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Sample records for river system element

  1. Trace element assessment in water of river kassa system, jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) is approximately 2; for Zn and Pb which indicates, moderate contamination. Areas of the river system with anomalous value of trace element concentrations are those where mine tailings have been deposited close to the river channel or places where run off from adjoining ...

  2. Organic Carbon and Trace Element Cycling in a River-Dominated Tidal Coastal Wetland System (Tampa Bay, FL, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R. P.; Smoak, J. M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Powell, C. E.; Chappel, A. R.; Gerlach, M. J.; Kemp, A.; Breithaupt, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Tampa Bay is the largest open water, river-fed estuary in Florida (USA), and is characterized by the presence of both mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems. Both coastal wetland systems, and small rivers such as the ones draining into Tampa Bay have historically been underestimated in terms of their role in the global carbon and elemental cycles. Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) are major threats in Tampa Bay and stand to disrupt hydrologic cycles, compromising sediment accumulation and the rate of organic carbon (OC) burial. This study evaluates organic carbon content, sediment accumulation, and carbon burial rates in salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems, along with measurements of fluxes of dissolved OC (DOC) and trace elements in the water column of the Little Manatee River (LMR) in Tampa Bay. The characterization of OC and trace elements in tidal rivers and estuaries is critical for quantitatively constraining these systems in local-to-regional scale biogeochemical budgets, and provide insight into biogeochemical processes occurring with the estuary and adjacent tidal wetlands. Material fluxes of DOC and trace elements were tied to discharge irrespective of season, and the estuarine habitats removed 15-65% of DOC prior to export to Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, material is available for cycling and burial within marsh and mangrove peats, however, LMR mangrove peats have higher OC content and burial rates than adjacent salt marsh peats. Sedimentary accretion rates in LMR marshes are not currently keeping pace with SLR, thus furthering the rapid marsh-to-mangrove conversions that have been seen in Tampa Bay over the past half-century. Additionally, wetlands in Tampa Bay tend to have a lower rate of carbon burial than other Florida tidal wetlands, demonstrating their high sensitivity to climate change and SLR.

  3. Mobility of major and trace elements in a coupled groundwater-surface water system: Merced River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, R. A.; Domagalski, J. L.; Hering, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Trace element transport in coupled surface water/groundwater systems is controlled not only by advective flow, but also by redox reactions that affect the partitioning of various elements between mobile and immobile phases. These processes have been examined in the context of a field project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The Merced River flows out of Yosemite National Park and the Sierra Nevada foothills and into California's Central Valley, where it joins the San Joaquin River. Our field site is approximately twenty river kilometers from the confluence with the San Joaquin River. This deep alluvial plain has minimal topography. Agricultural development characterizes the land surrounding this reach of river; consequently, the hydrology is heavily influenced by irrigation. Riverbed groundwater samples were collected from ten wells aligned in two transects across the river located approximately 100 m apart. The wells were sampled from depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, and 3 m below the sediment-water interface. Groundwater flowpath samples were taken from wells positioned on a path perpendicular to the river and located 100 m, 500 m, and 1000 m from the river. The saturated groundwater system exists from 7 to 40 m below the surface and is confined below by a clay layer. Each well location samples from 3-5 depths in this surface aquifer. Samples were collected in December 2003, March-April, June-July, and October 2004. This served to provide an evenly-spaced sampling frequency over the course of a year, and also to allow observation of trends coinciding with the onset of winter, the spring runoff, and early and late summer irrigation. An initial survey of the elements in the riverbed samples was conducted using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elements for further study were selected based on variability in this survey, either with respect to depth or location, as well as to

  4. Speciation and mobility of trace elements and uranium in a river/groundwater infiltration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von

    1994-01-01

    The infiltration and migration behaviour of dissolved species from the river Glatt, Switzerland, into a hydrologically connected shallow groundwater aquifer was investigated for more than 10 years. Seasonal cycles of the concentrations of several species were observed in the sediments of the riverbed and in the groundwater. The bacteria-mediated oxidation of organic matter and aquatic biota in the riverbed sediments governed related chemical and redox processes which led to significant changes in the composition and properties of the infiltrating water. Up to 1990, significant peaks of manganese, cadmium, uranium and other trace elements appeared each summer in the interstitial water of the sediments and in the groundwater. Recently, these peaks disappeared completely. The authors attribute these drastic changes in the water chemistry to a more efficient removal of the nutrient phosphate from surface waters

  5. Distribution of rare earth elements in the estuarine and coastal sediments of the Daliao River System, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunye Lin; Shaoqing Liu; Mengchang He; Ruiping Li

    2013-01-01

    The Daliao River System (DRS) estuary in Liaodong Bay features a highly industrial, urbanized, and agricultural catchment. The objective of this study was to determine the content, behavior, and distribution of the rare earth elements (REEs) in the estuarine and coastal sediments. To this end, 35 sediment samples were collected from the estuarine and coastal area and analyzed for REEs, Fe, Al, and Mn. The mean concentrations in mg kg -1 of the sediments were 33.4 (La), 64.1 (Ce), 7.9 (Pr), 29.0 (Nd), 5.4 (Sm), 1.2 (Eu), 4.2 (Gd), 0.78 (Tb), 4.0 (Dy), 0.84 (Ho), 2.3 (Er), 0.40 (Tm), 2.3 (Yb), and 0.37 (Lu). The REE concentrations in the sediments were significantly correlated with one another (r 2 = 0.959-0.988) and the concentrations of Fe, Al, and Mn (r 2 = 0.768-0.870). The total concentration ΣREE ranged from 73.5 to 203.5 mg kg -1 , with an average of 156.0 mg kg -1 being observed, and generally higher in the estuarine sediments than in the coastal sediments, most likely due to the salt-induced coagulation of river colloids and subsequently their accumulation at the estuarine bottom. The ratio of light REEs (ΣLREE) to heavy REEs (ΣHREE) was 9.4. Chondrite-normalized REE distributions were observed to be similar for the estuarine and coastal sediments, riverine suspended particles, and watershed soils of the DRS with higher LRRE enrichment than HREE and greater Eu depletion than Ce depletion. These results demonstrate that neither geochemical processes that carry soils to estuarine sediments nor long-term industrial and agricultural activities alter the distribution or fractionation of the REEs in the study area. (author)

  6. Elemental analysis of river sediments by PIXE and PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.J.; Augusthy, A.; Varier, K.M.; Magudapathy, P.; Panchapakesan, S.; Nair, K.G.M.; Vijayan, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Chaliyar river, located in Kerala, India has shown preoccupying pollution levels, that constitute a threat to public health and the ecological system. PIXE and PIGE techniques have been employed to measure the elemental concentrations in the river sediment samples. Thick targets were prepared out of the sediment samples collected from various sites along the course of the river. The measurements were carried out using 3 MeV proton beam obtained from 3 MV Tandem pelletron accelerator at Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar. The elemental concentrations, especially that of heavy metals, at different sites are discussed in detail. Our results show that sediments from a site where the industrial activities are high are significantly high in concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg and Pb) than those collected from non-industrial sites. The measured values are compared with the average composition of unpolluted river sediments and other national and international river sediments. (author)

  7. Trace elements and radionuclides in the Connecticut River and Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Connecticut River, its estuary, and the Amazon River estuary were studied to elucidate some of the processes which control river water chemistry and the flux of elements to the sea. The approach taken was to identify inputs to the Connecticut River and to investigate geochemical processes which modify the dissolved load. The form and quantity of nuclides which are in turn supplied to the estuary are altered by processes unique to that transition zone to the ocean. The Connecticut River estuary was sampled on a seasonal basis to investigate the role of the estuary in controlling the flux of elements to the sea. The knowledge gained from the Connecticut River study was applied to the quantitatively more significant Amazon River estuary. There a variety of samples were analyzed to understand the processes controlling the single greatest flux of elements to the Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that estimates of the total flux of nuclides to the oceans can best be calculated based on groundwater inputs. Unless significant repositories for nuclides exist in the river-estuarine system, the groundwater flux of dissolved nuclides is that which will eventually be delivered to the ocean despite the reactions which were shown to occur in both rivers and estuaries. 153 references, 63 figures, 28 tables

  8. Rare Earth Element Behavior During Incongruent Weathering and Varying Discharge Conditions in Silicate Dominated River Systems: The Australian Victorian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, K. B.; Cartwright, I.

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements was measured by ICP-MS on fresh, slightly weathered and weathered granite and surface water samples from a network of 11 pristine rivers draining the Australian Victorian Alps during (i) high and (ii) low discharge conditions. River water REE concentrations are largely derived from atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow), as indicated by similar Chondrite normalized REE patterns (higher LREE over HREE; negative Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies) and similar total REE concentrations during both dry and wet seasons. Calculations based on the covariance between REE and Cl concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate precipitation input coupled with subsequent evaporation may account for 30% o 100% of dissolved REE in stream waters. The dissolved contribution to the granitic substratum to stream water comes mainly from the transformation of plagioclase to smectite, kaolinite and gibbsite and minor apatite dissolution. However, since most REE of the regional granite are present in accessory minerals (titanite, zircon, etc.) they do not significantly contribute to the river REE pool. REE concentrations drop sharply downstream as a result of dilution and chemical attenuation. A trend of downstream enrichment of the heavier REE is due to selective partitioning of the lighter REE (as both free REE or REECO3 complexes) to hydrous oxides of suspended Al which, in turn, is controlled by a downstream increase of pH to values > 6.1 (for free REE) and > 7.3 (for REECO3 complexes). Although most circumneutral waters were supersaturated with REE phosphate compounds, precipitation of LnPO4 is not believed to have been a dominant process because the predicted phosphate fractionation pattern is inconsistent with the observed trends. Negative saturation indices of hydrous ferric oxides also militate against surface complexation onto goethite. Instead, REE attenuation most likely resulted from adsorption onto

  9. Fractionation of rare earth elements in the Mississippi River estuary and river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, S. B.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents the first set of data on the fractionation of rare earth elements (REE) in the mixing zone between the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico, as well as the fractionation of REE in the operationally defined fractions of Mississippi River sediments. This subject is particularly important because the Mississippi river is one of the world's major rivers, and contributes a substantial amount of water and sediment to the ocean. Hence, it is a major source of trace elements to the oceans. The geochemistry of the REE in natural systems is principally important because of their unique chemical properties, which prompt their application as tracers of mass transportation in modern and paleo-ocean environments. Another important consideration is the growth in the demand and utilization of REE in the green energy and technology industries, which has the potential to bring about a change in the background levels of these trace elements in the environment. The results of this study show a heavy REE enrichment of both the Mississippi River water and the more saline waters of the mixing zone. Our data demonstrate that coagulation and removal of REE in the low salinity region of the estuary is more pronounced among the Light REE ( 35% for Nd) compared to the Heavy REE. Remarkably, our data also indicate that REE removal in the Mississippi River estuary is significantly less than that observed in other estuaries, including the Amazon River system. We propose that the high pH/alkalinity of the Mississippi River is responsible for the greater stability of REE in the Mississippi River estuary. The results of sequential extraction of river sediments reveal different Sm/Nd ratios for the various fractions, which we submit implies different 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the labile fractions of the sediments. The possible impact of such hypothesized different Nd isotope signatures of labile fractions of the river sediments on Gulf of Mexico seawater is under investigation.

  10. Trace elements and radionuclides in the Connecticut River and Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Connecticut River, its estuary and the Amazon River plume were studied to elucidate processes which control the flux of nuclides to the sea. Major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, Bicarbonate) and selected trace elements (Ra, Ba, Cu, Si) are introduced to the Connecticut River in proportion to the total dissolved load of various groundwaters. Si, Ra, and Ba are subject to removal from solution by seasonal diatom productivity; whereas the other groundwater-derived elements are found in proportion to TDS both time and space. These nuclides are released in the estuary when a portion of the Ra, Ba, and Si in riverine biogenic detritus is trapped in salt marshes and coves bordering the estuary where it redissolves and is exported to the main river channel at ebb tide. In the Amazon River estuary, the Ra and Ba are released in mid-salinity waters. Ra and Ba together with Si are subsequently removed by diatom productivity as reflected in increased Ra and Ba in the suspended particles and depleted dissolved nuclide concentrations in samples from the high productivity zone. In both the Connecticut River system and the Amazon River plume, Cu behaves conservatively; whereas the fates of Fe and Al are linked to soil-derived humic acids. Trace elements in Amazon plume sediments are found simply in proportion to the percentage of fine-grained size materials, despite low Th-228/Ra-228 mean residence times in the plume and the presence of Cs-137 in the sediment column. Estimates of the total flux of nuclides to the oceans can best be calculated on a mass balance basis using groundwater inputs. Unless significant repositories for nuclides exist in the river-estuarine system, the groundwater flux of dissolved nuclides is net flux to the ocean despite the reactions which occur in both rivers and estuaries

  11. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  12. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  13. Operation of river systems. The Otra river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harby, A.; Vaskinn, K.A.; Wathne, M.; Heggenes, J.; Saltveit, S.J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report was to prepare an operative tool for making decisions about the operation of the power system on the river Otra (Norway) with regard to how this operation might affect the various users of the river system. Above all this affects fish, outdoor life and esthetic values. The connection between water quality and volume of discharge has been examined in a sub project. How suitable parts of the river are as habitats for trout has been simulated on a computer. From field investigation it is concluded that near the Steinfoss power station the physical conditions for trout depend on the operation of the river system. Outdoor life is not much affected downstream Vikeland. 11 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Trace elements distribution in bottom sediments from Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Nadai Fernandes, E. de; Oliveira, H. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon River discharges into a dynamic marine environment where there have been many interactive processes affecting dissolved and particulate solids, either those settling on the shelf or reaching the ocean. Trace elemental concentration, especially of the rare earth elements, have been determined by neutron activation analysis in sixty bottom sediment samples of the Amazon River estuary, providing information for the spatial and temporal variation study of those elements. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Artistic elements in the Rivers State Carnival: An emblemic attraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amongst these groups are various masquerade groups, dance troupes, comedians and local government areas floats. These floats host sculptures and other artistic elements. This paper is a documentation and analysis of the artistic elements in the carnival of the Rivers State of Nigeria. Keywords: Arts, artistic, elements, ...

  16. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  17. Natural radionuclides and toxic elements in transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, V; Poznyak, V; Kabirova, G; Stepanov, V; Ryazanova, L; Lennik, S; Liventsova, A; Bychenko, A; Zheltov, D

    2015-06-01

    The paper reports on the study of radionuclide and elemental composition of water, bottom sediment and soil samples collected at the border areas of the following transboundary rivers in Kazakhstan: Chagan, Ural, Ilek, Tobol, Ayat, Irtysh, Emel, Ili, Tekes, Shu, Karabalta, Talas and Syrdarya. The employed analyses include the following methods: instrumental gamma-ray spectrometry, radiochemical analysis, neutron activation analysis, XRF and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Evidence of water environment contamination with radionuclides and toxic elements has been revealed in many of the studied rivers both in Kazakhstan and in adjacent countries. Transboundary transfer of the contaminants is most likely related to local industry (uranium mining and processing) and the presence of radioactive substances in the river basins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Accelerator vacuum system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivokon', V.V.; Kobets, A.F.; Shvetsov, V.A.; Sivokon', L.V.

    1980-01-01

    Some elements of vacuum systems are investigated. Considerable attention has been given to the investigation into peculiarities in pumping out of a ionoguide for transportation of an accelerated charged particles beam the spread of which often attains a considerable length. The number of pumps over the ionoguide length is experimentally determined. It is shown that as a result of ionoguide warm-up the pumping out time is considerably reduced maximum permissible pressure is decreased by two orders and lesser rate of pump pumping out is required. The investigations have shown that when operating the ionoguide there is no necessity in setting up seals between the ionoguide and magnetodischarged pump. The causes of the phenomenon in which the pressure near the pump is greater than in the end of the ionoguide, are impurities carried in by the pump into the ionoguide volume and the pumping out capacity of the pressure converter

  19. Input of transuranic elements through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am were carried out on river water as well as its suspended matter collected seasonally in 1977 from two Mediterranean rivers, the Var and the Rhone. The results show that although the concentrations of the soluble fractions of these radionuclides are higher in the Rhone than in the Var, even the elevated concentrations of soluble 137 Cs (approximately 40 fCi.ltr -1 ) and sup(239+240)Pu (approximately 0.1 fCi.ltr -1 ) in the Rhone are much lower than the average concentrations of these nuclides in Mediterranean surface waters. On the other hand, the concentrations of the nuclides measured in suspended matter are roughly an order of magnitude higher in the Rhone than in the Var. Based on the results of measurements on the two rivers, and assuming that the annual average concentrations of the radionuclides in the Var and the Rhone respectively represent those in radiologically uncontaminated and contaminated Mediterranean rivers, the total inputs of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea have been estimated. Comparison of these estimated values with the inputs of fallout radionuclides by rain indicates that although local accumulation of transuranic nuclides may be observed on sediments taken from some limited estuarine areas, the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, as a whole, is exclusively governed today by the fallout input of these elements. (author)

  20. Trace elements in fish from the Savannah River near Savannah River Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koli, A.K.; Whitmore, R.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of trace element residues in fish from the Savannah River near Savannah River Nuclear Plant was undertaken in 1982. Fish muscle tissue was incubated by the wet digestion method. Fifteen trace elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry analysis of the digests. It was found that As, Se, Mg, Hg, Ca, Zn, and Fe levels were relatively higher than Pb, Cd, Ni, Co, Cr, and Mn in all fish species. In addition, in all fish species it seems that Pb, Cd, Ni, Co, Cr, and Mn levels were relatively higher than Cs and Cu. Cs and Cu levels were negligible in all fish species analyzed. Trace element levels found in these fish species were not high enough to render them dangerous for human consumption. (author)

  1. Trace element transport in western Siberian rivers across a permafrost gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Manasypov, Rinat M.; Loiko, Sergey V.; Krickov, Ivan A.; Kopysov, Sergey G.; Kolesnichenko, Larisa G.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Kirpotin, Sergey N.

    2016-03-01

    . The effect of the latitude was minimal in spring for most TEs but highly visible for Sr, Mo, Sb and U. The main factors controlling the shift of river feeding from surface and subsurface flow to deep underground flow in the permafrost-bearing zone were the depth of the active (unfrozen) seasonal layer and its position in organic or mineral horizons of the soil profile. In the permafrost-free zone, the relative role of carbonate mineral-bearing base rock feeding versus bog water feeding determined the pattern of TE concentration and fluxes in rivers of various sizes as a function of season. Comparison of obtained TE fluxes in WSL rivers with those of other subarctic rivers demonstrated reasonable agreement for most TEs; the lithology of base rocks was the major factor controlling the magnitude of TE fluxes. Climate change in western Siberia and permafrost boundary migration will essentially affect the elements controlled by underground water feeding (DIC, alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr), oxyanions (Mo, Sb, As) and U). The thickening of the active layer may increase the export of trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates in the form of organo-ferric colloids. Plant litter-originated divalent metals present as organic complexes may be retained via adsorption on mineral horizon. However, due to various counterbalanced processes controlling element source and sinks in plant-peat-mineral soil-river systems, the overall impact of the permafrost thaw on TE export from the land to the ocean may be smaller than that foreseen with merely active layer thickening and permafrost boundary shift.

  2. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  3. Content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in sediments of rivers receiving wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcussen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Holm, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Untreated industrial and domestic wastewater from Hanoi city is discharged into rivers that supply water for various agricultural and aquacultural food production systems. The aim of this study was to assess the content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in the sediment and pore water of the main wastewater receiving rivers. The sediment was polluted with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) with maximum concentrations of 73 As, 427 Cd, 281 Cr, 240 Cu, 218 Ni, 363 Pb, 12.5 Sb and 1240 Zn mg kg -1 d.w. Observed distribution coefficients (log 10 K d,obs ) were calculated as the ratio between sediment (mg kg -1 d.w.) and pore water (mg L -1 ) concentrations. Maxima log 10 K d,obs were >4.26 Cd, >6.60 Cu, 4.78 Ni, 7.01 Pb and 6.62 Zn. The high values show a strong PTE retention and indicate the importance of both sorption and precipitation as retention mechanisms. Sulphide precipitation was a likely mechanism due to highly reduced conditions. - Sorption and precipitation processes are important in retention of potentially toxic elements in Hanoi river sediment and prevent elements entering food production systems

  4. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  5. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  6. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, P.J.; Kirkbride, R.A.; Hohl, T.M.; Empey, P.A.; Wells, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal

  7. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  8. Time-scales of erosion and weathering processes in the Himalayan river system: Element and isotope approach using the U-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granet, M.

    2007-06-01

    The time-scales of erosion and weathering processes are key parameters which need to be determined to understand the response of the reliefs to external forcing like tectonics, climate and human activities. They were recovered by using U-series nuclides analyzed in sediments and suspended materials carried by the Himalayan rivers of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. In the Ganges basin, the time-scales of weathering determined from the study of coarse sediments carried by the Kali Gandaki range from several ky, where the uplift is located, to 350 ky. Such values indicate that the bed-rocks are in situ weathered for a long period before the weathering residual products get transported in the rivers as coarse sediments. At the outlet of the high range, these sediments are carried by the tributaries of the Ganges, the Gandak and Ghaghara, during a transfer period of about 100 ka. The study of the sediments at the outlet of the Brahmaputra tributaries allows to propose time-scales of weathering ranging from 110 to 270 ky. Such long periods confirm that during their transfer in the plains, the sediments are temporarily trapped at several places in the basins. In the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the time-scales of sedimentary transfer are 575 and 160 ky, respectively. These values, which are of the same order as their response times, are much longer than the timescales of the Quaternary climate oscillations. It confirms the buffering action of the asiatic alluvial plains for the high-frequency sediment flux variations in response to external forcing in the chain. The study of suspended materials suggests that their chemical compositions result from the mixing of coarse river sediments with fine particles from various locations in the basin which are affected by vegetation recycling. By contrast to coarse sediments, the time-scales of transfer for the suspended materials are fast, e.g. a few ky, pointing the potential of U-series nuclides to assess particle transport

  9. Trace elements transport in western Siberia rivers across a permafrost gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Krickov, I. A.; Kopysov, S. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Vorobyev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    decreased significantly northward during all seasons. Overall, the rank of environmental factors on TE concentration in western Siberian rivers was latitude (3 permafrost zones) > season > watershed size. The effect of the latitude was minimal in spring for most TE but highly visible for Sr, Mo, Sb and U. The main factors controlling the shift of river feeding from surface and subsurface flow to deep underground flow in the permafrost-bearing zone were the depth of the active (unfrozen) seasonal layer and its position in organic or mineral horizons of the soil profile. In the permafrost-free zone, the relative role of carbonate mineral-bearing base rock feeding vs. bog water feeding determined the pattern of trace element concentration and fluxes in rivers of various size as a function of season. Comparison of obtained TE fluxes in WSL rivers with those of other subarctic rivers demonstrated reasonable agreement for most trace elements; the lithology of base rocks was the major factor controlling the magnitude of TE fluxes. The climate change in western Siberia and permafrost boundary migration will affect essentially the elements controlled by underground water feeding (DIC, alkaline-earth elements (Ca, Sr), oxyanions (Mo, Sb, As) and U). The thickening of the active layer may increase the export of trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates in the form of organo-ferric colloids. Plant litter-originated divalent metals present as organic complexes may be retained via adsorption on mineral horizon. However, due to various counterbalanced processes controlling element source and sinks in plants - peat - mineral soil - river systems, the overall impact of the permafrost thaw on TE export from the land to the ocean may be smaller than that foreseen by merely active layer thickening and permafrost boundary shift.

  10. Distribution of radionuclides and elements in Cubatao River sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T.

    2006-01-01

    Cubatao River is located in Santos Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This region is characterized by the occurrence of estuaries and mangrove. Due to its location, near the coastal line, it is also an important industrial area, where phosphate fertilizer plants, petrol refineries, and chemical and steel industries are present. Such human activities contribute to the enhancement of elemental composition in sediments and, in some cases, also increase the radionuclide concentrations, the so called Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM). The contamination of land and sediments by TENORM is of major concern. The activity concentration of U and Th series radionuclides was determined in five sediment samples from Cubatao River. The activity concentration ratio was also determined. Equilibrium was observed for the ratio 234 U/ 238 U. The activity ratios of Th/ 238 U, 228 Ra/ 226 Ra and 210 Pb/ 226 Ra were higher than the unity. In the first two cases, the observed values are due to the higher activity of Th in the sediment and in the last case are probably due to the atmospheric deposition of 210 Pb. (author)

  11. Evolution of Metallic Trace Elements in Contaminated River Sediments: Geochemical Variation Along River Linear and Vertical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbar, Hussein; Montarges-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Losson, Benoit; Manceau, Luc; Bauer, Allan; Bihannic, Isabelle; Gley, Renaud; El Samrani, Antoine; Kobaissi, Ahmad; Kazpard, Veronique; Villieras, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Metal pollution in riverine systems poses a serious threat that jeopardizes water and sediment quality, and hence river dwelling biota. Since those metallic pollutants can be transported for long distances via river flow, river management has become a great necessity, especially in times where industrial activities and global climate change are causing metal release and spreading (by flooding events). These changes are able to modify river hydrodynamics, and as a consequence natural physico-chemical status of different aquatic system compartments, which in turn alter metal mobility, availability and speciation. Vertical profiles of sediments hold the archive of what has been deposited for several tenths of years, thus they are used as a tool to study what had been deposited in rivers beds. The studied area lies in the Orne river, northeastern France. This river had been strongly modified physically and affected by steelmaking industrial activities that had boosted in the middle of the last century. This study focuses on several sites along the linear of the Orne river, as well as vertical profiles of sediments. Sediment cores were collected at sites where sedimentation is favoured, and in particular upstream two dams, built in the second half of the XXth century for industrial purposes. Sediment cores were sliced into 2-5cm layers, according to suitability, and analysed for physical and physico-chemical properties, elemental content and mineralogy. Data of the vertical profile in a sediment core is important to show the evolution of sediments as a function of depth, and hence age, in terms of nature, size and constituents. The physical properties include particle size distribution (PSD) and water content. In addition, the physico-chemical properties, such as pH and oxido-reduction potential (ORP) of interstitial water from undisturbed cores were also detected. Total elemental content of sediment and available ones of extracted interstitial waters was detected using

  12. Transport and accumulation of radionuclides and stable elements in a Missouri River Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callendar, Edward; Robbins, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Several long sediment cores from the Cheyenne River Embayment of Lake Oahe, a 250-km-long Missouri River reservoir in South Dakota, have been analyzed for radionuclides and stable elements. The combination of fine-scale sampling and rapid sedimentation produces radionuclide distributions that can be used to estimate the detailed chronology of particle transport processes in the Oahe reservoir system. A self-consistent and quantitative treatment of the 137Cs data suggests processes to which characteristic times may be associated. Times that characterize system-wide processes include (1) an integration time of several years reflecting retention of the sediment-bound tracer in regions within or external to the reservoir, (2) a relaxation time of approximately 15 years reflecting a decreasing rate of sediment accumulation ascribed to shoreline stabilization, (3) a time of a few months characterizing the breadth of riverine signatures in cores due to integration effects in the Cheyenne River system and deltaic deposits, and (4) times of a few years associated with propagation of riverine load signatures along the embayment. The distribution of total sedimentary arsenic confirms the validity of the variable sedimentation model. In 1977, a tailings retention facility was built at the Homestake Mine site, and the unrestricted input of As ceased. As a result of this remedial action, the concentration of sedimentary As decreased dramatically. In the upper section of the core, above the depth represented by the year 1976, the concentration of As decreases tenfold. In this same core the distribution of lithologically discriminating chemical elements, calcium and vanadium, relate to major flow events in the Cheyenne River basin. Because there is minimal diagenesis of chemical constituents in these rapidly accumulating sediments, stable element signatures, in addition to radiotracers, may be used to reconstruct hydrologic events in drainage basins that contribute sediment to

  13. Elemental contents in soil samples in Wad Hamid, River Nile State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Khansaa Elawad Elhag

    2016-03-01

    In the present study a total of 30 samples were collected from Wad Hamid River Nile State. Sampling area of (two feddan) of agricultural soil. The sampling area was divided in two locations (fertile and non fertile soil). The samples were analyzed for their content of 13 elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np). 10 samples from location 1 (non-fertile soil) and 20 samples from location 2 (fertile soil). X-ray fluorescence (X RF) Spectrometer (system used based on 1"0"9"Cd excitation 1"0"9"Cd source which has an average energy of 22.6 kev and able to excite the elements from Z = 13 to 92 using K and L lines) used to identify the elemental concentration in soil samples. The reliability of X RF technique as multi elements detecting method for measuring elements concentration in soil sample , (IAEA-SOIL-7) standard reference material was used. Measured values found in agreement with the certified values. The average elemental concentration of K,Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np in location 1 were 878, 29690, 13400, 983, 70380, 10.07, 19.07, 40.92,261.4, 23.59,294.8, 47.82, while the average elemental concentration in location 2 were 9848, 27780, 13076,13076,989, 68135, 9.6, 96.3 19.86, 43.7, 225.5, 22.49, 284.75, 46.15, respectively. comparison between the average elemental concentration in fertile soil and non-fertile was done correlations between element were performed Cluster analyses of element in soil samples were obtained comparison between this study and data from literature were done. The elemental concentration in location 1 (non- fertile soil) are higher than location 2 ( fertile soil) because the plant absorbed fertilizer of soil and transfer most elements in soil to plant. (Author)

  14. A geomorphological characterisation of river systems in South Africa: A case study of the Sabie River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Peter N.; Knight, Jasper

    2018-06-01

    Fluvial geomorphology affects river character, behaviour, evolution, trajectory of change and recovery potential, and as such affects biophysical interactions within a catchment. Water bodies in South Africa, in common with many other water-stressed parts of the world, are generally under threat due to increasing natural and anthropogenic influences including aridity, siltation and pollution, as well as climate and environmental change. This study reports on a case study to characterise the geomorphology of different river systems in South Africa, with the aim of better understanding their properties, controls, and implications for biophysical interactions including water quality, biodiversity (aquatic and riparian), and human activity within the catchment. The approach adopted is based on the River Styles® framework (RSF), a geomorphology-based approach developed for rivers in New Zealand and Australia, but applied here for the first time to South Africa. Based on analysis of remote sensing imagery, SRTM-2 digital topographic data and field observations on sites through the entire river system, six geomorphic elements were identified along the Sabie River, northeast South Africa (gorge, bedrock-forced meander, low-moderate sinuosity planform controlled sand bed, meandering sand bed, low sinuosity fine grained sand bed, and floodouts), using the RSF classification scheme and based on the RSF procedural tree of Brierley and Fryirs (2005). Previous geomorphological studies along the Sabie River have shown that different reaches respond differently to episodic floods; we use these data to link river geomorphological character (as defined by the RSF) to the hydrodynamic conditions and processes giving rise to such character. This RSF approach can be used to develop a new management approach for river systems that considers their functional biophysical behaviour within individual reaches, rather than considering them as homogeneous and uniform systems.

  15. Dissolved and colloidal trace elements in the Mississippi River Delta outflow after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Moo-Joon; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Shiller, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippi River delta outflow region is periodically disturbed by tropical weather systems including major hurricanes, which can terminate seasonal bottom water hypoxia and cause the resuspension of shelf bottom sediments which could result in the injection of trace elements into the water column. In the summer of 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed over the Louisiana Shelf within a month of each other. Three weeks after Rita, we collected water samples in the Mississippi River delta outflow, examining the distributions of trace elements to study the effect of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. We observed limited stratification on the shelf and bottom waters that were no longer hypoxic. This resulted, for instance, in bottom water dissolved Mn being lower than is typically observed during hypoxia, but with concentrations still compatible with Mn–O2 trends previously reported. Interestingly, for no element were we able to identify an obvious effect of sediment resuspension on its distribution. In general, elemental distributions were compatible with previous observations in the Mississippi outflow system. Co and Re, which have not been reported for this system previously, showed behavior consistent with other systems: input for Co likely from desorption and conservative mixing for Re. For Cs, an element for which there is little information regarding its estuarine behavior, conservative mixing was also observed. Our filtration method, which allowed us to distinguish the dissolved (<0.02 μm) from colloidal (0.02–0.45 μm) phase, revealed significant colloidal fractions for Fe and Zn, only. For Fe, the colloidal phase was the dominant fraction and was rapidly removed at low salinity. Dissolved Fe, in contrast, persisted out to mid-salinities, being removed in a similar fashion to nitrate. This ability to distinguish the smaller Fe (likely dominantly organically complexed) from larger colloidal suspensates may be useful in better interpreting the

  16. Dissolved and colloidal trace elements in the Mississippi River delta outflow after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Moo-Joon; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Shiller, Alan M.

    2012-07-01

    The Mississippi River delta outflow region is periodically disturbed by tropical weather systems including major hurricanes, which can terminate seasonal bottom water hypoxia and cause the resuspension of shelf bottom sediments which could result in the injection of trace elements into the water column. In the summer of 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed over the Louisiana Shelf within a month of each other. Three weeks after Rita, we collected water samples in the Mississippi River delta outflow, examining the distributions of trace elements to study the effect of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. We observed limited stratification on the shelf and bottom waters that were no longer hypoxic. This resulted, for instance, in bottom water dissolved Mn being lower than is typically observed during hypoxia, but with concentrations still compatible with Mn-O2 trends previously reported. Interestingly, for no element were we able to identify an obvious effect of sediment resuspension on its distribution. In general, elemental distributions were compatible with previous observations in the Mississippi outflow system. Co and Re, which have not been reported for this system previously, showed behavior consistent with other systems: input for Co likely from desorption and conservative mixing for Re. For Cs, an element for which there is little information regarding its estuarine behavior, conservative mixing was also observed. Our filtration method, which allowed us to distinguish the dissolved (<0.02 μm) from colloidal (0.02-0.45 μm) phase, revealed significant colloidal fractions for Fe and Zn, only. For Fe, the colloidal phase was the dominant fraction and was rapidly removed at low salinity. Dissolved Fe, in contrast, persisted out to mid-salinities, being removed in a similar fashion to nitrate. This ability to distinguish the smaller Fe (likely dominantly organically complexed) from larger colloidal suspensates may be useful in better interpreting the bioavailablity

  17. Elemental analysis of oum er rbia moroccan river-water Using icp-aes and chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Labraimi, M.; Moutte, J.; Bilal, E.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 22 elements has been performed utilizing ICP-AES and chromatography methods. MPS samples were dissolved in nitric acid. The element analyzed are : Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Ba and Pb. The detection limits are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for the accuracy by the analysis of a multi-elemental standard. The results for most of the elements obtained were accurate to about 2-15%. The objective of the analysis were to determine the geochemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanisms of sediment transport and nevertheless, to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 48 samples were collected along the river, between its source in meddle atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city

  18. Elements of a decision support system for real-time management ofdissolved oxygen in the San Joaquin River deep water ship channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Jacobs, Karl; Chen, Carl W.; Stringfellow, WilliamT.

    2004-07-15

    A decision support system (DSS) has been designed and will be implemented over the next three years to assist in the control and management of episodes of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in a Deep Water Ship Channel (DWSC), located near Stockton, California. The DSS integrates three information technology functions. The first part is the collection and management of data on flow, pollution loads and water quality. The second part is the simulation model which can forecast the dissolved oxygen sag in the DWSC and determine management actions necessary to improve dissolved oxygen concentrations. The third part is the graphical user interface, which facilitates the computer simulations and posting of the forecasted dissolved oxygen and remedial measures to a stakeholder group for implementations.

  19. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  20. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory text to algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain inside knowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeper understanding of state-of-the-art coding systems. This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar with this topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptography and communication. Linear error-correcting block codes through elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text. Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decoding algorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography and secret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutions at the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbert bound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac- Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error, and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finite field Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm f...

  1. Distribution of trace elements in sediment and soil from river Vardar Basin, Macedonia/Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of 59 elements in the sediment and soil samples collected from the river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 28 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. R-mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations. Seven associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Every factor (Factors 1-3 and 6 and 7 as geogenic and Factors 4 and 5 as anthropogenic associations of elements) are examined and explained separately. The distribution of various elements showed that there is a presence of anthropogenic elements (Ag, Cd, Cu, Ge, Pb, Sn and Zn) introduced in the river sediments and soils from the mining, metallurgical, industrial and agricultural activities in Vardar River Basin, which covers most of the Republic of Macedonia and Central-northern part of Greece.

  2. A Check-list of Some Elements of the Vegetation in three river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of some elements of the aquatic flora was determined in three river basins namely Ayensu, Birim and Densu, in the Okyeman area in Southern Ghana. Samples of these vegetation types, namely bryophytes, podostemonads and rhodophytes, in the three river basins were taken at 16 sites as follows: 4 ...

  3. Transport and accumulation of radionuclides and stable elements in a Missouri River reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callender, E.; Robbins, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Several long sediment cores from the Cheyenne River Embayment of Lake Oahe, a 250-km-long Missouri River reservoir in South Dakota, have been analyzed for radionuclides and stable elements. The combination of fine-scale sampling and rapid sedimentation produces radionuclide distributions that can be used to estimate the detailed chronology of particle transport processes in the Oahe reservoir system. A self-consistent and quantitative treatment of the Cesium 137 data suggests processes to which characteristic times may be associated. Times that characterize system-wide processes include (1) an integration time of several years reflecting retention of the sediment-bound tracer in regions within or external to the reservoir, (2) a relaxation time of approximately 15 years reflecting a decreasing rate of sediment accumulation ascribed to shoreline stabilization, (3) a time of a few months characterizing the breadth of riverine signatures in cores due to integration effects in the Cheyenne River system and deltaic deposits, and (4) times of a few years associated with propagation of riverine load signatures along the embayment. The distribution of total sedimentary arsenic confirms the validity of the variable sedimentation model. In 1977, a tailings retention facility was built at the Homestake Mine site, and the unrestricted input of As ceased. As a result of this remedial action, the concentration of sedimentary As decreased dramatically. Because there is minimal diagenesis of chemical constituents in the rapidly accumulating sediments, stable element signatures, in addition to radiotracers, may be used to reconstruct hydrologic events in drainage basins that contribute sediment to lakes and reservoirs

  4. Evaluating natural and anthropogenic trace element inputs along an alpine to urban gradient in the Provo River, Utah, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carling, Gregory T.; Tingey, David G.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Nelson, Stephen T.; Aanderud, Zachary T.; Goodsell, Timothy H.; Chapman, Tucker R.

    2015-01-01

    lower reaches of the river with values approaching 0.709. δD and δ"1"8O changed little throughout the year in the Provo River, suggesting that the river is primarily fed by snowmelt during spring runoff and snowmelt-fed groundwater during baseflow. Based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) water chemistry was unique across the upper, middle, and lower portions of the river, with high temporal variability above the first reservoir but minimal temporal variability below the reservoir. Thus, the results show that dams alter water chemistry by allowing for settling of particle-associated elements and also by homogenizing inflows throughout the year to minimize dilution during snowmelt runoff. Taken together, trace element concentrations and isotopic measurements can be used to evaluate the complex geochemical patterns of rivers and their variability in space and time. These measurements are critical for identifying natural and anthropogenic impacts on river systems. - Highlights: • Provo River is impacted by a number of natural and anthropogenic processes. • Trace elements, Sr, H, and O isotopes were used to identify solute sources. • Sources include weathering, geothermal groundwater, mining, and urban runoff. • Water chemistry is altered during snowmelt and rainfall runoff events. • Built infrastructure also an important factor controlling water chemistry.

  5. Nuclear fuel element leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a leak detection system integral with a wall of a building used to fabricate nuclear fuel elements for detecting radiation leakage from the nuclear fuel elements as the fuel elements exit the building. The leak detecting system comprises a shielded compartment constructed to withstand environmental hazards extending into a similarly constructed building and having sealed doors on both ends along with leak detecting apparatus connected to the compartment. The leak detecting system provides a system for removing a nuclear fuel element from its fabrication building while testing for radiation leaks in the fuel element

  6. From academic to applied: Operationalising resilience in river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Melissa; Thoms, Martin C.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of resilience acknowledges the ability of societies to live and develop with dynamic environments. Given the recognition of the need to prepare for anticipated and unanticipated shocks, applications of resilience are increasing as the guiding principle of public policy and programs in areas such as disaster management, urban planning, natural resource management, and climate change adaptation. River science is an area in which the adoption of resilience is increasing, leading to the proposition that resilience may become a guiding principle of river policy and programs. Debate about the role of resilience in rivers is part of the scientific method, but disciplinary disunity about the ways to approach resilience application in policy and programs may leave river science out of the policy process. We propose six elements that need to be considered in the design and implementation of resilience-based river policy and programs: rivers as social-ecological systems; the science-policy interface; principles, capacities, and characteristics of resilience; cogeneration of knowledge; adaptive management; and the state of the science of resilience.

  7. Investigation of trace element mobility in river sediments using ICP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the column method was used to determine the leachable trace metals present in selected river sediments. In addition the sediments were investigated using a shaker method and these two methods were compared for reliability. For both these methods extract solutions associated with a sequential extraction ...

  8. Determination of elements in cisadane river sediments by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarz, H.

    1997-01-01

    Determination of elements in Cisadane river sediments by neutron activation analysis has been conducted. Samples of sediments were obtained from some location along Cisadane river, i.e. Leuranji, Karanggan, Cibigo, Cisauk, Warung Mangga Pintu Air and Estuary Teluk Naga. the elements analysed were Al, Mn, Mg, V, K, Na, Fe, Cr, Co, U and Zn, and the results were compared to the SRM of sediment sample from IAEA. Generally, the results showed that the mean concentration of elements were found in Cibogo, Cisauk, Pintu Air and Muara Teluk Naga which were higher than others. Concentration factor of elements in sediments were in between of 0,02 - 3,45, this factor indicated that Cisadane river sediments have not been contaminated. CRM sediments 2704 from IAEA used as NAA Quality Control (author)

  9. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  10. Chemometric investigations on the differentiated evaluation of element trace analysis in river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einax, J.; Geiss, S.

    1994-01-01

    The combination of sequential leaching methods for a first assessment of the kind of species in river sediments with multivariate-statistical methods (like factor analysis) for identifying anthropogenic and/or geogenic loading is useful for the differentiated characterization of the pollution state of a river. Electrochemical investigations, planned on the basis of statistical design and following empirical modelling, enables quantitative conclusions on the binding forms of heavy metals in river waters. Deposition-remobilisation effects of heavy metals in the complex system river water-river sediment can be described by PLS modelling. (orig.)

  11. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout

  12. Reliability modeling of Clinch River breeder reactor electrical shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, R.A.; Duetsch, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    The initial simulation of the probabilistic properties of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) electrical shutdown systems is described. A model of the reliability (and availability) of the systems is presented utilizing Success State and continuous-time, discrete state Markov modeling techniques as significant elements of an overall reliability assessment process capable of demonstrating the achievement of program goals. This model is examined for its sensitivity to safe/unsafe failure rates, sybsystem redundant configurations, test and repair intervals, monitoring by reactor operators; and the control exercised over system reliability by design modifications and the selection of system operating characteristics. (U.S.)

  13. Critically Important Object Security System Element Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Khomyackov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic model of critically important object security system element has been developed. The model includes mathematical description of the security system element properties and external influences. The state evolution of the security system element is described by the semi-Markov process with finite states number, the semi-Markov matrix and the initial semi-Markov process states probabilities distribution. External influences are set with the intensity of the Poisson thread.

  14. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  15. Development of environmental education system using online element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, T.; Yoshihara, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kawasaki, K.; Komiya, K.

    2007-01-01

    We have constructed a network system which enables one to access and analyze environmental data obtained at different and distant laboratories. As a preliminary feasibility test of the system, we studied the elements in the water of the Tesio River using PIXE and ion chromatography. Students used the data online to carry out analysis via internet. We found two factors with different features in calcium from the factor analysis. The comparison of the specific result and relevant geology information has revealed a remarkable presence of Ca 2+ which might come from dissolution of limestone in the upper Tesio River. PIXE data gave crucial information to draw such a conclusion. The present system has been found useful in environmental education in universities, online sharing of PIXE data in particular. (author)

  16. Savannah River Plant remote environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The SRP remote environmental monitoring system consists of separations facilities stack monitors, production reactor stack monitors, twelve site perimeter monitors, river and stream monitors, a geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) data link, reactor cooling lake thermal monitors, meteorological tower system, Weather Information and Display (WIND) system computer, and the VANTAGE data base management system. The remote environmental monitoring system when fully implemented will provide automatic monitoring of key stack releases and automatic inclusion of these source terms in the emergency response codes

  17. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  18. Landscape elements and river chemistry as affected by river regulation – a 3-D perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Smedberg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis whether individual land classes within a river catchment contribute equally to river loading with dissolved constituents or whether some land classes act as "hot spots" to river loading and if so, are these land classes especially affected by hydrological alterations. The amount of land covered by forests and wetlands and the average soil depth (throughout this paper soil refers to everything overlying bedrock i.e. regolith of a river catchment explain 58–93% of the variability in total organic carbon (TOC and dissolved silicate (DSi concentrations for 22 river catchments in Northern Sweden. For the heavily regulated Luleälven, with 7 studied sub-catchments, only 3% of the headwater areas have been inundated by reservoirs, some 10% of the soils and aggregated forest and wetland areas have been lost due to damming and further hydrological alteration such as bypassing entire sub-catchments by headrace tunnels. However, looking at individual forest classes, our estimates indicate that some 37% of the deciduous forests have been inundated by the four major reservoirs built in the Luleälven headwaters. These deciduous forest and wetlands formerly growing on top of alluvial deposits along the river corridors forming the riparian zone play a vital role in loading river water with dissolved constituents, especially DSi. A digital elevation model draped with land classes and soil depths which highlights that topography of various land classes acting as hot spots is critical in determining water residence time in soils and biogeochemical fluxes. Thus, headwater areas of the Luleälven appear to be most sensitive to hydrological alterations due to the thin soil cover (on average 2.7–4.5 m and only patchy appearance of forest and wetlands that were significantly perturbed. Hydrological alterations of these relatively small headwater areas significantly impacts downstream flux of dissolved constituents and their delivery to

  19. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  20. Elemental analysis of Oum er Rbia Moroccan river-water using TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; El Hamdaoui, A.; Labraimi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The x-ray fluorescence analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 17 elements has been performed utilizing the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and total reflection excitation. SPM samples were dissolved in nitric acid. For all samples direct measurements are feasible by spiking a few ml of the sample with Ga as internal standard element, and drying an aliquot of 20 μl on a quartz glass carrier. The detection limits of 10 to 20 ppb are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for accuracy by the analysis of the 15474 ICP multi-elemental standard I. Some results were also compared with AAS and ICP-AES. The results for most of the elements obtained by TXRF were accurate to about 2-15 %. The objectives of the analysis were to determine the geo-chemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanism of sediment transport and to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 36 samples had been collected along the river between its source in Middle Atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city. (author)

  1. System for assembling nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An automatic system is described for assembling nuclear fuel elements, in particular those employing mixed oxide fuels. The system includes a sealing mechanism which allows movement during the assembling of the fuel element along the assembly stations without excessive release of contaminants. (U.K.)

  2. Trace element fluxes in sediments of an environmentally impacted river from a coastal zone of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; Singh, Vijay P; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Piscoya, Victor Casimiro; Guerra, Sérgio M S

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding trace element concentrations and fluxes in suspended sediments and bedload are scarce. To fill this gap and meet the international need to include polluted rivers in future world estimation of trace element fluxes, this study aimed to determine the trace element fluxes in suspended sediment and bedload of an environmentally impacted river in Brazil. Water, suspended sediment, and bedload from both the upstream and the downstream cross sections were collected. To collect both the suspended sediment and water samples, we used the US DH-48. Bedload measurements were carried out using the US BLH 84 sampler. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). As and Hg were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-FIAS). The suspended sediments contributed more than 99 % of the trace element flux. By far Pb and to a less extent Zn at the downstream site represents major concerns. The yields of Pb and Zn in suspended sediments were 4.20 and 2.93 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively. These yields were higher than the values reported for Pb and Zn for Tuul River (highly impacted by mining activities), 1.60 and 1.30 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively, as well as the Pb yield (suspended + dissolved) to the sea of some Mediterranean rivers equal to 3.4 kg km(2) year(-1). Therefore, the highest flux and yield of Pb and Zn in Ipojuca River highlighted the importance to include medium and small rivers-often overlooked in global and regional studies-in the future estimation of world trace element fluxes in order to protect estuaries and coastal zones.

  3. Major and Trace Element Fluxes to the Ganges River: Significance of Small Flood Plain Tributary as Non-Point Pollution Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Sen, I. S.; Mishra, G.

    2017-12-01

    There has been much discussion amongst biologists, ecologists, chemists, geologists, environmental firms, and science policy makers about the impact of human activities on river health. As a result, multiple river restoration projects are on going on many large river basins around the world. In the Indian subcontinent, the Ganges River is the focal point of all restoration actions as it provides food and water security to half a billion people. Serious concerns have been raised about the quality of Ganga water as toxic chemicals and many more enters the river system through point-sources such as direct wastewater discharge to rivers, or non-point-sources. Point source pollution can be easily identified and remedial actions can be taken; however, non-point pollution sources are harder to quantify and mitigate. A large non-point pollution source in the Indo-Gangetic floodplain is the network of small floodplain rivers. However, these rivers are rarely studied since they are small in catchment area ( 1000-10,000 km2) and discharge (knowledge gap we have monitored the Pandu River for one year between February 2015 and April 2016. Pandu river is 242 km long and is a right bank tributary of Ganges with a total catchment area of 1495 km2. Water samples were collected every month for dissolved major and trace elements. Here we show that the concentration of heavy metals in river Pandu is in higher range as compared to the world river average, and all the dissolved elements shows a large spatial-temporal variation. We show that the Pandu river exports 192170, 168517, 57802, 32769, 29663, 1043, 279, 241, 225, 162, 97, 28, 25, 22, 20, 8, 4 Kg/yr of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Si, Sr, Zn, B, Ba, Mn, Al, Li, Rb, Mo, U, Cu, and Sb, respectively, to the Ganga river, and the exported chemical flux effects the water chemistry of the Ganga river downstream of its confluence point. We further speculate that small floodplain rivers is an important source that contributes to the dissolved chemical

  4. Major and trace elements in sediments of the upper course of Lerma river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejeda, S.; Zarazua-Ortega, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Garcia-Mejia, A.; Carapia-Morales, L.; Diaz-Delgado

    2006-01-01

    The Lerma is one of the most important rivers of Mexico, where it drains highly populated and industrialized regions. The concentration of six major and trace elements: titanium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and lead in the surface sediments of the upper course of Lerma river was investigated, in order to identify its distribution along the river and to recognize the principal sites of pollution. The surface sediment samples were collected at 8 sites distributed following the stream flow direction of the river. Major and trace elements concentrations were determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results show that the metal concentrations in the sediments decrease in the sequence: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb. Concentration of Fe, Mn and Ti were significantly higher than the other metals in site 8,200 meters downstream the Alzate Dam. The high concentrations and spatial variations of Zn, Cu and Pb in the middle sites of the upper course of the Lerma River indicate that the river pollution is probably associated with urban and industrial discharges. (author)

  5. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  6. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  7. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geall, Mark [RiverHeath LLC, Appleton, WI (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  8. Contamination and ecological risk assessment of toxic trace elements in the Xi River, an urban river of Shenyang city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao; Guo, Wei; Liu, Shaoqing

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the enrichment, contamination, and ecological risk posed by toxic trace elements in the sediments of the Xi River in the industrialized city of Shenyang, China. Surface sediment and sediment core were collected; analyzed for toxic trace elements; and assessed with an index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF) value, potential ecological risk factor (Er), ecological risk index (RI), and probable effect concentration quotient (PECQ). Elemental concentrations (milligram per kilogram) were 8.5-637.9 for As, 6.5-103.9 for Cd, 12.2-21.9 for Co, 90.6-516.0 for Cr, 258.1-1,791.5 for Cu, 2.6-19.0 for Hg, 70.5-174.5 for Ni, 126.9-1,405.8 for Pb, 3.7-260.0 for Sb, 38.4-100.4 for V, and 503-4,929 for Zn. The Igeo, EF, Er, and PECQ indices showed that the contamination of Cd and Hg was more serious than that of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, whereas the presence of Co and V might be primarily from natural sources. The Igeo index for Cr and Ni might underestimate the degree of contamination, potentially as a result of high concentrations of these elements in the shale. The RI index was higher than 600, indicating a notably high ecological risk of sediment for the river. The average PECQ for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 1.4 to 4.1 for surface sediment and from 5.2 to 9.6 in the sediment cores, indicating a high potential for an adverse biological effect. It was concluded that the sediment in the Xi River was severely contaminated and should be remediated as a hazardous material.

  9. Annual budget of Gd and related Rare Earth Elements in a river basin heavily disturbed by anthropogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Guignard, Cédric; François Iffly, Jean; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The real environmental impact of micropollutants in river systems can be difficult to assess, essentially due to uncertainties in the estimation of the relative significance of both anthropogenic and natural sources. The natural geochemical background is characterized by important variations at global, regional or local scales. Moreover, elements currently considered to be undisturbed by human activities and used as tracers of continental crust derived material have become more and more involved in industrial or agricultural processes. The global production of lanthanides (REE), used in industry, medicine and agriculture, for instance, has increased exponentially from a few tons in 1950 to projected 185 kt in 2015. Consequently, these new anthropogenic contributions impact the natural cycle of the REE. Gd and related REE are now worldwide recognized as emergent micropollutants in river systems. Nevertheless, there is still a gap concerning their temporal dynamics in rivers and especially the quantification of both the anthropogenic and natural contributions in surface water. The acquisition of such quantitative information is of primordial interest because elements from both origins may present different bioavailability and toxicity levels. Working at the river basin scale allows for quantifying micropollutant fluxes. For this reason, we monitored water quality and discharge of the Alzette River (Luxembourg, Europe) over two complete hydrological cycles (2010-2013). The substantial contamination, is principally due to the steel industry in the basin, which has been active from 1875 until now, and to the related increase of urban areas. The particulate and dissolved fractions of river water were monitored using a multitracer approach (standard parameters for water quality including REE concentrations, Pb, Sr, Nd radiogenic isotopes) with two sampling setups (bi-weekly and flood event based sampling). This extensive sampling design allowed quantifying the annual

  10. Heavy Metallic Element Distribution in Cisadane River Estuary's Water and Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    M. Taufik Kaisupy; Abdul Rozak; Endang Rochyatun

    2006-01-01

    Observation of heavy metallic elements in Cisadane River Estuary has been done in July and November 2005. The results show that heavy metallic elements content in seawater is lower and still below the treshold value stated by government for fisheries. There was an indication of heavy metallic elements on sediment. Distribution of Pb on July and of Cu on November 2005 were found higher near the coast and decrease towards the sea, and commonly were found in front of estuary such as Cisadane, Mu...

  11. Concentration of elements in suspended matter discharges to Lerma River, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Perez, P.; Tejeda, S.; Carapia, L.; Barcelo-Quintal, I.; Martinez, T.

    2011-01-01

    The S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb concentration and the elemental composition of particles in suspended matter from principal discharges to Lerma River, have been evaluated. The elemental concentration in suspended matter has been obtained by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The elemental composition of particles has been obtained by means of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS). The results show that K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe are mainly from natural origin in the Upper Course of the Lerma River (UCLR), where the principal contributions probably come from dragging of soils and sediments in the rainy season and Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb are mainly from anthropogenic origin where the principal contributions come from urban and industrial untreated discharge. The application of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry plus Scanning Electron Microscopy is useful in the characterization of suspended matter in natural, anthropogenic and mixed water discharges. (author)

  12. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Distribution and geochemistry of selected trace elements in the Sacramento River near Keswick Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals from the Iron Mountain Mines (IMM) Superfund site on the upper Sacramento River is examined using data from water and bed sediment samples collected during 1996-97. Relative to surrounding waters, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, thallium, zinc and the rare-earth elements (REE) were all present in high concentrations in effluent from Spring Creek Reservoir (SCR), which enters into the Sacramento River in the Spring Creek Arm of Keswick Reservoir. SCR was constructed in part to regulate the flow of acidic, metal-rich waters draining the IMM Superfund site. Although virtually all of these metals exist in SCR in the dissolved form, upon entering Keswick Reservoir they at least partially converted via precipitation and/or adsorption to the particulate phase. In spite of this, few of the metals settled out; instead the vast majority was transported colloidally down the Sacramento River at least to Bend Bridge, 67. km from Keswick Dam.The geochemical influence of IMM on the upper Sacramento River was variable, chiefly dependent on the flow of Spring Creek. Although the average flow of the Sacramento River at Keswick Dam is 250m 3/s (cubic meters per second), even flows as low as 0.3m 3/s from Spring Creek were sufficient to account for more than 15% of the metals loading at Bend Bridge, and these proportions increased with increasing Spring Creek flow.The dissolved proportion of the total bioavailable load was dependent on the element but steadily decreased for all metals, from near 100% in Spring Creek to values (for some elements) of less than 1% at Bend Bridge; failure to account for the suspended sediment load in assessments of the effect of metals transport in the Sacramento River can result in estimates which are low by as much as a factor of 100. ?? 2012.

  14. Erosive forms in rivers systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Una Alvarez, E. de; Vidal Romani, J. R.; Rodriguez Martinez-Conde, R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the geomorphological meaning of the concepts of stability/change and to study its influence on a fluvial erosion system. Different cases of fluvial potholes in Galicia (NW of the Iberian Peninsula) are considered. The work conclusions refer to the nature of the process and its morphological evolution in order to advance towards later contributions with respect of this type of systems. (Author) 14 refs.

  15. Trace Elements in Dominant Species of the Fenghe River, China: Their Relations to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhou, Zhengchao; Bai, Yanying; Jiao, Wentao; Chen, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of trace elements (TEs) in water, sediment, riparian soil and dominant plants was investigated in the Fenghe River, Northwestern China. The Fenghe River ecosystem was polluted with Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb. There was a high pollution risk in the midstream and downstream regions and the risk level for Cd was much higher than that of the other elements. The average values of bioconcentration coefficient for Cd and Zn were 2.21 and 1.75, respectively, indicating a large accumulation of Cd and Zn in the studied species. With broad ecological amplitudes, L. Levl. et Vant. Trin., and L. had the greatest TE concentrations in aboveground and belowground biomass of the studied species and were potential biomonitors or phytoremediators for the study area. Multivariate techniques including cluster analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and canonical correspondence analysis were used to analyze the relations between TE concentrations in plants and various environmental factors. The soil element concentration is the main factor determining the accumulation of TEs in plants. The co-release behavior of common pollutants and TEs drove the accumulation of Hg, Cd, and As in the studied plants. Significant enrichment of some elements in the Fenghe River has led to a decline in the biodiversity of plants. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in aquatic plants of the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    The Yenisei River is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian nuclear plants. The aquatic plants growing in the radioactively contaminated parts of the river contain artificial radionuclides. The aim of the study was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides and stable elements by submerged plants of the Yenisei River and estimate the strength of their binding to plant biomass by using a new sequential extraction scheme. The aquatic plants sampled were: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Batrachium kauffmanii. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of the samples of aquatic plants has revealed more than 20 radionuclides. We also investigated the chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in the biomass and rated radionuclides and stable elements based on their distribution in biomass. The greatest number of radionuclides strongly bound to biomass cell structures was found for Potamogeton lucens and the smallest for Batrachium kauffmanii. For Fontinalis antipyretica, the number of distribution patterns that were similar for both radioactive isotopes and their stable counterparts was greater than for the other studied species. The transuranic elements (239)Np and (241)Am were found in the intracellular fraction of the biomass, and this suggested their active accumulation by the plants.

  17. Selected trace elements in the Sacramento River, California: Occurrence and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Roth, David A.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of trace elements from the Iron Mountain Superfund site on the Sacramento River and selected tributaries is examined. The concentration and distribution of many trace elements—including aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, cesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, iron, gadolinium, holmium, potassium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, manganese, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, rhenium, antimony, selenium, samarium, strontium, terbium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium—were measured using a combination of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Samples were collected using ultraclean techniques at selected sites in tributaries and the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, California, at six separate time periods from mid-1996 to mid-1997. Trace-element concentrations in dissolved (ultrafiltered [0.005-μm pore size]) and colloidal material, isolated at each site from large volume samples, are reported. For example, dissolved Zn ranged from 900 μg/L at Spring Creek (Iron Mountain acid mine drainage into Keswick Reservoir) to 0.65 μg/L at the Freeport site on the Sacramento River. Zn associated with colloidal material ranged from 4.3 μg/L (colloid-equivalent concentration) in Spring Creek to 21.8 μg/L at the Colusa site on the Sacramento River. Virtually all of the trace elements exist in Spring Creek in the dissolved form. On entering Keswick Reservoir, the metals are at least partially converted by precipitation or adsorption to the particulate phase. Despite this observation, few of the elements are removed by settling; instead the majority is transported, associated with colloids, downriver, at least to the Bend Bridge site, which is 67 km from Keswick Dam. Most trace elements are strongly associated with the colloid phase going

  18. Lowland river systems - processes, form and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. L.; Kronvang, B.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Present day river valleys and rivers are not as dynamic and variable as they used to be. We will here describe the development and characteristics of rivers and their valleys and explain the background to the physical changes in river networks and channel forms from spring to the sea. We seek...... to answer two fundamental questions: How has anthropogenic disturbance of rivers changed the fundamental form and physical processes in river valleys? Can we use our understanding of fl uvial patterns to restore the dynamic nature of channelised rivers and drained fl oodplains in river valleys?...

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) is being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration. This summary of the SOR story begins where the Draft EIS summary left off. It is divided into seven parts, each of which reports some aspect of the study's outcome: Part 1 is a history. The SOR was not a simple study on any level, and to understand the EIS alternatives, some background is necessary. Part 2 reports the major findings of the technical analysis of alternative system operating strategies, and presents the agencies' Preferred Alternative. Part 3 explains actions the agencies may take with respect to the Columbia River Regional Forum, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement, and the Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. Part 4 presents the Purpose and Need, elements at the core of any Federal EIS. It includes a map showing the Columbia River Basin and information on the affected Federal projects. Part 5 describes the substantial public participation and outreach that occurred during the SOR, and Part 6 summarizes efforts to incorporate the Tribal perspective into the study. Part 7 describes other activities that will be taking place in the next few years, which are related to and build upon the SOR

  20. Trace elements in suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction of the Arno River waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capannesi, G.; Cecchi, A.; Mando, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of 46 elements along the course of the Arno River (Tuscany, Italy) have been determined by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Both suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction have been investigated. No chemical treatment has been performed on the samples, either before or after irradiation. Anticoincidence techniques have been employed in the γ spectroscopy. Results are briefly discussed also from a methodological point of view. 4 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  1. Research of Distribution of Elements in Natural Waters of the Selenga River Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gerbish, S; Dalhsuren, B; Bayarmaa, Z; Maslov, O D; Sevastiyanov, D V

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of heavy metals in natural waters of the Selenga river pool was investigated. The contents of elements were determined using X-ray analysis with complete external reflection (XRACER). The zones with excess of the average contents of elements in comparison with reference samples were found out, that specifies their pollution by metals. It is offered in these zones to organize the regular water quality monitoring for supervision over the condition of the water ecosystems and to carry out actions on decrease of anthropogenous load and pollution of natural waters.

  2. Heavy Metallic Element Distribution in Cisadane River Estuary's Water and Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufik Kaisupy

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation of heavy metallic elements in Cisadane River Estuary has been done in July and November 2005. The results show that heavy metallic elements content in seawater is lower and still below the treshold value stated by government for fisheries. There was an indication of heavy metallic elements on sediment. Distribution of Pb on July and of Cu on November 2005 were found higher near the coast and decrease towards the sea, and commonly were found in front of estuary such as Cisadane, Muara Saban and Tanjung Pasir. High Pb and Zn distributions on November 2005 were found only in front of Cisadane estuary. Cd distribution of Cisadane estuary was constant at all station but did not show any correlation with the distance of station and estuary. The Cd content on July and November 2005 is lower than 0,001 ppm. Generally, heavy metallic elements content have a uniform distribution at all stations inspite of its distance to estuary.

  3. Determination of Major and Minor Elements in the Code River Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Sukirno; Bambang Irianto

    2007-01-01

    Analyze major and minor elements in the Code river sediments has been done. The aim of this research is to determine the concentration of major and minor elements in the Code river sediments from upstream to downstream. The instrument used were X-ray Fluorescence using Si(Li) detector. The results show that major elements were Fe (1.66 ± 0.1% - 4.20 ± 0.7%) and Ca (4.43 ± 0.6% - 9.08 ± 1.3%); while minor elements were Ba (178.791 ± 21.1 ppm - 616.56 ± 59.4 ppm); Sr (148.22 ± 21.9 ppm - 410.25 ± 30.5 ppm); and Zr (9.71 ± 1.1 ppm - 22.11 ± 3.4 ppm). ANAVA method (confidence level of α 0.05 ) for statistic test was used. It was showed that there were significant influence of the sampling location difference on the concentration of major and minor elements in the sediment samples. (author)

  4. Analysis of river health variation under the background of urbanization based on entropy weight and matter-element model: A case study in Huzhou City in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guangbo; Xu, Youpeng; Yu, Zhihui; Song, Song; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Maintaining the health of the river ecosystem is an essential ecological and environmental guarantee for regional sustainable development and one of the basic objectives in water resource management. With the rapid development of urbanization, the river health situation is deteriorating, especially in urban areas. The river health evaluation is a complex process that involves various natural and social components; eight eco-hydrological indicators were selected to establish an evaluation system, and the variation of river health status under the background of urbanization was explored based on entropy weight and matter-element model. The comprehensive correlative degrees of urban river health of Huzhou City in 2001, 2006 and 2010 were then calculated. The results indicated that river health status of the study area was in the direction of pathological trend, and the impact of limiting factors (such as Shannon's diversity index and agroforestry output growth rate) played an important role in river health. The variation of maximum correlative degree could be classified into stationary status, deterioration status, deterioration-to-improvement status, and improvement-to-deterioration status. There was a severe deterioration situation of river health under the background of urbanization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a GIS-Based Decision Support System for Diagnosis of River System Health and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a decision support system (DSS to inform policy making has been progressing rapidly. This paper presents a generic framework and the development steps of a decision tool prototype of geographic information systems (GIS-based decision support system of river health diagnosis (RHD-DSS. This system integrates data, calculation models, and human knowledge of river health status assessment, causal factors diagnosis, and restoration decision making to assist decision makers during river restoration and management in Zhejiang Province, China. Our RHD-DSS is composed of four main elements: the graphical user interface (GUI, the database, the model base, and the knowledge base. It has five functional components: the input module, the database management, the diagnostic indicators management, the assessment and diagnosis, and the visual result module. The system design is illustrated with particular emphasis on the development of the database, model schemas, diagnosis and analytical processing techniques, and map management design. Finally, the application of the prototype RHD-DSS is presented and implemented for Xinjiangtang River of Haining County in Zhejiang Province, China. This case study is used to demonstrate the advantages gained by the application of this system. We conclude that there is great potential for using the RHD-DSS to systematically manage river basins in order to effectively mitigate environmental issues. The proposed approach will provide river managers and designers with improved insight into river degradation conditions, thereby strengthening the assessment process and the administration of human activities in river management.

  6. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  7. Distribution of the rare earth elements in the surface sediments from the lower Wuding River of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longjiang, M.; Duowen, M.; Ke, H.; Jinghong, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and their signatures in the Wuding River of China were studied from samples of surface sediments and related to the geological formation in its watershed. The total REE (ΣREE) average concentrations of the Wuding River sediments (144.56 μg g -1 ), is lower than that in the Yangtze River sediments (167.10 μg g -1 ), getting closer to the values of the Yellow River sediments (137.76 μg g -1 ), being equivalent to the values of the UCC (the upper continental crust) (146.37 μg g-1). The chondrite-normalized REEs indicated LREE enrichment and flat HREE depletion and also showed a slightly negative Eu-anomaly. A similar chondrite-normalized REE distribution pattern between the Wuding River sediments and Yellow River sediments demonstrated the Wuding River sediments are the important material sources of the Yellow River sediments. UCC-normalized REE patterns between the Wuding River sediments and the Yellow River sediments were almost equivalent and close to the UCC. These implied the Wuding River sediments and the Yellow River sediments are subjected mostly to physical weathering due to higher erosion rates. Consequently, they can be used to trace the UCC compositions. (author)

  8. Laser systems with diamond optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    High power laser systems with optical elements of diamond having a thermal conductivity of at least 10 W/cm. 0 K at 300 0 K and an optical absorption at the laser beam wavelength of no more than 10 to 20 percent are described. (U.S.)

  9. HTGR fuel element size reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.B.; Cramer, G.T.

    1978-06-01

    Reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel requires development of a fuel element size reduction system. This report describes pilot plant testing of crushing equipment designed for this purpose. The test program, the test results, the compatibility of the components, and the requirements for hot reprocessing are discussed

  10. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of nutrition element and organic matter in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua-Shan, Xu; Tong-Qian, Zhao; Hong-Q, Meng; Zong-Xue, Xu; Chao-Hon, Ma

    2011-04-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that there will be great risk of nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and organic matter permeating into the groundwater if floodplain changes into farmland. As the special control unit of nitrogen pollution between rivers and artificial wetlands, dry fanning areas near the river play a very important role in nitrogen migration between river and groundwater. Farm manure as base fertilizer may he an important source of phosphorus leak and loss at the artificial wetlands. Phosphorus leaks into the groundwater and is transferred along the hydraulic gradient, especially during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. The land use types and farming systems of the riparian floodplain have a major impact on the nitrate nitrogen contents of the groundwater. Nitrogen can infiltrate and accumulate quickly at anaerobic conditions in the fish pond area, and the annual nitrogen achieves a relatively balanced state in lotus area. In those areas, the soil is flooded and at anaerobic condition in spring and summer, nitrogen infiltrates and denitrification significantly, but soil is not flooded and at aerobic condition in the autumn and winter, and during these time, a significant nitrogen nitrification process occurs. In the area between 50 m and 200 m from the river

  11. Reliability of Structural Systems with Correlated Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1982-01-01

    Calculation of the probability of failure of a system with correlation members is usually a difficult and time-consuming numerical problem. However, for some types of systems with equally correlated elements this calculation can be performed in a simple way. This has suggested two new methods bas...... on so-called average and equivalent correlation coefficients. By using these methods approximate values for the probability of failure can easily be calculated. The accuracy of these methods is illustrated with examples....

  12. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  13. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report

  14. Mitigation and enhancement techniques for the Upper Mississippi River system and other large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, Rosalie A.; Morton, John M.; Mochalski, Jeffrey C.; Beall, Jonathan T.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive information is provided on techniques that can reduce or eliminate the negative impact of man's activities (particularly those related to navigation) on large river systems, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi River. These techniques should help resource managers who are concerned with such river systems to establish sound environmental programs. Discussion of each technique or group of techniques include (1) situation to be mitigated or enhanced; (2) description of technique; (3) impacts on the environment; (4) costs; and (5) evaluation for use on the Upper Mississippi River Systems. The techniques are divided into four primary categories: Bank Stabilization Techniques, Dredging and Disposal of Dredged Material, Fishery Management Techniques, and Wildlife Management Techniques. Because techniques have been grouped by function, rather than by structure, some structures are discussed in several contexts. For example, gabions are discussed for use in revetments, river training structures, and breakwaters. The measures covered under Bank Stabilization Techniques include the use of riprap revetments, other revetments, bulkheads, river training structures, breakwater structures, chemical soil stabilizers, erosion-control mattings, and filter fabrics; the planting of vegetation; the creation of islands; the creation of berms or enrichment of beaches; and the control of water level and boat traffic. The discussions of Dredging and the Disposal of Dredged Material consider dredges, dredging methods, and disposal of dredged material. The following subjects are considered under Fishery Management Techniques: fish attractors; spawning structures; nursery ponds, coves, and marshes; fish screens and barriers; fish passage; water control structures; management of water levels and flows; wing dam modification; side channel modification; aeration techniques; control of nuisance aquatic plants; and manipulated of fish populations. Wildlife Management

  15. Study of dynamics, sources and speciation of trace elements in the Orge River watershed (Essonne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the dynamics of trace elements (TE) in the water column of the Orge River. In the upstream part of the watershed, land uses consist mainly in forests and agricultural soils, whereas downstream, the population density reaches up to 8,000 inh. km"-"2, in the suburbs of Paris Mega-city. The sampling sites were chosen to describe a gradation in urbanization influence from up to downstream in this particularly contrasted catchment. Four sampling campaigns were performed at seven selected sites along the Orge River during an hydrological year (2010/2011). The spatio-temporal monitoring of the concentrations in the dissolved phase ( [fr

  16. Fuel element radiometry system for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Gaur, Swati; Sridhar, Padmini; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Vaidya, P.R.; Das, Sanjoy; Sinha, A.K.; Bhatt, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    An indigenous and fully automatic PC based radiometry system has been designed and developed. The system required a vibration free scanning with various automated sequential movements to scan the fuel pin of size 5.8 mm (OD) x 1055 mm (L) along its full length. A mechanical system with these requirements and precision controls has been designed. The system consists of a tightly coupled and collimated radiation source-detector unit and data acquisition and control system. It supports PLC based control electronics to control and monitor the movement of fuel element, nuclear data acquisition and analysis system and feedback system to the mechanical scanner to physically accept or reject the fuel pin based on the decision derived by the software algorithms. (author)

  17. TITUS: a general finite element system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougrelle, P.

    1983-01-01

    TITUS is a general finite element structural analysis system which performs linear/non-linear, static/dynamic analyses of heat-transfer/thermo-mechanical problems. One of the major features of TITUS is that it was designed by engineers, to address engineers in an industrial environment. This has resulted in an easy to use system, with a high-level free-formatted problem oriented language, a large selection of pre- and post processors and sophisticated graphic capabilities. TITUS has many references in civil, mechanical and nuclear engineering applications. The TITUS system is available on various types of machines, from large mainframes to mini computers

  18. Shutdown of the River Water System at the Savannah River Site: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluates alternative approaches to and environmental impacts of shutting down the River Water System at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Five production reactors were operated at the site.to support these facilities, the River Water System was constructed to provide cooling water to pass through heat exchangers to absorb heat from the reactor core in each of the five reactor areas (C, K, L, P, and R). The DOE Savannah River Strategic Plan directs the SRS to find ways to reduce operating costs and to determine what site infrastructure it must maintain and what infrastructure is surplus. The River Water System has been identified as a potential surplus facility. Three alternatives to reduce the River Water System operating costs are evaluated in this EIS. In addition to the No-Action Alternative, which consists of continuing to operate the River Water System, this EIS examines one alternative (the Preferred Alternative) to shut down and maintain the River Water System in a standby condition until DOE determines that a standby condition is no longer necessary, and one alternative to shut down and deactivate the River Water System. The document provides background information and introduces the River Water System at the SRS; sets forth the purpose and need for DOE action; describes the alternatives DOE is considering; describes the environment at the SRS and in the surrounding area potentially affected by the alternatives addressed and provides a detailed assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives; and identifies regulatory requirements and evaluates their applicability to the alternatives considered

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix A: River Operation Simulation (ROSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The River Operation Simulation Experts (ROSE) work group is comprised of representatives of the Corps, BPA, Reclamation, NMFS, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC), and Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). ROSE was responsible for using computer hydroregulation models to simulate the operation of the river system for all of the alternatives evaluated in screening and full scale analysis in SOR. These models are complex computer programs which sequentially route streamflows through each dam in the system, calculating the streamflows, reservoir elevations, spill, power generation and other information at each project and pertinent locations on the river system. ROSE first reviewed specifications of proposed alternatives to determine whether such alternatives were formulated adequately to be run on hydroregulation models

  20. Facilities for post-irradiation examination of experimental fuel elements at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizzan, E.; Chenier, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Expansion of post-irradiation facilities at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories and steady improvement in hot-cell techniques and equipment are providing more support to Canada's reactor fuel development program. The hot-cell facility primarily used for examination of experimental fuels averages a quarterly throughput of 40 elements and 110 metallographic specimens. New developments in ultrasonic testing, metallographic sample preparation, active storage, active waste filtration, and fissile accountability are coming into use to increase the efficiency and safety of hot-cell operations. (author)

  1. Concentration factors of stable elements and radionuclides in Po river fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilli, M.; Ciceri, G.; Bozzani, A.; Guzzi, L.; Queirazza, G.

    1988-01-01

    The concentration factors (CF) of stable Co, Cs, Mn, Fe, Zn and Sr in different fish from six stretches in the middle course of the Po river (N. Italy) have been investigated. The space-time variation in water has been followed for 14 months. The investigation has been undertaken to study CF variations in the same fish species as a function of the physico-chemical form of the different elements in water (dissolved, dissolved and exchangeable fraction of the particulate, total). CF values of 103 Ru, 131 I and 134 - 137 Cs were also investigated for Cyprinus carpio reared, with artificial food, in two semi-natural environments

  2. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the lower Snake River Basin. Whole-body composite samples of suckers and carp from seven sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds; liver samples were analyzed for trace elements. Fillets from selected sportfish were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Bed-sediment samples from three sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Twelve different organochlorine compounds were detected in 14 fish-tissue samples. All fish-tissue samples contained DDT or its metabolites. Concentrations of total DDT ranged from 11 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in fillets of yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 3,633 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Total DDT concentrations in whole-body samples of sucker and carp from the Snake River at C.J. Strike Reservoir, Snake River at Swan Falls, Snake River at Nyssa, and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded criteria established for the protection of fish-eating wildlife. Total PCB concentrations in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River also exceeded fish-eating wildlife criteria. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in whole-body samples, in general, were larger than concentrations in sportfish fillets. However, concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in fillets of channel catfish from the Snake River at Nyssa and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River, and concentrations of total DDT in fillets of smallmouth bass and white crappie from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded a cancer risk screening value of 10-6 established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment were smaller than concentrations in fish tissue. Concentrations of p,p'DDE, the only compound detected

  3. Source Identification and Apportionment of Trace Elements in Soils in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shuai; Hu, Bifeng; Fu, Zhiyi; Wang, Jiayu; Lou, Ge; Zhou, Yue; Jin, Bin; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2018-06-12

    Trace elements pollution has attracted a lot of attention worldwide. However, it is difficult to identify and apportion the sources of multiple element pollutants over large areas because of the considerable spatial complexity and variability in the distribution of trace elements in soil. In this study, we collected total of 2051 topsoil (0⁻20 cm) samples, and analyzed the general pollution status of soils from the Yangtze River Delta, Southeast China. We applied principal component analysis (PCA), a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM), and geostatistical tools to identify and quantitatively apportion the sources of seven kinds of trace elements (chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As)) in soil. The PCA results indicated that the trace elements in soil in the study area were mainly from natural, multi-pollutant and industrial sources. The FMDM also fitted three sub log-normal distributions. The results from the two models were quite similar: Cr, As, and Ni were mainly from natural sources caused by parent material weathering; Cd, Cu, and Zu were mainly from mixed sources, with a considerable portion from anthropogenic activities such as traffic pollutants, domestic garbage, and agricultural inputs, and Hg was mainly from industrial wastes and pollutants.

  4. Reliability evaluation of the Savannah River reactor leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Sindelar, R.L.; Wallace, I.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Reactors have been in operation since the mid-1950's. The primary degradation mode for the primary coolant loop piping is intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The leak-before-break (LBB) capability of the primary system piping has been demonstrated as part of an overall structural integrity evaluation. One element of the LBB analyses is a reliability evaluation of the leak detection system. The most sensitive element of the leak detection system is the airborne tritium monitors. The presence of small amounts of tritium in the heavy water coolant provide the basis for a very sensitive system of leak detection. The reliability of the tritium monitors to properly identify a crack leaking at a rate of either 50 or 300 lb/day (0.004 or 0.023 gpm, respectively) has been characterized. These leak rates correspond to action points for which specific operator actions are required. High reliability has been demonstrated using standard fault tree techniques. The probability of not detecting a leak within an assumed mission time of 24 hours is estimated to be approximately 5 x 10 -5 per demand. This result is obtained for both leak rates considered. The methodology and assumptions used to obtain this result are described in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. A system-theory-based model for monthly river runoff forecasting: model calibration and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available River runoff is not only a crucial part of the global water cycle, but it is also an important source for hydropower and an essential element of water balance. This study presents a system-theory-based model for river runoff forecasting taking the Hailiutu River as a case study. The forecasting model, designed for the Hailiutu watershed, was calibrated and verified by long-term precipitation observation data and groundwater exploitation data from the study area. Additionally, frequency analysis, taken as an optimization technique, was applied to improve prediction accuracy. Following model optimization, the overall relative prediction errors are below 10%. The system-theory-based prediction model is applicable to river runoff forecasting, and following optimization by frequency analysis, the prediction error is acceptable.

  6. An Optimization Waste Load Allocation Model in River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirpoor Daylami, A.; jarihani, A. A.; Aminisola, K.

    2012-04-01

    In many river systems, increasing of the waste discharge leads to increasing pollution of these water bodies. While the capacity of the river flow for pollution acceptance is limited and the ability of river to clean itself is restricted, the dischargers have to release their waste into the river after a primary pollution treatment process. Waste Load Allocation as a well-known water quality control strategy is used to determine the optimal pollutant removal at a number of point sources along the river. This paper aim at developing a new approach for treatment and management of wastewater inputs into the river systems, such that water quality standards in these receiving waters are met. In this study, inspired by the fact that cooperation among some single point source waste dischargers can lead to a more waste acceptance capacity and/or more optimum quality control in a river, an efficient approach was implemented to determine both primary waste water treatment levels and/or the best releasing points of the waste into the river. In this methodology, a genetic algorithm is used as an optimization tool to calculate optimal fraction removal levels of each one of single or shared discharger. Besides, a sub-model embedded to optimization model was used to simulate water quality of the river in each one of discharging scenarios based on the modified Streeter and Phelps quality equations. The practical application of the model is illustrated with a case study of the Gharesoo river system in west of Iran.

  7. Actinide, Elemental, and Fission Product Measurements by ICPMS at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovo, L.L.; Waller, P.R.; Clymire, J.; Jones, V.D.; Boyce, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    VG Elemental Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICPMS), PlasmaQuad 1 (PQ1) Model No. 4, installed in a radiohood, is used by the Savannah River Technology Center to provide non-routine mass measurements for environmental monitoring, waste tank characterization studies, isotope ratios for criticality determinations, and the measurement of elemental, fission product, and actinide mass distributions of the glass product from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Modifications to improve instrument reliability, sample preparation, and data handling, as well as modifications to the laboratory that permit measurements in a radioactive environment will be discussed. Based on our operating experience, two laboratory facilities are being prepared for additional instruments to operate in a radioactive environment. A separate instrument is being installed for non-radioactive measurements and method development

  8. Piracicaba River Basin: evaluation of chemical elements in deep sediment profile by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Elvis J. de; Santos, Robson A.; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva, Gleyce K. A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (DIAMB/CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div, de Monitoração Ambiental; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Many hydrographic basins have been impacted by anthropogenic sources, the Piracicaba River Basin of the State of São Paulo, is one of that. The total concentrations of chemical elements in deep sediments of basin may be indicate those available in ecosystem. Therefore, in this research concentration of chemical elements on deep sediment profile sampled of Piracicaba River Basin was determined by k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After collecting the 60 cm depth profile, samples were obtained by sectioning the sediment profile in 5 cm layers, totalizing 12 samples. Analytical portions were transferred to polyethylene vials for neutron irradiation at the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN. After waiting for radiation safe levels, irradiated samples were transported to the Radioisotopes Laboratory from the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA/USP. High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry using HPGe detectors was applied to measure the induced radioactivity. The chemical element mass fractions and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties (95% confidence level) were determined by k0-INAA using the in-house software Quantu. Geological reference materials were analyzed with samples to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. Results indicated the presence of enriched surface sediments (0-10 cm depth) for As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Sb, Sc, Sr, Yb and Zn, despite no alteration was observed for Eu, Ta and Tb. Therefore, the evaluation of deep sediment profile afford the chemical element dynamics for the Piracicaba Basin. (author)

  9. Piracicaba River Basin: evaluation of chemical elements in deep sediment profile by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J. de; Santos, Robson A.; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva, Gleyce K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Many hydrographic basins have been impacted by anthropogenic sources, the Piracicaba River Basin of the State of São Paulo, is one of that. The total concentrations of chemical elements in deep sediments of basin may be indicate those available in ecosystem. Therefore, in this research concentration of chemical elements on deep sediment profile sampled of Piracicaba River Basin was determined by k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After collecting the 60 cm depth profile, samples were obtained by sectioning the sediment profile in 5 cm layers, totalizing 12 samples. Analytical portions were transferred to polyethylene vials for neutron irradiation at the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN. After waiting for radiation safe levels, irradiated samples were transported to the Radioisotopes Laboratory from the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA/USP. High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry using HPGe detectors was applied to measure the induced radioactivity. The chemical element mass fractions and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties (95% confidence level) were determined by k0-INAA using the in-house software Quantu. Geological reference materials were analyzed with samples to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. Results indicated the presence of enriched surface sediments (0-10 cm depth) for As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Sb, Sc, Sr, Yb and Zn, despite no alteration was observed for Eu, Ta and Tb. Therefore, the evaluation of deep sediment profile afford the chemical element dynamics for the Piracicaba Basin. (author)

  10. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  11. Upgraded HFIR Fuel Element Welding System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The welding of aluminum-clad fuel plates into aluminum alloy 6061 side plate tubing is a unique design feature of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies as 101 full-penetration circumferential gas metal arc welds (GMAW) are required in the fabrication of each assembly. In a HFIR fuel assembly, 540 aluminum-clad fuel plates are assembled into two nested annular fuel elements 610 mm (24-inches) long. The welding process for the HFIR fuel elements was developed in the early 1960 s and about 450 HFIR fuel assemblies have been successfully welded using the GMAW process qualified in the 1960 s. In recent years because of the degradation of the electronic and mechanical components in the old HFIR welding system, reportable defects in plate attachment or adapter welds have been present in almost all completed fuel assemblies. In October 2008, a contract was awarded to AMET, Inc., of Rexburg, Idaho, to replace the old welding equipment with standard commercially available welding components to the maximum extent possible while maintaining the qualified HFIR welding process. The upgraded HFIR welding system represents a major improvement in the welding system used in welding HFIR fuel elements for the previous 40 years. In this upgrade, the new inner GMAW torch is a significant advancement over the original inner GMAW torch previously used. The innovative breakthrough in the new inner welding torch design is the way the direction of the cast in the 0.762 mm (0.030-inch) diameter aluminum weld wire is changed so that the weld wire emerging from the contact tip is straight in the plane perpendicular to the welding direction without creating any significant drag resistance in the feeding of the weld wire.

  12. System design description for the whole element furnace testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; King, D.A.

    1998-05-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying testing of whole N-Reactor fuel elements, which were sampled from the 105-K East and K West Basins. The proposed drying processes are intended to allow dry storage of the SNF for long periods of time. The furnace testing system is used to evaluate these processes by simulating drying sequences with a single fuel element and measuring key system parameters such as internal pressures, temperatures, moisture levels, and off-gas composition

  13. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data for 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The 226 Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that 226 Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River

  14. Trace and major elements in rock samples from Itingussu River Basin, Coroa-Grande, Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araripe, D.R.; Patchineelam, S.R.; Bellido, A.V.B.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to determine the concentration of 23 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis in rock samples from the vicinity of Itingussu River, in order to investigate the contribution of trace and major elements from the local lithology to the river basin. The Itingussu River Basin ends in a mangrove area not yet largely impacted by antropogenic activities. So far, there are no data for the concentration of trace elements in that region, even though these data are important to the understanding of the influence of the rocks on the composition of the mangrove sediments. The results showed some enrichment of Th and some light rare earths, probably because of the presence of the mineral allanite and other accessory minerals, as identified by petrographic analysis. (author)

  15. Major ions, nutrients, and trace elements in the Mississippi River near Thebes, Illinois, July through September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Brinton, Terry I.; Roth, David A.; Moody, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive flooding in the upper Mississippi River Basin during summer 1993 had a significant effect on the water quality of the Mississippi River. To evaluate the change in temporal distribution and transport of dissolved constituents in the Mississippi River, six water samples were collected by a discharge-weighted method from July through September 1993 near Thebes, Illinois. Sampling at this location provided water-quality information from the upper Mississippi, the Missouri, and the Illinois River Basins. Dissolved major constituents that were analyzed in each of the samples included bicarbonate, calcium (Ca), carbonate (C03), chloride (Cl), dissolved organic carbon, magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), silica NOD, sodium (Na), and sulfate (S04). Dissolved nutrients included ammonium ion (NH4), nitrate (N03), nitrite (N02), and orthophosphate (P04) . Dissolved trace elements included aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), beryllium (Be), bromide (Br), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt, (Co), copper (Cu), fluoride (F), iron (Fe), lead, lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr), thallium, uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Other physical properties of water that were measured included specific conductance, pH and suspended-sediment concentration (particle size, less than 63 micrometers). Results of this study indicated that large quantities of dissolved constituents were transported through the river system. Generally, pH, alkalinity, and specific conductance and the concentrations of B, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Na, S04, Sr, U, and V increased as water discharge decreased, while concentrations of F, Hg, and suspended sediment sharply decreased as water discharge decreased after the crest of the flood. Concentrations of other constituents, such as Al, As, Ba, Be, Co, Cu, Ni, N03, N02, NH4, P04, and Si02, varied with time as discharge decreased after the crest of the flood. For most constituents

  16. A compilation of silicon, rare earth element and twenty-one other trace element concentrations in the natural river water reference material SLRS-5 (NRC-CNRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeghicheyan, Delphine; Cloquet, Christophe; Bossy, Cecile; Bouhnik Le Coz, Martine; Douchet, Chantal; Granier, Guy; Heimburger, Alexie; Losno, Remi; Lacan, Francois; Labatut, Marie; Pradoux, Catherine; Lanzanova, Aurelie; Candaudap, Frederic; Chmeleff, Jerome; Rousseau, Tristan C.C.; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Delpoux, Sophie; Tharaud, Mickael; Sivry, Yann; Sonke, Jeroen E.

    2013-01-01

    The natural river water certified reference material SLRS-5 (NRC-CNRC) was routinely analysed in this study for major and trace elements by ten French laboratories. Most of the measurements were made using ICP-MS. Because no certified values are assigned by NRC-CNRC for silicon and 35 trace element concentrations (rare earth elements, Ag, B, Bi, Cs, Ga, Ge, Li, Nb, P, Rb, Rh, Re, S, Sc, Sn, Th, Ti, Tl, W, Y and Zr), or for isotopic ratios, we provide a compilation of the concentrations and related uncertainties obtained by the participating laboratories. Strontium isotopic ratios are also given. (authors)

  17. Assessment of importance of elements for systems that condition depends on the sequence of elements failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povyakalo, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes new general formulas for calculation of indices of elements importance for systems whose condition depends on sequence of elements failures. These systems have been called as systems with memory of failures (M-systems). Techniques existing for assessment of importance of elements are based on the Bool's models of system reliability, for which it is significant to suggest, that in every period of time system state depends only on a combination of states of elements at that very moment of time. These systems have been called as combinational systems (C-systems). Reliability of M-systems at any moment of operating time is a functional having distributions of elements time before failure as its arguments. Bool's models and methods of assessment of element importance, based on these models, are not appropriate for these systems. Pereguda and Povyakalo proposed the new techniques for assessment of elements importance for PO-SS systems that includes Protection Object (PO) and Safety System (PO). PO-SS system is an example of M-system. That technique is used at this paper as a basis for more general consideration. It has been shown that technique proposed for assessment of elements importance for M-systems has well-known Birnbaum's method as its particular case. Also the system with double protection is considered as an example

  18. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  19. Utilization of Neutron Activation Analysis for geochemical study of major and trace elements in Bouregreg river basin (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounouira, H.; Bounakhla, M.; Embarch, K.; Choukri, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.; Treuil, M.; Chakiri, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Bouregreg river basin is located in the moroccan central massif which consists mainly of palaeozoic formations that were subject to the Hercynian orogeny. This study documents the backround geochemistry and hydrochemistry of the Bouregreg river basin, focusing on the distribution of major and trace elements, Rock samples were collected at 9 locations along the bouregreg river and its tributaries in the winter of 2005. Major (Al, fe, Mn, Na, K and Ti) and trace (Rb, Cs, Sr, Sc, Ba, Cr, V, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Sb, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Mo, Th and U) elements were anlysed using instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Data show that most of the geochemistry and hydrochemistry are related to regional and local geology. the geochemical heritage of geological environment in the Bouregreg river basin is very important, that results from the more compatible behaviour and the inertia of some elements during the weathering (3d transition elements (Co, Ni, Cr,...), interne transition elements f (lanthanides, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta,...)). The geochemical homogeneity of the basin shows also heritage during the crustal accretion (magmatism-metamorphism-sedimention) and the typology of this continental area is the same that the Upper Continental Crust (UCC). Some anomalously high heavy metal analyses, particulary for As and Sb, may be related to anthropogenic activities

  20. Preliminary checklists for applying SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation to rivers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first steps in gathering biological data to assess the conservation value of rivers in Serbia, using SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation. SERCON was developed in the UK to improve consistency in assessments of river ‘quality’ by using a scoring system to evaluate habitat features and species groups, catchment characteristics, and the potential impacts to which river systems may be subjected. This paper provides checklists for aquatic, semiaquatic and marginal plants, macroinvertebrates, fish and birds associated with rivers in Serbia, collated from a wide range of published and unpublished sources. These lists should be regarded as provisional because few wide-ranging biological surveys have been carried out specifically on Serbian rivers; further revisions are likely as more information becomes available in future. Ultimately, the work will benefit regulators and decision-makers with responsibility for river management under the new Water Law, and contribute to river protection and conservation in Serbia. [Acknowledgments. The hydromorphology dataset was prepared for the project ‘Biosensing Technologies and Global System for Long-Term Research and Integrated Management of Ecosystems’ (Biosensing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirana istraživanja i integrisano upravljanje ekosistema III 043002 grant, while the biodiversity dataset was prepared the project Plant biodiversity of Serbia and the Balkans – assessment, sustainable use and protection (Biodiverzitet biljnog sveta Srbije i Balkanskog poluostrva – procena, održivo korišćenje i zaštita 173030 Grant, supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia

  1. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  2. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayzoun, H. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); LIMOM, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Dhar El Mehraz B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fès 30000 (Morocco); Garnier, C., E-mail: cgarnier@univ-tln.fr [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); Durrieu, G.; Lenoble, V.; Le Poupon, C. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); Angeletti, B. [Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement de Géosciences de l' Environnement UMR 6635 CNRS — Aix-Marseille Université, FR ECCOREV, Europôle Méditerranéen de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Ouammou, A. [LIMOM, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Dhar El Mehraz B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fès 30000 (Morocco); Mounier, S. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France)

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. - Highlights: • Pristine status of the Sebou River, Morrocco's main river, upstream Fez (1 M inhabitants) • The Fez River collecting Fez's urban/industrial wastewaters is heavily polluted. • The Fez discharge into the Sebou induces an increase of contaminant levels. • Change in partitioning and chemical speciation of

  3. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayzoun, H.; Garnier, C.; Durrieu, G.; Lenoble, V.; Le Poupon, C.; Angeletti, B.; Ouammou, A.; Mounier, S.

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. - Highlights: • Pristine status of the Sebou River, Morrocco's main river, upstream Fez (1 M inhabitants) • The Fez River collecting Fez's urban/industrial wastewaters is heavily polluted. • The Fez discharge into the Sebou induces an increase of contaminant levels. • Change in partitioning and chemical speciation of

  4. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieliński, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.zielinski@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Dopieralska, Jolanta, E-mail: dopieralska@amu.edu.pl [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland); Belka, Zdzislaw, E-mail: zbelka@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Walczak, Aleksandra, E-mail: awalczak@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Siepak, Marcin, E-mail: siep@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Maków Polnych 16, 61-606 Poznań (Poland); Jakubowicz, Michal, E-mail: mjakub@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values around 0.7104–0.7105. Variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32 mg/L. We find that strong variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the “baseline” for bioavailable {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in the past. - Highlights: • Sr isotopes fingerprint water sources and their interactions in a complex river system. • Mine waters and fertilizers are critical anthropogenic additions in the river water. • Limited usage of environmental isotopic data in archeological studies. • Sr budget of the river is dynamic and temporary.

  5. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  6. Contamination and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediments of the rivers of Sundarban mangrove forest, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Al-Mamun, A; Hossain, F; Quraishi, S B; Naher, K; Khan, R; Das, S; Tamim, U; Hossain, S M; Nahid, F

    2017-11-15

    In this study, total concentrations of 16 trace elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, Pb, Th and U) in sediments of the rivers of the Sundarban mangrove forest, after the catastrophic oil spill accident in the Sela river of Sundarban, were determined. The overall mean concentrations of V, Cr, Fe and Cd in surface sediments of the Sundarban are remarkably higher than available literature data of those elements. Trace element contamination assessment, using different environmental contamination indices, reveals that As, Sb, Th and U are low to moderately contaminated while Cd is moderately to severely contaminated in the sediments of this area. The multivariate statistical analyses were applied to reveal the origin and behavior of the elements during their transport in the mangrove ecosystem. High Cr, Ni, Cu and As concentrations suggest the risk of potentially adverse biological effects in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM, TRACKING AND SUPPORT FOR VESSELS ON RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMOILESCU Gheorghe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the program COMPRIS (Consortium Operational Management Platform River Information Services, AIS (Automatic Identification System, RIS (River Information Services have compiled a reference model based on the perspective of navigation on the river with related information services. This paper presents a tracking and monitoring surveillance system necessary for assistance of each ship sailing in an area of interest. It shows the operating principle of the composition and role of each equipment. Transferring data to traffic monitoring authority is part of this work.

  8. Identification and apportionment of hazardous elements in the sediments in the Yangtze River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Liu, Ruimin; Wang, Haotian; Yu, Wenwen; Xu, Fei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2015-12-01

    In this study, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal components analysis (PCA) were combined to identify and apportion pollution-based sources of hazardous elements in the surface sediments in the Yangtze River estuary (YRE). Source identification analysis indicated that PC1, including Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, As, Cu, and Zn, can be defined as a sewage component; PC2, including Pb and Sb, can be considered as an atmospheric deposition component; and PC3, containing Cd and Hg, can be considered as an agricultural nonpoint component. To better identify the sources and quantitatively apportion the concentrations to their sources, eight sources were identified with PMF: agricultural/industrial sewage mixed (18.6 %), mining wastewater (15.9 %), agricultural fertilizer (14.5 %), atmospheric deposition (12.8 %), agricultural nonpoint (10.6 %), industrial wastewater (9.8 %), marine activity (9.0 %), and nickel plating industry (8.8 %). Overall, the hazardous element content seems to be more connected to anthropogenic activity instead of natural sources. The PCA results laid the foundation for the PMF analysis by providing a general classification of sources. PMF resolves more factors with a higher explained variance than PCA; PMF provided both the internal analysis and the quantitative analysis. The combination of the two methods can provide more reasonable and reliable results.

  9. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almli, Bjorn [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: bjorn.almli@vetinst.no; Mwase, Maxwell [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Sivertsen, Tore [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Musonda, Mike [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Flaoyen, Arne [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2005-01-20

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 {mu}g As/g and below 0.16 {mu}g Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 {mu}g Hg/g, and up to 8.7 {mu}g Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians.

  10. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in the mainstream of the Yangtze River, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Zhang, S.; Wang, L.; Zhang, C.

    1998-01-01

    Water, suspended matter, and sediment samples were taken from 8 locations along the Yangtze River in 1992. The concentration and speciation (exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual forms) of rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA).The contents of the soluble fraction of REEs in the river are low, and REEs mainly reside in particulate form. In the particles, the chondrite-normalized distribution patterns show significant LREE enrichment and Eu-depletion. While normalized to shales, both sediments and suspended matter samples show relative LREE enrichment and HREE depletion. REEs are relatively enriched in fine-grained fractions of the sediments.exchangeable. About 65 to 85% of REEs in the particles exist in the residual form, and the exchangeable form is very low. High proportions of residual REEs reveal that REEs in sediments and suspended matter are controlled by their abundances in the earth's crust. Carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide and organic fractions of REEs in sediments account for 2.4-6.9%, 5.2-11.1%, and 7.3-14.0% of the total contents respectively. They are similar to those in the suspended matter. This shows that carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides and organic matter play important roles during the particle-water interaction processes. By normalization to shales, the 3 forms of REEs follow convex shapes according to atomic number with middle REE (Sm, Eu, and Tb) enrichment, while light REE and heavy REE are depleted. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Kyiv Small Rivers in Metropolis Water Objects System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krelshteyn, P.; Dubnytska, M.

    2017-12-01

    The article answers the question, what really are the small underground rivers with artificial watercourses: water bodies or city engineering infrastructure objects? The place of such rivers in metropolis water objects system is identified. The ecological state and the degree of urbanization of small rivers, as well as the dynamics of change in these indicators are analysed on the Kiev city example with the help of water objects cadastre. It was found that the registration of small rivers in Kyiv city is not conducted, and the summary information on such water objects is absent and is not taken into account when making managerial decisions at the urban level. To solve this problem, we propose to create some water bodies accounting system (water cadastre).

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  13. Consideration upon the River system in the north of the Suceava tableland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu OPREA-GANCEVICI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paleoevolution of the river system in the Moldavian Tableland has undergone at a theoretical level two successive hypothetical directions. The former direction, formulated in the first half of the XXth century, alleges the existence of a river system, with a transverse character, that prolonged to the east the Carpathian river systems. Specialists of this theory, Tufescu V. (1932, M. David (1933, quoted by V. Bacauanu - 1973 and Gheorghe Nastase (1946, quoted by V. Bacauanu - 1973 based their design on the presence of horizons of gravels with Carpathian elements on some interfluves to the east of the Siret valley, and the existence of some saddles, Loznica, Bucecea and Ruginoasa, located on the left side of the same river. The latter direction, diametrically opposite, supports the idea of evolution of the river system consecutively with the Sarmato-Pliocene Sea pulling back to the south. The hypothesis is supported and substantiated by I. Sîrcu (1955, C. Martiniuc and V. Bacauanu (1960, V. Bacauanu (1968, 1973. In this context it is considered that the Prut and Siret rivers carved the oldest valleys in the tableland. The authors explain the erosional genesis of the saddles arguing their inability to create transversal rivers on the basis of continuity upstream and downstream the saddles of terrace levels with relatively high altitudes, which proves the flow continuity on consequent valleys. The research carried out along the Suceava river valley and the immediate interstream area in order to create a scenario of the valley paleoevolution highlighted the presence of crystalline lithotopes in the petrographic structure of the accumulation deposits. The presence of such petrographic elements contradicts the present-day alluvia sources of the rivers that could have transported them:  Suceava or its tributaries Solonet, Ilisasca, Scheia. The rivers spring either from the Carpathian flysch or from the former area of platform sedimentation. We

  14. Long-term changes in river system hydrology in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and human actives are recognized as a topical issue that change long-term water budget, flow-frequency, and storage-frequency characteristics of different river systems. Texas is characterized by extreme hydrologic variability both spatially and temporally. Meanwhile, population and economic growth and accompanying water resources development projects have greatly impacted river flows throughout Texas. The relative effects of climate change, water resources development, water use, and other factors on long-term changes in river flow, reservoir storage, evaporation, water use, and other components of the water budgets of different river basins of Texas have been simulated in this research using the monthly version of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP modelling system with input databases sets from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ and Texas Water Development Board (TWDB. The results show that long-term changes are minimal from analysis monthly precipitation depths. Evaporation rates vary greatly seasonally and for much of the state appear to have a gradually upward trend. River/reservoir system water budgets and river flow characteristics have changed significantly during the past 75 years in response to water resources development and use.

  15. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rivers State has been reported to have the highest HIV prevalence of all the thirty-six states in Nigeria. HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the surveillance system is vital in ensuring that the purpose of the surveillance system is being met.

  16. Assessment of denitrification process in lower Ishikari river system, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pawan Kumar; Minagawa, Masao

    2013-11-01

    Sediment denitrification rate and its role in removal of dissolved nitrate load in lower Ishikari river system were examined. Denitrification rate were measured using acetylene inhibition technique on the sediment samples collected during August 2009-July 2010. The denitrification rate varied from 0.001 to 1.9 μg Ng(-1) DM h(-1) with an average value of 0.21 μg Ng(-1) DM h(-1) in lower Ishikari river system. Denitrification rate showed positive correlation with dissolved nitrate concentration in the river basin, indicating overlying water column supplied nitrate for the sediment denitrification processes. Nutrient enrichment experiments result showed that denitrification rate increased significantly with addition of nitrate in case of samples collected from Barato Lake however no such increase was observed in the samples collected from Ishikari river main channel and its major tributaries indicating that factors other than substrate concentration such as population of denitrifier and hydrological properties of stream channel including channel depth and flow velocity may affects the denitrification rate in lower Ishikari river system. Denitrification rate showed no significant increase with the addition of labile carbon (glucose), indicating that sediment samples had sufficient organic matter to sustain denitrification activity. The result of nutrient spiraling model indicates that in- stream denitrification process removes on an average 5%d(-1) of dissolve nitrate load in Ishikari river. This study was carried out to fill the gap present in the availability of riverine denitrification rate measurement and its role in nitrogen budget from Japanese rivers characterize by small river length and high flow rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930's, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D'Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  19. Pb isotope evidence for contaminant-metal dispersal in an international river system: The lower Danube catchment, Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Nikolova, Mariyana; Kotsev, Tsvetan; Mollov, Mihail; Swain, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Lead isotope signatures ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb), determined by magnetic sector ICP-MS in river channel sediment, metal ores and mine waste, have been used as geochemical tracers to quantify the delivery and dispersal of sediment-associated metals in the lower Danube River catchment. Due to a diverse geology and range of ore-body ages, Pb isotope signatures in ore-bodies within the lower Danube River catchment show considerable variation, even within individual metallogenic zones. It is also possible to discriminate between the Pb isotopic signatures in mine waste and river sediment within river systems draining individual ore bodies. Lead isotopic data, along with multi-element data; were used to establish the provenance of river sediments and quantify sedimentary contributions to mining-affected tributaries and to the Danube River. Data indicate that mining-affected tributaries in Serbia and Bulgaria contribute up to 30% of the river channel sediment load of the lower Danube River. Quantifying relative sediment contributions from mining-affected tributaries enables spatial patterns in sediment-associated metal and As concentrations to be interpreted in terms of key contaminant sources. Combining geochemical survey data with that regarding the provenance of contaminated sediments can therefore be used to identify foci for remediation and environmental management strategies.

  20. Determination of trace elements in the reproduction systems of some rare animals using pixe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suqing, Chen; Nengming, Wang; Jianxuan, Chen; Dazhong, Zhang

    In order to search for the significance of artificial feeding, reproduction and heredity, trace elements in the reproductive systems of some rare animals, including giant panda, lesser panda, marmot and river deer, have been determined. Typcial X-ray spectra of various samples are given. The elemental contents in ovary and testis of the giant panda and the lesser panda are calculated by means of yttrium as an internal standard. Elemental relative concentrations are calculated from peak areas in the spectra for thick samples. It is found that for the concentration of the elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As in the ovary there exist no significant different between the giant panda and the lesser panda. The concentration of Zn, however, shows a remakable difference. The importance of zinc in biological processes is discussed.

  1. Impact of new computing systems on finite element computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, A.K.; Fulton, R.E.; Storaasi, O.O.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in computer technology that are likely to impact finite element computations are reviewed. The characteristics of supersystems, highly parallel systems, and small systems (mini and microcomputers) are summarized. The interrelations of numerical algorithms and software with parallel architectures are discussed. A scenario is presented for future hardware/software environment and finite element systems. A number of research areas which have high potential for improving the effectiveness of finite element analysis in the new environment are identified

  2. An advanced modelling tool for simulating complex river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancoso, Ana Rosa; Braunschweig, Frank; Chambel Leitão, Pedro; Obermann, Matthias; Neves, Ramiro

    2009-04-01

    The present paper describes MOHID River Network (MRN), a 1D hydrodynamic model for river networks as part of MOHID Water Modelling System, which is a modular system for the simulation of water bodies (hydrodynamics and water constituents). MRN is capable of simulating water quality in the aquatic and benthic phase and its development was especially focused on the reproduction of processes occurring in temporary river networks (flush events, pools formation, and transmission losses). Further, unlike many other models, it allows the quantification of settled materials at the channel bed also over periods when the river falls dry. These features are very important to secure mass conservation in highly varying flows of temporary rivers. The water quality models existing in MOHID are base on well-known ecological models, such as WASP and ERSEM, the latter allowing explicit parameterization of C, N, P, Si, and O cycles. MRN can be coupled to the basin model, MOHID Land, with computes runoff and porous media transport, allowing for the dynamic exchange of water and materials between the river and surroundings, or it can be used as a standalone model, receiving discharges at any specified nodes (ASCII files of time series with arbitrary time step). These features account for spatial gradients in precipitation which can be significant in Mediterranean-like basins. An interface has been already developed for SWAT basin model.

  3. PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATION OF VIBRATION INFLUENCE ON SENSITIVE SYSTEM ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to an estimation of vibration influence on sensitive system elements. Dependences of intensity and probability of a process exit characterizing a condition of a system element for the preset range that allow to estimate serviceability and no-failure operation of the system have been obtained analytically in the paper

  4. Application of a Sediment Information System to the Three Gorges Project on Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyou; Liu, Xingnian; Yang, Kejun; Li, Changzhi

    Based on survey and analysis of a huge number of observed entrance sediment transport data and the research results of physical and numerical modeling of Three Gorges Reservoir on the Yangtze River, a sediment information system was designed. The basis of this system includes spatial data and properties of geographic elements, and various documents involved to the Three Gorges Project (TGP). Database and knowledge base are constructed as the information bank. The running environment is constructed by the general control program to realize requirements about various sediment information. The system chooses the window software as the system software. The techniques of graphical user interfaces and groupware geographic information system are applied in this system. In this phase, the emphases of the system are development of document system, map system, and presentation system. Cross-section system of the TGP was also attached. For further improvement of the system, a prepared interface of decision supporting subsystem is finished.

  5. Standard criteria for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants into surface waters (river systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, V.V.; Tsybizov, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive products discharge into natural water streams results in the necessity to regulate nuclear power plant discharges to ensure radiation safety (RS) for population using a river and surrounding river territory. To ensure RS it is necessary to set scientific-founded standards of permissible discharge level of liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) from nuclear power plant assuring observance of hygienic requirements for surface water puring. Volume of permissible LRW discharge into river systems must be set both with provision for concrete physical-geographycal conditions, specficity of utilizing the river and river valley and social-economical peculiarities of crtical population groups. The value of permissible LRW discharge into river systems is determined by three criterion groups: radiological, ecological and hydrological ones. By means of radiological group the internal and external irradiation doses for the whole body and its separate organs are set and RS of population is determined. Ecological criteria include a number of parameters (coefficients of accumulation, distribution and transition) determining quantitative ratios between radioactive element contents in water and separate links of biological chains: soil/water, fish/water, vegetables/water and others. Hydrological criteria determine the degree of waste dilution in rivers, control radioactive contamination of flood-lands areas and in common with ecological criteria determine radionuclide contents in soil and food products. A method of determining average annual values of LRW dilution in river waters is presented [ru

  6. Hydraulic elements in reduction of vibrations in mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, K.; Buchacz, A.

    2017-08-01

    This work presents non-classical method of design of mechanic systems with subsystem reducing vibrations. The purpose of this paper is also introduces synthesis of mechanic system with reducing vibrations understand as design of this type of systems. The synthesis may be applied to modify the already existing systems in order to achieve a desired result. Elements which reduce vibrations can be constructed with passive, semi-active or active components. These considerations systems have selected active items. A hallmark of active elements it is possible to change the parameters on time of these elements and their power from an external source. The implementation of active elements is very broad. These elements can be implemented through the use of components of electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, etc. The system was consisted from mechanical and hydraulic elements. Hydraulic elements were used as subsystem reducing unwanted vibration of mechanical system. Hydraulic elements can be realized in the form of hydraulic cylinder. In the case of an active vibration reduction in the form of hydraulic cylinder it is very important to find the corresponding values of hydraulic components. The values of these elements affect the frequency of vibrations of this sub-system which is related to the effective vibration reduction [7,11].

  7. Water isotope composition as a tracer for study of mixing processes in rivers. Part II. Determination of mixing degrees in the tributary-main river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, A.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Zimnicki, R.; Ptaszek, S.; Palige, J.; Dobrowolski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Two river-tributary systems have been chosen for the investigation of mixing processes: the Narew River-the Bug River-Zegrzynski Reservoir and the Bugo-Narew River-the Vistula River. In both river systems, several profiles for the water sampling have been selected down to the tributary confluent line. Each sample position has been precisely determined by means of GPS. Then, the δDi have been measured in IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectroscopy). The δD distributions in selected profiles have been presented for both investigated river systems. Presented results will be applied for the verification of the mathematical model for transport and mixing in river systems

  8. Anthropogenic gadolinium anomalies and rare earth elements in the water of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Francisco Ferreira; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), measured in water samples from Atibaia River and its tributary Anhumas Creek, Brazil, present excess of dissolved gadolinium. Such anthropogenic anomalies of Gd in water, already described in other parts of the world, result from the use of stable and soluble Gd chelates as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Atibaia River constitutes the main water supply of Campinas Metropolitan area, and its basin receives wastewater effluents. The REE concentrations in water samples were determined in 0.22-μm pore size filtered samples, without and after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction with bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate. This preconcentration method was unable to retain the anthropogenic Gd quantitatively. The probable reason is that the Gd chelates dissociate slowly in acidic media to produce the free ion that is retained by the phosphate ester. Strong correlations between Gd and constituents or parameters associated with effluents confirmed the source of most Gd in water samples as anthropogenic. The shale-normalized REE patterns of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek water samples showed light and heavy REE enrichment trends, respectively. Also, positive Ce anomalies in many Atibaia River samples, as well as the strong correlations of the REE (except Gd) with terrigenous elements, imply that inorganic colloidal particles contributed to the REE measured values.

  9. Nutrient, suspended sediment, and trace element loads in the Blackstone River Basin in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 2007 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Waldron, Marcus C.; DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients, suspended sediment, and trace element loads in the Blackstone River and selected tributaries were estimated from composite water-quality samples in order to better understand the distribution and sources of these constituents in the river basin. The flow-proportional composite water-quality samples were collected during sequential 2-week periods at six stations along the river’s main stem, at three stations on tributaries, and at four wastewater treatment plants in the Massachusetts segment of the basin from June 2007 to September 2009. Samples were collected at an additional station on the Blackstone River near the mouth in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, from September 2008 to September 2009. The flow-proportional composite samples were used to estimate average daily loads during the sampling periods; annual loads for water years 2008 and 2009 also were estimated for the monitoring station on the Blackstone River near the Massachusetts-Rhode Island border. The effects of hydrologic conditions and net attenuation of nitrogen were investigated for loads in the Massachusetts segment of the basin. Sediment resuspension and contaminant loading dynamics were evaluated in two Blackstone River impoundments, the former Rockdale Pond (a breached impoundment) and Rice City Pond.

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  11. Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: ildorileo@sigmanet.com.br, e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

  12. Trace elements (Rb, Cs, Sr, Pb, Th, U) bioavailability potential and speciation in the Piracicaba river bottom sediments, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Alexandre Martins; Mortatti, Jefferson; Oliveira, Helder de; Bibian, Joao Paulo Rambelli; Moraes, Graziela Meneghel de; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    It was studied the bioavailability potential of Rb, Cs, Sr, Pb, Th and U and their chemical speciation in Piracicaba river bottom sediments. This river system crosses important agricultural and urban areas of Sao Paulo state, which groups about 3 million people and receives a large load of agricultural, industrial and domestic wastes. The procedure used to estimate trace elements bioavailability potential was related to a 7-step sequential chemical extraction. This scheme was designed to dissolved and separate sample chemical phases, which can be affected by changes in physical-chemical conditions; in the following order: water soluble, exchangeable, bound to carbonates or acid fraction, bound to Mn-oxides, bound to Fe-oxides and bound to organic matter. Trace element concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) after each extraction step. With the used extraction procedure, it was possible to identify the fraction where some trace elements could be found in order to evaluate their bioavailability potential. Rb and Cs were particularly involved with the organic fraction, while Sr revealed to be associated mainly to the exchangeable fraction (clay minerals). Pb, Th and U were mainly bound to the residual and Fe-oxide fractions. (author)

  13. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon Intan Mastura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  14. Sedimentation and contamination patterns of dike systems along the Rhône River (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seignemartin, Gabrielle; Tena, Alvaro; Piégay, Hervé; Roux, Gwenaelle; Winiarski, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Humans have historically modified the Rhône River, especially in the last centuries. In the 19th century, the river was systematically embanked for flood protection purposes, and works continued along the 20th century with dike system engineering work for navigation. The Rhône was canalised and its historical course by-passed by a series of hydroelectric dams. Besides, industrial activity polluted the river. For example, high levels of PCB's were attributed to the inputs of the heavily industrialized zone downstream from Lyon. During floods, these contaminants, associated with the suspended sediment, were trapped by the engineering works and the floodplain. Currently, a master plan to reactivate the river dynamics in the alluvial margins by removing the groyne-fields and dikes in the by-passed sections is being implemented. Within this context, this work aims to assess historical dynamics of sediment and associated contaminants in the floodplain (e.g. trace metal elements), notably in the dike system, in order to evaluate the contamination risk related to bank protection removal. With this objective, a transversal methodology has been applied coupling GIS diachronic analysis (old maps, bathymetric data, Orthophotos, LIDAR, etc.) to understand the historical floodplain evolution, sediment survey to obtain sediment thickness (metal rod and Ground Penetrating Radar), and sediment sampling (manual auger and core sampling) to obtain the metal element concentrations (X-Ray Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). By this way, metal element patterns were defined and used as contamination tracing indicators to apprehend the contamination history but also as geochemical background indicators to define the sediment source influence. We found that sediment temporal patterns are directly related with the by-pass construction year. Spatially, fine sediment deposition predominates in the dike systems, being lower in the floodplain already disconnected in

  15. Trace element analytics and multivariate statistics for investigation and assessment of the pollution situation in rivers; Elementspurenanalytik und multivariate Statistik zur Untersuchung und Bewertung des Belastungszustandes von Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulinger, A.M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2002-07-01

    In order to describe and assess the element distribution and the trend of the pollution in sediments, particulate suspended matter and dissolved matter of the river Elbe more than 60 elements were determined in several sampling campaigns along the entire river during the nineties. By analyzing the resulting data with two- and multi-way principal components analysis geogenic and anthropogenically influenced elements were distinguished and typical longitudinal profiles concerning geogenic or anthropogenic characteristics were summarized. Sampling locations having similiar element distribution patterns were aggregated to characteristic Elbe sections by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The temporal trend of the pollution within the different sections was quantified by comparing the mean concentrations of the anthropogenically influenced elements. Two- and Three-way PLS regression models were applied to predict element concentrations in one certain river compartment from measured concentrations in one or two different compartments. (orig.)

  16. Long-term Records of Trace Metal Elements in Core Sediments: Anthropogenic Impacts in The Eure River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardes, T.; Debret, M.; Copard, Y.; Patault, E.; Deloffre, J.; Marcotte, S.; Develle, A. L.; Sabatier, P.; Chaumillon, E.; Coulombier, T.; Revillon, S.; Nizou, J.; Laberdesque, Y.; Koltalo, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Martot Dam is located in the Eure River Watershed (Normandy, France), few hundred meters upstream the Eure-Seine Rivers confluence. In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the French Authorities planned to remove this dam in 2017. Nevertheless, impacts of the removal remain poorly studied. Classically, dam blocked sedimentary transfers downstream, but here, sediments are not blocked behind the dam but stored three hundred meters upstream in a hydraulic annex, called the Martot Pond. Furthermore, this pond is submitted to the tidal flow from the Seine Estuary despite the Martot Dam. The aim of the study is to evaluate the dam removal impacts on sedimentary transfers and re-suspension of contaminated sediments stored in the Martot Pond and the Eure River's channel. Concerning past transfers and sediments accumulation in the Eure River Watershed, sedimentary archives have been cored, before dam removal, at the Martot Pond and the Les Damps Pond (located 10km upstream the latter). Dating of sedimentary cores for both ponds indicates a sedimentation rate around 1 cm y-1. Trace metal elements quantification showed a wide metallic contamination with highest concentrations evidenced during the 1950-1960's (As: 13-22 mg kg-1; Cd: 40-55 mg kg-1; Cr: 170-210 mg kg-1; Cu: 400-490 mg kg-1; Hg: 2.3 mg kg-1; Mn: 1,280-2,200 mg kg-1; Ni: 64-75 mg kg-1; Zn: 905-990 mg kg-1) and the 1990-2000's (Cr: 95-215 mg kg-1; Ni: 100 mg kg-1; Pb: 670-855 mg kg-1). These variations of concentrations along cores can be associated with industrial past of the Eure River Watershed and sources of contamination can be identified. Thereby, Zn, Ni or Hg contamination could be associated with wastes of battery factory released in the Eure River during the economic recovery, while Pb contamination is linked to the activities of a cathode-ray tubes factory. Metals quantification in core materials highlighted anthropogenic impacts in the Eure River Watershed. These

  17. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  18. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  19. Mobilisation of toxic elements in the human respiratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Alves, L.C.; Palhano, M.J.; Bugalho de Almeida, A.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of respired particles in the respiratory system is inferred through the chemical characterisation of individual particles at the tracheal and bronchial mucosas, and the accumulation of toxic elements in lung alveoli and lymph nodes. The particles and tissue elemental distributions were identified and characterised using micro-PIXE elemental mapping of thin frozen sections using the ITN Nuclear Microprobe facility. Significant particle deposits are found at the distal respiratory tract. Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn are elements detected at these accumulation areas. The elemental distributions in the different cellular environments of lymph nodes vary. The major compartments for Al, Si, Ti, Fe and Cr are the phagocytic cells and capsule of lymph nodes, while V and Ni are in the cortex and paracortex medullar areas which retain more than 70% of these two elements, suggesting high solubility of the latter in the cellular milieu. The elemental mobilisation from particles or deposits to surrounding tissues at the respiratory ducts evidences patterns of diffusion and removal that are different than those for elements in the respiratory tract. Mobilisation of elements such as V, Cr and Ni is more relevant at alveoli areas where gaseous exchange takes place. The apparent high solubility of V and Ni in the respiratory tract tissue points towards a deviation of the lymphatic system filtering efficiency for these elements when compared to others

  20. Desirable Elements for a Particle System Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schroeder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle systems have many applications, with the most popular being to produce special effects in video games and films. To permit particle systems to be created quickly and easily, Particle System Interfaces (PSIs have been developed. A PSI is a piece of software designed to perform common tasks related to particle systems for clients, while providing them with a set of parameters whose values can be adjusted to create different particle systems. Most PSIs are inflexible, and when clients require functionality that is not supported by the PSI they are using, they are forced to either find another PSI that meets their requirements or, more commonly, create their own particle system or PSI from scratch. This paper presents three original contributions. First, it identifies 18 features that a PSI should provide in order to be capable of creating diverse effects. If these features are implemented in a PSI, clients will be more likely to be able to accomplish all desired effects related to particle systems with one PSI. Secondly, it introduces a novel use of events to determine, at run time, which particle system code to execute in each frame. Thirdly, it describes a software architecture called the Dynamic Particle System Framework (DPSF. Simulation results show that DPSF possesses all 18 desirable features.

  1. Rare earth elements in sediment profiles from marginal lagoons of the Moji-Guacu River basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.R.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Tavares, G.A.; Silva, N.C. da; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment cores from Catingueiro, Barrinha and Rio das Pedras marginal lagoons of the Moji-Guacu River basin were analyzed for rare earth elements (REEs), Fe, Ta and Th by instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA). Data indicated similarities between Catingueiro and Barrinha lagoons, while a distinct scenario was seen for Rio das Pedras likely due to changes of sedimentation rate in 1950's. By using Fe, Sc, Ta and Th as conservative elements, double normalization technique was performed in order to assess the distribution pattern of Ce, Eu, La, Sm and Tb for each core. In all cases, it was evident a depletion of lighter REE elements in the Rio das Pedras lagoon. (author)

  2. Studying the effect of the Semipalatinsk Test Site on radionuclide and elemental composition of water objects in the Irtysh River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, V; Аidarkhanov, A; Lukashenko, S; Gluchshenko, V; Poznyak, V; Lyahova, O

    2015-06-01

    The results of the field and laboratory studies of radiation and environmental state at the specific area of Irtysh River adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site are provided. It was found that the radiation situation in this area is normal: equivalent dose of γ-radiation = (0.11-0.13) µSv h(-1). Determination of radionuclide composition of soil, bottom sediment and water samples was performed by the methods of instrumental γ-spectrometry, radiochemical analysis and the liquid scintillation β-spectrometry. It was found that concentrations of the studied natural and artificial radionuclides in these objects are very low; no contamination with radionuclides was detected in this segment of Irtysh River. The article provides the results of elemental composition determination for samples of soil and bottom sediment (by X-ray fluorescence method) and water samples (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method). It is shown that the content of some elements (Li, Be, B, V, Cu, Sr, Mo) in the water of Irtysh River increases downstream. The additional studies are required to explain this peculiarity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Clinch River Breeder Reactor secondary control rod system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeehan, E.R.; Sim, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The shutdown system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) includes two independent systems--a primary and a secondary system. The Secondary Control Rod System (SCRS) is a new design which is being developed by General Electric to be independent from the primary system in order to improve overall shutdown reliability by eliminating potential common-mode failures. The paper describes the status of the SCRS design and fabrication and testing activities. Design verification testing on the component level is largely complete. These component tests are covered with emphasis on design impact results. A prototype unit has been manufactured and system level tests in sodium have been initiated

  4. The selection criteria elements of X-ray optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Bays, S. S.; Bildanov, R. G.; Stary, O.

    2018-01-01

    At the design of new modifications of x-ray tomography there are difficulties in the right choice of elements of X-ray optical system. Now this problem is solved by practical consideration, selection of values of the corresponding parameters - tension on an x-ray tube taking into account the thickness and type of the studied material. For reduction of time and labor input of design it is necessary to create the criteria of the choice, to determine key parameters and characteristics of elements. In the article two main elements of X-ray optical system - an x-ray tube and the detector of x-ray radiation - are considered. Criteria of the choice of elements, their key characteristics, the main dependences of parameters, quality indicators and also recommendations according to the choice of elements of x-ray systems are received.

  5. A Type System for Required/Excluded Elements in CLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The calculus of looping sequences is a formalism for describing the evolution of biological systems by means of term rewriting rules. We enrich this calculus with a type discipline to guarantee the soundness of reduction rules with respect to some biological properties deriving from the requirement of certain elements, and the repellency of others. As an example, we model a toy system where the repellency of a certain element is captured by our type system and forbids another element to exit a compartment.

  6. Multimedia Based on Scientific Approach for Periodic System of Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, S.; Aryana, D. M.; Subarkah, C. Z.; Ramdhani, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to describe the application of interactive multimedia on the concept of the periodic system of elements. The study was conducted by using the one-shot case study design. The subjects in this study were 35 high school students of class XI IPA. Results showed that the stages of observing, questioning, data collecting (experimenting), and communicating are all considered very good. This shows that multimedia can assist students in explaining the development of the periodic system of elements, ranging from Triade doberrainer, Newland Octarchic Law, Mendeleyev, and the modern periodic, as well as atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity of an element in the periodic system.

  7. Handling system for nuclear reactor fuel and reflector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.; Goldman, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    A system for canning, inspecting and transferring to a storage area fuel and reflector elements from a nuclear reactor is described. The canning mechanism operates in a sealed gaseous environment and visual and mechanical inspection of the elements is possible by an operator from a remote shielded area. (UK)

  8. Nonnative Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Kevin S.; DeLain, Steven A.; Gittinger, Eric; Ickes, Brian S.; Kolar, Cindy S.; Ostendort, David; Ratcliff, Eric N.; Benson, Amy J.; Irons, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of nonnative species is widely regarded as a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity and consequently is ranked among the most serious environmental problems facing the United States today. This report presents information on nonnative fish species observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program on the Upper Mississippi River System a nexus of North American freshwater fish diversity for the Nation. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Environmental Management Plan, is the Nation's largest river monitoring program and stands as the primary source of standardized ecological information on the Upper Mississippi River System. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program has been monitoring fish communities in six study areas on the Upper Mississippi River System since 1989. During this period, more than 3.5 million individual fish, consisting of 139 species, have been collected. Although fish monitoring activities of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program focus principally on entire fish communities, data collected by the Program are useful for detecting and monitoring the establishment and spread of nonnative fish species within the Upper Mississippi River System Basin. Sixteen taxa of nonnative fishes, or hybrids thereof, have been observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program since 1989, and several species are presently expanding their distribution and increasing in abundance. For example, in one of the six study areas monitored by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, the number of established nonnative species has increased from two to eight species in less than 10 years. Furthermore, contributions of those eight species can account for up to 60 percent of the total annual catch and greater than 80 percent of the observed biomass. These observations are critical because the Upper Mississippi River System stands as a nationally significant pathway for

  9. Applying of Factor Analyses for Determination of Trace Elements Distribution in Water from River Vardar and Its Tributaries, Macedonia/Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu; Bačeva, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of fifty-six elements in the water samples from river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 27 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Cluster and R mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations and four associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Three factors represent the associations of elements that occur in the river water naturally while Factor 3 represents an anthropogenic association of the elements (Cd, Ga, In, Pb, Re, Tl, Cu, and Zn) introduced in the river waters from the waste waters from the mining and metallurgical activities in the country. PMID:24587756

  10. Applying of Factor Analyses for Determination of Trace Elements Distribution in Water from River Vardar and Its Tributaries, Macedonia/Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Ilić Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of fifty-six elements in the water samples from river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 27 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES. Cluster and R mode factor analysis (FA was used to identify and characterise element associations and four associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Three factors represent the associations of elements that occur in the river water naturally while Factor 3 represents an anthropogenic association of the elements (Cd, Ga, In, Pb, Re, Tl, Cu, and Zn introduced in the river waters from the waste waters from the mining and metallurgical activities in the country.

  11. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  12. Geochemistry of bed and suspended sediment in the Mississippi river system: provenance versus weathering and winnowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D Z; Ludington, Steve; Duval, J S; Taylor, H E

    2006-06-01

    Stream-bed sediment for the size fraction less than 150 microm, examined in 14,000 samples collected mostly from minor tributaries to the major rivers throughout the Mississippi River drainage system, is composed of 5 mineral fractions identified by factor analysis-Al-silicate minerals, quartz, calcite and dolomite, heavy minerals, and an Fe-Mn fraction. The Al-silicate fraction parallels its distribution in the regolith, emphasizing the local sediment source as a primary control to its distribution. Quartz and the heavy-mineral fraction, and associated trace elements, exhibit a complementary distribution to that of the Al-silicate fraction, with a level of enrichment in the bed sediment that is achieved through winnowing and sorting. The carbonate fraction has a distribution suggesting its dissolution during transport. Trace elements partitioned onto the Fe-Mn, possibly amorphous oxyhydride, fraction are introduced to the streams, in part, through human activity. Except for the heavy-mineral fraction, these fractions are identified in suspended sediment from the Mississippi River itself. Although comparison of the tributary bed sediment with the riverine suspended sediment is problematic, the geochemistry of the suspended sediment seems to corroborate the interpretation of the geochemistry of the bed sediment.

  13. Validation of FNAA method for testing the elements of Mn, Cr and Mg on the Gajahwong river sediment sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisjachudin Faisal; Elin Nuraini

    2010-01-01

    Validation of elements of Mn, Cr and Mg by using FNAA method has been performed. NBS SRM 8704 (Bufallo River Sediment), was used as the standard reference material, with the neutrons generator operating condition at the optimum voltage of 110 kV. Energy and channel number of calibration lines obtained with the standard equation as y = 1.034 x + 151.21. From the analysis of SRM, the results show that only Mg can be analyzed, because Cr and Mn are located at the same peak point (interferences), so that they can not be analyzed. From the analysis for Mg element (SRM), the precision and the accuration obtained are 95.53 % and 94.88%, while the average price of expanded uncertainty for the various locations is 0.233 ± 0.012. Mg content analysis result at various locations along the river Gajahwong ranging from 85.41 – 103.55 ppm. When compared with previous studies showing the elements content of Fe, Al and Si is much higher than Mg content. (author)

  14. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic ISRU Acquisition Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic ISRU Resource Acquisition project element will develop two technologies:Exploration Ground Data Systems (xGDS)Sample Acquisition on...

  15. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robonaut 2 Technologies Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the Robonaut 2 (R2) Technology Project Element within Human Robotic Systems (HRS) is to developed advanced technologies for infusion into the Robonaut 2...

  16. Soft systems methodology and the ecosystem approach: a system study of the Cooum River and environs in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Martin J

    2003-02-01

    This paper discusses the integration of soft systems methodology (SSM) within an ecosystem approach in research to support rehabilitation and management of the Cooum River and environs in Chennai, India. The Cooum is an extremely polluted urban stream. Its management is complicated by high rates of population growth, poverty, uncontrolled urban development, jurisdictional conflicts, institutional culture, flat topography, tidal action, blockage of the river mouth, and monsoon flooding. The situation is characterized by basic uncertainty about main processes and activities, and the nature of relationships among actors and elements in the system.SSM is an approach for dealing with messy or ill-structured problematic situations involving human activity. In this work SSM contributed techniques (such as "rich picture" and "CATWOE" tools) to description of the Cooum situation as a socioecological system and informed the approach itself at a theoretical level. Application of three general phases in SSM is discussed in the context of the Cooum River research: (1) problem definition and exploration of the problem situation, (2) development of conceptual models of relevant systems, and (3) the use of these to generate insight and stimulate debate about desirable and feasible change. Its use here gives weight to the statement by others that SSM would be a particularly appropriate methodology to operate the ecosystem approach. As well as informing efforts at management of the Cooum system, this work led the way to explore an adaptive ecosystem approach more broadly to management of the urban environment for human health in Chennai.

  17. A study on the distribution of trace elements along the lower Chao Phya river by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenanupan, Vibul

    1975-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of Al, Sr, Cu, Br, Mn, Cr, Sb, Sc, Fe and Co in surface water samples collected along the Chao Phva River during the period April-August 1974. The elements were separated into 3 groups based on the irradiation times. Except in the case of long-irradiation group, no pre- or post-concentration of samples was needed. Sodium was removed from the intermediate irradiation group by adsorption on hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP). No other chemical separation procedure was required. The results on the analysis for 40 samples are given. (author)

  18. Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Suy, Bunseang; Wong, Ming Hung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. -- Highlights: •We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in Cambodian groundwater. •Residents of Kandal (98.7%) and Kratie (12.4%) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects. •Significant positive correlation between As, Mn and Ba in groundwater and hair were found. -- Risk assessment indicated that 98.7% of residents in Kandal and 12.4% of Kratie study areas were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects of multiple elements in groundwater

  19. An intelligent agent for optimal river-reservoir system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, Jeffrey D.; Labadie, John W.

    2012-09-01

    A generalized software package is presented for developing an intelligent agent for stochastic optimization of complex river-reservoir system management and operations. Reinforcement learning is an approach to artificial intelligence for developing a decision-making agent that learns the best operational policies without the need for explicit probabilistic models of hydrologic system behavior. The agent learns these strategies experientially in a Markov decision process through observational interaction with the environment and simulation of the river-reservoir system using well-calibrated models. The graphical user interface for the reinforcement learning process controller includes numerous learning method options and dynamic displays for visualizing the adaptive behavior of the agent. As a case study, the generalized reinforcement learning software is applied to developing an intelligent agent for optimal management of water stored in the Truckee river-reservoir system of California and Nevada for the purpose of streamflow augmentation for water quality enhancement. The intelligent agent successfully learns long-term reservoir operational policies that specifically focus on mitigating water temperature extremes during persistent drought periods that jeopardize the survival of threatened and endangered fish species.

  20. A Computed River Flow-Based Turbine Controller on a Programmable Logic Controller for Run-Off River Hydroelectric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Jidin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main feature of a run-off river hydroelectric system is a small size intake pond that overspills when river flow is more than turbines’ intake. As river flow fluctuates, a large proportion of the potential energy is wasted due to the spillages which can occur when turbines are operated manually. Manual operation is often adopted due to unreliability of water level-based controllers at many remote and unmanned run-off river hydropower plants. In order to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel method by developing a controller that derives turbine output set points from computed mass flow rate of rivers that feed the hydroelectric system. The computed flow is derived by summation of pond volume difference with numerical integration of both turbine discharge flows and spillages. This approach of estimating river flow allows the use of existing sensors rather than requiring the installation of new ones. All computations, including the numerical integration, have been realized as ladder logics on a programmable logic controller. The implemented controller manages the dynamic changes in the flow rate of the river better than the old point-level based controller, with the aid of a newly installed water level sensor. The computed mass flow rate of the river also allows the controller to straightforwardly determine the number of turbines to be in service with considerations of turbine efficiencies and auxiliary power conservation.

  1. Evolution of biomolecular loadings along a major river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymond, Chantal V.; Kündig, Nicole; Stark, Courcelle; Peterse, Francien; Buggle, Björn; Lupker, Maarten; Plötze, Michael; Blattmann, Thomas M.; Filip, Florin; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transport history and fate of organic carbon (OC) within river systems is crucial in order to constrain the dynamics and significance of land-ocean interactions as a component of the global carbon cycle. Fluvial export and burial of terrestrial OC in marine sediments influences atmospheric CO2 over a range of timescales, while river-dominated sedimentary sequences can provide valuable archives of paleoenvironmental information. While there is abundant evidence that the association of organic matter (OM) with minerals exerts an important influence on its stability as well as hydrodynamic behavior in aquatic systems, there is a paucity of information on where such associations form and how they evolve during fluvial transport. Here, we track total organic carbon (TOC) and terrestrial biomarker concentrations (plant wax-derived long-chain fatty acids (FA), branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and lignin-derived phenols) in sediments collected along the entire course of the Danube River system in the context of sedimentological parameters. Mineral-specific surface area-normalized biomarker and TOC concentrations show a systematic decrease from the upper to the lower Danube basin. Changes in OM loading of the available mineral phase correspond to a net decrease of 70-80% of different biomolecular components. Ranges for biomarker loadings on Danube River sediments, corresponding to 0.4-1.5 μgFA/m2 for long-chain (n-C24-32) fatty acids and 17-71 ngbrGDGT/m2 for brGDGTs, are proposed as a benchmark for comparison with other systems. We propose that normalizing TOC as well as biomarker concentrations to mineral surface area provides valuable quantitative constraints on OM dynamics and organo-mineral interactions during fluvial transport from terrigenous source to oceanic sink.

  2. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings

  3. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  4. Strontium isotopic and trace element geochemistry of the saddle mountains and Grande Ronde Basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    The Columbia River Basalt (CRB) group displays significant variations in major and trace element and Sr isotopic compositions. These compositions reflect complex and variable origins for the CRB magmas. Among the most varied is the Saddle Mountains Basalt (SMB) in which Sr ratios vary from 0.7078 to 0.7147 +- 0.002. The higher ratios reflect contamination through consistent correlations with major element compositions. Modeling suggests contamination by assimilation of 4.4 to 9.4 wt % of radiogenic crustal rocks. High delta 18 O values (up to +7.68 per mil) support the model. Age and field relations suggest that the contamination flowrocks are not the result of progressive contamination of a single magma, but rather reflect the contamination of independent magmas during this ascent

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  6. LEVELS OF SOME ANIONS IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    obtained in this work, the river water is safe for the aquatic life therein. ... environmental issue in developing countries. ... of these ions to enhance water quality of this ... IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN NORTH IN WESTERN NIGERIA.

  7. Chemical elements in soils of riverside areas of the Piracicaba river basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Lira, Marcelo B.G.; Paiva, José D.S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of the soil quality of the Piracicaba River Basin, located in the State of São Paulo, is of extreme environmental importance, as it ensures the functionality of the basin ecosystems and environmental protection. However, there are few studies focused on the concentration of chemical elements in soils of environmental protection zones of highly populated riverside regions. In view of the above, this work aims to determine the concentration of chemical elements in the soils located on the banks of the Piracicaba River by the Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm profiles. Subsequently, the samples were dried in an oven at 80 deg C and comminuted with the aid of mortar and pistil. 250 mg portions were transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated in 10 13 cm -2 .s -1 neutron flux for 4 hours at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute -IPEN / SP, Brazil. The determination of the chemical elements was conducted by the k0-INAA method from the Quantu program. Comparing the results obtained with the soil values of an untouched area of Atlantic Forest - Carlos Botelho State Park, the maximum values obtained of As (29 mg / kg) and Zn (185 mg / kg) were about 5 times greater. However, concentrations of terrigenous elements such as Fe and Sc were also high in some cases, indicating that there is also a contribution of the source material (rocks) to the high concentrations observed in the riverside soils

  8. Laboratory robotics systems at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyches, G.M.; Burkett, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Many analytical chemistry methods normally used at the Savannah River site require repetitive procedures and handling of radioactive and other hazardous solutions. Robotics is being investigated as a method of reducing personnel fatigue and radiation exposure and also increasing product quality. Several applications of various commercially available robot systems are discussed involving cold (nonradioactive) and hot (radioactive) sample preparations and glovebox waste removal. Problems encountered in robot programming, parts fixturing, design of special robot hands and other support equipment, glovebox operation, and operator-system interaction are discussed. A typical robot system cost analysis for one application is given

  9. Elemental composition at different points of the rainwater harvesting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, A.C.; Dunstan, R.H.; Coombes, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Entry of contaminants, such as metals and non-metals, into rainwater harvesting systems can occur directly from rainfall with contributions from collection surfaces, accumulated debris and leachate from storage systems, pipes and taps. Ten rainwater harvesting systems on the east coast of Australia were selected for sampling of roof runoff, storage systems and tap outlets to investigate the variations in rainwater composition as it moved throughout the system, and to identify potential points of contribution to elemental loads. A total of 26 elements were screened at each site. Iron was the only element which was present in significantly higher concentrations in roof runoff samples compared with tank tap samples (P < 0.05). At one case study site, results suggested that piping and tap material can contribute to contaminant loads of harvested rainwater. Increased loads of copper were observed in hot tap samples supplied by the rainwater harvesting system via copper piping and a storage hot water system (P < 0.05). Similarly, zinc, lead, arsenic, strontium and molybdenum were significantly elevated in samples collected from a polyvinyl chloride pipe sampling point that does not supply household uses, compared with corresponding roof runoff samples (P < 0.05). Elemental composition was also found to vary significantly between the tank tap and an internal cold tap at one of the sites investigated, with several elements fluctuating significantly between the two outlets of interest at this site, including potassium, zinc, manganese, barium, copper, vanadium, chromium and arsenic. These results highlighted the variability in the elemental composition of collected rainwater between different study sites and between different sampling points. Atmospheric deposition was not a major contributor to the rainwater contaminant load at the sites tested. Piping materials, however, were shown to contribute significantly to the total elemental load at some locations.

  10. Assessment of sediments from Tiete River - toxicity and trace elements - from Salesopolis to Suzano counties, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegre, Gabriel F.; Borrely, Sueli; Nascimento, Thuany M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, sediment samples from the Tiete River were evaluated for toxicity and trace metals (5 sampling sites). The studied region includes Salesopolis to Suzano and surroundings, a highly industrialized area. The study involved toxicity evaluation (sediment, elutriate and pore-water) and the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements on sediments. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). The concentration values obtained for the metals As, Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL). Regarding toxicity, whole sediments and elutriate fractions were evaluated using chronic assays for Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the pore water was carried out for Vibrio fischeri toxicity assays. These assays followed Brazilian Standardized Methods (ABNT). Whole sediments and elutriate evidenced negative biological effects, even at Salesopolis county, the control site (less impacted area). The worst effects were obtained at Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano counties (sampling stations 3 and 4). The elutriate fractions collected at the same stations showed acute toxicity in two of three samples (C. dubia). When pore water was evaluated, a toxicity gradient which increased as the river flowed through Mogi das Cruzes county was obtained. Regarding toxic metal contents in the sediment samples points 3 and 4 exceeded the TEL oriented values for As, Cr, Hg and Zn and point 4 also exceeded the PEL values for all these elements. (author)

  11. Studying the pollution of Barada river environment with poisonous elements resulting from leather industry (i.e. tanning industry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Al-Masri, M.S.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.

    2000-07-01

    The impact of tanning and electroplating industry on the eastern part of Barada river environment has been evaluated. Sediment, soil and plant samples were collected from nine sites at the river near the eastern industrial complex during 1999. Results of instrumental neutron activation analysis have shown high levels of chrome in sediment collected near the tanning factories; the highest value obtained being 2692 ppm. In addition, relatively high levels of Cr were also found in the agriculture soil collected near the riverbank in the industrial complex; Cr concentrations in plant leaves grown at riverbank were found low and this due strong bounding of Cr to soil. Other trace metals such as copper was about 4000 ppm, which is much higher than the natural levels; electroplating shops are the main source of this element in the area. Furthermore, concentrations of the studied trace metals have decreased as the elements were found to be at low concentrations, but the obtained data can be used as a baseline for future monitoring. (Author)

  12. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  13. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor

  14. Environmental and ecological water requirement of river system: a case study of Haihe-Luanhe river system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental and ecological problems induced by water resources development and utilization, this paper proposes a concept of environmental and ecological water requirement. It is defined as the minimum water amount to be consumed by the natural water bodies to conserve its environmental and ecological functions. Based on the definition, the methods on calculating the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement are determined. In the case study on Haihe-Luanhe river system, the water requirement is divided into three parts, i.e., the basic in-stream flow, water requirement for sediment transfer and water consumption by evaporation of the lakes or everglades. The results of the calculation show that the environmental and ecological water requirement in the river system is about 124×108 m3, including 57×108 m3 for basic in-stream flow, 63×108m3 for sediment transfer and 4×l08m3 for net evaporation loss of lakes. The total amount of environmental and ecological water requirement accounts for 54% of the amount of runoff (228×108 m3). However, it should be realized that the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement must be more than that we have calculated. According to this result, we consider that the rational utilization rate of the runoff in the river systems must not be more than 40%. Since the current utilization rate of the river system, which is over 80%, has been far beyond the limitation, the problems of environment and ecology are quite serious. It is imperative to control and adjust water development and utilization to eliminate the existing problems and to avoid the potential ecological or environmental crisis.

  15. Colloid dynamics and transport of major elements through a boreal river - brackish bay mixing zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Ö.; Widerlund, A.; Andersson, P.

    2000-01-01

    km in the spring.. During the dynamic springflood conditions studied, small 238U–234Th disequilibria, low sediment trap fluxes, laboratory mixing experiments, as well as results from an independent two-box, two-dimensional mixing model combine to suggest that no significant removal of Fe, Si......A range of biogeochemical methodologies were applied to investigate how aggregation processes affected the phase distribution and mixing of Fe, Si, and organic carbon between the Kalix River and the Bothnic Bay, northernmost Baltic Sea salinityF3; the low-salinity zone LSZ. was stretching over 60...... similar to that of neighboring Russian Arctic rivers, is hypothesized to result from a comparatively high organic-to-detrital matter characteristic of the aggregates. While first principles would indeed suggest that decreasing electrostatic repulsion during mixing lead to aggregation, a low specific...

  16. Hydrodynamic Influence Dabanhu River Bridge Holes Widening Based on Two-Dimensional Finite Element Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong Feng; Bai, Fu Qing; Nie, Hui

    2018-06-01

    In order to analyze the influence of bridge holes widening on hydrodynamic such as water level, a two-dimensional mathematical model was used to calculate the hydrodynamic factors, river network flow velocity vector distribution is given, water level and difference of bridge widening before and after is calculated and charted, water surface gradient in seven different river sections near the upper reaches of bridges is counted and revealed. The results of hydrodynamic calculation indicate that The Maximum and the minimum deducing numerical value of the water level after bridge widening is 0.028m, and 0.018m respective. the seven sections water surface gradient becomes smaller until it becomes negative, the influence of bridge widening on the upstream is basically over, the range of influence is about 450m from the bridge to the upstream. reach

  17. An assessment study in the determination of chemical elements in sediments and fish in the Zarka River and King Talal Dam, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsabbagh, A.; Khalayleh, L.; Dbissi, M.; Landsberger, S.

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of several trace elements were detected in the sediments at King Talal Dam and at different locations along the Zarka River, Jordan. Chemical elements were also detected in the edible part of common fish types existing at the dam. Elemental concentrations were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The results showed that the concentration of chemical elements in the sediments decreases as one moves away from the Khirbet Al Samra waste water treatment plant. The results also revealed that most of the elements had higher concentrations in Tilapia fish compared to the Catfish. (author)

  18. Parameter Optimization of Multi-Element Synthetic Aperture Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Behar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In conventional ultrasound imaging systems with phased arrays, the further improvement of lateral resolution requires enlarging of the number of array elements that in turn increases both, the complexity and the cost, of imaging systems. Multi-element synthetic aperture focusing (MSAF systems are a very good alternative to conventional systems with phased arrays. The benefit of the synthetic aperture is in reduction of the system complexity, cost and acquisition time. In a MSAF system considered in the paper, a group of elements transmit and receive signals simultaneously, and the transmit beam is defocused to emulate a single element response. The echo received at each element of a receive sub-aperture is recorded in the computer memory. The process of transmission/reception is repeated for all positions of a transmit sub-aperture. All the data recordings associated with each corresponding pair "transmit-receive sub-aperture" are then focused synthetically producing a low-resolution image. The final high-resolution image is formed by summing of the all low-resolution images associated with transmit/receive sub-apertures. A problem of parameter optimization of a MSAF system is considered in this paper. The quality of imaging (lateral resolution and contrast is expressed in terms of the beam characteristics - beam width and side lobe level. The comparison between the MSAF system described in the paper and an equivalent conventional phased array system shows that the MSAF system acquires images of equivalent quality much faster using only a small part of the power per image.

  19. Modern Sedimentation off the Kaoping River, SW Taiwan: A Comparison with Eel River's S2S System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, C.; Lin, H.; Lin, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Kaoping (KP) River in SW Taiwan has a watershed area of 3257 km2 and an annual sediment discharge of 49 MT. Although the sediment yield of the KP River basin (1.5×104 ton km-2 yr^{- 1}) is the 4th highest among Taiwan's catchment basins, it is nearly one order of magnitude higher than that of the Eel River's basin (~1.8×103 ton km-2 yr-1; the highest in the U.S.). The KP canyon extends almost immediately seaward from the river's mouth and terminates in the northwestern corner of the South China Sea. The head of the canyon is characterized by high and steep walls exceeding 600 m. The KP river's source-to-sink system offers a dramatic case of mountainous rivers at active margins for S2S study. Here we report some results about modern sedimentation in KP river's dispersal system. Seventy-six sediment cores collected from an area of ~3000 km2 were analyzed for fallout nuclides 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb by gamma spectrometry. From profiles of excess 210Pb and 137Cs sediment accumulation rates in the coring sites were estimated, which vary from 0.06 to 1.6 cm/yr, with the highest rates (>1 cm/yr) distributed in the upper slope (exported out of the study area via the KP canyon to the deep sea by gravity-driven turbidity or hyperpycnal flows.

  20. Trophic transfer of toxic elements in the estuarine invertebrate and fish food web of Daliao River, Liaodong Bay, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bobo; Jiao, Deqi; Wang, Jing; Lei, Kai; Lin, Chunye

    2016-01-01

    In order to study element accumulation and trophic transfer in the food web, sixteen benthic invertebrate species and nine fish species were collected from the Daliao River estuary for analysis of toxic elements and nitrogen stable isotope in the muscle tissue. The concentrations ranged between 1.44–17.98, 0.01–9.30, 0.17–36.15, 0.7–145.4, 0.01–0.33, 0.14–14.88, 0.10–2.51, 0.02–0.14, and 19.3–221.1 mg kg −1 for As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, respectively. As, Cd, Cu, and Zn were significantly higher in the benthic invertebrates than in fish, whereas Hg and Sb were significantly lower. In addition, the benthic invertebrates were characterized by the highest bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for Cd, whereas the fish were characterized by the highest BAF for Hg. A significant decrease in Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni levels, and a significant increase in Hg and Sb levels were observed with increasing trophic levels. - Highlights: • Toxic elements and trophic level were determined in biota from Daliao River estuary. • Benthic invertebrates had higher As, Cd, Cu, Zn and lower Hg and Sb levels than fish. • Benthic invertebrates accumulated high As levels, while fish accumulated high Hg levels. • Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni levels decreased, and Hg and Sb levels increased with trophic levels.

  1. Contamination by arsenic and other trace elements of tube-well water along the Mekong River in Lao PDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanpiwat, Penradee; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; San, Vibol; Suvanthong, Boukeo; Vongthavady, Chantha

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic and other trace element concentrations were determined for tube-well water collected in the Lao PDR provinces of Attapeu, Bolikhamxai, Champasak, Savannakhet, Saravane, and Vientiane. Water samples, especially from floodplain areas of central and southern Laos, were significantly contaminated not only with As, but with B, Ba, Mn, U, and Fe as well. Total As concentrations ranged from -1 to 278 μg L -1 , with over half exceeding the WHO guideline of 10 μg L -1 . 46% of samples, notably, were dominated by As(III). Samples from Vientiane, further north, were all acceptable except on pH, which was below drinking water limits. A principal component analysis found associations between general water characteristics, As, and other trace elements. Causes of elevated As concentrations in Lao tube wells were considered similar to those in other Mekong River countries, particularly Cambodia and Vietnam, where young alluvial aquifers give rise to reducing conditions. - Research highlights: → Tube-well waters were significantly contaminated with As, B, Ba, Mn, U and Fe. → As contaminated areas were mostly floodplains in the central and southern parts of Laos. → As (III) was a predominant species in 46% of tube-well water samples. → A positive association between water characteristics, B and Sr contents was found. → Total As, As (III) and Fe concentrations were positively associated among each other. - In the first international research on As and other trace element contamination of tube-well water in Lao PDR, concentrations of As, B, Ba, Mn, U, and Fe exceeding drinking water guidelines were found in samples taken mostly from Mekong River floodplain areas.

  2. Contamination by arsenic and other trace elements of tube-well water along the Mekong River in Lao PDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanpiwat, Penradee [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Techonology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Sthiannopkao, Suthipong, E-mail: suthi@gist.ac.k [International Environmental Research Center (IERC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro - Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Hwa [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Techonology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Woong, E-mail: kwkim@gist.ac.k [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Techonology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); San, Vibol [Department of Environmental Science, Royal University of Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Suvanthong, Boukeo; Vongthavady, Chantha [Environmental Health Division, Center for Environmental Health and Water Supply, Ministry of Health, NongBone Road, Vientiane (Lao People' s Democratic Republic)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenic and other trace element concentrations were determined for tube-well water collected in the Lao PDR provinces of Attapeu, Bolikhamxai, Champasak, Savannakhet, Saravane, and Vientiane. Water samples, especially from floodplain areas of central and southern Laos, were significantly contaminated not only with As, but with B, Ba, Mn, U, and Fe as well. Total As concentrations ranged from <0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} to 278 {mu}g L{sup -1}, with over half exceeding the WHO guideline of 10 {mu}g L{sup -1}. 46% of samples, notably, were dominated by As(III). Samples from Vientiane, further north, were all acceptable except on pH, which was below drinking water limits. A principal component analysis found associations between general water characteristics, As, and other trace elements. Causes of elevated As concentrations in Lao tube wells were considered similar to those in other Mekong River countries, particularly Cambodia and Vietnam, where young alluvial aquifers give rise to reducing conditions. - Research highlights: Tube-well waters were significantly contaminated with As, B, Ba, Mn, U and Fe. As contaminated areas were mostly floodplains in the central and southern parts of Laos. As (III) was a predominant species in 46% of tube-well water samples. A positive association between water characteristics, B and Sr contents was found. Total As, As (III) and Fe concentrations were positively associated among each other. - In the first international research on As and other trace element contamination of tube-well water in Lao PDR, concentrations of As, B, Ba, Mn, U, and Fe exceeding drinking water guidelines were found in samples taken mostly from Mekong River floodplain areas.

  3. Determination of trace elements and heavy metals in agricultural products cultivated at the Rimac river valley in Lima city using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bedregal, Patricia; Torres, Blanca; Olivera, Paula; Mendoza, Pablo; Ubillús, Marco; Creed-Kanashiro, H.; Penny, M.; Junco, J.; Ganoza, L.

    2004-01-01

    There are strong indications that the Rimac river valley is being contaminated with heavy metals and an excess of trace elements that come from some industrial and mining activities developed along the Rimac river valley. The agricultural products cultivated there in could be suffering the same effect. Nuclear and related analytical techniques will play an important role in the study of pollution by providing information concerning the degree of contamination in some agricultural products cul...

  4. Experimental investigation of system effects in stressed-skin elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.; Isaksson, T.; Hansson, M.

    What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity and behavi......What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity...

  5. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Since the 1930's, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M ampersand I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M ampersand I studies; Irrigation/M ampersand I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M ampersand I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement

  6. The Ribble/Wyre observatory: Major, minor and trace elements in rivers draining from rural headwaters to the heartlands of the NW England historic industrial base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Colin [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OXON, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Rowland, Phil, E-mail: apr@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster. Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Scholefield, Paul; Vincent, Colin; Woods, Clive; Sleep, Darren [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster. Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Information on a new observatory study of the water quality of two major river basins in northwestern England (the Ribble and Wyre) is presented. It covers upland, intermediate and lowland environments of contrasting pollution history with sufficient detail to examine transitional gradients. The upland rivers drain acidic soils subjected to long-term acidic deposition. Nonetheless, the acidic runoff from the soils is largely neutralised by high alkalinity groundwaters, although the rivers retain, perhaps as colloids, elements such as Al and Fe that are mobilised under acid conditions. The lowland rivers are contaminated and have variable water quality due to variable urban/industrial point and diffuse inputs reflecting local and regional differences in historic and contemporary sources. For most determinands, pollutant concentrations are not a major cause for concern although phosphate levels remain high. Set against earlier studies for other regions, there may be a general decline in pollutant levels and this is most clearly observed for boron where effluent inputs have declined significantly due to reductions in household products that are flushed down the drain. High concentrations of sodium and chloride occurred briefly after a severe cold spell due to flushing of road salts. A major inventory for water quality within rural, urban, industrial and agricultural typologies is provided within data summary attachments for over 50 water quality determinands. Within the next year, the full dataset will be made available from the CEH website. This, with ongoing monitoring, represents a platform for water quality studies across a wide range of catchment typologies pertinent to environmental management of clean and impacted systems within the UK. The study provides a base of research 'from source to sea' including extensions to the estuary and open sea for a semi-confined basin, the Irish Sea, where there are many issues of pollution inputs and contamination

  7. The Ribble/Wyre observatory: Major, minor and trace elements in rivers draining from rural headwaters to the heartlands of the NW England historic industrial base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, Colin; Rowland, Phil; Scholefield, Paul; Vincent, Colin; Woods, Clive; Sleep, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Information on a new observatory study of the water quality of two major river basins in northwestern England (the Ribble and Wyre) is presented. It covers upland, intermediate and lowland environments of contrasting pollution history with sufficient detail to examine transitional gradients. The upland rivers drain acidic soils subjected to long-term acidic deposition. Nonetheless, the acidic runoff from the soils is largely neutralised by high alkalinity groundwaters, although the rivers retain, perhaps as colloids, elements such as Al and Fe that are mobilised under acid conditions. The lowland rivers are contaminated and have variable water quality due to variable urban/industrial point and diffuse inputs reflecting local and regional differences in historic and contemporary sources. For most determinands, pollutant concentrations are not a major cause for concern although phosphate levels remain high. Set against earlier studies for other regions, there may be a general decline in pollutant levels and this is most clearly observed for boron where effluent inputs have declined significantly due to reductions in household products that are flushed down the drain. High concentrations of sodium and chloride occurred briefly after a severe cold spell due to flushing of road salts. A major inventory for water quality within rural, urban, industrial and agricultural typologies is provided within data summary attachments for over 50 water quality determinands. Within the next year, the full dataset will be made available from the CEH website. This, with ongoing monitoring, represents a platform for water quality studies across a wide range of catchment typologies pertinent to environmental management of clean and impacted systems within the UK. The study provides a base of research 'from source to sea' including extensions to the estuary and open sea for a semi-confined basin, the Irish Sea, where there are many issues of pollution inputs and contamination. - Research

  8. Analytical and finite element modeling of grounding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Mauricio Valencia Ferreira da [University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mauricio@grucad.ufsc.br; Dular, Patrick [University of Liege (Belgium). Institut Montefiore], E-mail: Patrick.Dular@ulg.ac.be

    2007-07-01

    Grounding is the art of making an electrical connection to the earth. This paper deals with the analytical and finite element modeling of grounding systems. An electrokinetic formulation using a scalar potential can benefit from floating potentials to define global quantities such as electric voltages and currents. The application concerns a single vertical grounding with one, two and three-layer soil, where the superior extremity stays in the surface of the soil. This problem has been modeled using a 2D axi-symmetric electrokinetic formulation. The grounding resistance obtained by finite element method is compared with the analytical one for one-layer soil. With the results of this paper it is possible to show that finite element method is a powerful tool in the analysis of the grounding systems in low frequencies. (author)

  9. Using trace element concentrations in Corbicula fluminea to identify potential sources of contamination in an urban river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler Peltier, Gretchen; Meyer, Judith L.; Jagoe, Charles H.; Hopkins, William A.

    2008-01-01

    We used the biomonitor, Corbicula fluminea, to investigate the contributions of trace elements associated with different point sources and land uses in a large river. Trace elements were analyzed in tissues of clams collected from 15 tributary streams draining five land use or point source types: agriculture, forest, urban, coal-fired power plant (CFPP), and wastewater (WWTP). Clams from forested catchments had elevated Hg concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic and selenium were highest (5.0 ± 0.2 and 13.6 ± 0.9 μg g -1 dry mass (DM), respectively) in clams from CFPP sites. Cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in clams from urban and CFPP sites (4.1 ± 0.2 and 3.6 ± 0.9 μg g -1 DM, respectively). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) of tissue concentrations in clams clustered at CFPP and forest/agriculture sites at opposite ends of the ordination space, and the distribution of sites was driven by Cu, Zn, Cd, and Hg. - C. fluminea collected downstream of CFPPs had elevated tissue concentrations of trace elements

  10. Individual Dose Calculations with Use of the Revised Techa River Dosimetry System TRDS-2009D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    An updated deterministic version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS-2009D) has been developed to estimate individual doses from external exposure and intake of radionuclides for residents living on the Techa River contaminated as a result of radioactive releases from the Mayak plutonium facility in 1949–1956. The TRDS-2009D is designed as a flexible system that uses, depending on the input data for an individual, various elements of system databases to provide the dosimetric variables requested by the user. Several phases are included in the computation schedule. The first phase includes calculations with use of a common protocol for all cohort members based on village-average-intake functions and external dose rates; individual data on age, gender and history of residence are included in the first phase. This phase results in dose estimates similar to those obtained with system TRDS-2000 used previously to derive risks of health effects in the Techa River Cohort. The second phase includes refinement of individual internal doses for those persons who have had body-burden measurements or exposure parameters specific to the household where he/she lived on the Techa River. The third phase includes summation of individual doses from environmental exposure and from radiological examinations. The results of TRDS-2009D dose calculations have demonstrated for the ETRC members on average a moderate increase in RBM dose estimates (34%) and a minor increase (5%) in estimates of stomach dose. The calculations for the members of the ETROC indicated similar small changes for stomach, but significant increase in RBM doses (400%). Individual-dose assessments performed with use of TRDS-2009D have been provided to epidemiologists for exploratory risk analysis in the ETRC and ETROC. These data provide an opportunity to evaluate the possible impact on radiogenic risk of such factors as confounding exposure (environmental and medical), changes in the Techa River source

  11. Design evaluation of the HTGR fuel element size reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.B.

    1978-06-01

    A fuel element size reduction system for the ''cold'' pilot plant of the General Atomic HTGR Reference Recycle Facility has been designed and tested. This report is both an evaluation of the design based on results of initial tests and a description of those designs which require completion or modification for hot cell use. 11 figures

  12. Vibration elements in wind power systems; Schwingungselemente fuer Windkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, F. [ESM GmbH, Rimbach Mitlechtern (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Bearings in wind power systems are subject to high static and dynamic loads. These components should have low stiffness and damping in order to ensure maximum insulation of structure-borne sound. Higher damping has a positive effect on low-frequency vibrations. Bearing elements must also be stiff in order to take up high loads. (orig.)

  13. The periodic system of chemical elements: old and new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1987-09-01

    Some historical facts about the construction of a periodic system of chemical elements are reviewed. The Madelung rule is used to generate an unusual format for the periodic table. Following the work of Byakov, Kulakov, Rumer and Fet, such a format is further refined on the basis of a chain of groups starting with SU(2)xS0(4.2)

  14. Groundwater response under an electronuclear plant to a river flood wave analyzed by a nonlinear finite element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambolati, G.; Toffolo, F.; Uliana, F.

    1984-01-01

    A nonlinear finite element model based on the Dupuit-Boussinesq equation of flow in an unconfined aquifer has been developed and applied to simulate the water table fluctuation under the electronuclear plant of the test site of Trino Vercellese (northwestern Italy) in response to the flood event that occurred in the Po River from March 30 to April 4, 1981. The nonlinearity has been overcome by the aid of an efficient iterative linearization technique wherein the model equations are solved by symbolic factorization, numerical factorization, and backward-forward substitution after an optimal preliminary reordering. The model was run for uniform values of aquifer permeability and specific yield within the typical range evidenced for the Trino sands by the early data in our possession. The results show that the maximum water level elevation below the reactor is almost 3 m lower than the corresponding river flood peak even in the most unfavorable conditions, i.e., with the hydraulic conductivity in the upper range, and is rather insensitive to the specific yield values within the plausible interval. The model allowed for an easy evaluation of the effectiveness of the impermeable protection walls and of a possible secondary aquifer recharge from a minor channel. The modeling approach for the analysis of the water table behavior appears to be a very promising tool to help in the structural design of future electronuclear plants

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  16. Snake River sockeye salmon captive broodstock program: hatchery element: annual progress report, 2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report

  17. Emergency field water supply system using natural filtration elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikneswaran, M.; Yahya, Muhamad Azani; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Ismail, Siti Nor Kamariah

    2018-02-01

    Water is the most important resource in times of emergency and during military missions. In addition, if there is a war in a country, sources of clean water are essential for life. But, the safety and cleanliness of the river water for the campers and hikers still uncertain. Usually, polluted and contaminated river water is not safe to be directly consumed by human. However, this problem can be partly resolved by using water filter where the river water can be consumed directly after the filtration process. In respect of that, this study was conducted to design the filter media for personal water purification system. Hence, the objective of this work also is to develop a personal, portable dual purpose handy water filter to provide an easier way to get safe, clean and healthy drinking water for human wherever they go. The water quality of samples collected before and after filtration were analyzed. Water samples were taken from a waterfall near Lestari Block and Lake beside Marine Centre UPNM Campus. The experimental results were analyzed based on the assessment of water quality parameters. Overall, the analysis of the results showed that the water filter was designed with basic mix tabs aqua filter water purification tablets is showing a better result where it achieve the class I of water quality index (WQI). In details, the water sample taken from waterfall near Lestari Block shown the WQI around 93 which is higher than WQI of water sample from Lake near Marine Centre UPNM which is 86, class II A which can be used for external purpose only.

  18. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Atlántico. Un nuevo programa colaborativo de investigación se inició en 1994 con el propósito de caracterizar de una manera más completa la biogeoquímica de los ríos andinos. Contributions from Andean rivers may play a significant role in determining the basin-wide biogeochemistry integrated into the mainstem Amazon River of Brazil. Concentration data for organic C, NO3-, and PO43- in Andean rivers are highly variable and reveal no clear spatial or altitudinal patterns. Concentrations measured in Andean rivers are similar to those reported in the mainstem Amazon river and its major tributaries. Explanations of processes which alter Andean-derived particulates and solutes as they exit the Cordillera are only speculative at this time, but their net effect is to diminish Andean signals through decomposition and dilution by lowland inputs. The 13C of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the mainstem Amazon provides evidence that some fraction of Andean derived material persists within the river system, ultimately to be discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1994 a new collaborative research program was launched to further characterize the biogeochemistry of Andean rivers.

  19. Considerations on aims and approaches of the study on the transport of trace elements in a river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi

    2002-10-01

    Concerning the study subject on the transport of trace, toxic chemicals and radioactive elements in a river watershed, that has been developed in the Research Group for Terrestrial Environment, its aims and methodological approaches have been discussed in the light of related social and technological aspects of today. It is stressed that a study of the transport of radionuclides originated from a nuclear installation is needed to assess the physiological impact and to provide appropriate countermeasures in case of an accident. A numerical model is prerequisite for these objectives and to be keenly developed. The outcome of the modeling will be also important for a quantitative analysis of cycling of trace toxic elements in the atmosphere- lithosphere-hydrosphere, and also of the mechanisms of contamination of the surface aquatic environment. Accordingly, the study will contribute to the key issues stated in the national programs of science and technologies such as conservation of the natural and living environment. The present large consumption of metals and metalloids may cause an extensive contamination in the future. The study can provide solutions to the problems associated with metals and metalloids, because their environmental behavior resembles to that of radionuclides. From a methodological aspect, an importance of a direct investigation of physicochemical forms of trace, toxic elements must be stressed. A simultaneous use of experimental methods and chemical modeling to study the physico-chemical forms will be a good exemption to be realized hereafter. Experimentally, partitioning between solid and liquid phases using radioisotopes, and identification of solid species using various X-ray spectrometric techniques, for example, have been recognized very promising to investigate physico-chemical form of trace elements. These techniques are much ought to the nuclear sciences, suggesting further possible contribution of the nuclear sciences to the questions of

  20. Improvements MOIRA system for application to nuclear sites Spanish river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego Diaz, E.; Iglesias Ferrer, R.; Dvorzhak, A.; Hofman, D.

    2011-01-01

    Possible consequences of a nuclear accident must have radioactive contamination in the medium and long-term freshwater aquatic systems. Faced with this problem, it is essential to have a realistic assessment of the radiological impact, ecological, social and economic potential management strategies, to take the best decisions rationally. MOIRA is a system of decision support developed in the course of the European Framework Programmes with participation of the UPM, which has been improved and adapted to Spanish nuclear sites in recent years in the context ISIDRO Project, sponsored by the Council Nuclear, with the participation of CIEMAT and UPM. The paper focuses on these advances, primarily related to complex hydraulic systems such as rivers Tajo, Ebro and Jucar, which are located several Spanish plants.

  1. Effluent trading in river systems through stochastic decision-making process: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharipoor, Mohammad Amin; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an efficient framework for effluent trading in river systems. The proposed framework consists of two pessimistic and optimistic decision-making models to increase the executability of river water quality trading programs. The models used for this purpose are (1) stochastic fallback bargaining (SFB) to reach an agreement among wastewater dischargers and (2) stochastic multi-criteria decision-making (SMCDM) to determine the optimal treatment strategy. The Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to incorporate the uncertainty into analysis. This uncertainty arises from stochastic nature and the errors in the calculation of wastewater treatment costs. The results of river water quality simulation model are used as the inputs of models. The proposed models are used in a case study on the Zarjoub River in northern Iran to determine the best solution for the pollution load allocation. The best treatment alternatives selected by each model are imported, as the initial pollution discharge permits, into an optimization model developed for trading of pollution discharge permits among pollutant sources. The results show that the SFB-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 14,834 while providing a relative consensus among pollutant sources. Meanwhile, the SMCDM-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 218,852, but it is less acceptable by pollutant sources. Therefore, it appears that giving due attention to stability, or in other words acceptability of pollution trading programs for all pollutant sources, is an essential element of their success.

  2. Hydrogeologic data for the Big River-Mishnock River stream-aquifer system, central Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogeology, ground-water development alternatives, and water quality in the BigMishnock stream-aquifer system in central Rhode Island are being investigated as part of a long-term cooperative program between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board and the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the ground-water resources throughout Rhode Island. The study area includes the Big River drainage basin and that portion of the Mishnock River drainage basin upstream from the Mishnock River at State Route 3. This report presents geologic data and hydrologic and water-quality data for ground and surface water. Ground-water data were collected from July 1996 through September 1998 from a network of observation wells consisting of existing wells and wells installed for this study, which provided a broad distribution of data-collection sites throughout the study area. Streambed piezometers were used to obtain differences in head data between surface-water levels and ground-water levels to help evaluate stream-aquifer interactions throughout the study area. The types of data presented include monthly ground-water levels, average daily ground-water withdrawals, drawdown data from aquifer tests, and water-quality data. Historical water-level data from other wells within the study area also are presented in this report. Surface-water data were obtained from a network consisting of surface-water impoundments, such as ponds and reservoirs, existing and newly established partial-record stream-discharge sites, and synoptic surface-water-quality sites. Water levels were collected monthly from the surface-water impoundments. Stream-discharge measurements were made at partial-record sites to provide measurements of inflow, outflow, and internal flow throughout the study area. Specific conductance was measured monthly at partial-record sites during the study, and also during the fall and spring of 1997 and 1998 at 41 synoptic sites throughout the study area. General geologic data, such as

  3. Automatic measurement system for light element isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Kouichi.

    1990-01-01

    The automatic measurement system for the light element isotope analysis was developed by installing the specially designed inlet system which was controlled by a computer. The microcomputer system contains specific interface boards for the inlet system and the mass spectrometer, Micromass 602 E. All the components of the inlet and the computer system installed are easily available in Japan. Ten samples can be automatically measured as a maximum of. About 160 minutes are required for 10 measurements of δ 18 O values of CO 2 . Thus four samples can be measured per an hour using this system, while usually three samples for an hour using the manual operation. The automatized analysis system clearly has an advantage over the conventional method. This paper describes the details of this automated system, such as apparatuses used, the control procedure and the correction for reliable measurement. (author)

  4. Fluvial River Regime in Disturbed River Systems: A Case Study of Evolution of the Middle Yangtze River in Post-TGD (Three Gorges Dam), China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.; Lu, J; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The fluvial river is a kind of open system that can interact with its outside environments and give response to disturbance from outside on the earth. It can adjust itself to the disturbances outside the system and reflects new characteristics in the process of reaching a new equilibrium. The TGD

  5. Flood forecasting and early warning system for Dungun River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, I; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Fukami, K; Hanapi, M N; Livia, L; Nor, M D

    2013-01-01

    Floods can bring such disasters to the affected dweller due to loss of properties, crops and even deaths. The damages to properties and crops by the severe flooding are occurred due to the increase in the economic value of the properties as well as the extent of the flood. Flood forecasting and warning system is one of the examples of the non-structural measures which can give early warning to the affected people. People who live near the flood-prone areas will be warned so that they can evacuate themselves and their belongings before the arrival of the flood. This can considerably reduce flood loss and damage and above all, the loss of human lives. Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model is a runoff analysis model converting rainfall into runoff for a given river basin. The simulation can be done using either ground or satellite-based rainfall to produce calculated discharge within the river. The calculated discharge is used to generate the flood inundation map within the catchment area for the selected flood event using Infowork RS.

  6. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  7. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises

  8. Temporal Analyses of Select Macroinvertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River System, 1992-1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    The annual variability in mayflies (Ephemeroptera), fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae), and midges (chironomidae) in six study areas of the Upper Mississippi River System from 1992 to 1995 was examined...

  9. KEY ELEMENTS OF CHARACTERIZING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE INSOLUBLES THROUGH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, S; Barbara Hamm, B

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of HLW is a prerequisite for effective planning of HLW disposition and site closure performance assessment activities. Adequate characterization typically requires application of a combination of data sources, including process knowledge, theoretical relationships, and real-waste analytical data. Consistently obtaining high quality real-waste analytical data is a challenge, particularly for HLW sludge insolubles, due to the inherent complexities associated with matrix heterogeneities, sampling access limitations, radiological constraints, analyte loss mechanisms, and analyte measurement interferences. Understanding how each of these complexities affects the analytical results is the first step to developing a sampling and analysis program that provides characterization data that are both meaningful and adequate. A summary of the key elements impacting SRS HLW sludge analytical data uncertainties is presented in this paper, along with guidelines for managing each of the impacts. The particular elements addressed include: (a) sample representativeness; (b) solid/liquid phase quantification effectiveness; (c) solids dissolution effectiveness; (d) analyte cross contamination, loss, and tracking; (e) dilution requirements; (f) interference removal; (g) analyte measurement technique; and (h) analytical detection limit constraints. A primary goal of understanding these elements is to provide a basis for quantifying total propagated data uncertainty

  10. Trace and major elements in geological samples from Itingusssu River Basin, Sepetiba Bay - Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araripe, D.R.; Favaro, D.I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Itingussu drainage basin is situated at 22 deg 44' - 22 deg 55' SL and 44 deg 53' - 43 deg 55' WL, in Coroa-Grande district, Sepetiba Bay, southwest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Its total area is less than 10 km 2 and includes a waterfall with three drop offs. The study area is located in a granitic pre-Cambrian embasement, discharging in a mangrove forest fringe. This work attempts to investigate the influence of lithology types in the elemental composition of soil of region and sediments of related mangrove. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and subsequent gamma-ray spectrometry were used. This technique enabled the measurement of at least twenty-one chemical elements. The more representative soil samples were enriched with U and Th. Multivariate Statistical Analysis showed that the soil and sediments formed in this area have been influenced by the leucocratic rocks, enriched with LREE and Th. The factorial analysis enables the identification of five factors of influence in the ordination of elements: presence of iron minerals (biotite); presence of allanite; marine influence in the sediment; differentiated kinetic of transport and diagenesis. (author)

  11. Major and trace elements in Mahogany zone oil shale in two cores from the Green River Formation, piceance basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.; Dean, W.E.; Parduhn, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Parachute Creek Member of the lacustrine Green River Formation contains thick sequences of rich oil-shale. The richest sequence and the richest oil-shale bed occurring in the member are called the Mahogany zone and the Mahogany bed, respectively, and were deposited in ancient Lake Uinta. The name "Mahogany" is derived from the red-brown color imparted to the rock by its rich-kerogen content. Geochemical abundance and distribution of eight major and 18 trace elements were determined in the Mahogany zone sampled from two cores, U. S. Geological Survey core hole CR-2 and U. S. Bureau of Mines core hole O1-A (Figure 1). The oil shale from core hole CR-2 was deposited nearer the margin of Lake Uinta than oil shale from core hole O1-A. The major- and trace-element chemistry of the Mahogany zone from each of these two cores is compared using elemental abundances and Q-mode factor modeling. The results of chemical analyses of 44 CR-2 Mahogany samples and 76 O1-A Mahogany samples are summarized in Figure 2. The average geochemical abundances for shale (1) and black shale (2) are also plotted on Figure 2 for comparison. The elemental abundances in the samples from the two cores are similar for the majority of elements. Differences at the 95% probability level are higher concentrations of Ca, Cu, La, Ni, Sc and Zr in the samples from core hole CR-2 compared to samples from core hole O1-A and higher concentrations of As and Sr in samples from core hole O1-A compared to samples from core hole CR-2. These differences presumably reflect slight differences in depositional conditions or source material at the two sites. The Mahogany oil shale from the two cores has lower concentrations of most trace metals and higher concentrations of carbonate-related elements (Ca, Mg, Sr and Na) compared to the average shale and black shale. During deposition of the Mahogany oil shale, large quantities of carbonates were precipitated resulting in the enrichment of carbonate-related elements

  12. Abundance, distribution and bioavailability of major and trace elements in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukina, S. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Dara, O. M.; Smurov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Major (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K, S, P), minor (Mn) and trace (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi and U) elements, their chemical forms and the mineral composition, organic matter (TOC) and carbonates (TIC) in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay were first determined along the salinity gradient. The abundance and ratio of major and trace elements in surface sediments are discussed in relation to the mineralogy, grain size, depositional conditions, reference background and SQG values. Most trace-element contents are at natural levels and are derived from the composition of rocks and soils in the watershed. A severe enrichment of Ag is most likely derived from metal-rich detrital heavy minerals such as Ag-sulfosalts. Along the salinity gradient, several zones of metal enrichment occur in surface sediments because of the geochemical fractionation of the riverine material. The parts of actually and potentially bioavailable forms (isolated by four single chemical reagent extractions) are most elevated for Mn and Pb (up to 36% and 32% of total content, respectively). The possible anthropogenic input of Pb in the region requires further study. Overall, the most bioavailable parts of trace elements are associated with easily soluble amorphous Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. The sediments are primarily enriched with bioavailable metal forms in the riverine part of the estuary. Natural (such as turbidities) and human-generated (such as urban and industrial activities) pressures are shown to influence the abundance and speciation of potential contaminants and therefore change their bioavailability in this estuarine system.

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers

  14. Time-scales of erosion and weathering processes in the Himalayan river system: Element and isotope approach using the U-series; Constantes de temps des processus d'erosion et d'alteration dans le systeme himalayen: approche geochimique elementaire et isotopique par les series de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granet, M

    2007-06-15

    The time-scales of erosion and weathering processes are key parameters which need to be determined to understand the response of the reliefs to external forcing like tectonics, climate and human activities. They were recovered by using U-series nuclides analyzed in sediments and suspended materials carried by the Himalayan rivers of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. In the Ganges basin, the time-scales of weathering determined from the study of coarse sediments carried by the Kali Gandaki range from several ky, where the uplift is located, to 350 ky. Such values indicate that the bed-rocks are in situ weathered for a long period before the weathering residual products get transported in the rivers as coarse sediments. At the outlet of the high range, these sediments are carried by the tributaries of the Ganges, the Gandak and Ghaghara, during a transfer period of about 100 ka. The study of the sediments at the outlet of the Brahmaputra tributaries allows to propose time-scales of weathering ranging from 110 to 270 ky. Such long periods confirm that during their transfer in the plains, the sediments are temporarily trapped at several places in the basins. In the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the time-scales of sedimentary transfer are 575 and 160 ky, respectively. These values, which are of the same order as their response times, are much longer than the timescales of the Quaternary climate oscillations. It confirms the buffering action of the asiatic alluvial plains for the high-frequency sediment flux variations in response to external forcing in the chain. The study of suspended materials suggests that their chemical compositions result from the mixing of coarse river sediments with fine particles from various locations in the basin which are affected by vegetation recycling. By contrast to coarse sediments, the time-scales of transfer for the suspended materials are fast, e.g. a few ky, pointing the potential of U-series nuclides to assess particle transport

  15. Identification of Columbia River basalt flows from deep cores in the Pasco Basin based on trace element abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Rancitelli, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of basalt from three deep core holes drilled in the Pasco Basin, Washington (DDH-3, DH-4, DH-5) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) for up to fifteen trace and major elements. These analyses were used to assign each basalt flow to one of a series of previously defined chemical types of the Columbia River Basalt Group. All of the flows except the two flows at the bottom of well DDH-3 were clearly assignable to one of the defined chemical types. These two flows apparently represent new, as yet undefined chemical types. Average values and standard deviations for compositions of each of the chemical types found in the three wells are presented along with two-element variation diagrams for the geochemically important pair La-Cr, La-Fe, La-Th and La-Sc. The assignment of the flows to known chemical types accomplished in this study was very helpful in relating the basalts in the core holes to stratigraphically defined basalt flows in surface sections. A correlation diagram relating the flows in the core holes to one another on the basis of chemical type is presented

  16. Distribution Pattern of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca Elements as Particle Size Function in the Code River Sediments from Upstream to Downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Muzakky

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements concentration of granular sediment from upstream to downstream of Code river has been done. The aim of this research is to know the influence of particle size on the concentration of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements in the Code river sediments from upstream to downstream and its distribution pattern. The instrument used was x-ray fluorescence with Si(Li) detector. Analysis results show that more Fe and Sr elements are very much found in 150 - 90 μm particle size, while Zr and Ca elements are very much found in < 90 μm particle size. Distribution pattern of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements distribution in Code river sediments tends to increase relatively from upstream to downstream following its conductivity. The concentration of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements are 1.49 ± 0.03 % - 5.93 ± 0.02 % ; 118.20 ± 10.73 ppm - 468.21 ± 20.36 ppm; 19.81 ppm ± 0.86 ppm - 76.36 ± 3.02 ppm and 3.22 ± 0.25 % - 11.40 ± 0.31 % successively. (author)

  17. Business Intelligence tools as an element of information supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szmelter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present theBusiness Intelligence toolsas an element improvingflow of information withinthe management information systemand as atool to facilitate theachieving the objectives ofinformation supply system.In the firstpart of the paperthe author presents the issuesrelatedto the specific character of information as a kind of resource and functioning ofthe information supply systemin the enterprise. The secondpart of the articleincludethe characteristics ofBusiness Intelligence systems. The thirdpart deals withthe impact ofBusiness Intelligence toolsto the ongoingactivities ofinformation supply system.

  18. Optical system storage design with diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Haggans, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data storage systems are gaining widespread acceptance due to their high areal density and the ability to remove the high capacity hard disk from the system. In magneto-optical read-write systems, a small rotation of the polarization state in the return signal from the MO media is the signal which must be sensed. A typical arrangement used for detecting these signals and correcting for errors in tracking and focusing on the disk is illustrated. The components required to achieve these functions are listed. The assembly and alignment of this complex system has a direct impact on cost, and also affects the size, weight, and corresponding data access rates. As a result, integrating these optical components and improving packaging techniques is an active area of research and development. Most designs of binary optic elements have been concerned with optimizing grating efficiency. However, rigorous coupled wave models for vector field diffraction from grating surfaces can be extended to determine the phase and polarization state of the diffracted field, and the design of polarization components. A typical grating geometry and the phase and polarization angles associated with the incident and diffracted fields are shown. In our current stage of work, we are examining system configurations which cascade several polarization functions on a single substrate. In this design, the beam returning from the MO disk illuminates a cascaded grating element which first couples light into the substrate, then introduces a quarter wave retardation, then a polarization rotation, and finally separates s- and p-polarized fields through a polarization beam splitter. The input coupler and polarization beam splitter are formed in volume gratings, and the two intermediate elements are zero-order elements.

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul

    2008-12-17

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2007, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: (1) eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in November; (2) age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October; (3) age-1 smolts were released into Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River in May; and (4) hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2007. Population abundances were estimated at 73,702 fish for Redfish Lake, 124,073 fish for Alturas Lake, and 14,746 fish for Pettit Lake. Angler surveys were conducted from May 26 through August 7, 2007 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 102 anglers and estimated that 56 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.03 fish/hour for each kokanee kept. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 14 to June 13, 2007. We estimated that 5,280 natural origin and 14,256 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from

  20. Hydraulic modeling of riverbank filtration systems with curved boundaries using analytic elements and series solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark

    2010-08-01

    A new analytic solution approach is presented for the modeling of steady flow to pumping wells near rivers in strip aquifers; all boundaries of the river and strip aquifer may be curved. The river penetrates the aquifer only partially and has a leaky stream bed. The water level in the river may vary spatially. Flow in the aquifer below the river is semi-confined while flow in the aquifer adjacent to the river is confined or unconfined and may be subject to areal recharge. Analytic solutions are obtained through superposition of analytic elements and Fourier series. Boundary conditions are specified at collocation points along the boundaries. The number of collocation points is larger than the number of coefficients in the Fourier series and a solution is obtained in the least squares sense. The solution is analytic while boundary conditions are met approximately. Very accurate solutions are obtained when enough terms are used in the series. Several examples are presented for domains with straight and curved boundaries, including a well pumping near a meandering river with a varying water level. The area of the river bottom where water infiltrates into the aquifer is delineated and the fraction of river water in the well water is computed for several cases.

  1. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-12-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  2. Transport of plutonium by the Mississippi River system and other rivers in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of fallout Pu has been studied in the sediments and water of the Mississippi River and eight other rivers. Plutonium content of the sediments is related to grain size and Fe and Mn content. Rivers in human climates show relatively high organic carbon (3 to 4%) and high /sup 239,240)Pu content (36 to 131 dpm/kg) in their suspended sediments. Dissolved Pu is very low in all the rivers; distribution coefficients vary from 10 4 to 10 5 . The 238 Pu//sup 239,240/Pu ratios are low in all the river sediments (∼.06) except the Miami River in Ohio, where ratios as high as 99 were measured. The high ratios originate from the Mound Laboratory Pu processing plant at Miamisburg, Ohio, and can be traced downstream to the junction with the Ohio River. Mississippi River suspended sediment shows a continual decrease of /sup 239,240/Pu content over a 7 year time period. An exponential curve best-fit through the data predicts a half time of decrease equal to 4.3 years. The decrease in Pu content of river sediment results from several factors: cessation of atmospheric weapons testing; transport of Pu to deeper levels of soil profiles; storage of sediment in flood plains and behind dams; and dilution by erosion by older, prebomb soil material. The amount of fallout Pu now removed from the Mississippi River drainage basin to the ocean is 11% as a maximum estimate. Most the fallout Pu in the Mississippi drainage basin will remain on the continent unless there are major changes in erosion and sediment transport patterns in the basin itself. 56 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  3. Restraint system for core elements of a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor, a core element bundle formed of a plurality of side-by-side arranged core elements is surrounded by restraining elements that exert a radially inwardly directly restraining force generating friction forces between the core elements in a restraining plane that is transverse to the core element axes. The adjoining core elements are in rolling contact with one another in the restraining plane by virtue of rolling-type bearing elements supported in the core elements. (Official Gazette)

  4. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  5. Development of failed element monitoring system for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yupu; Liu Haojie

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at the existent problems of failed element monitoring system in the PWR, the detector, the spiral tube, the neutron-moderator and the shielding of neutron bas improved on in this task. These improvements decrease the backgrounds effectively, raise the work stability of the detectors and resolve the failed element error action problem which can not be resolved for the long time, and the detecting sensitivity is raise ten times. The γ-ray detector is arranged spiral with outside, so the γ-rays with shorter half-life can be detected. The structure of gross gamma detection station has improved, so the solid angle is expanded, the transmissivity of γ-rays and β-rays are increased, and the ratio of signal to background is raised. The measurement instrument has been intellectualized. This system is above criticism for the users in operation. (authors)

  6. Accuracy of the photogrametric measuring system for large size elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grzelka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methods of estimating and guidelines for verifying the accuracy of optical photogrammetric measuringsystems, using for measurement of large size elements. Measuring systems applied to measure workpieces of a large size which oftenreach more than 10000mm require use of appropriate standards. Those standards provided by the manufacturer of photogrammetricsystems are certified and are inspected annually. To make sure that these systems work properly there was developed a special standardVDI / VDE 2634, "Optical 3D measuring systems. Imaging systems with point - by - point probing. " According to recommendationsdescribed in this standard research on accuracy of photogrametric measuring system was conducted using K class gauge blocks dedicatedto calibrate and test accuracy of classic CMMs. The paper presents results of research of estimation the actual error of indication for sizemeasurement MPEE for photogrammetric coordinate measuring system TRITOP.

  7. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Elements of a collaborative systems model within the aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphalen, Bailee R.

    2000-10-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine the components of current aerospace collaborative efforts. There were 44 participants from two selected groups surveyed for this study. Nineteen were from the Oklahoma Air National Guard based in Oklahoma City representing the aviation group. Twenty-five participants were from the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston representing the aerospace group. The surveys for the aviation group were completed in reference to planning missions necessary to their operations. The surveys for the aerospace group were completed in reference to a well-defined and focused goal from a current mission. A questionnaire was developed to survey active participants of collaborative systems in order to consider various components found within the literature. Results were analyzed and aggregated through a database along with content analysis of open-ended question comments from respondents. Findings and conclusions. This study found and determined elements of a collaborative systems model in the aerospace industry. The elements were (1) purpose or mission for the group or team; (2) commitment or dedication to the challenge; (3) group or team meetings and discussions; (4) constraints of deadlines and budgets; (5) tools and resources for project and simulations; (6) significant contributors to the collaboration; (7) decision-making formats; (8) reviews of project; (9) participants education and employment longevity; (10) cross functionality of team or group members; (11) training on the job plus teambuilding; (12) other key elements identified relevant by the respondents but not included in the model such as communication and teamwork; (13) individual and group accountability; (14) conflict, learning, and performance; along with (15) intraorganizational coordination. These elements supported and allowed multiple individuals working together to solve a common problem or to develop innovation that could not have been

  9. Elemental ratios and lipid classes in a coral reef food web under river influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón-Palau, Laura; Parrish, Christopher C.; Pérez-España, Horacio; Aguiñiga-Garcia, Sergio

    2018-05-01

    Coral reefs in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico are increasingly suffering from anthropogenic nutrient inputs principally from fertilizers as identified by their δ15N signatures. To determine if primary producers are passively affected by anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment in a coral reef community, carbon: nitrogen ratios (C:N mol mol-1) were measured. The C:N ratio was used as a proxy for nitrogen enrichment in primary producers when the ratio decreases, and for lipid plus carbohydrate in terms of C, and protein in terms of N in primary producers and consumers. Lipid classes and the triacylglycerol to sterol (TAG:ST) ratio were used to evaluate energy storage as an indication of nutritional quality in the six most abundant primary producers, and of nutritional condition in ten ubiquitous consumers in a coral reef in the Gulf of Mexico under river influence. A low C:N ratio revealed nitrogen enrichment in primary producers. Among the lipids, high TAG proportions were detected in phytoplankton and zooxanthellae suggesting that they have a higher nutritional quality in terms of energy, followed by sea grass, mangrove, and macroalgae. During the rainy season TAG:ST increased in primary consumers such as echinoderms, and top predators such as the perciform fish Bodianus rufus, Ocyurus chrysurus and Caranx hippos, suggesting an increase in energy storage. In contrast, TAG:ST decreased in the principal habitat providing coral Montastrea cavernosa, along with a decrease in the phospholipid proportion suggesting a poor nutritional condition. There were three species with no change in their TAG:ST ratio: the sponge Aplysina sp., the masked goby Coryphopterus personatus and the surgeon fish Achanturus chirurgus. The lower value of TAG, TAG:ST ratio and phospholipid proportion in the coral M. cavernosa suggests that the reported abundance of zooplankton does not satisfy the energy demand of M. cavernosa during the rainy season.

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999, when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2001, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October and to Pettit and Alturas lakes in July; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September along with anadromous adult sockeye salmon that returned to the Sawtooth basin and were not incorporated into the captive broodstock program. Kokanee population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September. Only age-0 and age-1 kokanee were captured on Redfish Lake, resulting in a population estimate of 12,980 kokanee. This was the second lowest kokanee abundance estimated since 1990. On Alturas Lake age-0, age-1, and age-2 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population was estimated at 70,159. This is a mid range kokanee population estimate for Alturas Lake, which has been sampled yearly since 1990. On Pettit Lake only age-1 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population estimate was 16,931. This estimate is in the midrange of estimates of the kokanee population in Pettit Lake, which has been sampled

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  13. A Critical Element to Successful Implementation Of Future Safeguards Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, Deborah A.

    2003-01-01

    As we look to the future of nuclear materials management and safeguards systems, it is essential to place significant emphasis on creation of a strong infrastructure to support and sustain modern systems. Traditionally, safeguards infrastructure development has focused on such elements as equipment development, strengthening of the national regulatory base, creation of state-of-the-art accounting and control systems, and procedure development. Less emphasis has been placed on recognition of the 'human element' as a primary component of the necessary infrastructure and the key to successful implementation of new or existing systems. The importance of the human element can be recognized by considering the broad span of influence and control, direction, regulation and implementation of safeguards systems exhibited by a large number of professionals: diplomats, scholars, politicians, facility managers, program directors and technical specialists. These individuals provide the connectivity or 'glue' that binds together a myriad of smaller safeguards program elements and ensures a holistic approach is fostered and maintained. The education and training of our future leaders and experts must receive the highest priority. In addition, this effort must consider factors beyond development of technical capabilities. Given the rapidly evolving world climate since the end of the cold war, our safeguards leaders and experts need education and training that will provide a well-developed understanding of the broader political dimensions of current nonproliferation challenges. They need to learn how to think, rather than what to think. A sustained effort is required to highlight the importance of the human dimension of safeguards and nuclear materials management and how these systems support international nonproliferation efforts. New educational initiatives are needed to better prepare the next generation of leaders and experts. Increased regional and national cooperation in the

  14. Trace element patterns in Dutch coastal dunes after 50 years of artificial recharge with Rhine River water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) are important in water quality monitoring of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems, because they need to be tested against maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs), and some can be used as a tracer of either infiltration water, pollution or geochemical processes. The behavior

  15. Neutron activation analysis studies of selected portions of the Mahoning River system using 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, E.; Cordon, P.J.; Hazari, A.S.G.; Kline, R.; Mahadeviah, I.; Mooney, E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis study was conducted on portions of the Mahoning River located in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. This river occurs in a highly populated area and is used extensively by numerous industries, including four steel mills, located in the area. Detailed analysis of water and sediment samples indicates the presence of ten different elements. These are sodium, chlorine, bromine, copper, manganese, magnesium, calcium, vanadium, potassium and aluminum. (U.S.)

  16. Integration of element technology and system supporting thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A special committee for integrated system technology survey on thermonuclear fusion (TNF) was begun on June, 1999, under an aim to generally summarize whole of shapes on technology to realize TNF reactor to summarize present state of every technologies and their positioning in whole of their TNF technology. On a base of survey of these recent informations, this report is comprehensively summarized for an integrated system technology on TNF. It has outlines on magnetic field enclosing method, outlines on inertia enclosing method, element technology supporting TNF, new power generation techniques, and ripple effects on TNF technology. (G.K.)

  17. Mobile Complex For Rapid Diagnosis of the Technological System Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilin Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the up-to-dateness of the new informing and measuring tools and technologies development. It is reviewed the mobile complex for runtime diagnostics of technological system “machine-toolinstrument- detail”. It was found that the use of the complex allows to identify the frequency area in which the appearance of resonance of the technological system elements is possible, and thus to draw a conclusion on the technical state of the diagnosed object. It is concluded that there is the prospects for the use of the above mentioned mobile complex for vibration diagnostics.

  18. Elemental composition of otoliths from migrating chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, captured at the Kitakami river and Ishinomaki Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Izuru; Iizuka, Keiki; Sugawara, Yoshio; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Ishii, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    The elemental composition (Ca, Sr, Zn and Fe) of otoliths from migrating chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, captured at the Kitakami river and Ishinomaki Bay was analyzed to understand the migratory history using a particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The Sr/Ca ratio of salmon otoliths was lower (less than 1 x 10 -3 ) in the portion formed in a freshwater environment and higher (approximately 4.8 x 10 -3 ) in a sea water environment. When the fish migrated from sea water into a freshwater environment, the otoliths' Sr/Ca ratios significantly increased. The highest values were found in the fish captured at the lower part of the Kitakami river (about 20 km upriver from the mouth). The values from the fish captured at the upper part of the Kitakami river (about 200 km upriver from the mouth) were also not less than those of the fish captured at Ishinomaki Bay. Abnormally high otolith Sr/Ca ratios for these upriver-migrating fish, when compared to the values from non-migrating salmon inhabiting stable environmental (salinity and temperature) conditions, provided evidence that they were stressed. No significant changes in the otoliths' Zn/Ca ratios were found, while these values were inversely proportional to the Sr/Ca ratios. However, a rapid drop in the Zn/Ca ratio and an increase in the Sr/Ca ratio was observed in some individuals in which higher values for the Fe/Ca were found. These results suggest that these otolith parameters don't exactly reflect the salinity and temperature history in upriver-migrating chum salmon because the physiological mechanism of incorporation of Sr, Zn and Ca within the otolith of those fish is abnormal, though for fish in non-stressful conditions the Sr/Ca and the Zn/Ca ratios in otoliths are effective indices for predicting the history of environmental conditions experienced by the fish in the past. Regarding the relationship between the Sr/Ca and the Zn/Ca ratios, and also the Fe/Ca ratio, there is a possibility that they

  19. Pike River Mine Disaster: Systems-Engineering and Organisational Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Pons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pike River mine (PRM, an underground coal mine in New Zealand (NZ, exploded in 2010. This paper analyses the causes of the disaster, with a particular focus on the systems engineering and organisational contributions. Poor systems-engineering contributed via poorly designed ventilation, use of power-electronics underground, and placement of the main ventilation fan underground. Management rushed prematurely into production even though the technology development in the mine was incomplete. Investment in non-productive infrastructure was deprioritised resulting in inadequate ventilation, and the lack of a viable second emergency egress. The risk assessments were deficient, incomplete, or not actioned. Warnings and feedback from staff were ignored. Risk arises as a consequence of the complex interactions between the components of the sociotechnical system. Organisations will need to strengthen the integrity of their risk management processes at engineering, management, and board levels. The systems engineering perspective shows the interacting causality between the engineering challenges (ventilation, mining method, electrical power, project deliverables, management priorities, organisational culture, and workers’ behaviour. Use of the barrier method provides a new way to examine the risk-management strategies of the mine. The breakdowns in organisational safety management systems are explicitly identified.

  20. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to

  1. 77 FR 51733 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, New River Gorge National River, Bicycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... important segment of the New River in West Virginia for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future... multiple uses, including hiking and bicycling. Both of these plans can be viewed by going to the NERI park... for ``Environmental Assessment: Design and Build Two Stacked Loop Hiking and Biking Trail Systems...

  2. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  3. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix M: Water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. Analysis of water quality begins with an account of the planning and evaluation process, and continues with a description of existing water quality conditions in the Columbia River Basin. This is followed by an explanation how the analysis was conducted. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the effects of SOR alternatives on water quality and a comparison of alternatives

  5. Managing water and riparian habitats on the Bill Williams River with scientific benefit for other desert river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hickey,; Woodrow Fields,; Andrew Hautzinger,; Steven Sesnie,; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Dick Gilbert,

    2016-01-01

    This report details modeling to: 1) codify flow-ecology relationships for riparian species of the Bill Williams River as operational guidance for water managers, 2) test the guidance under different climate scenarios, and 3) revise the operational guidance as needed to address the effects of climate change. Model applications detailed herein include the River Analysis System  (HEC-RAS) and the Ecosystem Functions Model  (HEC-EFM), which was used to generate more than three million estimates of local seedling recruitment areas. Areas were aggregated and compared to determine which scenarios generated the most seedling area per unit volume of water. Scenarios that maximized seedling area were grouped into a family of curves that serve as guidance for water managers. This work has direct connections to water management decision-making and builds upon and adds to the rich history of science-based management for the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. 

  6. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael

    2015-01-01

    High-technology metals — such as the rare earth elements (REE) — have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further. - Highlights: • Corbicula fluminea shells are bioarchives of dissolved geogenic REE in

  7. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merschel, Gila, E-mail: g.merschel@jacobs-university.de; Bau, Michael

    2015-11-15

    High-technology metals — such as the rare earth elements (REE) — have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further. - Highlights: • Corbicula fluminea shells are bioarchives of dissolved geogenic REE in

  8. Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J.; Monahon, T.M.; Ketcham, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table testing which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its ''Generic Safety Evaluation Report'' approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the United States and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluating program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology

  9. Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J.; Monahon, T.; Ketcham, D.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table tested which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its Generic Safety Evaluation Report approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the US and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective approach developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluation program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology

  10. Separation of macro-quantities of actinide elements at Savannah River by high-pressure cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale separation of actinides from fission products and from each other by pressurized cation exchange chromatography at Savannah River is reviewed. Several kilograms of 244 Cm have been separated, with each run containing as much as 150 g of 244 Cm. Dowex 50W-X8 (Dow Chemical Co.) cation resin, graded to 30-70 micron size range, is used, and separation is made by eluting with 0.05M diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) at a pH of 3. The effluent from the column is continuously monitored by a BF 3 detector, a NaI detector, and a lithium-drifted germanium detector and gamma spectrometer to guide collection of product fractions. Operating the columns at 300 to 1000 psi pressure eliminates resin bed disruption caused by radiolytically produced gases, and operating at increased flow rates decreases the radiolytic degradation of the resin per unit of product processed. A portion of the hot canyon of a production radiochemical separation plant was converted from a remote crane-operated facility to a master-slave manipulator-operated facility for separation and purification of actinide elements by pressurized cation exchange. It also contains an evaporator, furnaces, a calorimeter, and several precipitators and associated tanks. Actinide processing from target dissolution to packaging of purified product is planned in this facility

  11. Lean Management Systems in Radiology: Elements for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stacy R; Ruter, Royce L; Tibor, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature on Lean and Lean Management Systems and how they have been implemented in healthcare organizations and particularly in radiology departments. The review focuses on the elements required for a successful implementation of Lean by applying the principles of a Lean Management System instead of a Lean tools-only approach. This review shares the successes and failures from healthcare organizations' efforts to improve the quality and safety of the services they provide. There are a limited number of healthcare organizations in the literature who have shared their experiences and additional research is necessary to determine whether a Lean Management System is a viable alternative to the current management structure in healthcare.

  12. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  13. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix N, wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included

  14. Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

    2014-07-01

    Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

  15. Storage system and method for spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Eckardt, B.

    1981-01-01

    The proposal concerns an additional protection against leakage of a FE-transport container for interim storage of spent fuel elements. The gastight container has a second cover placed at a short distance from the first cover. The intermediate hollow space can be connected with a measuring system which indicates if part of the trace gas (mostly helium) added as indicator has escaped from the container due to leakage. The description explains the method and the assembly of required lines and measuring points etc. (UWI) [de

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix G: Land use and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. The SOR began in early 1990, prior to the filing of petitions for endangered status for several salmon species under the Endangered Species Act. The comprehensive review of Columbia River operations encompassed by the SOR was prompted by the need for Federal decisions to (1) develop a coordinated system operating strategy (SOS) for managing the multiple uses of the system into the 21st century; (2) provide interested parties with a continuing and increased long-term role in system planning (Columbia River Regional Forum); (3) renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA), a contractual arrangement among the region's major hydroelectric-generating utilities and affected Federal agencies to provide for coordinated power generation on the Columbia River system; and (4) renew or develop new Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. The review provides the environmental analysis required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR

  17. Weathering processes and the composition of inorganic material transported through the orinoco river system, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R.F.; Koehnken, L.; Johnsson, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of river-borne material in the Orinoco River system is related primarily to erosion regime, which in turn is related to tectonic setting; especially notable is the contrast between material derived from tectonically active mountain belts and that from stable cratonic regions. For a particular morpho-tectonic region, the compositional suites of suspended sediment, bed material, overback deposits, and dissolved phases are fairly uniform are are typically distinct from whose of other regions. For each region, a consistent set of chemical weathering reactions can be formulated to explain the composition of dissolved and solid loads. In developing these formulations, erosion on slopes and storage of solids in soils and alluvial sediments are important considerations. Compositionally verymature sediment is derived from areas of thick soils where erosion is transport limited and from areas where sediments are stored for extended periods of time in alluvial deposits. Compositionally immature sediments are derived from tectonically active mountain belts where erosion is weathering limited. Weathering-limited erosion also is important in the elevated parts of the Guayana Shield within areas of sleep topography. Compared to the mountain belts, sediments derived from elevated parts of the Shield are more mature. A greater degree of chemical weathering seems to be needed to erode the rock types typical of the Shield. The major-element chemistry and mineral composition of sediment delivered by the Orinoco River to the ocean are controlled by rivers that have their headwaters in mountain belts and cross the Llanos, a region of alluvial plains within the foreland basin. The composition of sediments in rivers that drain the Shield seems to be established primarily at the site of soil formation, whereas for rivers that drain the mountain belts, additional weathering occurs during s episodes of storage on alluvial plains as sediments are transported across the Llanos

  18. Heavy metal transport in large river systems: heavy metal emissions and loads in the Rhine and Elbe river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Rona; Behrendt, Horst

    2002-11-01

    Pollutant transport and management in the Rhine and Elbe basins is still of international concern, since certain target levels set by the international committees for protection of both rivers have not been reached. The analysis of the chain of emissions of point and diffuse sources to river loads will provide policy makers with a tool for effective management of river basins. The analysis of large river basins such as the Elbe and Rhine requires information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of both emissions and physical information of the entire river basin. In this paper, an analysis has been made of heavy metal emissions from various point and diffuse sources in the Rhine and Elbe drainage areas. Different point and diffuse pathways are considered in the model, such as inputs from industry, wastewater treatment plants, urban areas, erosion, groundwater, atmospheric deposition, tile drainage, and runoff. In most cases the measured heavy metal loads at monitoring stations are lower than the sum of the heavy metal emissions. This behaviour in large river systems can largely be explained by retention processes (e.g. sedimentation) and is dependent on the specific runoff of a catchment. Independent of the method used to estimate emissions, the source apportionment analysis of observed loads was used to determine the share of point and diffuse sources in the heavy metal load at a monitoring station by establishing a discharge dependency. The results from both the emission analysis and the source apportionment analysis of observed loads were compared and gave similar results. Between 51% (for Hg) and 74% (for Pb) of the total transport in the Elbe basin is supplied by inputs from diffuse sources. In the Rhine basin diffuse source inputs dominate the total transport and deliver more than 70% of the total transport. The diffuse hydrological pathways with the highest share are erosion and urban areas.

  19. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River basin (CRb), scientists and river managers collaborate to improve native ecosystems. Native ecosystems have deteriorated due to construction of dams and diversions that alter natural flow, sediment supply, and temperature regimes, trans-basin diversions that extract large amounts of water from some segments of the channel network, and invasion of non-native animals and plants. These scientist/manager collaborations occur in large, multi-stakeholder, adaptive management programs that include the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, and the Upper Colorado River Endangered Species Recovery Program. Although a fundamental premise of native species recovery is that restoration of predam flow regimes inevitably leads to native species recovery, such is not the case in many parts of the CRb. For example, populations of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) are largest in the sediment deficit, thermally altered conditions of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, but these species occur in much smaller numbers in the upper CRb even though the flow regime, sediment supply, and sediment mass balance are less perturbed. Similar contrasts in the physical and biological response of restoration of predam flow regimes occurs in floodplains dominated by nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) where reestablishment of floods has the potential to exacerbate vertical accretion processes that disconnect the floodplain from the modern flow regime. A significant challenge in restoring segments of the CRb is to describe this paradox of physical and biological response to reestablishment of pre-dam flow regimes, and to clearly identify objectives of environmentally oriented river management. In many cases, understanding the nature of the perturbation to sediment mass balance caused by dams and diversions and understanding the constraints imposed by societal commitments to provide

  20. Environmental survey in the Tuul and Orkhon River basins of north-central Mongolia, 2010: metals and other elements in streambed sediment and floodplain soi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.; May, Thomas W.; Choijil, J.; Komov, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Streambed sediment and subsurface floodplain soil were sampled for elemental analyses from 15 locations in river basins of north-central Mongolia during August 2010. Our primary objective was to conduct a reconnaissance-level assessment of potential inputs of toxicologically important metals and metalloids to Lake Baikal, Russia, that might originate from mining and urban activities within tributaries of the Selenga River in Mongolia. Samples were collected in triplicate from all sites, then dried, and sieved to city of Ulaanbaatar, but those concentrations were considerably less than probable effects benchmarks. Historical and possibly present mining activities have led to considerable metal contamination in certain tributaries of the Orkhon River in north-central Mongolia; however, metals originating from those sources did not appear to be accumulating in sediments at our downstream-most sampling sites located near the border between Mongolia and Russia.

  1. Contrasts in Sediment Delivery and Dispersal from River Mouth to Accumulation Zones in High Sediment Load Systems: Fly River, Papua New Guinea and Waipaoa River, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Walsh, J. P.; Hale, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships between sediment-transport processes, short-term sedimentary deposition, subsequent burial, and long-term accumulation are critical to understanding the morphological development of the continental margin. This study focuses on processes involved in formation and evolution of the clinoform in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea in which much of the riverine sediment accumulates, and comparison to those processes active off the Waipaoa River, New Zealand that form mid-shelf deposits and export sediment to the slope. In tidally dominated deltas, sediment discharged from the river sources must transit through an estuarine region located within the distributary channels, where particle pathways can undergo significant transformations. Within the distributaries of the Fly River tidally dominated delta, near-bed fluid-mud concentrations were observed at the estuarine turbidity maximum and sediment delivery to the nearshore was controlled by the morphology and gradient of the distributary. El Niño results in anonymously low flow and sediment discharge conditions, which limits transport of sediment from the distributaries to the nearshore zone of temporary storage. Because the sediment stored nearshore feeds the prograding clinoform, this perturbation propagates throughout the dispersal system. In wave-dominated regions, transport mechanisms actively move sediment away from the river source, separating the site of deposition and accumulation from the river mouth. River-flood and storm-wave events each create discrete deposits on the Waipaoa River shelf and data has been collected to determine their form, distribution, and relationship to factors such as flood magnitude or wave energy. In this case, transport pathways appear to be influenced by structurally controlled shelf bathymetry. In both cases, the combined fluvial and marine processes can initiate and maintain gravity-driven density flows, and although their triggers and controls differ vastly

  2. Environmental data management system at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, C.H.; Gordon, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The volume and complexity of data associated with escalating environmental regulations has prompted professionals at the Savannah River Site to begin taking steps necessary to better manage environmental information. This paper describes a plan to implement an integrated environmental information system at the site. Nine topic areas have been identified. They are: administrative, air, audit ampersand QA, chemical information/inventory, ecology, environmental education, groundwater, solid/hazardous waste, and surface water. Identification of environmental databases that currently exist, integration into a ''friendly environment,'' and development of new applications will all take place as a result of this effort. New applications recently completed include Groundwater Well Construction, NPDES (Surface Water) Discharge Monitoring, RCRA Quarterly Reporting, and Material Safety Data Sheet Information. Database applications are relational (Oracle RDBMS) and reside largely in DEC VMS environments. In today's regulatory and litigation climate, the site recognizes they must have knowledge of accurate environmental data at the earliest possible time. Implementation of this system will help ensure this

  3. The Chalk River helium jet and skimmer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeing, H.; Koslowsky, V.; Wightman, M.; Hardy, J.C.; MacDonald, J.A.; Faestermann, T.; Andrews, H.R.; Geiger, J.S.; Graham, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    A helium jet and skimmer system intended as an interface between a target location at the Chalk River tandem accelerator and the ion source of an on-line separator presently under construction has been developed. The system consists of a target chamber, a 125 cm long capillary, and a one stage skimmer chamber. The designs of the target and skimmer chambers allow one to vary a large number of independent flow and geometrical parameters with accurate reproducibility. Experiments with the β-delayed proton emitter 25 Si (tsub(1/2)=218 ms) produced in the reaction 24 Mg( 3 He,2n) 25 Si show that under optimized conditions about 75% of the reaction products leaving the target are transported to the skimmer. Of those, more than 90% pass through the skimmer orifice, which separates off 97.5% of the transport gas, helium. By introducing an additional helium flow across the skimming orifice the amount of helium separated off the transport jet can be increased to beyond 99.85%, leaving the high throughput of recoils unaffected. (Auth.)

  4. Source apportionment of heavy metals and their ecological risk in a tropical river basin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Balwant; Singh, Umesh Kumar

    2018-06-27

    Surface water and sediment samples were collected from Ajay River basin to appraise the behavior of heavy metals with surrounding environments and their inter-elemental relationships. Parameters like pH and organic carbon are having a minimal role in heavy metal distribution while some elements like Fe and Cu showed great affinity for organic matter based on linear regression analysis (LRA). Ficklin diagram justified that river basin is not contaminated through acidic pollutants. The river basin is highly enriched with Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni which were much higher than world average values, average shale standard, effect range low (ERL), and threshold effect level (TEL). PCA and LRA verified that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni were mainly derived from anthropogenic inputs, and others like Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co came from geogenic sources. Pollution indices revealed that river basin is moderately to highly contaminated by Cu, Cd, and Ni. Furthermore, Ajay River basin is under strong potential ecological risk based on the obtained value of risk index and probable effect level/effect range median quotient index. However, river basin is strongly influenced by lithological properties, diversified hydrogeological settings, mineralization and mobilization of subsurface materials, and urban and industrial effluents which are controlling the heavy metals.

  5. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  6. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  7. Digital Elevation Model Correction for the thalweg values of Obion River system, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullo, T. T.; Bhuyian, M. N. M.; Hawkins, S. A.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Obion River system is located in North-West Tennessee and discharges into the Mississippi River. To facilitate US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to estimate water availability for agricultural consumption a one-dimensional HEC-RAS model has been proposed. The model incorporates the major tributaries (north and south), main stem of Obion River along with a segment of the Mississippi River. A one-meter spatial resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used as the primary source of topographic data. LiDAR provides fine-resolution terrain data over given extent. However, it lacks in accurate representation of river bathymetry due to limited penetration beyond a certain water depth. This reduces the conveyance along river channel as represented by the DEM and affects the hydrodynamic modeling performance. This research focused on proposing a method to overcome this issue and test the qualitative improvement by the proposed method over an existing technique. Therefore, objective of this research is to compare effectiveness of a HEC-RAS based bathymetry optimization method with an existing hydraulic based DEM correction technique (Bhuyian et al., 2014) for Obion River system in Tennessee. Accuracy of hydrodynamic simulations (upon employing bathymetry from respective sources) would be regarded as the indicator of performance. The aforementioned river system includes nine major reaches with a total river length of 310 km. The bathymetry of the river was represented via 315 cross sections equally spaced at about one km. This study targeted to selecting best practice for treating LiDAR based terrain data over complex river system at a sub-watershed scale.

  8. Spatio-temporal patterns and predictions of phytoplankton assemblages in a subtropical river delta system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xinhui; Wang, Xiangxiu

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and seasonal sampling within a subtropical river delta system, the Pearl River Delta (China), provided data to determine seasonal phytoplankton patterns and develop prediction models. The high nutrient levels and frequent water exchanges resulted in a phytoplankton community with greatest...

  9. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix J, recreation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts

  10. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  11. Biological elements carry out optical tasks in coherent imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, P.; Bianco, V.; Paturzo, M.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Marchesano, V.

    2016-03-01

    We show how biological elements, like live bacteria species and Red Blood Cells (RBCs) can accomplish optical functionalities in DH systems. Turbid media allow coherent microscopy despite the strong light scattering these provoke, acting on light just as moving diffusers. Furthermore, a turbid medium can have positive effects on a coherent imaging system, providing resolution enhancement and mimicking the action of noise decorrelation devices, thus yielding an image quality significantly higher than the quality achievable through a transparent medium in similar recording conditions. Besides, suspended RBCs are demonstrated to behave as controllable liquid micro-lenses, opening new possibilities in biophotonics for endoscopy imaging purposes, as well as telemedicine for point-of-care diagnostics in developing countries and low-resource settings.

  12. Use of gold as monostandard for the determination of elemental concentrations in environmental SRMs and Ganga river sediments by the k0 method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, V.V.S.; Acharya, R.N.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Garg, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using the k 0 method by employing gold as monostandard has been used for the determination of 18 elements (As, Ba, Br, Cl, Cr, Co, Cs, Dy, Fe, Hf, Ga, In, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc and Th) in standard reference materials (SRMs) of environmental origin and four sediment samples collected from the Ganga river in northern parts of India. Data obtained for SRMs agree within ±5-10% with the certified values for most elements. Merits and demerits of the k 0 method are discussed. An attempt has been made to identify the sources of heavy metal pollutants in the sediment samples and study the mobility pattern for toxic heavy metals originating from the tanneries along with the river flow

  13. Geogenically vs. anthropogenic pollution of river sediments by potentially toxic trace elements on model locations; Geogenne vs. antropogenne znecistenie riecnych sedimentov potencialne toxickymi stopovymi prvkami na modelovych lokalitach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazicka, A. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra geochemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Michnova, J. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra loziskovej geologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    Rtg diffraction analysis was used to evaluate the stream sediments mineralogical composition of Maly Dunaj, Nitra and Hron rivers. Identified minerals in the sediment samples, in addition with chemical analysis of selected elements (As, Sb, Hg, Cu, Pb), helped to determine the origin (geogenic vs. anthropogenic) of these potentially toxic trace elements. The results show that Maly Dunaj sediments are mostly loaded with anthropogenic contamination (agriculture, industry). Heavy minerals identified in Nitra sediments suggest natural higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Fe. On the other hand As and Hg contamination is caused by human activities. The main sources are the coal ash impoundments in Zemianske Kostolany and Chalmova (for As) and Novacke chemicke zavody a.s. (for Hg). Stream sediments of Hron river are mostly influneced by the geology of the catchment area (Sb - As deposits in Nizke Tatry, volcanics). (authors)

  14. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix L: Soils, geology and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix addresses the study of geology, soils, and groundwater concerns relative to the System Operation Review (SOR). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study, scope, and process for this resource area. In order, the respective sections of this chapter discuss the relevant issues for the study, and the means by which the SOR team carried out the study

  15. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test for X Ray Fluorescence Laboratories PTXRFIAEA09: Determination of Major, Minor and Trace Elements in a River Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test PTXRFIAEA09 on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in river clay. Methodologies, a data evaluation approach, a summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out within the IAEA project Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance the capability of interest Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health and agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluating environmental pollution

  16. Separation by sequential chromatography of americium, plutonium and neptunium elements: application to the study of trans-uranian elements migration in a European lacustrine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, H.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear tests carried out in the atmosphere in the Sixties, the accidents and in particular that to the power station of Chernobyl in 1986, were at the origin of the dispersion of a significant quantity of transuranic elements and fission products. The study of a lake system, such that of the Blelham Tarn in Great Britain, presented in this memory, can bring interesting answers to the problems of management of the environment. The determination of the radionuclides in sediment cores made it possible not only to establish the history of the depositions and consequently the origin of the radionuclides, but also to evaluate the various transfers which took place according to the parameters of the site and the properties of the elements. The studied transuranic elements are plutonium 238, 239-240, americium 241 and neptunium 237. Alpha emitting radionuclides, their determination requires complex radiochemical separations. A method was worked out to successively separate the three radioelements by using a same chromatographic column. Cesium 137 is the studied fission product, its determination is done by direct Gamma spectrometry. Lead 210, natural radionuclide, whose atmospheric flow can be supposed constant. makes it possible to obtain a chronology of the various events. The detailed vertical study of sediment cores showed that the accumulation mode of the studied elements is the same one and that the methods of dating converge. The cesium, more mobile than transuranic elements in the atmosphere, was detected in the 1963 and 1986 fallout whereas an activity out of transuranic elements appears only for the 1963 fallout. The activity of the 1963 cesium fallout is of the same order of magnitude as that of 1986. The calculation of the diffusion coefficients of the elements in the sediments shows an increased migration of cesium compared to transuranic elements. An inventory on the whole of the lake made it possible to note that the atmospheric fallout constitute the

  17. Paleodrainage of the Columbia River system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington State: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Reidel, S.P.; Tallman, A.M.

    1985-12-01

    The evolution of the Columbia River drainage system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington in the last 17 My reflects the geologic history of the plateau. We have updated an interpretation of the evolution of the Columbia River system and defined the geomorphic and structural features that have controlled the position of ancestral streams. The sequence of geologic events and the resulting drainage system for various time intervals in the last 17 My are summarized below. 121 refs., 14 figs

  18. Microbiological studies in the Mandovi-Zuari river system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Row, A.

    Total heterotrophic and coliform bacteria were surveyed during October 1977 to September 1978 from 9 stations each along the rivers Mandovi and Zuari and 3 along the coast of Goa. Total heterotrophic population showed wide temporal and spatial...

  19. Transversal of Procedure Elements in a Computerized Procedure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeonsub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    APR1400 MCR(Main Control Room) has introduced CPS(Computerized Procedure System). APR400 CPS is framed with overview pane, step detail pane, and monitoring pane. The overview shows the step in one dimensional array. Diagram in the step detail pane is called as flowlogic diagram. The flowlogic diagram has advantage of being intuitive and not being segmented so that the interfaces are easy to follow and understand. While developing CPS software or training operators these interfaces, however, there is still areas to refine behaviors of flowlogic diagram. If flowlogic diagram has contingency instructions, it is sometime difficult to interpret it properly. Therefore this paper is trying to explain behavior of flowlogic diagram in view of procedure elements. Procedure execution can be called as transversal of steps and instructions in flowlogic diagram. Both hierarchy of procedures elements and flowlogic diagram provides useful framework to test transversal with completeness. Navigation button behaviors are interpreted in view of flowlogic diagram. The framework and flowlogic diagram can be further applied to improve CPS user interfaces.

  20. Hydromorphological control of nutrient cycling in complex river floodplain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, T.; Bondar-Kunze, E.; Felkl, M.; Habersack, H.; Mair, M.; Pinay, G.; Tritthart, M.; Welti, N.

    2009-04-01

    Riparian zones and floodplains are key components within river ecosystems controlling nutrient cycling by promoting transformation processes and thus, act as biogeochemical hot spots. The intensity of these processes depends on the exchange conditions (the connectivity) with the main channel and the morphological setting of the water bodies. At the landscape scale, three interrelated principles of hydromorphological dynamics can be formulated regarding the cycling and transfer of carbon and nutrients in large rivers ecosystems: a) The mode of carbon and nutrient delivery affects ecosystem functioning; b) Increasing residence time and contact area impact nutrient transformation; c) Floods and droughts are natural events that strongly influence pathways of carbon and nutrient cycling. These three principles of hydromorphological dynamics control the nutrient uptake and retention and are linked over different temporal and spatial scales. All three factors can be strongly affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic impacts, through a change in either the water regime or the geomorphologic setting of the river valley. Any change in natural water regimes will affect the biogeochemistry of riparian zones and floodplains as well as their ability to cycle and mitigate nutrient fluxes originating from upstream and/or upslope. Especially these areas have been altered by river regulation and land use changes over the last 200 years leading to the deterioration of the functioning of these compartments within the riverine landscape. The resulting deficits have prompted rehabilitation and restoration measures aiming to increase the spatial heterogeneity, the complexity, of these ecosystems. Yet, a more integrated approach is needed considering the present status of nutrient dynamics and the effects of restoration measures at different scales. The present paper analyses the effects of river side-arm restoration on ecosystem functions within the side-arm and highlights

  1. Los Alamos MAWST software layered on Westinghouse Savannah River Company's nuclear materials accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Smith, J.E.; Davis, J.M. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos Safeguards Systems Group's Materials Accounting With Sequential Testing (MAWST) computer program was developed to fulfill DOE Order 5633.3B requiring that inventory-difference control limits be based on variance propagation or any other statistically valid technique. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) developed a generic computerized accountability system, NucMAS, to satisfy accounting and reporting requirements for material balance areas. NucMAS maintains the calculation methods and the measurement information required to compute nuclear material transactions in elemental and isotopic masses by material type code. The Safeguards Systems Group designed and implemented to WSRC's specifications a software interface application, called NucMASloe. It is a layered product for NucMAS that automatically formats a NucMAS data set to a format compatible with MAWST and runs MAWST. This paper traces the development of NucMASloe from the Software Requirements through the testing and demonstration stages. The general design constraints are described as well as the difficulties encountered on interfacing an external software product (MAWST) with an existing classical accounting structure (NucMAS). The lessons learned from this effort, the design, and some of the software are directly applicable to the Local Area Network Material Accountability System (LANMAS) being sponsored by DOE

  2. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Stets, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr−1 (95% CI: 5.84 −10.46), averaging 750 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr−1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ∼6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

  3. Architectural elements of hybrid navigation systems for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Guilherme F.; Theil, Stephan

    2017-12-01

    The fundamental limitations of inertial navigation, currently employed by most launchers, have raised interest for GNSS-aided solutions. Combination of inertial measurements and GNSS outputs allows inertial calibration online, solving the issue of inertial drift. However, many challenges and design options unfold. In this work we analyse several architectural elements and design aspects of a hybrid GNSS/INS navigation system conceived for space transportation. The most fundamental architectural features such as coupling depth, modularity between filter and inertial propagation, and open-/closed-loop nature of the configuration, are discussed in the light of the envisaged application. Importance of the inertial propagation algorithm and sensor class in the overall system are investigated, being the handling of sensor errors and uncertainties that arise with lower grade sensory also considered. In terms of GNSS outputs we consider receiver solutions (position and velocity) and raw measurements (pseudorange, pseudorange-rate and time-difference carrier phase). Receiver clock error handling options and atmospheric error correction schemes for these measurements are analysed under flight conditions. System performance with different GNSS measurements is estimated through covariance analysis, being the differences between loose and tight coupling emphasized through partial outage simulation. Finally, we discuss options for filter algorithm robustness against non-linearities and system/measurement errors. A possible scheme for fault detection, isolation and recovery is also proposed.

  4. Hybrid energy harvesting systems, using piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornogolub, Alexandru; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Interest in energy harvesting applications has increased a lot during recent years. This is especially true for systems using electroactive materials like dielectric polymers or piezoelectric materials. Unfortunately, these materials despite multiple advantages, present some important drawbacks. For example, many dielectric polymers demonstrated high energy densities; they are cheap, easy to process and can be easily integrated in many different structures. But at the same time, dielectric polymer generators require an external energy supply which could greatly compromise their autonomy. Piezoelectric systems, on the other hand, are completely autonomous and can be easily miniaturized. However, most common piezoelectric materials present a high rigidity and are brittle by nature and therefore their integration could be difficult. This paper investigates the possibility of using hybrid systems combining piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers for mechanical energy harvesting applications and it is focused mainly on the problem of electrical energy transfer. Our objective is to show that such systems can be interesting and that it is possible to benefit from the advantages of both materials. For this, different configurations were considered and the problem of their optimization was addressed. The experimental work enabled us to prove the concept and identify the main practical limitations.

  5. Symmetry structure of the periodic system of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two different, exactly soluble, quantum mechanical many-body problems are presented and their symmetry properties are analyzed. One is based on the Demkov-Ostrovskii problem which models the (n + 1)-filling rule of the atomic Aufbau principle. The invariance properties of the model differential equation are studied in detail. Contrary to commonly known quantum problems, the degeneracy structure within the quantum number (n + 1) is not described by the representation of a Lie algebra. However, it is described by a symmetry algebra which does not quite close under the commutation relations. The properties of this new algebra are closely examined. It is shown that the characteristic 'period doubling' in Aufbau chart is due to the structure of this algebra. To attain a better physical understanding of the symmetry of the periodic system of elements, the Demkov-Ostrovskii equation is transformed into a new equation, without changing some of its symmetry properites. It is found that the quantum states of the transformed equation provide reasonable approximations to the correspinding Hartree-Fock-Slater atomic orbitals. Thus the symmetry of the periodic system is approximately described by the degeneracy algebra which is obtained in this thesis. In the second part of this work, a group theoretical investigation is developed for a class of Coulomb-type N-body quantum systems in three dimensions. The dynamical algebra for these systems is found to be SO(3N + 1,2)

  6. Architectural elements of hybrid navigation systems for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Guilherme F.; Theil, Stephan

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental limitations of inertial navigation, currently employed by most launchers, have raised interest for GNSS-aided solutions. Combination of inertial measurements and GNSS outputs allows inertial calibration online, solving the issue of inertial drift. However, many challenges and design options unfold. In this work we analyse several architectural elements and design aspects of a hybrid GNSS/INS navigation system conceived for space transportation. The most fundamental architectural features such as coupling depth, modularity between filter and inertial propagation, and open-/closed-loop nature of the configuration, are discussed in the light of the envisaged application. Importance of the inertial propagation algorithm and sensor class in the overall system are investigated, being the handling of sensor errors and uncertainties that arise with lower grade sensory also considered. In terms of GNSS outputs we consider receiver solutions (position and velocity) and raw measurements (pseudorange, pseudorange-rate and time-difference carrier phase). Receiver clock error handling options and atmospheric error correction schemes for these measurements are analysed under flight conditions. System performance with different GNSS measurements is estimated through covariance analysis, being the differences between loose and tight coupling emphasized through partial outage simulation. Finally, we discuss options for filter algorithm robustness against non-linearities and system/measurement errors. A possible scheme for fault detection, isolation and recovery is also proposed.

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix P: Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The purpose of this technical appendix is to provide the environmental review necessary to enter into agreements regarding the distribution between Federal and non-Federal project owners with respect to delivery of the Canadian Entitlement obligation to Canada for the period 1998 through 2024

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix T: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix documents the public and agency review of the SOR Draft EIS and how the SOR agencies used the review to formulate the FINAL EIS. The appendix includes a summary of the review process, a discussion of the nature of the comments, a list of all commentors, reproductions of comment letters, and responses to all comments. Changes in the EIS text in response to comments are noted in the responses

  9. Fate of redox-sensitive elements in two different East-African wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasner, Björn; Fiedler, Sabine

    2017-04-01

    We expect that an intensified cropping alters soil pH and Eh, and negatively affects the production potential of wetlands. Therefore, we investigated the redox-conditions in combination with the fate of different redox-sensitive elements in two prototypical wetland systems that show a high potential for food production in East-Africa. While the floodplains (observed near Ifakara, Kilombero District/Tanzania) serve as major crop producing areas in the region, the Inland Valleys (observed in Namulonge, Central District/Uganda) show a high potential for future production. Both systems have been divided into three positions; the fringe near to the slope, the center near to the river and the middle in between these two positions. In order to get a better understanding of the two systems we installed continuously measuring redox-electrodes in three different positions within both systems. Additionally, the fate of mineral elements was measured using ion-exchange resins with an installation period of 3-4 months. At the Tanzanian field sites the Eh-potential shows one major dry period with moderately reducing to well drained conditions in all sampling depths (10, 30, and 50 cm below ground) in all three positions during the measuring period from March 2015 to Dec 2016. Starting with the rains the Eh-potential drops from 700 mV (in 10 and 30 cm depth) to reducing conditions at all three sites - with intermediate brakes in the middle and fringe positions, showing that there has been no rain during these periods. At the Ugandan field sites the Eh-potential shows more fluctuations during the measuring period, especially in the center position in 2015 ( 750 to -200 mV in 30 and 50 cm depth). Having just the Eh-potential from the first 30 cm below ground it is not really possible to differentiate between dry- and rainy-seasons at the sites. The fate of redox-sensitive elements (Fe, Mn, and P) does not always correlate with the overall Eh-conditions (median) of the installation

  10. Adsorption and migration of transplutonium elements in environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balukova, V.D.; Kaymin, E.P.; Ushakov, S.I.

    Behavior of long decay-time transuranium and transplutonium elements in natural systems was addressed. The most dangerous among them are /sup 238/Np, /sup 241/ /sup 243/Am, /sup 244/ /sup 245/ /sup 246/Cm, and /sup 239/ /sup 240/ /sup 242/ /sup 244/Pu. Their transportation through natural deposits is tightly connected with ground water movements. The principal parameters determining behavior of these radionuclides in ground formations are coefficients of isotope distribution between various phases, adsorption capacities of component minerals, effective porosity, filtration coefficients of the liquid, etc. These data are presented in tabular and graphic forms. In carbonate-bicarbonate ground waters containing silicate minerals, the content of radionuclides could be quickly decreased by hydrolysis and formation of insoluble precipitates. 2 references, 3 figures.

  11. The elements of a commercial human spaceflight safety reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ian

    2017-10-01

    In its report on the SpaceShipTwo accident the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) included in its recommendations that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ;in collaboration with the commercial spaceflight industry, continue work to implement a database of lessons learned from commercial space mishap investigations and encourage commercial space industry members to voluntarily submit lessons learned.; In its official response to the NTSB the FAA supported this recommendation and indicated it has initiated an iterative process to put into place a framework for a cooperative safety data sharing process including the sharing of lessons learned, and trends analysis. Such a framework is an important element of an overall commercial human spaceflight safety system.

  12. Wandering gravel-bed rivers and high-constructive stable channel sandy fluvial systems in the Ross River area, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrel G.F. Long

    2011-07-01

    Gravel-dominated strata, inter-bedded with, and overlying coal-bearing units, are interpreted as deposits of wandering gravel-bed rivers, with sinuosity approaching 1.4. In most exposures they appear to be dominated by massive and thin planar-bedded granule to small pebble conglomerates, which would traditionally be interpreted as sheet-flood or longitudinal bar deposits of a high-gradient braided stream or alluvial fan. Architectural analysis of exposures in an open-pit shows that the predominance of flat bedding is an artefact of the geometry of the roadside exposures. In the pit the conglomerates are dominated by large scale cross stratification on a scale of 1–5.5 m. These appear to have developed as downstream and lateral accretion elements on side-bars and on in-channel bars in water depths of 2–12 m. Stacking of strata on domed 3rd order surfaces suggests development of longitudinal in-channel bar complexes similar to those observed in parts of the modern Rhône River system. Mudstone preserved in some of the channels reflects intervals of channel abandonment or avulsion. Minimum channel width is from 70 to 450 m.

  13. Design of fast tuning elements for the ITER ICH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, D.W.; Goulding, R.H.

    1996-05-01

    The coupling between the ion cyclotron (IC) antenna and the ITER plasma (as expressed by the load resistance the antenna sees) will experience relatively fast variations due to plasma edge profile modifications. If uncompensated, these will cause an increase in the amount of power reflected back to the transmitter and ultimately a decrease in the amount of radio frequency (rf) power to the plasma caused by protective suppression of the amount of rf power generated by the transmitter. The goals of this task were to study several alternate designs for a tuning and matching (T ampersand M) system and to recommend some research and development (R ampersand D) tasks that could be carried out to test some of the most promising concepts. Analyses of five different T ampersand M configurations are presented in this report. They each have different advantages and disadvantages, and the choice among them must be made depending on the requirements for the IC system. Several general conclusions emerge from our study: The use of a hybrid splitter as a passive reflected-power dump [''edge localized mode (ELM)-dump''] appears very promising; this configuration will protect the rf power sources from reflected power during changes in plasma loading due to plasma motion or profile changes (e.g., ELM- induced changes in the plasma scrape-off region) and requires no active control of the rf system. Trade-offs between simplicity of design and capability of the system must be made. Simple system designs with few components near the antenna either have high voltages over considerable distances of transmission lines, or they are not easily tuned to operate at different frequencies. Designs using frequency shifts and/or fast tuning elements can provide fast matching over a wide range of plasma loading; however, the designs studied here require components near the antenna, complicating assembly and maintenance. Capacitor-tuned resonant systems may offer a good compromise

  14. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix I: Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix discusses the work performed by the SOR Power Work Group. The Power Work Group (PWG) had several major responsibilities: first, to determine the effects of each of the various system operating strategies (SOS) on the Northwest regional power system; second, given these effects, to determine what, if any, actions are required to meet forecasted regional energy consumption; and finally, to estimate the cost for serving the forecasted regional energy consumption. The Northwest regional power system consists of Federal and non-Federal hydroelectric power projects (hydropower or hydro projects) on the main stem of the Columbia and Snake Rivers, numerous smaller hydro projects on other river reaches, and a number of thermal plants (coal, nuclear and combustion turbines)

  15. A 3D Finite Element Method for Flexible Multibody Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstmayr, Johannes; Schoeberl, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    An efficient finite element (FE) formulation for the simulation of multibody systems is derived from Hamilton's principle. According to the classical assumptions of multibody systems, a large rotation formulation has been chosen, where large rotations and large displacements, but only small deformations of the single bodies are taken into account. The strain tensor is linearized with respect to a co-rotated frame. The present approach uses absolute coordinates for the degrees of freedom and forms an alternative to the floating frame of reference formulation that is based on relative coordinates and describes deformation with respect to a co-rotated frame. Due to the modified strain tensor, the present formulation distinguishes significantly from standard nodal based nonlinear FE methods. Constraints are defined in integral form for every pair of surfaces of two bodies. This leads to a small number of constraint equations and avoids artificial stress singularities. The resulting mass and stiffness matrices are constant apart from a transformation based on a single rotation matrix for each body. The particular structure of this transformation allows to prevent from the usually expensive factorization of the system Jacobian within implicit time--integration methods. The present method has been implemented and tested with the FE-package NGSolve and specific 3D examples are verified with a standard beam formulation

  16. Selected elements and organic chemicals in bed sediment and fish tissue of the Tualatin River basin, Oregon, 1992-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Bernadine A.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of elements and organic compounds have entered the environment as a result of human activities. Such substances find their way to aquatic sediments from direct discharges to waterways, atmospheric emissions, and runoff. Some of these chemicals are known to harm fish or wildlife, either by direct toxicity, by reducing viability, or by limiting reproductive success. In aquatic systems, sediments become the eventual sink for most of these chemicals. Analyzing the sediments provides a first step in a chemical inventory that can lead to an assessment of potential biological impacts (Kennicutt and others, 1994).

  17. Viscoelastic machine elements elastomers and lubricants in machine systems

    CERN Document Server

    MOORE, D F

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic Machine Elements, which encompass elastomeric elements (rubber-like components), fluidic elements (lubricating squeeze films) and their combinations, are used for absorbing vibration, reducing friction and improving energy use. Examplesinclude pneumatic tyres, oil and lip seals, compliant bearings and races, and thin films. This book sets out to show that these elements can be incorporated in machine analysis, just as in the case of conventional elements (e.g. gears, cogs, chaindrives, bearings). This is achieved by introducing elementary theory and models, by describing new an

  18. Audit as Key Element of System Management Improvement in Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents what is an audit for a company, tries to regularize the quality audits, presents main differences between separate types of audits and between audit and control. There are also some exemplary types of nonconformance in a company. Each system has a risk of deficiencies. They can result from material defects or human imperfection. A good quality system should allow the company to detect them in an organized and systematical manner. It guarantees that the irregularities will be removed before they cause a defective production. Quality management consists of planning the quality via quality plans, control and research plans, and supervision and verification by audits and controls. The objective of this paper is to present a special message of audit for organizations which is the improvement of management system in company. Quality audit is used with reference to quality system and its elements, to process, products and services. It compares the real values with expected ones with reference to the activities connected with quality and their results, and planned data. Thanks to quality audits, it is possible to state if the quality management instruments achieve the desired effect. Quality audit can be conducted for the internal and external purposes. One of the quality audit purposes is to estimate if the improvement is necessary or to take corrective actions. The universality of audit, which is completed by periodic system review preformed by head management, allows the use of its application effects both on the strategic and operational effects. Audit is often misled with quality monitoring or control, i.e. activities which aim to control the process or accept the product. Therefore this paper shows the differences between the notions. The information used to conduct an audit is only based on facts (evidence objective, which really exist, independent on emotions or prejudice. They can be documented, declared, based on observed

  19. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 1,994 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1993...

  20. A study of bromide in the Mandovi-Zuari river system of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Dalal, V.N

    Bromide was the subject of detailed investigation in the Mandovi Zuari river system and information was compiled on its spatial and temporal distribution. A simple mixture relation of Carpenter et. al. was applied and seawater percentage and bromide...

  1. Application of optimization technique for flood damage modeling in river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sangita Deb; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

    2018-04-01

    A river system is defined as a network of channels that drains different parts of a basin uniting downstream to form a common outflow. An application of various models found in literatures, to a river system having multiple upstream flows is not always straight forward, involves a lengthy procedure; and with non-availability of data sets model calibration and applications may become difficult. In the case of a river system the flow modeling can be simplified to a large extent if the channel network is replaced by an equivalent single channel. In the present work optimization model formulations based on equivalent flow and applications of the mixed integer programming based pre-emptive goal programming model in evaluating flood control alternatives for a real life river system in India are proposed to be covered in the study.

  2. Terrace system of the middle and lower Sázava River

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balatka, B.; Štěpančíková, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2006), s. 69-81 ISSN 1335-9541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fluvial terrace system * geomorphological evolution * Sázava River Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  3. Selected trace-element and organic contaminants in the streambed sediments of the Potomac River Basin, August 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, James M.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence and distribution of five selected contaminants in streambed sediments at 22 stream sites in the Potomac River Basin. Lead, mercury, and total DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were detected at all sites, and chlordane and total PCB's (polychlorinated biphenyls) were detected at most sites. At six sites, streambed-sediment concentrations of contaminants were detected at levels with the potential to cause frequent adverse effects on aquatic organisms that live in the sediments. Chlordane was detected at these high levels at sampling sites on the Anacostia River, the North Branch Potomac River, Bull Run, and Accotink Creek; mercury was detected at these levels at sites on the South River and the South Fork Shenandoah River; and total PCB's were detected at these levels at the site on the South Fork Shenandoah River. The highest concentrations of all five contaminants generally occurred at sampling sites downstream from areas with industrial plants, urban centers, or orchard and agricultural activity. The occurrence of these contaminants in streambed sediments of the Potomac River Basin is of concern because the contaminants (1) are environmentally persistent, (2) are available for downstream transport during high streamflow periods, and (3) have the potential to cause adverse effects on the health of aquatic organisms and humans through bioaccumulation.

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix H: Navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Navigation Technical Appendix presents the analysis of the various SOR alternatives in terms of their potential affects on the congressionally authorized navigation system within the Columbia and Snake river waterways. The focus of the study, impacts to the authorized navigation, improvements/developments, reflects on one of the continuing historical missions of the US Army Corps of Engineers: to promote safe commercial navigation of the nation's waterways benefiting the development of commerce within the US. The study and evaluation process involved Scoping, Screening and Full Scale Evaluation. During screening two models were developed; one was used to evaluate the effects of the various alternatives on navigation through the Snake River Projects and the other the effects on the Dworshak Pool. Full Scale Analysis was expanded to included a study of effects throughout the system

  5. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  6. Spatial and temporal dynamics of sediment in contrasted mountainous watersheds (Mexican transvolcanic belt and French Southern Alps) combining river gauging, elemental geochemistry and fallout radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, O.; Navratil, O.; Gratiot, N.; Némery, J.; Duvert, C.; Ayrault, S.; Lefèvre, I.; Legout, C.; Bonté, P.; Esteves, M.

    2009-12-01

    In mountainous environments, an excessive fine sediment supply to the rivers typically leads to an increase in water turbidity, contaminant transport and a rapid filling of reservoirs. This situation is particularly problematic in regions where water reservoirs are used to provide drinking water to large cities (e.g. in central Mexico) or where stream water is used to run hydroelectric power plants (e.g. in the French Southern Alps). In such areas, sediment source areas first need to be delineated and sediment fluxes between hillslopes and the river system must be better understood before implementing efficient erosion control measures. In this context, the STREAMS (« Sediment Transport and Erosion Across MountainS ») project funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) aims at understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of sediment at the scale of mountainous watersheds (between 500 - 1000 km2) located in contrasted environments. This 3-years study is carried out simultaneously in a volcanic watershed located in the Mexican transvolcanic belt undergoing a subhumid tropical climate, as well as in a sedimentary watershed of the French Southern Alps undergoing a transitional climate with Mediterranean and continental influences. One of the main specificities of this project consists in combining traditional monitoring techniques (i.e. installation of river gauges, turbidimeters and sediment samplers in several sub-catchments) and sediment fingerprinting using elemental geochemistry (measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA - and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry - ICP-MS) and fallout radionuclides (measured by gamma spectrometry). In the French watershed, geochemical analysis allows outlining different sediment sources (e.g. the contribution of calcareous vs. marl-covered sub-watersheds). Radionuclide ratios (e.g.Be-7/Cs-137) allow identifying the dominant erosion processes occurring within the watershed. Areas mostly

  7. Design of river height and speed monitoring system by using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Siagian, E. C.; Tanjung, K.; Soeharwinto

    2018-02-01

    River is one part of the hydrologic cycle. Water in rivers is generally collected from precipitation, such as rain, dew, springs, underground runoff, and in certain countries also comes from melt ice/snow. The height and speed of water in a river is always changing. Changes in altitude and speed of water can affect the surrounding environment. In this paper, we will design a system to measure the altitude and speed of the river. In this work we use Arduino Uno, ultrasonic sensors and flow rate sensors. Ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 is used as a river height meter. Based on the test results, this sensor has an accuracy of 96.6%.

  8. Study of the Barada river environment pollution with poisonous trace elements resulting from tanning and electroplating industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of leather industry impact on Barada river environment, specifically in the eastern part of Damascus was made. Differential samples such as sediments, soil, and plantations from various locations were collected. results show high increase of chromium in river's sediment and soil adjacent to the river banks. However, such increase was not noticed in plantations or tree leaves. Copper and nickel concentrations were also high in sediments due to waste coming out of the electroplating industry. Concentration of titanium, one of the polishing and coloring industry's wastes, was noticed to be rather high too. Concentration of all previous pollutants was noticed to decrease as the distance become farther from the industrial complex. (Author)

  9. System to determine present elements in oily samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza G, Y.

    2004-11-01

    In the Chemistry Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Investigations of Mexico, dedicated to analyze samples of oleaginous material and of another origin, to determine the elements of the periodic table present in the samples, through the Neutron activation analysis technique (NAA). This technique has been developed to determine majority elements in any solid, aqueous, industrial and environmental sample, which consists basically on to irradiate a sample with neutrons coming from the TRIGA Mark III reactor and to carry out the analysis to obtain those gamma spectra that it emits, for finally to process the information, the quantification of the analysis it is carried out in a manual way, which requires to carry out a great quantity of calculations. The main objective of this project is the development of a software that allows to carry out the quantitative analysis of the NAA for the multielemental determination of samples in an automatic way. To fulfill the objective of this project it has been divided in four chapters: In the first chapter it is shortly presented the history on radioactivity and basic concepts that will allow us penetrate better to this work. In the second chapter the NAA is explained which is used in the sample analysis, the description of the process to be carried out, its are mentioned the characteristics of the used devices and an example of the process is illustrated. In the third chapter it is described the development of the algorithm and the selection of the programming language. The fourth chapter it is shown the structure of the system, the general form of operation, the execution of processes and the obtention of results. Later on the launched results are presented in the development of the present project. (Author)

  10. Integrated System Validation Usability Questionnaire: Information Display Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, Ma. I.; Torralba, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Research and Development (R&D) project on “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Integrated System Validation of Control Rooms, 2014-2015”, in which the research activities described in this report are framed, has two main objectives: to develop the items for an usability methodology conceived as a part of the measurement framework for performance-based control room evaluation that the OECD Halden Reactor Project will test in the experiments planned for 2015; and the statistical analysis of the data generated in the experimental activities of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) facility, with previous usability questionnaires, in 2010 and 2011. In this report, the procedure designed to meet the first goal of the project is described, in particular, the process followed to identify the items related to information displays, one of the elements to be included in the usability questionnaire. Three phases are performed, in the first one, the approaches developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, are reviewed and the models proposed by the nuclear energy industry and their technical support organizations, mainly, the United States Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, are analyzed. In the remaining stages, general and specific guidelines for information displays, in particular, display pages, formats, elements and data quality and update rate recommendations are compared and criteria for the preliminary selection of the items that should be incorporated into the usability questionnaire are defined. This proposal will be reviewed and adapted by the Halden Reactor Project to the design of the specific experiments performed in HAMMLAB.

  11. Multiple single-element transducer photoacoustic computed tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalva, Sandeep Kumar; Hui, Zhe Zhi; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Light absorption by the chromophores (hemoglobin, melanin, water etc.) present in any biological tissue results in local temperature rise. This rise in temperature results in generation of pressure waves due to the thermoelastic expansion of the tissue. In a circular scanning photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system, these pressure waves can be detected using a single-element ultrasound transducer (SUST) (while rotating in full 360° around the sample) or using a circular array transducer. SUST takes several minutes to acquire the PA data around the sample whereas the circular array transducer takes only a fraction of seconds. Hence, for real time imaging circular array transducers are preferred. However, these circular array transducers are custom made, expensive and not easily available in the market whereas SUSTs are cheap and readily available in the market. Using SUST for PACT systems is still cost effective. In order to reduce the scanning time to few seconds instead of using single SUST (rotating 360° ), multiple SUSTs can be used at the same time to acquire the PA data. This will reduce the scanning time by two-fold in case of two SUSTs (rotating 180° ) or by four-fold and eight-fold in case of four SUSTs (rotating 90° ) and eight SUSTs (rotating 45° ) respectively. Here we show that with multiple SUSTs, similar PA images (numerical and experimental phantom data) can be obtained as that of PA images obtained using single SUST.

  12. Sediment Transport Dynamic in a Meandering Fluvial System: Case Study of Chini River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, M. H. M.; Awang, S.; Shaaban, A. J.; Yahaya, N. K. E. M.; Jusoh, A. M.; Arumugam, M. A. R. M. A.; Ghani, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentation in river reduces the flood carrying capacity which lead to the increasing of inundation area in the river basin. Basic sediment transport can predict the fluvial processes in natural rivers and stream through modeling approaches. However, the sediment transport dynamic in a small meandering and low-lying fluvial system is considered scarce in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to analyze the current riverbed erosion and sedimentation scenarios along the Chini River, Pekan, Pahang. The present study revealed that silt and clay has potentially been eroded several parts of the river. Sinuosity index (1.98) indicates that Chini River is very unstable and continuous erosion process in waterways has increase the riverbank instability due to the meandering factors. The riverbed erosional and depositional process in the Chini River is a sluggish process since the lake reduces the flow velocity and causes the deposited particles into the silt and clay soil at the bed of the lake. Besides, the bed layer of the lake comprised of cohesive silt and clayey composition that tend to attach the larger grain size of sediment. The present study estimated the total sediment accumulated along the Chini River is 1.72 ton. The HEC-RAS was employed in the simulations and in general the model performed well, once all parameters were set within their effective ranges.

  13. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  14. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  15. High time-resolved elemental components in fine and coarse particles in the Pearl River Delta region of Southern China: Dynamic variations and effects of meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengzhen; Davy, Perry K; Wang, Xuemei; Cohen, Jason Blake; Liang, Jiaquan; Huang, Minjuan; Fan, Qi; Chen, Weihua; Chang, Ming; Ancelet, Travis; Trompetter, William J

    2016-12-01

    Hourly-resolved PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 samples were collected in the industrial city Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. The samples were subsequently analyzed for elemental components and black carbon (BC). A key purpose of the study was to understand the composition of particulate matter (PM) at high-time resolution in a polluted urban atmosphere to identify key components contributing to extreme PM concentration events and examine the diurnal chemical concentration patterns for air quality management purposes. It was found that BC and S concentrations dominated in the fine mode, while elements with mostly crustal and oceanic origins such as Si, Ca, Al and Cl were found in the coarse size fraction. Most of the elements showed strong diurnal variations. S did not show clear diurnal variations, suggesting regional rather than local origin. Based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) method, 3 forcing factors were identified contributing to the extreme events of PM 2.5 and selected elements, i.e., urban direct emissions, wet deposition and a combination of coarse mode sources. Conditional probability functions (CPF) were performed using wind profiles and elemental concentrations. The CPF results showed that BC and elemental Cl, K, Fe, Cu and Zn in the fine mode were mostly from the northwest, indicating that industrial emissions and combustion were the main sources. For elements in the coarse mode, Si, Al, K, Ca, Fe and Ti showed similar patterns, suggesting same sources such as local soil dust/construction activities. Coarse elemental Cl was mostly from the south and southeast, implying the influence of marine aerosol sources. For other trace elements, we found vanadium (V) in fine PM was mainly from the sources located to the southeast of the measuring site. Combined with CPF results of S and V in fine PM, we concluded shipping emissions were likely an important elemental emission source. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  17. Seasonal and spatial variations of rare earth elements in rainwaters, river waters and total suspended particles in air in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, J.S.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.G.; Lee, D.; Chang, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the seasonal and spatial variations of rare earth element (REE) concentrations in natural waters in the central part of South Korea, rain and river waters were collected during 2003-2004. Total suspended particles (TSP) in air were also sampled to investigate the effect of the Asian dust (the Yellow sand) on the chemistry of rainwaters. All samples showed that the absolute concentrations of the light REEs (LREEs) were higher than those of the heavy REEs (HREEs). The post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS)-normalized REE patterns indicate that the REEs in TSP and rainwaters were affected by Asian dust and anthropogenic contaminant, whereas those of river waters were mainly controlled by the geology of their drainage basin and seasonal changes in water regime. The calculated fluxes and yields of total REEs (REEs plus Y) in the South Han River were much greater than those in the North Han River due to the more widespread distribution of sedimentary rocks in the drainage area and more efficient chemical weathering

  18. The elements distribution of Fe, Cd, Ca, Co and Cr on the well water and river in area Wonosari Gunung Kidul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosidi; Agus Taftazani; Sukirno

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of Fe, Cd, Ca, Co and Cr on the well water and river were detected by γ spectrometer with HPGe detector using NAA method. The main objective of this research was carried out to characterize the Fe, Cd, Ca, Co and Cr on the well water and river in area Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta, which accommodate of the present of environment data in support the clean water program. The result indicated that concentration of elements in well and river water at the Wonosari were still in standard level by Govenor of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta no 214/KPTS/1991, were Cd = 0,005 mg/L; Ca = 200 mg/L; Fe = 0,5 mg/L; Co = 0,2 mg/L and Cr = 0,050 mg/L. The concentration in water of Cd, Fe, Ca, Co, and Cr were (0.0002-0.006), (16-40), (5-20), (0.0002-0.37) and (0.0003-0.005) mg/L respectively. The result of analysis give the information that these elements concentration were still proper to use for domestic activities. (author)

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix K: Resident fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. In this appendix the Resident Fish Work Group (RFWG) has attempted to characterize and evaluate impacts of dam operation on an extremely complex and diverse integrated resource. Not only is this required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for SOR, there are resident fish populations that have status under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) or equivalent state regulations (Kootenai River white sturgeon, Snake River white sturgeon, sandroller, shorthead and torrent sculpins, bull trout, westslope cutthroat trout, redband trout, and burbot). The RFWG has also attempted to develop operating alternatives that benefit not only resident fish, but anadromous fish, wildlife, and other human interests as well. The authors have recognized the co-evolution of resident fish, anadromous fish, and other integrated resources in the basin

  20. The ESA River & Lake System: Current Capabilities and Future Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Richard G.; Salloway, Mark; Berry, Philippa A. M.

    Measuring the earth's river and lake resources using satellite radar altimetry offers a unique global monitoring capability, which complements the detailed measurements made by the steadily decreasing number of in-situ gauges. To exploit this unique remote monitoring capability, a global pilot...

  1. Variability in the hydrology of the Ikpoba River system | Iloba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variability in some physico-chemical parameters was studied in Ikpoba River from June to November, 2009, in three stations. The study shows high variability in transparency, flow velocity, BOD, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, phosphate with over 40% variability coefficient which is an indication that these parameters ...

  2. Development library of finite elements for computer-aided design system of reed sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. S.; Shmakov, N. A.; Tkalich, V. L.; Labkovskaia, R. I.; Kalinkina, M. E.; Pirozhnikova, O. I.

    2018-05-01

    The article is devoted to the development of a modern highly reliable element base of devices for security and fire alarm systems, in particular, to the improvement of the quality of contact cores (reed and membrane) of reed sensors. Modeling of elastic sensitive elements uses quadrangular elements of plates and shells, considered in the system of curvilinear orthogonal coordinates. The developed mathematical models and the formed finite element library are designed for systems of automated design of reed switch detectors to create competitive devices alarms. The finite element library is used for the automated system production of reed switch detectors both in series production and in the implementation of individual orders.

  3. River system recovery following the Novat-Rosu tailings dam failure, Maramures County, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Balteanu, Dan; Serban, Mihaela; Driga, Basarab; Zaharia, Sorin

    2008-01-01

    The River Viseu catchment in Maramures County, northwestern Romania, has a long history of base and precious metal mining. Between 1994 and 2003 waste from mining activity at Baia Borsa was stored in the Novat-Rosu tailings pond in the upper Viseu catchment. However, in March 2000, the tailings dam failed releasing approximately 100,000 m 3 of contaminated water and 20,000 t of mineral-rich solid waste, which was routed downstream through the Rivers Novat, Vaser and Viseu into the River Tisa. Following the accident metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations in river water and river channel sediment were assessed in samples collected annually (July 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003) from 29 sites in the Viseu catchment, downstream of the tailings pond. Additionally, the speciation of sediment-associated metals was established using a 4-stage sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and Pb isotope analysis ( 206/204 Pb and 207/204 Pb) was carried out to establish the provenance of contaminated sediments. Metal concentrations in river water were found to comply with EU directive 'target' values within four months of the failure. However, the impact of the spill upon river channel sediments was found to be much longer-lasting, with evidence of the delayed downstream remobilization of tailings stored within the narrow Novat valley following the dam failure, as well as continued inputs of contaminated sediment to the River Viseu from the River Tisla, another mining-affected tributary. Comparison with data from other recent tailings dam failures, indicates that river system recovery rates depend upon local geomorphological conditions, hydrological regimes, and the nature and scale of post-spill clean-up operations

  4. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-12-22

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  5. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouping Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM. This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  6. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety. PMID:26703698

  7. Is trace element concentration correlated to parasite abundance? A case study in a population of the green frog Pelophylax synkl. hispanicus from the Neto River (Calabria, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donato, Carlo; Barca, Donatella; Milazzo, Concetta; Santoro, Raffaella; Giglio, Gianni; Tripepi, Sandro; Sperone, Emilio

    2017-06-01

    Bioaccumulation of 13 trace elements in the livers of 38 Pelophylax sinkl. hispanicus (Ranidae) and its helminth communities were studied and compared among three sites, each with a different degree of pollution along River Neto (south Italy) during September, 2014. Trace element concentrations in water and liver were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For most elements, the highest concentration was recorded in the frogs inhabiting the third site, the one with the highest degree of pollution. The trend of trace element concentration in the liver can be represented as follows: Cu > Zn > Mn > Se > Cr. Concentrations of some elements in water and liver samples were significantly different among the three sites and this is evidenced by the bioaccumulation in the frogs. Four species of helminths, all belonging to Nematoda, were found: Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782), Cosmocerca ornata (Dujarden, 1845), Seuratascaris numidica (Seurat, 1917). The parasite survey presents an important difference of prevalence and average number of helminths in frogs between the three sites. Correlating parasitological and ecotoxicological data showed a strong positive correlation between prevalence and number of parasites with some trace elements such as Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, and Cd.

  8. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdettin Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS. In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1 digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2 simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, and (3 preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1 and (2.

  9. Geographic Information System and Geoportal «River basins of the European Russia»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, O. P.; Mukharamova, S. S.; Maltsev, K. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Ermolaeva, P. O.; Gayazov, A. I.; Mozzherin, V. V.; Kharchenko, S. V.; Marinina, O. A.; Lisetskii, F. N.

    2018-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geoportal with open access «River basins of the European Russia» were implemented. GIS and Geoportal are based on the map of basins of small rivers of the European Russia with information about natural and anthropogenic characteristics, namely geomorphometry of basins relief; climatic parameters, representing averages, variation, seasonal variation, extreme values of temperature and precipitation; land cover types; soil characteristics; type and subtype of landscape; population density. The GIS includes results of spatial analysis and modelling, in particular, assessment of anthropogenic impact on river basins; evaluation of water runoff and sediment runoff; climatic, geomorphological and landscape zoning for the European part of Russia.

  10. Model-Aided Altimeter-Based Water Level Forecasting System in Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Lee, H.; Hossain, F.; Okeowo, M. A.; Basnayake, S. B.; Jayasinghe, S.; Saah, D. S.; Anderson, E.; Hwang, E.

    2017-12-01

    Mekong River, one of the massive river systems in the world, has drainage area of about 795,000 km2 covering six countries. People living in its drainage area highly rely on resources given by the river in terms of agriculture, fishery, and hydropower. Monitoring and forecasting the water level in a timely manner, is urgently needed over the Mekong River. Recently, using TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry water level measurements in India, Biancamaria et al. [2011] has demonstrated the capability of an altimeter-based flood forecasting system in Bangladesh, with RMSE from 0.6 - 0.8 m for lead times up to 5 days on 10-day basis due to T/P's repeat period. Hossain et al. [2013] further established a daily water level forecasting system in Bangladesh using observations from Jason-2 in India and HEC-RAS hydraulic model, with RMSE from 0.5 - 1.5 m and an underestimating mean bias of 0.25 - 1.25 m. However, such daily forecasting system relies on a collection of Jason-2 virtual stations (VSs) to ensure frequent sampling and data availability. Since the Mekong River is a meridional river with few number of VSs, the direct application of this system to the Mekong River becomes challenging. To address this problem, we propose a model-aided altimeter-based forecasting system. The discharge output by Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model is used to reconstruct a daily water level product at upstream Jason-2 VSs based on the discharge-to-level rating curve. The reconstructed daily water level is then used to perform regression analysis with downstream in-situ water level to build regression models, which are used to forecast a daily water level. In the middle reach of the Mekong River from Nakhon Phanom to Kratie, a 3-day lead time forecasting can reach RMSE about 0.7 - 1.3 m with correlation coefficient around 0.95. For the lower reach of the Mekong River, the water flow becomes more complicated due to the reversal flow between the Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong River

  11. Canning and inspection system for nuclear reactor fuel and reflector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, L.A.; Hawke, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    A system is disclosed for canning, inspecting and transferring to a storage area fuel and reflector elements from a nuclear reactor. The system includes a transfer chute, environmental chamber, conveyor and canning mechanism operative to remove and replace closures on containers into which fuel and reflector elements are inserted or from which stored elements are removed while maintaining a sealed gaseous environment and permitting visual and mechanical inspection of the elements by an operator located in a remote shielded area

  12. Structural and elemental analysis of bottom sediments from the Paraíba do Sul River (SE, Brazil) by analytical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguens, Flávio Costa; Oliveira, Martha Lima de; Ferreira, Amanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Laís Rodrigues; Melo, Edésio José Tenório de; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Veiga de

    2016-03-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is a medium-sized river that flows through the Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Brazilian states the three most developed states in Brazil. Industrial parks and cities have historically been established along the river basin. The waters of PSR are used in agriculture, industry and human consumption of over 20 million people, including Rio de Janeiro City. Furthermore, the river receives effluent from these activities: agricultural runoff, industrial waste, and domestic sewage. Therefore, PSR has been considered polluted, particularly by heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metals in bottom sediments grains of the PSR, to infer their elemental composition, and to characterize individual sediment grains morphology, a non-destructive methodology - X-ray microanalyses (Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to Energy Dispersive X-rays Spectrometer/SEM/EDS) - was used. Heavy metals - Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Ag, Ba, Au, La, Ce, Nd, Th, Y, Sn, Os and Pb - were detected by SEM/EDS in bottom sediment grains from PSR, predominantly in grains with equivalent diameter ≤10 μm. They occurred as silicates, oxides (hydro-oxides), sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, phosphates and chlorides. All detected heavy metals occurred as, at least, one kind of soluble metal compound, mainly due to ionic exchange from silicates, with the exception of Ag, which was chloride, sulfate or metallic as Os, Au and Pb. These results corroborate heavy metal PSR pollution and food chain risk, considering that near-shore continental shelf is free of heavy metals contamination. Our results also give support to the hypothesis that the PSR estuary can act as a trap for these elements.

  13. Application of the HBV model for assessment of climate change impacts on the elements of hydrological cycle for the Struma River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanev, Krassimir

    2004-01-01

    The model used in this report is a version of the HBV model developed for the project Climate Change and Energy Production, a Nordic project aimed at evaluating the impacts of climate change on the water resources. It has a simple vegetation parametrization including interception, temperature based evapotranspiration. calculations, lake evaporation, lake routing, glacier mass balance simulation, special functions for climate change simulations etc. The HBV model, originally developed at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute in the first half of the seventies (Bergstroem 1976) has gained widespread use for a large range of applications both in Scandinavia and beyond. It can be classified as a semi-distributed conceptual model. The version described in this report was developed for the Nordic project 'Climate change and Energy Production' (Saelthun 1996), as a synthesis of several versions used in the different Nordic countries. The main input variables are the average daily temperature, daily totals of the precipitation, the potential evapotranspiration and the daily discharges. The HBV model was applied for assessment of climate change impacts on the elements of hydrological cycle for the Struma river basin. The river Struma flows from North to South up to the Aegean Sea. Considerable part of the river basin is situated in northwest part of Bulgaria, heaving an area of more than 10 000 km 2 and average elevation about 900m asl (cross-section Marino pole). The period of 16 years (1973-1988), four precipitation and temperature stations were used for the model parameters evaluation. The achieved value of R 2 (Nash criterion) is 0.55. The climate change impact calculations (monthly values of temperatures change in o C and precipitation change in %) for two scenarios were used for the input data correction to the HBV model. The obtained results are promising and they show the potential possibility for the HBV model use to assess the climate change

  14. Evaluation of an operational water cycle prediction system for the Laurentian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Vincent; Durnford, Dorothy; Smith, Gregory; Dyck, Sarah; Martinez, Yosvany; Mackay, Murray; Winter, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) is implementing new numerical guidance products based on fully coupled numerical models to better inform the public as well as specialized users on the current and future state of various components of the water cycle, including stream flow and water levels. Outputs from this new system, named the Water Cycle Prediction System (WCPS), have been available for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River watershed since June 2016. WCPS links together ECCC's weather forecasting model, GEM, the 2-D ice model C-ICE, the 3-D lake and ocean model NEMO, and a 2-D hydrological model, WATROUTE. Information concerning the water cycle is passed between the models at intervals varying from a few minutes to one hour. It currently produces two forecasts per day for the next three days of the complete water cycle in the Great Lakes region, the largest freshwater lake system in the world. Products include spatially-varying precipitation, evaporation, river discharge, water level anomalies, surface water temperatures, ice coverage, and surface currents. These new products are of interest to water resources and management authority, flood forecasters, hydroelectricity producers, navigation, environmental disaster managers, search and rescue teams, agriculture, and the general public. This presentation focuses on the evaluation of various elements forecasted by the system, and weighs the advantages and disadvantages of running the system fully coupled.

  15. Hydrodynamic modeling of hydrologic surface connectivity within a coastal river-floodplain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C. R.; Guneralp, I.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic surface connectivity (HSC) within river-floodplain environments is a useful indicator of the overall health of riparian habitats because it allows connections amongst components/landforms of the riverine landscape system to be quantified. Overbank flows have traditionally been the focus for analyses concerned with river-floodplain connectivity, but recent works have identified the large significance from sub-bankfull streamflows. Through the use of morphometric analysis and a digital elevation model that is relative to the river water surface, we previously determined that >50% of the floodplain for Mission River on the Coastal Bend of Texas becomes connected to the river at streamflows well-below bankfull conditions. Guided by streamflow records, field-based inundation data, and morphometric analysis; we develop a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for lower portions of Mission River Floodplain system. This model not only allows us to analyze connections induced by surface water inundation, but also other aspects of the hydrologic connectivity concept such as exchanges of sediment and energy between the river and its floodplain. We also aggregate hydrodynamic model outputs to an object/landform level in order to analyze HSC and associated attributes using measures from graph/network theory. Combining physically-based hydrodynamic models with object-based and graph theoretical analyses allow river-floodplain connectivity to be quantified in a consistent manner with measures/indicators commonly used in landscape analysis. Analyzes similar to ours build towards the establishment of a formal framework for analyzing river-floodplain interaction that will ultimately serve to inform the management of riverine/floodplain environments.

  16. Floodplain Impact on Riverine Dissolved Carbon Cycling in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelDuco, E.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown substantial increases in the export of terrestrial carbon by rivers over the past several decades, and have linked these increases to human activity such as changes in land use, urbanization, and intensive agriculture. The Mississippi River (MR) is the largest river in North America, and is among the largest in the world, making its carbon export globally significant. The Atchafalaya River (AR) receives 25% of the Mississippi River's flow before traveling 189 kilometers through the largest bottomland swamp in North America, providing a unique opportunity to study floodplain impacts on dissolved carbon in a large river. The aim of this study was to determine how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the AR change spatially and seasonally, and to elucidate which processes control carbon cycling in this intricate swamp river system. From May 2015 -May 2016, we conducted monthly river sampling from the river's inflow to its outflow, analyzing samples for DOC and DIC concentrations and δ 13C stable isotope composition. During the study period, the river discharged a total of 5.35 Tg DIC and a total of 2.34 Tg DOC into the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the mass inflow-outflow balance, approximately 0.53 Tg ( 10%) of the total DIC exported was produced within the floodplain, while 0.24 Tg ( 10%) of DOC entering the basin was removed. The AR was consistently saturated with pCO2 above atmospheric pressure, indicating that this swamp-river system acts a large source of DIC to the atmosphere as well as to coastal margins. Largest changes in carbon constituents occurred during periods of greatest inundation of the basin, and corresponded with shifts in isotopic composition that indicated large inputs of DIC from floodplains. This effect was particularly pronounced during initial flood stages. This study demonstrates that a major river with extensive floodplains in its coastal margin can act as an important source of DIC as well

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix Q: Regional forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The SOR is currently developing a System Operating Strategy (SOS) that will guide the physical operations of the Columbia River system. The SOR is also addressing the institutional arrangements that must be in place to make needed changes to the SOS in the future, or make interpretations of the strategy in the light of changing water conditions or river needs. For convenience, this future institutional arrangement is referred to as ''The Columbia River Regional Forum,'' or simply ''the Forum,'' even though the nature of this institution is still to be determined. This appendix and the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) identify the Forum as an administrative process that will not result in impacts to the environment and will not require analysis in a NEPA context. The composition of and procedures followed by a decision making body cannot--in and of themselves--be used to predict a particular decision with definable impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, because of the relationship to the other SOR actions, the SOR lead agencies have prepared this Technical Appendix to provide opportunities for review and comment on the Forum alternatives

  18. Fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in a large western river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.D.; Quist, Michael C.; Hardy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500-m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat-mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non-native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non-native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species-specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems.

  19. Fate and transport of trace metals and rare earth elements in the Snake River, an AMD/ARD-impacted watershed. Montezuma, Colorado USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, D. M.; Rue, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research in Snake River Watershed, located near the historic boomtown of Montezuma and adjacent the Continental Divide in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has revealed the distinctive occurrence of rare earth elements (REE) at high concentrations. Here the weathering of the mineralized lithology naturally generates acid rock drainage (ARD) in addition to drainage recieved from abandoned mine adits throughout the area, results in aqueous REE concentrations three orders of magnitude higher than in most major rivers. The dominant mechanism responsible for this enrichment; their dissolution from secondary and accessory mineral stocks, abundant in REEs, promoted by the low pH waters generated from geochemical weathering of disseminated sulfide minerals. While REEs behave conservatively in acidic conditions, as well as in the presence of stabilizing ligands such as sulfate, downstream circumneutral inputs from pristine streams and a rising pH are resulting in observed fractional losses of heavy rare earth elements as well as partitioning towards colloidal and solid phases. These finding in combination with the established role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in binding with both trace metals and REEs, suggest that competitive interactions, complexation, and scavenging are likely contributing to these proportional losses. However, outstanding questions yet remain regarding the effects of an increasing flux of trace metals as well as REEs from the Snake River Watershed into Dillon Reservoir, a major drinking water supply for the City of Denver, in part due to hydroclimatological drivers that are enhancing geochemical weathering and reducing groundwater recharge in alpine areas across the Colorado Rockies. Based on these findings also we seek to broaden this body of work to further investigate the behavior of rare earth elements (REE) in other aquatic environment as well the influence of trace metals, DOM, and pH in altering their reactivity and subsequent watershed

  20. Application of the target fish community model to an urban river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixler, Marcia S

    2011-04-01

    Several models have been developed to assess the biological integrity of aquatic systems using fish community data. One of these, the target fish community (TFC) model, has been used primarily to assess the biological integrity of larger, mainstem rivers in southern New England with basins characterized by dispersed human activities. We tested the efficacy of the TFC approach to specify the fish community in the highly urbanized Charles River watershed in eastern Massachusetts. To create a TFC for the Charles River we assembled a list of fish species that historically inhabited the Charles River watershed, identified geomorphically and zoogeographically similar reference rivers regarded as being in high quality condition, amassed fish survey data for the reference rivers, and extracted from the collections the information needed to define a TFC. We used a similarity measurement method to assess the extent to which the study river community complies with the TFC and an inference approach to summarize the manner in which the existing fish community differed from target conditions. The five most abundant species in the TFC were common shiners (34%), fallfish (17%) redbreast sunfish (11%), white suckers (8%), and American eel (7%). Three of the five species predicted to be most abundant in the TFC were scarce or absent in the existing river community. Further, the river was dominated by macrohabitat generalists (99%) while the TFC was predicted to contain 19% fluvial specialist species, 43% fluvial dependent species, and 38% macrohabitat generalist species. In addition, while the target community was dominated by fish intolerant (37%) and moderately tolerant (39%) of water quality degradation, the existing community was dominated by tolerant individuals (59%) and lacked intolerant species expected in the TFC. Similarity scores for species, habitat use specialization, and water quality degradation tolerance categories were 28%, 35% and 66%, respectively. The clear

  1. Loss of the CNA I secured river water system: analysis and effect evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, Sandra; Guala, Mariana I.; Lorenzo, Andrea T.; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; Urrutia, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    In this work the evolution of the plant parameters is evaluated in the case of a loss of the secured circuit of river water (system UK). In particular the systems which are affected for this loss were studied. It was evaluated the functional degradation of these systems. (author)

  2. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Controlling Robots over Time Delay Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This element involves the development of software that enables easier commanding of a wide range of NASA relevant robots through the Robot Application Programming...

  3. Processes at Water Intake from Mountain Rivers into Hydropower and Irrigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vatin Nikolai; Lavrov Nikolai; Loginov Gennadi

    2016-01-01

    In paper, researches of riverbed and hydraulic processes at the water intake from mountain rivers are observed. Classification of designs of the mountain water intake structures, based on continuity signs is offered. Perfecting of base designs of water intake structures of a mountain-foothill zone and means of their hydraulic automation is carried out. The technological, theoretical and experimental substantiation of parameters of basic elements of these designs with a glance of hydromorphome...

  4. Remote video radioactive systems evaluation, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS

  5. Environmental evaluation of Turkey's transboundary rivers' hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkun, M.

    2010-01-01

    The hydroelectric power and potential environmental impacts of hydroelectric projects in 2 transboundary rivers in Turkey were assessed. The southeastern Anatolia project (GAP) is expected to encompass 27 dams and 19 hydroelectric power plants. The large-scale project will increase domestic electricity production and help to provide irrigation for large agricultural schemes. The Coruh project will consist of 27 dams and hydroelectric power plants, which are expected to have serious environmental impacts in both upstream Turkey and downstream Georgia. A slowing down of each river's velocity will cause changes in sediment transport, while the storage of water in large reservoirs will alter water quality and cause changes in local micro-climates. Irrigation methods may cause soil erosion and salinization. The construction of 2 GAP dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has caused protest from Syria and Iraq. Economic development in the regions caused by the proposed hydroelectric projects is expected to have significant environmental impacts on woodland and grassland areas. The projects are expected to adversely affect threatened plant, mammal, and fish species. More detailed cumulative impact and environmental impact assessments are needed to evaluate the economic, environmental, and social problems that are likely to arise as a result of the projects. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  7. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.W.; Low, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three geochemical methods were used to determine chemical reactions that control solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a regional solute balance within the aquifer and of mineralogy in the aquifer framework to identify solute reactions, (2) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (3) comparison of stable isotope ratios of the groundwater with those in the aquifer framework. The geothermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer system was examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable isotope ratios of geothermal water, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating. Water budgets, hydrologic arguments, and isotopic analyses for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system demonstrate that most, if not all, water is of local meteoric and not juvenile or formation origin. Solute balance, isotopic, mineralogic, and thermodynamic arguments suggest that about 20% of the solutes are derived from reactions with rocks forming the aquifer framework. Reactions controlling solutes in the western Snake river basin are believed to be similar to those in the eastern basin but the regional geothermal system that underlies the Snake river Plain contains total dissolved solids similar to those in the overlying Snake River Plain aquifer system but contains higher concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, silica, fluoride, sulfate, chloride, arsenic, boron, and lithium, and lower concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen. 132 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  9. Characterization of chemical elements of fruits of Leucaena leucocephala in riverside areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Magalhães, Marcelo R.L. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro; Silva, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala is present in several environments. Its fruit is widely used in cattle feed. However, it is classified as an invasive species, causing problems in the restoration of impacted areas. The Piracicaba River Basin is heavily affected by urbanization and industrialization, which shows the proliferation of this species. Considering the importance of this tree species for Brazil, the present study quantifies chemical elements in fruits of this species by applying Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis, method k 0 . Samples were collected in riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, at different periods (dry and rainy season). After collection, the samples were shattered and transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated with neutrons. Certified reference materials were used to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, all material was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm-2s-1 for 8 hours. Ni-Cr alloy was used for the monitoring of thermal neutron flux. High Resolution Range Spectrometry with HPG detectors was employed for the measurement of the induced radioactivity, allowing the quantification of the chemical elements. Compared with available results of chemical analysis of pods, the chemical elements Ca, K, Ba, Cr and Se presented high concentrations. We also quantified chemical elements of environmental relevance such as As, Hg, Br, Ce, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th and Yb, indicating the need for element dynamics studies in the environments occupied by this invasive species

  10. Controls on anastomosis in lowland river systems: Towards process-based solutions to habitat conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Paweł; Grabowski, Robert C; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2017-12-31

    Anastomosing rivers were historically common around the world before extensive agricultural and industrial development in river valleys. Few lowland anastomosing rivers remain in temperate zones, and the protection of these river-floodplain systems is an international conservation priority. However, the mechanisms that drive the creation and maintenance of multiple channels, i.e. anabranches, are not well understood, particularly for lowland rivers, making it challenging to identify effective management strategies. This study uses a novel multi-scale, process-based hydro-geomorphological approach to investigate the natural and anthropogenic controls on anastomosis in lowland river reaches. Using a wide range of data (hydrologic, cartographic, remote-sensing, historical), the study (i) quantifies changes in the planform of the River Narew, Poland over the last 100years, (ii) documents changes in the natural and anthropogenic factors that could be driving the geomorphic change, and (iii) develops a conceptual model of the controls of anastomosis. The results show that 110km of anabranches have been lost from the Narew National Park (6810ha), a 42% reduction in total anabranch length since 1900. The rates of anabranch loss have increased as the number of pressures inhibiting anabranch creation and maintenance has multiplied. The cessation of localized water level and channel management (fishing dams, water mills and timber rafting), the loss of traditional floodplain activities (seasonal mowing) and infrastructure construction (embanked roads and an upstream dam) are contributing to low water levels and flows, the deposition of sediment at anabranch inlets, the encroachment of common reed (Phragmites australis), and the eventual loss of anabranches. By identifying the processes driving the loss of anabranches, this study provides transferable insights into the controls of anastomosis in lowland rivers and the management solutions needed to preserve the unique

  11. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lair, G.J.; Zehetner, F.; Fiebig, M.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Hein, T.; Hohensinner, S.; Hsu, P.; Jones, K.C.; Jordan, G.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded 'AquaTerra' project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management. - Human activities have changed the hydraulics and contaminant fate in river-floodplain ecosystems.

  12. Optimal task partition and state-dependent loading in heterogeneous two-element work sharing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Xing, Liudong; Ben-Haim, Hanoch; Dai, Yuanshun

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world systems such as multi-channel data communication, multi-path flow transmission and multi-processor computing systems have work sharing attributes where system elements perform different portions of the same task simultaneously. Motivated by these applications, this paper models a heterogeneous work-sharing system with two non-repairable elements. When one element fails, the other element takes over the uncompleted task of the failed element upon finishing its own part; the load level of the remaining operating element can change at the time of the failure, which further affects its performance, failure behavior and operation cost. Considering these dynamics, mission success probability (MSP), expected mission completion time (EMCT) and expected cost of successful mission (ECSM) are first derived. Further, optimization problems are formulated and solved, which find optimal task partition and element load levels maximizing MSP, minimizing EMCT or minimizing ECSM. Effects of element reliability, performance, operation cost on the optimal solutions are also investigated through examples. Results of this work can facilitate a tradeoff analysis of different mission performance indices for heterogeneous work-sharing systems. - Highlights: • A heterogeneous work-sharing system with two non-repairable elements is considered. • The optimal work distribution and element loading problem is formulated and solved. • Effects of element reliability, performance, operation cost on the optimal solutions are investigated.

  13. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1998-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Contents and risks of potentially toxic elements in wastewater-fed food production systems in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle

    , fish, soil and sediment from wastewater-fed production systems in Hanoi and Phnom Penh. Another aim was to assess the food safety risks of water spinach and fish with respect to PTEs. The third aim was to assess PTE retention capacity of river sediment in Hanoi and the governing retention mechanisms...... the concentration range observed for water spinach grown at agricultural soil not exposed to wastewater in Malaysia. Water spinach grown at sites of high and low wastewater exposure did not show a significantly higher accumulation of PTEs compared to sites without wastewater exposure. In Phnom Penh, water spinach...... than 11% of the tolerable intake for each element. The PTE content of water spinach in Hanoi and Cheung Ek Lake in Phnom Penh constituted low food safety risks for consumers. Arsenic, Cd and Pb concentrations in muscle, skin and liver of fish grown in wastewater-fed systems in Hanoi and Phnom were low...

  16. Preliminary Characterization of Organic Geochemistry in the Fly-Strickland River System, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alin, S. R.; Aalto, R.; Remington, S. M.; Richey, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    The Fly-Strickland fluvial dispersal system comprises one of the largest river basins in tropical Oceania, ranking among the top 20 rivers in the world for water and sediment discharge. From the New Guinea highlands, these rivers flow >1000 km across lowland tropical floodplains to the Gulf of Papua, with an average annual depth of runoff 100 times that of the Amazon. Within the system, the Strickland has greater sediment discharge and a steeper gradient than the Fly, providing an opportunity to investigate biogeochemical differences associated with particulate flux. For eight lowland sites across the Fly-Strickland river system, we analyzed water and suspended sediment (SS) samples for an initial survey of various carbon cycle parameters. Both the Fly and Strickland Rivers were strongly supersaturated with carbon dioxide (2008-10,479 uatm CO2) and undersaturated with oxygen (1.10-5.48 mg/l O2), with the Fly having higher CO2 and lower O2 concentrations than the Strickland River. These pCO2 and O2 concentrations are comparable to and lower than (respectively) typical values in the Amazon. Measured Fly-Strickland alkalinity values fell in the range of 0.893-1.888 meq, and pH measurements were neutral to slightly alkaline (6.916-7.852). In a sample from a sediment-impoverished tributary from Lake Murray to the Strickland (Herbert R.), pH was neutral (7.060), and alkalinity and pCO2 had their lowest observed values at 0.234 meq and 1407 uatm, respectively. Nutrient concentrations were generally higher in the Strickland ([NO3]=3.36+/-0.69 uM, [PO4]=0.09+/-0.10 uM, and [Si(OH)4]=176.6+/-41.7 uM) than in the Fly River ([NO3]=1.09+/-0.04 uM, [PO4]=0.01+/-0.01 uM, and [Si(OH)4]=110.6+/-4.8 uM). NO3 and PO4 concentrations in the Fly-Strickland river system were lower than in the Amazon, and silicate was comparable. SS concentrations were higher in the Strickland than in the Fly (49.4-231.1 mg/l vs. 19.5-59.6 mg/l). Coarse particulates were organic-poor in the Fly and

  17. Game Design Concept Report : Application of the WeShareIt Game Elements in Nzoia River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onencan, A.M.; Enserink, B.; van de Walle, B.A.

    2018-01-01

    In early 2016, we designed Nzoia WeShareIt game to support joint decision-making, in a complex river basin, through policy practice in the form of water allocation trade-offs between food, energy, and nature. Nzoia WeShareIt game is a multi-player hybrid cooperation game.

    This concept

  18. Neuromorphic elements and systems as the basis for the physical implementation of artificial intelligence technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V. A.; Emelyanov, A. V.; Lapkin, D. A.; Erokhin, V. V.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    The instrumental realization of neuromorphic systems may form the basis of a radically new social and economic setup, redistributing roles between humans and complex technical aggregates. The basic elements of any neuromorphic system are neurons and synapses. New memristive elements based on both organic (polymer) and inorganic materials have been formed, and the possibilities of instrumental implementation of very simple neuromorphic systems with different architectures on the basis of these elements have been demonstrated.

  19. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  20. Investigations of some regional river systems by INAA and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drazhkovich, R.J.; Kukoch, A.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution of Zn, Hg, Sb, Cr, Fe, Sc and Co has been investigated in materials dissolved and suspended in the rivers Ibar, Zapadna Morava and Kamenica by means of INAA and X-ray fluorescence. Irradiation was made in VKG-channels of RA-nuclear reactor Vincha. Distribution coefficients were calculated, as well as contamination factors for investigated river regional systems in comparison to the uncontaminated water system. Data obtained indicate the possibility of utilization of these two analytical methods for investigation and control of biogeochemical and contamination processes in small regional water systems, especially important for modern studies in life sciences

  1. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Apartado Postal 890, Metepec, C.P. 52149 (Mexico); Zarazua, G., E-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Avila-Perez, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Apartado Postal 890, Metepec, C.P. 52149 (Mexico); Carapia-Morales, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Martinez, T. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn K{alpha}. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 {mu}g/g) > S (7593.3 {mu}g/g) > Fe (4406.6 {mu}g/g) > Ca (2601.8 {mu}g/g) > Mn (604.2 {mu}g/g) > Ti (230.7 {mu}g/g) > Zn (51.65 {mu}g/g) > Sr (43.55 {mu}g/g) > Rb (18.61 {mu}g/g) > Cu (12.78 {mu}g/g) > Cr (6.45 {mu}g/g) > Ni (4.68 {mu}g/g) > Pb (4.32 {mu}g/g) > Br (4.31 {mu}g/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  2. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, S.; Zarazúa, G.; Ávila-Pérez, P.; Carapia-Morales, L.; Martínez, T.

    2010-06-01

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn Kα. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 µg/g) > S (7593.3 µg/g) > Fe (4406.6 µg/g) > Ca (2601.8 µg/g) > Mn (604.2 µg/g) > Ti (230.7 µg/g) > Zn (51.65 µg/g) > Sr (43.55 µg/g) > Rb (18.61 µg/g) > Cu (12.78 µg/g) > Cr (6.45 µg/g) > Ni (4.68 µg/g) > Pb (4.32 µg/g) > Br (4.31 µg/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  3. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejeda, S.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Carapia-Morales, L.; Martinez, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn Kα. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 μg/g) > S (7593.3 μg/g) > Fe (4406.6 μg/g) > Ca (2601.8 μg/g) > Mn (604.2 μg/g) > Ti (230.7 μg/g) > Zn (51.65 μg/g) > Sr (43.55 μg/g) > Rb (18.61 μg/g) > Cu (12.78 μg/g) > Cr (6.45 μg/g) > Ni (4.68 μg/g) > Pb (4.32 μg/g) > Br (4.31 μg/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  4. Confidence Estimation of Reliability Indices of the System with Elements Duplication and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a problem to estimate a confidence interval of the main reliability indices such as availability rate, mean time between failures, and operative availability (in the stationary state for the model of the system with duplication and independent recovery of elements.Presents a solution of the problem for a situation that often arises in practice, when there are unknown exact values of the reliability parameters of the elements, and only test data of the system or its individual parts (elements, subsystems for reliability are known. It should be noted that the problems of the confidence estimate of reliability indices of the complex systems based on the testing results of their individual elements are fairly common function in engineering practice when designing and running the various engineering systems. The available papers consider this problem, mainly, for non-recovery systems.Describes a solution of this problem for the important particular case when the system elements are duplicated by the reserved elements, and the elements that have failed in the course of system operation are recovered (regardless of the state of other elements.An approximate solution of this problem is obtained for the case of high reliability or "fast recovery" of elements on the assumption that the average recovery time of elements is small as compared to the average time between failures.

  5. Non–invasive sampling of endangered neotropical river otters reveals high levels of dispersion in the Lacantun River System of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic dispersion, levels of population genetic structure, and movement of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis were investigated by screening eight polymorphic microsatellites from DNA extracted from fecal samples, collected in a hydrologic system of the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico. A total of 34 unique genotypes were detected from our surveys along six different rivers, and the effect of landscape genetic structure was studied. We recovered 16 of the 34 individuals in multiple rivers at multiple times. We found high levels of dispersion and low levels of genetic differentiation among otters from the six surveyed rivers (P > 0.05, except for the pairwise comparison among the Lacantún and José rivers (P < 0.05. We recommend that conservation management plans for the species consider the entire Lacantún River System and its tributaries as a single management unit to ensure the maintenance of current levels of population genetic diversity, because the population analyzed seems to follow a source–sink dynamic mainly determined by the existence of the major river.

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix S: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Coordination Act Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document constitutes the report of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) relating to the proposed Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR). The SOR proposed alternative consists of a number of specific water management manipulations and new management targets for operating the network of existing Federal Columbia River Power System dams and facilities. This report, therefore, presents a broader, ecosystem planning and management approach for evaluating and resolving those operational and biological uncertainties. Potential mitigation, enhancement and restoration actions associated with the preferred alternative will require an adaptive implementation approach. At the present time and as further changes anticipated in SOR operations occur, the complete, ecosystemwide, synergistic effects of the operation of the current Federal Columbia River Power System cannot be adequately ascertained. However, the initial elements of ecosystem-based remedies are presented in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. These remedies are intended to stimulate action to help conserve distressed fish and wildlife populations, while furthering understanding of the impacts of the SOR preferred alternative on the ecosystem. This Coordination Act Report is the first attempt to integrate fish and wildlife mitigation, enhancement, recovery and restoration needs with the proposed action and the existing Federal Columbia River Power System

  7. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river systemriver Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Göransson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The turbidity variation in time and space is investigated in the downstream stretch of the river Göta Älv in Sweden. The river is heavily regulated and carries the discharge from the largest fresh water lake in Sweden, Lake Vänern, to the outflow point in Göteborg Harbour on the Swedish west coast. The river is an important waterway and serves as a fresh-water supply for 700 000 users. Turbidity is utilised as a water quality indicator to ensure sufficient quality of the intake water to the treatment plant. The overall objective of the study was to investigate the influence of rainfall, surface runoff, and river water flow on the temporal and spatial variability of the turbidity in the regulated river system by employing statistical analysis of an extensive data set. A six year long time series of daily mean values on precipitation, discharge, and turbidity from six stations along the river were examined primarily through linear correlation and regression analysis, combined with nonparametric tests and analysis of variance. The analyses were performed on annual, monthly, and daily bases, establishing temporal patterns and dependences, including; seasonal changes, impacts from extreme events, influences from tributaries, and the spatial variation along the river. The results showed that there is no simple relationship between discharge, precipitation, and turbidity, mainly due to the complexity of the runoff process, the regulation of the river, and the effects of Lake Vänern and its large catchment area. For the river Göta Älv, significant, positive correlations between turbidity, discharge, and precipitation could only be found during periods with high flow combined with heavy rainfall. Local precipitation does not seem to have any significant impact on the discharge in the main river, which is primarily governed by precipitation at catchment scale. The discharge from Lake Vänern determines the base level for the turbidity in the river

  8. Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of water in aquatic systems is subject to temporal and spatial variations due to varying effects of natural and anthropogenic factors. This study assessed the dynamics of water quality in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system along an upstream–downstream gradient above and below Maun during February, ...

  9. Transmission of climate, sea-level, and tectonic singals across river systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forzoni, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of climatic, tectonic, and sea-level changes (external forcing) on river systems (source-to-sink) and how these changes are recorded in the stratigraphic record. It describes a newly developed numerical tool (PaCMod) to simulate the complex fluvial system sediment

  10. Exploring earth system governance: A case study of floodplain management along the Tisza river in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; Fachner, Z.; Matczak, P.; Falaleeva, M.; Leemans, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a recently proposed conceptualisation of ‘earth system governance’ by applying it to floodplain management in the Hungarian Tisza river basin. By doing so it aims to improve our understanding of governance systems facilitating adaptation to a changing world. The

  11. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  12. The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongbo; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Naito, Kensuke; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Moodie, Andrew J.; Wang, Yuanjian; Wu, Baosheng; Parker, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams. PMID:28508078

  13. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T h; Yin, Z; Song, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  14. The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongbo; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A; Naito, Kensuke; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Moodie, Andrew J; Wang, Yuanjian; Wu, Baosheng; Parker, Gary

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams.

  15. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  16. Selective degradation of ibuprofen and clofibric acid in two model river biofilm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M; Lawrence, J R; Neu, T R

    2001-09-01

    A field survey indicated that the Elbe and Saale Rivers were contaminated with both clofibric acid and ibuprofen. In Elbe River water we could detect the metabolite hydroxy-ibuprofen. Analyses of the city of Saskatoon sewage effluent discharged to the South Saskatchewan river detected clofibric acid but neither ibuprofen nor any metabolite. Laboratory studies indicated that the pharmaceutical ibuprofen was readily degraded in a river biofilm reactor. Two metabolites were detected and identified as hydroxy- and carboxy-ibuprofen. Both metabolites were observed to degrade in the biofilm reactors. However, in human metabolism the metabolite carboxy-ibuprofen appears and degrades second whereas the opposite occurs in biofilm systems. In biofilms the pharmacologically inactive stereoisomere of ibuprofen is degraded predominantly. In contrast, clofibric acid was not biologically degraded during the experimental period of 21 days. Similar results were obtained using biofilms developed using waters from either the South Saskatchewan or Elbe River. In a sterile reactor no losses of ibuprofen were observed. These results suggested that abiotic losses and adsorption played only a minimal role in the fate of the pharmaceuticals in the river biofilm reactors.

  17. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HUMAN -TRANSFORMED SYSTEMS OF THE IRPIN RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to learn the interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors and their consequences in the system “Natural environment (Irpin river – human-transformed environment (Nyvka river”. Methods: To assess the structural and functional changes of hydroecosystems, transformed under technogenic impact, hydrochemical, toxicological and biological techniques, as well as the methods of mathematical statistics for experimental data processing and summarization of obtained results, were applied. Results: it is proposed to determine the dynamics of the biotic self-regulation mechanism change under impact of the modifying (anthropogenic factors, by the example of the two-component system – “Natural environment (Irpin River – environment, transformed under technogenic impact (Nyvka River, the right-hand tributary of the Irpin River”. It is proposed to extend additionally the opportunities of the ecological assessment due to application of the integrating index – the index of ecological conformity. Discussion: obtained results stipulate necessity of the further investigation of structural and functional patterns of the Irpin River ecosystem in space and time. Assessment of anthropogenic factors impact on hydroecosystem condition will make it possible to correct the nature guard activity concerning the improvement of the fishery object ecological condition and recreation essence of the Irpin River. Integration of the Nyvka and Irpin Rivers into a single system “Natural environment – environment, transformed under technogenic impact” will make it possible to obtain the objective assessment of technogenic changes in hydroecosystems. Implementation of the index of ecological conformity will make it possible to estimate completely the inner processes in the rivers.

  18. Status and trends of selected resources in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry L.; Hagerty, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    Like other large rivers, the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) serves a diversity of roles. The UMRS provides commercial and recreational fishing, floodplain agriculture, drinking water for many communities, an important bird migration pathway, a variety of recreational activities, and a navigation system that transports much of the country's agricultural exports. These multiple roles present significant management challenges. Regular assessment of the condition of the river is needed to improve management plans and evaluate their effectiveness. This report provides a summary of the recent status (mean and range of conditions) and trends (change in direction over time) for 24 indicators of the ecological condition of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers using data collected through the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). The 24 indicators were grouped into seven categories: hydrology, sedimentation, water quality, land cover, aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and fish. Most of the data used in the report were collected between about 1993 and 2004, although some older data were also used to compare to recent conditions.Historical observations and current LTRMP data clearly indicate that the UMRS has been changed by human activity in ways that have diminished the ecological health of the river. The data indicate that status and trends differ among regions, and we expect that regional responses to various ecological rehabilitation techniques will differ as well. The continuing role of the LTRMP will be to provide the data needed to assess changes in river conditions and to determine how those changes relate to management actions, natural variation, and the overall ecological integrity of the river system.

  19. Snake River sockeye salmon captive broodstock program hatchery element, Annual Progress Report: January 1, 1998 - December 31, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline A, Paul; Heindel A, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report

  20. Dissolved indium and rare earth elements in three Japanese rivers and Tokyo Bay: Evidence for anthropogenic Gd and In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Lerche, Dorte; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Tsutsumi, Makoto

    2000-12-01

    New data on the dissolved (Thailand reported elsewhere (Nozaki et al., in press). Like Gd, the high dissolved In in the study area can also be ascribed to recent use of In-containing organic compound, In(DTPA) 2- in medical diagnosis. Thus, in the highly populated and industrialized area, dissolved heavy metal concentrations in rivers and estuaries may be significantly perturbed by human activities and the fate of those anthropogenic soluble substances in the marine environment needs to be investigated further.

  1. A passive collection system for whole size fractions in river suspended solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Matsunaga; Takahiro Nakanishi; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Erina Takeuchi; Katsunori Tsuduki; Syusaku Nishimura; Jun Koarashi; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Tsutomu Sato; Seiya Nagao

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve difficulties in collection of river suspended solids (SS) such as frequent observations during stochastic rainfall events, a simple passive collection system of SS has been developed. It is composed of sequentially connected two large-scale filter vessels. A portion of river water flows down into the filter vessels utilizing a natural drop of streambed. The system enable us to carry out long-term, unmanned SS collection. It is also compatible with dissolved component collection. Its performance was validated in a forested catchment by applying to radiocesium and stable carbon transport. (author)

  2. Nitrogen Leaching in Intensive Cropping Systems in Tam Duong District, Red River Delta of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, M.V.; Keulen, van, H.; Roetter, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental and economic consequences of nitrogen (N) lost in rice-based systems in Vietnam is important but has not been extensively studied. The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of N lost in major cropping systems in the Red River Delta. An experiment was conducted in the Red River Delta of Vietnam, on five different crops including rose, daisy, cabbage, chili, and a rice–rice–maize rotation during 2004 and 2005. Core soil samples were taken periodically in 20-cm inc...

  3. Integrated Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System of the Upper Bussento river basin (Cilento and Vallo Diano Geopark, S-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, D.; Cuomo, A.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.; Guida, M.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Cestari, A.; Siervo, V.; Benevento, G.; Sorvino, S.; Doto, R.; Verrone, M.; De Vita, A.; Aloia, A.; Positano, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean river ecosystem functionings are supported by river-aquifer interactions. The assessment of their ecological services requires interdisciplinary scientific approaches, integrate monitoring systems and inter-institutional planning and management. This poster illustrates the Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System build-up in the Upper Bussento river basin by the University of Salerno, in agreement with the local Basin Autorities and in extension to the other river basins located in the Cilento and Vallo Diano National Park (southern Italy), recently accepted in the European Geopark Network. The Monitoring System is based on a hierarchical Hydro-geomorphological Model (HGM), improved in a multiscale, nested and object-oriented Hydro-geomorphological Informative System (HGIS, Figure 1). Hydro-objects are topologically linked and functionally bounded by Hydro-elements at various levels of homogeneity (Table 1). Spatial Hydro-geomorpho-system, HG-complex and HG-unit support respectively areal Hydro-objects, as basin, sector and catchment and linear Hydro-objects, as river, segment, reach and section. Runoff initiation points, springs, disappearing points, junctions, gaining and water losing points complete the Hydro-systems. An automatic procedure use the Pfafstetter coding to hierarchically divide a terrain into arbitrarily small hydro-geomorphological units (basin, interfluve, headwater and no-contribution areas, each with a unique label with hierarchical topological properties. To obtain a hierarchy of hydro-geomorphological units, the method is then applied recursively on each basin and interbasin, and labels of the subdivided regions are appended to the existing label of the original region. The monitoring stations are ranked consequently in main, secondary, temporary and random and located progressively at the points or sections representative for the hydro-geomorphological responses by validation control and modeling calibration. The datasets

  4. A Novel Hydro-information System for Improving National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Z.; Wang, S.; Liang, X.; Adams, T. E.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A novel hydro-information system has been developed to improve the forecast accuracy of the NOAA National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). An MKF-based (Multiscale Kalman Filter) spatial data assimilation framework, together with the NOAH land surface model, is employed in our system to assimilate satellite surface soil moisture data to yield improved evapotranspiration. The latter are then integrated into the distributed version of the NWSRFS to improve its forecasting skills, especially for droughts, but also for disaster management in general. Our system supports an automated flow into the NWSRFS of daily satellite surface soil moisture data, derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and the forcing information of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). All data are custom processed, archived, and supported by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information and Services Center (GES DISC). An optional data fusing component is available in our system, which fuses NEXRAD Stage III precipitation data with the NLDAS precipitation data, using the MKF-based framework, to provide improved precipitation inputs. Our system employs a plug-in, structured framework and has a user-friendly, graphical interface, which can display, in real-time, the spatial distributions of assimilated state variables and other model-simulated information, as well as their behaviors in time series. The interface can also display watershed maps, as a result of the integration of the QGIS library into our system. Extendibility and flexibility of our system are achieved through the plug-in design and by an extensive use of XML-based configuration files. Furthermore, our system can be extended to support multiple land surface models and multiple data assimilation schemes, which would further increase its capabilities. Testing of the integration of the current system into the NWSRFS is

  5. Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 8 Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water...Zhonglong Zhang and Billy E. Johnson September 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research...and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and

  6. Organic fuels for respiration in tropical river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N.; Keil, R. G.; Richey, J. E.; Krusche, A. V.; Medeiros, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Watershed-derived organic matter is thought to provide anywhere from 30-90% of the organic matter in rivers (e.g. Hernes et al 2008; Spencer et al 2010). The most abundant biochemicals on land are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Combined, they represent as much as 80% of the biomass in a typical forest and as much as 60% of the biomass in a typical field (natural or crop)(Bose et al 2009; Bridgeman et al., 2007; Hu and Zu 2006; Martens et al 2004). They are often assumed to be refractory and hard to degrade, but this assumption is at odds with virtually all observations: soils and marine sediments are not accumulating vast amounts of these compounds (Hedges and Oades, 1997), and degradation experiments suggest that cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are reactive and likely to be important fuels for respiration (Benner, 1991; Haddad et al, 1992; Dittmar et al, 2001; Otto and Simpson, 2006). During several trips to the lower Amazon River, incubation experiments were performed in which the biological degradation of lignin phenols was observed in order to assess the contribution of microbial respiration of terrestrially-derived macromolecules to gross respiration and CO2 gas evasion rates. Both particulate and dissolved lignin concentrations decreased by ~40% after being incubated in the dark for 5-7 days, indicating a turnover time of the entire lignin pool of 12-18 days. These results shift the paradigm that lignocellulose derived OM is highly recalcitrant, and indicate that microbial respiration of lignocellulose may play a larger role in total respiration rates/CO2 outgassing than previously thought. A simple mass balance calculation was done to test whether microbial degradation alone could explain the lignin data observed in the field. First, a theoretical particulate lignin concentration for Macapa was calculated based on the observed data at Obidos. The measured rate of particulate lignin degradation was multiplied by the transit time of water from

  7. Arterial intelligent transportation systems : infrastructure elements and traveler information requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Applying Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to arterial systems allows TxDOT to significantly enhance : transportation system operation efficiency and improve traffic mobility. However, no guidelines are available to : assist TxDOT staff in sel...

  8. Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Lamothe, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district, and join at a 20-km long estuary entering the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary by semi-quantitative emission dc-arc spectrographic analysis shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm (??g g-1): As 3,000 to TOC), sandysilty overbank clay has been analyzed to represent suspended load materials. The high content of heavy metals in the overbank clay throughout the river and estuary systems indicates the importance of suspended sediment transport for dispersing heavy metals from natural erosion and anthropogenic mining activities of the sulfide deposit. The organic-poor (0.21-0.37% TOC) river bed sand has been analyzed to represent bedload transport of naturally-occurring sulfide minerals. The sand has high concentrations of metals upstream but these decrease an order of magnitude in the lower estuary. Although heavy metal contamination of estuary mouth beach sand has been diluted to background levels estuary mud exhibits increased contamination apparently related to finer grain size, higher organic carbon content, precipitation of river-borne dissolved solids, and input of anthropogenic heavy metals from industrial sources. The contaminated estuary mud disperses to the inner shelf mud belt and offshore suspended sediment, which exhibit metal anomalies from natural erosion and mining of upstream Rio Tinto sulphide lode sources (Pb, Cu, Zn) and industrial activities within the estuary (Fe, Cr, Ti). Because heavy metal contamination of Tinto-Odiel river sediment reaches or exceeds the highest levels encountered in other river sediments of Spain and Europe, a detailed analysis of metals in water and suspended sediment throughout the system, and epidemiological analysis of heavy metal effects in humans is appropriate. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

  9. Protected River. A new concept for conservation management of fluvial systems in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade; German I

    2011-01-01

    Based upon the concept of Ecological Integrity, relevant geophysical, bio- ecological and social attributes for river systems area identified. It is argued that current conservation and environmental management instruments in Colombia, do not take into account the identified IE attributes simultaneously. The concept of Protected River, PR, is then presented, as a necessary complement for conservation strategies. The PR concept would be defined for the maintenance of the attributes of EI in some representative river systems, as a part of the biodiversity conservation objectives within the Convention of Biological Diversity. Some attributes and indicators, and thresholds of undesired change are discussed. A typology for PR is proposed, following the international protected area management categories.

  10. A Basin Approach to a Hydrological Service Delivery System in the Amur River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Borsch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basin approach to the design, development, and operation of a hydrological forecasting and early warning system in a large transboundary river basin of high flood potential, where accurate, reliable, and timely available daily water-level and reservoir-inflow forecasts are essential for water-related economic and social activities (the Amur River basin case study. Key aspects of basin-scale system planning and implementation are considered, from choosing efficient forecast models and techniques, to developing and operating data-management procedures, to disseminating operational forecasts using web-GIS. The latter, making the relevant forecast data available in real time (via Internet, visual, and well interpretable, serves as a good tool for raising awareness of possible floods in a large region with transport and industrial hubs located alongside the Amur River (Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

  11. Real Time Monitoring System of Pollution Waste on Musi River Using Support Vector Machine (SVM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrurrozi, Muhammad; Saparudin; Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Real-time Monitoring and early detection system which measures the quality standard of waste in Musi River, Palembang, Indonesia is a system for determining air and water pollution level. This system was designed in order to create an integrated monitoring system and provide real time information that can be read. It is designed to measure acidity and water turbidity polluted by industrial waste, as well as to show and provide conditional data integrated in one system. This system consists of inputting and processing the data, and giving output based on processed data. Turbidity, substances, and pH sensor is used as a detector that produce analog electrical direct current voltage (DC). Early detection system works by determining the value of the ammonia threshold, acidity, and turbidity level of water in Musi River. The results is then presented based on the level group pollution by the Support Vector Machine classification method.

  12. 45 CFR 1355.31 - Elements of the child and family services review system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL § 1355.31 Elements of the child and family services review system. Scope. Sections 1355.32 through... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elements of the child and family services review system. 1355.31 Section 1355.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE...

  13. Application of science-based restoration planning to a desert river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Brian G.; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-01-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  14. Application of Science-Based Restoration Planning to a Desert River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Brian G.; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-06-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  15. Developing an Approach to Prioritize River Restoration using Data Extracted from Flood Risk Information System Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Band, L. E.; Duncan, J. M.; Lovette, J. P.; Corzo, G.; Miles, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prioritizing river restoration requires information on river geometry. In many states in the US detailed river geometry has been collected for floodplain mapping and is available in Flood Risk Information Systems (FRIS). In particular, North Carolina has, for its 100 Counties, developed a database of numerous HEC-RAS models which are available through its Flood Risk Information System (FRIS). These models that include over 260 variables were developed and updated by numerous contractors. They contain detailed surveyed or LiDAR derived cross-sections and modeled flood extents for different extreme event return periods. In this work, over 4700 HEC-RAS models' data was integrated and upscaled to utilize detailed cross-section information and 100-year modelled flood extent information to enable river restoration prioritization for the entire state of North Carolina. We developed procedures to extract geomorphic properties such as entrenchment ratio, incision ratio, etc. from these models. Entrenchment ratio quantifies the vertical containment of rivers and thereby their vulnerability to flooding and incision ratio quantifies the depth per unit width. A map of entrenchment ratio for the whole state was derived by linking these model results to a geodatabase. A ranking of highly entrenched counties enabling prioritization for flood allowance and mitigation was obtained. The results were shared through HydroShare and web maps developed for their visualization using Google Maps Engine API.

  16. Water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing using advanced ion chromatographic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Shi, Chao-Hong; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu

    2012-04-01

    The water quality monitoring operation to evaluate the water quality of polluted river is an extremely important task for the river-watershed management/control based on the environmental policy. In this study, the novel, simple and convenient water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing, China was carried out using an advanced ion chromatography (IC) consisting of ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC) with conductivity detection for determining simultaneously the common anions such as SO4(2-), Cl(-), and NO3(-) and the cations such as Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, the ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with visible detection for determining simultaneously the nutrient components such as phosphate and silicate ions, and the IEC with the enhanced conductivity detection using a post column of K+-form cation-exchange resin for determining HCO3(-)-alkalinity as an inorganic-carbon source for biomass synthesis in biological reaction process under the aerobic conditions. According to the ionic balance theory between the total equivalent concentrations of anions and cations, the water quality evaluation of the Jialing-River waters taking at different sampling sites in Chongqing metropolitan area was carried out using the advanced IC system. As a result, the effectiveness of this novel water quality monitoring methodology using the IC system was demonstrated on the several practical applications to a typical biological sewage treatment plant on Jialing-River of Chongqing.

  17. Electronic Systems for the Protection of Superconducting Elements in the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Denz, R; Rodríguez-Mateos, F

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives an overview about the electronic systems used in the protection system for the LHC superconducting elements. The final design of a variety of electronic devices, where the production has recently been launched, is presented and discussed.

  18. UNIFIED MODELS OF ELEMENTS OF POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS BASED ON EQUATIONS IN PHASE COORDINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Vepryk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The models of electrical machines in the phase coordinates, the universal algorithm for the simulation of separate elements in a d-q coordinates system and in a phase-coordinates system are proposed. Methodology. Computer methods of investigation of transients in electrical systems are based on a compilation of systems of differential equations and their numerical integration solution methods. To solve differential equations an implicit method of numerical integration was chosen. Because it provides to complete structural simulation possibility: firstly developing models of separate elements and then forming a model of the complex system. For the mathematical simulation of electromagnetic transients in the elements of the electrical systems has been accepted the implicit Euler-Cauchy method, because it provides a higher precision and stability of the computing processes. Results. In developing the model elements identified two groups of elements: - Static elements and electrical machines in the d-q coordinates; - Rotating electrical machines in phase coordinates. As an example, the paper provides a model of synchronous and asynchronous electric machines in the d-q coordinates system and the phase coordinate system. The generalization algorithm and the unified notation form of equations of elements of an electrical system are obtained. It provides the possibility of using structural methods to develop a mathematical model of power systems under transient conditions. Practical value. In addition, the using of a computer model allows to implement multivariant calculations for research and study of factors affecting the quantitative characteristics of the transients.

  19. Occurrence, Distribution, and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in a Subtropical River-Reservoir System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic pollutions in the aquatic environment have attracted widespread attention due to their ubiquitous distribution and antibacterial properties. The occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk assessment of 17 common antibiotics in this study were preformed in a vital drinking water source represented as a river-reservoir system in South China. In general, 15 antibiotics were detected at least once in the watershed, with the total concentrations of antibiotics in the water samples ranging from 193.6 to 863.3 ng/L and 115.1 to 278.2 μg/kg in the sediment samples. For the water samples, higher rain runoff may contribute to the levels of total concentration in the river system, while perennial anthropic activity associated with the usage pattern of antibiotics may be an important factor determining similar sources and release mechanisms of antibiotics in the riparian environment. Meanwhile, the reservoir system could act as a stable reactor to influence the level and composition of antibiotics exported from the river system. For the sediment samples, hydrological factor in the reservoir may influence the antibiotic distributions along with seasonal variation. Ecological risk assessment revealed that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin could pose high risks in the aquatic environment. Taken together, further investigations should be performed to elaborate the environmental behaviors of antibiotics in the river-reservoir system, especially in drinking water sources.

  20. Processes at Water Intake from Mountain Rivers into Hydropower and Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatin Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper, researches of riverbed and hydraulic processes at the water intake from mountain rivers are observed. Classification of designs of the mountain water intake structures, based on continuity signs is offered. Perfecting of base designs of water intake structures of a mountain-foothill zone and means of their hydraulic automation is carried out. The technological, theoretical and experimental substantiation of parameters of basic elements of these designs with a glance of hydromorphometric characteristics of the mountain rivers is given. Complex hydraulic researches of kinematic characteristics and carrying ability of a two-phase stream on water intake structures are executed. Bases of a technique of engineering calculation of the offered designs of water intake structures and the recommendation of their designing and maintenance in various hydrological regimes are developed.

  1. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) through the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Richard N.; Burnett, William C.; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Santos, Isaac R.; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ( 228 Ra and 226 Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ( 40 K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  2. SAFETY CRITERION IN ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF AN ELEMENT IN THE COMPLEX TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEM RELIABILITY STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek CHYBOWSKI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the need to develop a description of the importance of the technological systems reliability structure elements in terms of security of the system. Basic issues related to the exploration of weak links and important elements in the system as well as a proposal to develop the current approach to assessing the importance of the system components have been presented. Moreover, the differences between the unreliability of suitability and unreliability of safety have been pointed out.

  3. Linking the distribution of an invasive amphibian (Rana catesbeiana) to habitat conditions in a managed river system in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra Fuller; Karen Pope; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2010-01-01

    Extensive modifications of river systems have left floodplains some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world and made restoration of these systems a priority. Modified river ecosystems frequently support invasive species to the detriment of native species. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) is an invasive amphibian that thrives in modified...

  4. A study of radionuclide dispersion by river systems, using GIS and remote sensing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghuis, Sander; Brown, Justin; Steenhuisen, Frits; Skorve, Johnny

    2000-01-01

    The Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine in Zheleznogorsk, Russia, is situated on the banks of the Yenisey river. The combine consists of three RBMK-type graphite moderate reactors, a reprocessing plant for the production of weapons-grade plutonium and storage facilities for nuclear waste. Discharges of radionuclides into the Yenisey river were either part of normal operation procedures or caused by accidental releases (Strand et al., 1997). So far, little is known about the transport and fate of the radioactive contaminants in the areas downstream of the Krasnoyarsk CC that are influenced by the Yenisey river system. Aim is to comprehend the dispersion of radionuclides through the river system. Remotely sensed and field study information are combined in a geographical information system (GIS) to study the processes leading to the dispersion of sediment-bound radionuclides carried by the river system. Since the extent of the study area is several thousands or kilometres of river and adjacent flood plains, use is made of a record of remotely sensed (satellite) images that are handled by the GIS. Panchromatic, high resolution satellite images as well as multispectral Landsat MSS and TM images were compiled for the area of interest. The panchromatic images were taken in a period during which the facility was in operation (1960-1972) and obtained for intervals of circa 6 months. A time series of satellite images enables the identification of erosion and sedimentation zones. The behaviour and fate of particle-reactive radionuclides, e.g. 239,240 Pu and to large extent 137 Cs, will be closely related to the movement of sediment. With respect to the behaviour and fate of more conservative radionuclides as 90 Sr, information is required accounting for fractionation between the particulate and aqueous phases. Stereo images are used to comprehend the geomorphology of the Yenisey river systems, focused on classification of sedimentary deposits. Landsat MSS and TM with five

  5. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  6. Horizontal gene transfer and mobile genetic elements in marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Hazen, Tracy H

    2009-01-01

    The pool of mobile genetic elements (MGE) in microbial communities consists of viruses, plasmids, and associated elements (insertion sequences, transposons, and integrons) that are either self-transmissible or use mobile plasmids and viruses as vehicles for their dissemination. This mobilome facilitates the horizontal transfer of genes that promote the evolution and adaptation of microbial communities. Efforts to characterize MGEs from microbial populations resident in a variety of ecological habitats have revealed a surprisingly novel and seemingly untapped biodiversity. To better understand the impact of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), as well as the agents that promote HGT in marine ecosystems and to determine whether or not environmental parameters can effect the composition and structure of the mobilome in marine microbial communities, information on the distribution, diversity, and ecological traits of the marine mobilome is presented. In this chapter we discuss recent insights gained from different methodological approaches used to characterize the biodiversity and ecology of MGE in marine environments and their contributions to HGT. In addition, we present case studies that highlight specific HGT examples in coastal, open-ocean, and deep-sea marine ecosystems.

  7. Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects of effective management for operating pump and treat (P&T) systems based on lessons learned from conducting optimization evaluations at 20 Superfund-financed P&T systems.

  8. Thermal insulation system design and fabrication specification (nuclear) for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This specification defines the design, analysis, fabrication, testing, shipping, and quality requirements of the Insulation System for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Insulation System includes all supports, convection barriers, jacketing, insulation, penetrations, fasteners, or other insulation support material or devices required to insulate the piping and equipment cryogenic and other special applications excluded. Site storage, handling and installation of the Insulation System are under the cognizance of the Purchaser

  9. Assessment of Trace Element Levels in Muscle Tissues of Fish Species Collected from a River, Stream, Lake, and Sea in Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Küpeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, Çark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals. Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.5–48.5, B: 0.06–3.30, Ba: 0.09–2.92, Cr: 0.02–1.64, Cu: 0.13–2.28, Fe: 7.28–39.9, Mn: 0.08–11.4, Ni: 0.01–26.1, Sr: 0.17–13.5, and Zn: 11.5–52.9 µg g−1. The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and World Health Organization (WHO.

  10. Social System of River City High School Senior Class: Socio-economic Status (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Richard F.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…

  11. Classification of nutrient emission sources in the Vistula River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic sea still remains one of the biggest problems in the north-eastern area of Europe. Recognizing the sources of nutrient emission, classification of their importance and finding the way towards reduction of pollution are the most important tasks for scientists researching this area. This article presents the chemometric approach to the classification of nutrient emission with respect to the regionalisation of emission sources within the Vistula River basin (Poland). Modelled data for mean yearly emission of nitrogen and phosphorus in 1991-2000 has been used for the classification. Seventeen subcatchements in the Vistula basin have been classified according to cluster and factor analyses. The results of this analysis allowed determination of groups of areas with similar pollution characteristics and indicate the need for spatial differentiation of policies and strategies. Three major factors indicating urban, erosion and agricultural sources have been identified as major discriminants of the groups. - Two classification methods applied to evaluate the results of nutrient emission allow definition of major sources of the emissions and classification of catchments with similar pollution.

  12. Salt fluxes in a complex river mouth system of Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Vaz

    Full Text Available Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey, currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%. An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months.

  13. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  14. Spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations in sediments from the Santos-Cubatao estuarine system, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Matos, Rosa Helena Ribeiro; Kristosch, Giane Chaves; Machado, Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Multi-element analyses of sediment samples from the Santos-Cubatao Estuarine System were carried out to investigate the spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations. The study area contains a rich mangrove ecosystem that is a habitat for tens of thousands of resident and migratory birds, some of them endangered globally. Enrichments of metals in fine-grained surface sediments are, in decreasing order, Hg, Mn, La, Ca, Sr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cu, Cr, Fe, Nb, Y, Ni and Ga, relative to pre-industrial background levels. The maximum enrichment ranged from 49 (Hg) to 3.1 (Ga). Mercury concentrations were greater in the Cubatao river than in other sites, while the other elements showed greater concentrations in the Morrao river. Concentrations of Mn were significantly greater in winter and autumn than in summer and spring. However, other elements (e.g. Cd and Pb) showed the opposite, with greater concentrations in summer and spring. This study suggests that seasonal changes in physical and chemical conditions may affect the degree of sediment enrichment and therefore make the assessment of contamination difficult. Consequently, these processes need to be considered when assessing water quality and the potential contamination of biota.(author)

  15. Ichtyocoenosis of a section of the Jihlava river influenced by the Dukovany-Dalesice power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaz, M.; Wohlgemuth, E.

    1990-01-01

    The impact was investigated of the construction and operation of a hydropower station with two deep valley reservoirs and subsequently of a nuclear power station whose water management is closely associated with the river ecosystem, upon the ichthyocoenosis of the downstream river section. The initial quantitative and species composition of the ichthyocoenosis, being descriptive for the barbel zone community, changed into the community of the salmonid type, characteristic of the trout and grayling zones. This process was spontaneous as well as caused by the activity of fish management. The development of fishery catches in the past 30 years and their changes due to the operation of the power system are also analyzed in detail. After a temporary decrease, the annual mean fishery yields improved significantly in the affected river section, not only in their absolute weights but also in terms of the sport and market value of the fish caught. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

  16. Bioaccumulation of polonium-210 in fish of the Kaveri river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheed, K.; Shahul Hameed, P.; Iyengar, M.A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Concentration of naturally occurring radioactive nuclide polonium-210 was determined in selected species of fish from the Kaveri river system at Tiruchirappalli. It is shown that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within these fishes. Concentrations of 210 Po in the muscle of fish ranged from 3.3 to 8.2 Bq/kg (wet weight). Concentration factors of Po 210 in edible portion of fish from river water worked out to be 2.5 x 10 3 to 6.3 x 10 3 . Radiation dose to public due to consumption of fish from the Kaveri river varied from 5.1 to 27.3 μSv/y. The results have implications that fish represents an important source of supply of 210 Po to humans. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Control and repair system for radioactive nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallenberger, J.M.; Hornak, L.P.; Desmarchais, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiated fuel, especially such containing Pu-239, are put in a shielding container for inspection or repair. This container consists of an inner and outer tube of, for example, stainless steel, between which there is a gap filled with water, mineral oil, or polyethylene. At the upper end of the shielding container a rotating sleeve is positioned, by means of a bearing. It contains, for instance, an access opening and an inspection opening which are shielded by means of plexiglass. The access hole is opened only for repair work. In oder to prevent radiation from escaping to the environment during withdrawal and inspection of the fuel elements a second shielding container or shielding tube may be put over the sleeve. (DG/PB) [de

  18. Mathematical considerations regarding the stability of the trace element systems by linear regressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, Maria; Popescu, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical model that would describe the stability and instability conditions, respectively of the organs of human body assumed as a living cybernetic system with feedback. We tested the theoretical model on the following trace elements: Mn, Zn and As. The trace elements were determined from the nose-pharyngeal carcinoma. We utilise the linear approximation to describe the dependencies between the trace elements determined in the hair of the patient. We present the results graphically. (authors)

  19. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis of the cellular convection phenomena in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant prototype pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.H.; Lee, J.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Cellular convection was studied rigorously during the development of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) Program Pumps. This paper presents the development of a three-dimensional finite-element heat transfer model which accounts for the cellular convection phenomena. A buoyancy driven cellular convection flow pattern is introduced in the annulus region between the upper inner structure and the pump tank. Steady-state thermal data were obtained for several test conditions for argon gas pressures up to 93 psig (741 kPa) and sodium operating temperatures to 1000 0 F (811 0 K). Test temperature distributions on the pump tank and inner structure were correlated with numerical results and excellent agreement was obtained

  20. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  1. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sony Computer (Iby)

    HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate ..... active type of surveillance.14 Nonetheless, it requires training, supervision and motivation ... very effectively.14 The introduction of reward-system could be included.

  2. Functional safeguards for computers for protection systems for Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritz, W.R.

    1977-06-01

    Reactors at the Savannah River Plant have recently been equipped with a ''safety computer'' system. This system utilizes dual digital computers in a primary protection system that monitors individual fuel assembly coolant flow and temperature. The design basis for the (SRP safety) computer systems allowed for eventual failure of any input sensor or any computer component. These systems are routinely used by reactor operators with a minimum of training in computer technology. The hardware configuration and software design therefore contain safeguards so that both hardware and human failures do not cause significant loss of reactor protection. The performance of the system to date is described

  3. Sediment Buffering and Transport in the Holocene Indus River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, P. D.; Giosan, L.; Henstock, T.; Tabrez, A. R.; Vanlaningham, S.; Alizai, A. H.; Limmer, D. R.; Danish, M.

    2009-12-01

    Submarine fans are the largest sediment bodies on Earth and potentially hold records of erosion that could be used to assess the response of continents to changing climate in terms of both physical erosion and chemical weathering. However, buffering between the mountain sources and the abyssal plain may make detailed correlation of climate and erosion records difficult. We investigated the nature of sediment transport in the Indus drainage in SW Asia. Through trenching in the flood plain, drilling in the delta and new seismic and coring data from the shelf and canyon we can now constrain sediment transport from source to sink since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The Indus was affected by intensification of the summer monsoon during the Early Holocene and subsequent weakening since ca. 8 ka. Sediment delivery to the delta was very rapid at 12-8 ka, but slowed along with the weakening monsoon. At the LGM erosion in the Karakoram dominated the supply of sandy material, while the proportion of Lesser Himalayan flux increased with strengthening summer rainfall after 12 ka. Total load also increased at that time. Since 5 ka incision of rivers into the upper parts of the flood plain has reworked Lower Holocene sediments, although the total flux slowed. Coring in the Indus canyon shows that sediment has not reached the lower canyon since ca. 7 ka, but that sedimentation has recently been very rapid in the head of the canyon. We conclude that variations in sealevel and terrestrial climate have introduced a lag of at least 7 k.y. into the deep sea fan record and that monsoon strength is a primary control on whether sediment is stored or released in the flood plain.

  4. Transport system as an element of sustainable economic growth in the tourist region

    OpenAIRE

    Mrnjavac, Edna

    2001-01-01

    Transport system is a whole composed of technical, technological, organisational, economic and legislative elements with the aim to perform transfer, loading and unloading of goods and passengers. Taking in consideration that most economic activities demand participation of certain transport system elements, any economic growth is impossible without an adequate transport system development. In order to secure environmental sustainable economic growth the economic policy subjects have to pay s...

  5. Imaging beneath the skin of large tropical rivers: System morphodynamics of the Fly and Beni Rivers revealed by novel sub-surface sonar, deep coring, and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, R. E.; Grenfell, M.; Lauer, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rivers dominate Earth's fluvial fluxes for water, carbon, and mineral sediment. They are characterized by large channels and floodplains, old system histories, prolonged periods of flooding, and a clay-dominated sediment flux. However, the underlying bed & floodplain strata are poorly understood. Available data commonly stem from skin-deep approaches such as GIS analysis of imagery, shallow sampling & topographic profiling during lower river stages. Given the large temporal & spatial scales, new approaches are needed to see below lag deposits on mobile sandy beds & deep into expansive floodbasins. Furthermore, such data are needed to test whether we can interpret large tropical river morphology using analogies to small temperate systems. Systems in a dynamic state of response to sea level rise or an increase/contrast in sediment load would provide especially valuable insight. Last August we conducted a field campaign along the Fly and Strickland Rivers in Papua New Guinea (discharge ~5,350 CMS) and this September we investigated the Beni River in Northern Bolivia (discharge ~3,500 CMS). Results were obtained using a novel measurement method: a high-power (>4kW) dual-frequency SyQwest sub-bottom profiler customized to best image 10-20m below the river/lake bed in shallow water. We were able to distinguish sandy deposits from harder clay and silt lenses and also collected bed grab samples to verify our sonar results. Deep borehole samples (5-15m), bank samples, and push cores confirmed observations from the sonar profiling. We simultaneously collected side-scan sonar imagery plus DGPS records of water/bed elevations that could be used to parameterize numerical models. We have now analyzed these results in some detail. Findings for the Fly River include: 1) The prevalence of hard clay beneath the bed of the Lower Fly River and many locations along the Strickland River, retarding migration; 2) Unusual bed morphology along the lower Middle Fly River, where the

  6. Development of computer-aided design system of elastic sensitive elements of automatic metering devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkina, M. E.; Kozlov, A. S.; Labkovskaia, R. I.; Pirozhnikova, O. I.; Tkalich, V. L.; Shmakov, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The object of research is the element base of devices of control and automation systems, including in its composition annular elastic sensitive elements, methods of their modeling, calculation algorithms and software complexes for automation of their design processes. The article is devoted to the development of the computer-aided design system of elastic sensitive elements used in weight- and force-measuring automation devices. Based on the mathematical modeling of deformation processes in a solid, as well as the results of static and dynamic analysis, the calculation of elastic elements is given using the capabilities of modern software systems based on numerical simulation. In the course of the simulation, the model was a divided hexagonal grid of finite elements with a maximum size not exceeding 2.5 mm. The results of modal and dynamic analysis are presented in this article.

  7. LSI/CAMAC system for heavy elements research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, E.D.; Dougan, R.J.; McQuaid, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a LSI-11/23 computer-driven CAMAC data acquisition system. The 64 silicon-detector system is being used to investigate the alpha and spontaneous fission activities of short-lived transfermium isotopes by the real-time monitoring of the mother-daughter alpha decay sequence. A unique modular pulse processing electronics system was designed to simplify set up and calibration. The computer adjusts the gain of the CAMAC shaping amplifiers enabling the calibration and alignment of all 64 of the 1 k alpha spectra to within 0.5 channel in less than 10 minutes

  8. Effects of elevated O3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain in Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feixiang; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Weiwei; Hou, Peiqiang; Lu, Fei; Du, Keming; Sun, Zhongfu

    2013-01-01

    With the open-top chambers (OTCs) in situ in Yangtze River Delta, China in 2007 and 2008, the effects of elevated O 3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were investigated. Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice declined in both years. The N and S concentrations increased under elevated O 3 exposure in both years and C–N ratios decreased significantly. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Cu and Zn in winter wheat and the concentrations of Mg, K, Mn and Cu in rice increased. The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine in winter wheat and rice increased and the concentration of amylose decreased. The increase in the nutrient concentration was less than the reduction of grain yield in both winter wheat and rice, and, hence, the absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O 3 . -- Highlights: •The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain response to ozone had been investigated for two years in China. •Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice were reduced in both years. •The extent of ozone impact on the nutrient elements concentrations of winter wheat and rice were different. •The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine increased but the concentrations of amylose decreased. •The absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O 3 . -- The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were seriously affected under the elevated O 3 exposure

  9. Heat loads of transparent construction elements and sun shading systems; Waermelasten transparenter Bauteile und Sonnenschutzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H; Binder, B; Vonbank, R

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a test system installed at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) in Duebendorf, Switzerland, for the investigation of heat gain by glazing elements often used in modern architecture and the efficiency of shading elements. The two climatically controlled test cells for the measurement of the thermal characteristics of facade elements and shading systems are described and the results of measurements made using various types of glazing and shading systems - including external and internal lamellas, blinds and extendible fabric sunshades - are presented. The results are analysed and interpreted in a comprehensive appendix.

  10. Elements of banking intermediation in the Algerian Banking system and the means to activate it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habbar Abderezak, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Banking intermediation raises several interrelated issues for banks, the central bank and the Treasury. It is linked to the gross domestic product, money supply and bank liquidity, etc. These elements will be examined in this article to learn the elements of bank intermediation in the Algerian banking system and ways of strengthening it.

  11. Elements of the system for RF power input into linear accelerator-injector for booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurov, E.V.; Mal'tsev, I.G.; Shalashov, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    The elements of the original system for RF power input into 30 MeV linear accelerator-injector for the IHEP proton synchrotron booster are considered. A 3 dB coaxial directional coupler (T-bridge) is describedd. The characteristics of the bridge containing elements and the parameters of ballast matched load are given [ru

  12. Finite element formulation for dynamics of planar flexible multi-beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhuyong; Hong Jiazhen; Liu Jinyang

    2009-01-01

    In some previous geometric nonlinear finite element formulations, due to the use of axial displacement, the contribution of all the elements lying between the reference node of zero axial displacement and the element to the foreshortening effect should be taken into account. In this paper, a finite element formulation is proposed based on geometric nonlinear elastic theory and finite element technique. The coupling deformation terms of an arbitrary point only relate to the nodal coordinates of the element at which the point is located. Based on Hamilton principle, dynamic equations of elastic beams undergoing large overall motions are derived. To investigate the effect of coupling deformation terms on system dynamic characters and reduce the dynamic equations, a complete dynamic model and three reduced models of hub-beam are prospected. When the Cartesian deformation coordinates are adopted, the results indicate that the terms related to the coupling deformation in the inertia forces of dynamic equations have small effect on system dynamic behavior and may be neglected, whereas the terms related to coupling deformation in the elastic forces are important for system dynamic behavior and should be considered in dynamic equation. Numerical examples of the rotating beam and flexible beam system are carried out to demonstrate the accuracy and validity of this dynamic model. Furthermore, it is shown that a small number of finite elements are needed to obtain a stable solution using the present coupling finite element formulation

  13. Technical Profile of Seven Data Element Dictionary/Directory Systems. Computer Science & Technology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong-Hong, Belkis; Marron, Beatrice

    A Data Element Dictionary/Directory (DED/D) is a software tool that is used to control and manage data elements in a uniform manner. It can serve data base administrators, systems analysts, software designers, and programmers by providing a central repository for information about data resources across organization and application lines. This…

  14. Elements of a coastal ocean forecasting system for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Radhakrishnan, K.

    After about four decades of investment in infrastructure for ocean research, an appropriate initiative for India now would be to build a coastal ocean forecasting system to support the country's myriad activities in its Exclusive Economic Zone...

  15. Seasonal and spatial variations in rare earth elements and yttrium of dissolved load in the middle, lower reaches and estuary of the Minjiang River, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuxu; Gao, Aiguo; Lin, Jianjie; Jian, Xing; Yang, Yufeng; Zhang, Yanpo; Hou, Yuting; Gong, Songbai

    2017-09-01

    With the aim of elucidating the spatial and seasonal behaviors of rare earth elements (REEs), we investigated the dissolved REE concentrations of surface water collected during four seasons from middle, lower reaches and estuary of the Minjiang River, southeastern China. The results display that the REE abundances in Minjiang River, ranging from 3.3-785.9 ng/L, were higher than those of many of the major global rivers. The total REE concentrations (ΣREE) were seasonally variable, averaging in 5 937.30, 863.79, 825.65 and 1 065.75 ng/L during second highest flow (SHF), normal flow (NF), low flow (LF) and high flow (HF) season, respectively. The R (L/M) and R (H/M) ratios reveal the spatial and temporal variations of REE patterns, and particularly vary apparently in the maximum turbidity zone and estuary. REE patterns of dissolved loads are characterized by progressing weaker LREEs-enrichment and stronger HREEs-enrichment downstream from middle reaches to estuary during all four seasons. Comparing with NF and LF seasons, in which REE patterns are relatively flat, samples of SHF season have more LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted patterns that close to parent rocks, while samples of HF season are more LREEs-depleted and HREE-enriched. REE fractionations from the middle to lower reaches are stronger in the SHF and HF seasons than those in NF and LF seasons. Generally, spatial and seasonal variations in REE abundance and pattern are presumably due to several factors, such as chemical weathering, mixture with rainfall and groundwater, estuarine mixing, runoff, biological production and mountain river characters, such as strong hydrodynamic forces and steep slopes. The highest Gd/Gd* always occurs at north ports during all four seasons, where most of the large hospitals are located. This suggests Gd anomalies are depended on the density of modern medical facilities. Y/Ho ratios fluctuate and positively correlate to salinity in estuary, probably because of the geochemical

  16. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow for the Yakima River basin aquifer system, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D.M.; Bachmann, M.P.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A regional, three-dimensional, transient numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Yakima River basin aquifer system to better understand the groundwater-flow system and its relation to surface-water resources. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-management agencies and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies that consider the interrelation between groundwater availability and surface-water resources.

  17. Integrated forecast system atmospheric - hydrologic - hydraulic for the Urubamba river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, L [Peruvian National Weather Service, Lima (Peru); Carrillo, M; Diaz, A; Coronado, J; Fano, G [Peruvian National Weather Service, Lima (Peru)

    2004-07-01

    Full text: During the months of December to March, Peru is affected by intense precipitations which generate every year land slides and floods mainly in low and middle river basins of the western and Eastern of the Andes, places that exhibit the greatest number of population and productive activities. These extreme events are favored by the steep slopes that characterize the Peruvian topography. For this reason at the end of year 2000, SENAMHI began the design of a monitoring, analysis and forecast system, that had the capacity to predict the occurrence of adverse events on the low and middle river basins of the main rivers such as Piura river in the north of Peru and the Rimac river in the capital of the country. The success of this system opened the possibilities of developing similar systems throughout the country and extend to different users or sectors such as: energy, water management, river transport, etc. An example of a solution prepared for a user (the gas extraction company Pluspetrol) was the implementation of a river level forecasting system in the Urubamba river to support river navigation in this amazonic river where water level variability turns risky the navigation during the dry season. The Urubamba catchment higher altitudes are famous because of the presence of the Machupicchu ancient city, downslope this city is characterized by the Amazon rainforest with scarce observation stations for water level and rainfall. A very challenging modelling and operational hydrology enterprise was developed. The system implemented for the Urubamba river consist on running the atmospheric part of the global climate model CCM3, this model inputs Sea Surface Temperature forecasts from NCEP-NOAA. The global model was set on a T42 (300 km) grid resolution, this information was used as initial and boundary conditions for the regional model RAMS which provided a downscaled 20 Km grid resolution having as results daily precipitation forecasts. Besides the global

  18. Integrated forecast system atmospheric-hydrologic-hydraulic for the Urubamba River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, L; Carrillo, M; Diaz, A; Coronado, J; Fano, G [Peruvian National Weather Service, Lima (Peru)

    2006-02-15

    Full text: During the months of December to March, Peru is affected by intense precipitations which generate every year land slides and floods mainly in low and middle river basins of the western and Eastern of the Andes, places that exhibit the greatest number of population and productive activities. These extreme events are favored by the steep slopes that characterize the Peruvian topography. For this reason at the end of year 2000, SENAMHI began the design of a monitoring, analysis and forecast system, that had the capacity to predict the occurrence of adverse events on the low and middle river basins of the main rivers such as Piura river in the north of Peru and the Rimac river in the capital of the country. The success of this system opened the possibilities of developing similar systems throughout the country and extend to different users or sectors such as: energy, water management, river transport, etc. An example of a solution prepared for a user (the gas extraction company Pluspetrol) was the implementation of a river level forecasting system in the Urubamba river to support river navigation in this amazonic river where water level variability turns risky the navigation during the dry season. The Urubamba catchment higher altitudes are famous because of the presence of the Machupicchu ancient city, downslope this city is characterized by the Amazon rainforest with scarce observation stations for water level and rainfall. A very challenging modelling and operational hydrology enterprise was developed. The system implemented for the Urubamba river consist on running the atmospheric part of the global climate model CCM3, this model inputs Sea Surface Temperature forecasts from NCEP-NOAA. The global model was set on a T42 (300 km) grid resolution, this information was used as initial and boundary conditions for the regional model RAMS which provided a downscaled 20 Km grid resolution having as results daily precipitation forecasts. Besides the global

  19. Savannah River Plant's Accountability Inventory Management System (AIMS) (Nuclear materials inventory control)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, R.G.

    1976-06-01

    The Accountability Inventory Management System (AIMS) is a new computer inventory control system for nuclear materials at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The system has two major components, inventory files and system parameter files. AIMS, part of the overall safeguards program, maintains an up-to-date record of nuclear material by location, produces reports required by ERDA in addition to onplant reports, and is capable of a wide range of response to changing input/output requirements through use of user-prepared parameter cards, as opposed to basic system reprogramming

  20. Seismic analysis of the APR1400 nuclear reactor system using a verified beam element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-beom; Park, No-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Young-Pil; Choi, Youngin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified beam element model is constructed based on the real dynamic characteristics of the APR1400. • Time history analysis is performed to calculate the seismic responses of the structures. • Large deformations can be observed at the in-phase mode of reactor vessel and core support barrel. - Abstract: Structural integrity is the first priority in the design of nuclear reactor internal structures. In particular, nuclear reactor internals should be designed to endure external forces, such as those due to earthquakes. Many researchers have performed finite element analyses to meet these design requirements. Generally, a seismic analysis model should reflect the dynamic characteristics of the target system. However, seismic analysis based on the finite element method requires long computation times as well as huge storage space. In this research, a beam element model was developed and confirmed based on the real dynamic characteristics of an advanced pressurized water nuclear reactor 1400 (APR1400) system. That verification process enhances the accuracy of the finite element analysis using the beam elements, remarkably. Also, the beam element model reduces seismic analysis costs. Therefore, the beam element model was used to perform the seismic analysis. Then, the safety of the APR1400 was assessed based on a seismic analysis of the time history responses of its structures. Thus, efficient, accurate seismic analysis was demonstrated using the proposed beam element model.

  1. Seismic analysis of the APR1400 nuclear reactor system using a verified beam element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-beom [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Park, No-Cheol, E-mail: pnch@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Young-Pil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34142 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A simplified beam element model is constructed based on the real dynamic characteristics of the APR1400. • Time history analysis is performed to calculate the seismic responses of the structures. • Large deformations can be observed at the in-phase mode of reactor vessel and core support barrel. - Abstract: Structural integrity is the first priority in the design of nuclear reactor internal structures. In particular, nuclear reactor internals should be designed to endure external forces, such as those due to earthquakes. Many researchers have performed finite element analyses to meet these design requirements. Generally, a seismic analysis model should reflect the dynamic characteristics of the target system. However, seismic analysis based on the finite element method requires long computation times as well as huge storage space. In this research, a beam element model was developed and confirmed based on the real dynamic characteristics of an advanced pressurized water nuclear reactor 1400 (APR1400) system. That verification process enhances the accuracy of the finite element analysis using the beam elements, remarkably. Also, the beam element model reduces seismic analysis costs. Therefore, the beam element model was used to perform the seismic analysis. Then, the safety of the APR1400 was assessed based on a seismic analysis of the time history responses of its structures. Thus, efficient, accurate seismic analysis was demonstrated using the proposed beam element model.

  2. Measuring Paleolandscape Relief in Alluvial River Systems from the Stratigraphic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, E. A.; Trampush, S. M.; Chamberlin, E.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aggradational alluvial river systems sometimes generate relief in the vicinity of their channel belts (i.e. alluvial ridges) and it has been proposed that this process may define important thresholds in river avulsion. The compensation scale can be used to estimate the maximum relief across a landscape and can be connected to the maximum scale of autogenic organization in experimental and numerical systems. Here we use the compensation scale - measured from outcrops of Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene fluvial deposits - to estimate the maximum relief that characterized ancient fluvial landscapes. In some cases, the compensation scale significantly exceeds the maximum channel depth observed in a deposit, suggesting that aggradational alluvial systems organize to sustain more relief than might be expected by looking only in the immediate vicinity of the active channel belt. Instead, these results indicate that in some systems, positive topographic relief generated by multiple alluvial ridge complexes and/or large-scale fan features may be associated with landscape-scale autogenic organization of channel networks that spans multiple cycles of channel avulsion. We compare channel and floodplain sedimentation patterns among the studied ancient fluvial systems in an effort to determine whether avulsion style, channel migration, or floodplain conditions influenced the maximum autogenic relief of ancient landscapes. Our results emphasize that alluvial channel networks may be organized at much larger spatial and temporal scales than previously realized and provide an avenue for understanding which types of river systems are likely to exhibit the largest range of autogenic dynamics.

  3. The current content of artificial radionuclides in the water of the Tobol-Irtysh river system (from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Alexander I. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: nikitin@typhoon.obninsk.ru; Chumichev, Vladimir B. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Valetova, Nailia K. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Katrich, Ivan Yu. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Kabanov, Alexander I. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Dunaev, Gennady E. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Shkuro, Valentina N. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Rodin, Victor M. [Tobolsk Biological Station of RAS, 15, Voikov street, Tobolsk, Tyumen region 626150 (Russian Federation); Mironenko, Alexander N. [Tobolsk Biological Station of RAS, 15, Voikov street, Tobolsk, Tyumen region 626150 (Russian Federation); Kireeva, Elena V. [Tobolsk Biological Station of RAS, 15, Voikov street, Tobolsk, Tyumen region 626150 (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-15

    Data on content of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 3}H in water of the Tobol-Irtysh part of the Techa-Iset-Tobol-Irtysh-Ob river system (through which the 'Mayak' PA radioactive wastes are transported) are presented and discussed. The data were received in 2004-2005 under the ISTC project on radioecological monitoring of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Monthly observations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 3}H content in water in the area of the Tobol and Irtysh confluence have been conducted starting from May 2004. To obtain information on the investigated river system as a whole, the radioecological survey of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers at the section from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River was carried out in 2004. It is shown that the impact of 'Mayak' PA waste transport by {sup 90}Sr is distinctly traced as far as the area of the Irtysh and Ob confluence.

  4. The current content of artificial radionuclides in the water of the Tobol-Irtysh river system (from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Alexander I.; Chumichev, Vladimir B.; Valetova, Nailia K.; Katrich, Ivan Yu.; Kabanov, Alexander I.; Dunaev, Gennady E.; Shkuro, Valentina N.; Rodin, Victor M.; Mironenko, Alexander N.; Kireeva, Elena V.

    2007-01-01

    Data on content of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu and 3 H in water of the Tobol-Irtysh part of the Techa-Iset-Tobol-Irtysh-Ob river system (through which the 'Mayak' PA radioactive wastes are transported) are presented and discussed. The data were received in 2004-2005 under the ISTC project on radioecological monitoring of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Monthly observations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 3 H content in water in the area of the Tobol and Irtysh confluence have been conducted starting from May 2004. To obtain information on the investigated river system as a whole, the radioecological survey of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers at the section from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River was carried out in 2004. It is shown that the impact of 'Mayak' PA waste transport by 90 Sr is distinctly traced as far as the area of the Irtysh and Ob confluence

  5. Development and application of a large scale river system model for National Water Accounting in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Vaze, Jai; Kim, Shaun; Hughes, Justin; Yang, Ang; Teng, Jin; Lerat, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate models, are of very coarse spatial resolutions and lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing water accounts, which have become increasingly important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scales. A continental scale river system model called Australian Water Resource Assessment River System model (AWRA-R) has been developed and implemented for national water accounting in Australia using a node-link architecture. The model includes major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. Two key components of the model are an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. The results in the Murray-Darling Basin shows highly satisfactory performance of the model with median daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.64 and median annual bias of less than 1% for the period of calibration (1970-1991) and median daily NSE of 0.69 and median annual bias of 12% for validation period (1992-2014). The results have demonstrated that the performance of the model is less satisfactory when the key processes such as overbank flow, groundwater seepage and irrigation diversion are switched off. The AWRA-R model, which has been operationalised by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for continental scale water accounting, has contributed to improvements in the national water account by substantially reducing accounted different volume (gain/loss).

  6. Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events

  7. The interrelations amongst control system elements in public sector organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the decisions that public sector organizations make with regard to the design and use of their management control system. New Public Management, based on economics theory, suggests that employees in the public sector should be freed from traditional bureaucratic

  8. Performance variations of river water source heat pump system according to heat exchanger capacity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Ryong; Baik, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of unused energy is important because it can afford to offer a chance to increase energy efficiency of a heat pump system. One of the promising unused energy sources is river water. It can be used as a heat source in both heating and cooling effectively with its superior features as a secondary working fluids. In this study, the performance of a 5HP heat pump system using river water as a heat source is investigated by both experiment and simulation. According to system simulation results, performance improvement of condenser seems more effective than that of evaporator for better COPH. The serial connection is also preferred among several methods to improve plate type heat exchanger performance. The experimental results show that the hot water of 50∼60 .deg. C can be acquired from water heat source of 5∼9 .deg. C with COPH of 2.7∼3.5

  9. SOFTWARE AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM OF YENISEI RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kadochnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the questions of formation of problem-focused geoinformation system of the Yenisei river basin based on interdisciplinary scientific studies. The creation of a system, in which are collected and systematized information about its river network, will provide an opportunity for analysis and modeling of hydrological processes various natural and man-made phenomena, qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resources, ecological status. Methodological basis of development is a regional system of indicators for sustainable environmental management. Development is created in the service-oriented paradigm on the basis of geoportal technologies, interactive web mapping, distributed storage and data processing. The focus in this article is paid to the problems of software design and technological support, the characteristics of software components implementation of the web GIS, the effective processing and presentation of geospatial data.

  10. Implementation of Environmental Flows for Intermittent River Systems: Adaptive Management and Stakeholder Participation Facilitate Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conallin, John; Wilson, Emma; Campbell, Josh

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic pressure on freshwater ecosystems is increasing, and often leading to unacceptable social-ecological outcomes. This is even more prevalent in intermittent river systems where many are already heavily modified, or human encroachment is increasing. Although adaptive management approaches have the potential to aid in providing the framework to consider the complexities of intermittent river systems and improve utility within the management of these systems, success has been variable. This paper looks at the application of an adaptive management pilot project within an environmental flows program in an intermittent stream (Tuppal Creek) in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia. The program focused on stakeholder involvement, participatory decision-making, and simple monitoring as the basis of an adaptive management approach. The approach found that by building trust and ownership through concentrating on inclusiveness and transparency, partnerships between government agencies and landholders were developed. This facilitated a willingness to accept greater risks and unintended consequences allowing implementation to occur.

  11. Chromatographic study of element 104 in the system HCl/triisobutylphosphate (TBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.; Paulus, W.; Kratz, J.V.; Seibert, A.; Thoerle, P.; Zauner, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Bruechle, W.; Jaeger, E.; Schaedel, M.; Schausten, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Schumann, D. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Eichler, B.; Jost, D.T.; Tuerler, A.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    With the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus ARCA chromatic experiments have been performed using the chemical system hydrochloric acid/tributylphosphate with element 104 (Rf). The results indicate that Rf behaves more like its homolog Hf. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  12. Evaluation of Metal Elements and Pesticide Content of Water and Sediment Samples of Bribin Underground River at Gunung Kidul (Part I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Taftazani; Tri-Rusmanto

    2005-01-01

    Determination of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Hg, Cd, Co elements, compound of Carbophuran and DDT content in sediment and water of Bribin Underground River at Gunung Kidul has been carried out. Sampling has been done in March and September 2004 as grab sample. Determination of heavy metal used Neutron Activation Analysis method (NAA), determination of DDT compound used gas chromatography (GC) method and of carbophuran compound used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analysis result showed that 5 heavy metals i.e.: Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and Hg, and also carbophuran have been detected in water sample. In sediment sample have been detected heavy metals of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Hg, Cd, Cr, Co and corbophuran compound. DDT compound has not been detected in sediment as well as water samples. The concentrations of pesticide and elements of the water samples in wet season were less than that of dry season, and reverse with that of sediment samples. The influence of sampling locations was not significance. Result of water analysis will be compared to standard quality of Water of B group stated by Governor of Yogjakarta Special Province (SK Gubernur DIY / 1991) and Health Ministry of Republic of Indonesia (MENKES RI Number 907/2002). (author)

  13. Metal and trace element concentration evaluation in sediment profiles of the TietÊ River, State Of SÃO Paulo, by INAA and ICP OES techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Josiane S., E-mail: josi.s@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo (LAQ- CQuiM/IPT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análises Químicas; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Déborah I. T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análise por Ativação Neutrônica

    2017-07-01

    The present study presents concentration results for heavy metals, major and trace elements, in two sediment cores collected along the Tietê River: Salto de Itu to Porto Feliz ( Core 4 at point T-5) and Laras to Anhembi (Core 6 at point T18). As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) were determined. The enrichment factor (EF), to assess the presence of anthropogenic pollution sources, was calculated and showed FE > 1.5 values for As, Br, Cs, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U and Zn, confirming the anthropogenic contribution for these elements, in all fractions from both cores. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were compared to guideline values (TEL and PEL) from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and adopted by the São Paulo State Environmental Company (CETESB) and concentration values between TEL and PEL were found, for all fractions from both cores, presenting good and or regular sediment quality classification, the worst being Core 6. (author)

  14. Metal and trace element concentration evaluation in sediment profiles of the TietÊ River, State Of SÃO Paulo, by INAA and ICP OES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Josiane S.; Rocha, Flavio R.; Fávaro, Déborah I. T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study presents concentration results for heavy metals, major and trace elements, in two sediment cores collected along the Tietê River: Salto de Itu to Porto Feliz ( Core 4 at point T-5) and Laras to Anhembi (Core 6 at point T18). As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) were determined. The enrichment factor (EF), to assess the presence of anthropogenic pollution sources, was calculated and showed FE > 1.5 values for As, Br, Cs, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U and Zn, confirming the anthropogenic contribution for these elements, in all fractions from both cores. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were compared to guideline values (TEL and PEL) from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and adopted by the São Paulo State Environmental Company (CETESB) and concentration values between TEL and PEL were found, for all fractions from both cores, presenting good and or regular sediment quality classification, the worst being Core 6. (author)

  15. Trace Elements (Pb, Zn, Cu in Blood of Mute Swan (Cygnus olor from the Isonzo River Nature Reserve (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Isani*, M Cipone, G Andreani, E Carpenè, E Ferlizza, K Kravos1 and F Perco1

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead concentrations in blood of 45 specimens of mute swan from the molting area of the Isonzo River Mouth Nature Reserve (Italy were determined in two consecutive years (2006-2007, some birds were neck ringed to identify their homing behavior. The second sampling included whole body X-ray radiography and Cu and Zn plasma analyses to investigate the health impact of putative Pb exposure. X-ray images of all investigated specimens did not show any radiopacity due to the ingestion of metal bodies. Lead levels (0.08-0.44 g/ml were in the range of those reported for swans living in unpolluted or slightly polluted environments and excluded acute intoxication, as confirmed by clinical investigation. Zinc concentrations ranged between 2.93 and 7.59 g/ml and were one order of magnitude higher than Cu concentrations (0.21-0.42 g/ml. The negative correlation between Pb and Zn concentrations could be indicative of adverse health effects caused by chronic lead exposure. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting Pb, Zn and Cu blood levels, X-ray radiographies and data on the origin of swan populations.

  16. Multi-elemental contamination and historic record in sediments from the Santos-Cubatao Estuarine System, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Machado, Wilson; Matos, Rosa H.R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper records for the first time the contamination history and identifies the sources of 38 elements in sediments from the Santos-Cubatao Estuarine System (SE Brazil), at one of the most industrialized areas in Latin America. The compositions of samples from a 260 cm long sediment core collected in the Morrao River estuary were determined by ICP-MS. Enrichment factors, principal component analysis, correlation matrixes, and the characterization of geochemical signatures permitted a consistent data evaluation. Contaminant elements such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb, and Bi were associated with steel plant-derived Fe concentrations, while Be, Ca, Sc, Co, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U were associated with fertilizer industry-derived P concentrations. An overlap of sedimentary Fe distribution and local steel plant production indicated that Fe is a reliable marker of the contamination history, allowing the estimation of sedimentation rates over a period of 45 years of industrial activities. (author)