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy techniques. Consensus average relative error for Round Robins 1 through 6 is 5.4%, with values ranging from 9.4 to 1.1%. Trend on the average improved with each round robin. When the laboratories analyzed samples over longer periods of time, the intralaboratory variability increased. Lab-to-lab variation accounts for most of the total variability found in all the round robins. Participation in the radiochemistry portion has been minimal, and analytical results poor compared to nonradiochemistry portion. Additional radiochemical work is needed in future round robins.

  4. Airway management in pierre robin sequence: patterns of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Benjamin; Powitzky, Rosser; Robledo, Candace; Rose, Christopher; Glade, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Objectives : To report survey results from American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association members on the practice patterns of airway obstruction management in patients with Pierre Robin sequence. Design : A 10-question online survey was sent and the data were reviewed. Setting : Online survey of members of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. Patients : Surveys assessed management patterns of patients with Pierre Robin sequence whom a surgeon member of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association treated for airway obstruction. Interventions : The survey comprised data on management strategies for airway obstruction in Pierre Robin sequence, including tracheostomy, tongue-lip adhesion, mandibular distraction, and treatments that falls in the "other" category. Results : A total of 87 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association members completed the survey. Respondents' results were analyzed as a whole and by individual subspecialty: plastic surgery (n = 33), oromaxillofacial surgery (n = 21), and otolaryngology (n = 29). Although most of the surgeons were trained to manage airway obstruction in Pierre Robin sequence patients using tracheostomy (47%, n = 39) and tongue-lip adhesion (31%, n = 26), 48% reported a current preference for mandibular distraction (n = 40). Of surgeons who preferred to manage Pierre Robin sequence with tongue-lip adhesion (n = 23), 65% were trained to do so (n = 15). Surgeons preferring mandibular distraction (n = 40) and tracheostomy (n = 14) more often reported they were trained to manage Pierre Robin sequence with tracheostomy. Conclusions : Currently there are various practice patterns for the management of airway obstruction in Pierre Robin sequence. Training habits and subspecialty category may influence a surgeon's preference in patients who fail conservative therapy. Treatment guidelines are lacking and may require significant collaboration among centers and subspecialties to develop a more standardized

  5. Atomistic study of mixing at high Z / low Z interfaces at Warm Dense Matter Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimali, Tomorr; Glosli, James; Rudd, Robert; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Team

    2016-10-01

    We use atomistic simulations to study different aspects of mixing occurring at an initially sharp interface of high Z and low Z plasmas in the Warm/Hot Dense Matter regime. We consider a system of Diamond (the low Z component) in contact with Ag (the high Z component), which undergoes rapid isochoric heating from room temperature up to 10 eV, rapidly changing the solids into warm dense matter at solid density. We simulate the motion of ions via the screened Coulomb potential. The electric field, the electron density and ionizations level are computed on the fly by solving Poisson equation. The spatially varying screening lengths computed from the electron cloud are included in this effective interaction; the electrons are not simulated explicitly. We compute the electric field generated at the Ag-C interface as well as the dynamics of the ions during the mixing process occurring at the plasma interface. Preliminary results indicate an anomalous transport of high Z ions (Ag) into the low Z component (C); a phenomenon that is partially related to the enhanced transport of ions due to the generated electric field. These results are in agreement with recent experimental observation on Au-diamond plasma interface. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Wildfire hazard mapping: exploring site conditions in eastern US wildland—ruban interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Peters; Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews; Anantha M. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires are a serious threat for land managers and property owners, and over the last few decades this threat has expanded as a result of increased rural development. Most wildfires in the north-eastern US occur in the wildland—urban interface, those regions of intermingling urban and non-developed vegetated lands, where access to firefighting resources can...

  7. Spin-wave mode profiles versus surface/interface conditions in ferromagnetic Fe/Ni layered composites

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, M; Levy, J C S; Mercier, D

    2003-01-01

    Spin-wave excitations in ferromagnetic layered composite (AB centre dot centre dot centre dot BA; A and B being different homogeneous ferromagnetic materials) are analysed theoretically, by means of the transfer matrix approach. The properties of multilayer spin-wave mode profiles are discussed in relation to multilayer characteristics, such as the filling fraction and the exchange or magnetization contrast; also, surface spin pinning conditions and dipolar interactions are taken into account. The interface conditions are satisfied by introducing an effective exchange field expressed by interface gradients of the exchange constant and the magnetization. This approach provides an easy way to find frequencies and amplitudes of standing spin waves in the multilayer. The developed theory is applied to interpretation of spin wave resonance (SWR) spectra obtained experimentally by Chambers et al in two systems: a bilayer Fe/Ni and a trilayer Ni/Fe/Ni, in perpendicular (to the multilayer surface) configuration of th...

  8. ICRPG WORKING GROUP ON ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY ROUND ROBIN NO. 22 -- EUDIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF POWDERED ALUMINUM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical Chemistry voted to conduct a round robin to estimate the interlaboratory reproducibility. The round robin was designed to facilitate statistical analysis of the data. Three samples representing different purity levels as

  9. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  10. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U; Slotwinski, John

    2016-03-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST's experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed.

  11. 76 FR 66709 - Trunkline Gas Company, LLC, Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Trunkline Gas Company, LLC, Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 7, 2011, Trunkline Gas Company, LLC (Trunkline) and Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Sea Robin), together referred to as Applicants, both located at 5444 Westheimer...

  12. 78 FR 51182 - Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 31, 2013, Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Sea Robin), P. O. Box 4967....205(b) and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Sea...

  13. Round Robin Reading: Considering Alternative Instructional Practices That Make More Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how preservice teachers in a reading methods course investigated the prevalence of round-robin reading in 72 elementary classrooms. Finds that the majority of the teachers used round-robin reading. Notes that the preservice teachers became acutely aware of what really goes on during round robin reading. Discusses five alternatives to…

  14. Total transmission of incident plane waves that satisfy the Brewster conditions at a free-space-chiral interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ezekiel

    2010-09-01

    The common definition of the Brewster angles for dielectric and magnetic achiral materials are the angles at which the vertically and horizontally polarized reflection coefficients vanish. We examine broader definitions of the Brewster conditions for waves that are incident on a free-space-chiral interface. Besides the common definition, the Brewster angles have been defined as the angles at which the polarizations of the reflected waves are independent of the polarizations of the incident waves. We consider total transmission of incident plane waves that satisfy the Brewster conditions at a free-space-chiral medium planar interface. In this case we determine the polarization of the incident wave for which the reflected vertically and horizontally polarized waves vanish simultaneously. Thus with this definition of the Brewster conditions the polarization of the reflected wave is undefined. The conditions for the excitation of surface waves are considered. The characteristic polarizations that are the same for the reflected and incident waves are also examined subject to the Brewster conditions. Potential applications of this analysis are to experimentally determine the chiral or geotropic measure of the medium and to identify and characterize biological and chemical materials through their optical activity in real time. Several independent measurements can be taken with the same polarimetric instrument to avoid false identifications. Since measurements can be conducted in the reflection mode they can be nonintrusive.

  15. Round-Robin Test of Paraffin Phase-Change Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, S.; Mehling, H.; Hemberger, F.; Haussmann, Th.; Laube, A.

    2015-11-01

    A round-robin test between three institutes was performed on a paraffin phase-change material (PCM) in the context of the German quality association for phase-change materials. The aim of the quality association is to define quality and test specifications for PCMs and to award certificates for successfully tested materials. To ensure the reproducibility and comparability of the measurements performed at different institutes using different measuring methods, a round-robin test was performed. The sample was unknown. The four methods used by the three participating institutes in the round-robin test were differential scanning calorimetry, Calvet calorimetry and three-layer calorimetry. Additionally, T-history measurements were made. The aim of the measurements was the determination of the enthalpy as a function of temperature. The results achieved following defined test specifications are in excellent agreement.

  16. A Variational Approach to the Isoperimetric Inequality for the Robin Eigenvalue Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Dorin; Giacomini, Alessandro

    2010-12-01

    The isoperimetric inequality for the first eigenvalue of the Laplace operator with Robin boundary conditions was recently proved by Daners in the context of Lipschitz sets. This paper introduces a new approach to the isoperimetric inequality, based on the theory of special functions of bounded variation (SBV). We extend the notion of the first eigenvalue λ1 for general domains with finite volume (possibly unbounded and with irregular boundary), and we prove that the balls are the unique minimizers of λ1 among domains with prescribed volume.

  17. Anesthetic Challenges in an Adult with Pierre Robin Sequence, Severe Juvenile Scoliosis, and Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Alyse N; Porteous, Grete H; Neal, Joseph M

    2015-09-15

    Anesthesiologists have the privilege and challenge of providing care for an extremely diverse population of patients, at times in urgent or emergent situations. We present a case of a 31-year-old woman with Pierre Robin sequence, severe juvenile scoliosis, and respiratory failure who underwent successful awake nasal fiberoptic intubation for tracheostomy at an adult tertiary care medical center. Familiarity with patient conditions infrequently encountered within our practice, as well as adherence to practice guidelines, proved essential to providing our patient with the safest care possible.

  18. Low temperature characterization of mobility in 14 nm FD-SOI CMOS devices under interface coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Minju; Shi, Ming; Mouis, Mireille; Cros, Antoine; Josse, Emmanuel; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Ghibaudo, Gérard

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the powerful methodology of electronic transport characterization in highly scaled (down to 14 nm-node) FDSOI CMOS devices using cryogenic operation under interface coupling measurement condition. Thanks to this approach, the underlying scattering mechanisms were revealed in terms of their origin and diffusion center location. At first we study quantitatively transport behavior induced by the high-k/metal gate stack in long channel case, and then we investigate the transport properties evolution in highly scaled devices. Mobility degradation in short devices is shown to stem from additional scattering mechanisms, unlike long channel devices, which are attributed to process-induced defects near source and drain region. Especially in PMOS devices, channel-material related defects which could be denser close to front interface also induce mobility degradation.

  19. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio eSakurai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interface (BMI. We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  20. Atomic-Scale Analysis of the RuO2/Water Interface under Electrochemical Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Rossmeisl, Jan; Björketun, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the interface between ruthenium oxide and water was examined using density functional theory calculations for a range of pH and electrode potential values, and the results were summarized in a surface Pourbaix diagram. The results indicate that pH affects the interfacial structure...... the formal Ru valency and the structure of the primary water layer by altering the work function of the interfacial structure. We hypothesize that the effects of pH on the hydrogen bond network and formal valency observed in this work also apply to other transition-metal oxides....

  1. Nondegeneracy and uniqueness of positive solutions for Robin problem of second order ordinary differential equations and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qiuyi; Fu, Yuxia

    This article studies positive solutions of Robin problem for semi-linear second order ordinary differential equations. Nondegeneracy and uniqueness results are proven for homogeneous differential equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of one or two positive solutions for inhomogeneous differential equations or differential equations with concave-convex nonlinearities are obtained by making use of the nondegeneracy and uniqueness results for positive solutions of homogeneous differential equations.

  2. 'MDI Wind' machine diagnostic interface. The online condition monitoring system that's not just for wind turbines; Machine Diagnostic Interface 'MDI-Wind'. Online Condition Monitoring System nicht nur fuer Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicke, Andreas [ThyssenKrupp System Engineering GmbH, Langenhagen (Germany). Messtechnik

    2012-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to be able to implement condition monitoring to protect high-grade investments such as wind turbines and other major industrial plant and installations. ThyssenKrupp System Engineering has developed a Machine Diagnostic Interface (MDI) for this purpose that is based on proven and reliable standard components in terms of the hardware used. As regards the software, the measuring and automation system used is based on mature technology, was developed in-house and has proved its worth over many years on testing and assembly lines in the automotive and supply industry. The basic concept of the Condition Monitoring System (CMS) and the essential technical elements of the MDI are introduced here. The development was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). (orig.)

  3. Reading Robin Kelsey's "Archive Style" across the Archival Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's comments on Robin Kelsey's "Archive Style: Photographs and Illustrations for U.S. Surveys, 1850-1890," a book about government documents that happen to be visual materials. The word "archive" now has intellectual cache in the academic world, but its currency has little to do with the "real world of archives" as…

  4. Addition and subtraction in wild New Zealand robins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason

    2014-11-01

    This experiment aimed to investigate proto-arithmetic ability in a wild population of New Zealand robins. We investigated numerical competence from the context of computation: behavioural responses to arithmetic operations over small numbers of prey objects (mealworms). Robins' behavioural responses (such as search time) to the simple addition and subtraction problems presented in a Violation of Expectancy (VoE) paradigm were measured. Either a congruent (expected) or incongruent (unexpected) quantity of food items were hidden in a trap door out of view of the subject. Within view of the subject, a quantity of items were added into (and in some cases subtracted from) the apparatus which was either the same as that hidden, or different. Robins were then allowed them to find a quantity that either preserved or violated addition and subtraction outcomes. Robins searched around the apparatus longer when presented with an incongruent scenario violating arithmetic rules, demonstrating potential proto-arithmetic awareness of changes in prey quantity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  5. A Robin Problem for Quasi-linear System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    0UYANGCheng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a Robin problem for quasi-linear system is considered. Under the appropriate assumptions, the existence of solution for the problem is proved and the asymptotic behavior of the solution is studied using the theory of differential inequalities.

  6. Tongue-lip adhesion in Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, K S; Vylopilli, Suresh; Sivadasan, Anand; Pati, Ajit Kumar; Narayanan, Saju; Nair, Santhy Mohanachandran

    2016-02-01

    Patients with Pierre Robin sequence exhibit varying degrees of airway obstruction and feeding difficulty. In some patients, airway obstruction may be profound, warranting surgical intervention to maintain a patent airway. The purpose of this article is to highlight the advantages of the tongue-lip adhesion procedure for the management of airway obstruction in such patients compared to the currently available options.

  7. Topology-based hierarchical scheduling using deficit round robin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Yan, Ying; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme using Deficit Round Robin (DRR). The main idea of the topology-based hierarchical scheduling is to map the topology of the connected network into the logical structure of the scheduler, and combine several token schedulers...

  8. Round-robin test of heat flux sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turzo-Andras, E.; Blokland, H.; Hammerschmidt, U.; Rudtsch, S.; Stacey, C.; Krös, C.; Magyarlaki, T.; Nemeth, S.

    2011-01-01

    The first intercomparison on the density of heat flow-rate measurements has been organized by MKEH (Hungarian Trade Licensing Office, Metrology Division) within the framework of EUROMET (Project No. 426). This round-robin test gives evidence about the measurement capabilities of the local realizatio

  9. Evaluation of Round Robin Approaches in Teaching Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    One approach in the teaching of reading that is criticized a lot is the round robin procedure in which the teacher, generally in a heterogeneously grouped classroom, forms three reading subgroups for instruction purposes. Each of the groups is as homogenous as possible. The teacher teaches one subgroup, while the other two are profitably engaged…

  10. A Systematic Approach to Structuring Round Robin Leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Frank

    Commonly, tournament directors are responsible for organizing round robin leagues for team sports that have several divisions of play. On occasion, the director may have to operate under certain constraints that limit the number of games that can be played per day and the number of days that can be utilized. After receiving entries in each…

  11. Round-Robin Peer Evaluations Require Candid Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a round-robin technique (in which each faculty member is evaluated by all the others in a single session) developed by a small, highly specialized faculty group to meet a new peer evaluation requirement. Notes that this technique does not require classroom observation, but still provides comprehensive and useful critiques. (SR)

  12. Comparison of CPX systems with Round Robin Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinink, F.; Blokland, G. van; Roo, F. de; Derksen, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    The CPX method (ISO/CD 11819-2) is regularly used for assessing the acoustic quality of road surface within the frame work of checking with compliance to contract requirements nd conformity-of-production. The reproducibility of the test procedure is investigated ith a Round Robin test in which 7 ope

  13. "Robin Hood" on Ropes in Texas School Aid Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Texas has had its Robin Hood school financing system in place since 1993, when the legislature adopted the system in response to a state supreme court order to equalize state spending on public schools. Under the arrangement, any district that has taxable property values exceeding $305,000 per student is not allowed to keep all of its property-tax…

  14. Places to Go: Robin Good's Master New Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Stephen Downes visits Robin Good's Master NewMedia, a Web site dedicated to Web 2.0 in both thought and deed. The site both utilizes the design principles and technologies central to the concept of Web 2.0--relentless referencing, cross-referencing, and linking to a wide variety of articles from across the Web; a fluid and often chaotic…

  15. Robin sequence associated with karyotypic mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, C.F.; Jastrzab, J.M.; Centu, E.S. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Robin sequence is characterized by cleft palate, hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis and respiratory difficulties. The Robin sequence may be observed as an isolated defect or as part of about 33 syndromes; however, to our knowledge, it has never been reported associated with chromosome 22 abnormalities. We examined a two-month-old black boy with a severe case of Robin sequence. Exam revealed a small child with hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis, high palate and respiratory difficulty with continuous apnea episodes resulting in cyanotic lips and nails. In order to relieve the upper airway obstruction, his tongue was attached to the lower lip. Later a tracheostomy was performed. On follow-up exam, this patient was found to have developmental delay. Cytogenetic studies of both peripheral blood and fibroblast cells showed mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities which were designated as follows: 45,XY,-22/46,XY,-22,+r(22)/46,XY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies confirmed the identity of the r(22) and showed the presence of the DiGeorge locus (D22575) but the absence of the D22539 locus which maps to 22q13.3. Reported cases of r(22) show no association with Robin sequence. However, r(22) has been associated with flat bridge of the nose, bulbous tip of the nose, epicanthus and high palate, all characteristics that we also observed in this case. These unusual cytogenetic findings may be causally related to the dysmorphology found in the patient we report.

  16. Thermal conductance of the AlN/Si and AlN/SiC interfaces calculated with taking into account the detailed phonon spectra of the materials and the interface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazan, M. [LNIO, ICD, CNRS (FRE2848), Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 10010-Troyes (France); Pereira, S.; Correia, M.R. [CICECO and I3N, University of Aveiro, Aveiro-3810-193 (Portugal); Masri, P. [GES, CNRS-UMR 5650, Universite de Montpellier II, Montpellier-34095 (France)

    2010-01-15

    We present a calculation of the thermal conductance (TC) of the interface between aluminium nitride (AlN) and silicon (Si) and that between AlN and silicon carbide (SiC) with taking into account the detailed phonon spectra of the materials, as obtained from first principles calculations, and the interface conditions. On the basis of the results obtained, we discuss the relation between the interface TC, the interface conditions, and the mismatches between the acoustic waves velocities and the phonon densities of states of the materials in contact. Our calculation method is expected to provide a reliable tool for thermal management strategy, independently from the substrate choice (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Correlation of Impact Conditions, Interface Reactions, Microstructural Evolution, and Mechanical Properties in Kinetic Spraying of Metals: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeick; Lee, Changhee

    2016-09-01

    In the past, most studies into kinetic spraying technology focused on basic research, but a large portion of current research is devoted to industrial applications of the technology. To advance, however, studies about industrial applications of kinetic spraying require profound understanding of the scientific foundations of the kinetic spray process. Nevertheless, no one has yet provided a well-organized summary of the correlations among impact conditions, interface reactions, microstructural evolution, and mechanical properties across the whole field of kinetic spraying technology. This paper provides such an overview of these correlations for kinetic spraying of metals. For each correlation, the interactions between the given conditions and the material properties of the metal feedstock powder are the most influential. These interactions are so complicated that it is difficult to systematically classify all cases into certain types. Nonetheless, we try to explain and summarize the critical factors and their roles in each relationship.

  18. Correlation of Impact Conditions, Interface Reactions, Microstructural Evolution, and Mechanical Properties in Kinetic Spraying of Metals: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeick; Lee, Changhee

    2016-12-01

    In the past, most studies into kinetic spraying technology focused on basic research, but a large portion of current research is devoted to industrial applications of the technology. To advance, however, studies about industrial applications of kinetic spraying require profound understanding of the scientific foundations of the kinetic spray process. Nevertheless, no one has yet provided a well-organized summary of the correlations among impact conditions, interface reactions, microstructural evolution, and mechanical properties across the whole field of kinetic spraying technology. This paper provides such an overview of these correlations for kinetic spraying of metals. For each correlation, the interactions between the given conditions and the material properties of the metal feedstock powder are the most influential. These interactions are so complicated that it is difficult to systematically classify all cases into certain types. Nonetheless, we try to explain and summarize the critical factors and their roles in each relationship.

  19. Nursing Care for Neonatal Pierre-Robin Syndrome%新生儿Pierre-Robin综合征的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 周定琼; 万兴丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the nursing experiences and methods for Neonatal Pierre-Robin Syndrome. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 9 new born babies with Pierre-Robin Syndrome treated in our hospital from February 2005 to July 2011. Results Among the 9 patients, 2 had their conditions improved and were discharged from the hospital; the other 7 patients also had their conditions improved after receiving the therapy for 4 to 17 days, but left the hospital without medical order because of economical and some family factors. Conclusion For neonates suffering from Pierre-Robin Syndrome, maintaining proper position, conducting airway management, feeding correctly and preventing infections are the key points of nursing care.%目的 探讨新生儿Pierre-Robin综合征的护理经验和方法.方法 回顾分析2005年2月-2011年7月收治的9例Pierre-Robin综合征新生儿的临床资料.结果 2例好转出院,7例治疗4~17d后均有所好转,但因家庭原因自动放弃出院.结论 对Pierre1-Robin综合征的患儿保持合适体位、加强呼吸道管理、合理喂养、预防感染是护理的关键.

  20. The Effect of Initial Conditions on the Nonlinear Evolution of Perturbed Interfaces Driven by Strong Blast Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, A

    2004-04-27

    In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and

  1. The Effect of Initial Conditions on the Nonlinear Evolution of Perturbed Interfaces Driven by Strong Blast Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, Aaron R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and

  2. Effects of Atmospheric Conditions and the Land/Atmospheric Interface on Transport of Chemical Vapors from Subsurface Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. K.; Smits, K. M.; Cihan, A.; Howington, S. E.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the movement of chemical vapors and gas through variably saturated soil subjected to atmospheric thermal and mass flux boundary conditions at the land/atmospheric interface is important to many applications, including landmine detection, methane leakage during natural gas production from shale and CO2 leakage from deep geologic storage. New, advanced technologies exist to sense chemical signatures and gas leakage at the land/atmosphere interface, but interpretation of sensor signals remains a challenge. Chemical vapors are subject to numerous interactions while migrating through the soil environment, masking source conditions. The process governing movement of gases through porous media is often assumed to be Fickian diffusion through the air phase with minimal quantification of other processes, such as convective gas flow and temporal or spatial variation in soil moisture. Vapor migration is affected by atmospheric conditions (e.g. humidity, temperature, wind velocity), soil thermal and hydraulic properties and contaminant properties, all of which are physically and thermodynamically coupled. The complex coupling of two drastically different flow regimes in the subsurface and atmosphere is commonly ignored in modeling efforts, or simplifying assumptions are made to treat the systems as de-coupled. Experimental data under controlled laboratory settings are lacking to refine the theory for proper coupling and complex treatment of vapor migration through porous media in conversation with atmospheric flow and climate variations. Improving fundamental understanding and accurate quantification of these processes is not feasible in field settings due to lack of controlled initial and boundary conditions and inability to fully characterize the subsurface at all relevant scales. The goal of this work is to understand the influence of changes in atmospheric conditions to transport of vapors through variably saturated soil. We have developed a tank apparatus

  3. Tomography-based characterization of ice-air interface dynamics of temperature gradient snow metamorphism under advective conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Pirmin Philipp; Andreoli, Christian; Schneebeli, Martin; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-12-01

    Snow at or close to the surface commonly undergoes temperature gradient metamorphism under advective flow, which alters its microstructure and physical properties. A functional understanding of this process is essential for many disciplines, from modeling the effects of snow on regional and global climate to assessing avalanche formation. Time-lapse X-ray microtomography was applied to investigate the structural dynamics of temperature gradient snow metamorphism exposed to an advective airflow in controlled laboratory conditions. Experiments specifically analyzed sublimation and deposition of water vapor on the ice structure. In addition, an analysis of the ice-air interface dynamics was carried out using a macroscopic equivalent model of heat and water vapor transport through a snow layer. The results indicate that sublimation of the ice matrix dominated for flow rates surface area and thus suggest a change of the physical and optical properties of the snow. The estimated values of the curvature effect of the ice crystals and the interface kinetic coefficient are in good agreement with previously published values.

  4. Toward a brain-computer interface for Alzheimer's disease patients by combining classical conditioning and brain state classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Giulia; Dalboni da Rocha, Josué Luiz; van der Heiden, Linda; Raffone, Antonino; Birbaumer, Niels; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide alternative methods for communicating and acting on the world, since messages or commands are conveyed from the brain to an external device without using the normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in the most advanced stages, who have lost the ability to communicate verbally, could benefit from a BCI that may allow them to convey basic thoughts (e.g., "yes" and "no") and emotions. There is currently no report of such research, mostly because the cognitive deficits in AD patients pose serious limitations to the use of traditional BCIs, which are normally based on instrumental learning and require users to self-regulate their brain activation. Recent studies suggest that not only self-regulated brain signals, but also involuntary signals, for instance related to emotional states, may provide useful information about the user, opening up the path for so-called "affective BCIs". These interfaces do not necessarily require users to actively perform a cognitive task, and may therefore be used with patients who are cognitively challenged. In the present hypothesis paper, we propose a paradigm shift from instrumental learning to classical conditioning, with the aim of discriminating "yes" and "no" thoughts after associating them to positive and negative emotional stimuli respectively. This would represent a first step in the development of a BCI that could be used by AD patients, lending a new direction not only for communication, but also for rehabilitation and diagnosis.

  5. Round robin analysis on stress intensity factor of inner surface cracks in welded stainless steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang Gi; Chang, Yoon Suk [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Maan Won [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs) were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  6. Round Robin Analyses on Stress Intensity Factors of Inner Surface Cracks in Welded Stainless Steel Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  7. Transparent boundary conditions for time-dependent electron transport in the R-matrix method with applications to nanostructured interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemnes, G. A.; Palici, Alexandra; Manolescu, A.

    2016-11-01

    Transparent boundary conditions for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented using the R-matrix method. The employed scattering formalism is suitable for describing open quantum systems and provides the framework for the time-dependent coherent transport. Transmission and reflection of wave functions at the edges of a finite quantum system are essential for an accurate and efficient description of the time-dependent processes on large time scales. We detail the computational method and point out the numerical advantages stemming from the open system approach based on the R-matrix formalism. The approach is used here to describe time-dependent transport across nanostructured interfaces relevant for photovoltaic applications.

  8. Sonification of in-vehicle interface reduces gaze movements under dual-task condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, Julien; Misdariis, Nicolas; Langlois, Sabine; Gaillard, Pascal; Lemercier, Céline

    2015-09-01

    In-car infotainment systems (ICIS) often degrade driving performances since they divert the driver's gaze from the driving scene. Sonification of hierarchical menus (such as those found in most ICIS) is examined in this paper as one possible solution to reduce gaze movements towards the visual display. In a dual-task experiment in the laboratory, 46 participants were requested to prioritize a primary task (a continuous target detection task) and to simultaneously navigate in a realistic mock-up of an ICIS, either sonified or not. Results indicated that sonification significantly increased the time spent looking at the primary task, and significantly decreased the number and the duration of gaze saccades towards the ICIS. In other words, the sonified ICIS could be used nearly exclusively by ear. On the other hand, the reaction times in the primary task were increased in both silent and sonified conditions. This study suggests that sonification of secondary tasks while driving could improve the driver's visual attention of the driving scene.

  9. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  10. Robins have a magnetic compass in both eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christine Maira; Engels, Svenja; Kishkinev, Dmitry; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2011-03-31

    Arising from W. Wiltschko et al. 419, 467-470 (2002); Wiltschko et al. replyThe magnetic compass of migratory birds is embedded in the visual system and it has been reported by Wiltschko et al. that European Robins, Erithacus rubecula, cannot show magnetic compass orientation using their left eye only. This has led to the notion that the magnetic compass should be located only in the right eye of birds. However, a complete right lateralization of the magnetic compass would be very surprising, and functional neuroanatomical data have questioned this notion. Here we show that the results of Wiltschko et al. could not be independently confirmed using double-blind protocols. European Robins can perform magnetic compass orientation with both eyes open, with the left eye open only, and with the right eye open only. No clear lateralization is observed.

  11. Lobbyisten bekræfter teorien: en omvendt Robin Hood!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    Lobbyisten gør præcis det, teorien forudsiger han vil gøre: Som en omvendt Robin Hood springer han frem ad busken for at forsvare de få og rige mod de mange og små. I mit tidligere eksempel forsvarer han altså kartellet på 5 forsikringsselskaber mod 1 million forsikringstagere.......Lobbyisten gør præcis det, teorien forudsiger han vil gøre: Som en omvendt Robin Hood springer han frem ad busken for at forsvare de få og rige mod de mange og små. I mit tidligere eksempel forsvarer han altså kartellet på 5 forsikringsselskaber mod 1 million forsikringstagere....

  12. Round-Robin approach to data flow optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, J.

    1978-01-01

    A large data base, circular in structure, was required (for the Voyager Mission to Jupiter/Saturn) with the capability to completely update the data every four hours during high activity periods. The data is stored in key ordered format for retrieval but is not input in key order. Existing access methods for large data bases with rapid data replacement by keys become inefficient as the volume of data being replaced grows. The Round-Robin method was developed to alleviate this problem. The Round-Robin access method allows rapid updating of the data with continuous self cleaning where the oldest data (by key) is deleted and the newest data (by key) is kept regardless of the order of input.

  13. Lobbyisten bekræfter teorien: en omvendt Robin Hood!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    Lobbyisten gør præcis det, teorien forudsiger han vil gøre: Som en omvendt Robin Hood springer han frem ad busken for at forsvare de få og rige mod de mange og små. I mit tidligere eksempel forsvarer han altså kartellet på 5 forsikringsselskaber mod 1 million forsikringstagere.......Lobbyisten gør præcis det, teorien forudsiger han vil gøre: Som en omvendt Robin Hood springer han frem ad busken for at forsvare de få og rige mod de mange og små. I mit tidligere eksempel forsvarer han altså kartellet på 5 forsikringsselskaber mod 1 million forsikringstagere....

  14. A robin perches on a branch at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A robin perches on a branch in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with the space center. Robins range throughout North America, from Alaska to Florida. Although considered a harbinger of spring, they do winter in northern states, frequenting cedar bogs and swamps. They also winter in Florida, where they often can be seen in flocks of hundreds near KSC and the wildlife refuge, which comprises 92,000 acres, ranging from hardwood hammocks and pine flatwoods to fresh-water impoundments, salt-water estuaries and brackish marshes. The diverse landscape provides habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles, including such endangered species as Southern bald eagles, wood storks, Florida scrub jays, Atlantic loggerhead and leatherback turtles, osprey, and nearly 5,000 alligators.

  15. Air Force Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of NATO Round Robin Propellant Testing for Development of AOP-4717

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-23

    Round Robin Propellant Testing for Development of AOP-4717 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...area code) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 0 Air Force Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of NATO Round Robin ...the clamps are tight at the coldest temperature. • Long tests such as the frequency sweep sequences prescribed in this round robin may be

  16. Manipulating Tournaments in Cup and Round Robin Competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Tyrel; 10.1007/978-3-642-04428-1_3

    2009-01-01

    In sports competitions, teams can manipulate the result by, for instance, throwing games. We show that we can decide how to manipulate round robin and cup competitions, two of the most popular types of sporting competitions in polynomial time. In addition, we show that finding the minimal number of games that need to be thrown to manipulate the result can also be determined in polynomial time. Finally, we show that there are several different variations of standard cup competitions where manipulation remains polynomial.

  17. Ischiospinal Dysostosis in a Child with Pierre-Robin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Almasri; Waleed Kishta; Abduljabbar, Fahad H.; Vincent Arlet; Neil Saran; Jean Oullet

    2017-01-01

    Ischiospinal Dysostosis (ISD) is a complex and very rare medical entity. It is associated with kyphoscoliosis, dysplasia or aplasia of the ischial rami, segmental anomalies of the bony vertebrae, and peculiar facial morphologies. In this case report, we present a child with Ischiospinal Dysostosis and Pierre-Robin Syndrome. This case report is unique as we followed the patient for 13 years in which he had multiple spinal procedures to treat his kyphoscoliosis. In this paper, we elucidated the...

  18. Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species.

  19. Implications of spatial patterns of roosting and movements of American robins for West Nile virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J; Ward, Michael P; Lampman, Richard L; Raim, Arlo; Weatherhead, Patrick J

    2012-10-01

    The arrival of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America has led to interest in the interaction between birds, the amplification hosts of WNV, and Culex mosquitoes, the primary WNV vectors. American robins (Turdus migratorius) are particularly important amplification hosts of WNV, and because the vector Culex mosquitoes are primarily nocturnal and feed on roosting birds, robin communal roosting behavior may play an important role in the transmission ecology of WNV. Using data from 43 radio-tracked individuals, we determined spatial and temporal patterns of robin roosting behavior, and how these patterns related to the distribution of WNV-infected mosquitoes. Use of the communal roost and fidelity to foraging areas was highly variable both within and among individual robins, and differed markedly from patterns documented in a previous study of robin roosting. Although there were clear seasonal patterns to both robin roosting and WNV occurrence, there was no significant relationship between communal roosting by robins and temporal or spatial patterns of WNV-positive mosquitoes. Our results suggest that, although robins may be important as WNV hosts, communal roosts are not necessarily important for WNV amplification. Other factors, including the availability and distribution of high-quality mosquito habitat and favorable weather for mosquito reproduction, may influence the importance of robin roosts for local WNV amplification and transmission.

  20. Operant conditioning of a multiple degree-of-freedom brain-machine interface in a primate model of amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Southerland, Joshua; Vaidya, Mukta; Qian, Kai; Eleryan, Ahmed; Fagg, Andrew H; Sluzky, Marc; Oweiss, Karim; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Operant conditioning with biofeedback has been shown to be an effective method to modify neural activity to generate goal-directed actions in a brain-machine interface. It is particularly useful when neural activity cannot be mathematically mapped to motor actions of the actual body such as in the case of amputation. Here, we implement an operant conditioning approach with visual feedback in which an amputated monkey is trained to control a multiple degree-of-freedom robot to perform a reach-to-grasp behavior. A key innovation is that each controlled dimension represents a behaviorally relevant synergy among a set of joint degrees-of-freedom. We present a number of behavioral metrics by which to assess improvements in BMI control with exposure to the system. The use of non-human primates with chronic amputation is arguably the most clinically-relevant model of human amputation that could have direct implications for developing a neural prosthesis to treat humans with missing upper limbs.

  1. Pierre Robin sequence: Subdivision, data, theories, and treatment – Part 3: Prevailing controversial theories related to Pierre Robin sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütow, Kurt-W; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur; Morkel, Jean A.; Naidoo, Sharan

    2016-01-01

    Context: The disorder currently accepted as Pierre Robin syndrome/anomaly/sequence (PRS) has been plagued by controversy ever since initially being described. Controversy exists not only about the appropriate terminology and etiopathogenesis of the disorder but also about its management. Therefore, clinical findings and treatment outcomes of a large database of 266 PRS cases were compared with the current state of knowledge in the scientific literature related to history, clinical description, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, theories of oligohydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, midfacial hyperplasia, and the early management. Aim: The aims of Part 3 debate the controversial biological theories relating to PRS. Materials and Methods: Oligo-/poly-hydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, and midfacial hyperplasia, the three in the literature most prevailing theories related to PRS, have been compared and discussed with the findings provided by this large database of 266 Siebold-Robin sequence (SRS) and Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT) cases. Results: History and clinical findings evaluated in this database refute the first two theories. Although manifold midfacial appearances were demonstrated in FRT cases, a third of all SRS cases presented with mid-facial hyperplasia. Conclusion: The three main biological theories regarding PRS could not be verified after thorough analysis of the database. PMID:27563605

  2. Conditional associative learning examined in a paralyzed patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using brain-computer interface technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birbaumer N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-computer interface methodology based on self-regulation of slow-cortical potentials (SCPs of the EEG (electroencephalogram was used to assess conditional associative learning in one severely paralyzed, late-stage ALS patient. After having been taught arbitrary stimulus relations, he was evaluated for formation of equivalence classes among the trained stimuli. Methods A monitor presented visual information in two targets. The method of teaching was matching to sample. Three types of stimuli were presented: signs (A, colored disks (B, and geometrical shapes (C. The sample was one type, and the choice was between two stimuli from another type. The patient used his SCP to steer a cursor to one of the targets. A smiley was presented as a reward when he hit the correct target. The patient was taught A-B and B-C (sample – comparison matching with three stimuli of each type. Tests for stimulus equivalence involved the untaught B-A, C-B, A-C, and C-A relations. An additional test was discrimination between all three stimuli of one equivalence class presented together versus three unrelated stimuli. The patient also had sessions with identity matching using the same stimuli. Results The patient showed high accuracy, close to 100%, on identity matching and could therefore discriminate the stimuli and control the cursor correctly. Acquisition of A-B matching took 11 sessions (of 70 trials each and had to be broken into simpler units before he could learn it. Acquisition of B-C matching took two sessions. The patient passed all equivalence class tests at 90% or higher. Conclusion The patient may have had a deficit in acquisition of the first conditional association of signs and colored disks. In contrast, the patient showed clear evidence that A-B and B-C training had resulted in formation of equivalence classes. The brain-computer interface technology combined with the matching to sample method is a useful way to assess various

  3. Conditional associative learning examined in a paralyzed patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using brain-computer interface technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, IH; Ghanayim, N; Kübler, A; Neumann, N; Birbaumer, N; Kaiser, J

    2008-01-01

    Background Brain-computer interface methodology based on self-regulation of slow-cortical potentials (SCPs) of the EEG (electroencephalogram) was used to assess conditional associative learning in one severely paralyzed, late-stage ALS patient. After having been taught arbitrary stimulus relations, he was evaluated for formation of equivalence classes among the trained stimuli. Methods A monitor presented visual information in two targets. The method of teaching was matching to sample. Three types of stimuli were presented: signs (A), colored disks (B), and geometrical shapes (C). The sample was one type, and the choice was between two stimuli from another type. The patient used his SCP to steer a cursor to one of the targets. A smiley was presented as a reward when he hit the correct target. The patient was taught A-B and B-C (sample – comparison) matching with three stimuli of each type. Tests for stimulus equivalence involved the untaught B-A, C-B, A-C, and C-A relations. An additional test was discrimination between all three stimuli of one equivalence class presented together versus three unrelated stimuli. The patient also had sessions with identity matching using the same stimuli. Results The patient showed high accuracy, close to 100%, on identity matching and could therefore discriminate the stimuli and control the cursor correctly. Acquisition of A-B matching took 11 sessions (of 70 trials each) and had to be broken into simpler units before he could learn it. Acquisition of B-C matching took two sessions. The patient passed all equivalence class tests at 90% or higher. Conclusion The patient may have had a deficit in acquisition of the first conditional association of signs and colored disks. In contrast, the patient showed clear evidence that A-B and B-C training had resulted in formation of equivalence classes. The brain-computer interface technology combined with the matching to sample method is a useful way to assess various cognitive abilities of

  4. 高速铁路隧道内信号接口条件分析%Condition Analysis of Signal Interface for High Speed Railway Line in Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志颖

    2011-01-01

    从高速铁路信号系统在长大隧道内的设备安装及中继站设置的条件出发,说明预留接口条件的因素,提出相关接口预留方案,对其他相关线路设计起到指导作用。%Started from the conditions of installing equipment and setting of repeater station of high speed railway signal system in long tunnels,this paper mainly explained the reserved interface conditions and gave the reservation solution of relevant interfaces,

  5. Recent Advances on the Management of Robin Sequence%Robin序列征的治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万腾; 王国民

    2009-01-01

    @@ Robin序列征(Robin sequence,RS)是以小下颌或颌后缩、舌后坠、腭裂等为特点,由法国口腔医生Pierre Robin首先于1923年报道,故也曾被称为Pierre Robin综合征(Pierre Robin syndrome)、Pierre Robin序列征(Pierre Robin sequence)、Robin缺陷(Robin anomalad).

  6. Experimental Passive Round-Robin Differential Phase-Shift Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian-Yu; Cao, Zhu; Liu, Yang; Shen-Tu, Guo-Liang; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-05-01

    In quantum key distribution (QKD), the bit error rate is used to estimate the information leakage and hence determines the amount of privacy amplification—making the final key private by shortening the key. In general, there exists a threshold of the error rate for each scheme, above which no secure key can be generated. This threshold puts a restriction on the environment noises. For example, a widely used QKD protocol, the Bennett-Brassard protocol, cannot tolerate error rates beyond 25%. A new protocol, round-robin differential phase-shifted (RRDPS) QKD, essentially removes this restriction and can in principle tolerate more environment disturbance. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a passive RRDPS QKD scheme. In particular, our 500 MHz passive RRDPS QKD system is able to generate a secure key over 50 km with a bit error rate as high as 29%. This scheme should find its applications in noisy environment conditions.

  7. Computational modeling of optogenetic neuronal excitation under complex illumination conditions using a Matlab-Neuron interface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yona, Guy; Weissler, Yonatan; Meitav, Nizan; Guzi, Eliran; Rifold, Dafna D.; Kahn, Itamar; Shoham, Shy

    2016-03-01

    Optogenetics has in recent years become a central tool in neuroscience research. Creating a realistic model of optogenetic neuronal excitation is of crucial importance for controlling the activation levels of various neuronal populations in different depths, predicting experimental results and designing the optical systems. However, current approaches to modeling light propagation through rodents' brain tissue suffer from major shortcomings and comprehensive modeling of local illumination levels together with other important factors governing excitation (i.e., cellular morphology, channel dynamics and expression), are still lacking. To address this challenge we introduce a new simulation tool for optogenetic neuronal excitation under complex and realistic illumination conditions that implements a detailed physical model for light scattering (in MATLAB) together with neuron morphology and channelrhodopsin-2 model (in NEURON). These two disparate simulation environments were interconnected using a newly developed generic interface termed 'NeuroLab'. Applying this method, we show that in a layer-V cortical neuron, the relative contribution of the apical dendrites to neuronal excitation is considerably greater than that of the soma or basal dendrites, when illuminated from the surface.

  8. Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda) infection in a European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katie M; Harris, Eileen; Pocknell, Ann M; John, Shinto K; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2014-10-01

    A European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) found dead in England had marked blepharitis and periocular alopecia associated with Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda: Aproctidae) and concurrent mixed fungal infections. Aprocta cylindrica should be considered a differential diagnosis in periocular abnormalities of robins and other insectivorous, migratory passerines in Western Europe.

  9. Round-robin tournaments with minimum number of breaks and two teams per club

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van 't Pim; Post, Gerhard; Briskorn, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    We study round-robin tournaments for 2n teams. Here n is either interpreted as the number of clubs, each having two teams, or the number of strength groups with two teams each. For even n we give a construction of a single round-robin tournament for 2n teams with 2n - 2 breaks, where the teams of th

  10. Round-Robin Analysis of Social Interaction: Exact and Estimated Standard Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; Lashley, Brian R.

    1996-01-01

    The Social Relations model of D. A. Kenny estimates variances and covariances from a round-robin of two-person interactions. This paper presents a matrix formulation of the Social Relations model, using the formulation to derive exact and estimated standard errors for round-robin estimates of Social Relations parameters. (SLD)

  11. A novel round-robin based multicast scheduling algorithm for 100 Gigabit Ethernet switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a round-robin based multicast scheduling algorithm for high-speed input-queued switches. Fan-out information of each head-of-line cell is examined by the packet scheduler to form a matrix called Traffic Matrix. A subscheduler for each column executes the round-robin scheduling...

  12. "Always the Outlaw": The Potential for Subversion of the Metanarrative in Retellings of Robin Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines six recent retellings of Robin Hood and concentrates on the representation of class, religion and gender in the texts. The question is asked: "what values do the texts implicitly or explicitly arm?" The idea that Robin Hood retellings are systematic of a socially and politically conservative ideology is interrogated by…

  13. Integrating Techniques to Understand the Biological Controls on Redox Conditions at Water Table Interfaces in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, M. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.; Kirshtein, J. D.; Bohlke, J.

    2006-05-01

    The Norman Oklahoma Landfill is a closed, unlined municipal landfill in the alluvium of the Canadian River with a leachate plume that extends at least 225m downgradient. The fate and transport of chemical species in the subsurface of this system is largely controlled by changes in the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential which are driven by hydrology, chemistry and microbiology. In this study, we focused on the microbiological and geochemical factors that control redox conditions at the mixing interface of recharge water and aquifer/plume water at two sites (a background site where the contaminant plume rarely reaches the water table and a contaminated site where the plume routinely mixes with recharge water). We examined denitrification, nitrification, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis using standard microbiological, molecular and geochemical approaches to quantify these processes. Multilevel wells were sampled for geochemistry and core material was collected at the same locations for microbial analyses. The distribution and abundance of specific microbial guilds were determined using Most Probable Number (MPN) analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR). In general, we see evidence of enhanced microbial activity (i.e. microbially mediated chemical transformations) and microbial abundance at the interfaces due to the increase in oxidized electron acceptors as well as dissolved organic carbon availability from the landfill leachate. For example, water ammonia concentrations decrease near the water table possibly due to nitrification, when ammonium rich leachate water comes into contact with oxygenated recharge. The oxidation of ammonium by nitrification to nitrate is supported by the observation of an increase in nitrogen isotope fractionation resulting in increasing delta-15N values which also correspond to an increase in the abundance of nitrifying bacteria. Based on profiles of the geochemistry and abundance and distribution of specific microbial

  14. Comparative performance analysis of multi dynamic time quantum Round Robin(MDTQRR) algorithm with arrival time

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, H S; Sahu, Sabyasachi; Bhoi, Sourav Kumar

    2011-01-01

    CPU being considered a primary computer resource, its scheduling is central to operating-system design. A thorough performance evaluation of various scheduling algorithms manifests that Round Robin Algorithm is considered as optimal in time shared environment because the static time is equally shared among the processes. We have proposed an efficient technique in the process scheduling algorithm by using dynamic time quantum in Round Robin. Our approach is based on the calculation of time quantum twice in single round robin cycle. Taking into consideration the arrival time, we implement the algorithm. Experimental analysis shows better performance of this improved algorithm over the Round Robin algorithm and the Shortest Remaining Burst Round Robin algorithm. It minimizes the overall number of context switches, average waiting time and average turn-around time. Consequently the throughput and CPU utilization is better.

  15. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  16. Comparative Performance Analysis of Best Performance Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm (BPRR) using Dynamic Time Quantum with Priority Based Round Robin (PBRR) CPU Scheduling Algorithm in Real Time Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pallab Banerjee; Talat Zabin; ShwetaKumai; Pushpa Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Round Robin Scheduling algorithm is designed especially for Real Time Operating system (RTOS). It is a preemptive CPU scheduling algorithm which switches between the processes when static time Quantum expires .Existing Round Robin CPU scheduling algorithm cannot be implemented in real time operating system due to their high context switch rates, large waiting time, large response time, large turnaround time and less throughput . In this paper a new algorithm is presented called Best Performan...

  17. Lehman syndrome: a new syndrome for pierre robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Sá, Inês; Horta, Ricardo; Neto, Tiago; Amarante, José; Marques, Marisa

    2015-05-01

    Lehman syndrome, or lateral meningocele syndrome, is characterized by facial dysmorphism, multiple lateral meningoceles, and skeletal abnormalities. Only nine cases have been described. We present a case of a 2-year-old boy presenting with micrognathia, glossoptosis, and hypertelorism as well as associated severe obstructive sleep apnea. He was submitted to bilateral mandibular distraction with external nonresorbable devices to correct Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). Later, multiple lateral meningoceles were identified, and a diagnosis of Lehman syndrome was made. Lehman syndrome must be considered in syndromic infants with PRS. Distraction osteogenesis is a safe procedure that is effective as a first choice in the treatment of patients with Lehman syndrome presenting with micrognathia.

  18. PRIORITIZED QUEUE WITH ROUND ROBIN SCHEDULER FOR BUFFERED CROSSBAR SWITCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Narayanan Prasanth

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in high speed switching systems is in greater demand as the internet traffic gets rapid increase. Designing an efficient scheduling algorithm with high throughput and low delay is an open challenge. Most of the algorithms achieve 100% throughput in uniform traffics but failed to attain the same performance under non-uniform traffics. Moreover these algorithms are also suffers from starvation leads to extended waiting time of VOQ. In this paper, Prioritized Queue with Round Robin Scheduler (PQRS is proposed for Buffered Crossbar Switches. We proved that our proposed scheduler can achieve 85% throughput under any non-uniform traffic without starvation.

  19. Outdoor performance results for NBS Round Robin collector no. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of a PPG flat-plate solar collector was evaluated utilizing an outdoor solar collector test facility at the NASA-Lewis Research Center, as part of the National Bureau of Standards 'round robin' collector test program. The correlation equation for collector thermal efficiency Eta curve fit of the data was: Eta = 0.666 - 1.003(Btu/hr-sq ft-F) Theta, where the parameter Theta is the difference between the average fluid temperature and the ambient temperature, all divided by the total flux impinging on the collector.

  20. Pierre Robin sequence: case report, the relevance of autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano C. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPierre Robin sequence is a neonatal disorder characterized by micrognathism, glossoptosis and cleft palate. We reported an autopsy case of a child whose malformations of the oropharynx were identified only at birth. The child was extremely preterm with severe neonatal depression and poor recovery, and the orofacial alterations prevented the correct treatment. There was facial disorder characterized by micrognathia associated with cleft palate and posterior displacement of the tongue, compressing the vallecula, structurally compatible with glossoptosis. This autopsy surpassed the scientific and epidemiological relevance, allowing the family genetic counseling and close monitoring of a subsequent pregnancy.

  1. Ischiospinal Dysostosis in a Child with Pierre-Robin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Almasri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischiospinal Dysostosis (ISD is a complex and very rare medical entity. It is associated with kyphoscoliosis, dysplasia or aplasia of the ischial rami, segmental anomalies of the bony vertebrae, and peculiar facial morphologies. In this case report, we present a child with Ischiospinal Dysostosis and Pierre-Robin Syndrome. This case report is unique as we followed the patient for 13 years in which he had multiple spinal procedures to treat his kyphoscoliosis. In this paper, we elucidated the number of case reports with documented follow-up regarding spinal cord injury or other complications of ISD and its management.

  2. Evaluation of upper airway obstruction in infants with Pierre Robin sequence and the role of polysomnography--Review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vudum Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a heterogeneous condition presenting with upper airway obstruction (UAO) of varying severity. Polysomnography (PSG) is an objective investigation to assess the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and UAO. Its role in the management of PRS has not been well defined. This review summarizes the available evidence on the role of PSG in the assessment of infants with PRS in the context of other commonly used methods of assessment.

  3. The Corner Layer Solution of Robin Problem for Semilinear Equation%半线性方程ROBIN问题的角层解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫嘉琪; 陈怀军

    2012-01-01

    本文讨论了一类半线性方程Robin边值问题.利用微分不等式理论,研究了边值问题角层解的存在性和渐近性态.%A class of Robin boundary problem for semilinear equation is considered.Under suitable conditions,using theory of differential inequalities the existence and asymptotic behavior of the corner layer solution for boundary value problem are studied.

  4. International Round-Robin Testing of Bulk Thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2011-11-01

    Two international round-robin studies were conducted on transport properties measurements of bulk thermoelectric materials. The study discovered current measurement problems. In order to get ZT of a material four separate transport measurements must be taken. The round-robin study showed that among the four properties Seebeck coefficient is the one can be measured consistently. Electrical resistivity has +4-9% scatter. Thermal diffusivity has similar +5-10% scatter. The reliability of the above three properties can be improved by standardizing test procedures and enforcing system calibrations. The worst problem was found in specific heat measurements using DSC. The probability of making measurement error is great due to the fact three separate runs must be taken to determine Cp and the baseline shift is always an issue for commercial DSC. It is suggest the Dulong Petit limit be always used as a guide line for Cp. Procedures have been developed to eliminate operator and system errors. The IEA-AMT annex is developing standard procedures for transport properties testing.

  5. Influence of boundary conditions on the response of multilayered plates with cohesive interfaces and delaminations using a homogenized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Massabò

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress and displacement fields in multilayered composites with interfacial imperfections, such as imperfect bonding of the layers or delaminations, or where the plies are separated by thin interlayers allowing relative motion, have large variations in the thickness, with characteristic zigzag patterns and jumps at the layer interfaces. These effects are well captured by a model recently formulated by the author for multilayered plates with imperfect interfaces and affine interfacial traction laws (Massabò & Campi, Meccanica, 2014, in press; Compos Struct, 2014, 116, 311-324. The model defines a homogenized displacement field, which satisfies interfacial continuity, and uses a variational technique to derive equilibrium equations depending on only six generalized displacement functions, for any arbitrary numbers of layers and interfaces. The model accurately predicts stresses and displacements in simply supported, highly anisotropic, thick plates with continuous, sliding interfaces. In this paper the model is applied to wide plates with clamped edges and some inconsistencies, which have been noted in the literature for models based on similar approaches and have limited their utilization, are explained. A generalized transverse shear force is introduced as the gross stress resultant which is directly related to the bending moment in the equilibrium equations of multilayered structures with imperfect interfaces and substitutes for the shear force of single-layer theory. An application to a delaminated wide plate highlights the potential and limitations of the proposed model for the solution of fracture mechanics problems.

  6. A CLASS OF SINGULARLY PERTURBED ROBIN BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS FOR SEMILINEAR ELLIPTIC EQUATION%一类半线性椭圆型方程奇摄动Robin边值问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    . The singularly perturbed Robin boundary value problems for the semilinear elliptic equation are considered.Under suitable conditions and by using the fixed point theorem the existence,uniqueness and asymptotic behavior of solution for the boundary value problems are studied.Received:2000-10-07.

  7. Electronic, structural and chemical properties of GaAs/ZnSe heterovalent interfaces as dependent on MBE growth conditions and ex situ annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarova, T. A.; Lebedev, M. V.; Sorokin, S. V.; Klimko, G. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Komissarov, K. A.; Calvet, W.; Drozdov, M. N.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    A study of electronic, structural and chemical properties of GaAs/ZnSe heterovalent interfaces (HI) in dependence on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth conditions and post-growth annealing was performed. Initial GaAs surface reconstructions ((2 × 4)As or c(4 × 4)As) and ZnSe growth mode (MBE or migration-enhanced epitaxy (MEE)) were varied for different undoped and n-doped heterovalent structures. Although all the structures have low extended defect density (less than 106 cm-2) and rather small (less than 5 nm) atomic interdiffusion at the HI, the structural, chemical and electronic properties of the near-interface area (short-distance interdiffusion effects, dominant chemical bonds, and valence band offset values) as well as electrical properties of the n-GaAs/n-ZnSe heterovalent structures were found to be influenced strongly by the MBE growth conditions and post-growth annealing.

  8. An Improved Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm for CPU scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar yadav

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many functions which are provided by operating system like process management, memory management, file management, input/outputmanagement, networking, protection system and command interpreter system. In these functions, the process management is most important function because operating system is a system program that means at the runtime process interact with hardware. Therefore, we can say that for improving the efficiency of a CPU we need to manage all process. For managing the process we use various types scheduling algorithm. There are many algorithm are available for CPU scheduling. But all algorithms have its own deficiency and limitations. In this paper, I proposed a new approach for round robin scheduling algorithm which helps to improve the efficiency of CPU.

  9. Analysis of 2004 Round Robin Tests 1 and 4 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David; Beeson, Harold

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of 2004 round robin tests 1 and 4 data is presented. Test 1 burn length test results include: 1) Kydex, WSTF No. 04-38645 25.9% O2 @ 14.3 psia; 2) Kydex, 30% O2 @ 10.2 psia; 3) Royal Blue Cotton, Flame Resistant (WST No. 04-38644) 30% O2 @ 10.2 psia; and 4) Silicone 20.9% O2 @ 14.7 psia. Test 4 burn length test results include: 1) Raychem Electrical Wire, MIL M22759/32-20-9 30% O2 @ 10.2 psia; and 2) Raychem Electrical Wire, MIL M81044/12-20-9 20.9% O2 @ 14.7 psia.

  10. Round Robin for Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A H; Wang, C M; Dyer, S D

    2000-01-01

    NIST has administered the first round robin of measurements for optical fiber Bragg gratings. We compared the measurement of center wavelength, bandwidth, isolation, minimum relative transmittance, and relative group delay among several grating types in two industry groups, telecommunications and sensors. We found that the state of fiber Bragg grating metrology needs improvement in most areas. Specifically, when tunable lasers are used a filter is needed to remove broadband emissions from the laser. The linear slope of relative group delay measurements is sensitive to drift and systematic bias in the rf-modulation technique. The center wavelength measurement had a range of about 27 pm in the sensors group and is not adequate to support long-term structural monitoring applications.

  11. The OLI Radiometric Scale Realization Round Robin Measurement Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutlip, Hansford; Cole,Jerold; Johnson, B. Carol; Maxwell, Stephen; Markham, Brian; Ong, Lawrence; Hom, Milton; Biggar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A round robin radiometric scale realization was performed at the Ball Aerospace Radiometric Calibration Laboratory in January/February 2011 in support of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) Program. Participants included Ball Aerospace, NIST, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the University of Arizona. The eight day campaign included multiple observations of three integrating sphere sources by nine radiometers. The objective of the campaign was to validate the radiance calibration uncertainty ascribed to the integrating sphere used to calibrate the OLI instrument. The instrument level calibration source uncertainty was validated by quatnifying: (1) the long term stability of the NIST calibrated radiance artifact, (2) the responsivity scale of the Ball Aerospace transfer radiometer and (3) the operational characteristics of the large integrating sphere.

  12. Round robin testing of a percolation column leaching procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Roeland; Spooren, Jeroen; Quaghebeur, Mieke; Broos, Kris; Kenis, Cindy; Debaene, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Round robin test results of a percolation column leaching procedure (CEN/TS 14405:2004), organised by the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), over a time span of 13years with a participation of between 8 and 18 different laboratories are presented and discussed. Focus is on the leachability of heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn from mineral waste materials. By performing statistical analyses on the obtained results, insight into the reproducibility and repeatability of the column leaching test is gathered. A ratio of 1:3 between intra- and inter-laboratory variability is found. The reproducibility of the eluates' element concentrations differ significantly between elements, materials and fractions (i.e. different liquid-to-solid ratios). The reproducibility is discussed in light of the application of the column leaching test for legal and environmental policy purposes. In addition, the performances of laboratories are compared.

  13. PARENT Quick Blind Round-Robin Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heasler, Patrick G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) whose goal is to investigate the effectiveness of current and novel nondestructive examination procedures and techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. This is to be done by conducting a series of open and blind international round-robin tests on a set of piping components that include large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds. The blind testing is being conducted in two segments, one is called Quick-Blind and the other is called Blind. The Quick-Blind testing and destructive analysis of the test blocks has been completed. This report describes the four Quick-Blind test blocks used, summarizes their destructive analysis, gives an overview of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques applied, provides an analysis inspection data, and presents the conclusions drawn.

  14. Round robin test for odour testing of migration waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Thomas; Günther, Herbert

    2015-04-15

    For a round robin test for EN 1420-1 (Odour assessment for organic materials in contact with drinking water) with 14 contributing laboratories from 10 European countries segments of a plastic pipe were sent to the laboratories which performed a migration test and an odour analysis of the migration waters (water that had contact with the organic material) according to the procedure described in the standard from 1999. In addition reference substances (Methyl tert-butyl ether, 1-butanol and hexanal) were investigated for their suitability to qualify the panels and the individual panellists. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and 1-butanol proved to be suitable for this purpose, whereas hexanal showed a wide distribution of the individual odour threshold concentrations. Both possible testing options (unforced and forced choice) were performed and gave similar results. However, with respect to the qualification of the panellists and the data analysis the unforced choice procedure showed advantages. As human olfactory perception is used for the analysis, the reproducibility and the comparability between laboratories is of particular concern. For the pipe material the TON results of the different laboratories were in a range of ±1.5 dilutions based on a dilution factor of 2. This might be improved by taking the individual sensitivities of the panellists into account more strongly. Appropriate measures for the improvement of the test method appear to be the use of the proposed reference substances for the training of the panellists as well as the auditing and the selection of the panellists. The results of this round robin test are used in the revision process of the standard.

  15. The Realm of Fairy Story: J.R.R. Tolkien and Robin McKinley's "Beauty."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Daniel P.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of a modern fairy tale with respect to J.R.R. Tolkien's mapping of its features, terrain, and emotional geography. Discusses Robin McKinley's "Beauty," an example of a modern fantasy. (PRA)

  16. INTELLIGENT TIME SLICE FOR ROUND ROBIN IN REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaashuwanth C. and Dr.R.Ramesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to develop a new scheduling algorithm for scheduling tasks in real time operating systems. Scheduling algorithms play a significant role in the design of real time embedded systems. Simple round robin architecture cannot be implemented in real time operating systems because of high context switch rate, large waiting time and larger response time. Missing deadlines will degrade the system performance in real time embedded systems. The proposed algorithm modifies all the drawbacks of simple round robin architecture, the proposed architecture calculates the time slice for tasks and exclusively allocates the time slice for every individual tasks. A comparison with round robin architecture to the proposed architecture has been made. It is observed that the proposed architecture solves the problems encountered in simple round robin architecture in real time operating systems by decreasing the number of context switches waiting time and response time thereby increasing the system throughput.

  17. Robin-Type Boundary Value Problem of Nonlinear Differential Equation with Fractional Order Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu YANG; Zongmin QIAO

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for Robin type boundary value problem of differential equation involving the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative are established.

  18. Effect of surface tension, viscosity, and process conditions on polymer morphology deposited at the liquid-vapor interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Patrick D; Bradley, Laura C; Gupta, Malancha

    2013-09-17

    We have observed that the vapor-phase deposition of polymers onto liquid substrates can result in the formation of polymer films or particles at the liquid-vapor interface. In this study, we demonstrate the relationship between the polymer morphology at the liquid-vapor interface and the surface tension interaction between the liquid and polymer, the liquid viscosity, the deposition rate, and the deposition time. We show that the thermodynamically stable morphology is determined by the surface tension interaction between the liquid and the polymer. Stable polymer films form when it is energetically favorable for the polymer to spread over the surface of the liquid, whereas polymer particles form when it is energetically favorable for the polymer to aggregate. For systems that do not strongly favor spreading or aggregation, we observe that the initial morphology depends on the deposition rate. Particles form at low deposition rates, whereas unstable films form at high deposition rates. We also observe a transition from particle formation to unstable film formation when we increase the viscosity of the liquid or increase the deposition time. Our results provide a fundamental understanding about polymer growth at the liquid-vapor interface and can offer insight into the growth of other materials on liquid surfaces. The ability to systematically tune morphology can enable the production of particles for applications in photonics, electronics, and drug delivery and films for applications in sensing and separations.

  19. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons

    2014-08-01

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  20. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons

    2014-08-01

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  1. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons, E-mail: baiker@chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Hönggerberg, HCI, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  2. Airway and feeding problems in infants with Fairbairn-Robin triad deformities

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna M. du Plessis; Hester J.S. van den Berg; Kurt W. Bütow; Christiaan F. Hoogendijk

    2013-01-01

    Background: The majority of patients with Pierre Robin sequence in the subdivision Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT), are born with glossoptosis, retro-/micrognathia and cleft or agenesis of the palate leading to feeding difficulties and airway obstruction. There is limited literature on these problems, and on methods used to address them.Objectives: Community nurses in the Facial Cleft Deformity Clinic evaluate associated airway obstruction and feeding problems and devise nursing interactions to a...

  3. Priority Based Dynamic Round Robin (PBDRR) Algorithm with Intelligent Time Slice for Soft Real Time Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Rakesh Mohanty; Prof H.S Behera; Khusbu Patwari; Monisha Dash; M. Lakshmi Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new variant of Round Robin (RR) algorithm is proposed which is suitable for soft real time systems. RR algorithm performs optimally in timeshared systems, but it is not suitable for soft real time systems. Because it gives more number of context switches, larger waiting time and larger response time. We have proposed a novel algorithm, known as Priority Based Dynamic Round Robin Algorithm(PBDRR), which calculates intelligent time slice for individual processes and changes aft...

  4. Characteristic specific prioritized dynamic average burst round robin scheduling for uniprocessor and multiprocessor environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dash, Amar Ranjan; Sahu, Sandipta kumar; Samantra, Sanjay Kumar; Sabat, Sradhanjali

    2015-01-01

    CPU scheduling is one of the most crucial operations performed by operating systems. Different conventional algorithms like FCFS, SJF, Priority, and RR (Round Robin) are available for CPU Scheduling. The effectiveness of Priority and Round Robin scheduling algorithm completely depends on selection of priority features of processes and on the choice of time quantum. In this paper a new CPU scheduling algorithm has been proposed, named as CSPDABRR (Characteristic specific Prioritized Dynamic Av...

  5. State estimation for a class of artificial neural networks with stochastically corrupted measurements under Round-Robin protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuqiang; Wang, Zidong; Wei, Guoliang; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Hayat, Tasawar

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for a class of artificial neural networks (ANNs) without the assumptions of monotonicity or differentiability of the activation functions. The measured outputs are corrupted by stochastic noise signal whose intensity is quantified by a nonlinear function. In order to accommodate the bandwidth limit of the communication channel between the ANN and the state estimator, an equal allocation scheme (i.e. Round-Robin protocol) of the communication resource is employed to effectively mitigate data congestions and save energies. A set of zero-order holders (ZOHs) is utilized to store the received measurements, such that the utilization of the received measurements can be maximized. An update matrix approach is developed to handle the time-varying yet periodic time-delays resulting from the adoption of the Round-Robin protocol. The aim of the proposed problem is to design a state estimator such that the error dynamics is exponentially ultimately bounded. A combination of the Lyapunov stability theory and the stochastic analysis technique is used to derive some easy-to-test conditions for the existence of the desired state estimator. The estimator gains are characterized by the solution to a convex optimization problem that is solved via the semi-definite programme method. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed estimation approach.

  6. Feasibility and limitations of the round robin test for assessment of in vitro chondrogenesis evaluation protocol in a tissue-engineered medical product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Masako; Hattori, Koji; Narikawa, Koichi; Ohgushi, Hajime; Tadokoro, Mika; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Myoui, Akira; Nanno, Katsuhiko; Kato, Yukio; Kanawa, Masami; Sugawara, Katsura; Kobo, Tomoko; Ushida, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Tissue-engineered medical products (TEMPs) should be evaluated before implantation. Therefore, it is indispensable to establish evaluation protocols in regenerative medicine. Whether or not such evaluation protocols are reasonable is generally verified through a 'round robin' test. However, the round robin test for TEMPs intrinsically includes a deficiency, because 'identical' specimens can not be prepared for TEMPs. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and limitations of the round robin test for TEMPs by using a prepared evaluation protocol. We adopted tissue-engineered cartilage constructs as delivered specimens and a protocol of measuring sGAG content as an evaluation protocol proposed to ISO TC150/SC7, which is an invasive, but usually applied, method, although non-invasive methods are keenly required in evaluating TEMPs. The results showed that: (a) the coefficient of variation (CV) of the measured sGAG contents in intralaboratory tests was ~5% at most; (b) the CV of sGAG content in the scheme where each participating laboratory measured different constructs was comparable with that in the scheme where each participating laboratory measured one half of a construct along with the organizing laboratory; (c) the CV caused by factors other than the specimen was ~15%, comparable to that in reproducible experiments in biomedical fields. Based on these results, the study concludes that a round robin test for a TEMP could be valuable, under the condition that the delivered TEMPs are sufficiently reproducible so that the CV of the measured values is < 5% in the organizing laboratory.

  7. Theoretical modeling of RF ablation with internally cooled electrodes: comparative study of different thermal boundary conditions at the electrode-tissue interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, María J; Molina, Juan A López; Trujillo, Macarena; Berjano, Enrique J

    2009-07-01

    Previous studies on computer modeling of RF ablation with cooled electrodes modeled the internal cooling circuit by setting surface temperature at the coolant temperature (i.e., Dirichlet condition, DC). Our objective was to compare the temperature profiles computed from different thermal boundary conditions at the electrode-tissue interface. We built an analytical one-dimensional model based on a spherical electrode. Four cases were considered: A) DC with uniform initial condition, B) DC with pre-cooling period, C) Boundary condition based on Newton's cooling law (NC) with uniform initial condition, and D) NC with a pre-cooling period. The results showed that for a long time (120 s), the profiles obtained with (Cases B and D) and without (Cases A and C) considering pre-cooling are very similar. However, for shorter times ( 30 s), Cases A and C overestimated the temperature at points away from the electrode-tissue interface. In the NC cases, this overestimation was more evident for higher values of the convective heat transfer coefficient (h). Finally, with NC, when h was increased the temperature profiles became more similar to those with DC. The results suggest that theoretical modeling of RF ablation with cooled electrodes should consider: 1) the modeling of a pre-cooling period, especially if one is interested in the thermal profiles registered at the beginning of RF application; and 2) NC rather than DC, especially for low flow in the internal circuit.

  8. Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins hypoplastic mandible comparison using three-dimensional morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Michael T; Levi, Benjamin; Hyun, Jeong S; Lo, David D; Montoro, Daniel T; Lisiecki, Jeffrey; Bradley, James P; Buchman, Steven R; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2012-11-01

    Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome are both associated with mandibular hypoplasia. It has been hypothesized, however, that the mandible may be differentially affected. The purpose of this study was to therefore compare mandibular morphology in children with Pierre Robin sequence with children with Treacher Collins syndrome using three-dimensional analysis of computed tomographic scans. A retrospective analysis was performed identifying children with Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome undergoing computed tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed, and ramus height, mandibular body length, and gonial angle were measured. These were then compared with those in control children with normal mandibles and with the clinical norms corrected for age and sex based on previously published measurements. Mandibular body length was found to be significantly shorter for children with Pierre Robin sequence, whereas ramus height was significantly shorter for children with Treacher Collins syndrome. This resulted in distinctly different ramus height-mandibular body length ratios. In addition, the gonial angle was more obtuse in both the Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome groups compared with the controls. Three-dimensional mandibular morphometric analysis in patients with Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome thus revealed distinctly different patterns of mandibular hypoplasia relative to normal controls. These findings underscore distinct considerations that must be made in surgical planning for reconstruction.

  9. Rare syndromes of the head and face-Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tiong Yang; Farlie, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is an association of clinical features consisting of mandibular hypoplasia, cleft secondary palate, and glossoptosis leading to obstructive apnea and feeding difficulties. PRS can occur as an isolated condition or can be found in association with a range of other features in a number of conditions including Treacher collins and Stickler syndromes. The frequent association of the PRS triad suggests a common underlying developmental mechanism which impacts on each of these tissues. Isolated PRS is typically sporadic but when familial usually exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance. The term PRS is applied on the basis of the pattern of malformation rather than etiology and growing evidence indicates that the initiating genetic lesion is variable. Various chromosomal anomalies have been associated with PRS including loci on chromosomes 2, 4, and 17. Associations with genes including SOX9, a number of collagen genes and work with animal models suggest the phenotype derives from a cartilage defect during early facial growth. However, alternative theories have been proposed and these highlight the difficulty of characterising congenital anomalies of craniofacial development in which multiple etiologies can result in very similar phenotypes.

  10. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates: Phase I Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D. N.; Allen, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted with 15 participants. Experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 2219-T8 aluminum plate provided the basis for the inter-laboratory study (ILS). The study proceeded in a blind fashion given that the analysis methodology was not specified to the participants, and key experimental results were withheld. This approach allowed the ILS to serve as a current measure of the state of the art for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The analytical results and the associated methodologies were collected for comparison, and sources of variability were studied and isolated. The results of the study revealed that the J-integral analysis methodology using the domain integral method is robust, providing reliable J-integral values without being overly sensitive to modeling details. General modeling choices such as analysis code, model size (mesh density), crack tip meshing, or boundary conditions, were not found to be sources of significant variability. For analyses controlled only by far-field boundary conditions, the greatest source of variability in the J-integral assessment is introduced through the constitutive model. This variability can be substantially reduced by using crack mouth opening displacements to anchor the assessment. Conclusions provide recommendations for analysis standardization.

  11. Summarised report of the Egolf round robin nr. TC2 09-1 in fire resistance testing

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    Within the EGOLF organization 32 laboratories have participated in 2009 in a round robin (RR) on resistance to fire tests according to EN 1364-1. This round robin gives to the participating laboratories the tools to demonstrate their ability to obtain regular results, to express their trueness and precision and to calculate their uncertainty of measurement. The present document summarises the full report of this TC2 09-1 round-robin.

  12. Design and Performance Evaluation of A New Proposed Fittest Job First Dynamic Round Robin(FJFDRR) Scheduling Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Rakesh; Das, Manas; Prasanna, M. Lakshmi; Sudhashree

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new variant of Round Robin scheduling algorithm by executing the processes according to the new calculated Fit Factor f and using the concept of dynamic time quantum. We have compared the performance of our proposed Fittest Job First Dynamic Round Robin(FJFDRR) algorithm with the Priority Based Static Round Robin(PBSRR) algorithm. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better than PBSRR in terms of reducing the number of context switch...

  13. Improved electronic interfaces for AT-cut quartz crystal microbalance sensors under variable damping and parallel capacitance conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, A; García, J V; Jimenez, Y; Ferrari, V; Ferrari, M

    2008-07-01

    A new configuration of automatic capacitance compensation (ACC) technique based on an oscillatorlike working interface, which permits the tracking of the series resonant frequency and the monitoring of the motional resistance and the parallel capacitance of a thickness-shear mode quartz crystal microbalance sensor, is introduced. The new configuration permits an easier calibration of the system which, in principle, improves the accuracy. Experimental results are reported with 9 and 10 MHz crystals in liquids with different parallel capacitances which demonstrate the effectiveness of the capacitance compensation. Some frequency deviations from the exact series resonant frequency, measured by an impedance analyzer, are explained by the specific nonideal behavior of the circuit components. A tentative approach is proposed to solve this problem that is also common to previous ACC systems.

  14. Numerical Analysis of Temperature Gradients and Interface Shape During Directional Solidification of Al and Al-Cu Alloy Under Microgravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bune, Andris V.; Sen, Subhayu; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Catalina, Adrian; Stefanescu, Doru M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical modeling was undertaken to analyze the influence of radial thermal gradient on solid/liquid (s/1) interface shape and convection patterns during solidification of pure Al and Al-4 wt% Cu alloy. The objective of the numerical task was to predict the influence of convective velocity on an insoluble particle near a s/l interface. These predictions would then be used to define the minimum gravity level (g) required to investigate the fundamental physics of interaction between a particle and a s/I interface. To satisfy this objective, steady state calculations were performed for different gravity levels and orientations with the gravity vector. ne furnace configuration used in this analysis is the proposed International Space Station Furnace, Quench Module Insert (QMI) 1. Results from a thermal model of the furnace core were used as initial boundary conditions for solidification modeling. General model of binary alloy solidification was based on the finite element code FIDAP. It was found that for the worst case orientation of 90 degrees with the gravity vector and a g level of 10(exp -4)g(sub o) (g(sub o) = 9.8 m/s(exp 2)) the dominant forces acting on the particle would be the fundamental drag and interfacial forces.

  15. Speech outcome after palatal repair in nonsyndromic versus syndromic Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh B; Sullivan, Stephen R; Murthy, Ananth S; Marrinan, Eileen; Mulliken, John B

    2012-10-01

    The authors' purpose was to document speech outcome after cleft palate repair in patients with syndromic versus nonsyndromic Robin sequence. Results of secondary correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency using a superiorly based pharyngeal flap or double-opposing Z-palatoplasty are also reported. Charts of patients with Robin sequence and cleft palate between 1980 and 2007 were reviewed. Data collected included date of birth, sex, syndrome/association, cleft palatal type (Veau I or II), age at palatoplasty, incidence of palatal fistula, postoperative speech assessment, videofluoroscopic results, need for secondary operation for velopharyngeal insufficiency, and type of secondary operation (pharyngeal flap or double-opposing Z-palatoplasty). The authors identified 140 patients with Robin sequence who had palatal closure. Postoperative speech evaluation was available for 96 patients (69 percent). A syndrome or association was identified in 42 patients (30 percent). Primary palatoplasty was successful in 74 patients (77 percent); speech was characterized as competent and competent to borderline competent. The authors found a significantly higher incidence of velopharyngeal insufficiency following palatal repair for syndromic (38 percent) than nonsyndromic Robin sequence (16 percent). (p = 0.039). In patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, competent or borderline competent speech was determined after double-opposing Z-palatoplasty (two of five patients) or pharyngeal flap (eight of 10 patients). The rate of velopharyngeal insufficiency in syndromic Robin sequence is significantly greater than in nonsyndromic Robin sequence. The authors prefer pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency in patients with Robin sequence, whether syndromic or nonsyndromic, without retrognathism or signs/symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea.

  16. Unsterblicher Robin Hood--Eine literaturdidaktische Betrachtung und Wertung von zwoelf Lektueretexten (Immortal Robin Hood--A Pedagogical Consideration and Evaluation of Twelve Reading Texts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegel, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    Examines 12 reading texts about Robin Hood, with regard to their content, suitability for various age levels, and language difficulty. The texts are found to be best suited for grades 5 and 6. An evaluation of each text is included. (IFS/WGA)

  17. Unsterblicher Robin Hood--Eine literaturdidaktische Betrachtung und Wertung von zwoelf Lektueretexten (Immortal Robin Hood--A Pedagogical Consideration and Evaluation of Twelve Reading Texts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegel, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    Examines 12 reading texts about Robin Hood, with regard to their content, suitability for various age levels, and language difficulty. The texts are found to be best suited for grades 5 and 6. An evaluation of each text is included. (IFS/WGA)

  18. Experimental Investigation of Soil and Atmospheric Conditions on the Momentum, Mass, and Thermal Boundary Layers Above the Land Atmosphere Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, A.; Smits, K. M.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Schulte, P.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of soil conditions (i.e. soil type, saturation) and atmospheric forcings (i.e. velocity, temperature, relative humidity) on the momentum, mass, and temperature boundary layers. The atmospheric conditions tested represent those typically found in semi-arid and arid climates and the soil conditions simulate the three stages of evaporation. The data generated will help identify the importance of different soil conditions and atmospheric forcings with respect to land-atmospheric interactions which will have direct implications on future numerical studies investigating the effects of turbulent air flow on evaporation. The experimental datasets generated for this study were performed using a unique climate controlled closed-circuit wind tunnel/porous media facility located at the Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP) at the Colorado School of Mines. The test apparatus consisting of a 7.3 m long porous media tank and wind tunnel, were outfitted with a sensor network to carefully measure wind velocity, air and soil temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture, and soil air pressure. Boundary layer measurements were made between the heights of 2 and 500 mm above the soil tank under constant conditions (i.e. wind velocity, temperature, relative humidity). The soil conditions (e.g. soil type, soil moisture) were varied between datasets to analyze their impact on the boundary layers. Experimental results show that the momentum boundary layer is very sensitive to the applied atmospheric conditions and soil conditions to a much less extent. Increases in velocity above porous media leads to momentum boundary layer thinning and closely reflect classical flat plate theory. The mass and thermal boundary layers are directly dependent on both atmospheric and soil conditions. Air pressure within the soil is independent of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity - wind velocity and soil

  19. Investigation of the interface characteristics of Y2O3/GaAs under biaxial strain, triaxial strain, and non-strain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Bin; Liu, Xu-Yang; Dong, Hai-Kuan

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the interface behaviors of Y2O3/GaAs under biaxial strain, triaxial strain, and non-strain conditions. This study is performed by first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). First of all, the biaxial strain is realized by changing the lattice constants in ab plane. Averaged electrostatic potential (AEP) is aligned by establishing Y2O3 and GaAs (110) surfaces. The band offsets of Y2O3/GaAs interface under biaxial strain are investigated by generalized gradient approximation and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) functionals. The interface under biaxial strain is suitable for the design of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices because the valence band offsets (VBO) and conduction band offsets (CBO) are larger than 1 eV. Second, the triaxial strain is applied to Y2O3/GaAs interface by synchronously changing the lattice constants in a, b, and c axis. The band gaps of Y2O3 and GaAs under triaxial strain are investigated by HSE functional. We compare the VBO and CBO under triaxial strain with those under biaxial strain. Third, in the absence of lattice strain, the formation energies, charge state switching levels, and migration barriers of native defects in Y2O3 are assessed. We investigate how they will affect the MOS device performance. It is found that VO+2 and Oi-2 play a very dangerous role in MOS devices. Finally, a direct tunneling leakage current model is established. The model is used to analyze current and voltage characteristics of the metal/Y2O3/GaAs.

  20. A round robin study for laser beam melting in metal powder bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With its ability to fabricate fully dense three-dimensional structures by selectively melting micro-sized metal powder, the additive manufacturing process of laser beam melting (LBM is considered by many to be a significant technology that is complementary to the conventional forming and subtractive manufacturing processes. However, even with its ability to fabricate structures with characteristics comparable to conventional fabrication, the LBM process often lacks the consistency and degree of repeatability essential for its industrial acceptance for certain end-product applications. Inconsistency in the characteristics of structures is often related to a combination of variations in system technology, process, and user influence. In order to understand fully the potential and limitations of the LBM process, the paper discusses the design, methodology, and results of a round robin test conducted within the Collaborative Working Group (CWG lasers in production at the International Academy of Production Engineering (CIRP. Observed mechanical characteristics for samples from each of the participants are presented. The experiments are designed to obtain data related to mechanical characteristics for different build orientations and processing conditions in addition to the inherent system technology variations. The paper further discusses the observed process phenomena and their association with the induced mechanical characteristics.

  1. Practical round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2017-03-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, with which legitimate users are able to estimate information leakage by monitoring the disturbance of the transmitted quantum signals. Normally, the disturbance is reflected as bit flip errors in the sifted key; thus, privacy amplification, which removes any leaked information from the key, generally depends on the bit error rate. Recently, a round-robin differential-phase-shift QKD protocol for which privacy amplification does not rely on the bit error rate (Sasaki et al 2014 Nature 509 475) was proposed. The amount of leaked information can be bounded by the sender during the state-preparation stage and hence, is independent of the behavior of the unreliable quantum channel. In our work, we apply the tagging technique to the protocol and present a tight bound on the key rate and employ a decoy-state method. The effects of background noise and misalignment are taken into account under practical conditions. Our simulation results show that the protocol can tolerate channel error rates close to 50% within a typical experiment setting. That is, there is a negligible restriction on the error rate in practice.

  2. Robin sequence: what the multidisciplinary approach can do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen SM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie M Cohen,1 S Travis Greathouse,2 Cyrus C Rabbani,3 Joseph O’Neil,4 Matthew A Kardatzke,5 Tasha E Hall,6 William E Bennett Jr,7 Ameet S Daftary,8 Bruce H Matt,3 Sunil S Tholpady1 1Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 2Reid Health, Richmond, 3Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, 4Section of Developmental Pediatrics, 5Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 6Department of Orthodontics, 7Section of Children’s Health Services Research, Section of Pediatric and Adolescent Comparative Effectiveness Research, 8Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Robin sequence (RS is a commonly encountered triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and airway obstruction, with or without a cleft palate. The management of airway obstruction is of paramount importance, and multiple reviews and retrospective series outline the diagnosis and treatment of RS. This article focuses on the multidisciplinary nature of RS and the specialists’ contributions and thought processes regarding the management of the RS child from birth to skeletal maturity. This review demonstrates that the care of these children extends far beyond the acute airway obstruction and that thorough monitoring and appropriate intervention are required to help them achieve optimal outcomes. Keywords: cleft palate, micrognathia, mandibular distraction, retrognathia, laryngomalacia

  3. Interlaboratory round robin on cantilever calibration for AFM force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Riet, Joost; Katan, Allard J; Rankl, Christian; Stahl, Stefan W; van Buul, Arend M; Phang, In Yee; Gomez-Casado, Alberto; Schön, Peter; Gerritsen, Jan W; Cambi, Alessandra; Rowan, Alan E; Vancso, G Julius; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Huskens, Jurriaan; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H; Gaub, Hermann; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Figdor, Carl G; Speller, Sylvia

    2011-12-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy studies performed by Atomic Force Microscopes (AFMs) strongly rely on accurately determined cantilever spring constants. Hence, to calibrate cantilevers, a reliable calibration protocol is essential. Although the thermal noise method and the direct Sader method are frequently used for cantilever calibration, there is no consensus on the optimal calibration of soft and V-shaped cantilevers, especially those used in force spectroscopy. Therefore, in this study we aimed at establishing a commonly accepted approach to accurately calibrate compliant and V-shaped cantilevers. In a round robin experiment involving eight different laboratories we compared the thermal noise and the Sader method on ten commercial and custom-built AFMs. We found that spring constants of both rectangular and V-shaped cantilevers can accurately be determined with both methods, although the Sader method proved to be superior. Furthermore, we observed that simultaneous application of both methods on an AFM proved an accurate consistency check of the instrument and thus provides optimal and highly reproducible calibration. To illustrate the importance of optimal calibration, we show that for biological force spectroscopy studies, an erroneously calibrated cantilever can significantly affect the derived (bio)physical parameters. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that with the pre-established protocol described reliable spring constants can be obtained for different types of cantilevers.

  4. Reversed Robin Hood syndrome in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Andrei V; Sharma, Vijay K; Lao, Annabelle Y; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Malkoff, Marc D; Alexandrov, Anne W

    2007-11-01

    Recurrent hemodynamic and neurological changes with persisting arterial occlusions may be attributable to cerebral blood flow steal from ischemic to nonaffected brain. Transcranial Doppler monitoring with voluntary breath-holding and serial NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were obtained in patients with acute middle cerebral artery or internal carotid artery occlusions. The steal phenomenon was detected as transient, spontaneous, or vasodilatory stimuli-induced velocity reductions in affected arteries at the time of velocity increase in normal vessels. The steal magnitude (%) was calculated as [(MFVm-MFVb)/MFVb]x100, where m=minimum and b=baseline mean flow velocities (MFV) during the 15- to 30-second period of a total 30 second of breath-holding. Six patients had steal phenomenon on transcranial Doppler (53 to 73 years, NIHSS 4 to 15 points). Steal magnitude ranged from -15.0% to -43.2%. All patients also had recurrent neurological worsening (>2 points increase in NIHSS scores) at stable blood pressure. In 3 of 5 patients receiving noninvasive ventilatory correction for snoring/sleep apnea, no further velocity or NIHSS score changes were noted. Our descriptive study suggests possibility to detect and quantify the cerebral steal phenomenon in real-time. If the steal is confirmed as the cause of neurological worsening, reversed Robin Hood syndrome may identify a target group for testing blood pressure augmentation and noninvasive ventilatory correction in stroke patients.

  5. Clinical Analysis of 5 Cases of Pierre Robin Sequence Syndrome%Pierre Robin 序列征5例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 詹璐; 曾燕; 王风洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize and analyze the clinical manifestations,diagnosis and treatment of Pierre Robin Se-quence Syndrome. Methods The clinical data of 5 cases of Pierre Robin Sequence Syndromeadmitted in department of pediatrics of our hospital from November 2014 to October 2015were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical features and main points of diagno-sis and treatment of Pierre Robin Sequence Syndromewere summarized. Results 5 cases of children with Pierre Robin Sequence Syndrome all hadmicrognathia, glossocoma, cleft palate or high palatal signs, feeding difficulties, and malnutrition, susceptible to pneumonia. Conclusion Clinicians should strengthen the understanding of Pierre RobinSequence Syndrome,master the key points of treatment,do a good job in the health education of the parents of the patients,and improve the survival rate and quality of life of the children.%目的:总结分析Pierre Robin序列征的临床表现及诊治体会。方法回顾性分析本院儿科2014年11月至2015年10月收治的5例Pierre Robin序列征的临床资料,总结Pierre Robin序列征的临床特点和诊治要点。结果5例Pierre Robin序列征患儿均有小下颌、舌后坠、腭裂或高腭弓体征,喂养困难、营养不良,易患肺炎。结论加强临床医生对Pierre Robin序列征的认识、掌握处理要点;做好家长健康教育,提高患儿生存率及生存质量。

  6. A Homogenization Technique for Obtaining Generalized Sheet Transition Conditions (GSTCs) for a Metafilm Embedded in a Magneto-Dielectric Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Christoper L

    2016-01-01

    Using the multiple-scale homogenization method, we derive generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs) for electromagnetic fields at the surface of a metafilm. The scatterers that compose the metafilm are of arbitrary shape and are embedded between two different magneto-dielectric media. The parameters in these boundary conditions are interpreted as effective electric and magnetic surface susceptibilities, which themselves are related to the geometry of the scatterers that constitute the metafilm.

  7. Management, breeding, and health records from a captive colony of pekin robins (Leiothrix lutea), 2001 - 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Cláudio E F; de Oliveira, Luiz G S; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Zimermann, Francielli C; Stein, Gisele; Marks, Fernanda; Cerva, Cristine; Lieberknecht, Carlos; Canal, Claudio W; Driemeier, David

    2011-09-01

    Pekin robins (Leiothrix lutea) were once the most widely kept softbills in captivity. As a result of the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES-1997), the worldwide trade of wild-caught pekin robins has been prohibited due to the depletion of native populations of this species. In Brazil, as in other countries, pekin robins imported prior to the enactment of the CITES have disappeared from aviaries because the end of the birds' natural life span has passed, and only very few captive-bred pekin robins now exist. While captive propagation fails to address the primary causes of wild bird population decline, it might help the recovery of populations of this species. This article presents records made over a 10-yr period of a captive colony of pekin robins. Emphasis is placed on the management of the flock, the ailments affecting the birds, and the findings associated with bird losses. The main causes of bird losses included rearing management failures and age-related disorders.

  8. Inequitable distribution of general practitioners in Australia: estimating need through the Robin Hood Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Symon, B

    2000-02-01

    From Census data, to document the distribution of general practitioners in Australia and to estimate the number of general practitioners needed to achieve an equitable distribution accounting for community health need. Data on location of general practitioners, population size and crude mortality by statistical division (SD) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The number of patients per general practitioner by SD was calculated and plotted. Using crude mortality to estimate community health need, a ratio of the number of general practitioners per person: mortality was calculated for all Australia and for each SD (the Robin Hood Index). From this, the number of general practitioners needed to achieve equity was calculated. In all, 26,290 general practitioners were identified in 57 SDs. The mean number of people per general practitioner is 707, ranging from 551 to 1887. Capital city SDs have most favourable ratios. The Robin Hood Index for Australia is 1, and ranges from 0.32 (relatively under-served) to 2.46 (relatively over-served). Twelve SDs (21%) including all capital cities and 65% of all Australians, have a Robin Hood Index > 1. To achieve equity per capita 2489 more general practitioners (10% of the current workforce) are needed. To achieve equity by the Robin Hood Index 3351 (13% of the current workforce) are needed. The distribution of general practitioners in Australia is skewed. Nonmetropolitan areas are relatively underserved. Census data and the Robin Hood Index could provide a simple means of identifying areas of need in Australia.

  9. Generalizing The Mean Spherical Approximation as a Multiscale, Nonlinear Boundary Condition at the Solute--Solvent Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Tabrizi, Amirhossein Molavi; Bardhan, Jaydeep P

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend the familiar continuum electrostatic model with a perturbation to the usual macroscopic boundary condition. The perturbation is based on the mean spherical approximation (MSA), to derive a multiscale hydration-shell boundary condition (HSBC). We show that the HSBC/MSA model reproduces MSA predictions for Born ions in a variety of polar solvents, including both protic and aprotic solvents. Importantly, the HSBC/MSA model predicts not only solvation free energies accurately but also solvation entropies, which standard continuum electrostatic models fail to predict. The HSBC/MSA model depends only on the normal electric field at the dielectric boundary, similar to our recent development of an HSBC model for charge-sign hydration asymmetry, and the reformulation of the MSA as a boundary condition enables its straightforward application to complex molecules such as proteins.

  10. Finite-Time Distributed State Estimation Over Sensor Networks With Round-Robin Protocol and Fading Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Lu, Renquan; Shi, Peng; Li, Hongyi; Xie, Shengli

    2016-12-15

    This paper considers finite-time distributed state estimation for discrete-time nonlinear systems over sensor networks. The Round-Robin protocol is introduced to overcome the channel capacity constraint among sensor nodes, and the multiplicative noise is employed to model the channel fading. In order to improve the performance of the estimator under the situation, where the transmission resources are limited, fading channels with different stochastic properties are used in each round by allocating the resources. Sufficient conditions of the average stochastic finite-time boundedness and the average stochastic finite-time stability for the estimation error system are derived on the basis of the periodic system analysis method and Lyapunov approach, respectively. According to the linear matrix inequality approach, the estimator gains are designed. Finally, the effectiveness of the developed results are illustrated by a numerical example.

  11. 75 FR 49926 - Arena Energy, L.P. v. Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Arena Energy, L.P. v. Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint.... (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Respondent) alleging that...

  12. DNA vaccination of American robins (Turdus migratorius) against West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Dupuis, Alan P; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Kramer, Laura D

    2010-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused at least 1150 cases of encephalitis, 100 deaths, and an estimated 30,000-80,000 illnesses in 6 of the last 7 years. Recent evidence from several regions has implicated American robins (Turdus migratorius) as an important host for feeding by Culex mosquitoes, and, when integrated with their host competence for WNV, demonstrates that they are a key WNV amplification host. We evaluated the efficacy of a DNA plasmid vaccine at reducing the viremia and infectiousness of hatch-year American robins. We found that a single dose of vaccine injected intramuscularly resulted in more than a 400-fold (10(2.6)) decrease in average viremia. Although sample sizes were small, these results suggest that vaccinated robins exhibit viremias that are likely to be mostly noninfectious to biting Culex mosquitoes. More broadly, if an orally effective formulation of this vaccine could be developed, new control strategies based on wildlife vaccination may be possible.

  13. Finite-difference time-domain modeling of curved material interfaces by using boundary condition equations method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia; Zhou, Huaichun

    2016-09-01

    To deal with the staircase approximation problem in the standard finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, the two-dimensional boundary condition equations (BCE) method is proposed in this paper. In the BCE method, the standard FDTD algorithm can be used as usual, and the curved surface is treated by adding the boundary condition equations. Thus, while maintaining the simplicity and computational efficiency of the standard FDTD algorithm, the BCE method can solve the staircase approximation problem. The BCE method is validated by analyzing near field and far field scattering properties of the PEC and dielectric cylinders. The results show that the BCE method can maintain a second-order accuracy by eliminating the staircase approximation errors. Moreover, the results of the BCE method show good accuracy for cylinder scattering cases with different permittivities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51025622).

  14. Polysomnographic findings in infants with Pierre Robin sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayat, Abdullah; Bin-Hassan, Saadoun; Al-Saleh, Suhail

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is characterized by the triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction. It is commonly associated with the secondary cleft palate. Infants with PRS commonly have sleep-disordered breathing (SDB); including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as well as central sleep breathing abnormalities that are present from infancy. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the prevalence and severity of SDB in infants with PRS using polysomnography (PSG). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed the sleep laboratory database at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, during the period of May 2007 to March 2016. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Comparisons of PSG data were made between the OSA and non-OSA group using the Student's t-test for age and body mass index, Wilcoxon signed ranks test for the continuous PSG data and Chi-squared test for the categorical variables. METHODS: Patients with PRS were identified and their initial PSG was selected for this study. The main indication for referral was ongoing concerns regarding OSA symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients (28 females) were included with a mean age (±standard deviation) of 0.8 (±0.3) year. Twenty-two out of 46 (47%) had evidence of OSA of which 10 had mild, 3 had moderate, and 9 had severe OSA. The PRS infants with OSA were younger than the non-OSA group. Significant correlations were found between desaturation and arousal indices with obstructive apnea–hypopnea index. CONCLUSION: This retrospective chart review confirms a high prevalence of OSA in this population. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the outcomes of OSA in PRS population. PMID:28197218

  15. An international round-robin calibration protocol for nanoindentation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibbo, M; Ricci, P; Cecchini, R; Rymuza, Z; Sullivan, J; Dub, S; Cohen, S

    2012-02-01

    Nanoindentation has become a common technique for measuring the hardness and elastic-plastic properties of materials, including coatings and thin films. In recent years, different nanoindenter instruments have been commercialised and used for this purpose. Each instrument is equipped with its own analysis software for the derivation of the hardness and reduced Young's modulus from the raw data. These data are mostly analysed through the Oliver and Pharr method. In all cases, the calibration of compliance and area function is mandatory. The present work illustrates and describes a calibration procedure and an approach to raw data analysis carried out for six different nanoindentation instruments through several round-robin experiments. Three different indenters were used, Berkovich, cube corner, spherical, and three standardised reference samples were chosen, hard fused quartz, soft polycarbonate, and sapphire. It was clearly shown that the use of these common procedures consistently limited the hardness and reduced the Young's modulus data spread compared to the same measurements performed using instrument-specific procedures. The following recommendations for nanoindentation calibration must be followed: (a) use only sharp indenters, (b) set an upper cut-off value for the penetration depth below which measurements must be considered unreliable, (c) perform nanoindentation measurements with limited thermal drift, (d) ensure that the load-displacement curves are as smooth as possible, (e) perform stiffness measurements specific to each instrument/indenter couple, (f) use Fq and Sa as calibration reference samples for stiffness and area function determination, (g) use a function, rather than a single value, for the stiffness and (h) adopt a unique protocol and software for raw data analysis in order to limit the data spread related to the instruments (i.e. the level of drift or noise, defects of a given probe) and to make the H and E(r) data intercomparable.

  16. West Nile virus infection in American Robins: new insights on dose response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaci K VanDalen

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment and needle inoculated with 10(0.95 PFU, 10(1.26 PFU, 10(2.15 PFU, or 10(3.15 PFU. Serum samples were tested for the presence of infectious WNV and/or antibodies, while oral swabs were tested for the presence of WNV RNA. Five of the 30 (17% robins had neutralizing antibodies to WNV prior to the experiment and none developed viremia or shed WNV RNA. The proportion of WNV-seronegative birds that became viremic after WNV inoculation increased in a dose dependent manner. At the lowest dose, only 40% (2/5 of the inoculated birds developed productive infections while at the highest dose, 100% (7/7 of the birds became viremic. Oral shedding of WNV RNA followed a similar trend where robins inoculated with the lower two doses were less likely to shed viral RNA (25% than robins inoculated with one of the higher doses (92%. Viremia titers and morbidity did not increase in a dose dependent manner; only two birds succumbed to infection and, interestingly, both were inoculated with the lowest dose of WNV. It is clear that the disease ecology of WNV is a complex interplay of hosts, vectors, and viral dose delivered.

  17. West Nile virus infection in American Robins: new insights on dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDalen, Kaci K; Hall, Jeffrey S; Clark, Larry; McLean, Robert G; Smeraski, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment and needle inoculated with 10(0.95) PFU, 10(1.26) PFU, 10(2.15) PFU, or 10(3.15) PFU. Serum samples were tested for the presence of infectious WNV and/or antibodies, while oral swabs were tested for the presence of WNV RNA. Five of the 30 (17%) robins had neutralizing antibodies to WNV prior to the experiment and none developed viremia or shed WNV RNA. The proportion of WNV-seronegative birds that became viremic after WNV inoculation increased in a dose dependent manner. At the lowest dose, only 40% (2/5) of the inoculated birds developed productive infections while at the highest dose, 100% (7/7) of the birds became viremic. Oral shedding of WNV RNA followed a similar trend where robins inoculated with the lower two doses were less likely to shed viral RNA (25%) than robins inoculated with one of the higher doses (92%). Viremia titers and morbidity did not increase in a dose dependent manner; only two birds succumbed to infection and, interestingly, both were inoculated with the lowest dose of WNV. It is clear that the disease ecology of WNV is a complex interplay of hosts, vectors, and viral dose delivered.

  18. Evaluation of Interforaminal Mandible Region of Individuals With Pierre Robin Sequence and Treacher Collins Syndrome Through the Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucunduva, Rosana Mara Adami; Imada, Thaís Sumie Nozu; Lopes, Ivna Albano; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer; de Carvalho, Izabel Maria Marchi

    2016-01-01

    The Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) and the Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) are conditions that cause significant abnormalities of jaw. This study was conducted in anticipation of evaluating the morphology of interforaminal region and identify the anatomic variations: anterior loop and mandibular incisive canal, in individuals with PRS and TCS by cone-beam computed tomography and compare them with individuals without craniofacial anomalies. By applying the t-test, the results showed no statistically significant difference, allowing to infer that there are no significant differences in interforaminal mandible morphology between groups and indicated that the prevalence and location of the studied anatomic variations are consistent with those described in literature.

  19. Laryngeal mask airway guided tracheal intubation in a neonate with the Pierre Robin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Joensen, H; Henneberg, S W

    1995-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation in infants with the Pierre Robin syndrome may sometimes be impossible to accomplish by conventional means. To aid difficult tracheal intubation many different techniques have been described. We present a case, in which we successfully intubated a small-for-date newborn boy...... with the Pierre Robin syndrome by using a modified laryngeal mask airway (no. 1) as a guide for the endotracheal tube. The technique is easy to perform, less traumatic and less time-consuming than multiple attempts at laryngoscopy or blind tracheal intubation....

  20. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a “good person,” who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production. PMID:27730088

  1. Multi-Level Round-Robin Multicast Scheduling with Look-Ahead Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-level round-robin multicast scheduling (MLRRMS) algorithm with look-ahead (LA) mechanism for N×N input-queued switches. Fan-out splitting is applied, where a multicast cell can be transferred to all its destinations over any number of cell times. The scheduler...... constructs the Traffic Matrix before each cell transmission based on the fan-out vectors of the cells in the queues. A scheduling pointer independently moves on each column of the Traffic Matrix in a round-robin fashion and returns the decision to the Decision Matrix. The sync procedure is carried out...

  2. Inter-comparison of ice sheet mass balance products from GRACE: ESA CCI Round Robin results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, A.; Horwath, M.; Horvath, A.

    spatial resolution and complex error structures place particular demands on the applied processing strategy. To choose the most suitable algorithm which minimizes the impact of GRACE errors and signal leakage errors on GMB products, an open Round Robin experiment was set up. Participants were asked...... of the Earth (e.g. cryoshpere, ocean, continental hydrology). By comparing the derived synthetic mass changes with the a priori known 'synthetic truth', leakage errors can be quantified.Here we inter-compare the Round Robin results from six individual contributions, relying on different processing strategies...

  3. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A G

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  4. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  5. Energetics and metabolite profiles during early flight in American robins (Turdus Migratorius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Alexander R; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2013-10-01

    Although birds use fat as the primary fuel for migratory flights, carbohydrate and protein catabolism could be significant in the early stages of flight while pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation are induced. The fuel mixture of long distance migrant birds can also be affected by the rate of water loss, where birds catabolize more protein to increase endogenous water production under dehydrating flight conditions. Despite many studies investigating flight metabolism, few have focused on the metabolic response to flight during the switchover to fat catabolism in migrants, and none have examined the effect of ambient conditions on fuel selection during early flight. We investigated the effect of water loss on the metabolic response to short duration flight in the American robin (Turdus migratorius). Birds were flown in a climatic wind tunnel and changes in body composition and plasma metabolites were measured. As flight duration increased, there was a gradual switchover from carbohydrate and protein catabolism to fat catabolism. Plasma metabolite profiles indicate that the mobilization of fat occurred within 20 min of initiating flight. Plasma glucose decreased and uric acid increased with flight duration. Ambient humidity did not affect fuel mixture. Thus, it seems that the utilization of fat may be delayed as migrants initiate flight. Short-hop migrants may exploit high rates of endogenous water production resulting from carbohydrate and protein catabolism early in flight to offset high water loss associated with low humidity. Rapid catabolism of lean body components at the start of a flight also reduces mass quickly, and may reduce energy costs.

  6. Anomalous effect of flow rate on the electrochemical behavior at a liquid|liquid interface under microfluidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Dawid; Adamiak, Wojciech; Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Sozanski, Krzysztof; Opallo, Marcin; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2013-12-23

    We have investigated the oxidation of ferrocene at a flowing organic solvent|aqueous electrolyte|solid electrode junction in a microfluidic setup using cyclic voltammetry and fluorescent laser scanning confocal microscopy. At low flow rates the oxidation current decreases with increasing flow, contrary to the Levich equation, but at higher flow rates the current increases linearly with the cube root of the flow rate. This behavior is explained using a simple model postulating a smallest effective width of the three-phase junction, which after fitting to the data comes to be ca. 20 μm. The fluorescence microscopy reveals mixing of the two phases close to the PDMS cover, but the liquid|liquid junction is stable close to the glass support. This study shows the importance of the solid|liquid|liquid junctions for the behavior of multiphase systems under microfluidic conditions.

  7. Survey of Condition Indicators for Condition Monitoring Systems (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-29

    Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) published a document named ‘Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin Study – Vibration Analysis’ in 2012... Mean Square (RMS) RMS describes the energy content of the signal. RMS is used to evaluate the overall condition of the components. Therefore, it...13) ̅ is the mean value of signal N is the number of data point in the dataset x Energy

  8. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  9. User participation in a Municipal Acute Ward in Norway: dilemmas in the interface between policy ideals and work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Anne-Kari; Tveiten, Sidsel; Werner, Anne

    2017-08-23

    User participation has become an increasingly important principle in health care over the last few decades. Healthcare professionals are expected to involve patients in treatment decisions. Clear guidance as to what this should entail for professionals in clinical work is not accounted for in legislation. In this study, we explore how healthcare professionals in a Municipal Acute Ward perceived, experienced and performed user participation. The ward represents a new short-time service model for emergency assistance in Norway. We focused on the challenges the professionals faced in clinical work and how they dealt with these. Data were drawn from qualitative interviews with 11 healthcare professionals and from 10 observations in relation to previsits and physician's rounds in the ward. Transcripts of interviews and observations were analysed using a method for systematic text condensation. In the analysis, we applied Lipsky's perspective on dilemmas of street-level bureaucrats. The results show that that the professionals perceived user participation as an important and natural part of their work. They experienced difficulties related to collaboration with patients, caregivers, and professionals in other services, and with framework conditions that caused conflicting expectations, responsibility, and priorities. The professionals seemed to take a pragmatic approach to user participation, managing it within narrow perspectives. Our study indicates that the participants dealt with the dilemmas at the cost of user participation. The results demonstrate that there is a gap between the outlined health policy and the professionals' opportunities to fulfil this policy in clinical work regarding user participation. The policy decision-makers should recognise the balancing work required of healthcare professionals to deal with difficulties in clinical work. The knowledge that professionals possess as performers of services and the need for valuing in policy processes should

  10. The Robin problem for the Helmholtz equation in a starlike planar domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caratelli, D.; Gielis, J.; Natalini, P.; Ricci, P.E.; Tavkhelidze, I.

    2011-01-01

    The interior and exterior Robin problems for the Helmholtz equation in starlike planar domains are addressed by using a suitable Fourier-like technique. Attention is in particular focused on normal-polar domains whose boundaries are defined by the so-called “superformula” introduced by J. Gielis. A

  11. "Girls Who Do Things": The Protagonists of Robin McKinley's Fantasy Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lynn Moss

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that in her novels of fairy tale/fantasy fiction for adolescents, Robin McKinley emphasizes the values found in most fantasy fiction, courage and honor. Also suggests she makes an important contribution to balancing gender roles in young adult fiction by portraying female characters who are physically strong, smart, and courageous. (RS)

  12. Preliminary results of the round-robin testing of F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, K.; Yamanouchi, N.; Tohyama, A.

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary results of metallurgical, physical and mechanical properties of low activation ferritic steel F82H (IEA heat) were obtained in the round-robin test in Japan. The properties of IEA heat F82H were almost the same as the original F82H.

  13. Laboratory investigation of bitumen based on round robin DSC and AFM tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soenen, H.; Besamusca, J.; Fischer, H.R.; Poulikakos, L.D.; Planche, J.P.; Das, P.K.; Kringos, N.; Grenfell, J.R.A.; Lu, X.; Chailleux, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the past years a wide discussion has been held among asphalt researchers regarding the existence and interpretation of observed microstructures on bitumen surfaces. To investigate this, the RILEM technical committee on nano bituminous materials 231-NBM has conducted a round robin study combining

  14. Breeding of the Seychelles magpie robin Copsychus sechellarum and implications for its conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    The total population of the Seychelles Magpie Robin Copsychus sechellarum declined from 38-41 birds in 12-13 territories in 1977-1978 to 17-21 birds in eight to nine territories in 1988-1990 and was entirely confined to Fregate Island (210 ha) in the Seychelles. After a successful cat eradication pr

  15. Surgical Versus Nonsurgical Interventions to Relieve upper Airway Obstruction in Children with Pierre Robin Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Newborns with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS often experience chronic intermittent hypoxemia/hypoventilation associated with airway obstruction. The heterogeneity of the severity of upper airway obstruction makes management a challenge; the optimal intervention in individual cases is not clear.

  16. Tracheostomy versus mandibular distraction osteogenesis in infants with Robin sequence: a comparative cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Emma C; Fouché, James J; Muradin, Marvick S M; Speleman, Lucienne; Kon, Moshe; Breugem, Corstiaan C

    2014-03-01

    Many treatments have been described for infants with Robin sequence and severe respiratory distress, but there have not been many comparative studies of outcome and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to compare the cost and complications of two common interventions - mandibular distraction osteogenesis and tracheostomy. Nine patients with isolated Robin sequence (mandibular distraction osteogenesis, n=5, and tracheostomy, n=4) were included in the analyses. Predetermined costs and complications were obtained retrospectively from medical records and by questionnaires to the parents over a 12-month period. Overall direct costs (admission to hospital, diagnostics, surgery, and homecare) were 3 times higher for tracheostomy (€105.523 compared with €33.482, p=0.02). Overall indirect costs (absence from work) were almost 5 times higher (€2.543 compared with €543, p=0.02). There was a threefold increase in overall total cost/patient (both direct and indirect) for tracheostomy (€108.057 compared with 34.016, p=0.02) and 4 times more complications were encountered. This study shows that mandibular distraction osteogenesis in infants diagnosed with Robin sequence costs significantly less and results in fewer complications than tracheostomy, and this contributes to our current knowledge about the ideal approach for infants with Robin sequence and might provide a basis for institutional protocols in the future.

  17. ASYMPTOTIC ESTIMATION FOR SOLUTION OF A CLASS OF SEMI-LINEAR ROBIN PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Ouyang

    2005-01-01

    A class of semi-linear Robin problem is considered. Under appropriate assumptions, the existence and asymptotic behavior of its solution are studied more carefully. Using stretched variables, the formal asymptotic expansion of solution for the problem is constructed and the uniform validity of the solution is obtained by using the method of upper and lower solution.

  18. Using a Classic Paper by Robin Fahraeus and Torsten Lindqvist to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Berg, Ronan M.G.

    2013-01-01

    "The viscosity of the blood in narrow capillary tubes" by Robin Fahraeus and Torsten Lindqvist ("Am J Physiol" 96: 562--568, 1931) can be a valuable opportunity for teaching basic hemorheological principles in undergraduate cardiovascular physiology. This classic paper demonstrates that a progressive decline in apparent…

  19. Scheduling Double Round-Robin Tournaments with Divisional Play using Constraint Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Mats; Johansson, Mikael; Larson, Jeffrey

    2017-06-16

    We study a tournament format that extends a traditional double round-robin format with divisional single round-robin tournaments. Elitserien, the top Swedish handball league, uses such a format for its league schedule. We present a constraint programming model that characterizes the general double round-robin plus divisional single round-robin format. This integrated model allows scheduling to be performed in a single step, as opposed to common multistep approaches that decompose scheduling into smaller problems and possibly miss optimal solutions. In addition to general constraints, we introduce Elitserien-specific requirements for its tournament. These general and league-specific constraints allow us to identify implicit and symmetry-breaking properties that reduce the time to solution from hours to seconds. A scalability study of the number of teams shows that our approach is reasonably fast for even larger league sizes. The experimental evaluation of the integrated approach takes considerably less computational effort to schedule Elitserien than does the previous decomposed approach. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  20. International round robin test for mechanical properties of REBCO superconductive tapes at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osamura, K.; Shin, H.S.; Weiss, K.; Nyilas, A.; Nijhuis, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Machiya, S.; Nishijima, G.

    2014-01-01

    An international round robin test was promoted to establish a test method for room temperature mechanical properties of commercial REBCO superconductive tapes. Seven laboratories practiced a tensile test under the direction of guideline REBCO13 for four different kinds of REBCO tape. From the stress

  1. Constructing fair round robin tournaments with a minimum number of breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van 't Pim; Post, Gerhard; Briskorn, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Given n clubs with two teams each, we show that, if n is even, it is possible to construct a schedule for a single round robin tournament satisfying the following properties: the number of breaks is 2n−2, teams of the same club never play at home simultaneously, and they play against each other in t

  2. Nudging Fledgling Teen Readers from the Nest: From Round Robin to Real Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Ginni Chase; Combs, Dorie

    2011-01-01

    Middle and Secondary teachers often find it difficult to help their students read textbooks and other instructional materials. In order to ensure they read the text, teachers may rely on "round robin reading" and other ineffective strategies. In this article, the authors explain why this strategy hinders comprehension, fluency and development of…

  3. A round-robin determination of boron in botanical and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, R G; Strong, P L

    1998-01-01

    The accurate determination of boron (B) at trace and ultratrace concentrations is an important step toward establishing the role of B in biological functions. However, low-level B concentrations are difficult to determine accurately, especially for many botanical and biological matrices. A round-robin study was conducted to assess analytical agreement for low-level B determinations. Ten experienced research groups from analytical laboratories extending across Europe, Asia, and the US participated in this study. These groups represent a cross-section of academic, commercial, and government facilities. The researchers employed both ion-coupled plasma and neutron techniques in the study. Results from this round-robin study indicate good agreement between participating laboratories at the mg/kg level, but at the lowest levels, microg/kg, only three laboratories participated, and agreement was poor. By encouraging discussion among scientists over these data, the secondary goal of this round-robin study is to stimulate continued improvement in analytical procedures and techniques for accurate low-level B determinations. Furthermore, it is intended to encourage the development of a variety of low-level (low mg/kg and microg/kg) B certified reference samples in biological and botanical matrices. The results from the round-robin analyses were compiled and are summarized in this article.

  4. Analyzing "Inconsistencies" in Practice: Teachers' Continued Use of Round Robin Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Gwynne Ellen; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Walpole, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed in-service teachers' and literacy coaches' perceptions of Round Robin Reading to begin developing an understanding of the persistence of this practice in public schools in the United States. Surveying 80 teachers and 27 literacy coaches using an open-ended instrument, we found that many teachers continued to use Round Robin…

  5. The Use of Cooperative Round Robin Discussion Model to Improve Students' Holistic Ability in TEFL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Slamet; Ma'rifah, Ulfatul; Arifani, Yudhi

    2017-01-01

    This classroom action research is carried out within two cycles to breed a strategy on how a" Round Robin Discussion Learning Model" enhance students' critical thinking, presentation skills, confidence, and independent learning in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) class. Pop-up quiz, teacher made-tests, classroom…

  6. Delivering 100% throughput in a Buffered Crossbar with Round Robin scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stubert

    2006-01-01

    crosspoint queue column and independently for each port card. In this paper, fluid-model techniques will be utilized to show that the necessary and sufficient speedup for a NxN buffered crossbar with 1-cell crosspoint buffers is 2-1/N to deliver 100% throughput. Round robin scheduling is assumed, both among...

  7. Scheduling a triple round robin tournament for the best Danish soccer league

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a solution method for the highly constrained problem of finding a seasonal schedule for the best Danish soccer league. The league differs from most sports leagues, since it plays a triple round robin tournament which leads to an uneven distribution of home and away games...

  8. Development of AM 1.5 global measurement procedures and international cell measurement round robin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the capability for measurement under global irradiance spectral distribution is reported. The airmass 1.5 global measurement procedure is given. Also given is the procedure and justification for using the large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS). The status of the international round robin of reference cell measurements managed by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) is described.

  9. International round robin test for mechanical properties of REBCO superconductive tapes at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osamura, K.; Shin, H.S.; Weiss, K.; Nyilas, A.; Nijhuis, Arend; Yamamoto, K.; Machiya, S.; Nishijima, G.

    2014-01-01

    An international round robin test was promoted to establish a test method for room temperature mechanical properties of commercial REBCO superconductive tapes. Seven laboratories practiced a tensile test under the direction of guideline REBCO13 for four different kinds of REBCO tape. From the stress

  10. Laryngeal mask airway guided tracheal intubation in a neonate with the Pierre Robin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Joensen, Henning; Henneberg, Steen Winther;

    1995-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation in infants with the Pierre Robin syndrome may sometimes be impossible to accomplish by conventional means. To aid difficult tracheal intubation many different techniques have been described. We present a case, in which we successfully intubated a small-for-date newborn boy...

  11. Remembering the outlaw in Medieval England: the emergence of the Robin Hood legend.

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Charles Robert

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the origins and development of the legends about Robin Hood between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries. It argues that they were shaped by memories of political and social events and of particular individuals in the early thirteenth century, subsequently transformed over time.

  12. Design and Performance Evaluation of A New Proposed Fittest Job First Dynamic Round Robin(FJFDRR) Scheduling Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Rakesh; Prasanna, M Lakshmi; Sudhashree,

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new variant of Round Robin scheduling algorithm by executing the processes according to the new calculated Fit Factor f and using the concept of dynamic time quantum. We have compared the performance of our proposed Fittest Job First Dynamic Round Robin(FJFDRR) algorithm with the Priority Based Static Round Robin(PBSRR) algorithm. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better than PBSRR in terms of reducing the number of context switches, average waiting time and average turnaround time.

  13. Unconditionally stable methods for simulating multi-component two-phase interface models with Peng-Robinson equation of state and various boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-component dynamic two-phase interface models, which are formulated by the Cahn-Hilliard system with Peng-Robinson equation of state and various boundary conditions. These models can be derived from the minimum problems of Helmholtz free energy or grand potential in the realistic thermodynamic systems. The resulted Cahn-Hilliard systems with various boundary conditions are fully coupled and strongly nonlinear. A linear transformation is introduced to decouple the relations between different components, and as a result, the models are simplified. From this, we further propose a semi-implicit unconditionally stable time discretization scheme, which allows us to solve the Cahn-Hilliard system by a decoupled way, and thus, our method can significantly reduce the computational cost and memory requirements. The mixed finite element methods are employed for the spatial discretization, and the approximate errors are also analyzed for both space and time. Numerical examples are tested to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed methods. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  14. The round robin site assessment method: A new approach to wind energy site assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Matthew A.; Rogers, Anthony L.; Manwell, James F. [Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 160 Governors Dr., Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Portability is one of the many potential advantages of utilizing ground-based measurement devices such as SODARs and LIDARs instead of meteorological towers for wind resource assessment. This paper investigates the use of a monitoring strategy that leverages the portability of ground-based devices, dubbed the ''round robin site assessment method.'' The premise is to measure the wind resource at multiple sites in a single year using a single portable device, but to discontinuously distribute the measurement time at each site over the whole year, so that the total measurement period comprises smaller segments of measured data. This measured data set is then utilized in the measure-correlate-predict (MCP) process to predict the long-term wind resource at the site. This method aims to increase the number of sites assessed in a single year, without the sacrifice in accuracy and precision that usually accompanies shorter measurement periods. The performance of the round robin site assessment method was compared to the standard method, in which the measured data are continuous. The results demonstrate that the round robin site assessment method is an effective monitoring strategy that improves the accuracy and reduces the uncertainty of MCP predictions for measurement periods less than 1 year. In fact, the round robin site assessment method compares favorably to the accuracy and uncertainty of a full year of resource assessment. While there are some tradeoffs to be made by using the round robin site assessment method, it is potentially a very useful strategy for wind resource assessment. (author)

  15. Interface roughening and pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Stéphane; Hansen, Alex

    1994-04-01

    We study a simple model for thé pinning of an interface by impurities with random strengths, and thé depinning due to thé applied pressure, in a quasi-static propagation lirait. The model is very close to thé so called "Robin Hood" model introduced by Zaitsev. It is designed to describe e.g. thé invasion of a wetting fluid (imbibition) in a heterogeneous porous medium containing a second immiscible fluid. The relation between this model and other previously proposed approaches is discussed. The front of thé invaded domain is shown to develop a self-affine structure with an increase of thé roughness as a power-law of thé injected volume. The value of thé apparent roughness exponent can be favorably compared to some experimental measurements although we argue that thé true roughness exponent is out of reach of commonly used methods. We show that thé distribution f(d, Δ t) of distances d between discrete local invasions at a time interval Δ t can be described by a scaling law f(d, Δ t) = d^{-1}\\varphi(d/sqrt{Δ t}). This form can be obtained from thé identification of a hierarchical structure of "bursts" in thé pressure signal. Those "bursts" are quahtatively similar to those observed in quasistatic drainage, (i.e. invasion percolation), although characterized by différent scaling indices. Nous étudions un modèle simple pour analyser l'accrochage d'une interface sur des impuretés et le décrochage sous l'effet d'une pression appliquée, dans une limite quasi-statique. Ce modèle est très voisin du modèle "Robin Hood" introduit par Zaitsev. Il s'applique en particulier à l'invasion d'un fluide mouillant (imbibition) dans un milieu poreux hétérogène contenant un fluide immiscible. Nous discutons les relations entre ce modèle et d'autres approches proposées pour décrire ce phénomène. Le front d'invasion acquiert une structure auto-affine, avec un développement de la rugosité selon une loi de puissance du volume injecté. La valeur de l

  16. Wave operators, similarity and dynamics for a class of Schrödinger operators with generic non-mixed interface conditions in 1D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantile, Andrea [Laboratoire de Mathématiques, Université de Reims - FR3399 CNRS, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, 51687 Reims (France)

    2013-08-15

    We consider a simple modification of the 1D-Laplacian where non-mixed interface conditions occur at the boundaries of a finite interval. It has recently been shown that Schrödinger operators having this form allow a new approach to the transverse quantum transport through resonant heterostructures. In this perspective, it is important to control the deformations effects introduced on the spectrum and on the time propagator by this class of non-selfadjoint perturbations. In order to obtain uniform-in-time estimates of the perturbed semigroup, our strategy consists in constructing stationary wave operators allowing to intertwine the modified non-selfadjoint Schrödinger operator with a “physical” Hamiltonian. For small values of a deformation parameter “θ,” this yields a dynamical comparison between the two models showing that the distance between the corresponding semigroups is dominated by ‖θ‖ uniformly in time in the L{sup 2}-operator norm.

  17. A Mixed-control Mechanism Model of Proeutectoid Ferrite Growth under Non-equilibrium Interface Condition in Fe-C Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiheng WU; Xueyu RUAN; Hongbing ZHANG; T.Y.Hsu

    2004-01-01

    By combining the α/γ interface migration and the carbon diffusion at the interface in Fe-C alloys, a mathematical model is constructed to describe the mixed-control mechanism for proeutectoid ferrite formation from austenite. In this model, the α/γ interface is treated as non-equilibrium interface, i.e., the carbon concentration of austenite at γ/α interface is obtained through theoretical calculation, instead of that assumed as the local equilibrium concentration.For isothermal precipitation of ferrite in Fe-C alloys, the calculated results show that the rate of interface migration decreases monotonically during the whole process, while the rate of carbon diffusion from γ/α interface into austenite increases to a peak value and then decreases. The process of ferrite growth may be considered as composed of three stages: the period of rapid growth, slow growth and finishing stage. The results also show that the carbon concentration of austenite at γ/α interface could not reach the thermodynamic equilibrium value even at the last stage of ferrite growth.

  18. Results of the Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Edward P.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the opening load in fatigue crack growth tests was conducted on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. The Round Robin evaluated the current level of consistency of opening load measurements among laboratories and to identify causes for observed inconsistency. Eleven laboratories participated in the testing of compact and middle-crack specimens. Opening-load measurements were made for crack growth at two stress-intensity factor levels, three crack lengths, and following an overload. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimen compliance data. When all of the results reported (from all participants, all measurement methods, and all data analysis methods) for a given test condition were pooled, the range of opening loads was very large--typically spanning the lower half of the fatigue loading cycle. Part of the large scatter in the reported opening-load results was ascribed to consistent differences in results produced by the various methods used to measure specimen compliance and to evaluate the opening load from the compliance data. Another significant portion of the scatter was ascribed to lab-to-lab differences in producing the compliance data when using nominally the same method of measurement.

  19. State Estimation for Discrete-Time Dynamical Networks With Time-Varying Delays and Stochastic Disturbances Under the Round-Robin Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lei; Wang, Zidong; Gao, Huijun; Liu, Xiaohui

    2016-02-19

    This paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for a class of nonlinear dynamical networks with time-varying delays subject to the round-robin protocol. The communication between the state estimator and the nodes of the dynamical networks is implemented through a shared constrained network, in which only one node is allowed to send data at each time instant. The round-robin protocol is utilized to orchestrate the transmission order of nodes. By using a switch-based approach, the dynamics of the estimation error is modeled by a periodic parameter-switching system with time-varying delays. The purpose of the problem addressed is to design an estimator, such that the estimation error is exponentially ultimately bounded with a certain asymptotic upper bound in mean square subject to the process noise and exogenous disturbance. Furthermore, such a bound is subsequently minimized by the designed estimator parameters. A novel Lyapunov-like functional is employed to deal with the dynamics analysis issue of the estimation error. Sufficient conditions are established to guarantee the ultimate boundedness of the estimation error in mean square by applying the stochastic analysis approach. Then, the desired estimator gains are characterized by solving a convex problem. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the estimator design scheme.

  20. Análise de convergência espacial dos repasses da Lei Robin Hood Spatial convergence analysis of tax transfers from the Robin Hood Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Gonçalves Maranduba Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alega-se que a Lei Robin Hood tem permitido uma melhor distribuição dos valores do ICMS devidos aos municípios do estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo deste artigo é investigar se essa lei, entre os anos de 2001 e 2005, realmente foi eficaz, isto é, se, em termos relativos, municípios pobres receberam mais dessas transferências do que os municípios ricos. Para fazer isso metodologicamente, implementa-se uma análise exploratória de dados espaciais e uma análise de convergência, para verificar se as disparidades nos repasses diminuíram com o passar do tempo. Os resultados mostraram que os efeitos espaciais importaram nas análises e que não houve um efeito redistributivo dos repasses, considerando-se que o coeficiente indicador de convergência não foi significativo.One alleges that the Robin Hood Act has allowed one better distribution of the values of ICMS to municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais. The paper is aimed at verifying if the Robin Hood Act has actually revealed a redistributive effect in tax transfers to municipalities in the state over the period 2001-2005, that is, if, in relative terms, poor municipalities have received more these transfers than rich ones. In doing methodologically so, an exploratory spatial data analysis and a convergence analysis are implemented to verify if the disparities of tax redistribution have diminished over the time. The findings showed that the spatial effects were important in the analysis as well as there was no redistributive effect in the period because the convergence coefficient was not significant.

  1. CO oxidation on PtSn nanoparticle catalysts occurs at the interface of Pt and Sn oxide domains formed under reaction conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Michalak, William D.

    2014-04-01

    The barrier to CO oxidation on Pt catalysts is the strongly bound adsorbed CO, which inhibits O2 adsorption and hinders CO2 formation. Using reaction studies and in situ X-ray spectroscopy with colloidally prepared, monodisperse ∼2 nm Pt and PtSn nanoparticle catalysts, we show that the addition of Sn to Pt provides distinctly different reaction sites and a more efficient reaction mechanism for CO oxidation compared to pure Pt catalysts. To probe the influence of Sn, we intentionally poisoned the Pt component of the nanoparticle catalysts using a CO-rich atmosphere. With a reaction environment comprised of 100 Torr CO and 40 Torr O2 and a temperature range between 200 and 300 C, Pt and PtSn catalysts exhibited activation barriers for CO2 formation of 133 kJ/mol and 35 kJ/mol, respectively. While pure Sn is readily oxidized and is not active for CO oxidation, the addition of Sn to Pt provides an active site for O2 adsorption that is important when Pt is covered with CO. Sn oxide was identified as the active Sn species under reaction conditions by in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. While chemical signatures of Pt and Sn indicated intermixed metallic components under reducing conditions, Pt and Sn were found to reversibly separate into isolated domains of Pt and oxidic Sn on the nanoparticle surface under reaction conditions of 100 mTorr CO and 40 mTorr O2 between temperatures of 200-275 C. Under these conditions, PtSn catalysts exhibited apparent reaction orders in O2 for CO 2 production that were 0.5 and lower with increasing partial pressures. These reaction orders contrast the first-order dependence in O 2 known for pure Pt. The differences in activation barriers, non-first-order dependence in O2, and the presence of a partially oxidized Sn indicate that the enhanced activity is due to a reaction mechanism that occurs at a Pt/Sn oxide interface present at the nanoparticle surface. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  3. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  4. An Optimum Time Quantum Using Linguistic Synthesis for Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Supriya; Rajpal, Smita

    2012-01-01

    In Round Robin CPU scheduling algorithm the main concern is with the size of time quantum and the increased waiting and turnaround time. Decision for these is usually based on parameters which are assumed to be precise. However, in many cases the values of these parameters are vague and imprecise. The performance of fuzzy logic depends upon the ability to deal with Linguistic variables. With this intent, this paper attempts to generate an Optimal Time Quantum dynamically based on the parameters which are treated as Linguistic variables. This paper also includes Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System using Trapezoidal membership function, results in LRRTQ Fuzzy Inference System. In this paper, we present an algorithm to improve the performance of round robin scheduling algorithm. Numerical analysis based on LRRTQ results on proposed algorithm show the improvement in the performance of the system by reducing unnecessary context switches and also by providing reasonable turnaround time.

  5. An International Round-Robin Study, Part II: Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, J [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01

    For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  6. A Markov Chain Model for the Analysis of Round-Robin Scheduling Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, D; Singhai, Rahul; Agarwal, R K

    2010-01-01

    In the literature of Round-Robin scheduling scheme, each job is processed, one after the another after giving a fix quantum. In case of First-come first-served, each process is executed, if the previously arrived processed is completed. Both these scheduling schemes are used in this paper as its special cases. A Markov chain model is used to compare several scheduling schemes of the class. An index measure is defined to compare the model based efficiency of different scheduling schemes. One scheduling scheme which is the mixture of FIFO and round robin is found efficient in terms of model based study. The system simulation procedure is used to derive the conclusion of the content

  7. Results of ASTM round robin testing for mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    The results are summarized of several interlaboratory 'round robin' test programs for measuring the mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of advanced fiber reinforced composite materials. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were conducted by participants in ASTM committee D30 on High Modulus Fibers and their Composites and by representatives of the European Group on Fracture (EGF) and the Japanese Industrial Standards Group (JIS). DCB tests were performed on three AS4 carbon fiber reinforced composite materials: AS4/3501-6 with a brittle epoxy matrix; AS4/BP907 with a tough epoxy matrix; and AS4/PEEK with a tough thermoplastic matrix. Difficulties encountered in manufacturing panels, as well as conducting the tests are discussed. Critical issues that developed during the course of the testing are highlighted. Results of the round robin testing used to determine the precision of the ASTM DCB test standard are summarized.

  8. Dynamic Task-Scheduling in Grid Computing using Prioritized Round Robin Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bansal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, grid computing has emerged as one of the most viable and scalable alternatives to high performance supercomputing, tapping into computing power of the order of Gigaflops. However, the inherent dynamicity in grid computing has made it extremely difficult to come up with near-optimal solutions to efficiently schedule tasks in grids. The present paper proposes a novel grid-scheduling heuristic that adaptively and dynamically schedules tasks without requiring any prior information on the workload of incoming tasks. The approach models the grid system in the form of a state-transition diagram, employing a prioritized round-robin algorithm with task replication to optimally schedule tasks, using prediction information on processor utilization of individual nodes. Simulations, comparing the proposed approach with the round-robin heuristic, have shown the given heuristic to be more effective in scheduling tasks as compared to the latter.

  9. International round-robin inter-comparison of dye-sensitized and crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Ahn, Seung Kyu; Aoki, Dasiuke; Kokubo, Junichi; Yoon, Kyung Hoon; Saito, Hidenori; Lee, Kyung Sik; Magaino, Shinichi; Takagi, Katsuhiko; Lin, Ling-Chuan; Lee, Kun-Mu; Wu, Chun-Guey; Zhou, Hong; Igari, Sanekazu

    2017-02-01

    An international round-robin inter-comparison of the spectral responsivity (SR) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and crystalline silicon solar cells is reported for the first time. The crystalline silicon cells with various spectral responsivities were also calibrated by AIST to validate this round-robin activity. On the basis of the remarkable consistency in Pmax (within ±1.4% among participants) and Isc (within ±1.2% compared to the primary calibration of AIST) of the silicon specimens, the discrepancy in the SR and photovoltaic parameters of five DSCs among three national laboratories can be verified and diagnosed. Recommendations about sample packages, SR and I-V measurement methods as well as the inter-comparison protocol for improving the performance characterization of the mesoscopic DSCs are presented according to the consolidated data and the experience of the participants.

  10. A New Round Robin Based Scheduling Algorithm for Operating Systems: Dynamic Quantum Using the Mean Average

    CERN Document Server

    Noon, Abbas; Kadry, Seifedine

    2011-01-01

    Round Robin, considered as the most widely adopted CPU scheduling algorithm, undergoes severe problems directly related to quantum size. If time quantum chosen is too large, the response time of the processes is considered too high. On the other hand, if this quantum is too small, it increases the overhead of the CPU. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm, called AN, based on a new approach called dynamic-time-quantum; the idea of this approach is to make the operating systems adjusts the time quantum according to the burst time of the set of waiting processes in the ready queue. Based on the simulations and experiments, we show that the new proposed algorithm solves the fixed time quantum problem and increases the performance of Round Robin.

  11. Priority Based Dynamic Round Robin (PBDRR) Algorithm with Intelligent Time Slice for Soft Real Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Rakesh; Patwari, Khusbu; Dash, Monisha; Prasanna, M Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new variant of Round Robin (RR) algorithm is proposed which is suitable for soft real time systems. RR algorithm performs optimally in timeshared systems, but it is not suitable for soft real time systems. Because it gives more number of context switches, larger waiting time and larger response time. We have proposed a novel algorithm, known as Priority Based Dynamic Round Robin Algorithm(PBDRR),which calculates intelligent time slice for individual processes and changes after every round of execution. The proposed scheduling algorithm is developed by taking dynamic time quantum concept into account. Our experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better than algorithm in [8] in terms of reducing the number of context switches, average waiting time and average turnaround time.

  12. Results of the round robin exercise on IV-measurements of classic Si-solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Borg, N.J.C.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    A round robin exercise was performed on IV measurements and spectral response measurements of solar cells. Seven partners participated in the exercise. The aim of the round robin was to enable the verification of their measurement facilities and procedures for IV-measurements on 'classic' Si-solar cells by comparing their measurement data with the other participants. In this way possible flaws in the equipment or procedures can be found and corrected for or the measurement uncertainties can be reassessed. The differences between the measurement results of the various partners were more or less within the expected measurement uncertainty although one or more partners may decide to use the results to reexamine their facilities or procedures.

  13. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  14. Virtual Surgical Planning for Mandibular Distraction in Infants with Robin Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Cory M

    2017-06-01

    Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) successfully relieves obstructive sleep apnea in many infants with Robin sequence. Preoperative virtual surgical planning and fabrication of three-dimensionally printed cutting guides may lead to further improvements in the MDO technique and decrease the risk for damage to adjacent structures such as developing teeth and the inferior alveolar nerve. This report presents an algorithm for virtual surgical planning and three-dimensionally printing of cutting guides for MDO in infants with RS.

  15. Robin Boundary Value Problem for One-Dimensional Landau-Lifshitz Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jin DING; Jin Rui HUANG; Xiao E LIU

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we are concerned with the existence and uniqueness of global smooth solution for the Robin boundary value problem of Landau-Lifshitz equations in one dimension when the boundary value depends on time t.Furthermore,by viscosity vanishing approach,we get the existence and uniqueness of the problem without Gilbert damping term when the boundary value is independent of t.

  16. Does low daily energy expenditure drive low metabolic capacity in the tropical robin, Turdus grayi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dominique N; Mineo, Patrick M; Sgueo, Carrie; Wikelski, Martin; Schaeffer, Paul J

    2013-08-01

    Temperate and tropical birds possess divergent life history strategies. Physiological parameters including energy metabolism correlate with the life history such that tropical species with a slower 'pace of life' have lower resting and maximal metabolic rates than temperate congeners. To better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these differences, we investigated the relationship of metabolic capacity, muscle oxidative capacity and activity patterns to variation in life history patterns in American robins (Turdus migratorius), while resident in central North America and Clay-colored robins (Turdus grayi) resident in Panama. We measured summit metabolism [Formula: see text] in birds from both tropical and temperate habitats and found that the temperate robins have a 60 % higher metabolic capacity. We also measured the field metabolic rate (FMR) of free-living birds using heart rate (HR) telemetry and found that temperate robins' daily energy expenditure was also 60 % higher. Thus, [Formula: see text] and FMR both reflect life history differences between the species. Further, both species operate at a nearly identical ~50 % of their thermogenic capacity throughout a given day. As a potential mechanism to explain differences in activity and metabolic capacity, we ask whether oxidative properties of flight muscle are altered in accordance with life history variation and found minimal differences in oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. These data demonstrate a close relationship between thermogenic capacity and daily activity in free-living birds. Further, they suggest that the slow pace of life in tropical birds may be related to the maintenance of low activity rather than functional capacity of the muscle tissue.

  17. Fast and early mandibular osteodistraction (FEMOD) in severe Pierre Robin Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascone, Piero; Papoff, Paola; Arangio, Paolo; Vellone, Valentino; Calafati, Vincenzo; Silvestri, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) is a congenital abnormality characterized by mandibular hypoplasia, glossoptosis and often secondary palate cleft. It may be an isolated or part of a most complicated syndrome. The genetic syndrome that most frequently co-occurs is Stickler syndrome characterized by skeletal abnormalities, joint pain, congenital myopia and retinal detachment. The authors describe their fast and early mandibular osteodistraction (FEMOD) protocol in severe cases of PRS airway obstruction.

  18. Theory of Rule 6 and its Application to Round Robin Tournament

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Nayak, Birendra Kumar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we have used one 2 variable Boolean function called Rule 6 to define another beautiful transformation named as Extended Rule-6. Using this function we have explored the algebraic beauties and its application to an efficient Round Robin Tournament (RRT) routine for 2k (k is any natural number) number of teams. At the end, we have thrown some light towards any number of teams of the form nk where n, k are natural numbers.

  19. Flavonoids have differential effects on glucose absorption in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and American robins (Turdis migratorius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopec, Michele M; Green, Adam K; Karasov, William H

    2010-02-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that small birds rely largely on non-mediated intestinal absorption of glucose through the paracellular pathway, while non-flying mammals rely on mediated absorption across the enterocyte membranes by using glucose transporters SGLT-1 and GLUT-2. Relying on non-mediated transport of glucose may decrease its absorption rate at low glucose concentrations but may release small birds from the effects of glucose transport inhibitors. We evaluated transport by using flavonoids known to inhibit glucose transport in vitro. Quercetin, isoquercetrin, and phloridzin were tested in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and robins (Turdis migratirius), and naringenin, naringenin-7-glucoside, genistein, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and phloretin were used only in rats. By using a pharmacokinetic approach that involves serial blood collection and area under the curve calculations, we determined the bioavailability of 3-0-methyl D-glucose, the non-metabolized analogue of D-glucose. Six of the eight flavonoids tested in rats significantly decreased the absorption of 3-0-methyl D-glucose, while none of the flavonoids tested in robins significantly decreased the bioavailability of 3-0-methyl D-glucose. We conclude that flavonoids effectively decrease glucose absorption in rats, which rely on mediated absorption of glucose, but that flavonoids do not have an effect in robins, which rely on non-mediated absorption of glucose.

  20. The spirit of St Louis: the contributions of Lee N. Robins to North American psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy D

    2014-08-01

    This article takes up the history of North American psychiatric epidemiology with reference to production of knowledge concerning sociopathic or antisocial personality disorder and drug dependence, abuse, and/or addiction. These overlapping arenas provide a microcosm within which to explore the larger shift of postwar psychiatric epidemiology from community studies based on psychological scales to studies based on specific diagnostic criteria. This paper places the figure of sociologist Lee Nelken Robins within the context of the Department of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri. The St Louis research group--to which Robins was both marginal and central--developed the basis for specific diagnostic criteria and was joined by Robert Spitzer, Jean Endicott and other architects of DSM-III in reorienting American psychiatry towards medical, biological and epidemiological models. Robins was a key linchpin working at the nexus of the psychiatric epidemiological and sociological drug addiction research networks. This article situates her work within the broader set of societal and governmental transformations leading to the technologically sophisticated turn in American psychiatric epidemiology and research on the aetiology of drug abuse and mental health and illness.

  1. Fair and Efficient Packet Scheduling Using Resilient Quantum Round-Robin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guikai Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Round-robin based packet scheduling algorithms are suitable for high-speed networks, but in a variable-length packet environment, this kind of scheduling algorithm need consider packet length to guarantee scheduling fairness. Previous schemes are not perfect for fairness and efficiency. This paper presents a new easily implementable scheduling discipline, called Resilient Quantum Round-Robin (RQRR, in which the quantum given to each of the flows in a round is not fixed and is calculated depending on the transmission situation of all the flows in the previous round. We prove that the implementation complexity of RQRR is O (1 with respect to the number of flows. We analytically prove the fairness properties of RQRR, and show that its relative fairness measure has an upper bound of 7Max-1, where Max is the size of the largest packets. Finally, we present simulation results comparing the fairness and performance characteristics of RQRR with deficit round-robin (DRR, which show that RQRR achieves better short time scale fairness and scheduling delay properties.

  2. [Determination of tumor biological parameters in breast cancer: round robin testing for quality assurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liessem, S; Winkens, W; Jonigk, D; Wasielewski, R V; Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Rüschoff, J; Kreipe, H-H

    2014-02-01

    Round robin testing for quality assurance in the determination of the breast cancer biomarkers estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have been carried out in Germany for 13 years. As the first quality assurance trial worldwide tissue microarrays with 20 different breast cancer specimens were used. As a further innovation the challenges were split into a test part representing routine cases and a training part enriched with difficult borderline cases in order to uncover latent weaknesses in the participating laboratories. Certificates are issued based exclusively on the test part. Similar to NordiQC and UKNequas stained slides are assessed externally and the quality of staining and evaluation are considered separately. Since 2010 an additional internet-based trial without assessment of the staining quality is offered for ER and PR. Since the introduction of the round robin trials the numbers of participants (n = 200-250) and the success rates have steadily increased. The breast cancer quality assurance trial ranks first with regard to the number of participants in Germany. It could be demonstrated that regular participation in the round robin test leads to an improvement of staining results of ER, PR and HER2 and hence appears to be mandatory for maintaining quality standards. The use of fully automated immunohistochemical staining procedures has steadily increased and these are now used by approximately 50 % of participants.

  3. Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: public health practice, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, F

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-19th century, when the first formal health departments were established in the United States, commissioners, directors, and secretaries of public health have functioned as senior members of the staffs of public executives, mayors, governors, and presidents. They have provided important political, managerial, and scientific leadership to agencies of government that have played increasingly important roles in national life, from the sanitary revolution of the 19th century to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and the control of tobacco use today. Although public health officials come from a variety of backgrounds and oversee agencies of varied size and composition, there are philosophical themes that describe and define the commonality of their work. These themes are captured metaphorically by 3 celebrated figures: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood. By turns, the public health official functions as a determined idealist (Don Quixote), a cunning political strategist (Machiavelli), and an agent who redistributes resources from the wealthier sectors of society to the less well off (Robin Hood.) All 3 personae are important, but, it is argued, Robin Hood is the most endangered.

  4. Fictitious domain methods for elliptic problems with general boundary conditions with an application to the numerical simulation of two phase flows; Methodes de domaine fictif pour des problemes elliptiques avec conditions aux limites generales en vue de la simulation numerique d'ecoulements diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramiere, I

    2006-09-15

    This work is dedicated to the introduction of two original fictitious domain methods for the resolution of elliptic problems (mainly convection-diffusion problems) with general and eventually mixed boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Robin or Neumann. The originality lies in the approximation of the immersed boundary by an approximate interface derived from the fictitious domain Cartesian mesh, which is generally not boundary-fitted to the physical domain. The same generic numerical scheme is used to impose the embedded boundary conditions. Hence, these methods require neither a surface mesh of the immersed boundary nor the local modification of the numerical scheme. We study two modelling of the immersed boundary. In the first one, called spread interface, the approximate immersed boundary is the union of the cells crossed by the physical immersed boundary. In the second one, called thin interface, the approximate immersed boundary lies on sides of mesh cells. Additional algebraic transmission conditions linking both flux and solution jumps through the thin approximate interface are introduced. The fictitious problem to solve as well as the treatment of the embedded boundary conditions are detailed for the two methods. A Q1 finite element scheme is implemented for the numerical validation of the spread interface approach while a new cell-centered finite volume scheme is derived for the thin interface approach with immersed jumps. Each method is then combined to multilevel local mesh refinement algorithms (with solution or flux residual) to increase the precision of the solution in the vicinity of the immersed interface. A convergence analysis of a Q1 finite element method with non-boundary fitted meshes is also presented. This study proves the convergence rates of the present methods. Among the various industrial applications, the simulation on a model of heat exchanger in french nuclear power plants enables us to appreciate the performances of the fictitious domain

  5. Vibrational spectroscopy at electrified interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wieckowski, Andrzej; Braunschweig, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Reviews the latest theory, techniques, and applications Surface vibrational spectroscopy techniques probe the structure and composition of interfaces at the molecular level. Their versatility, coupled with their non-destructive nature, enables in-situ measurements of operating devices and the monitoring of interface-controlled processes under reactive conditions. Vibrational Spectroscopy at Electrified Interfaces explores new and emerging applications of Raman, infrared, and non-linear optical spectroscopy for the study of charged interfaces. The book draws from hu

  6. Round Robin evaluation of soil moisture retrieval models for the MetOp-A ASCAT Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Alexander; Paloscia, Simonetta; Santi, Emanuele; Notarnicola, Claudia; Pasolli, Luca; Smolander, Tuomo; Pulliainen, Jouni; Mittelbach, Heidi; Dorigo, Wouter; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Global soil moisture observations are crucial to understand hydrologic processes, earth-atmosphere interactions and climate variability. ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project aims to create a global consistent long-term soil moisture data set based on the merging of the best available active and passive satellite-based microwave sensors and retrieval algorithms. Within the CCI, a Round Robin evaluation of existing retrieval algorithms for both active and passive instruments was carried out. In this study we present the comparison of five different retrieval algorithms covering three different modelling principles applied to active MetOp-A ASCAT L1 backscatter data. These models include statistical models (Bayesian Regression and Support Vector Regression, provided by the Institute for Applied Remote Sensing, Eurac Research Viale Druso, Italy, and an Artificial Neural Network, provided by the Institute of Applied Physics, CNR-IFAC, Italy), a semi-empirical model (provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute), and a change detection model (provided by the Vienna University of Technology). The algorithms were applied on L1 backscatter data within the period of 2007-2011, resampled to a 12.5 km grid. The evaluation was performed over 75 globally distributed, quality controlled in situ stations drawn from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) using surface soil moisture data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS-) Noah land surface model as second independent reference. The temporal correlation between the data sets was analyzed and random errors of the the different algorithms were estimated using the triple collocation method. Absolute soil moisture values as well as soil moisture anomalies were considered including both long-term anomalies from the mean seasonal cycle and short-term anomalies from a five weeks moving average window. Results show a very high agreement between all five algorithms for most stations. A slight

  7. Lyapunov-type inequalities for quasilinear elliptic equations with Robin boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinlemez Kantar, Ülkü; Özden, Tülay

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prove Lyapunov-type inequalities for a quasilinear elliptic equation in [Formula: see text]. Also the lower bound for the first positive eigenvalue of the boundary value problem is obtained.

  8. One-way domain decomposition method with exact radiation condition and fast GMRES solver for the solution of Maxwell's equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupfel, Bruno; Lecouvez, Matthieu

    2016-10-01

    For the solution of the time-harmonic electromagnetic scattering problem by inhomogeneous 3-D objects, a one-way domain decomposition method (DDM) is considered: the computational domain is partitioned into concentric subdomains on the interfaces of which Robin-type transmission conditions (TCs) are prescribed; an integral representation of the electromagnetic fields on the outer boundary constitutes an exact radiation condition. The global system obtained after discretization of the finite element (FE) formulations is solved via a Krylov subspace iterative method (GMRES). It is preconditioned in such a way that, essentially, only the solution of the FE subsystems in each subdomain is required. This is made possible by a computationally cheap H (curl)- H (div) transformation performed on the interfaces that separate the two outermost subdomains. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix of the system are bounded by two, and optimized values of the coefficients involved in the local TCs on the interfaces are determined so as to maximize the minimum eigenvalue. Numerical experiments are presented that illustrate the numerical accuracy of this technique, its fast convergence, and legitimate the choices made for the optimized coefficients.

  9. Interface dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interface dermatitis includes diseases in which the primary pathology involves the dermo-epidermal junction. The salient histological findings include basal cell vacuolization, apoptotic keratinocytes (colloid or Civatte bodies, and obscuring of the dermo-epidermal junction by inflammatory cells. Secondary changes of the epidermis and papillary dermis along with type, distribution and density of inflammatory cells are used for the differential diagnoses of the various diseases that exhibit interface changes. Lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, lichen planus, graft versus host disease, erythema multiforme, fixed drug eruptions, lichen striatus, and pityriasis lichenoides are considered major interface diseases. Several other diseases (inflammatory, infective, and neoplastic may show interface changes.

  10. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01

    Recent research and development of high temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential of converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as an important area for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is Part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main focuses in Part I are on two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  11. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics—An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D.; Böttner, Harald; König, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolet, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Patricia; Sharp, Jeff W.; Lo, Jason; Kleinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo

    2013-04-01

    Recent research and development of high-temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential for converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air-conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, still needs to be improved from the current value of 1.0 to 1.5 to above 2.0 to be competitive with other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods, and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as a key component for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the Implementing Agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main foci in part I are the measurement of two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  12. Numerical studies of the Zaitsev (Robin Hood ) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Perry; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey; Zypman, Fredy

    2008-03-01

    The Zaitsev[1] model of depinning of interfaces has been widely used to discuss motion of dislocations, low temperature flux creep, and more recently dry friction. The properties of this model have been discussed theoretically in one dimension, and numerically verified with precision in the isotropic case. We are studying here the effect of anisotropy in the distribution of the ``mass'' among the neighbors in the updating of the sites, which is known to modify the critical exponents of the model in one dimension. We have considered the validity of the scaling laws in higher dimensions, which might be relevant for the case of friction [2], by computing several of the exponents of the model for the avalanche size distribution, average avalanche size, avalanche fractal dimension and distribution of jumps between extremal sites of activity. The much richer space of parameters of anisotropy in two dimensions has been explored. [1] S.I. Zaitsev , Physica A189, 411 (1992). [2] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E64, 066110, (2006)

  13. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, as a Component of Heterotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of the robin as a determinant of heterotrophic consortia is considered. The robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae, connected with the determinants by fabric links. The robin also belongs to the concentr of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and it is also the main determinant in species composition of the insects inhabiting bird nests. As a result of the taxonomic analysis of invertebrates in the robin nests, it has been found out that the most numerous class was Insecta (9 orders and 27 families, with the dominance of Coleoptera (30.7 %. The nidicolous fauna of the robin (38 species was dominated by zoophages along with parasites and hematophages such as Hippoboscidae (46.4 %. The percentage of phytophages and saprophages among the invertebrate nest inhabitants was somewhat less (21 % each, then followed necrophages (12 %. Zoophages and parasites also dominated according to the number of objects in the nests (42 %; n = 150, the less was the portion of phytophages (34 %, saprophages (18 %, and necrophages (6 %. The highest number of species and objects of zoophages was recorded for climax and mature biocenoses (oak forests in NNP “HL” and pine cenoses in NNP “H””.

  14. Round robin host and guest scheduling research%循环赛主客编排研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董东风

    2014-01-01

    为了解决球类循环赛主客交替平衡问题。笔者通过互联网文献资料查询,研究出了一种称之为“国际象棋棋盘法”的方法。这种方法可以补充完善球类循环赛轮转编排法;且简单易行,便于推广;可以为计算机主客编排算法提供理论依据;同时,由于完善了球类循环赛轮转编排法,使得球类循环赛轮转编排法也能通用于棋类循环赛,并能更好的满足棋类循环赛的需求。%To solve the problem of balancing host and guest in ball round robin and by looking up information on the internet, the author has developed a technique called "chessboard method". This approach can complement rotary ball round robin scheduling method and is simple and easy to spread. It may provide a theoretical basis for the computer host and guest scheduling algorithm. Meanwhile, the sound of the ball rotation round robin scheduling method can also be used in chess round robin and can better meet the needs of round robin chess.

  15. Interface Screenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2015-01-01

    and memories. From a transvisual perspective, the question is whether or not these (by now realized) diagrammatic modes involving the body in ubiquitous global media can be analysed in terms of the affects and events created in concrete interfaces. The examples used are filmic as felt sensations...... of an interface are invisible and not easy to describe....

  16. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  17. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly to the devel...

  18. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of solid insulating materials combinations in combinations has introduced problems in the interfaces between components. The most common insulating materials are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), silicone rubber (SIR) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR). Assemblies of these materials...... have caused major failures. In the Netherlands, a major black out was caused by interface problems in 150kV cable terminations, causing a cascade of breakdowns. There is a need to investigate the reasons for this and other similar breakdowns.The major problem is expected to lie in the interface between...... two different materials. Environmental influence, surface treatment, defects in materials and interface, design, pressure and rubbing are believed to have an effect on interface degradation. These factors are believed to increase the possibility of partial discharges (PD). PD will, with time, destroy...

  19. Spanish Round Robin test on water sensitivity test of bituminous mixtures; Ejercicio espanol interlaboratorios sobre el ensayo de sensibilidad al gua de mezclas bituminosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Saez, R.; Enrique Gabeiras, L.; Miranda Perez, L.; Valor Hernandez, F.

    2011-07-01

    The amendment of Article 542 and 543 on the hot asphalt mixtures included in the Spanish Technical specifications for Road Construction (PG-3), by Circular Order 24/2008, introduced a new series of modification to adapt Spanish regulations to European standards series EN 13108. Among the various amendments, new tests methods and design criteria are considered, as UNE-EN 12697-12 for assessing the water sensitivity on compacted specimens, which is mandatory for every kind of bituminous mixture. In this paper, firstly a comparison between the European method and the old Spanish method described in the NLT-162 is made, explaining the experimental conditions selected. The results of an interlaboratory study or Round Robin Test conducted in ten Spanish laboratories are subsequently described and analyzed, in order to allow each laboratory to assess its technical performance, and also to determine quantitatively the precision of the new method in terms of repeatability and reproducibility. (Author) 15 refs.

  20. Sorption-induced reversible oxidation of Fe(2) at the smectite/water interface under strictly anoxic conditions. A Moessbauer spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, A.; Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique (LGIT), Universite de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gehin, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, ANDRA, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR-CNRS 6087, 72 - Le Mans (France); Brendle, J. [Universite de Haute Alsace, Lab. des Materiaux Mineraux (LMM), 68 - Mulhouse (France); Rancourt, D.G. [Ottawa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies of Fe(II) sorption onto montmorillonite have been performed with the mineral extracted from the MX80 bentonite. These studies have shown that Fe(II) can be sorbed onto clay minerals in cation exchange position. The affinity of montmorillonite for Fe(II) and Ca(II) is identical. Fe(II) may also be specifically adsorbed onto montmorillonite clay edges. Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the high affinity of clay surfaces for Fe(II) sorption and showed that this sorption is mainly due to a two step mechanism: Fe(II) specific adsorption, followed by oxidation of the Fe(II) sorbed. The identification of the oxidizing agent was prohibited due to the complex chemistry of the natural MX80 montmorillonite. Thus, synthetic iron-free montmorillonite was used (chemical formula: Ca{sub 0.3} (A{sub 1.4}Mg{sub 0.6}) (Si{sub 4}) O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2} ). {sup 57}Fe(II) sorption experiments were conducted in a N{sub 2} atmosphere gloves-box, in strictly anoxic conditions. Solid samples were synthesized in order to confirm the clay high affinity for Fe(II), in absence of structural oxidant, and to have a better comprehension of the sorption mechanism. Moessbauer spectra were recorded for each sample. Whereas no Fe(III) is detected in solution as pH was increased and then, a significant amount of surface sorbed Fe(III) was found to be reversibly produced, which amounts for 0-3% of total Fe in the pre-sorption edge acid region, up to 7% of total Fe when all Fe is sorbed in the neutral to alkaline pH range. From pH {approx_equal} 2 to pH {approx_equal} 7, a sorption edge plateau is observed. In this plateau, the sorbed-Fe(III)/sorbed-Fe ratio increases with pH, up to 45% at pH 7. Moessbauer spectra comparison with ferrous hydroxide, synthesized in the same redox conditions at higher pH, show that this oxidation can not be due to the trace amounts Oz in the suspension. The Moessbauer spectra components of both Fe(II) and Fe(III) appears as paramagnetic doublets: iron has

  1. Early postnatal development of the mandible in children with isolated cleft palate and children with nonsyndromic Robin sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J.; Hermann, N.V.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Analysis of early postnatal mandibular size and growth velocity in children with untreated isolated cleft palate (ICP), nonsyndromic Robin sequence (RS), and a control group of children with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL). Material: 114 children (66 isolated cleft palate, 7 Robin...... sequence, 41 unilateral incomplete cleft lip) drawn from a group representing all Danish cleft children born from 1976 through 1981. All children were examined at both 2 and 22 months of age. Methods: Cephalometric x-rays and maxillary plaster casts. Mandibular length and height were measured...... at 2 months of age. Conclusion: The children with isolated cleft palate and Robin sequence had small mandibles shortly after birth, but with a relatively normal growth potential. No true mandibular catch-up growth was found up to 22 months of age in either group. No significant correlation was found...

  2. Numerical reconstruction of unknown Robin inclusions inside a heat conductor by a non-iterative method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Gen; Wang, Haibing

    2017-05-01

    Consider the problem of reconstructing unknown Robin inclusions inside a heat conductor from boundary measurements. This problem arises from active thermography and is formulated as an inverse boundary value problem for the heat equation. In our previous works, we proposed a sampling-type method for reconstructing the boundary of the Robin inclusion and gave its rigorous mathematical justification. This method is non-iterative and based on the characterization of the solution to the so-called Neumann- to-Dirichlet map gap equation. In this paper, we give a further investigation of the reconstruction method from both the theoretical and numerical points of view. First, we clarify the solvability of the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map gap equation and establish a relation of its solution to the Green function associated with an initial-boundary value problem for the heat equation inside the Robin inclusion. This naturally provides a way of computing this Green function from the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map and explains what is the input for the linear sampling method. Assuming that the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map gap equation has a unique solution, we also show the convergence of our method for noisy measurements. Second, we give the numerical implementation of the reconstruction method for two-dimensional spatial domains. The measurements for our inverse problem are simulated by solving the forward problem via the boundary integral equation method. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the efficiency and stability of the proposed method. By using a finite sequence of transient input over a time interval, we propose a new sampling method over the time interval by single measurement which is most likely to be practical.

  3. Metabolizable energy in Chinese tallow fruit for Yellow-rumped Warblers, Northern Cardinals, and American Robins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Barrow, W.C.; Jeske, C.; Rohwer, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    The invasive exotic Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) produces an abundant fruit crop, which is primarily bird-dispersed. The fruit pulp of tallow is lipid-rich, high in saturated fatty acids, and consumed by many bird species. Long-chained fatty acids can be difficult for many birds to digest and we investigated the ability of tallow consumers to assimilate energy in the pulp. We used the total collection method and compared apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of tallow fruit for three species of birds with differing fruit composition in their natural diets. All birds exhibited nitrogen deficits and lost body mass during the trials. Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) lost more mass (8.73%/day) than Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) (5.29%/day) and American Robins (Turdus migratorius) (5.48%/day), and had larger nitrogen deficits (-120.1 mg N/g diet) than both species as well (-36.4 mg N/g diet and -68.9 mg N/g diet, respectively). Food intake relative to metabolic body mass was highest in Yellow-rumped Warblers (0.70 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Northern Cardinal and American Robin food intake was lower and did not differ from each other (both species: 0.13 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Nitrogen corrected values of AME were used to make species comparisons. Yellow-rumped-Warblers exhibited the highest values of AME (30.00 kJ/g), followed by American Robins (23.90 kJ/g), and Northern Cardinals (14.34 kJ/g). We suggest tallow may be an important winter food source for Yellow-rumped Warblers where their ranges overlap.

  4. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  5. ROBIN, a Telepresence Robot to Support Older Users Monitoring and Social Inclusion: Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellessa, Gabriella; Fracasso, Francesca; Sorrentino, Alessandra; Orlandini, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulio; Coraci, Luca; De Benedictis, Riccardo; Cesta, Amedeo

    2017-08-03

    This article describes an enhanced telepresence robot named ROBIN, part of a telecare system derived from the GIRAFFPLUS project for supporting and monitoring older adults at home. ROBIN is integrated in a sensor-rich environment that aims to continuously monitor physical and psychological wellbeing of older persons living alone. The caregivers (formal/informal) can communicate through it with their assisted persons. Long-term trials in real houses highlighted several user requirements that inspired improvements on the robotic platform. The enhanced telepresence robot was assessed by users to test its suitability to support social interaction and provide motivational feedback on health-related aspects. Twenty-five users (n = 25) assessed the new multimodal interaction capabilities and new communication services. A psychophysiological approach was adopted to investigate aspects like engagement, usability, and affective impact, as well as the possible role of individual differences on the quality of human-robot interaction. ROBIN was overall judged usable, the interaction with/through it resulted pleasant and the required workload was limited, thus supporting the idea of using it as a central component for remote assistance and social participation. Open-minded users tended to have a more positive interaction with it. This work describes an enabling technology for remote assistance and social communication. It highlights the importance of being compliant with users' needs to develop solutions easy to use and able to foster their social connections. The role of personality appeared to be relevant for the interaction, underscoring a clear role of the service personalization.

  6. A tabu-search for minimising the carry-over effects value of a round-robin tournament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Kidd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A player b in a round-robin sports tournament receives a carry-over effect from another player a if some third player opposes a in round i and b in round i+1. Let γ(ab denote the number of times player b receives a carry-over effect from player a during a tournament. Then the carry-over effects value of the entire tournament T on n players is given by Γ(T=ΣΣγ(ij^2. Furthermore, let Γ(n denote the minimum carry-over effects value over all round-robin tournaments on n players. A strict lower bound on Γ(n is n(n-1 (in which case there exists a round-robin tournament of order n such that each player receives a carry-over effect from each other player exactly once, and it is known that this bound is attained for n=2^r or n=20,22. It is also known that round-robin tournaments can be constructed from so-called starters; round-robin tournaments constructed in this way are called cyclic. It has previously been shown that cyclic round-robin tournaments have the potential of admitting small values for Γ(T, and in this paper a tabu-search is used to find starters which produce cyclic tournaments with small carry-over effects values. The best solutions in the literature are matched for n<=22, and new upper bounds are established on Γ(n for 24<=n<=40.

  7. Behaviour of high purity UO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O interfaces under helium beam irradiation in deaerated conditions; Comportement des interfaces UO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O de haute purete sous faisceau d'ions He{sup 2+} en milieu desaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E

    2005-11-15

    A question put within the framework of the nuclear fuel storage worn in geological site is what become to them in the presence of water. The aim of a fundamental program, of PRECCI project (ECA), is to highlight the behaviour of interfaces which can be used as models for the interfaces nuclear spent fuel/water if the fuel is uranium UO{sub 2} dioxide. This doctorate is interested in the effect of the alpha activity which is the only one that exist in the spent fuel after long periods. The aim is to identify the mechanisms of alteration and of leaching of surfaces under alpha irradiation. A method is developed to irradiate UO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O interfaces in deaerated conditions with the beam of He{sup 2+} produced by a cyclotron. The He{sup 2+} ions cross an UO{sub 2} disc and emerge in water with an energy of 5 MeV. Leachings under irradiation are carried with a large range of particles flux. The post-irradiation characterization of the surface of the discs realised by micro-Raman spectroscopy allowed to identify the alteration layer. It is made up of studtite UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}),4H{sub 2}O, and of schoepite UO{sub 3},xH{sub 2}O. The analysis of the solutions shows that the uranium release strongly increases. The electrochemical properties of the interfaces under irradiation strongly differ from those before irradiation. This work allows to propose that the radiolytic species seen by the interface are it during the heterogeneous phase of evolution of the traces and are species of short lives. Modeling show that the radiolytic radicals species can migrate toward the interface and react with the UO{sub 2} surface. (author)

  8. Infinitely Many Slutions for Robin Boundary Value Prebloms of Superlinear Singular Elliptic Equation%超线性奇异椭圆方程Robin问题的无穷多解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡爱莲

    2014-01-01

    By using the variational methods, we consider Robin bundary value problems of superlinear sigular el liptic equation. Under no Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz’s conditions,infinitely,many large energy solutions are obtained.%利用变分方法讨论了一类超线性奇异椭圆方程Robin问题,不需要假设(AR)条件成立,得到了无穷多个大能量解的存在性。

  9. Robin's theorem, primes, and a new elementary reformulation of the Riemann Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Caveney, Geoffrey; Sondow, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    For n>1, let G(n)=\\sigma(n)/(n log log n), where \\sigma(n) is the sum of the divisors of n. We prove that the Riemann Hypothesis is true if and only if 4 is the only composite number N satisfying G(N) \\ge \\max(G(N/p),G(aN)), for all prime factors p of N and all multiples aN of N. The proof uses Robin's and Gronwall's theorems on G(n). An alternate proof of one step depends on two properties of superabundant numbers proved using Alaoglu and Erd\\H{o}s's results.

  10. TripleR: an R package for social relations analyses based on round-robin designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Felix D; Back, Mitja D; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present TripleR, an R package for the calculation of social relations analyses (Kenny, 1994) based on round-robin designs. The scope of existing software solutions is ported to R and enhanced with previously unimplemented methods of significance testing in single groups (Lashley & Bond, 1997) and handling of missing values. The package requires only minimal knowledge of R, and results can be exported for subsequent analyses to other software packages. We demonstrate the use of TripleR with several didactic examples.

  11. Faber-Krahn Inequalities for the Robin-Laplacian: A Free Discontinuity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Dorin; Giacomini, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    Isoperimetric inequalities for the principal eigenvalues of the Robin-Laplacian are interpreted as free discontinuity problems (of unusual type). We prove a full range of Faber-Krahn inequalities in a nonlinear setting and for non smooth domains, including the open case of the torsional rigidity. The key point of the analysis relies on regularity issues for free discontinuity problems in spaces of functions of bounded variation. As a byproduct, we obtain the best constants for a class of Poincaré inequalities with trace terms in.

  12. Data development for ASTM E24.06.02 round robin program on instability prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccabe, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Basis data for use in an ASTM E24.06.02 task group round robin activity was developed. Compact specimens were made of 2024-T351, 7075-T651 aluminum alloys, and 304 stainless steel. All were 12.7 mm thick and planar dimension variables incorporated were for 1T, 2T and 4T sizes. Representative raw data for each material and specimen size are contained herein. R-curves plotted in terms of delta a physical and delta a effective are plotted for each material.

  13. Airway obstruction after lingual frenulectomy in two infants with Pierre-Robin Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genther, Dane J; Skinner, Margaret L; Bailey, Patti J; Capone, Randolph B; Byrne, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Pierre-Robin Sequence (PRS) is defined as the triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate and affects approximately 1/8500 births. Airway obstruction is common in infants with PRS and results from glossoptosis leading to pharyngeal obstruction. Any procedure that increases the severity of glossoptosis, such as lingual frenulectomy, may increase the risk of obstruction or aggravate existing obstruction. This report discusses two cases of significant airway decompensation after lingual frenulectomy requiring surgical intervention in infants with PRS. We suggest that lingual frenulectomy be contraindicated in infants with PRS or suspected PRS due to the possible increased risk of airway obstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trustworthiness of measurement devices in round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-02-01

    Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution (RRDPS QKD) has been proposed to raise the noise tolerability of the channel. However, in practice, the measurement device in RRDPS QKD may be imperfect. Here, we show that, with these imperfections, the security of RRDPS may be damaged by proposing two attacks for RRDPS systems with uncharacterized measurement devices. One is valid even for a system with unit total efficiency, while the other is valid even when a single-photon state is sent. To prevent these attacks, either security arguments need to be fundamentally revised or further practical assumptions on the measurement device should be put.

  15. The Sixth SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Thomas; Bailey, Sean

    1998-01-01

    For the sixth Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-6), NASA personnel carried the same four Satlantic in-water radiometers to nine separate laboratories and calibrated them. Two of the sensors were seven-channel radiance heads and two were seven-channel irradiance heads. The calibration and data reduction procedures used at each site followed that laboratory's normal procedures. The reference lamps normally used for the calibration of these types of instruments by the various laboratories were also used for this experiment. NASA personnel processed the data to produce calibration parameters from the various laboratories

  16. A Numerical Round Robin for the Reliability Prediction of Structural Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.

    1993-01-01

    A round robin has been conducted on integrated fast fracture design programs for brittle materials. An informal working group (WELFEP-WEakest Link failure probability prediction by Finite Element Postprocessors) was formed to discuss and evaluate the implementation of the programs examined in the study. Results from the study have provided insight on the differences between the various programs examined. Conclusions from the study have shown that when brittle materials are used in design, analysis must understand how to apply the concepts presented herein to failure probability analysis.

  17. Determining the Optimum Time Quantum Value in Round Robin Process Scheduling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Saeidi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The process scheduling, is one of the most important tasks of the operating system. One of the most common scheduling algorithms used by the most operating systems is the Round Robin method in which, the ready processes waiting in ready queue, seize the processor for a short period of time known as the quantum (or time slice circularly. In this paper, a non-linear programming mathematical model is developed to determine the optimum value of the time quantum, in order to minimize the average waiting time of the processes. The model is implemented and solved by Lingo 8.0 software on four selected problems from the literature.

  18. A SCHEDULING ALGORITHM USING COMPENSATING ROUND ROBIN IN PACKET—SWTICHING BROADBAND NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LanJulong; WangBinqiang; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new approximation of fair queuing called Comensating Round Robin(CRR)ia presented in this paper.The algorithm uses packet-by-packet scheduler with a compensating measure.It achieves good fairness in terms of throrghput ,requires onlyO(1)time complexity to process a packet ,and is simple enough to be implemented in hardware.After the performances are analyzed ,the fairness and is simple enough to be implemented in hardware.After the performances are that the CRR can effectively isolate the effects of contending sources.

  19. A SCHEDULING ALGORITHM USING COMPENSATING ROUND ROBIN IN PACKET-SWTICHING BROADBAND NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Julong; Wang Binqiang; Li Ou; Wu Jiangxing

    2002-01-01

    A new approximation of fair queuing called Compensating Round Robin (CRR)is presented in this paper. The algorithm uses packet-by-packet scheduler with a compensating measure. It achieves good fairness in terms of throughput, requires only O(1) time complexity to process a packet, and is simple enough to be implemented in hardware. After the performances are analyzed, the fairness and packet loss rate of the algorithm are simulated. Simulation results show that the CRR can effectively isolate the effects of contending sources.

  20. Results of a round-robin exercise on read-across.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfenati, E; Belli, M; Borges, T; Casimiro, E; Cester, J; Fernandez, A; Gini, G; Honma, M; Kinzl, M; Knauf, R; Manganaro, A; Mombelli, E; Petoumenou, M I; Paparella, M; Paris, P; Raitano, G

    2016-05-01

    A round-robin exercise was conducted within the CALEIDOS LIFE project. The participants were invited to assess the hazard posed by a substance, applying in silico methods and read-across approaches. The exercise was based on three endpoints: mutagenicity, bioconcentration factor and fish acute toxicity. Nine chemicals were assigned for each endpoint and the participants were invited to complete a specific questionnaire communicating their conclusions. The interesting aspect of this exercise is the justification behind the answers more than the final prediction in itself. Which tools were used? How did the approach selected affect the final answer?

  1. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Tsuji, Kouichi; Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Margui, Eva; Streli, Christina; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Stosnach, Hagen; Yamada, Takashi; Vandenabeele, Peter; Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael; Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K.; Bennun, Leonardo; Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina; Depero, Laura E.

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique.

  2. Interview with Dr Robin Rothrock: the RNA purification market. 26 July 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Lynsey

    2005-09-01

    Dr Robin Rothrock, Director of Market Research at Bioinformatics LLC, talked to Lynsey Alger about the RNA purification market. The process of RNA purification is one of growing importance, not only among basic researchers, but increasingly among those involved in clinical research, particularly as purified RNA represents the base material for a vast number of innovative and widely used techniques, such as real-time and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and DNA microarrays. This interview examines the current and future status of the RNA purification market, with a focus on the different types of purification approaches available to researchers as well as the key companies involved in their production.

  3. Solving for Micro- and Macro- Scale Electrostatic Configurations Using the Robin Hood Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Formaggio, J A; Corona, T J; Stefancic, H; Abraham, H; Gluck, F

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel technique by which highly-segmented electrostatic configurations can be solved. The Robin Hood method is a matrix-inversion algorithm optimized for solving high density boundary element method (BEM) problems. We illustrate the capabilities of this solver by studying two distinct geometry scales: (a) the electrostatic potential of a large volume beta-detector and (b) the field enhancement present at surface of electrode nano-structures. Geometries with elements numbering in the O(10^5) are easily modeled and solved without loss of accuracy. The technique has recently been expanded so as to include dielectrics and magnetic materials.

  4. Capillary flows with forming interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D

    2007-01-01

    PREFACEINTRODUCTION Free-surface flows in nature and industryScope of the bookFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS Main concepts Governing equations Elements of thermodynamics Classical boundary conditions Physically meaningful solutions and paradoxes of modelingMOVING CONTACT LINES: AN OVERVIEW Essence of the problem Experimental observations Molecular dynamics simulations Review of theoriesThe key to the moving contact-line problemBOUNDARY CONDITIONS ON FORMING INTERFACES Modeling of interfacesConservation lawsLiquid-gas and liquid-solid interfacesLiquid-liquid interfaces SummaryOpen questions an

  5. Comparative study of solute trapping and Gibbs free energy changes at the phase interface during alloy solidification under local nonequilibrium conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, S. L., E-mail: sobolev@icp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    An analytical model has been developed to describe the influence of solute trapping during rapid alloy solidification on the components of the Gibbs free energy change at the phase interface with emphasis on the solute drag energy. For relatively low interface velocity V < V{sub D}, where V{sub D} is the characteristic diffusion velocity, all the components, namely mixing part, local nonequilibrium part, and solute drag, significantly depend on solute diffusion and partitioning. When V ≥ V{sub D}, the local nonequilibrium effects lead to a sharp transition to diffusionless solidification. The transition is accompanied by complete solute trapping and vanishing solute drag energy, i.e. partitionless and “dragless” solidification.

  6. A DiffServ Supporting And Distributed Dynamic Dual Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm on DS-CICQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuqin, Li; Luoheng, Yan; Julong, Lan

    A distributed dynamic dual round robin scheduling algorithm (DSDRR) that can support differential services is presented. For each scheduler, the strategy of double pointer and round robin is adopted and scheduling complexity is substantially reduced. Its quantum function, related to the status of input queue and priority, is a traffic-adaptive dynamic scheduling mechanism and is rather sensitive to the changing network; therefore, it has the traits of dynamics and fairness. It can better support differential services and guarantee the realization of QoS.

  7. Adhesion scratch testing - A round-robin experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, A. J.; Valli, J.; Steinmann, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Six sets of samples, TiN coated by chemical or physical vapor deposition methods (CVD or PVD) onto cemented carbide or high-speed steel (HSS), and TiC coated by CVD onto cemented carbide have been scratch tested using three types of commercially available scratch adhesion tester. With exception of one cemented carbide set, the reproducibility of the critical loads for any given set with a given stylus is excellent, about + or - 5 percent, and is about + or - 20 percent for different styli. Any differences in critical loads recorded for any given sample set can be attributed to the condition of the stylus (clean, new, etc.), the instrument used, the stylus itself (friction coefficient, etc.), and the sample set itself. One CVD set showed remarkably large differences in critical loads for different styli, which is thought to be related to a mechanical interaction between stylus and coating which is enhanced by a plastic deformability in the film related to the coating microstructure. The critical load for TiN on HSS increases with coating thickness, and differences in frictional conditions led to a systematic variation in the critical loads depending on the stylus used.

  8. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: oxidation linked to changes in protein composition at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M.; Baron, Caroline P.; Let, Mette B.

    2007-01-01

    Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 °C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed that h...... casein seemed to be present at the oil−water interface with increasing pressure. Overall, the results indicated that a combination of more β-lactoglobulin and less casein at the oil−water interface gave the most stable emulsions with respect to lipid oxidation....... was increased by high temperature (72 °C) and with increasing pressure. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated that high temperature resulted in an increase in β-lactoglobulin adsorbed at the oil−water interface. This was even more pronounced with higher pressure. Less......Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 °C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed...

  9. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: oxidation linked to changes in protein composition at the oil-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M; Baron, Caroline P; Let, Mette B; Brüggemann, Dagmar A; Pedersen, Lise R L; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-03-07

    Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 degrees C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed that high pressure and high temperature (72 degrees C and 22.5 MPa) resulted in less lipid oxidation, whereas low pressure and low temperature (50 degrees C and 5 MPa) resulted in faster lipid oxidation. Analysis of protein oxidation indicated that especially casein was prone to oxidation. The level of free thiol groups was increased by high temperature (72 degrees C) and with increasing pressure. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated that high temperature resulted in an increase in beta-lactoglobulin adsorbed at the oil-water interface. This was even more pronounced with higher pressure. Less casein seemed to be present at the oil-water interface with increasing pressure. Overall, the results indicated that a combination of more beta-lactoglobulin and less casein at the oil-water interface gave the most stable emulsions with respect to lipid oxidation.

  10. A round-robin gamma stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry interinstitution comparison of calibration protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drzymala, R. E., E-mail: drzymala@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Alvarez, P. E. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Bednarz, G. [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Bourland, J. D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States); DeWerd, L. A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Ma, L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Meltsner, S. G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Neyman, G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Novotny, J. [Medical Physics Department, Hospital Na Homolce, Prague 15030 (Czech Republic); Petti, P. L. [Gamma Knife Center, Washington Hospital Healthcare System, Fremont, California 94538 (United States); Rivard, M. J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Shiu, A. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033 (United States); Goetsch, S. J. [San Diego Medical Physics, Inc., La Jolla, California 92037 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Absorbed dose calibration for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery is challenging due to the unique geometric conditions, dosimetry characteristics, and nonstandard field size of these devices. Members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 178 on Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance have participated in a round-robin exchange of calibrated measurement instrumentation and phantoms exploring two approved and two proposed calibration protocols or formalisms on ten gamma radiosurgery units. The objectives of this study were to benchmark and compare new formalisms to existing calibration methods, while maintaining traceability to U.S. primary dosimetry calibration laboratory standards. Methods: Nine institutions made measurements using ten gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units in three different 160 mm diameter spherical phantoms [acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic, Solid Water, and liquid water] and in air using a positioning jig. Two calibrated miniature ionization chambers and one calibrated electrometer were circulated for all measurements. Reference dose-rates at the phantom center were determined using the well-established AAPM TG-21 or TG-51 dose calibration protocols and using two proposed dose calibration protocols/formalisms: an in-air protocol and a formalism proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) working group for small and nonstandard radiation fields. Each institution’s results were normalized to the dose-rate determined at that institution using the TG-21 protocol in the ABS phantom. Results: Percentages of dose-rates within 1.5% of the reference dose-rate (TG-21 + ABS phantom) for the eight chamber-protocol-phantom combinations were the following: 88% for TG-21, 70% for TG-51, 93% for the new IAEA nonstandard-field formalism, and 65% for the new in-air protocol. Averages and standard deviations for dose-rates over all measurements relative to the TG-21 + ABS

  11. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  12. Learning Multirobot Hose Transportation and Deployment by Distributed Round-Robin Q-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gauna, Borja; Etxeberria-Agiriano, Ismael; Graña, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) algorithms face two main difficulties: the curse of dimensionality, and environment non-stationarity due to the independent learning processes carried out by the agents concurrently. In this paper we formalize and prove the convergence of a Distributed Round Robin Q-learning (D-RR-QL) algorithm for cooperative systems. The computational complexity of this algorithm increases linearly with the number of agents. Moreover, it eliminates environment non sta tionarity by carrying a round-robin scheduling of the action selection and execution. That this learning scheme allows the implementation of Modular State-Action Vetoes (MSAV) in cooperative multi-agent systems, which speeds up learning convergence in over-constrained systems by vetoing state-action pairs which lead to undesired termination states (UTS) in the relevant state-action subspace. Each agent’s local state-action value function learning is an independent process, including the MSAV policies. Coordination of locally optimal policies to obtain the global optimal joint policy is achieved by a greedy selection procedure using message passing. We show that D-RR-QL improves over state-of-the-art approaches, such as Distributed Q-Learning, Team Q-Learning and Coordinated Reinforcement Learning in a paradigmatic Linked Multi-Component Robotic System (L-MCRS) control problem: the hose transportation task. L-MCRS are over-constrained systems with many UTS induced by the interaction of the passive linking element and the active mobile robots. PMID:26158587

  13. Re-calibration of the magnetic compass in hand-raised European robins (Erithacus rubecula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Thiele, Nadine; Bottesch, Michael; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2015-09-21

    Migratory birds can use a variety of environmental cues for orientation. A primary calibration between the celestial and magnetic compasses seems to be fundamental prior to a bird's first autumn migration. Releasing hand-raised or rescued young birds back into the wild might therefore be a problem because they might not have established a functional orientation system during their first calendar year. Here, we test whether hand-raised European robins that did not develop any functional compass before or during their first autumn migration could relearn to orient if they were exposed to natural celestial cues during the subsequent winter and spring. When tested in the geomagnetic field without access to celestial cues, these birds could orient in their species-specific spring migratory direction. In contrast, control birds that were deprived of any natural celestial cues throughout remained unable to orient. Our experiments suggest that European robins are still capable of establishing a functional orientation system after their first autumn. Although the external reference remains speculative, most likely, natural celestial cues enabled our birds to calibrate their magnetic compass. Our data suggest that avian compass systems are more flexible than previously believed and have implications for the release of hand-reared migratory birds.

  14. Understanding sarcomas and other rare tumors: an interview with Robin L Jones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robin L

    2017-02-01

    Robin L Jones speaks to Jade Parker, Commissioning Editor: Robin Jones is a medical oncologist specializing in the treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas and Head of the Sarcoma Unit at The Royal Marsden. He completed his medical training at Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, and his oncology training at The Royal Marsden. His postgraduate research degree, with Professor Dowsett at the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), evaluated potential predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In January 2010 he was appointed Associate Professor and Director of the Sarcoma Program at the University of Washington and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. He led a successful, grant funded program and continued his translational and clinical trial-based research. The laboratory work with Dr Seth Pollack evaluated novel immunotherapeutic targets in bone and soft tissue sarcomas, and has led to a number of early-phase immunotherapeutic clinical trials in sarcoma. He returned to The Royal Marsden and Institute of Cancer Research in December 2014, as Sarcoma Clinical Trials Team Leader and Consultant Medical Oncologist. He has experience in conducting Phase I, II and III trials, as well as translational studies in sarcoma. He is continuing a number of trials of investigational agents as well as laboratory-based immunotherapy studies.

  15. Evaluation of interlaboratory round robin study (2000-2003) in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiozaki, T. [Japan Environmental Sanitation Center, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu Techno Research (Japan); Iwaki, K. [Ebara Research (Japan); Mochizuki, T. [Kokan Keisoku (Japan); Miyazaki, T. [Nittech Research (Japan); Tanaka, K. [Toray Research Center (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Inter-laboratory round robin is available for maintaining dioxin analytical quality/skills by testing or certified laboratories. There are over 150 dioxin testing laboratories available in Japan consequently, Ministry of Environment (MOE) and Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) have began to investigate quality of dioxin testing laboratory and to upgrade their skills with in 4 years. On the other hands, Research Group for Dioxin Analysis which have technical experts from 33 private dioxin testing laboratories had carried out inter-laboratory round robin 4 times since 1998. These studies has been transferred to new research group namely, Research Group on Ultra trace Analyses (UTA) which is accompanied organization of Japan Environmental Measurement and Chemical Analysis Association (JEMCA) in 2003. The UTA consists 83 private dioxin testing laboratories and has been subjected to grow up the technical potential for not only dioxins but other trace level analysis of well known persistent organic pollutants (POPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Former research group had run final round (4{sup th}) and new UTA carried out first round studies in 2001 And 2003, respectively. Percentage relative standard deviations (RSD) for each polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) have become smaller than past studies.

  16. A round-robin analysis of temperature and residual stresses in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Sup; Kang, Sun Ye; Park, June Soo; Sohn, Gap Heon [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    DMWs are common feature of the PWR in the welded connections between carbon steel and stainless steel piping. The nickel-based weld metal, Alloy 82/182, is used for welding the dissimilar metals and is known to be susceptible to PWSCC. A round-robin program has been implemented to benchmark the numerical simulation of the transient temperature and weld residual stresses in the DMWs. To solve the round-robin problem related to pressurizer safety and relief nozzle, the thermal elasto-plastic analysis is performed in the DMW by using the FEM. The welding includes both the DMW of the nozzle to safe-end and the SMW of the safe-end and piping. Major results of the analyses are discussed: The axial and circumferential residual stresses are found to be -88MPa(225MPa) and -38MPa(293MPa) on the inner surface of the DMW; where the values in parenthesis are the residual stresses after the DMW. Thermo-mechanical interaction by the SMW has a significant effect on the residual stress fields in the DMW.

  17. Learning Multirobot Hose Transportation and Deployment by Distributed Round-Robin Q-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gauna, Borja; Etxeberria-Agiriano, Ismael; Graña, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) algorithms face two main difficulties: the curse of dimensionality, and environment non-stationarity due to the independent learning processes carried out by the agents concurrently. In this paper we formalize and prove the convergence of a Distributed Round Robin Q-learning (D-RR-QL) algorithm for cooperative systems. The computational complexity of this algorithm increases linearly with the number of agents. Moreover, it eliminates environment non sta tionarity by carrying a round-robin scheduling of the action selection and execution. That this learning scheme allows the implementation of Modular State-Action Vetoes (MSAV) in cooperative multi-agent systems, which speeds up learning convergence in over-constrained systems by vetoing state-action pairs which lead to undesired termination states (UTS) in the relevant state-action subspace. Each agent's local state-action value function learning is an independent process, including the MSAV policies. Coordination of locally optimal policies to obtain the global optimal joint policy is achieved by a greedy selection procedure using message passing. We show that D-RR-QL improves over state-of-the-art approaches, such as Distributed Q-Learning, Team Q-Learning and Coordinated Reinforcement Learning in a paradigmatic Linked Multi-Component Robotic System (L-MCRS) control problem: the hose transportation task. L-MCRS are over-constrained systems with many UTS induced by the interaction of the passive linking element and the active mobile robots.

  18. Round-robin differential quadrature phase-shift quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Mu-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Recently, a round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol was proposed [Nature 509, 475 (2014)], in which the amount of leakage is bounded without monitoring the signal disturbance. Introducing states of the phase-encoded Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol (PE-BB84) to the RRDPS, this paper presents another quantum key distribution protocol called round-robin differential quadrature phase-shift (RRDQPS) quantum key distribution. Regarding a train of many pulses as a single packet, the sender modulates the phase of each pulse by one of {0, π/2, π, 3π/2}, then the receiver measures each packet with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer having a phase basis of 0 or π/2. The RRDQPS protocol can be implemented with essential similar hardware to the PE-BB84, so it has great compatibility with the current quantum system. Here we analyze the security of the RRDQPS protocol against the intercept-resend attack and the beam-splitting attack. Results show that the proposed protocol inherits the advantages arising from the simplicity of the RRDPS protocol and is more robust against these attacks than the original protocol. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505261 and 11304397) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002)

  19. Packet Scheduling in High-speed Networks Using Improved Weighted Round Robin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guikai Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of applications with different QoS requirements are supported simultaneously in the high-speed packet-switched networks, packet scheduling algorithms play a critical role in guaranteeing the performance of routing and switching devices. This study presents a simple, fair, efficient and easily implementary scheduling algorithm, called Successive Minimal-weight Round Robin (SMRR. In each round, SMRR provides the same service opportunity, which is equivalent to the minimal weight of the current round, for all active data flows. On the basis of the concept of Latency-Rate (LR servers, we obtain the upper bound on the latency of SMRR and WRR (Weighted Round Robin respectively and the results indicate that SMRR makes a significant improvement on the latency bound in comparison to WRR. We also discuss the fairness and implementation complexity of SMRR and the theoretical analysis shows that SMRR preserves the good implementation complexity of O (1 with respect to the number of flows and has better fairness than WRR.

  20. Round robin: Quantitative lateral resolution of PHI XPS microprobes Quantum 2000/Quantera SXM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheithauer, Uwe, E-mail: scht.uhg@googlemail.com [82008 Unterhaching (Germany); Kolb, Max, E-mail: max.kolb@airbus.com [Airbus Group Innovations, TX2, 81663 Munich (Germany); Kip, Gerard A.M., E-mail: G.A.M.Kip@utwente.nl [Universiteit Twente, MESA+ Nanolab, Postbus 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Naburgh, Emile, E-mail: e.p.naburgh@philips.com [Materials Analysis, Philips Innovation Services, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Snijders, J.H.M., E-mail: j.h.m.snijders@philips.com [Materials Analysis, Philips Innovation Services, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The quantitative lateral resolution of 7 PHI XPS microprobes has been estimated in a round robin. • An ellipsoidally shaped quartz crystal monochromatizes the Alkα radiation and refocuses it from the Al anode to the sample surface. • The long tail contributions of the X-ray beam intensity distribution were measured using a new and innovative approach. • This quantitative lateral resolution has a significantly larger value than the nominal X-ray beam diameter. • The quantitative lateral resolution follows a trend in time: The newer the monochromator so much the better the quantitative lateral resolution. - Abstract: The quantitative lateral resolution is a reliable measure for the quality of an XPS microprobe equipped with a focused X-ray beam. It describes the long tail contributions of the X-ray beam intensity distribution. The knowledge of these long tail contributions is essential when judging on the origin of signals of XPS spectra recorded on small-sized features. In this round robin test the quantitative lateral resolution of 7 PHI XPS microprobes has been estimated. As expected, the quantitative lateral resolution has significantly larger values than the nominal X-ray beam diameter. The estimated values of the quantitative lateral resolution follow a trend in time: the newer the monochromator of an XPS microprobe so much the better the quantitative lateral resolution.

  1. Learning Multirobot Hose Transportation and Deployment by Distributed Round-Robin Q-Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Fernandez-Gauna

    Full Text Available Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL algorithms face two main difficulties: the curse of dimensionality, and environment non-stationarity due to the independent learning processes carried out by the agents concurrently. In this paper we formalize and prove the convergence of a Distributed Round Robin Q-learning (D-RR-QL algorithm for cooperative systems. The computational complexity of this algorithm increases linearly with the number of agents. Moreover, it eliminates environment non sta tionarity by carrying a round-robin scheduling of the action selection and execution. That this learning scheme allows the implementation of Modular State-Action Vetoes (MSAV in cooperative multi-agent systems, which speeds up learning convergence in over-constrained systems by vetoing state-action pairs which lead to undesired termination states (UTS in the relevant state-action subspace. Each agent's local state-action value function learning is an independent process, including the MSAV policies. Coordination of locally optimal policies to obtain the global optimal joint policy is achieved by a greedy selection procedure using message passing. We show that D-RR-QL improves over state-of-the-art approaches, such as Distributed Q-Learning, Team Q-Learning and Coordinated Reinforcement Learning in a paradigmatic Linked Multi-Component Robotic System (L-MCRS control problem: the hose transportation task. L-MCRS are over-constrained systems with many UTS induced by the interaction of the passive linking element and the active mobile robots.

  2. Round robin comparison of tensile results on GlidCop Al25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Inst. of Electro-Physical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pokrovsky, A.S. [V.I. Lenin Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    A round robin comparison of the tensile properties of GlidCop{trademark} Al25 oxide dispersion strengthened copper was initiated between collaborating laboratories to evaluate the test and analysis procedures used in the irradiation experiments in SRIAR in Dimitrovgrad. The tests were conducted using the same tensile specimen geometry as used in previous irradiation experiments, with tests at each laboratory being conducted in air or vacuum at 25, 150, and 300 C at a strain rate of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}. The strength of the GlidCop Al25 decreased as the test temperature increased, with no observable effect of testing in air versus vacuum on the yield and ultimate strengths. The uniform elongation decreased by almost a factor of 3 when the test temperature was raised from room temperature to 300 C, but the total elongation remained roughly constant over the range of test temperatures. Any effect of testing in air on the ductility may have been masked by the scatter introduced into the results because each laboratory tested the specimens in a different grip setup. In light of this, the results of the round robin tests demonstrated that the test and analysis procedures produced essentially the same values for tensile yield and ultimate, but significant variability was present in both the uniform and total elongation measurements due to the gripping technique.

  3. A note on charged interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Huaqiang [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Yu, M Y [Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr-University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    A condition associated with the plasma boundary or other charged interface is reviewed. It is pointed out that in comparing theories and simulations of such interfaces, in order to avoid conflicting results it should be ascertained that the systems under consideration are thermodynamically equivalent. For the plasma-wall interface in equilibrium, the rate of change of the surface-charge density with respect to the surface potential must be positive.

  4. Matching conditions in the quasicontinuum method: Removal of the error introduced at the interface between the coarse-grained and fully atomistic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimokawa, T.; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The quasicontinuum method is a way of reducing the number of degrees of freedom in an atomistic simulation by removing the majority of the atoms in regions of slowly varying strain fields. Due to the different ways the energy of the atoms is calculated in the coarse-grained regions and the regions...... where all the atoms are present, unphysical forces called "ghost forces" arise at the interfaces. Corrections may be used to almost remove the ghost forces, but the correction forces are nonconservative, ruining energy conservation in dynamic simulations. We show that it is possible to formulate...

  5. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  6. Language Disorders from a Developmental Perspective: Essays in Honor of Robin S. Chapman. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The last 25 years have witnessed an explosion of research at the intersection of typical language development and child language disorders. A pioneer in bringing these fields of study together is Robin S. Chapman, Emerita, University of Wisconsin. This contributed volume honors her with chapters written by former students and colleagues, who track…

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of the Pierre Robin sequence: results of a retrospective clinical study and review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, A. van der; Semmekrot, B.A.; Bongers, M.H.F.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    We performed a retrospective study of all children with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS), admitted to our hospital from 1981-1998 in order to evaluate diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Patients were divided into two categories: isolated PRS (group 1) and PRS plus, i.e. PRS as part of a more complex syn

  8. The decoy matters! Hormonal and behavioural differences in the reaction of territorial European robins towards stuffed and live decoys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Madeleine; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2008-02-01

    Simulated territorial intrusions (STIs) represent a commonly used experimental manipulation to test behavioural and hormonal responses of birds towards conspecific intruders. They are typically either conducted with live birds in a cage or with stuffed decoys. To our knowledge, nobody has tested whether these two different kinds of stimuli elicit the same kind of behavioural and hormonal response. We compared the reactions of European robins to STIs with stuffed and live decoys to see whether these stimuli are perceived in similar ways. We conducted STIs by placing a stuffed or a live decoy in a territory, played-back robin song and recorded the behaviour for at least 10min. Then, the focal bird was caught, and a blood sample was taken to measure hormone concentrations. Males challenged with a stuffed decoy responded with more threats and movements around the decoy than males that were exposed to a live decoy. Furthermore, males challenged with a stuffed decoy had significantly higher corticosterone levels than males challenged with a live decoy. Androgen levels did not differ between treatments. The differential behavioural and corticosterone response of robins to stuffed and live decoys suggests that robins may perceive stuffed decoys as more threatening than live decoys. Future investigations using STI experiments should be aware of the potential impact different kinds of decoys may have on the behavioural and hormonal response of birds during STIs.

  9. A pragmatic approach to infants with Robin sequence : a retrospective cohort study and presence of a treatment algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paes, Emma C; van Nunen, Daan P F; Speleman, Lucienne; Muradin, Marvick S M; Smarius, Bram; Kon, Moshe; van der Molen, Aebele B Mink; Niers, Titia L E M; Veldhoen, ES; Breugem, Corstiaan C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Initial approaches to and treatments of infants with Robin sequence (RS) is diverse and inconsistent. The care of these sometimes critically ill infants involves many different medical specialties, which can make the decision process complex and difficult. To optimize the care of infants

  10. A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren; Gholamkhass, Bobak

    2009-01-01

    A round robin for the performance of roll-to-roll coated flexible large-area polymer solar-cell modules involving 18 different laboratories in Northern America, Europe and Middle East is presented. The study involved the performance measurement of the devices at one location (Risø DTU) followed b...

  11. Gesture Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Take away mouse and keyboard. Now, how do you interact with a computer? Especially one that has a display that is the size of an entire wall. One possibility is through gesture interfaces. Remember Minority Report? Cool stuff, but that was already five years ago.. So, what is already possible now an

  12. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering. Desi

  13. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of solid insulating materials combinations in combinations has introduced problems in the interfaces between components. The most common insulating materials are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), silicone rubber (SIR) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR). Assemblies of these materials...

  14. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439

  15. PEP'87 Round Robin: Reference solar cells, mini modules, and modules. Internationaler Rundvergleich (PEP'87 Round Robin) an Referenz-Solarzellen, Minimodulen und Modulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzdorf, J.; Wittchen, T.; Huenerhoff, D.; Nawo, B. (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.)); Heidler, K. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the research was to prepare, carry out and evaluate the second international all-round comparison of terrestrial reference solar cells and photovoltaic modules (PEP Round Robin) according to the 1985 resolution of the 'Photovoltaic Energy Project' (PEP) subgroup of the 'Technology, Growth and Employment' working group of the World Economic Summit of western industrialised nations. In line with IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) recommendations, the following extensive aims were set: (i) comparison and assessment of the commonly used calibration methods in the western industrialised countries with regard to accuracy, reliability and applicability; (ii) trials of different embodiments of reference solar cells, firstly for their calibration capacity as 'reference solar cells' as such and secondly for their use as reference solar cells in the calibration of solar arrays; (iii) collection of data and experience reports to provide a basis for national standards on calibration methods and reference solar cells. (orig./ORU).

  16. Design, development, and demonstration of a fully LabVIEW controlled in situ electrochemical Fourier transform infrared setup combined with a wall-jet electrode to investigate the electrochemical interface of nanoparticulate electrocatalysts under reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesselberger, Markus; Ashton, Sean J; Wiberg, Gustav K H; Arenz, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction of an in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup combined with a wall-jet electrode to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of nanoparticulate catalysts in situ under controlled mass transport conditions. The presented setup allows the electrochemical interface to be probed in combination with the simultaneous determination of reaction rates. At the same time, the high level of automation allows it to be used as a standard tool in electrocatalysis research. The performance of the setup was demonstrated by probing the oxygen reduction reaction on a platinum black catalyst in sulfuric electrolyte.

  17. Composition and Morphology of Product Layers in the Steel/Cement Paste Interface in Conditions of Corrosion and Cathodic Protection in Reinforced Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Boshkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the formation of corrosion products on the steel surface in reinforced concrete in conditions of corrosion and subsequent transformation of these layers in conditions of cathodic protection (CP). Of particular interest was to investigate if the introduced pulse CP (as cost

  18. MEMS Young's Modulus and Step Height Measurements With Round Robin Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Janet; Allen, Richard A; McGray, Craig D; Geist, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Young's modulus and step height round robin experiment, completed in April 2009, which compares Young's modulus and step height measurement results at a number of laboratories. The purpose of the round robin was to provide data for the precision and bias statements of two \\ related Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI) standard test methods for MEMS. The technical basis for the test methods on Young's modulus and step height measurements are also provided in this paper. Using the same test method, the goal of the round robin was to assess the repeatability of measurements at one laboratory, by the same operator, with the same equipment, in the shortest practical period of time as well as the reproducibility of measurements with independent data sets from unique combinations of measurement setups and researchers. Both the repeatability and reproducibility measurements were done on random test structures made of the same homogeneous material. The average repeatability Young's modulus value (as obtained from resonating oxide cantilevers) was 64.2 GPa with 95 % limits of ± 10.3 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 3.1 GPa. The average reproducibility Young's modulus value was 62.8 GPa with 95 % limits of ± 11.0 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 3.0 GPa. The average repeatability step height value (for a metal2-over-poly1 step from active area to field oxide) was 0.477 μm with 95 % limits of 7.9 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 0.014 μm. The average reproducibility step height value was 0.481 μm with 95 % limits of ± 6.2 % and an average combined standard uncertainty value of 0.014 μm. In summary, this paper demonstrates that a reliable methodology can be used to measure Young's modulus and step height. Furthermore, a micro and nano technology (MNT) 5-in-1 standard reference material (SRM) can be used by

  19. Lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zexi; Huang, Juntao; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose an interfacial scheme accompanying the lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions, including conjugate conditions with or without jumps in heat and mass transfer, continuity of macroscopic variables and normal fluxes in ion diffusion in porous media with different porosity, and the Kapitza resistance in heat transfer. The construction of this scheme is based on our boundary schemes [Huang and Yong, J. Comput. Phys. 300, 70 (2015), 10.1016/j.jcp.2015.07.045] for Robin boundary conditions on straight or curved boundaries. It gives second-order accuracy for straight interfaces and first-order accuracy for curved ones. In addition, the new scheme inherits the advantage of the boundary schemes in which only the current lattice nodes are involved. Such an interfacial scheme is highly desirable for problems with complex geometries or in porous media. The interfacial scheme is numerically validated with several examples. The results show the utility of the constructed scheme and very well support our theoretical predications.

  20. Impact of water flow conditions on the fate of ammonium and nitrate at the interface of the unsaturated and saturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckler, David; Gassen, Niklas; Stumpp, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater have caused severe environmental issues in the last decades. Mitigation strategies need to be developed to reduce the amount of nitrate without reducing crop yield though. Therefore, we need to understand nitrogen turnover processes and how they are influenced by hydrogeochemical conditions in the unsaturated and saturated zone. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of flow conditions on transport processes and the fate of ammonium and nitrate released from slurry application. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in an aquifer model setup (1.1 x 0.6 x 0.2 m3). A diluted slurry mix was injected continuously. The inorganic nitrogen compounds were traced under different water regimes regarding recharge rates and water table position (steady-state, transient and stagnant flow conditions). Conservative tracers and mathematical modeling were used to identify water flow and transport. Spatiotemporal changes of dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon and matrix potential were identified through high resolution monitoring (0.05 m). The ecosystem immediately responded to the slurry application with enhanced microbial respiration and the first step of nitrification converting ammonium to nitrite. This process was dominating during the first ten days of the experiment. A complete nitrification was established after 20 days resulting in increasing nitrate concentrations. Less nitrate was measured below the water table during steady state flow conditions in contrast to transient conditions with a fluctuating water table which seemed to inhibit denitrification. Still denitrification was not the dominating process despite high concentration of dissolved organic carbon (4-20 mg/L). Even under stagnant flow conditions, nitrate stayed in the system and denitrification was limited. Anoxic conditions were not established due to the low bioavailability of the dissolved

  1. The enemy in house: A reading of Paul Virilio, Norbert Elias and Corey Robin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Social Anthropology delved into the war as one of most important activities of all societies, cultures and civilizations. She not only sets the circles of solidarities by means of the articulation of fear but also she continues the advance of technology previously developed in peace-time. Whenever societies are unable to make the war, simply they are extinguished. Nonetheless, after the World Trade center’s attack in Sept. 2001, terrorism advent and the war on terror have created a pervasive reality wherein the fear and spectacle converges. In this conjuncture, this paper explores the conceptual connection between Paul Virilio, Norbert Elias and Corey Robin who have made of this issue their epicenter of research and thinking. They have certainly argued that moral evolution of every civilization is circumscribed to its own opportunities and technological resources to celebrate the war and impose peace

  2. Efficacy of Robin® powder blue for latent fingerprint development on various surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Badiye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Latent fingerprints are subject to easy damage and destruction owing to their fragile nature. Powder dusting is the easiest and fastest of the methods used for latent fingerprint development (LFPD. In the present study, Robin® powder blue, a common household product (used as a post-wash whitening agent and popularly known in India as ‘neel’ which is user friendly, less expensive, non toxic, non hazardous, environment friendly, simple and easily available substitute to the commercially available and costlier powders, has been used for LFPD. The powder was tested on twenty-four strategically chosen surfaces, keeping in mind the high frequency at which they are commonly encountered on various crime scenes. It was shown that this powder gives very good results, even on most of the intricate and multi-colored surfaces tested.

  3. Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, A; Rosén, M; Spedding, G R

    2006-04-22

    The wakes of two individual robins were measured in digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments conducted in the Lund wind tunnel. Wake measurements were compared with each other, and with previous studies in the same facility. There was no significant individual variation in any of the measured quantities. Qualitatively, the wake structure and its gradual variation with flight speed were exactly as previously measured for the thrush nightingale. A procedure that accounts for the disparate sources of circulation spread over the complex wake structure nevertheless can account for the vertical momentum flux required to support the weight, and an example calculation is given for estimating drag from the components of horizontal momentum flux (whose net value is zero). The measured circulations of the largest structures in the wake can be predicted quite well by simple models, and expressions are given to predict these and other measurable quantities in future bird flight experiments.

  4. Practical round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Bao, Wan-Su; Zhou, Chun; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Mu-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    To overcome the signal disturbance from the transmission process, recently, a new type of protocol named round-robin differential-phase-shift(RRDPS) quantum key distribution[Nature 509, 475(2014)] is proposed. It can estimate how much information has leaked to eavesdropper without monitoring bit error rates. In this paper, we compare the performance of RRDPS using different sources without and with decoy-state method, such as weak coherent pulses(WCPs) and heralded single photon source(HSPS). For practical implementations, we propose finite decoy-state method for RRDPS, the performance of which is close to the infinite one. Taking WCPs as an example, the three-intensity decoystate protocol can distribute secret keys over a distance of 128 km when the length of pulses packet is 32, which confirms the great practical interest of our method.

  5. Spin-the-bottle Sort and Annealing Sort: Oblivious Sorting via Round-robin Random Comparisons

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    We study sorting algorithms based on randomized round-robin comparisons. Specifically, we study Spin-the-bottle sort, where comparisons are unrestricted, and Annealing sort, where comparisons are restricted to a distance bounded by a \\emph{temperature} parameter. Both algorithms are simple, randomized, data-oblivious sorting algorithms, which are useful in privacy-preserving computations, but, as we show, Annealing sort is much more efficient. We show that there is an input permutation that causes Spin-the-bottle sort to require $\\Omega(n^2\\log n)$ expected time in order to succeed, and that in $O(n^2\\log n)$ time this algorithm succeeds with high probability for any input. We also show there is an implementation of Annealing sort that runs in $O(n\\log n)$ time and succeeds with very high probability.

  6. Stress analysis of the cracked-lap-shear specimen - An ASTM round-robin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    This ASTM Round Robin was conducted to evaluate the state of the art in stress analysis of adhesively bonded joint specimens. Specifically, the participants were asked to calculate the strain-energy-release rate for two different geometry cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens at four different debond lengths. The various analytical techniques consisted of 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis, beam theory, plate theory, and a combination of beam theory and finite element analysis. The results were examined in terms of the total strain-energy-release rate and the mode I to mode II ratio as a function of debond length for each specimen geometry. These results basically clustered into two groups: geometric linear or geometric nonlinear analysis. The geometric nonlinear analysis is required to properly analyze the CLS specimens. The 3-D finite element analysis gave indications of edge closure plus some mode III loading. Each participant described his analytical technique and results. Nine laboratories participated.

  7. Stress analysis of the cracked lap shear specimens: An ASTM round robin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    This ASTM Round Robin was conducted to evaluate the state of the art in stress analysis of adhesively bonded joint specimens. Specifically, the participants were asked to calculate the strain-energy-release rate for two different geometry cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens at four different debond lengths. The various analytical techniques consisted of 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis, beam theory, plate theory, and a combination of beam theory and finite element analysis. The results were examined in terms of the total strain-energy-release rate and the mode I to mode II ratio as a function of debond length for each specimen geometry. These results basically clustered into two groups: geometric linear or geometric nonlinear analysis. The geometric nonlinear analysis is required to properly analyze the CLS specimens. The 3-D finite element analysis gave indications of edge closure plus some mode III loading. Each participant described his analytical technique and results. Nine laboratories participated.

  8. Weighted Round Robin and Rate Limiter based Fair Queuing for WRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Balogh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new packet scheduling method based on parallel usage of multiple WRR schedulers, rate limiters and output bandwidth calculation for modern NGN networks. The main idea of the presented method is to provide queueing fairness within queues. The method provides the same results in output bandwidth allocation as the compared algorithm, while within one queue flows with different packet size and arrival rates gets the same output bandwidth. With this method we are able to achieve the overall result of bandwidth assignment as algorithms like WRR, WFQ, WRRPQ and LLQ by only changing the mathematical model used to calculate the bandwidth assignment. We call this method Weighted Round Robin and Rate Limiter based Fair Queuing (WRRRLbFQ. We prove the model outcome with simulation results using NS2 simulator and compare the behavior with the WRR scheduler.

  9. Spin-the-bottle Sort and Annealing Sort: Oblivious Sorting via Round-robin Random Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    We study sorting algorithms based on randomized round-robin comparisons. Specifically, we study Spin-the-bottle sort, where comparisons are unrestricted, and Annealing sort, where comparisons are restricted to a distance bounded by a temperature parameter. Both algorithms are simple, randomized, data-oblivious sorting algorithms, which are useful in privacy-preserving computations, but, as we show, Annealing sort is much more efficient. We show that there is an input permutation that causes Spin-the-bottle sort to require Ω(n(2) log n) expected time in order to succeed, and that in O(n(2) log n) time this algorithm succeeds with high probability for any input. We also show there is a specification of Annealing sort that runs in O(n log n) time and succeeds with very high probability.

  10. Gas chromatographic analysis of polyhydroxybutyrate in activated sludge: a round-robin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens, D; Aurola, A M; Foglia, A; Dionisi, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2002-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in particular have become compounds which is routinely investigated in wastewater research. The PHB analysis method has only recently been applied to activated sludge samples where PHA contents might be relatively low. This urges the need to investigate the reproducibility of the gas chromatographic method for PHB analysis. This was evaluated in a round-robin test in 5 European laboratories with samples from lab-scale and full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. It was shown that the standard deviation of measurements in each lab and the reproducibility between the labs was very good. Experimental results obtained by different laboratories using this analysis method can be compared. Sludge samples with PHB contents varying between 0.3 and 22.5 mg PHB/mg sludge were analysed. The gas chromatographic method allows for PHV, PH2MB and PH2MV analysis as well.

  11. Improving Waiting Time of Tasks Scheduled Under Preemptive Round Robin Using Changeable Time Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Mostafa, Samih Mohemmed

    2010-01-01

    Minimizing waiting time for tasks waiting in the queue for execution is one of the important scheduling cri-teria which took a wide area in scheduling preemptive tasks. In this paper we present Changeable Time Quan-tum (CTQ) approach combined with the round-robin algorithm, we try to adjust the time quantum according to the burst times of the tasks in the ready queue. There are two important benefits of using (CTQ) approach: minimizing the average waiting time of the tasks, consequently minimizing the average turnaround time, and keeping the number of context switches as low as possible, consequently minimizing the scheduling overhead. In this paper, we consider the scheduling problem for preemptive tasks, where the time costs of these tasks are known a priori. Our experimental results demonstrate that CTQ can provide much lower scheduling overhead and better scheduling criteria.

  12. Round robin based Secure-Aware Packet Scheduling in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Raj

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Packet scheduling algorithms enhances the packet delivery rate effectively in wireless networks; it helps to improve the quality of service of the wireless networks. Many algorithms had been deployed in the area of packet scheduling in wireless networks but less attention is paid to security. Some algorithms which offer security often compromise performances such as schedulability, this is not desirable. This performance problem will become worse when the system is under heavy load. In this paper we propose Round robin based Secure- Aware Packet Scheduling algorithm (RSAPS for wireless networks which focuses on secure scheduling. RSAPS is an adaptive algorithm which gives priority to scheduling when system is under heavy load. Under light load RSAPS provide maximum security for the incoming packets. Simulation has been performed using the proposed method and compared with existing algorithms SPSS and ISPAS. And it is found that RSAPS shows excellent scheduling quality holding the security levels.

  13. Round Robin: Quantitative Lateral Resolution of PHI XPS microprobes Quantum 2000 / Quantera SXM

    CERN Document Server

    Scheithauer, U; Kip, G A M; Naburgh, E; Snijders, J H M

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative lateral resolution is a reliable measure for the quality of an XPS microprobe equipped with a focused X-ray beam. It describes the long tail contributions of the X-ray beam intensity distribution. The knowledge of these long tail contributions is essential when judging on the origin of signals of XPS spectra recorded on small-sized features. In this round robin test the quantitative lateral resolution of 7 PHI XPS microprobes has been estimated. As expected, the quantitative lateral resolution has significantly larger values than the nominal X-ray beam diameter. The estimated values of the quantitative lateral resolution follow a trend in time: The newer the monochromator of an XPS microprobe so much the better the quantitative lateral resolution.

  14. Faked state attacks on realistic round robin DPS quantum key distribution systems and countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakoshi, T.

    2015-05-01

    In May 2014, a new quantum key distribution protocol named "Round Robin Differential-Phase-Shift Quantum Key Distribution (RR DPS QKD)" was proposed. It has a special feature that the key consumption via privacy amplification is a small constant because RR DPS QKD guarantees its security by information causality, not by information-disturbance trade-off. Therefore, the authors claimed that RR DPS QKD systems does not need to monitor the disturbance by an attacker in the quantum channel. However, this study shows that a modified Faked-State Attack (or so-called bright illumination attack) can hack a RR DPS QKD system almost perfectly if it is implemented with realistic detectors even information-causality guarantees the security of RR DPS QKD protocol. Therefore, this study also proposes a possible Measurement-Device-Independent RR DPS QKD system to avoid the modified Faked-State Attack.

  15. "Robin Hood" of techno-Turkey or organ trafficking in the state of ethical beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Aslihan

    2004-09-01

    Dr S. is a famous transplant surgeon in the Middle East. He operates "underground" on wealthy patients in different countries, from Israel to Turkey to Russia. The media refer to him as the "Organ Mafia doctor," and patients diagnosed with renal failure speak of him sardonically as "Robin Hood," acknowledging that he takes organs from the poor to give to the rich. But ethical issues of organ trafficking are not limited to marginal private clinics and "Mafia" doctors. All-living related organ transplants in Turkey involve similar ethical dilemmas: many related or nonrelated organ recipients pay their donors, and demand continues to rise. This paper explores practices in state and university hospitals and the ethical dilemmas doctors encounter to understand where and how judicial, cultural, and social categories of "human rights" and "crime" are constructed in our high-tech world.

  16. Early Craniofacial Morphology and Growth in Children With Nonsyndromic Robin Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Kreiborg, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Craniofacial morphology and growth comparisons in children with untreated nonsyndromic Robin Sequence (RS) and a control group with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL) in which the lip was surgically closed at 2 months of age. Material: The 52 children (7 RS and 45 UICL) included...... in the study were drawn from a group representing all Danish cleft children born 1976 through 1981. The ages of the children were 2 and 22 months at the time of examination 1 and 2, respectively. Method: The method of investigation was three-projection cephalometry. Craniofacial morphology was analyzed...... markedly increased posterior maxillary width, increased width of the nasal cavity, short maxilla with reduced posterior height, short mandible, bimaxillary retrognathia, and severe reduction in size of the pharyngeal airway. The amount of facial growth was similar in the two groups; however, a tendency...

  17. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  18. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...

  19. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...

  20. Airway and feeding problems in infants with Fairbairn-Robin triad deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna M. du Plessis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of patients with Pierre Robin sequence in the subdivision Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT, are born with glossoptosis, retro-/micrognathia and cleft or agenesis of the palate leading to feeding difficulties and airway obstruction. There is limited literature on these problems, and on methods used to address them.Objectives: Community nurses in the Facial Cleft Deformity Clinic evaluate associated airway obstruction and feeding problems and devise nursing interactions to address these. This retrospective study examined the incidence of airway and feeding difficulties in the neonatal,pre-surgical period, as well as the surgical and nutritional management of these infants.Method: Retrospective records of 215 infants with FRT were examined and data on incidence, airway and feeding difficulties and surgical and nutritional management was collected. Descriptive statistics, including average and percentage values, were compiled.Results: The incidence of FRT amongst the cleft palate patients was 6.0%, with 37.7% of these having feeding difficulties. However, surgical interventions such as glossopexy (5.6%, distraction osteogenesis (0.9% and tracheotomy (2.3% for airway management were seldom required. Most of the infants who had upper airway obstruction and feeding problems werehandled by means of suction and drinking plates, along with additional specific feeding aids.This reduced airway obstruction in 70.6%, and feeding problems in 62.4% of these infants.Conclusion: Based on this study’s finding the introduction of the suction and drinking plateand the use of specific types of feeding devices and surgical management can improve growthand development in infants with FRT.

  1. Airway and feeding problems in infants with Fairbairn-Robin triad deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna M. du Plessis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of patients with Pierre Robin sequence in the subdivision Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT, are born with glossoptosis, retro-/micrognathia and cleft or agenesis of the palate leading to feeding difficulties and airway obstruction. There is limited literature on these problems, and on methods used to address them.Objectives: Community nurses in the Facial Cleft Deformity Clinic evaluate associated airway obstruction and feeding problems and devise nursing interactions to address these. This retrospective study examined the incidence of airway and feeding difficulties in the neonatal, pre-surgical period, as well as the surgical and nutritional management of these infants.Method: Retrospective records of 215 infants with FRT were examined and data on incidence, airway and feeding difficulties and surgical and nutritional management was collected. Descriptive statistics, including average and percentage values, were compiled.Results: The incidence of FRT amongst the cleft palate patients was 6.0%, with 37.7% of these having feeding difficulties. However, surgical interventions such as glossopexy (5.6%, distraction osteogenesis (0.9% and tracheotomy (2.3% for airway management were seldom required. Most of the infants who had upper airway obstruction and feeding problems were handled by means of suction and drinking plates, along with additional specific feeding aids. This reduced airway obstruction in 70.6%, and feeding problems in 62.4% of these infants.Conclusion: Based on this study’s finding the introduction of the suction and drinking plate and the use of specific types of feeding devices and surgical management can improve growth and development in infants with FRT.

  2. Airway and feeding problems in infants with Fairbairn-Robin triad deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Susanna M; van den Berg, Hester J S; Bütow, Kurt W; Hoogendijk, Christiaan F

    2013-01-01

    The majority of patients with Pierre Robin sequence in the subdivision Fairbairn- Robin triad (FRT), are born with glossoptosis, retro-/micrognathia and cleft or agenesis of the palate leading to feeding difficulties and airway obstruction. There is limited literature on these problems, and on methods used to address them. Community nurses in the Facial Cleft Deformity Clinic evaluate associated airway obstruction and feeding problems and devise nursing interactions to address these. This retrospective study examined the incidence of airway and feeding difficulties in the neonatal, pre-surgical period, as well as the surgical and nutritional management of these infants. Retrospective records of 215 infants with FRT were examined and data on incidence, airway and feeding difficulties and surgical and nutritional management was collected. Descriptive statistics, including average and percentage values, were compiled. The incidence of FRT amongst the cleft palate patients was 6.0%, with 37.7% of these having feeding difficulties. However, surgical interventions such as glossopexy (5.6%), distraction osteogenesis (0.9%) and tracheotomy (2.3%) for airway management were seldom required. Most of the infants who had upper airway obstruction and feeding problems were handled by means of suction and drinking plates, along with additional specific feeding aids. This reduced airway obstruction in 70.6%, and feeding problems in 62.4% of these infants. Based on this study’s finding the introduction of the suction and drinking plate and the use of specific types of feeding devices and surgical management can improve growth and development in infants with FRT.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) round robin benchmark for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shin K., E-mail: paengki1@tamu.edu; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The capabilities of steady RANS models were directly assessed for full axial scale experiment. • The importance of mesh and conjugate heat transfer was reaffirmed. • The rod inner-surface temperature was directly compared. • The steady RANS calculations showed a limitation in the prediction of circumferential distribution of the rod surface temperature. - Abstract: This study examined the capabilities and limitations of steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) approach for pressurized water reactor (PWR) rod bundle problems, based on the round robin benchmark of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes against the NESTOR experiment for a 5 × 5 rod bundle with typical split-type mixing vane grids (MVGs). The round robin exercise against the high-fidelity, broad-range (covering multi-spans and entire lateral domain) NESTOR experimental data for both the flow field and the rod temperatures enabled us to obtain important insights into CFD prediction and validation for the split-type MVG PWR rod bundle problem. It was found that the steady RANS turbulence models with wall function could reasonably predict two key variables for a rod bundle problem – grid span pressure loss and the rod surface temperature – once mesh (type, resolution, and configuration) was suitable and conjugate heat transfer was properly considered. However, they over-predicted the magnitude of the circumferential variation of the rod surface temperature and could not capture its peak azimuthal locations for a central rod in the wake of the MVG. These discrepancies in the rod surface temperature were probably because the steady RANS approach could not capture unsteady, large-scale cross-flow fluctuations and qualitative cross-flow pattern change due to the laterally confined test section. Based on this benchmarking study, lessons and recommendations about experimental methods as well as CFD methods were also provided for the future research.

  4. Natal Dispersal in the North Island Robin (Petroica longipes: the Importance of Connectivity in Fragmented Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askia K. Wittern

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natal dispersal is an important component in bird population dynamics and can influence the persistence of local and metapopulations. We examined natal dispersal in the North Island robin (Petroica longipes, a sedentary bird species distributed in a fragmented forest habitat on Tiritiri Matangi Island, New Zealand. Earlier studies have shown that the only dispersal phase in this species takes place when juveniles leave their natal patch, and that juveniles who fail to find suitable habitat do not survive their first winter. These findings suggest that natal dispersal behavior in this species is important for population viability. We found that juveniles were highly affected by the fragmentation of the forest habitat, with patch occupancy being positively correlated with degree of connectivity of the landscape. Most juvenile movements (52.1% were observed between patches that were separated by less than 20 m. Juvenile North Island robins were found in all forest habitat types, including young and open stands. This suggests that the juveniles are not dependent on old forest stands during their dispersal phase. Based on these findings, we suggest that management of this regionally-threatened species should focus not only on maintaining populations in occupied patches and increasing the habitat quality of these patches, but also on protecting existing forest patches acting as corridors and creating new forest habitat among patches. This would greatly increase the viability of the species' metapopulations by increasing dispersal success between both unoccupied patches and subpopulations. Additionally, increased connectivity between forest patches could also be expected to increase the probability of successful dispersal of other threatened native species, many of which are also sensitive to the high degree of fragmentation of their habitats.

  5. Welding Brass Tits on the Armor: An Examination of the Quest Metaphor in Robin McKinley's "The Hero and the Crown."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Anna E.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the notion of woman as hero along with the basic quest imagery used by Robin McKinley in her novel "The Hero and the Crown." Compares this story with other quest stories involving women searching for selfhood. (HB)

  6. 通过测量电力输入预测磨料/工件界面的条件变化%Prediction of condition changes at abrasive/workpiece interface by measuring electric power input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山本和; 近藤康雄; 上原一刚; 小幡文雄

    2011-01-01

    A monitoring system is proposed in order to detect the condition changes at abrasive/workpiece interface in abrasive cutoff operation. The system can detect the condition changes from the electric power change consumed by the driving motor of lapping tool. The electric power is strongly related with the abrasive effectiveness. When the abrasive effectiveness has been kept a normal state, the electric power also has been kept a constant value. The bodily removal of abrasive leads to reduce the electric power monotonously. The piling up of cutting chips leads to a peculiar electric power change; the electric power increased gradually at the beginning and then began to fluctuate periodically. The severe adhesion of cutting chips to the cutting edges leads to the loss of nominal function in the cutting edges and the electric power input was thus descended suddenly at an early stage of lapping.

  7. Deficit Round Robin with Fragmentation Scheduling to Achieve Generalized Weighted Fairness for Resource Allocation in IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakchai So-In

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficit Round Robin (DRR is a fair packet-based scheduling discipline commonly used in wired networks where link capacities do not change with time. However, in wireless networks, especially wireless broadband networks, i.e., IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX, there are two main considerations violate the packet-based service concept for DRR. First, the resources are allocated per Mobile WiMAX frame. To achieve full frame utilization, Mobile WiMAX allows packets to be fragmented. Second, due to a high variation in wireless channel conditions, the link/channel capacity can change over time and location. Therefore, we introduce a Deficit Round Robin with Fragmentation (DRRF to allocate resources per Mobile WiMAX frame in a fair manner by allowing for varying link capacity and for transmitting fragmented packets. Similar to DRR and Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS, DRRF achieves perfect fairness. DRRF results in a higher throughput than DRR (80% improvement while causing less overhead than GPS (8 times less than GPS. In addition, in Mobile WiMAX, the quality of service (QoS offered by service providers is associated with the price paid. This is similar to a cellular phone system; the users may be required to pay air-time charges. Hence, we have also formalized a Generalized Weighted Fairness (GWF criterion which equalizes a weighted sum of service time units or slots, called temporal fairness, and transmitted bytes, called throughput fairness, for customers who are located in a poor channel condition or at a further distance versus for those who are near the base stations, or have a good channel condition. We use DRRF to demonstrate the application of GWF. These fairness criteria are used to satisfy basic requirements for resource allocation, especially for non real-time traffic. Therefore, we also extend DRRF to support other QoS requirements, such as minimum reserved traffic rate, maximum sustained traffic rate, and traffic priority. For real

  8. Interface energies in ising spin glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, T; Moore, M A; Young, A P

    2003-03-28

    The replica method has been used to calculate the interface free energy associated with the change from periodic to antiperiodic boundary conditions in finite-dimensional spin glasses. At mean-field level the interface free energy vanishes, but after allowing for fluctuation effects, a nonzero interface free energy is obtained which is significantly different from numerical expectations.

  9. International Round-Robin Study of the Thermoelectric Transport Properties of an n-Type Half-Heusler Compound from 300 K to 773 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin; Bai, Shengqiang; Chen, Lidong; Cuenat, Alexander; Joshi, Giri; Kleinke, Holger; König, Jan; Lee, Hee Woong; Martin, Joshua; Oh, Min-Wook; Porter, Wallace D.; Ren, Zhifeng; Salvador, James; Sharp, Jeff; Taylor, Patrick; Thompson, Alan J.; Tseng, Y. C.

    2015-11-01

    International transport property-measurement round-robins have been conducted by the thermoelectric annex under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT). Two previous round-robins used commercially available bismuth telluride as the test material, with the objectives of understanding measurement issues and developing standard testing procedures. This round-robin extended the measurement temperature range to 773 K. It was designed to meet the increasing demands for reliable transport data for thermoelectric materials used for power-generation applications. Eleven laboratories from six IEA-AMT member countries participated in the study. A half-Heusler ( n-type) material prepared by GMZ Energy was selected for the round-robin. The measured transport properties had a narrower distribution of uncertainty than previous round-robin results. The study intentionally included multiple testing methods and instrument types. Over the full temperature range, the measurement discrepancies for the figure of merit, ZT, in this round-robin were ±11.5 to ±16.4% from the averages.

  10. Korean round-robin result for new international program to assess the reliability of emerging nondestructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Cho; Kim, Jin Gyum; Kang, Sung Sik; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  11. Korean Round-Robin Tests Result for New International Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Cho Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  12. A New Proposed Dynamic Quantum with Re-Adjusted Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm and Its Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, H S; Nayak, Debashree

    2011-01-01

    Scheduling is the central concept used frequently in Operating System. It helps in choosing the processes for execution. Round Robin (RR) is one of the most widely used CPU scheduling algorithm. But, its performance degrades with respect to context switching, which is an overhead and it occurs during each scheduling. Overall performance of the system depends on choice of an optimal time quantum, so that context switching can be reduced. In this paper, we have proposed a new variant of RR scheduling algorithm, known as Dynamic Quantum with Readjusted Round Robin (DQRRR) algorithm. We have experimentally shown that performance of DQRRR is better than RR by reducing number of context switching, average waiting time and average turn around time.

  13. A New Round Robin Based Scheduling Algorithm for Operating Systems-Dynamic Quantum Using the Mean Average

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Noon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Round Robin, considered as the most widely adopted CPU scheduling algorithm, undergoes severe problems directly related to quantum size. If time quantum chosen is too large, the response time of the processes is considered too high. On the other hand, if this quantum is too small, it increases the overhead of the CPU. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm, called AN, based on a new approach called dynamic-time-quantum; the idea of this approach is to make the operating systems adjusts the time quantum according to the burst time of the set of waiting processes in the ready queue. Based on the simulations and experiments, we show that the new proposed algorithm solves the fixed time quantum problem and increases the performance of Round Robin.

  14. Aqueous solutions of uranium(VI) as studied by time-resolved emission spectroscopy: a round-robin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Isabelle; Ansoborlo, Eric; Apperson, Kathleen; Arpigny, Sylvie; Azenha, M Emilia; Birch, David; Bros, Pascal; Burrows, Hugh D; Choppin, Gregory; Couston, Laurent; Dubois, Veronique; Fanghänel, Thomas; Geipel, Gerhard; Hubert, Solange; Kim, Jae I; Kimura, Takaumi; Klenze, Reinhardt; Kronenberg, Andreas; Kumke, Michael; Lagarde, Gerard; Lamarque, Gerard; Lis, Stefan; Madic, Charles; Meinrath, Gunther; Moulin, Christophe; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Parker, David; Plancque, Gabriel; Scherbaum, Franz; Simoni, Eric; Sinkov, Sergei; Viallesoubranne, Carole

    2003-08-01

    Results of an inter-laboratory round-robin study of the application of time-resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES) to the speciation of uranium(VI) in aqueous media are presented. The round-robin study involved 13 independent laboratories, using various instrumentation and data analysis methods. Samples were prepared based on appropriate speciation diagrams and, in general, were found to be chemically stable for at least six months. Four different types of aqueous uranyl solutions were studied: (1) acidic medium where UO2(2+)aq is the single emitting species, (2) uranyl in the presence of fluoride ions, (3) uranyl in the presence of sulfate ions, and (4) uranyl in aqueous solutions at different pH, promoting the formation of hydrolyzed species. Results between the laboratories are compared in terms of the number of decay components, luminescence lifetimes, and spectral band positions. The successes and limitations of TRES in uranyl analysis and speciation in aqueous solutions are discussed.

  15. International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total-scattering draft standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhoda, P; Müller, A; Ristau, D; Duparré, A; Gliech, S; Lauth, H; Schuhmann, U; Reng, N; Tilsch, M; Schuhmann, R; Amra, C; Deumie, C; Jolie, C; Kessler, H; Lindström, T; Ribbing, C G; Bennett, J M

    2000-07-01

    An international round-robin experiment has been conducted among laboratories in different countries to test the measurement and the data-analysis procedures in the International Organization for Standardization draft standard ISO/DIS 13696 for measuring total scattering from low-scatter laser optics. Ten laboratories measured total backscattering from high-reflectance mirrors, 50% beam splitters, and antireflection-coated windows. Results were sent to the Laser Zentrum Hannover, which acted as coordinator and analyzed all the backscattering data. The results showed that the procedure in the draft standard was useful for measuring and reporting backscattering for low-scatter optics. Problems encountered in the round-robin experiment included the accumulation of particles on the surfaces, particularly on the high-reflectance mirrors.

  16. RILEM technical committee 195-DTD recommendation for test methods for AD and TD of early age concrete Round Robin documentation report : program, test results and statistical evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bjøntegaard, Øyvind; Krauss, Matias; Budelmann, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the Round-Robin (RR) program and test results including a statistical evaluation of the RILEM TC195-DTD committee named “Recommendation for test methods for autogenous deformation (AD) and thermal dilation (TD) of early age concrete”. The task of the committee was to investigate the linear test set-up for AD and TD measurements (Dilation Rigs) in the period from setting to the end of the hardening phase some weeks after. These are the stress-inducing deformations in a hardening concrete structure subjected to restraint conditions. The main task was to carry out an RR program on testing of AD of one concrete at 20 °C isothermal conditions in Dilation Rigs. The concrete part materials were distributed to 10 laboratories (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and USA), and in total 30 tests on AD were carried out. Some supporting tests were also performed, as well as a smaller RR on cement paste. The committee has worked out a test procedure recommenda...

  17. Identification of novel craniofacial regulatory domains located far upstream ofSOX9and disrupted in Pierre Robin sequence

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia (CD), a disorder of skeletal development associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSDs). Translocations, deletions and duplications within a ~2 Mb region upstream of SOX9 can recapitulate the CD-DSD phenotype fully or partially, suggesting the existence of an unusually large cis-regulatory control region. Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a craniofacial disorder that is frequently an endophenotype of CD and a locus fo...

  18. The results of the PEP `87 round robin calibration of reference solar cells and modules. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzdorf, J.; Wittchen, T.; Heidler, K.; Dehne, K.; Shimokawa, R.; Nagamine, F.; Ossenbrink, H.; Fornarini, L.; Goodbody, C.; Davies, M.; Emery, K.; DeBlasio, R.

    1990-11-01

    Initiated by the Photovoltaic Solar Energy Project (PEP) of the Technology, Growth and Employment Working Group of the Summit, a second international intercomparison (PEP`87 Round-Robin Calibration) on the calibration of reference solar cells and PV modules was carried out from 1987 to 1989 where PTB and ISE (FRG) served as operating agents. This report documents the final results of this intercomparison. A summary of this report was presented at the 21st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. The round robin was required for two reasons: First, the dispersion of the results (definition, see Section 1.4) of the eight participants of the first PEP Round Robin 1984/85 where greater than expected with 2 {sigma}{sub rel} values of 5.6% and 12.2% for crystalline and amorphous Si reference cells, respectively. Second, a comparative study of calibration methods and of reference cell design and technology is required for the standardization of calibration methods and reference devices desired by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC TC82). Also more experience in the calibration is needed. (orig.).

  19. Relative quantity judgments between discrete spatial arrays by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Alexis; Beran, Michael J; McIntyre, Joseph; Low, Jason

    2014-08-01

    Quantity discrimination for items spread across spatial arrays was investigated in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and North Island New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes), with the aim of examining the role of spatial separation on the ability of these 2 species to sum and compare nonvisible quantities which are both temporally and spatially separated, and to assess the likely mechanism supporting such summation performance. Birds and chimpanzees compared 2 sets of discrete quantities of items that differed in number. Six quantity comparisons were presented to both species: 1v2, 1v3, 1v5, 2v3, 2v4, and 2v5. Each was distributed 1 at a time across 2 7-location arrays. Every individual item was viewed 1 at a time and hidden, with no more than a single item in each location of an array, in contrast to a format where all items were placed together into 2 single locations. Subjects responded by selecting 1 of the 2 arrays and received the entire quantity of food items hidden within that array. Both species performed better than chance levels. The ratio of items between sets was a significant predictor of performance in the chimpanzees, but it was not significant for robins. Instead, the absolute value of the smaller quantity of items presented was the significant factor in robin responses. These results suggest a species difference for this task when considering various dimensions such as ratio or total number of items in quantity comparisons distributed across discrete 7-location arrays.

  20. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... content (99.8% Ni and 99.995% Ni) were used to examine the impact of impurities on the polarisation resistance and contact area morphology. The electropolished nickel wires were pressed against a polished 8 mol% YSZ surface. Extensive structural changes from a flat interface to a hill and valley structure...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...

  1. The First SeaWiFS HPLC Analysis Round-Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Claustre, Herve; Ras, Josephine; VanHeukelem, Laurie; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Targa, Cristina; vanderLinde, Dirk; Barlow, Ray; Sessions, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Four laboratories, which had contributed to various aspects of SeaWiFS calibration and validation activities, participated in the first SeaWiFS HPLC Analysis Round-Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE-1): Horn Point Laboratory (USA), the Joint Research Centre (Italy), the Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Marines (France), and the Marine and Coastal Management group (South Africa). The analyses of the data are presented in Chapter 1 and the individual methods of the four groups are presented in Chapters 2-5. The average (or overall) conclusions of the round-robin are derived from 12 in situ stations occupied during a cruise in the Mediterranean Sea, although, only 11 stations are used in the analyses. The data set is composed of 12 replicates taken during each sampling opportunity with 3 replicates going to each of the 4 laboratories. The average (or overall) results from the intercomparison of 15 pigments or pigment associations are as follows (in some cases, data subsets that exclude pigments which were not analyzed by all the laboratories, or that had unusually large variances, are used to exclude a variety of problematic pigments): a) the accuracy of the four methods in determining the concentration of total chlorophyll a is 7.9%, (one method did not separate mono- and divinyl chlorophyll a, and if the samples containing significant divinyl chlorophyll a concentrations are ignored, the four methods have an accuracy of 6.7%); b) the accuracy in determining the full set of pigments is 19.1%; c) there is a reduction in accuracy of approximately - 12.2% for every decade (factor of 10) decrease in concentration (based on a data subset); d) the precision of the four methods using a subset data is 8.617( 6.2% for an edited subset); e) the repeatability of the four methods using the subset data is 9.2% (7.2%; for an edited subset, and f) the reproducibility of the four methods using the subset data is 21.31% (15.0% for an edited subset).

  2. Nonlinear solution for radiation boundary condition of heat transfer process in human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, A; Moradi, A; Dehghani, M; Ahani, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method based on finite element method for solving radiation boundary condition of heat equation inside the human eye and other applications. Using this method, we can solve heat equation inside human eye without need to model radiation boundary condition to a robin boundary condition. Using finite element method we can obtain a nonlinear equation, and finally we use nonlinear algorithm to solve it. The human eye is modeled as a composition of several homogeneous regions. The Ritz method in the finite element method is used for solving heat differential equation. Applying the boundary conditions, the heat radiation condition and the robin condition on the cornea surface of the eye and on the outer part of sclera are used, respectively. Simulation results of solving nonlinear boundary condition show the accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. Round-Robin Verification and Final Development of the IEC 62788-1-5 Encapsulation Size Change Test; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Bokria, J.; Gu, X.; Honeker, C.; Murua, N.; Nickel, N.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.; Wang, E.; Yang, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2015-02-23

    Polymeric encapsulation materials may a change size when processed at typical module lamination temperatures. The relief of residual strain, trapped during the manufacture of encapsulation sheet, can affect module performance and reliability. For example, displaced cells and interconnects threaten: cell fracture; broken interconnects (open circuits and ground faults); delamination at interfaces; and void formation. A standardized test for the characterization of change in linear dimensions of encapsulation sheet has been developed and verified. The IEC 62788-1-5 standard quantifies the maximum change in linear dimensions that may occur to allow for process control of size change. Developments incorporated into the Committee Draft (CD) of the standard as well as the assessment of the repeatability and reproducibility of the test method are described here. No pass/fail criteria are given in the standard, rather a repeatable protocol to quantify the change in dimension is provided to aid those working with encapsulation. The round-robin experiment described here identified that the repeatability and reproducibility of measurements is on the order of 1%. Recent refinements to the test procedure to improve repeatability and reproducibility include: the use of a convection oven to improve the thermal equilibration time constant and its uniformity; well-defined measurement locations reduce the effects of sampling size -and location- relative to the specimen edges; a standardized sand substrate may be readily obtained to reduce friction that would otherwise complicate the results; specimen sampling is defined, so that material is examined at known sites across the width and length of rolls; and encapsulation should be examined at the manufacturer’s recommended processing temperature, except when a cross-linking reaction may limit the size change. EVA, for example, should be examined 100 °C, between its melt transition (occurring up to 80 °C) and the onset of cross

  4. Xeml Lab: a tool that supports the design of experiments at a graphical interface and generates computer-readable metadata files, which capture information about genotypes, growth conditions, environmental perturbations and sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Jan; Poorter, Hendrik; Usadel, Björn; Bläsing, Oliver E; Finck, Alex; Tardieu, Francois; Atkin, Owen K; Pons, Thijs; Stitt, Mark; Gibon, Yves

    2009-09-01

    Data mining depends on the ability to access machine-readable metadata that describe genotypes, environmental conditions, and sampling times and strategy. This article presents Xeml Lab. The Xeml Interactive Designer provides an interactive graphical interface at which complex experiments can be designed, and concomitantly generates machine-readable metadata files. It uses a new eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML)-derived dialect termed XEML. Xeml Lab includes a new ontology for environmental conditions, called Xeml Environment Ontology. However, to provide versatility, it is designed to be generic and also accepts other commonly used ontology formats, including OBO and OWL. A review summarizing important environmental conditions that need to be controlled, monitored and captured as metadata is posted in a Wiki (http://www.codeplex.com/XeO) to promote community discussion. The usefulness of Xeml Lab is illustrated by two meta-analyses of a large set of experiments that were performed with Arabidopsis thaliana during 5 years. The first reveals sources of noise that affect measurements of metabolite levels and enzyme activities. The second shows that Arabidopsis maintains remarkably stable levels of sugars and amino acids across a wide range of photoperiod treatments, and that adjustment of starch turnover and the leaf protein content contribute to this metabolic homeostasis.

  5. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, As a Component of Autotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the robin, Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758 as a consort of autotrophic consortia is considered. It has been found that representatives of 9 higher taxa of animals (Mammalia, Aves, Gastropoda, Insecta, Arachnida, Acarina, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Clitellata have trophic and topical links with the robin. At the same time, the robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753 (24.6 %, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768 (17.5 %, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753 (22.8 %, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae. The robin also belongs to the concentre of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and forms a complex trophic system. In the diet of its nestlings, there have been found 717 objects from 32 invertebrate taxa, belonging to the phylums Arthropoda (99.2 %, 31 species and Annelida (0.8 %, 1 species. The phylum Arthropoda was represented by the most numerous class Insecta (76.9 %, in which 10 orders (Lepidoptera (46.8 % dominates and 20 families were recorded, and also by the classes Arachnida (15.0 %, Malacostraca (5.3 % and Diplopoda (1.9 %. The invertebrate species composition was dominated by representatives of a trophic group of zoophages (14 species; 43.8 %; the portion of phytophages (7 species; 21.9 %, saprophages (18.7 %, and necrophages (15.6 % was the less. The highest number of food items was represented by phytophages (N = 717; 51 %, followed by zoophages (34 %, saprophages (12 %, and necrophages (3 %. The difference among study areas according to the number of food items and the number of species in the robin nestling diet is shown. In NNP “HF”, the highest number of food items was represented by phytophages - 47 % (N = 443, whereas zoophages were the most species-rich group (43.3 %, 13 species. In NNP “H”, phytophages also prevailed in

  6. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm

  7. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the

  8. Round robin test on the measurement of the specific heat of solar salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Belén; Nieto-Maestre, Javier; González-Aguilar, José; Julia, José Enrique; Navarrete, Nuria; Faik, Abdessamad; Bauer, Thomas; Bonk, Alexander; Navarro, María Elena; Ding, Yulong; Uranga, Nerea; Veca, Elisabetta; Sau, Salvatore; Giménez, Pau; García, Pierre; Burgaleta, Juan Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    Solar salt (SS), a well-known non-eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate (60% w/w) and potassium nitrate (40% w/w), is commonly used either as Thermal Energy Storage (TES) material (double tank technology) or Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) (solar tower) in modern CSP plants worldwide. The specific heat (cp, kJ kg-1 °C-1) of SS is a very important property in order to support the design of new CSP Plants or develop novel materials based on SS. A high scientific effort has been dedicated to perform a suitable thermophysical characterization of this material. However, there is still a great discrepancy among the cp values reported by different authors1. These differences may be due to either experimental errors (random or systematic) or divergences in the starting material (grade of purity, presence of impurities and/or water). In order to avoid the second source of uncertainty (the starting material), a Round Robin Test (RRT) was proposed starting from a common material. In this way, the different methods from each laboratory could be compared. The study should lay the foundations for the establishment of a systematic procedure for the measurement of the specific heat of this kind of materials. Nine institutions, research centers and companies, accepted the proposal and are contributing with their results. The initiative was organized within the Workshop SolarPACES Task III - Material activity.

  9. Precise osteotomies for mandibular distraction in infants with Robin sequence using virtual surgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, C M

    2017-08-16

    Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) has become the first-line operation in many centers for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants with (Pierre) Robin sequence (RS) not relieved by non-surgical approaches. Preoperative virtual surgical planning (VSP) may improve precision and decrease complications for this operation. This article reports a retrospective study of RS infants who underwent MDO for OSA using preoperative VSP and three-dimensionally printed cutting guides performed by one surgeon. Seventeen subjects who had MDO at a mean age of 87±96days were included. Maxillofacial computed tomography scans were obtained 15±7days prior to MDO. Osteotomy designs included linear (n=4, 23.5%), inverted-L (n=11, 64.7%), and multi-angular (n=2, 11.8%). Cutting guides were used successfully and osteotomies were created as planned in all cases. Devices were removed 67±15.6days after placement. Bone formation in the distraction gap was seen in all cases at device removal. All patients had successful airway outcomes. There were no major and four minor complications during the follow-up period of 458±267 days. In conclusion, MDO is a successful procedure for the management of OSA associated with RS in infants, and VSP facilitates its precise design and execution. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates, Phase II Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P. A.; Wells, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    The second phase of an analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted under the auspices of ASTM Interlaboratory Study 732. The interlaboratory study (ILS) had 10 participants with a broad range of expertise and experience, and experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 4142 steel plate loaded well into the elastic-plastic regime provided the basis for the study. The participants were asked to evaluate a surface crack tension test according to the version of the surface crack initiation toughness testing standard published at the time of the ILS, E2899-13. Data were provided to each participant that represent the fundamental information that would be provided by a mechanical test laboratory prior to evaluating the test result. Overall, the participant’s test analysis results were in good agreement and constructive feedback was received that has resulted in an improved published version of the standard E2899-15.

  11. Using a classic paper by Robin Fahraeus and Torsten Lindqvist to teach basic hemorheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Berg, Ronan M G

    2013-01-01

    "The viscosity of the blood in narrow capillary tubes" by Robin Fåhraeus and Torsten Lindqvist (Am J Physiol 96: 562-568, 1931) can be a valuable opportunity for teaching basic hemorheological principles in undergraduate cardiovascular physiology. This classic paper demonstrates that a progressiv...... can be used as a platform for a plenary discussion of these concepts as well as of the relationships among hematocrit, vessel diameter, red blood cell deformability, and resistance to blood flow and how these factors may affect the work of the heart....... decline in apparent viscosity occurs when blood flows through glass capillary tubes of diminishing radius, which was later designated as the "Fåhraeus-Lindqvist effect." Subsequent studies have shown that apparent viscosity continues to decline at diameters that correspond to the arteriolar segments...... of the systemic vascular tree, where the majority of the total peripheral resistance resides and is actively regulated in vivo. The Fåhraeus-Lindqvist effect thus reduces microvascular resistance, thereby maintaining local tissue perfusion at a relatively lower blood pressure. The paper by Fåhraeus and Lindqvist...

  12. Round Robin test for the determination of nitrogen concentration in solid Lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favuzza, P., E-mail: paolo.favuzza@enea.it [ENEA Center, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Antonelli, A. [ENEA Research Center, Brasimone, 40035, Camugnano (Italy); Furukawa, T. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Groeschel, F. [KIT Research Center, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1,76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hedinger, R. [F4E Research Center, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Higashi, T. [University of Tokyo (Japan); Hirakawa, Y.; Iijima, M.; Ito, Y.; Kanemura, T. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Knaster, J. [IFMIF-EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Kondo, H. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Miccichè, G.; Nitti, F.S. [ENEA Research Center, Brasimone, 40035, Camugnano (Italy); Ohira, S. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Severi, M. [University of Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA Research Center, Rokkasho (Japan); Suzuki, A. [University of Tokyo (Japan); Traversi, R. [University of Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Wakai, E. [JAEA Research Center, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen contained in solid Lithium is converted into Ammonium ion. • Ammonium ion is suitably quantified by ionic chromatograph or by Ammonia sensor. • Good agreement of the partner’s results has been achieved. • Maximum operative reproducibility and blank subtraction are necessary. - Abstract: Three different partners, ENEA, JAEA ed University of Tokyo, have been involved during 2014–2015 in the Round Robin experimentation for the assessment of the soundness of the analitycal procedure for the determination of the Nitrogen impurities contained inside a solid Lithium sample. Two different kinds of Lithium samples, differing by about an order of magnitude in Nitrogen concentration (∼230 wppm; ∼20–30 wppm), have been selected for this cross analysis. The agreement of the achieved results appears very good for what concerns the most concentrated Lithium and indicates each partner’s procedure is appropriate and intrinsecally able to lead to meaningful values, characterized by a relative uncertainty of just few %. The smaller agreement in the case of the less concentrated Lithium anyway points out that particular attention must be paid to reduce as much as possible any source of external contamination and highlights the importance of the proper blank subtraction.

  13. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies reveal a complex evolutionary history in the Australasian robins (Passeriformes: Petroicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, Les; Irestedt, Martin; Rowe, Dianne; Boles, Walter E; Norman, Janette A

    2011-12-01

    The Australasian robins (Petroicidae) comprise a relatively homogeneous group of small to medium-sized insectivorous birds. Their center of diversity is Australia and New Guinea (40 species) but seven species have managed to colonize geographically distant islands such as Tanimbar, New Britain, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji and Samoa. To resolve the evolutionary relationships within the Petroicidae, we here present the results of a phylogenetic analysis of sequence data from two mitochondrial genes (ND2, CO1) and one nuclear intron (β-Fibrinogen intron 5) for all 14 genera and 40 of the 46 currently recognized species. All phylogenetic analyses identified six primary lineages, treated here as subfamilies, within the Petroicidae: (1) Eopsaltriinae comprising Eopsaltria (excluding E. flaviventris), Tregellasia, Peneothello, Melanodryas, Poecilodryas and Heteromyias; (2) Drymodinae comprising Drymodes; (3) Microecinae comprising Microeca, Monachella and Eopsaltria flaviventris; (4) Petroicinae comprising Petroica and Eugerygone; (5) Pachycephalopsinae comprising Pachycephalopsis; and (6) Amalocichlinae comprising Amalocichla. The genera Eopsaltria, Microeca, Peneothello and Poecilodryas were found to be paraphyletic. Based on assessments of phylogenetic branching patterns and/or DNA divergence it also was apparent that Eopsaltriaaustralis, Tregellasialeucops, Melanodryascucullata, Heteromyiasalbispecularis, Drymodessupercilious and Microecaflavigaster may each comprise more than one species. The Petroicidae display a complex biogeographical history involving repeated radiations both within, and across Australia and New Guinea. It appears that dispersal into smaller islands such as New Britain, Tanimbar and the South Pacific has only been undertaken by species with a "flycatcher" body form.

  14. The Influence of Different Cover Types on American Robin Nest Success in Organic Agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Brandle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many opportunities for biodiversity conservation in organic farm systems. Successful and sustainable conservation efforts in organic systems, however, need to measure appropriate outcomes. In particular, data are needed on the breeding success of associated wildlife species. We measured nesting success of the American Robin (Turdus migratorius in woodlands embedded within eight organic farms in eastern Nebraska. We modeled daily nest survival rate to identify land use and land cover patterns that optimize conservation of birds in organic farm systems. The percentage of a crop in the fields adjacent to linear woodlands best predicted daily survival rate. Daily survival rate was lower in fields adjacent to wheat and greater in woodlands adjacent to soybean fields, though the latter may be a weak effect. There was no evidence that reducing the area allocated to organic crop production would improve daily survival rate but rather an evidence of a patch-matrix interaction. These results suggest that, if suitable nesting sites exist, organic farmers can complement local conservation efforts without losing working farmland.

  15. Ultrasound Metrology in Mexico: a round robin test for medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezola Luna, R.; López Sánchez, A. L.; Elías Juárez, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary statistical results from an on-going imaging medical ultrasound study, of particular relevance for gynecology and obstetrics areas. Its scope is twofold, firstly to compile the medical ultrasound infrastructure available in cities of Queretaro-Mexico, and second to promote the use of traceable measurement standards as a key aspect to assure quality of ultrasound examinations performed by medical specialists. The experimental methodology is based on a round robin test using an ultrasound phantom for medical imaging. The physician, using its own ultrasound machine, couplant and facilities, measures the size and depth of a set of pre-defined reflecting and absorbing targets of the reference phantom, which simulate human illnesses. Measurements performed give the medical specialist an objective feedback regarding some performance characteristics of their ultrasound examination systems, such as measurement system accuracy, dead zone, axial resolution, depth of penetration and anechoic targets detection. By the end of March 2010, 66 entities with medical ultrasound facilities, from both public and private institutions, have performed measurements. A network of medical ultrasound calibration laboratories in Mexico, with traceability to The International System of Units via national measurement standards, may indeed contribute to reduce measurement deviations and thus attain better diagnostics.

  16. International Round-Robin Test Results for Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Sik; Kim, Kyung Jo; Jung, Hae Dong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    In nuclear power plant, there are many joints to connect pipes, nozzles and structural components. Most of them are welding joint, and it may be a weak point for leakage and cracks. Some cracks were found in dissimilar metal welds (DMW), which are connected with major components of nuclear power plants. Usually, the dissimilar metal welds are consisted of Alloy 600, carbon steel and stainless steel. Since 2000s, most of the cracks are found in welds, especially dissimilar metal welds such as pressurizer safety relief nozzle, reactor head penetration, reactor bottom mounted instrumentation (BMI), and reactor nozzles. Since the cracks are revealed as a primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), the reliability of non destructive evaluation (NDE) technique becomes more important. To cope with the NDE reliability, PINC (program for inspection of nickel alloy components) international cooperation was organized. The aim of the project was 1) to fabricate representative NDE mock-ups with flaws to simulate PWSCCs, 2) to identify and quantitatively assess NDE methods for accurately detecting, sizing and characterizing PWSCCs, 3) to document the range of locations and morphologies of PWSCCs and 4) to incorporate results with other results of ongoing PWSCC research programs, as appropriate. In this study, as part of the PINC project, international RRT (round robin test) results for DMW will be introduced.

  17. Modified Opportunistic Deficit Round Robin Scheduling for improved QOS in IEEE 802.16 WBA networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarthy, C Kalyana

    2009-01-01

    Packet and flow scheduling algorithms for WiMAX has been a topic of interest for a long time since the very inception of WiMAX networks. WiMAX offers advantages particularly in terms of Quality of service it offers over a longer range at the MAC level. In our work, we propose two credit based scheduling schemes one in which completed flows distributes the left over credits equally to all higher priority uncompleted flows(ODRREDC) and another in which completed flows give away all the excess credits to the highest priority uncompleted flow(ODRRSDC). Both the schemes are compatible with 802.16 MAC protocol and can efficiently serve real time bursty traffic with reduced latency and hence improved QOS for real time flows. We compare the two proposed schemes for their latency, bandwidth utilization and throughput for real time burst flows with the opportunity based Deficit Round Robin scheduling scheme. While the ODRR scheduler focuses on reducing the credits for the flows with errors, our approach also distribute...

  18. Experimental round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Huai; Cao, Yuan; Dai, Hui; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Wei; Xu, Yu; Guan, Jian-Yu; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-03-01

    In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, security is guaranteed by estimating the amount of leaked information. Such estimation tends to overrate, leading to a fundamental threshold of the bit error rate, which becomes a bottleneck of practical QKD development. This bottleneck is broken through by the recent work of round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol, which eliminates the fundamental threshold of the bit error rate. The key challenge for the implementation of the RRDPS scheme lies in the realization of a variable-delay Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which requires active and random choice of many delays. By designing an optical system with multiple switches and employing an active phase stabilization technology, we successfully construct a variable-delay interferometer with 127 actively selectable delays. With this measurement, we experimentally demonstrate the RRDPS protocol and obtain a final key rate of 15.54 bps with a total loss of 18 dB and an error rate of 8.9%.

  19. Results of an international round robin for serum and whole-blood folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, E W; Bowman, B A; Caudill, S P; Twite, D B; Adams, M J; Sampson, E J

    1996-10-01

    Because of the increasing significance of folate nutriture to public health, a "round robin" interlaboratory comparison study was conducted to assess differences among methods. Twenty research laboratories participated in a 3-day analysis of six serum and six whole-blood pools. Overall means, SDs, and CVs derived from these results were compared within and across method types. Results reported for serum and whole-blood folate demonstrated overall CVs of 27.6% and 35.7%, respectively, across pools and two- to ninefold differences in concentrations between methods, with the greatest variation occurring at critical low folate concentrations. Although results for serum pools were less variable than those for whole-blood pools, substantial intermethod variation still occurred. The overall results underscore the urgent need for developing and validating reference methods for serum and whole-blood folate and for properly characterized reference materials. For evaluating study or clinical data, method-specific reference ranges (established with clinical confirmation of values for truly folate-deficient individuals) must be used.

  20. Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with heralded pair-coherent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei

    2017-04-01

    Round-robin differential-phase-shift (RRDPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme provides an effective way to overcome the signal disturbance from the transmission process. However, most RRDPS-QKD schemes use weak coherent pulses (WCPs) as the replacement of the perfect single-photon source. Considering the heralded pair-coherent source (HPCS) can efficiently remove the shortcomings of WCPs, we propose a RRDPS-QKD scheme with HPCS in this paper. Both infinite-intensity decoy-state method and practical three-intensity decoy-state method are adopted to discuss the tight bound of the key rate of the proposed scheme. The results show that HPCS is a better candidate for the replacement of the perfect single-photon source, and both the key rate and the transmission distance are greatly increased in comparison with those results with WCPs when the length of the pulse trains is small. Simultaneously, the performance of the proposed scheme using three-intensity decoy states is close to that result using infinite-intensity decoy states when the length of pulse trains is small.