WorldWideScience

Sample records for river system element

  1. Heavy Metals and Biogenic Elements in Aquatic Systems of the Don River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Anna; Tkachenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    River deltas are located in the lower parts of the cascade landscape-geochemical systems of the river basins, so their geochemical conditions often characterize the anthropogenic impact on whole river system. The Don River runs through the one of the most agriculturally developed and densely populated area of Russia, and flows into the Azov Sea - the smallest and shallowest sea in the world. These factors determine the geochemical features of aquatic systems of the Don River mouth area and the specificity of the "river-sea" geochemical barrier zone. The paper presents results of the field studies of the geochemical structure of the Don River mouth area, which were conducted in frames of the RFBR project in 2012-2013. Major types of the deltaic water streams and bodies were studied in different hydrological seasons: spring floods, summer, autumn and winter low water periods. About 50 samples of water, suspended matter and 60 samples of bottom sediments have been collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd etc.) and biogenic elements (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphates, silica, total nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll) content. To assess the toxicity degree and nutrient potential of water, bioassay test conducted by growing daphnia in water samples were held. The study shows that the Don River delta water is characterized by the relatively low values of dissolved heavy metal content. Significantly higher values of heavy metals were determined in the vicinity of settlements only. Metal accumulation in bottom sediments can be associated mainly with the rate of water flow. Higher values were found in sediments of small channels with weak flow velocity and prevailing processes of the suspended matter deposition. The data on the seasonal dynamics of nutrients and spatial variability of their forms have been obtained. The maximum concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and other biogenic elements are

  2. Reactivity, interactions and transport of trace elements, organic carbon and particulate material in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, David; Bareille, Gilles; Amouroux, David; Etcheber, Henri; Donard, Olivier F X

    2007-02-01

    The background levels, variability, partitioning and transport of eleven trace elements-Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and U-were investigated in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France). This particular river system displayed a turbulent hydrodynamic regime, characterized by flash-transient discharge conditions leading to fast shifts in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations as high as two orders of magnitude (12 to 600 mg l(-1)). The distribution of SPM was accurately predicted with a "hysteresis" transport model, indicating that about 75% of the annual solids load was exported within 20 to 40 days. Dissolved and particulate concentrations of most trace elements were low compared to their concentrations in other reference river systems expect for Pb and Cr, associated with historical anthropogenic activities. Although dissolved and particulate metal concentrations were steady for most elements during low and average discharge conditions, significant changes were observed with increasing river discharge. The changes in trace element concentrations in the two compartments was found to induce a partitioning anomaly referred to as the particulate concentration effect. This anomaly was significant for Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and organic carbon (p < 0.03). The processes driving this anomaly were possibly linked to the modification and/or increase of colloidal organic and inorganic vectors, suggested by the significant increase of DOC (p < 0.001) and dissolved Al concentrations (p < 0.05) during flood conditions. A complementary process linked to the influence of coarse particles of low complexation capacity and transported mainly during high discharge may also effect trace element concentrations. Annual metal fluxes transported by this river system were estimated using the hysteresis SPM model with consideration of these fate processes. Metals in the Adour River system are primarily exported into the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean).

  3. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Green River Shale By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F.; Clarke, D.; Moody, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to a geological sample for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) using a specialized nebulizer system. The low flow desolvating nebulizer has been shown to decrease metal oxide formation which leads to a reduction in mass spectral interferences. Traditional nebulizers and spray chambers may be suitable for similar sample types, but reduction of water vapor loading to the plasma can improve REE detection limits for quadrupole-based ICP-MS. The Green River formation holds the largest oil shale deposits in the world and understanding the elemental composition of these samples is important in its study. A certified reference material, USGS Green River Shale (SGR-1), was microwave digested prior to analysis, and recoveries of REEs compared to historical values are discussed.

  4. Rare earth element content in the SPM of Daliao river system and its comparison with that in the sediments, loess and soils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chunye; HE Mengchang; LI Yanxia; YANG Linsheng; LIU Ruimin; YANG Zhifeng

    2008-01-01

    Content and distribution patterns of rare earth elements (REEs) in the suspended particulate material (SPM) of Daliao River system were investigated and compared with those in the river and sea sediments, loess, and soils of China. Twenty-seven samples of SPM were taken in Daliao River system and digested with various acids followed by ICP-MS analysis for REEs and ICP-OES analysis for Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, and K, to measure the total concentrations of these elements. Results indicated that the spatial change in the content of REEs was great, with the coefficient of variance (CV) from 84% to 105%, while the contents of REEs were significantly correlated with each other. Chondrite-normalized patterns of REEs were characterized by higher enrichment of light REEs than heavy REEs, and a depletion of Eu in the SPM was generally found. The positive anomaly of Eu in the SPM of Xi River was due to anthropogenic source in Shenyang City. Furthermore, chondrite- and upper continent crust-normalized patterns of REEs in the SPM of Daliao River system, sediments of Yangtze River and Yellow River, sediments of Yellow Sea, East Sea, South Sea of China, and loess and soil of China, were very similar to one another. These demonstrated that the weathering and sedimentary processes resulted in constant REE distribution not only in the typical sedimentary rocks, but also in the modern riverine particle, sea sediments, loess, and soils.

  5. New roof element system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Jesper; Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs.......The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs....

  6. New roof element system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Jesper; Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs.......The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs....

  7. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  8. River Health Assessment Based on Fuzzy Matter-element Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to assess the health state of rivers by using fuzzy matter-element model.[Method] Based on fuzzy matter-element analysis theory,the assessment model of river health was established,then a modified method to calculate the superior subordinate degree was put forward according to Hamming distance.Afterwards,a multi-level evaluation model,which contained the assessment indicators about hydrological features,ecological characteristics,environmental traits and service function,was set ...

  9. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements and other trace elements in the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2014-05-01

    Rivers transport large amounts of dissolved and suspended particulate material from the catchment area to the oceans and are a major source of trace metals to seawater. The Amazon River is the world's largest river and supplies approximately 20% of the oceans' freshwater (Molinier et al., 1997). However, the behavior of trace elements, especially particle-reactive elements such as the rare earth elements (REE), within the river as well as in the estuary is not well constrained and rather little is known about their transport mechanisms. This study aims at understanding the transport properties of particle-reactive elements in the Amazon River and some of its major tributaries, including the Rio Solimões, Rio Negro, Tapajos, Xingu and Jari Rivers. Samples were taken at 12 stations, seven of which were located in the Amazon mainstream, while the other five stations sampled its tributaries. To account for the effects of variable discharge, the samples were collected during periods of high and low discharge. We present data for major and trace elements, including REE, of the dissolved and suspended load of these samples. First results indicate that the shale-normalized REE pattern of the dissolved load (filtered through 0.2 µm membranes) of the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões confirm earlier studies (Elderfield et al., 1990; Gerard et al., 2003) and show an enrichment of the middle REE relative to the light and heavy REE (LaSN/GdSN: 0.25 - 0.32; GdSN/YbSN: 1.54 - 1.78). In contrast to the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões, which are considered to be whitewater rivers, blackwater rivers, such as the Rio Negro, have a flat REE pattern with higher REE concentrations than whitewater rivers. The third water-type found in the Amazon Basin is clearwater, e.g. Rio Tapajos, with REE patterns in between those of the other two types, i.e. LaSN/GdSN: 0.55 - 0.70; GdSN/YbSN: 1.26 - 1.55. A similar behavior can be identified for other major and trace elements. While

  10. Trace elements transport in western Siberia rivers across a permafrost gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2015-11-01

    factor controlling the magnitude of TE fluxes. The climate change in western Siberia and permafrost boundary migration will affect essentially the elements controlled by underground water feeding (DIC, alkaline-earth elements (Ca, Sr, oxyanions (Mo, Sb, As and U. The thickening of the active layer may increase the export of trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates in the form of organo-ferric colloids. Plant litter-originated divalent metals present as organic complexes may be retained via adsorption on mineral horizon. However, due to various counterbalanced processes controlling element source and sinks in plants – peat – mineral soil – river systems, the overall impact of the permafrost thaw on TE export from the land to the ocean may be smaller than that foreseen by merely active layer thickening and permafrost boundary shift.

  11. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  12. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  13. Trace Element Signatures of Particles in the Fraser River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, A. M.; Menard, O.; Kieffer, B.; Francois, R. H.; Weis, D. A.; Pcigr

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of trace element transport via particles at the estuarine boundary is critical to understanding the processes involved in translating these signatures to the ocean. The Fraser River in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest river by volume flowing from the Pacific coast and dumps 20 million tons of sediment into the ocean per year, yet its trace elements have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to determine the Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb signatures of suspended matter in the Fraser River estuary. We collected 20L water samples at 3m depth at 12 locations along the north arm of the Fraser River, along the salinity gradient from freshwater to saline water approaching open straight values of ~25 per mil. Samples were allowed to settle and then filtered. Settled particulate matter was taken from each sample and digested in high-pressure vessels. Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb were separated using ion exchange chromatography columns. Sr and Nd isotopes were analyzed on a TIMS (Thermo Finnigan Triton-TI); Hf and Pb were measured with a MC-ICP-MS (Nu Plasma). The measured ratios were 87Sr/86Sr = 0.71051 to 0.71289, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51203 to 0.51221 and 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28253 to 0.28267 in the river and 0.70961, 0.51220 and 0.28273 respectively in the open straight. They reflect the local terrane compositions [2.3]. The collected particles have relatively radiogenic signatures compared with those obtained by Cameron and Hattori [1] between Lillooet and Hope but similar to those from higher in the river, i.e. they have a signature similar to older terranes drained by the Fraser headwaters. Between Hope and Vancouver, the Fraser River drains younger mantle-derived batholiths (Coast Belt). Therefore a more juvenile signature was expected for the particles collected at the mouth of the river. A possible explanation for this unexpected radiogenic signature is a difference in flow rate between the 1993 sampling (~3000m3/s) and ours in 2010 (~5500m3/s). The

  14. Trace element transport in western Siberian rivers across a permafrost gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Manasypov, Rinat M.; Loiko, Sergey V.; Krickov, Ivan A.; Kopysov, Sergey G.; Kolesnichenko, Larisa G.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Kirpotin, Sergey N.

    2016-03-01

    Towards a better understanding of trace element (TE) transport in permafrost-affected Earth surface environments, we sampled ˜ 60 large and small rivers ( bogs > forest. The lakes decreased export of Mn and Co in summer and Ni, Cu, and Rb in spring, presumably due to biotic processes. The lakes enriched the rivers in insoluble lithogenic elements in summer and winter, likely due to TE mobilization from unfrozen mineral sediments. The rank of environmental factors on TE concentration in western Siberian rivers was latitude (three permafrost zones) > season > watershed size. The effect of the latitude was minimal in spring for most TEs but highly visible for Sr, Mo, Sb and U. The main factors controlling the shift of river feeding from surface and subsurface flow to deep underground flow in the permafrost-bearing zone were the depth of the active (unfrozen) seasonal layer and its position in organic or mineral horizons of the soil profile. In the permafrost-free zone, the relative role of carbonate mineral-bearing base rock feeding versus bog water feeding determined the pattern of TE concentration and fluxes in rivers of various sizes as a function of season. Comparison of obtained TE fluxes in WSL rivers with those of other subarctic rivers demonstrated reasonable agreement for most TEs; the lithology of base rocks was the major factor controlling the magnitude of TE fluxes. Climate change in western Siberia and permafrost boundary migration will essentially affect the elements controlled by underground water feeding (DIC, alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr), oxyanions (Mo, Sb, As) and U). The thickening of the active layer may increase the export of trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates in the form of organo-ferric colloids. Plant litter-originated divalent metals present as organic complexes may be retained via adsorption on mineral horizon. However, due to various counterbalanced processes controlling element source and sinks in plant-peat-mineral soil-river

  15. Elemental sources, cycling, and ecological availability in rivers in carbonate terrains: An interdisciplinary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Cohen, M. J.; de Montety, V.; Nifong, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, coupled physical, chemical and biologic processes control the sources and cycling of solutes in streams; however, the relative magnitude and temporal variability of individual processes can be difficult to differentiate in large rivers. Understanding the timing and magnitude of these processes is critical to preserving the water quality and ecological health of stream systems and predicting their responses to environmental change. The large springs of north Florida are characterized by stable chemical composition and discharge, high clarity and naturally low metal concentrations. As a result, spring-fed rivers provide model systems to study the interactions between the hydrologic, geochemical and ecological processes which control the availability and cycling of solutes within streams and the feedbacks between these solute dynamics and submerged vegetation. We combined high-frequency river and synoptic pore-water sampling, with measurements of submerged vegetation stoichiometry, and long-term records of river and pore-water hydrology in the Ichetucknee River, FL to investigate how diffuse groundwater discharge and in-stream diel (24-hr) cycling mediate the environmental availability of solutes and the composition and function of aquatic vegetation. Diffusion and diffuse groundwater flow from the anoxic river-bottom sediments provide a source of Fe, Mn, P, Ca and Cl to the aquatic ecosystem distinct from other spring water inputs. In-stream solute concentrations of Ca, Mn, Ba, Cr, V, Fe, U, and Sr cycle at diel time scales as a result of a number of overlapping inorganic processes indirectly controlled by solar radiation and the primary production of submerged vegetation. Plant metabolism also directly contributes to the diel removal of trace metals via assimilatory uptake, although the exact timing of assimilation relative to the other inorganic controls remains uncertain. Tissue stoichiometry varies between vegetation types (submerged macrophytes

  16. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  17. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  18. Rare Earth Elements and Geochemical Partitioning of Zn and Pb in Sediments of an Urban River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Sharmin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Urban river sediment pollution due to Zn and Pb is a serious problem in all over the world. The source and level of Zn and Pb pollution in sediments of Nomi River of Ota Ward, one of the most industrialized areas in Tokyo, Japan is still lacking. Approach: The present study focused on Rare Earth Elements (REEs and geochemical partitioning of Zn and Pb in sediments of 19 sampling sites of Nomi River in order to examine the mobility pattern. The amounts of Zn and Pb in the liquid extract of 5 (five geochemical phases were measured by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS and the concentrations of REEs in sediments were determined by using X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF. Results: Speciation data indicate dominant labile fraction of Zn, which is related to the presence of several anthropogenic influence of the investigated area. Enrichment Factor (EFc and Index of geoaccumulation (Igeo value were compatible with the result, which confirm pollution status of Zn. Environmental risk of Zn and Pb were also evaluated using the Risk Assessment Code (RAC and sequential extraction results and found Zn poses high to very high risk (34-59, whereas Pb poses low to medium environmental risk (0-19. Conclusion: The mean values of REEs and other minor elements were lower or very close to average shale and Japanese river sediment value but Sr, Sn, Zr and Sb contents were little bit higher than average Japanese river sediment values. Anthropogenic activities, prevalent in the study area play a key role in the accumulation of Zn and Pb in aquatic system. Early warning on the sediment pollution to respective authorities help in preserving the aquatic system from further degradation of the river.

  19. RSMM: a network language for modeling pollutants in river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.B.; Standridge, C.R.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Predicting the steady state distribution of pollutants in rivers is important for water quality managers. A new simulation language, the River System Modeling Methodology (RSMM), helps users construct simulation models for analyzing river pollution. In RSMM, a network of nodes and branches represents a river system. Nodes represent elements such as junctions, dams, withdrawals, and pollutant sources; branches represent homogeneous river segments, or reaches. The RSMM processor is a GASP V program. Models can employ either the embedded Streeter-Phelps equations or user supplied equations. The user describes the network diagram with GASP-like input cards. RSMM outputs may be printed or stored in an SDL database. An interface between SDL and DISSPLA provides high quality graphical output.

  20. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  1. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  2. The System of Chemical Elements Distribution in the Hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzh, Vyacheslav D.

    2013-04-01

    The chemical composition of the hydrosphere is a result of substance migration and transformation on lithosphere-river, river-sea, and ocean-atmosphere boundaries. The chemical elements composition of oceanic water is a fundamental multi-dimensional constant for our planet. Detailed studies revealed three types of chemical element distribution in the ocean: 1) Conservative: concentration normalized to salinity is the constant in space and time; 2) Nutrient-type: element concentration in the surface waters decreases due to the biosphere consumption; and 3) Litho-generative: complex character of distribution of elements, which enter the ocean with the river runoff and interred almost entirely in sediments. The correlation between the chemical elements compositions of the river and oceanic water is high (r = 0.94). We conclude that biogeochemical features of each chemical element are determined by the relationship between its average concentration in the ocean and the intensity of its migration through hydrosphere boundary zones. In our presentation, we shall show intensities of global migration and average concentrations in the ocean in the co ordinates lgC - lg [tau], where C is an average element concentration and [tau] is its residence time in the ocean. We have derived a relationship between three main geochemical parameters of the dissolved forms of chemical elements in the hydrosphere: 1) average concentration in the ocean, 2) average concentration in the river runoff and 3) the type of distribution in oceanic water. Using knowledge of two of these parameters, it allows gaining theoretical knowledge of the third. The System covers all chemical elements for the entire range of observed concentrations. It even allows to predict the values of the annual river transport of dissolved Be, C, N, Ge, Tl, Re, to refine such estimates for P, V, Zn, Br, I, and to determine the character of distribution in the ocean for Au and U. Furthermore, the System allowed estimating

  3. Uncertainty in acquiring elemental fluxes from subtropical mountainous rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous watersheds in high standing islands of the western tropical and subtropical Pacific have received great international attention regarding its high physical and chemical weathering rates caused by cyclone invasion, friable lithology and high tectonic activity. Since mountainous region is usually difficult to assess, particularly, during severe weather conditions, hydrological responses of elements against full-scale of water discharge (often >2 orders of magnitude are rarely reported. In this study, we conducted discrete sampling (~3 day interval throughout four seasons and intensive sampling (hourly during typhoon floods from three upstream watersheds in Taiwan during 2002–2005. These observations revealing various elemental responses are taken as complete dataset (i.e. reference flux to evaluate flux uncertainty among constituents caused by different sampling frequency, sample size and estimators. Five constituents are analyzed, including nitrate (NO3, sulfate (SO4, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, calcium (Ca, and silicate (Si. Each has specific environmental and geological implications. Direct average, flow-weighted and rating curve methods were applied. Basing on statistical analyses, flow-weighted method is the most conservative method, and is recommended to use for all constituents if few samples are available. The rating curve method is suggested, only when water samples in high-flows are available. Direct average method is only appropriate for stable constituents, such as Si. These findings, such as concentration-discharge variation, sampling frequency effect, and flux estimator assessment, offer fundamental knowledge while estimating geochemical fluxes from small mountainous rivers in Oceania region.

  4. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory textto algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain insideknowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeperunderstanding of state-of-the-art coding systems.This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar withthis topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptographyand communication. Linear error-correcting block codesthrough elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text.Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decodingalgorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography andsecret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutionsat the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbertbound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac-Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error,and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finitefield Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm for polynomials.

  5. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  6. Concentrations of selected elements in the Kiamichi River above Hugo Reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bulk element concentrations in soil collected from undisturbed forested sites throughout the Kiamichi River watershed above Hugo Reservoir were significantly higher...

  7. General classification handbook for floodplain vegetation in large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, Jennifer J.; Ruhser, Janis; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    This handbook describes the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System developed as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element. The UMRR is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The classification system consists of 31 general map classes and has been used to create systemic vegetation data layers throughout the diverse Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), which includes the commercially navigable reaches of the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the north to Cairo, Illinois, in the south, the Illinois River, and navigable portions of the Kaskaskia, Black, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In addition, this handbook describes the evolution of the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System, discusses the process of creating a vegetation data layer, and describes each of the 31 map classes in detail. The handbook also acts as a pictorial guide to each of the map classes as they may appear in the field, as well as on color-infrared imagery. This version is an update to the original handbook published in 2004.

  8. Continuous finite element methods for Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By applying the continuous finite element methods of ordinary differential equations, the linear element methods are proved having second-order pseudo-symplectic scheme and the quadratic element methods are proved having third-order pseudosymplectic scheme respectively for general Hamiltonian systems, and they both keep energy conservative. The finite element methods are proved to be symplectic as well as energy conservative for linear Hamiltonian systems. The numerical results are in agreement with theory.

  9. Connecting River Systems Restoration Assessment Degree Flowlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This represents the flowline network in Connecting River Systems Restoration Assessment (CRSRA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections between the reach...

  10. Trace elements transport in western Siberia rivers across a permafrost gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Krickov, I. A.; Kopysov, S. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Vorobyev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    Towards a better understanding of trace element transport in permafrost-affected Earth surface environments, we sampled ∼ 60 large and small rivers (organo-mineral colloids, as also confirmed by previous studies in Siberian rivers. The 2nd factor (8-14 % variation) was linked to the latitude of the watershed and acted on elements affected by the groundwater feeding (DIC, Sr, Mo, As, Sb, U), whose concentration decreased significantly northward during all seasons. Overall, the rank of environmental factors on TE concentration in western Siberian rivers was latitude (3 permafrost zones) > season > watershed size. The effect of the latitude was minimal in spring for most TE but highly visible for Sr, Mo, Sb and U. The main factors controlling the shift of river feeding from surface and subsurface flow to deep underground flow in the permafrost-bearing zone were the depth of the active (unfrozen) seasonal layer and its position in organic or mineral horizons of the soil profile. In the permafrost-free zone, the relative role of carbonate mineral-bearing base rock feeding vs. bog water feeding determined the pattern of trace element concentration and fluxes in rivers of various size as a function of season. Comparison of obtained TE fluxes in WSL rivers with those of other subarctic rivers demonstrated reasonable agreement for most trace elements; the lithology of base rocks was the major factor controlling the magnitude of TE fluxes. The climate change in western Siberia and permafrost boundary migration will affect essentially the elements controlled by underground water feeding (DIC, alkaline-earth elements (Ca, Sr), oxyanions (Mo, Sb, As) and U). The thickening of the active layer may increase the export of trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates in the form of organo-ferric colloids. Plant litter-originated divalent metals present as organic complexes may be retained via adsorption on mineral horizon. However, due to various counterbalanced processes controlling

  11. Landscape elements and river chemistry as affected by river regulation – a 3-D perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Smedberg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis whether individual land classes within a river catchment contribute equally to river loading with dissolved constituents or whether some land classes act as "hot spots" to river loading and if so, are these land classes especially affected by hydrological alterations. The amount of land covered by forests and wetlands and the average soil depth of a river catchment explain 58–93% of the variability in total organic carbon (TOC and dissolved silicate (DSi concentrations for 22 river catchments in Northern Sweden. Whereas only 3% of the headwater areas of the Luleälven have been inundated by the creation of reservoirs, some 10% of the soils and aggregated forest and wetland areas have been lost due to damming and further hydrological alteration such as bypassing entire sub-catchments by headrace tunnels. However, looking at individual forest classes, our estimates indicate that some 37% of the deciduous forests have been inundated by the four major reservoirs built in the Luleälven headwaters. These deciduous forest and wetlands formerly growing on top of alluvial deposits along the river corridors forming the riparian zone play a vital role in loading river water with dissolved constituents, especially DSi. A digital elevation model draped with land classes and soil depths which highlights that topography of various land classes acting as hot spots is critical in determining water residence time in soils and biogeochemical fluxes. Thus, headwater areas of the Luleälven appear to be most sensitive to hydrological alterations due to the thin soil cover (on average 2.7–4.5 m and only patchy appearance of forest and wetlands that were significantly perturbed. Moreover, since these headwater areas are characterized often by high specific discharge, this relatively minor change in the landscape when compared to the entire river catchment may indeed explain the significant lower fluxes at the river mouth.

  12. Aquatic insects as bioindicators of trace element contamination in cobble-bottom rivers and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, D.J.; Luoma, S.N.; Carter, J.L.; Fend, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    In one river, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn were analysed in insects and in fine bed sediments over a 381-km reach downstream of a large copper mining complex. In another river, As contamination from a gold mine was assessed in insects and bed sediments over a 40-km reach. All insect taxa collected in contaminated river reaches had elevated whole-body trace element concentrations, but few species were distributed throughout the study reaches. Comparisons of contamination at taxomic levels higher than species were complicated by element-specific differences in bioaccumulation among taxa. These differences appeared to be governed by biological and hydrogeochemical factors. Variation in element concentrations among species of the caddisfly Hydropsyche was slightly greater than within individual species. If this genus is representative of others, comparisons of contamination within genera may be a practical alternative for biomonitoring studies when single species are not available. -from Authors

  13. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  14. Monitoring of jökulhlaups and element fluxes in proglacial Icelandic rivers using osmotic samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Gałeczka, Iwona M.; Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Palmer, Martin R.; Mowlem, Matthew C.; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Jónsson, Þorsteinn; Gislason, Sigurður R.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of volatile emissions from volcanoes is an integral part of understanding magmatic systems, with the exsolution and extent of volcanic degassing having a large impact on the nature of an eruption. Measurements of volatiles have traditionally focused on gas emissions into the atmosphere, but volatiles can also become dissolved in proximal water bodies en route to the surface. Thus the monitoring of rivers draining active volcanic areas can provide insights to identifying changes in activity. This process is particularly important for sub-glacial volcanoes in Iceland, where much of the volatile release is transported within glacial outbreak floods, termed jökulhlaups. Monitoring and characterising these phenomena is hampered by the dependence on spot sampling of stochastic events under challenging field conditions, which often leads to bias in the collected data. A recent technological advance is the osmotic sampler, an electricity-free pump that continuously collects water that can subsequently be divided into time-averaged samples. This technique allows for continued and unsupervised deployment of a sampler for weeks to months, representing a cost-efficient form of chemical monitoring. In this study we deployed osmotic samplers in two rivers in southern Iceland. Skálm is a proglacial river from Mýrdalsjökull glacier and Katla volcano, while Skaftá is a larger drainage system from the western part of Vatnajökull glacier. Both rivers are prone to jökulhlaups from geothermal and volcanic sources, and a small jökulhlaup of geothermal origin occurred during the second deployment in Skaftá in January 2014. The two deployments show that osmotic samplers are capable of delivering accurate chemical data in turbulent conditions for several key elements. Total dissolved fluxes for the deployment at Skaftá are calculated to be Na = 9.9 tonnes/day, Mg = 10.5 t/d, Si = 34.7 t/d, Cl = 11.0 t/d, Ca = 31.6 t/d, DIC = 50.8 t/d, and SO4 = 28.3 t/d, with

  15. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  16. Taking the Pulse of a River System: Research on the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jennifer; Johnson, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Mark Twain raved about the Mississippi River basin as, 'the body of the Nation'. The 'upper body', upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River, includes commercially navigable reaches and branching tributaries that are recreationally and environmentally important. Together they feed and shelter an array of fish and wildlife in their flowing channels, floodplain lakes, backwaters, wetlands, and floodplain forests. Effective river management requires knowledge about factors controlling the dynamics and interactions of important ecosystem components. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) is the prized diagnostic tool in the Environmental Management Program for the Upper Mississippi River System that provides critical information about the status and trends of key environmental resources.

  17. Biogeochemistry of Nutrient Elements in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the biogeochemical studies on nutrient elements in the Changjiang estuary,the main results and recent progresses are reviewed in this paper, such as the nutrient fluxes into the sea, the mixing behaviors, the distribution characteristics and transportation as well as the biogeochemical behaviors of nutrients in the plume frontal region. The exploring directions and research emphases in the future are proposed.

  18. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  19. Background levels of trace elements in rain and river waters in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, Akito [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamasaki, Shin-ichi

    1998-01-01

    It is important to know the concentrations of trace elements such as uranium, thorium and lanthanoids in river and rain waters for evaluation of various environmental radioactive contaminations and of safety of those elements. Analysis in combination of high resolution-induction combination plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and ultrasound nebulizer (USN) has made it possible to detect those element at ng/l levels. A preliminary study on concentrations of those elements was performed to know their natural abundance in those waters. Water samples of 82 rivers in Japan collected from 1989-1991 and of rain collected in Kohtoh district, Tokyo and in Tsukuba city, Ibaraki Prefecture from October, 1991-March, 1993 were filtered and subjected to analyses by HR-ICP-MS and USN with SPEX mix standard. Accuracy was 2-5% (low resolution) and 5-10% (high resolution) and detection limit, 0.0007 ng/l (U)-2 ng/l (Fe). From the upper to down stream of the river, a gradual increase in the concentration of those elements as Li, V, Rb, Cs, Ba, Tl and U was observed, a rapid increase, as NO3-N, NH4-N, Na, K, Ca, Mg, PO4-P, SO4-S, Cl, Co, Zn and heavy rare earth elements, and an unaltered concentration, as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ga, Bi, Y and middle and light rare earth elements. A great variety in element concentrations was observed in the rain. For lanthanoids, Oddo-Harkins law was observed in both river and rain waters. (K.H.)

  20. The distribution and variation of elements in sediments off the Huanghe (Yellow) River mouth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Shuqing; SHI Xuefa; GAO Jingjing; LIU Yanguang; YANG Gang; ZHU Aimei; WANG Kunshan

    2013-01-01

    Surface sediment samples collected off the Huanghe (Yellow) River mouth during the period 2007-2009 were analyzed for major and trace element concentrations.Concentrations of 16 elements were measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.Results demonstrate that sediment grain size is the dominant factor controlling the spatial variations of elemental concentrations.Correlation and cluster analyses allowed classification of the study area into four geochemical regions:Regions Ⅰ and Ⅲ are characterized by high concentrations of Al2O3,Fe2O3,MgO,Na2O,K2O,Cr,Cu,Mn,Ni,Pb,V,and Zn,and contain fine-grained sediments with mean grain size (Mz)<22 μm; and; Regions Ⅱ and Ⅳ contain mostly coarse-grained sediments,and are characterized by high concentrations of SiO2,Na2O,and Zr.The sediment entering the sea from the Huanghe River and its tributaries is enriched in Ca.Thus,the Ca/Al ratio was used as an indicator of the proportion of sediments in the study area that originated from the Huanghe River.Ca/Al ratios decrease from Regions Ⅰ and Ⅱ (located in the nearshore zone of the Huanghe River delta)to Regions Ⅲ and Ⅳ (distributed in the offshore zone of the northern Huanghe River delta,southern and southeastern Laizhou Bay area).

  1. A system engineering strategy for the Campbell River system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Ralph [BMT Defence Services Ltd, Bath, (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The Campbell River runs through parkland in an area of great beauty on the Vancouver Island. The river system has three main reservoirs, each with a dam and powerhouse. Any development in the parkland would invoke intense community interest. BC Hydro initiated a systems engineering assessment to investigate how the river system should be developed for the future and to provide guidance on where investment should be prioritised for safe and sustainable long-term management of the river system's assets. This paper presented the systems engineering process and demonstrated the benefits. The study offered three parallel strands of analysis: flood routing and power modelling, risk assessment, and systems engineering analysis. The results of the analysis provided clear recommendations to retain the existing configuration of dams and reservoirs while recognizing the protection of the environment as a dominant constraint and continuing to generate power.

  2. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geall, Mark [RiverHeath LLC, Appleton, WI (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  3. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  4. Annual budget of Gd and related Rare Earth Elements in a river basin heavily disturbed by anthropogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Guignard, Cédric; François Iffly, Jean; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The real environmental impact of micropollutants in river systems can be difficult to assess, essentially due to uncertainties in the estimation of the relative significance of both anthropogenic and natural sources. The natural geochemical background is characterized by important variations at global, regional or local scales. Moreover, elements currently considered to be undisturbed by human activities and used as tracers of continental crust derived material have become more and more involved in industrial or agricultural processes. The global production of lanthanides (REE), used in industry, medicine and agriculture, for instance, has increased exponentially from a few tons in 1950 to projected 185 kt in 2015. Consequently, these new anthropogenic contributions impact the natural cycle of the REE. Gd and related REE are now worldwide recognized as emergent micropollutants in river systems. Nevertheless, there is still a gap concerning their temporal dynamics in rivers and especially the quantification of both the anthropogenic and natural contributions in surface water. The acquisition of such quantitative information is of primordial interest because elements from both origins may present different bioavailability and toxicity levels. Working at the river basin scale allows for quantifying micropollutant fluxes. For this reason, we monitored water quality and discharge of the Alzette River (Luxembourg, Europe) over two complete hydrological cycles (2010-2013). The substantial contamination, is principally due to the steel industry in the basin, which has been active from 1875 until now, and to the related increase of urban areas. The particulate and dissolved fractions of river water were monitored using a multitracer approach (standard parameters for water quality including REE concentrations, Pb, Sr, Nd radiogenic isotopes) with two sampling setups (bi-weekly and flood event based sampling). This extensive sampling design allowed quantifying the annual

  5. Carbon pathways in the Seine river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescaux, Audrey; Garnier, Josette; Thieu, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Many papers have recently suggested that the anthropogenic perturbations of the carbon cycle have led to a significant increase in carbon export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters. The quantification of the carbon cascade (including fate of CO2 emissions) in highly anthropized river systems is thus essential to understand the response of aquatic systems. The Seine Basin where Paris and its environs represent 2/3 of its population, and agriculture is particularly intensive, is a eutrophic system. The main aim of this research is to understand and quantify how an excess of anthropogenic nutrients entering the Seine River system may locally enhance primary production, C sequestration, C respiration and CO2 emissions. The development of a new CO2 module in the pre-existing biogeochemical Riverstrahler model (Billen et al., 2007) should enable a refined calculation of the carbon budget. Besides calculation of the Respiration and Production activities along the entire river continuum, it will directly associate CO2 emissions. The CO2 modelling results will be confronted to (i) direct (in-situ) measurements with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer and (ii) indirect measurements based on total alkalinity, carbonate and pH along the Seine river system during the last decades, and (iii) calculations of a C metabolism budget. Billen, G., Garnier, J., Némery, J., Sebilo, M., Sferratore, A., Barles, S., Benoit P., Benoît, M. (2007). A long-term view of nutrient transfers through the Seine river continuum. Science of the Total Environment, 375(1-3), 80-97. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.12.005

  6. Chemical elements potentially toxic at different flow rates in the Turvo Sujo river, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Cecon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical elements in small amounts are essential to life; however, in high concentrations can commit the quality of the water courses and cause damages to human health. The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of potentially toxic elements, in a section of the Turvo Sujo river in the Viçosa city during different flow rates. In this river five collection points were chosen and monitored in four different seasons. For each point, the concentrations of copper, manganese, iron, zinc, chromium, cadmium and lead were obtained. The iron and manganese concentrations were larger in summer time, due to the largest superficial drainage in this period, while the most toxic elements, such as chromium, cadmium and lead were observed in higher concentrations in the spring period corresponding to the lowest rate flow.

  7. Initial river test of a monostatic RiverSonde streamflow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on May 7-8, 2002 using a CODAR RiverSonde UHF radar system at Vernalis, California on the San Joaquin River. The monostatic radar configuration on one bank of the river, with the antennas looking both upriver and downriver, provided very high-quality data. Estimates of both along-river and cross-river surface current were generated using several models, including one based on normal-mode analysis. Along-river surface velocities ranged from about 0.6 m/s at the river banks to about 1.0 m/s near the middle of the river. Average cross-river surface velocities were 0.02 m/s or less.

  8. Distribution and geochemistry of selected trace elements in the Sacramento River near Keswick Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals from the Iron Mountain Mines (IMM) Superfund site on the upper Sacramento River is examined using data from water and bed sediment samples collected during 1996-97. Relative to surrounding waters, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, thallium, zinc and the rare-earth elements (REE) were all present in high concentrations in effluent from Spring Creek Reservoir (SCR), which enters into the Sacramento River in the Spring Creek Arm of Keswick Reservoir. SCR was constructed in part to regulate the flow of acidic, metal-rich waters draining the IMM Superfund site. Although virtually all of these metals exist in SCR in the dissolved form, upon entering Keswick Reservoir they at least partially converted via precipitation and/or adsorption to the particulate phase. In spite of this, few of the metals settled out; instead the vast majority was transported colloidally down the Sacramento River at least to Bend Bridge, 67 km from Keswick Dam. The geochemical influence of IMM on the upper Sacramento River was variable, chiefly dependent on the flow of Spring Creek. Although the average flow of the Sacramento River at Keswick Dam is 250 m3/s (cubic meters per second), even flows as low as 0.3 m3/s from Spring Creek were sufficient to account for more than 15% of the metals loading at Bend Bridge, and these proportions increased with increasing Spring Creek flow. The dissolved proportion of the total bioavailable load was dependent on the element but steadily decreased for all metals, from near 100% in Spring Creek to values (for some elements) of less than 1% at Bend Bridge; failure to account for the suspended sediment load in assessments of the effect of metals transport in the Sacramento River can result in estimates which are low by as much as a factor of 100.

  9. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. Reliability of Structural Systems with Correlated Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1982-01-01

    Calculation of the probability of failure of a system with correlation members is usually a difficult and time-consuming numerical problem. However, for some types of systems with equally correlated elements this calculation can be performed in a simple way. This has suggested two new methods based...

  11. Chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in aquatic plants of the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    The Yenisei River is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian nuclear plants. The aquatic plants growing in the radioactively contaminated parts of the river contain artificial radionuclides. The aim of the study was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides and stable elements by submerged plants of the Yenisei River and estimate the strength of their binding to plant biomass by using a new sequential extraction scheme. The aquatic plants sampled were: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Batrachium kauffmanii. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of the samples of aquatic plants has revealed more than 20 radionuclides. We also investigated the chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in the biomass and rated radionuclides and stable elements based on their distribution in biomass. The greatest number of radionuclides strongly bound to biomass cell structures was found for Potamogeton lucens and the smallest for Batrachium kauffmanii. For Fontinalis antipyretica, the number of distribution patterns that were similar for both radioactive isotopes and their stable counterparts was greater than for the other studied species. The transuranic elements (239)Np and (241)Am were found in the intracellular fraction of the biomass, and this suggested their active accumulation by the plants.

  12. Virtual Huanghe River System: Framework and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Heli; LIU Guifang; SUN Jiulin

    2006-01-01

    Virtual Reality provides a new approach for geographical research. In this paper, a framework of the Virtual Huanghe (Yellow) River System was first presented from the view of technology, which included five main modules --data sources, 3D simulation terrain database, 3D simulation model database, 3D simulation implementation and application system. Then the key technologies of constructing Virtual Huanghe River System were discussed in detail: 1)OpenGL technology, the 3D graphics developing instrument, was employed in Virtual Huanghe River System to realize the function of dynamic real-time navigation. 2) MO and OpenGL technologies were used to make the mutual response between 3D scene and 2D electronic map available, which made use of the advantages of both 3D scene and 2D electronic map, with the macroscopic view, integrality and conciseness of 2D electronic map combined with the locality,reality and visualization of 3D scene. At the same time the disadvantages of abstract and ambiguity of 2D electronic map and the direction losing of virtual navigation in 3D scene were overcome.

  13. PLANE INFINITE ANALYTICAL ELEMENT AND HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雁; 周钢; 刘正兴

    2003-01-01

    It is not convenient to solve those engineering problems defined in an infinitefield by using FEM. An infinite area can be divided into a regular infinite external area anda finite internal area. The finite internal area was dealt with by the FEM and the regularinfinite external area was settled in a polar coordinate. All governing equations weretransformed into the Hamiltonian system. The methods of variable separation andeigenfunction expansion were used to derive the stiffness matrix of a new infinite analyticalelement. This new element, like a super finite element, can be combined with commonlyused finite elements. The proposed method was verified by numerical case studies. Theresults show that the preparation work is very simple, the infinite analytical element has ahigh precision, and it can be used conveniently. The method can also be easily extended to a three-dimensional problem.

  14. Elements patterns of soil and river sediments as a tracer of sediment migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordevic, Dragana; Pétursdóttir, Þórunn; Halldórsson, Guðmundur; Sakan, Sanja; Škrivalj, Sandra; Finger, David Christian

    2017-04-01

    Iceland is the small island on the mid Atlantic ridge, with strong natural catastrophes, such as floods, droughts, landslides, storms and volcanic eruptions that can have devastating impacts on natural and build environment. Rangárvellir area next to Mt Hekla and the glacier Tindfjallajökul has impacted by severe erosion processes but also rich of surface water that play a crucial role in sediment transport processes in the watersheds of the two rivers Eystri-Rangá and Ytri-Rangá. Their sediments consist of various materials originating from volcanoes ash and lava. Difference of contents of various chemical components in sediments and surrounding soil could be bases for identification of erosion processes and watersheds connectivity. River sediment is accumulator of chemical constituents from water in water-sediment interaction, making it as an important material for investigation their migration routes. In order to develop of methods for investigating of sediment migration using their chemical patterns the STSM of Connecteur COST Action ES1306-34336 have been approved. Samples of river sediments and surrounding soils of the Eystri-Rangá and Ytri-Rangá rivers in watersheds of Rangárvellir area as well as primarily volcanic ash from Eyafjallajökull were taken. Sequential extraction of heavy metals and trace elements from collected samples has been applied using the optimized procedure proposed by European Community Bureau of reference (BCR) in the next fractions: 1) soluble in acid - metals that are exchangeable or associated with carbonates; 2) reducible fraction - metals associated with oxides of Fe and Mn; 3) oxidizable fraction - metals associated with organic matter and sulfides and 4) residual fraction - metals strongly associated with the crystalline structure of minerals. Extracted solutions have analyzed by ICP/OES on next elements: Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Si, Sr, V, Zn. Distributions

  15. INAA for determination of trace elements in bottom sediments of the Selenga river basin in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Aleksiayenak, Yu. V.

    2014-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for the determination of major, minor and trace elements in samples of bottom sediments of the inflows of the Selenga river basin to assess the impact of the contamination from the industrial complex Erdenet and other industrial enterprises in Mongolia. A total of 42 elements (Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th, and U) was determined by combination of conventional and epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor, FLNP JINR, Dubna. For the first time such a large set of elements was used for characterization of the bottom sediments as accumulating media which may reflect industrial contamination of the water basin. The concentrations of heavy metals and other trace elements in the samples from three inflows of the Selenga river basin were compared with data from the previous studies. It was shown that the industrial zone of the Erdenet Mining Corporation (EMC) and gold mining zone Zaamar are the sources of strong environmental contamination. The concentrations of Cu and Sb determined in sediment samples of the River Khangal and Govil near the EMC exceed average crustal rock and soil values by factors of 50 and 15, respectively. In the area of the gold mining zone Zaamar concentrations of Au, As, and Sb exceed crustal rock and soil values by factors of 4, 25, and 6, respectively. The relatively high levels of As, V, Zn, V, and Sr in the sediments of the studied rivers are obviously due to the discharges of untreated wastewater of desalination plant, electrical power station, textile industry and mining activities as well as domestic wastewater.

  16. Research of Distribution of Elements in Natural Waters of the Selenga River Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gerbish, S; Dalhsuren, B; Bayarmaa, Z; Maslov, O D; Sevastiyanov, D V

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of heavy metals in natural waters of the Selenga river pool was investigated. The contents of elements were determined using X-ray analysis with complete external reflection (XRACER). The zones with excess of the average contents of elements in comparison with reference samples were found out, that specifies their pollution by metals. It is offered in these zones to organize the regular water quality monitoring for supervision over the condition of the water ecosystems and to carry out actions on decrease of anthropogenous load and pollution of natural waters.

  17. Heavy Metallic Element Distribution in Cisadane River Estuary's Water and Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufik Kaisupy

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation of heavy metallic elements in Cisadane River Estuary has been done in July and November 2005. The results show that heavy metallic elements content in seawater is lower and still below the treshold value stated by government for fisheries. There was an indication of heavy metallic elements on sediment. Distribution of Pb on July and of Cu on November 2005 were found higher near the coast and decrease towards the sea, and commonly were found in front of estuary such as Cisadane, Muara Saban and Tanjung Pasir. High Pb and Zn distributions on November 2005 were found only in front of Cisadane estuary. Cd distribution of Cisadane estuary was constant at all station but did not show any correlation with the distance of station and estuary. The Cd content on July and November 2005 is lower than 0,001 ppm. Generally, heavy metallic elements content have a uniform distribution at all stations inspite of its distance to estuary.

  18. Assessment of essential elements and heavy metals content on Mytilus galloprovincialis from river Tagus estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I; Diniz, M S; Carvalho, M L; Santos, J P

    2014-06-01

    Trace elemental content was analysed in edible tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in five different sampling areas near the mouth of river Tagus estuary in Lisbon. The concentrations of essential elements (S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Sr) were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry, while toxic elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Se and Pb) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the essential elements K and S are present at the highest concentrations in all the studied samples reaching 2,920 and 4,520 μg g(-1) (fresh weight), respectively. The highest levels of heavy metals found were in two areas close to the city for Pb and Cd, but below the maximum allowed values.

  19. Temporal variation and fluxes of dissolved rare earth elements in the lower Orinoco River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Abrahan; Laraque, Alain; Mahlknecht, Jürgen; Moreau, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    On a global scale, the Orinoco River ranks third in terms of water discharged to the oceans, with an annual mean discharge of about 37.000 m3/s; its basin covers an area of 990.000 km2 and the length of its main channel reaches 2000 km. Although the seasonal dynamics of dissolved rare earth elements (REE) has been documented in large rivers such as the Amazon and Yangtze, this issue has not yet been documented in the Orinoco River. Thus, we present a comprehensive dissolved REE data set for the Orinoco River in its lower section. Water samples of the Orinoco River were taken monthly between January 2007 and December 2008 in the Ciudad Bolivar gauging station. These water samples were filtered through 0.22 µm pore size membranes and preserved for REE determination. The concentrations of dissolved La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, and Yb were measured using an ICP-MS on a spectrometer equipped by collision cell. The two-year time series show that dissolved REE vary seasonally with discharge in the lower Orinoco, and indicate a hydrological dominated control. The higher concentrations of REE were observed during the high discharge period and the lower concentrations during the low water stage. The annual dissolved fluxes of REE from the Orinoco River to the Atlantic Ocean were 240 ± 67 T/yr for La, 628 ± 174 T/yr for Ce, 76 ± 20 T/yr for Pr, 336 ± 84 T/yr for Nd, 83 ± 20 T/yr for Sm, 92 ± 29 T/yr for Gd, 70 ± 17 T/yr for Dy, 35 ± 8 T/yr for Er, and 28 ± 7 T/yr for Yb. These results constitute the first estimate of dissolved REE fluxes from the Orinoco River to the Atlantic Ocean.

  20. 1989 Aquatic Areas - Upper Mississippi River System - Open River 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  1. Geochemistry of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River Drainage (China): distribution, sources, and water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Wu, Tairan

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects.

  2. New Detection System for Heavy Element Research

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, Y S; Voinov, A A; Shumeyko, M V

    2015-01-01

    New detection system design for heavy element research with 48Ca projectile has been reported. This system is based on application of 32 position sensitive strip PIPS detector and low pressure pentane filled TOF detector application in 48Ca induced nuclear reactions. To suppress beam associated background products new version of real time method of active correlations has been applied. Examples of applications in 249Bk+48Ca and 243Am+48Ca reactions are presented. The system development to operate together with the digital ORNL detection system to provide a quick search for recoil to alpha correlation chains has been discussed too.

  3. Trace elements in fish from the Arabian Gulf and the Shatt al-Arab river, Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaychi, J.; Al-Saad, H.T.

    1988-02-01

    In the Arabian Gulf region, recently, vast industrial, agricultural, economic and social developments have taken place, in addition to an increase in population. This may enhance the magnitude of environmental pollution year by year. No detailed study has been undertaken to assess the concentrations of trace elements in commercial species of fish from the Arabian Gulf and the Shatt al-Arab River, despite the fact that fish are considered an essential part of the diet in the region. Therefore, an investigation was carried out on the concentration of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in the following fish species from the Arabian Gulf: Tylosurus strongylurus, Eleutheoronema tetradactum, Pomadasys arel, Platycephalus indicus, Ilisha elongata, Thryssa hamiltonii, Arius thalassinus, Acanthophagrus luteus, Johnieops sina, Liza dussumeiri, Hilsa ilisha, Nematolosa nasus and Otoliths argenteus, and on species from the Shatt al-Arab River: Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi, Barbus xanthopterus, Barbus scheich, Aspius vorax, Cyprinus carpio, and Barbus grypus. Trace element levels in sediment samples from the area were also determined since sediments can accumulate different elements and may reflect the extent of pollution by these elements.

  4. Feedbacks between element availability, (diel) cycling and assimilatory uptake in a biologically productive spring-fed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Marie J.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Nifong, Rachel L.

    2016-04-01

    The metabolism of submerged aquatic vegetation directly and indirectly controls the cycling of solutes in streams at diel (24-hour) frequencies. Photosynthesis and respiration induce diel variation in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH which, in turn, mediate elemental concentrations via a host of geochemical reactions. Plant metabolism also directly exerts control on water composition via assimilatory uptake, creating diel variation in major nutrients. Trace elements can be essential micronutrients, suggesting their assimilatory uptake could also contribute to diel variation in element concentrations in streams. If diel element variation is indicative of metabolic processing, assessing the magnitude and timing of this diel variation relative to other inorganic controls could be used to estimate the ecosystem demand for those elements, infer ecosystem function, and predict how stream ecosystems may respond to changes in environmental element availability. We evaluated the relationship between the elemental requirements of submerged vegetation and the availability and cycling of elements in streams by comparing spatial and diel variation in stream chemistry with measurements of tissue stoichiometry from submerged vascular plants and algae in the Ichetucknee River (Q = 8 m3/s) , a highly productive spring-fed system in north-central Florida. Diel variations were observed in the concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), Ca, Mg, K, Mn, Fe, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Sr, Ba, and U. Autotrophic assimilation, estimated using the measured stoichiometry and calculations of primary production from diel DO variation, accounted for a significant portion of the in-stream diel variation of some elements, including approximately 100% for K and >30% for Fe and Mn. However, the exact timing of assimilation of these elements remains uncertain relative to the other inorganic controls. Correcting the observed SRP diel signal for the effect of calcite co-precipitation revealed

  5. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of nutrition element and organic matter in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua-Shan, Xu; Tong-Qian, Zhao; Hong-Q, Meng; Zong-Xue, Xu; Chao-Hon, Ma

    2011-04-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that there will be great risk of nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and organic matter permeating into the groundwater if floodplain changes into farmland. As the special control unit of nitrogen pollution between rivers and artificial wetlands, dry fanning areas near the river play a very important role in nitrogen migration between river and groundwater. Farm manure as base fertilizer may he an important source of phosphorus leak and loss at the artificial wetlands. Phosphorus leaks into the groundwater and is transferred along the hydraulic gradient, especially during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. The land use types and farming systems of the riparian floodplain have a major impact on the nitrate nitrogen contents of the groundwater. Nitrogen can infiltrate and accumulate quickly at anaerobic conditions in the fish pond area, and the annual nitrogen achieves a relatively balanced state in lotus area. In those areas, the soil is flooded and at anaerobic condition in spring and summer, nitrogen infiltrates and denitrification significantly, but soil is not flooded and at aerobic condition in the autumn and winter, and during these time, a significant nitrogen nitrification process occurs. In the area between 50 m and 200 m from the river

  6. Cytogenetic variation of repetitive DNA elements in Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes - Erythrinidae) from white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabíola Araújo Dos; Marques, Diego Ferreira; Terencio, Maria Leandra; Feldberg, Eliana; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo R

    2016-03-01

    Hoplias malabaricus is a common fish species occurring in white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin. Its large distribution across distinct aquatic environments can pose stressful conditions for dispersal and creates possibilities for the emergence of local adaptive profiles. We investigated the chromosomal localization of repetitive DNA markers (constitutive heterochromatin, rDNA and the transposable element REX-3) in populations from the Amazonas river (white water), the Negro river (black water) and the Tapajós river (clear water), in order to address the variation/association of cytogenomic features and environmental conditions. We found a conserved karyotypic macrostructure with a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (20 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics) in all the samples. Heteromorphism in pair 14 was detected as evidence for the initial differentiation of an XX/XY system. Minor differences detected in the amount of repetitive DNA markers are interpreted as possible signatures of local adaptations to distinct aquatic environments.

  7. Trace element concentrations on fine particles in the Ohio River Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, S.G.; Gordon, G.E.; Olmez, I.; Parrington, J.R.; Shaw, R.W. Jr.; Paur, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    Trace element compositions of airborne particles are important for determining sources and behavior of regional aerosol, as emissions from major sources are characterized by their elemental composition patterns. The authors investigated airborne trace elements in a complex regional environment through application of receptor models. A subset (200) of fine fraction samples in the Ohio River Valley (ORV) and analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were reanalyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The combined data set, XRF plus INAA, was subjected to receptor-model interpretations, including chemical mass balances (CMBs) and factor analysis (FA). Back trajectories of air masses were calculated for each sampling period and used with XRF data to select samples to be analyzed by INAA.

  8. Effects of an extreme flood on trace elements in river water—From urban stream to major river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Paschke, Suzanne; Battaglin, William A.; Douville, Chris; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Roth, David A.; Vajda, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    Major floods adversely affect water quality through surface runoff, groundwater discharge, and damage to municipal water infrastructure. Despite their importance, it can be difficult to assess the effects of floods on streamwater chemistry because of challenges collecting samples and the absence of baseline data. This study documents water quality during the September 2013 extreme flood in the South Platte River, Colorado, USA. Weekly time-series water samples were collected from 3 urban source waters (municipal tap water, streamwater, and wastewater treatment facility effluent) under normal-flow and flood conditions. In addition, water samples were collected during the flood at 5 locations along the South Platte River and from 7 tributaries along the Colorado Front Range. Samples were analyzed for 54 major and trace elements. Specific chemical tracers, representing different natural and anthropogenic sources and geochemical behaviors, were used to compare streamwater composition before and during the flood. The results differentiate hydrological processes that affected water quality: (1) in the upper watershed, runoff diluted most dissolved constituents, (2) in the urban corridor and lower watershed, runoff mobilized soluble constituents accumulated on the landscape and contributed to stream loading, and (3) flood-induced groundwater discharge mobilized soluble constituents stored in the vadose zone.

  9. Chemical element transfer of weathering granite regolith in the Three Gorges Dam region of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Clearing up sediment and regolith on the foundation of the dam in the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River in 1999, riverbed were exposed. On the basis of weathering granite regolith sampled from different portions of the valley landforms, by analysing total chemical contents with X rays fluorescent slice and calculating proper value of chemical element transferring ratio and intensity, the transferring law of chemical elements in different portions of the landforms were concluded: 1) In various landforms of the river valley, the process of desilication is not distinct; 2) in weathering granite regolith of riverbed, easy soluble CaO and MgO are relatively enriched whereas A1203 tends to decrease. The enriching rate of Fe203 is the greatest in various landforms of the river valley; 3) in weathering granite regolith of flood-plain, K20 and MgO contents are relatively enriched; 4) the weathering granite regolith of valley slope is a typical north subtropical weathering regolith, and its chemical weathering degree is in the transition phase from early to middle period; and 5) there is an opposite layer where K20 is relatively leaching and Na20 relatively enriching in 6.5 m depth of all weathering granite regolith.

  10. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  11. Transfer of chemical elements from a contaminated estuarine sediment to river water. A leaching assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Manuela; Peres, Sara; Magalhães, M. Clara F.

    2014-05-01

    Wastes of a former Portuguese steel industry were deposited during 40 years on the left bank of the Coina River, which flows into the estuary of the Tagus River near Lisbon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of the chemical elements from the contaminated sediment to the river water. A leaching experiment (four replicates) was performed using 1.6 kg/replicate of sediment from a landfill located in the Coina River bank, forming a lagoon subject to tidal influence. River water coming from this lagoon was collected during low tide. This water (200 mL) was added to the moist sediment, contained in cylindrical reactors, and was collected after 24 h of percolation. The leaching experiments were conducted for 77 days being leachates collected at time zero, after 28, 49 and 77 days with the sediment always moist. The sediment was characterized for: pH, electric conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), extractable phosphorus and potassium, mineral nitrogen, iron from iron oxides (crystalline and non-crystalline) and manganese oxides. Multi-elemental analysis was also made by ICP-INAA. Leachates and river water were analysed for pH, EC, hydrogencarbonate and sulfatetot by titrations, chloride by potentiometry, and multi-elemental composition by ICP-MS. The sediment presented pH=7.2, EC=18.5 dS/m, TOC=147.8 g/kg, high concentrations of extractable phosphorous (62.8 mg/kg) and potassium (1236.8 mg/kg), mineral nitrogen=11.3 mg/kg. The non-crystalline fraction of iron oxides corresponds to 99% (167.5 g Fe/kg) of the total iron oxides, and manganese from manganese oxides was low (52.7 mg/kg). Sediment is considered contaminated. It contained high concentrations (g/kg) of Zn (2.9), Pb (0.9), Cr (0.59), Cu (0.16), As (0.07), Cd (0.005), and Hg (0.001), which are above Canadian values for marine sediments quality guidelines for protection of aquatic life. River water had: pH=8.2, EC=28.6 dS/m, csulfate=1.23 g/L, and [Cl-]=251.6 mg/L. The concentrations of Cd (0

  12. Characterization of elemental pollution and its variations in sediments and suspended particulate matter from the River Elbe via multi-element analysis combined with chemometric data evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinger, A; Prange, A; Niedergesäss, R; Schmolke, S; Einax, J W

    2002-12-01

    Sediments and suspended particulate matter taken from about 100 sampling sites along the River Elbe from the source to the mouth during the period 1992 and 1998 have been analyzed for the concentrations of more than 60 elements in each sample. The analytical data were subsequently processed by means of multivariate statistics in order to characterize the charge of the River Elbe with inorganic pollutants to elucidate pollution trends. Using factor analysis 18 elements were found to be enriched by human activities. By means of cluster analysis--using the 18 anthropogenically influenced elements as variables--the sampling sites were aggregated into groups having similar element distributions. Thus, the entire stretch of the River Elbe was divided into three sections of characteristic elemental pollution. Finally, the trends in anthropogenic pollution within the characteristic regions since the early nineties were assessed. It turned out that most of the anthropogenically influenced elements showed a decrease in the upper and middle parts of the river, whereas no decrease could be verified in the estuary region.

  13. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  14. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the lower Snake River Basin. Whole-body composite samples of suckers and carp from seven sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds; liver samples were analyzed for trace elements. Fillets from selected sportfish were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Bed-sediment samples from three sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Twelve different organochlorine compounds were detected in 14 fish-tissue samples. All fish-tissue samples contained DDT or its metabolites. Concentrations of total DDT ranged from 11 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in fillets of yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 3,633 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Total DDT concentrations in whole-body samples of sucker and carp from the Snake River at C.J. Strike Reservoir, Snake River at Swan Falls, Snake River at Nyssa, and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded criteria established for the protection of fish-eating wildlife. Total PCB concentrations in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River also exceeded fish-eating wildlife criteria. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in whole-body samples, in general, were larger than concentrations in sportfish fillets. However, concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in fillets of channel catfish from the Snake River at Nyssa and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River, and concentrations of total DDT in fillets of smallmouth bass and white crappie from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded a cancer risk screening value of 10-6 established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment were smaller than concentrations in fish tissue. Concentrations of p,p'DDE, the only compound detected

  15. The estuarine geochemistry of rare earth elements and indium in the Chao Phraya River, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Lerche, Dorte; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Snidvongs, Anond

    2000-12-01

    A new filtration method using a 0.04 μm hollow fiber filter was applied to the river, estuarine, and coastal waters in the Chao Phraya estuary for geochemical investigation. The filtered waters were analyzed for all the lanthanides, Y and In by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The dissolved concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) are significantly lower than those reported previously for other rivers, presumably because of effective removal of river colloids by the ultra-filtration. The variation of dissolved REEs in the estuary is dependent on the season. The light REEs vary considerably in the low salinity ( S river discharge is low, the REEs show maxima in the mid salinity ( S = 5-12) zone suggesting that dissolved REEs are supplied to the waters by either desorption from suspended loads or remineralization of underlying sediments. The rapid removal of the REEs is also taking place in the turbid-clear water transition zone ( S = 12-15), presumably due to biological uptake associated with blooming of Noctilca occurred at the time of January sampling. In the medium to high discharge season (July and November), the dissolved REE(III)s at S > 3 show almost conservative trends being consistent with some of the previous works. Europium is strongly enriched in the river and estuarine waters compared to the South China Sea waters. Thus, the REE source of the Chao Phraya River must be fractionated and modified in entering to the South China Sea. Dissolved In and Ce in the high salinity ( S = 20-25) zone of the estuary are lower than those of the offshore waters, and therefore, the dissolved flux of the Chao Phraya River cannot account for the higher concentrations of dissolved In and Ce in the surface waters of the South China Sea. The negative Ce anomaly is progressively developed with increasing salinity, being consistent with continued oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) in the estuary. Fractionation of the light-to-heavy REEs seems to take

  16. Sedimentary cycles of trace elements in Salawusu River Valley since 150 ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper makes some analyses on 11 trace elements in the Milanggouwan stratigraphical section in the Salawusu River valley, which is regarded as a prototype geology-palaeoclimate record since 150 ka BP. The results show that the content and variation of trace elements has experienced remarkably regular changes in the pace with coarse and fine sedimentary cycles of palaeo-aeolian sands to its overlying fluvio-lacustrine facies or/and palaeosols. The trace elements with chemical properties of relatively active (V, Sr, Cu, Ni, As) and relatively stable (P, Pb, Rb, Mn, Nb, Zr) are a manifestation of the corresponding 27 changeable cycles between peak and valley values, appearing a multi-fluctuational process line of relative gathering and migration since then. The low numerical value distribution of these two types of trace elements in the aeolian sand facies represents erosion and accumulation under wind force during the cold-dry climate. Whereas their enrichments in both fluvio-lacustrine facies and palaeosols are related to the valley's special low-lying physiognomic position between the Ordos Plateau and the Loess Plateau under the warm and humid climate conditions. The above relatively migrated and gathered change of the trace elements is the result of 27 climatic cycles of cold-dry and warm-humid, which is probably caused by repeated alternations of winter monsoon and summer monsoon in the Mu Us Sandy Land influenced by the climate vicissitudes in northern hemisphere during glacial and interglacial periods since 150 ka BP.

  17. Generation and transmission of greenhouse gases in river system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; WANG Shu-bo

    2016-01-01

    The research progress on the current domestic and foreign about river water system of the greenhouse gas methane(CH4), and nitrous oxide(N2O) generation, transmission and release mechanism are reviewed in this paper. At present, at home and abroad of river water system of methane production and release of the driving factors and mechanism has been basically clear, but the N2O production mechanism is not clear, multi factor interaction of river water system of N2O production and release of complex, in different regions and time of result differences. The calculation of water flux of N2O river discharge coefficient of river IPCC released based on N2O, the release amount may underestimate the river water N2O.

  18. Semi-volatile organic compounds and trace elements in the Yangtze River source of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yasun, Aishangjiang; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Dayong; Ford, Tim; Cheng, Shupei

    2009-08-01

    Determination of 24 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 24 trace elements in water samples was conducted in order to investigate the quality of the Nanjing source of drinking water taken from Yangtze River. The total concentrations of SVOCs and trace elements were in the range of 1,951-11,098 ng/l and 51,274-72,384 microg/l, respectively. No significant seasonal changes were found for the pollutants' concentrations. A primary health risk assessment was carried out to evaluate potential health effects. Risk quotients involving carcinogenic effects for benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and arsenic were >1 under the worst-case scenario. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of further studies on the environmental health effects of exposure to the source water.

  19. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1992-01-01

    ALEPS, which is being developed to provide the SSF program with a computer system to automate logistics resupply/return cargo load planning and verification, is presented. ALEPS will make it possible to simultaneously optimize both the resupply flight load plan and the return flight reload plan for any of the logistics carriers. In the verification mode ALEPS will support the carrier's flight readiness reviews and control proper execution of the approved plans. It will also support the SSF inventory management system by providing electronic block updates to the inventory database on the cargo arriving at or departing the station aboard a logistics carrier. A prototype drawer packing algorithm is described which is capable of generating solutions for 3D packing of cargo items into a logistics carrier storage accommodation. It is concluded that ALEPS will provide the capability to generate and modify optimized loading plans for the logistics elements fleet.

  20. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1992-01-01

    ALEPS, which is being developed to provide the SSF program with a computer system to automate logistics resupply/return cargo load planning and verification, is presented. ALEPS will make it possible to simultaneously optimize both the resupply flight load plan and the return flight reload plan for any of the logistics carriers. In the verification mode ALEPS will support the carrier's flight readiness reviews and control proper execution of the approved plans. It will also support the SSF inventory management system by providing electronic block updates to the inventory database on the cargo arriving at or departing the station aboard a logistics carrier. A prototype drawer packing algorithm is described which is capable of generating solutions for 3D packing of cargo items into a logistics carrier storage accommodation. It is concluded that ALEPS will provide the capability to generate and modify optimized loading plans for the logistics elements fleet.

  1. An Experimental Study on Major Element Release from the Sediments in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yanwei; YANG Shouye

    2015-01-01

    With the enhanced warming and acidification of global ocean, whether and to what extent the naturally-weathered fluvial sediment into the sea can release elements and thus influence the geochemical process and ecosystem of global ocean remain to be resolved. In this contribution, an experimental study was carried out to examine the release rates of major elements (Ca, K, Mg and Al) from the surface sediments in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary under the pH values of 4.0, 6.0 and 7.0. The two studied sediments consist primarily of quartz, plagioclase, calcite and clay minerals, with the BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) surface areas of 61.7m2g-1 and 23.1m2g-1. Major elements of Ca, K, Mg and Al show different release rates under different solution pH values. With the decreasing solution pH, the release rates of Ca and K increase obviously, while the release rates of Mg and Al increase with the initial solution pH varying from 6.0 to 7.0. The different release rates of these elements are closely related to the original mineral composition of the sediments and the reaction kinetics. Based on the experimental observation, quartz and clay minerals that have low dissolution rates may dominate the major element release to the aqueous phase. This study reveals that the en-hancing ocean acidification could cause considerable release of major elements from natural terrigenous sediments into the ambient marine environment, which has to be considered carefully in the future study on global change.

  2. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  3. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  4. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Health Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the ...

  5. Sediment flux in the modern Indus River inferred from the trace element composition of detrital amphibole grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Il; Clift, Peter D.; Layne, Graham; Blum, Joel; Khan, Ali Athar

    2003-08-01

    The drainage basin of the modern Indus River is composed of tectonic blocks that include oceanic arc units in the Indus Suture, reworked components of the Indian Plate and various parts of the former southern margin of Eurasia against which India collided. We investigate how these source units contribute to the modern bedload of the Indus River using the major and trace element composition of single detrital amphibole grains. Sediments from rivers eroding restricted drainage areas were analyzed to characterize the major potential source units. Samples taken at various localities downstream in the main Indus River allow the evolving provenance to be assessed. When coupled with existing bulk sediment Nd isotope data, a basic mass balance for the river can be constructed. The rapidly exhuming Southern Karakoram Metamorphic Complex is the dominant sediment source to the deep-sea Indus Fan. Although the Nanga Parbat Massif, located adjacent to the river's course is also rapidly exhuming, this is not an important source of sediment, probably because of its small area and the tectonic mechanism for its exhumation. The trace element composition of detrital amphibole grains can be a useful provenance indicator, especially in the identification of dominant sources in a complex mixed sediment environment. Trace element ratios Nb/Zr and Ba/Y were identified as being especially useful in discriminating detrital amphibole grains from various sources.

  6. Platinum group elements in stream sediments of mining zones: The Hex River (Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Clara; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Wepener, Victor; Prego, Ricardo

    2017-05-01

    Assessment of the environmental impact of platinum group elements (PGE) and other trace elements from mining activities is essential to prevent potential environmental risks. This study evaluates the concentrations of PGE in stream sediments of the Hex River, which drains the mining area of the Bushveld Igneous Complex (South Africa), at four sampling points. Major, minor and trace elements (Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, Mn, V, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Co, Ni, Cd, and Pb) were analyzed by FAAS and ETAAS in suspended particulate matter and different sediment fractions (rocks. The highest concentrations were observed closer to the mining area, decreasing with distance and in the cycle, increasing the presence of PGE in the fine fraction of river sediments. We propose that indicators such as airborne particulate matter, and soil and river sediment quality, should be added to the protocols for evaluating the sustainability of mining activities.

  7. Major ions, nutrients, and trace elements in the Mississippi River near Thebes, Illinois, July through September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Brinton, Terry I.; Roth, David A.; Moody, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive flooding in the upper Mississippi River Basin during summer 1993 had a significant effect on the water quality of the Mississippi River. To evaluate the change in temporal distribution and transport of dissolved constituents in the Mississippi River, six water samples were collected by a discharge-weighted method from July through September 1993 near Thebes, Illinois. Sampling at this location provided water-quality information from the upper Mississippi, the Missouri, and the Illinois River Basins. Dissolved major constituents that were analyzed in each of the samples included bicarbonate, calcium (Ca), carbonate (CO3), chloride (C1), dissolved organic carbon, magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), silica (SiO2) , sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4). Dissolved nutrients included ammonium ion (NH4), nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), and orthophosphate (PO4). Dissolved trace elements included aluminum (A1), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), beryllium (Be), bromide (Br), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt, (Co), copper (Cu), fluoride (F), iron (Fe), lead, lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr), thallium, uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Other physical properties of water that were measured included specific conductance, pH and suspended-sediment concentration (particle size, less than 63 micrometers). Results of this study indicated that large quantifies of dissolved constituents were transported through the river system. Generally, pH, alkalinity, and specific conductance and the concentrations of B, Br, Ca, C1, Cr, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Na, SO4, Sr, U, and V increased as water discharge decreased, while concentrations of F, Hg, and suspended sediment sharply decreased as water discharge decreased after the crest of the flood. Concentrations of other constituents, such as A1, As, Ba, Be, Co, Cu, Ni, NO3, NO2, NH4, PO 4, and SiO2, varied with time as discharge decreased after the crest of the flood. For most

  8. Fostering a regional vision on river systems by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, S.; Piegay, H.; Demarchi, L.

    2015-12-01

    River classification and the derived knowledge about river systems have been relying until recently on discontinuous field campaigns and visual interpretation of aerial images. For this reason, building a regional vision on river systems based on a systematic and coherent set of hydromorphological indicators was, and still is, a research challenge. Remote sensing data, since some years, offer notable opportunities to shift this paradigm offering an unprecedented amount of spatially distributed data over large scales, such as regional. Here, we have implemented a river characterization framework based on color infrared orthophotos at 40 cm and a LIDAR derived DTM at 5 m acquired simultaneously in 2009-2010 for all Piedmont Region Italy (25400 kmq). 1500 km of river systems have been characterized in terms typology, geometry and topography of hydromorphological features. The framework delineates the valley bottom of each river course, and maps by a semi-automated procedure water channels, unvegetated and vegetated sediment bars, islands, and riparian corridors. Using a range of statistical techniques the river systems have been segmented and classified with an objective, quantitative, and then repeatable approach. Such regional database enhances our ability to address a number of research and management challenges, such as: i) quantify shape and topography of channel forms for different river functional types, and investigate their relationships with potential drivers like hydrology, geology, land use and historical contingency; ii) localize most degraded and better functioning river stretches so to prioritize finer scale monitoring and set quantifiable restoration targets; iii) provide indication for future RS acquisition campaigns so to start monitoring river processes at the regional scale. The Piedmont Region in Italy is here used as a laboratory of concrete examples and analyses to discuss our current ability to answer to these challenges in river science.

  9. Elemental composition in sediments and water in the Trancão river basin. A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, F.; Pinheiro, T.; Alves, L. C.; Valério, P.; Gaspar, F.; Alves, J.

    1998-03-01

    The Trancão river basin, located in the Lisbon area shows preoccupying pollution levels, that constitute a threat to public health and the ecological system. This work reports on the results obtained in the analysis of surface sediments (EDXRF) and water (PIXE) collected in the wet and dry season during 1996. In general, bulk sediments and water show high concentration levels for some heavy metals like Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb. The elemental contents variation of samples collected at the different sites of the river basin were large, owing apparently to pollution sources, seasonal variabilities and grain size distribution (sediments). In the dry season, effluents (industrial and domestic) showed a stronger influence on the sediment composition. High levels of As and Br were found in the water that can be attributed to extended sources like sewage sludge and fertilizers. In some locations, the metals, Ca and organic matter enrichment could be associated with a paper mill and metal processing industry (high levels of Cr). At the estuary, the decrease of metal content determined in the sampled water indicates the flocculation of dissolved organic and inorganic materials. However, no effects were found for the surface sediment metal content, probably due to a dilution with materials from the Tagus inner estuary (the largest in Portugal).

  10. Expression patterns of elemental cycling genes in the Amazon River Plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinsky, Brandon M; Smith, Christa B; Sharma, Shalabh; Landa, Marine; Medeiros, Patricia M; Coles, Victoria J; Yager, Patricia L; Crump, Byron C; Moran, Mary Ann

    2017-08-01

    Metatranscriptomics and metagenomics data sets benchmarked with internal standards were used to characterize the expression patterns for biogeochemically relevant bacterial and archaeal genes mediating carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur uptake and metabolism through the salinity gradient of the Amazon River Plume. The genes were identified in 48 metatranscriptomic and metagenomic data sets summing to >500 million quality-controlled reads from six locations in the plume ecosystem. The ratio of transcripts per gene copy (a direct measure of expression made possible by internal standard additions) showed that the free-living bacteria and archaea exhibited only small changes in the expression levels of biogeochemically relevant genes through the salinity and nutrient zones of the plume. In contrast, the expression levels of genes in particle-associated cells varied over orders of magnitude among the stations, with the largest differences measured for genes mediating aspects of nitrogen cycling (nifH, amtB and amoA) and phosphorus acquisition (pstC, phoX and phoU). Taxa varied in their baseline gene expression levels and extent of regulation, and most of the spatial variation in the expression level could be attributed to changes in gene regulation after removing the effect of shifting taxonomic composition. We hypothesize that changes in microbial element cycling along the Amazon River Plume are largely driven by shifting activities of particle-associated cells, with most activities peaking in the mesohaline regions where N2 fixation rates are elevated.

  11. Trace element level in different tissues of Rutilus frisii kutum collected from Tajan River, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Shahram; Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Akbar; Jafari, Naser; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2011-11-01

    Tajan River is among the most significant rivers of the Caspian Sea water basin. In this study, the concentration of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn were determined in brain, heart, liver, gill, bile, and muscle of Rutilus frisii kutum which has great economic value in the Mazandaran state. Trace element levels in fish samples were analyzed by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. Nearly all non-essential metals levels (Ni, Pb, Cd) detected in tissues were higher than limits for fish proposed by FAO/WHO, EU, and TFC. Generally, non-essential metals (Ni, Pb) were so much higher in muscle than the essential metals (Cu, Zn, and Mn) except Fe, which was higher than other metals in nearly all parts, except in gills. Fe distribution pattern in tissues was in order of heart>brain>liver>muscle>bile>gill. Distribution patterns of metal concentrations in the muscle of fish as a main edible part followed the sequence: Fe>Pb>Ni>Cu>Mn>Zn>Cd.

  12. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  13. PRECONDITIONING HIGHER ORDER FINITE ELEMENT SYSTEMS BY ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID METHOD OF LINEAR ELEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-qing Huang; Shi Shu; Xi-jun Yu

    2006-01-01

    We present and analyze a robust preconditioned conjugate gradient method for the higher order Lagrangian finite element systems of a class of elliptic problems. An auxiliary linear element stiffness matrix is chosen to be the preconditioner for higher order finite elements. Then an algebraic multigrid method of linear finite element is applied for solving the preconditioner. The optimal condition number which is independent of the mesh size is obtained. Numerical experiments confirm the efficiency of the algorithm.

  14. Anthropogenic dissolved and colloid/nanoparticle-bound samarium, lanthanum and gadolinium in the Rhine River and the impending destruction of the natural rare earth element distribution in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaksız, Serkan; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The strong increase in the consumption of rare earth elements (REE) in high-tech products and processes is accompanied by increasing amounts of REE released into the environment. Following the first report of Gd contamination of the hydrosphere in 1996, anthropogenic Gd originating from contrast agents has now been reported worldwide from river and estuarine waters, coastal seawater, groundwater and tap water. Recently, microcontamination with La, that is derived from a point source where catalysts for petroleum refining are produced, has been detected in the Rhine River in Germany and the Netherlands. Here we report the occurrence of yet another REE microcontamination of river water: in addition to anthropogenic Gd and La, the Rhine River now also shows significant amounts of anthropogenic Sm. The anthropogenic Sm, which enters the Rhine River north of Worms, Germany, with the same industrial wastewater that carries the anthropogenic La, can be traced through the Middle and Lower Rhine to the Netherlands. At Leverkusen, Germany, some 250 km downstream from the point source at Worms, anthropogenic Sm still contributes up to 87% of the total dissolved Sm concentration of the Rhine River. Results from ultrafiltration suggest that while the anthropogenic Gd is not particle-reactive and hence exclusively present in the truly dissolved REE pool (high-tech applications, these critical metals have now become emerging contaminants that should be monitored, and it appears that studies of their biogeochemical behavior in natural freshwaters might soon no longer be possible.

  15. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieliński, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.zielinski@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Dopieralska, Jolanta, E-mail: dopieralska@amu.edu.pl [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland); Belka, Zdzislaw, E-mail: zbelka@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Walczak, Aleksandra, E-mail: awalczak@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Siepak, Marcin, E-mail: siep@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Maków Polnych 16, 61-606 Poznań (Poland); Jakubowicz, Michal, E-mail: mjakub@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values around 0.7104–0.7105. Variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32 mg/L. We find that strong variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the “baseline” for bioavailable {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in the past. - Highlights: • Sr isotopes fingerprint water sources and their interactions in a complex river system. • Mine waters and fertilizers are critical anthropogenic additions in the river water. • Limited usage of environmental isotopic data in archeological studies. • Sr budget of the river is dynamic and temporary.

  16. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  17. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  18. Trace elements in animal production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, P.; Durosoy, S.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    This book deals with trace elements, such as cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc which are essential to modern animal nutrition, but are increasingly detrimental to soil and water quality in today's globalized production. The goal in finding a sustainable balance between trace element

  19. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  20. Snake River Plain Basin-fill aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Snake River Plain aquifer system, which includes both the basaltic and basin-fill aquifers. This dataset does not...

  1. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  2. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  3. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  4. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 26

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  5. Stream catalog of the Wood River Lake System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information on the red salmon runs to all the major spawning tributaries in the Wood River lake system, Bristol Bay, Alaska from 1946 to 1962 is cataloged in this...

  6. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  7. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Brandon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  8. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 24

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  9. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 16

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  10. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  11. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  12. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Alton

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  13. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Dresden

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  14. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  15. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  16. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  17. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  18. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  19. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  20. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- La Grange

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  1. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  2. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Lockport

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  3. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  4. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 18

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  5. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  6. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 12

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  7. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  8. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  9. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  10. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 17

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  11. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 22

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  12. Pyrosequencing of antibiotic-contaminated river sediments reveals high levels of resistance and gene transfer elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Kristiansson

    Full Text Available The high and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics has accelerated the development of antibiotic resistance, creating a major challenge for the sustainable treatment of infections world-wide. Bacterial communities often respond to antibiotic selection pressure by acquiring resistance genes, i.e. mobile genetic elements that can be shared horizontally between species. Environmental microbial communities maintain diverse collections of resistance genes, which can be mobilized into pathogenic bacteria. Recently, exceptional environmental releases of antibiotics have been documented, but the effects on the promotion of resistance genes and the potential for horizontal gene transfer have yet received limited attention. In this study, we have used culture-independent shotgun metagenomics to investigate microbial communities in river sediments exposed to waste water from the production of antibiotics in India. Our analysis identified very high levels of several classes of resistance genes as well as elements for horizontal gene transfer, including integrons, transposons and plasmids. In addition, two abundant previously uncharacterized resistance plasmids were identified. The results suggest that antibiotic contamination plays a role in the promotion of resistance genes and their mobilization from environmental microbes to other species and eventually to human pathogens. The entire life-cycle of antibiotic substances, both before, under and after usage, should therefore be considered to fully evaluate their role in the promotion of resistance.

  13. Hydrochemical processes controlling arsenic and heavy metal contamination in the Elqui river system (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Thorsten

    2004-06-05

    Severe arsenic poisoning from drinking water has been documented in Northern Chile. However, the Elqui River, which provides water for approximately 200,000 people in this region, is poorly studied and no data on contaminants have been published to date. In this study, trace elements and the main aqueous constituents were monitored for approximately 2 years in the entire river system. Aqueous species of trace elements were determined via thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, and two operationally-defined suspended fractions were analyzed. Chalco- and arsenopyrite deposits in the upper Andes, in conjunction with mining and geothermal activity, were identified as exclusive point sources of heavy metals and arsenic. The annual input to the river system was approximately (t year(-1)): Fe 600, Mn 110, Cu 130, Zn 35 and As 2.0. The confluence with pH-buffered waters in the upper river system caused collapse of iron hydroxide colloids and coprecipitation of all heavy metals, e.g. dissolved copper concentrations decreased from approximately 100 to approximately 0.2 micromol l(-1), which is still of ecotoxic concern. The heavy metal enriched suspended solids settled only in the lower Elqui River. Arsenate did not adsorb to suspended solids and behaved strictly conservatively, exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water (0.13 micromol l(-1)) in the entire river system. Decontamination may be accomplished with reasonable efforts upstream in direct vicinity to the sources via coprecipitation, settling and appropriate pH adjustment for arsenate adsorption. Copryright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almli, Bjørn; Mwase, Maxwell; Sivertsen, Tore; Musonda, Mike M; Flåøyen, Arne

    2005-01-20

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 microg As/g and below 0.16 microg Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 microg Hg/g, and up to 8.7 microg Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians.

  15. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almli, Bjorn [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: bjorn.almli@vetinst.no; Mwase, Maxwell [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Sivertsen, Tore [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Musonda, Mike [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Flaoyen, Arne [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2005-01-20

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 {mu}g As/g and below 0.16 {mu}g Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 {mu}g Hg/g, and up to 8.7 {mu}g Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians.

  16. Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world's large river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Christer; Reidy, Catherine A; Dynesius, Mats; Revenga, Carmen

    2005-04-15

    A global overview of dam-based impacts on large river systems shows that over half (172 out of 292) are affected by dams, including the eight most biogeographically diverse. Dam-impacted catchments experience higher irrigation pressure and about 25 times more economic activity per unit of water than do unaffected catchments. In view of projected changes in climate and water resource use, these findings can be used to identify ecological risks associated with further impacts on large river systems.

  17. Annual fluxes of sediment-associated trace/major elements, carbon, nutrients and sulfur from US coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Stephens, Verlon C.; Elrick, Kent A.; Smith, James J.

    2012-01-01

    About 260–270 Mt of suspended sediment are discharged annually from the conterminous USA; approximately 69% derives from Gulf rivers (n = 36), 24% from Pacific rivers (n = 42), and 7% from Atlantic rivers (n = 54). Elevated sediment-associated chemical concentrations relative to baseline levels occur in the reverse order of sediment discharges: Atlantic rivers (49%) > Pacific rivers (40%) > Gulf rivers (23%). Elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. Cu, Zn) tend to occur in association with present/former industrial areas and/or urban centres, particularly along the northeast Atlantic coast. Elevated nutrient concentrations occur along both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, but are dominated by rivers in the urban northeast and by southeastern and Gulf coast “blackwater” streams. Elevated Ca, Mg, K and Na levels appear to reflect local petrology whereas elevated Ti, S, Fe, and Al concentrations are ubiquitous, possibly because they have both natural and anthropogenic sources. Almost all the elevated sediment-associated chemical concentrations/fluxes are lower than worldwide averages.

  18. Finite Element Computational Dynamics of Rotating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mackerle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element analysis of rotor dynamics problems that were published in 1994–1998. It contains 319 citations. Also included, as separate subsections, are finite element analyses of rotor elements – discs, shafts, spindles, and blades. Topics dealing with fracture mechanics, contact and stability problems of rotating machinery are also considered in specific sections. The last part of the bibliography presents papers dealing with specific industrial applications.

  19. Decomposing the Unsteady Flow Routing in River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Cunya, L. A.; Leon, A.; Gibson, N. L.; Vasylkivska, V.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents an optimization-based domain decomposition strategy for unsteady flow routing in complex river systems. This strategy couples the domain decomposition technique with a Precomputed Channel Hydraulics Ensemble approach, known also as HydraulicPerformance Graph (HPG), which utilizes precomputed solutions along reaches on a river system. These solutions are stored in a database. While efficient and robust, HPGs requires extensive memory allocation, especially for high resolution simulations. Decomposing the river system into subdomains reduces computer memory constraints as each sub-domain is solved independently. Further, an optimization method is used to couple the sub-domains using the stored precomputed solution. In turn, the computational efficiency of the HPG approach allows the optimization-based scheme to be competitive with a whole domain methodology. The combined strategy is expected to reduce the overall computational time for large-scale problems. This work discusses the results of the application to the Columbia River (Northwest USA).

  20. Anthropogenic pressure in a Portuguese river: Endocrine-disrupting compounds, trace elements and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cláudia M R; Maia, Alexandra S; Ribeiro, Ana R; Couto, Cristina; Almeida, Agostinho A; Santos, Mariana; Tiritan, Maria E

    2016-10-14

    Natural organic compounds such as phytoestrogens and phytosterols found in various plants, as well as mycotoxins produced by fungi, can be found in aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of three different classes of natural estrogenic compounds, i.e., phytoestrogens, phytosterols and mycotoxins, in estuarine water samples from the Ave River estuary. For that, water samples were collected at five sampling points distributed along the estuary at low tide, during 1 year, processed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). To correlate the presence of phytoestrogens and phytosterols in the estuarine water, local flora was collected on riverside. Trace elements content and physicochemical parameters such as nutrients and dissolved oxygen were also determined seasonally at each sampling point, to give insights for the evaluation of water quality and anthropogenic pressure. Both phytoestrogens and phytosterols showed a seasonal variation, with the highest values observed in spring and summer and the lowest in winter. Daidzein (DAID) was found up to 404.0 ng L(-1) in spring and coumestrol (COUM) was found up to 165.0 ng L(-1) in summer. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was ubiquitously determined with values ranging from 59.5 to 642.4 ng L(-1). Nutrients and metals distribution and concentration varied among sampling stations and seasons. This study revealed for the first time the presence of mycotoxins, various classes of phytoestrogens and stigmasterol (STG) in estuarine water from the Ave River (Portugal), and the evaluation of the water quality confirmed that this estuary is still highly impacted by anthropogenic activities.

  1. The influence of the Amazonian floodplain ecosystems on the trace element dynamics of the Amazon River mainstem (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, Jérôme; Barroux, Guénaël; Pinelli, Marcello; Seyler, Patrick; Oliva, Priscia; Dupré, Bernard; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast the role of riverine wetlands in the transfer of trace elements. One of the largest riverine wetlands in the world is the floodplain (várzea) of the Amazon River and its tributaries (Junk and Piedade, 1997). The central Amazon wetlands are constituted by a complex network of lakes and floodplains, named várzeas, that extend over more than 300,000 km2 (Junk, W.J., The Amazon floodplain--a sink or source for organic carbon? In Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, edited by E.T. Degens, S. Kempe, R. Herrera, SCOPE/UNEP; 267-283, 1985.) and are among the most productive ecosystems in the world due to the regular enrichment in nutrients by river waters In order to understand if the adjacent floodplain of Amazon River have a significant influence on the trace element concentrations and fluxes of the mainstem, the concentrations of selected elements (i.e., Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U) have been measured in the Amazon River water (Manacapuru Station, Amazonas State, Brazil) and in lake waters and plants (leaves) from a várzea(Ilha de Marchantaria, Amazonas State, Brazil) during different periods of the hydrological cycle. Four plant species (two perennial species: Pseudobombax munguba and Salix humboldtiana, and two annual herbaceous plants: Echinochloa polystachya and Eichhornia crassipes) were selected to represent the ecological functioning of the site. Time series obtained for dissolved Mn and Cu (<0.20 microm) in Amazon River water could not be explained by tributary mixing or instream processes only. Therefore, the contribution of the waters transiting the floodplains should be considered. These results suggest that the chemical composition of the waters draining these floodplains is controlled by reactions occurring at sediment-water and plant-water interfaces. Trace elements concentrations in the plants (leaves) vary strongly with hydrological seasonality. Based on the concentration data

  2. Impact of new computing systems on finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Storassili, O. O.; Fulton, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in computer technology that are likely to impact finite element computations are reviewed. The characteristics of supersystems, highly parallel systems, and small systems (mini and microcomputers) are summarized. The interrelations of numerical algorithms and software with parallel architectures are discussed. A scenario is presented for future hardware/software environment and finite element systems. A number of research areas which have high potential for improving the effectiveness of finite element analysis in the new environment are identified.

  3. [Analysis of pollution levels of 16 antibiotics in the river water of Daliao River water system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changqing; Wang, Longxing; Hou, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiping

    2012-08-01

    The detection of the pollution level of antibiotics in Daliao River system is a meaningful work. Sixteen antibiotics (6 sulfonamides, 5 fluoroquinolones, 3 tetracyclines and 2 chloramphenicols) were simultaneously quantified with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the SPE procedure, methanol and 2% (v/v) ammonia/methanol were used as the elution solvents in sequence to reduce the elution volume and improve the recovery. The results showed that this method have good sensitivity and enrichment effect for the target antibiotics in aqueous water, the recoveries ranged from 69.5% to 122.6%, the detection limits ranged from 0.05 ng/L to 0.32 ng/L. Thirteen antibiotics were found in the river water of Daliao River water system. Sulfa antibiotics were widely distributed, in which sulfamethoxazole was detected in all the sampling sites. The concentration of fluoroquinolones was relatively high in some sampling sites. The highest detection concentration of enoxacin was 41.3 ng/L. The frequencies and concentrations of tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were lower. In the upper reaches of the river, the concentrations of the 4 types of antibiotics appeared lower, but around the large cities such as Shenyang City, Benxi City, Liaoyang City, the concentrations showed higher levels. The study indicated that the Daliao River water system suffered from the pollution of antibiotics to a certain extent.

  4. PROBABILISTIC ESTIMATION OF VIBRATION INFLUENCE ON SENSITIVE SYSTEM ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to an estimation of vibration influence on sensitive system elements. Dependences of intensity and probability of a process exit characterizing a condition of a system element for the preset range that allow to estimate serviceability and no-failure operation of the system have been obtained analytically in the paper

  5. Consideration upon the River system in the north of the Suceava tableland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu OPREA-GANCEVICI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paleoevolution of the river system in the Moldavian Tableland has undergone at a theoretical level two successive hypothetical directions. The former direction, formulated in the first half of the XXth century, alleges the existence of a river system, with a transverse character, that prolonged to the east the Carpathian river systems. Specialists of this theory, Tufescu V. (1932, M. David (1933, quoted by V. Bacauanu - 1973 and Gheorghe Nastase (1946, quoted by V. Bacauanu - 1973 based their design on the presence of horizons of gravels with Carpathian elements on some interfluves to the east of the Siret valley, and the existence of some saddles, Loznica, Bucecea and Ruginoasa, located on the left side of the same river. The latter direction, diametrically opposite, supports the idea of evolution of the river system consecutively with the Sarmato-Pliocene Sea pulling back to the south. The hypothesis is supported and substantiated by I. Sîrcu (1955, C. Martiniuc and V. Bacauanu (1960, V. Bacauanu (1968, 1973. In this context it is considered that the Prut and Siret rivers carved the oldest valleys in the tableland. The authors explain the erosional genesis of the saddles arguing their inability to create transversal rivers on the basis of continuity upstream and downstream the saddles of terrace levels with relatively high altitudes, which proves the flow continuity on consequent valleys. The research carried out along the Suceava river valley and the immediate interstream area in order to create a scenario of the valley paleoevolution highlighted the presence of crystalline lithotopes in the petrographic structure of the accumulation deposits. The presence of such petrographic elements contradicts the present-day alluvia sources of the rivers that could have transported them:  Suceava or its tributaries Solonet, Ilisasca, Scheia. The rivers spring either from the Carpathian flysch or from the former area of platform sedimentation. We

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  8. Finite element approach for transient analysis of multibody systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chin; Chang, Che-Wei; Housner, Jerrold M.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional, finite element based formulation for the transient dynamics of constrained multibody systems with trusslike configurations is presented. A convected coordinate system is used to define the rigid-body motion of individual elements in the system. Deformation of each element is defined relative to its convected coordinate system. The formulation is oriented toward joint-dominated structures. Through a series of sequential transformations, the joint degree of freedom is built into the equations of motion of the element to reduce geometric constraints. Based on the derivation, a general-purpose code has been developed. Two examples are presented to illustrate the application of the code.

  9. Selection of active elements in system reduction of vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, K.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents non-classical method of design of mechatronic systems. The purpose of this paper is also introduces synthesis of mechatronic system understand as design of mechatronic systems. The synthesis may be applied to modify the already existing systems in order to achieve a desired result. The system was consisted from mechanical and electrical elements. Electrical elements were used as subsystem reducing unwanted vibration of mechanical system. Electrical elements can be realized in the form of coils with movable core. The system was modelled in Matlab Simulink.

  10. Trace elements in native and transplanted Fontinalis antipyretica and Platyhypnidium riparioides from rivers polluted by uranium mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosior, Grzegorz; Steinnes, Eiliv; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Lierhagen, Syverin; Kolon, Krzysztof; Dołhańczuk-Śródka, Agnieszka; Ziembik, Zbigniew

    2017-03-01

    The past uranium/polymetallic mining activities in the Sudety (SW Poland) left abandoned mines, pits, and dumps of waste rocks with trace elements and radionuclides which may erode or leach out and create a potential risk for the aquatic ecosystem, among others. In the present work four rivers affected by effluents from such mines were selected to evaluate the application of aquatic mosses for the bioindication of 56 elements. Naturally growing F. antipyretica and P. riparioides were compared with transplanted samples of the same species. The results demonstrate serious pollution of the examined rivers, especially with As, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti, U and Zn, reaching extremely high concentrations in native moss samples. In the most polluted rivers native F. antipyretica and P. riparioides samples showed significantly higher concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Fe, La, Nd, Ni, Pb, U and Zn than corresponding transplanted samples, whereas at less polluted sites a reverse situation was sometimes observed. Transplanted moss moved from clean to extremely polluted rivers probably protects itself against the accumulation of toxic elements by reducing their uptake. Selection of native or transplanted F. antipyretica and P. riparioides depended on the pollution load.

  11. Hydraulic elements in reduction of vibrations in mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, K.; Buchacz, A.

    2017-08-01

    This work presents non-classical method of design of mechanic systems with subsystem reducing vibrations. The purpose of this paper is also introduces synthesis of mechanic system with reducing vibrations understand as design of this type of systems. The synthesis may be applied to modify the already existing systems in order to achieve a desired result. Elements which reduce vibrations can be constructed with passive, semi-active or active components. These considerations systems have selected active items. A hallmark of active elements it is possible to change the parameters on time of these elements and their power from an external source. The implementation of active elements is very broad. These elements can be implemented through the use of components of electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, etc. The system was consisted from mechanical and hydraulic elements. Hydraulic elements were used as subsystem reducing unwanted vibration of mechanical system. Hydraulic elements can be realized in the form of hydraulic cylinder. In the case of an active vibration reduction in the form of hydraulic cylinder it is very important to find the corresponding values of hydraulic components. The values of these elements affect the frequency of vibrations of this sub-system which is related to the effective vibration reduction [7,11].

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  13. Quantifying habitat benefits of channel reconfigurations on a highly regulated river system, Lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of habitat availability in a highly regulated lowland river, comparing a restored reach with two reference reaches: an un-restored, channelized reach, and a least-altered reach. We evaluate the effects of channel modifications in terms of distributions of depth and velocity as well as distributions and availability of habitats thought to be supportive of an endangered fish, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). It has been hypothesized that hydraulic conditions that support food production and foraging may limit growth and survival of juvenile pallid sturgeon. To evaluate conditions that support these habitats, we constructed two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the three study reaches, two located in the Lower Missouri River (channelized and restored reaches) and one in the Yellowstone River (least-altered reach). Comparability among the reaches was improved by scaling by bankfull discharge and bankfull channel area. The analysis shows that construction of side-channel chutes and increased floodplain connectivity increase the availability of foraging habitat, resulting in a system that is more similar to the reference reach on the Yellowstone River. The availability of food-producing habitat is low in all reaches at flows less than bankfull, but the two reaches in the Lower Missouri River – channelized and restored – display a threshold-like response as flows overtop channel banks, reflecting the persistent effects of channelization on hydraulics in the main channel. These high lateral gradients result in punctuated ecological events corresponding to flows in excess of bankfull discharge. This threshold effect in the restored reach remains distinct from that of the least-altered reference reach, where hydraulic changes are less abrupt and overbank flows more gradually inundate the adjacent floodplain. The habitat curves observed in the reference reach on the Yellowstone River may not be attainable within the

  14. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section 108.413 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection...

  15. Anthropogenic gadolinium anomalies and rare earth elements in the water of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Francisco Ferreira; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), measured in water samples from Atibaia River and its tributary Anhumas Creek, Brazil, present excess of dissolved gadolinium. Such anthropogenic anomalies of Gd in water, already described in other parts of the world, result from the use of stable and soluble Gd chelates as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Atibaia River constitutes the main water supply of Campinas Metropolitan area, and its basin receives wastewater effluents. The REE concentrations in water samples were determined in 0.22-μm pore size filtered samples, without and after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction with bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate. This preconcentration method was unable to retain the anthropogenic Gd quantitatively. The probable reason is that the Gd chelates dissociate slowly in acidic media to produce the free ion that is retained by the phosphate ester. Strong correlations between Gd and constituents or parameters associated with effluents confirmed the source of most Gd in water samples as anthropogenic. The shale-normalized REE patterns of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek water samples showed light and heavy REE enrichment trends, respectively. Also, positive Ce anomalies in many Atibaia River samples, as well as the strong correlations of the REE (except Gd) with terrigenous elements, imply that inorganic colloidal particles contributed to the REE measured values.

  16. Appropriate models in decision support systems for river basin management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Morell, M.; Todorovik, O.; Dimitrov, D.; Selenica, A.; Spirkovski, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, new ideas and techniques appear very quickly, like sustainability, adaptive management, Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing and participations of new stakeholders, which contribute a lot to the development of decision support systems in river basin management. However, the

  17. Nutrient, suspended sediment, and trace element loads in the Blackstone River Basin in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 2007 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Waldron, Marcus C.; DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients, suspended sediment, and trace element loads in the Blackstone River and selected tributaries were estimated from composite water-quality samples in order to better understand the distribution and sources of these constituents in the river basin. The flow-proportional composite water-quality samples were collected during sequential 2-week periods at six stations along the river’s main stem, at three stations on tributaries, and at four wastewater treatment plants in the Massachusetts segment of the basin from June 2007 to September 2009. Samples were collected at an additional station on the Blackstone River near the mouth in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, from September 2008 to September 2009. The flow-proportional composite samples were used to estimate average daily loads during the sampling periods; annual loads for water years 2008 and 2009 also were estimated for the monitoring station on the Blackstone River near the Massachusetts-Rhode Island border. The effects of hydrologic conditions and net attenuation of nitrogen were investigated for loads in the Massachusetts segment of the basin. Sediment resuspension and contaminant loading dynamics were evaluated in two Blackstone River impoundments, the former Rockdale Pond (a breached impoundment) and Rice City Pond.

  18. Finite element analysis of two disk rotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Harsh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    A finite element model of simple horizontal rotor system is developed for evaluating its dynamic behaviour. The model is based on Timoshenko beam element and accounts for the effect of gyroscopic couple and other rotational forces. Present rotor system consists of single shaft which is supported by bearings at both ends and two disks are mounted at different locations. The natural frequencies, mode shapes and orbits of rotating system for a specific range of rotation speed are obtained by developing a MATLAB code for solving the finite element equations of rotary system. Consequently, Campbell diagram is plotted for finding a relationship between natural whirl frequencies and rotation of the rotor.

  19. A time delay artificial neural network approach for flow routing in a river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Diamantopoulou

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available River flow routing provides basic information on a wide range of problems related to the design and operation of river systems. In this paper, three layer cascade correlation Time Delay Artificial Neural Network (TDANN models have been developed to forecast the one day ahead daily flow at Ilarionas station on the Aliakmon river, in Northern Greece. The networks are time lagged feed-formatted with delayed memory processing elements at the input layer. The network topology is using multiple inputs, which include the time lagged daily flow values further up at Siatista station on the Aliakmon river and at Grevena station on the Venetikos river, which is a tributary to the Aliakmon river and a single output, which are the daily flow values at Ilarionas station. The choice of the input variables introduced to the input layer was based on the cross-correlation. The use of cross-correlation between the ith input series and the output provides a short cut to the problem of the delayed memory determination. Kalman's learning rule was used to modify the artificial neural network weights. The networks are designed by putting weights between neurons, by using the hyperbolic-tangent function for training. The number of nodes in the hidden layer was determined based on the maximum value of the correlation coefficient. The results show a good performance of the TDANN approach for forecasting the daily flow values, at Ilarionas station and demonstrate its adequacy and potential for river flow routing. The TDANN approach introduced in this study is sufficiently general and has great potential to be applicable to many hydrological and environmental applications.

  20. Daily Changes of Spatial Patterns of Meteorological Elements over Pearl River Delta Based on GIS and MM5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xueding; XIA Beicheng; LIN Guangfa; LIN Wenshi

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of meteorological elements is important for understanding the regional meteorology and climate changes. However, previous studies rarely focused on the daily changes of the spatial patterns of meteorological elements due to the limitation of remote sensing (RS) techniques and traditional meteorological methods. In this paper, the regional meteorological elements were simulated by the fifth-generation non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (MM5), and the spatial patterns of meteorological elements and their diurnal variations were analyzed in landscape level over the Pearl (Zhujiang) River Delta (PRD), China. The results showed that there were several centers of urban heat islands, cold islands, dry islands, wet islands, high wind over the PRD at noon. The diurnal changes of Moran I of meteorological elements were obvious and they reached the extremum at noon and 2-3 hours after the sunrise. The landscape indices of meteorological elements, such as area-weighted mean Fractal Dimension Index (FRAC_AM), Landscape Shape Index (LSI), Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI) and Contagion Index (CONTAG), were more variable at about the sunrise, noon and sunset. The occurrence of wave crests and vales of landscape indices was affected by the surface net radiation, turbulence and local circumfluence. The spatial patterns of meteorological elements correlated well with the land surface, thermal exchanges and local circumfluence. A new approach combining GIS, RS and numerical simulatious technologies and the landscape ecology method was presented to analyze spatial patterns of meteorological elements, which may be useful for studying global and regional climate changes.

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  2. Mobilisation of toxic elements in the human respiratory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, T. E-mail: murmur@itn1.itn.pt; Alves, L.C.; Palhano, M.J.; Bugalho de Almeida, A

    2001-07-01

    The fate of respired particles in the respiratory system is inferred through the chemical characterisation of individual particles at the tracheal and bronchial mucosas, and the accumulation of toxic elements in lung alveoli and lymph nodes. The particles and tissue elemental distributions were identified and characterised using micro-PIXE elemental mapping of thin frozen sections using the ITN Nuclear Microprobe facility. Significant particle deposits are found at the distal respiratory tract. Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn are elements detected at these accumulation areas. The elemental distributions in the different cellular environments of lymph nodes vary. The major compartments for Al, Si, Ti, Fe and Cr are the phagocytic cells and capsule of lymph nodes, while V and Ni are in the cortex and paracortex medullar areas which retain more than 70% of these two elements, suggesting high solubility of the latter in the cellular milieu. The elemental mobilisation from particles or deposits to surrounding tissues at the respiratory ducts evidences patterns of diffusion and removal that are different than those for elements in the respiratory tract. Mobilisation of elements such as V, Cr and Ni is more relevant at alveoli areas where gaseous exchange takes place. The apparent high solubility of V and Ni in the respiratory tract tissue points towards a deviation of the lymphatic system filtering efficiency for these elements when compared to others.

  3. Splitting rivers at their seams: bifurcations and avulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Ferguson, R.I.; Lane, S.N.; Hardy, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    River bifurcations are critical but poorly understood elements of many geomorphological systems. They are integralelements of alluvial fans, braided rivers, fluvial lowland plains, and deltas and control the partitioning of water and sediment throughthese systems. Bifurcations are commonly unstable

  4. Study of speciation and size fractionation of trace element between soil solution, bog, river and lake within a boreal watershed (North Karelia, NW Russia) using fractional filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    This work is aimed at studying the evolution of migration forms of true dissolved compounds and colloidal entities using an integrated approach of molecular mass distribution and differences in the association of trace elements (TE) with organic matter (OM) or Fe colloids in the system soil water-bog-river-lake. Characterization of TE speciation with colloids during TE migration from the site of colloids origin (bog and soil solutions) towards the transit zone (river) and finally to the deposition, accumulation or transformation zone (lake) is a main fundamental task of this problem. The objects of study include a small stream watershed Vostochniy and the river Palayoki (North Karelia, Russia). The water samplings were performed in July and August 2008 and 2009 and included soil solution, nourishing bog, the middle part of the brook originated from the swamp, the mouth of the brook and the lake Zipringa. We sampled large volumes (50 - 100 liters), and we applied, directly in the in-field-installed "clean laboratory" the sequential frontal filtration and ultrafiltration of samples through the filters of progressively decreasing poresize 100, 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 microns; 100 kDa (0.0065 micron), 10 kDa (0.003 micron) and 1 kDa (0.0014 micron). This allowed separation of organic matter, coarse and fine particulate matter and colloids. All filtrates and selected retentates were analyzed for a wide range of macro-and micronutrients using ICP-MS. In filtrates of the river water, a significant decrease of iron concentration occurred in the range of 5 micron to 0.22 micron and from 100 kDa to 1 kDa. For alkali and alkaline earth elements (Mg, K, Ca), as well as for Cu, Ni, Cr the concentrations changed after passing through the 10 kDa membrane. Na concentration remains constant in all filtrates. The filtrates of the soil solution are characterized by a significant decreases in Na, K, after 0.1 micron, Ca, Cu in the range of 0.22 micron - 100 kDa and Mg, Ni in

  5. Building an Intelligent Water Information System - American River Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    recorded by sensors into information in the form that is useful for decision-making. In a sense it 'monetizes' the data. It is the cyber infrastructure that links measurements, data processing, models and users. System software must provide flexibility for multiple types of access from user queries to automated and direct links with analysis tools and decision-support systems. We are currently installing a basin-scale ground-based sensor network focusing on measurements of snowpack, solar radiation, temperature, rH and soil moisture across the American River basin. Although this is a research network, it also provides core elements of a full ground-based operational system.

  6. Desirable Elements for a Particle System Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schroeder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle systems have many applications, with the most popular being to produce special effects in video games and films. To permit particle systems to be created quickly and easily, Particle System Interfaces (PSIs have been developed. A PSI is a piece of software designed to perform common tasks related to particle systems for clients, while providing them with a set of parameters whose values can be adjusted to create different particle systems. Most PSIs are inflexible, and when clients require functionality that is not supported by the PSI they are using, they are forced to either find another PSI that meets their requirements or, more commonly, create their own particle system or PSI from scratch. This paper presents three original contributions. First, it identifies 18 features that a PSI should provide in order to be capable of creating diverse effects. If these features are implemented in a PSI, clients will be more likely to be able to accomplish all desired effects related to particle systems with one PSI. Secondly, it introduces a novel use of events to determine, at run time, which particle system code to execute in each frame. Thirdly, it describes a software architecture called the Dynamic Particle System Framework (DPSF. Simulation results show that DPSF possesses all 18 desirable features.

  7. Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: ildorileo@sigmanet.com.br, e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

  8. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  9. Flood forecasting and alert system for Arda River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinyan, Eram; Vincendon, Beatrice; Kroumova, Kamelia; Nedkov, Nikolai; Tsarev, Petko; Balabanova, Snezhanka; Koshinchanov, Georgy

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the set-up and functioning of a flood alert system based on SURFEX-TOPODYN platform for the cross-border Arda River basin. The system was built within a Bulgarian-Greek project funded by the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) Programme and is in operational use since April 2014. The basin is strongly influenced by Mediterranean cyclones during the autumn-winter period and experiences dangerous rapid floods, mainly after intensive rain, often combined with snow melt events. The steep mountainous terrain leads to floods with short concentration time and high river speed causing damage to settlements and infrastructure. The main challenge was to correctly simulate the riverflow in near-real time and to timely forecast peak floods for small drainage basins below 100 km2 but also for larger ones of about 1900 km2 using the same technology. To better account for that variability, a modification of the original hydrological model parameterisation is proposed. Here we present the first results of a new model variant which uses dynamically adjusted TOPODYN river velocity as function of the computed partial streamflow discharge. Based on historical flooding data, river sections along endangered settlements were included in the river flow forecasting. A continuous hydrological forecast for 5 days ahead was developed for 18 settlements in Bulgaria and for the border with Greece, thus giving enough reaction time in case of high floods. The paper discusses the practical implementation of models for the Arda basin, the method used to calibrate the models' parameters, the results of the calibration-validation procedure and the way the information system is organised. A real case of forecasted rapid floods that occurred after the system's finalisation is analysed. One of the important achievements of the project is the on-line presentation of the forecasts that takes into account their temporal variability and uncertainty. The web presentation includes a

  10. Trace element analytics and multivariate statistics for investigation and assessment of the pollution situation in rivers; Elementspurenanalytik und multivariate Statistik zur Untersuchung und Bewertung des Belastungszustandes von Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulinger, A.M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2002-07-01

    In order to describe and assess the element distribution and the trend of the pollution in sediments, particulate suspended matter and dissolved matter of the river Elbe more than 60 elements were determined in several sampling campaigns along the entire river during the nineties. By analyzing the resulting data with two- and multi-way principal components analysis geogenic and anthropogenically influenced elements were distinguished and typical longitudinal profiles concerning geogenic or anthropogenic characteristics were summarized. Sampling locations having similiar element distribution patterns were aggregated to characteristic Elbe sections by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The temporal trend of the pollution within the different sections was quantified by comparing the mean concentrations of the anthropogenically influenced elements. Two- and Three-way PLS regression models were applied to predict element concentrations in one certain river compartment from measured concentrations in one or two different compartments. (orig.)

  11. A Type System for Required/Excluded Elements in CLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The calculus of looping sequences is a formalism for describing the evolution of biological systems by means of term rewriting rules. We enrich this calculus with a type discipline to guarantee the soundness of reduction rules with respect to some biological properties deriving from the requirement of certain elements, and the repellency of others. As an example, we model a toy system where the repellency of a certain element is captured by our type system and forbids another element to exit a compartment.

  12. Sedimentation and contamination patterns of dike systems along the Rhône River (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seignemartin, Gabrielle; Tena, Alvaro; Piégay, Hervé; Roux, Gwenaelle; Winiarski, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Humans have historically modified the Rhône River, especially in the last centuries. In the 19th century, the river was systematically embanked for flood protection purposes, and works continued along the 20th century with dike system engineering work for navigation. The Rhône was canalised and its historical course by-passed by a series of hydroelectric dams. Besides, industrial activity polluted the river. For example, high levels of PCB's were attributed to the inputs of the heavily industrialized zone downstream from Lyon. During floods, these contaminants, associated with the suspended sediment, were trapped by the engineering works and the floodplain. Currently, a master plan to reactivate the river dynamics in the alluvial margins by removing the groyne-fields and dikes in the by-passed sections is being implemented. Within this context, this work aims to assess historical dynamics of sediment and associated contaminants in the floodplain (e.g. trace metal elements), notably in the dike system, in order to evaluate the contamination risk related to bank protection removal. With this objective, a transversal methodology has been applied coupling GIS diachronic analysis (old maps, bathymetric data, Orthophotos, LIDAR, etc.) to understand the historical floodplain evolution, sediment survey to obtain sediment thickness (metal rod and Ground Penetrating Radar), and sediment sampling (manual auger and core sampling) to obtain the metal element concentrations (X-Ray Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). By this way, metal element patterns were defined and used as contamination tracing indicators to apprehend the contamination history but also as geochemical background indicators to define the sediment source influence. We found that sediment temporal patterns are directly related with the by-pass construction year. Spatially, fine sediment deposition predominates in the dike systems, being lower in the floodplain already disconnected in

  13. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon Intan Mastura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  14. Development of River Quality Management (RQM Information System for River Stretches Blending with Multi-Industrial Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Muniyan Sundararajan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RQM information system takes into account various non-conservative pollution parameters like Total Dissolved solids (TDS, Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Dissolved Oxygen (DO and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD and obtains the concentration of such parameters along the river stretch. The system incorporates various mathematical models for computation of velocity variation along the river stretch, flow rate computation, and crosssectional area computation and finally uses a water quality dispersion model to compute the concentration of vivid pollutants at various points in the river stretch to predict the quality of river.

  15. A new model for the grid size optimization of the finite element method --Based on its application to the water quality modeling of the topographically complicated river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guangming; SU Xiaokang; HUANG Guohe; XIE Gengxin

    2003-01-01

    The finite element method is one of the typical methods that are used for numerical water quality modeling of the topographically complicated river. In this paper, based on the principle of probability theory the probability density of pollutants is introduced. A new model for the grid size optimization based on the finite element method is developed with the incorporation of the maximum information entropy theory when the length of the grid is given. Combined with the experiential evaluation approach of the flow discharge per unit river width, this model can be used to determine the grid size of the finite element method applied to water quality modeling of the topographically complicated river when the velocity field of the river is not given. The calculating results of the application of the model to an ideal river testified the correctness of the model. In a practical case-the application of the model to the Xingjian River (the Hengyang section of the Xiangjiang River), the optimized width of the grid of the finite element method was gained and the influence of parameters was studied, which demonstrated that the model reflected the real situation of the pollutants in the river, and that the model had many excellent characteristics such as stabilization, credibility and high applicability in practical applications.

  16. Multi-Element Electron-Transfer Optical Detector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-element optical detector system includes an electrically resistive screen that is substantially transparent to radiation energy having a wavelength of interest. A plurality of electron transfer elements (e.g., a low work function photoactive material or a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based element) are provided with each having a first end and a second end. The first end of each element is spaced apart from the screen by an evacuated gap. When the radiation energy passes through the screen with a bias voltage applied thereto, transfer of electrons through each element is induced from the first end to the second end such that a quantity indicative of the electrons transferred through each element can be detected.

  17. Trace elements in the Fontinalis antipyretica from rivers receiving sewage of lignite and glass sand mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosior, Grzegorz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Brudzińska-Kosior, Anna; Bena, Waldemar; Kempers, Alexander J

    2015-07-01

    Intensive lignite and glass sand mining and industrial processing release waste which may contain elements hazardous to the aquatic ecosystem and constitute a potential risk to human health. Therefore, their levels must be carefully controlled. As a result, we examined the effects of sewage on the aquatic Fontinalis antipyretica moss in the Nysa Łużycka (lignite industry) and the Kwisa Rivers (glass sand industry). The Nysa Łużycka and the Kwisa Rivers appeared to be heavily polluted with As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, which were reflected in the extremely high concentration of these elements in F. antipyretica along the studied watercourses. In the Nysa Łużycka, trace element composition in the moss species is affected by lignite industry with accumulation in its tissues of the highest concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, while samples from the Kwisa sites influenced by glass sand industry revealed the highest concentrations of As, V and Fe. The principal component and classification analysis classifies the concentration of elements in the aquatic F. antipyretica moss, thus enabling the differentiation of sources of water pollution in areas affected by mining industry.

  18. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robonaut 2 Technologies Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the Robonaut 2 (R2) Technology Project Element within Human Robotic Systems (HRS) is to developed advanced technologies for infusion into the Robonaut 2...

  19. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic ISRU Acquisition Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic ISRU Resource Acquisition project element will develop two technologies:Exploration Ground Data Systems (xGDS)Sample Acquisition on...

  20. Passive solar tracking system for steerable Fresnel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, R.D.

    1976-10-12

    An angular tracking servo system is described for passive tracking of the sun. Solar radiation is used to control the attitude of a mirror element in an array of Fresnel reflectors. The array collects and focuses solar energy onto a high efficiency conversion device. The energy required to move the mirror element is supplied by a gear system which is attached through a pivot arm to a vertically moving float immersed in a chamber containing water.

  1. Climate-hydrology-ecology interactions in glacierized river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, David; Brown, Lee; Milner, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    High climatic sensitivity and low anthropogenic influence make glacierized river basins important environments for examining hydrological and ecological response to global change. This presentation is based on previous and ongoing research in glacierized river basins (located in the French Pyrenees, New Zealand and Swedish Lapland), which adopts an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the climate-hydrology-ecology cascade. Data are used to advance hypotheses concerning impacts of climate change/ variability on glacier river system hydrology and ecology. Aquatic ecosystems in high latitude and altitude environments are influenced strongly by cryospheric and hydrological processes due to links between atmospheric forcing, snowpack/ glacier mass-balance, river runoff, physico-chemistry and biota. In the current phase of global warming, many glaciers are retreating. Shrinking snow and ice-masses may alter spatial and temporal dynamics in bulk basin runoff with significant changes in the relative contributions of snowmelt, glacier-melt and groundwater to stream flow. The timing of peak snow- and ice-melt may shift; and proportion of stream flow sourced from rainfall-runoff and groundwater may increase. In this presentation, the influence of changing water source contributions on physico-chemical habitat and, in turn, benthic communities is assessed using an alternative alpine stream classification. In the future, this model predicts more rapid downstream change in benthic communities as meltwater contributions decline; and, at the basin-scale, biodiversity may be reduced due to less spatio-temporal heterogeneity in water sources contributions and, thus, physico-chemical habitat. Integrated, long-term research into the climate-hydrology-ecology cascade in other glacierized river basins is vital because interdisciplinary science is fundamental: to predicting stream hydrology and ecology under scenarios of future climate/ variability, to assessing the utility of

  2. Trace elements and organic compounds in the Spring River Basin of southeastern Kansas in 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We sampled sediments and aquatic biota at five locations in the Spring River drainage in southeastern Kansas. The samples were analyzed for metals, organochlorine...

  3. IFEMS, an Interactive Finite Element Modeling System Using a CAD/CAM System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckellip, S.; Schuman, T.; Lauer, S.

    1980-01-01

    A method of coupling a CAD/CAM system with a general purpose finite element mesh generator is described. The three computer programs which make up the interactive finite element graphics system are discussed.

  4. Climate scenarios for the Truckee-Carson River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Sterle, Kelley; Simpson, Karen; Singletary, Loretta; Fitzgerald, Kelsey; McCarthy, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the scenarios ultimately take the form of gridded, daily (maximum and minimum) temperatures and precipitation totals spanning the entire Truckee-Carson River System, from which meteorological inputs to various hydrologic, water-balance and watermanagement models can be extracted by other parts of the Water for the Seasons project and by other studies and stakeholders. Climate scenarios are constructed using: 1) survey data from interviews with 66 Truckee-Carson River System water-management and water-interest organizations to identify plausible drought and high-flow events that could stress the system irreparably; 2) input from the Stakeholder Affiliate Group and other modelers on the Water for the Seasons team to gain additional key stakeholder input with regard to organizational survey results and to identify the most pressing water-management issues being faced in the system; and 3) historical climate datasets used to simulate possible future conditions.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF PARAMETERS OF ELEMENTS COMPUTER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterov G. D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the topical issue of increasing the productivity of computers. It has an experimental character. Therefore, the description of a number of the carried-out tests and the analysis of their results is offered. Previously basic characteristics of modules of the computer for the regular mode of functioning are provided in the article. Further the technique of regulating their parameters in the course of experiment is described. Thus the special attention is paid to observing the necessary thermal mode in order to avoid an undesirable overheat of the central processor. Also, operability of system in the conditions of the increased energy consumption is checked. The most responsible moment thus is regulating the central processor. As a result of the test its optimum tension, frequency and delays of data reading from memory are found. The analysis of stability of characteristics of the RAM, in particular, a condition of its tires in the course of experiment is made. As the executed tests took place within the standard range of characteristics of modules, and, therefore, the margin of safety put in the computer and capacity of system wasn't used, further experiments were made at extreme dispersal in the conditions of air cooling. The received results are also given in the offered article

  6. Contents and risks of potentially toxic elements in wastewater-fed food production systems in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle

    Non-treated wastewater is used for irrigation of aquatic food production systems in the peri-urban areas of the major cities in Southeast Asia. Therefore concern is that potentially toxic elements (PTEs) may accumulate in foods produced. Hanoi and Phnom Penh, the capitals of Vietnam and Cambodia...... polluted with As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. The sediment concentrations of Pb and Sb were also high. Of most concern was the observed Cd concentration in To Lich River which has a maximum of 427 mg kg-1 d.w. The Hanoi river sediment had a high retention capacity for PTEs. Logarithm to the maximum observed...

  7. Automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems: application to the Ebro River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, V; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Sarrate, R; Morales-Hernandez, M; Gonzalez-Sanchis, M; Garcia-Navarro, P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems is addressed using a benchmark test case based in the Ebro River. The Ebro River presents flooding episodes in the city of Zaragoza in Spring when snow melts in the Pyrenees. To avoid flooding and high pollutant levels in living areas, some lands outside the city are prepared to be flooded. Going one step further, this paper is focused on the pollutant level control at a certain point downstream of the river under flooding episodes, and several control strategies for that purpose are presented and tested.

  8. XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System

    CERN Document Server

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

  9. Soft systems methodology and the ecosystem approach: a system study of the Cooum River and environs in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Martin J

    2003-02-01

    This paper discusses the integration of soft systems methodology (SSM) within an ecosystem approach in research to support rehabilitation and management of the Cooum River and environs in Chennai, India. The Cooum is an extremely polluted urban stream. Its management is complicated by high rates of population growth, poverty, uncontrolled urban development, jurisdictional conflicts, institutional culture, flat topography, tidal action, blockage of the river mouth, and monsoon flooding. The situation is characterized by basic uncertainty about main processes and activities, and the nature of relationships among actors and elements in the system.SSM is an approach for dealing with messy or ill-structured problematic situations involving human activity. In this work SSM contributed techniques (such as "rich picture" and "CATWOE" tools) to description of the Cooum situation as a socioecological system and informed the approach itself at a theoretical level. Application of three general phases in SSM is discussed in the context of the Cooum River research: (1) problem definition and exploration of the problem situation, (2) development of conceptual models of relevant systems, and (3) the use of these to generate insight and stimulate debate about desirable and feasible change. Its use here gives weight to the statement by others that SSM would be a particularly appropriate methodology to operate the ecosystem approach. As well as informing efforts at management of the Cooum system, this work led the way to explore an adaptive ecosystem approach more broadly to management of the urban environment for human health in Chennai.

  10. Concentrations of 17 elements in muscle, gills, liver and gonads of five economically important fish species from the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhardt M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danube River in the vicinity of the city of Belgrade receives large amounts of untreated or poorly treated communal and industrial waste waters. The aim of this study was to assess elemental accumulation patterns in a number of economically important fish species in this area that belong to different trophic levels. Concentrations of 17 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were assessed in liver, muscle, gills and gonads of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, freshwater bream (Abramis brama, white bream (Blicca bjoerkna, common carp (Cyprinus carpio and wels catfish (Silurus glanis from the Danube River in Serbia by the use of ICP-OES. Silver carp specimens were differentiated from the other four species by high concentrations of Al and Fe in the liver. Common carp specimens were differentiated by high concentrations of Zn in gills, muscle and liver. Distribution of elements among different tissues had a consistent pattern among the species. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu and Fe in muscle were at acceptable levels for human consumption, while concentrations of Fe and Zn were above maximum acceptable concentrations in liver and gonads.

  11. The Three Dimensional Douglas-Peucker Algorithm for Generalization between River Network Line Element and DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOU Shiqing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the three dimensional Douglas-Peucker (3D_DP algorithm is mainly used on generalization of a single type of DEM. This paper introduces the "bending adjustment index" to improve the 3D_DP algorithm, and puts forward a new method for generalizing river network and DEM in three-dimensional space. In this method, river network line vector data are extracted into 3D discrete point data sets which are added elevation attributes, and then they are merged with the 3D discrete point data sets of DEM. The generalization operations are made by the improved 3D_DP algorithm after the hierarchical selection of river networks. Through the contrast and analysis of the experimental results, the well experiment results have been achieved. Under the role of bending adjustment index, the overall distribution form of the rivers and the main terrain features can be reserved reasonably on the generalization. The river network and DEM data were generalized under the same simplified factor in this method. It improves the quality of the cartography generalization.

  12. Trace element fractionation and transport in boreal rivers and soil porewaters of permafrost-dominated basaltic terrain in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Schott, J.; Dupré, B.

    2006-07-01

    The chemical status of ˜40 major and trace elements (TE) and organic carbon (OC) in pristine boreal rivers draining the basaltic plateau of Central Siberia (Putorana) and interstitial solutions of permafrost soils was investigated. Water samples were filtered in the field through progressively decreasing pore size (5 μm → 0.22 μm → 0.025 μm → 10 kDa → 1 kDa) using cascade frontal filtration technique. Most rivers and soil porewaters exhibit 2-5 times higher than the world average concentration of dissolved (i.e., Ultrafiltration revealed strong relationships between concentration of TE and that of colloidal Fe and Al. According to their partition during filtration and association with colloids, two groups of elements can be distinguished: (i) those weakly dependent on ultrafiltration and that are likely to be present as truly dissolved inorganic species (Li, Na, K, Si, Mn, Mo, Rb, Cs, As, Sb) or, partially (20-30%) associated with small size Fe- and Al-colloids (Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba) and to small (complexes (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and (ii) elements strongly associated with colloidal iron and aluminum in all ultrafiltrates largely present in 1-100 kDa fraction (Ga, Y, REEs, Pb, V, Cr, Ti, Ge, Zr, Th, U). TE concentrations and partition coefficients did not show any detectable variations between different colloidal fractions for soil porewaters, suprapermafrost flow and surface streams. TE concentration measurements in river suspended particles demonstrated significant contribution (i.e., ⩾30%) of conventionally dissolved (<0.22 μm) forms for usually "immobile" elements such as divalent transition metals, Cd, Pb, V, Sn, Y, REEs, Zr, Hf, Th. The Al-normalized accumulation coefficients of TE in vegetation litter compared to basalts achieve 10-100 for B, Mn, Zn, As, Sr, Sn, Sb, and the larch litter degradation is able to provide the major contribution to the annual dissolved flux of most trace elements. It is hypothesized that the decomposition of plant litter in the

  13. Single-element Electron-transfer Optical Detector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An optical detector system includes an electrically resistive screen that is substantially transparent to radiation energy having a wavelength of interest. An electron transfer element (e.g., a low work function photoactive material or a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based element) has a first end and a second end with its first end spaced apart from the screen by an evacuated gap. When radiation energy passes through the screen with a bias voltage being applied thereto, transfer of electrons through the electron transfer element is induced from its first to its second end such that a quantity indicative of the electrons transferred can be detected.

  14. Rare earth elements in tropical surface water,soil and sediments of the Terengganu River Basin,Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khawar; Sultan; Noor; Azhar; Shazili

    2009-01-01

    The 14 stable rare earth element(REE) concentrations and distribution patterns were investigated for surface waters(n=51),soils(n=52) and sediments(n=42) from the tropical Terengganu River basin,Malaysia.The chondrite normalized REE patterns of soils developed on four geological units showed enrichment of LREE,a pronounced negative Eu,and depletion of HREE with an enrichment order granite>>metasedimentary>alluvium>volcanic.The REE patterns in sediments reflected the soil REE patterns with an overall order o...

  15. A new integrated slot element feed array for multibeam systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid; Johansson, Joakim F.; Kollberg, Erik L.

    1986-01-01

    A feed array consisting of constant width slot antennas (CWSA), fed from a block containing fin-line transitions, has been developed. The array has a two-dimensional configuration, with five elements each on five parallel substrates. Beamwidths are compatible with use in f/D = 1.0 multibeam systems, with optimum taper. Array element spacings are close to a factor of two smaller than for other typical arrays, and spillover efficiency is about 65 percent.

  16. Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Blades, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted under a NASA grant on the topic 'Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating.' The research concerns ongoing development of the Substructure System Identification Algorithm (SSID Algorithm), a system identification algorithm that can be used to obtain mathematical models of substructures, like Space Shuttle payloads. In the present study, particular attention was given to the following topics: making the algorithm robust to noisy test data, extending the algorithm to accept experimental FRF data that covers a broad frequency bandwidth, and developing a test analytical model (TAM) for use in relating test data to reduced-order finite element models.

  17. Holistic Approach to the Periodic System of Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Trunov, N. N.

    2009-01-01

    For studying the objectivity and the quality of a given form of the Periodic system as a single whole we compare plots of functions presenting properties of elements in pairs of periods. Using mathematical statistics we introduce a dimensionless parameter which indicates high quality of the long form of the Periodic system.

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Research Element : Project Progress Report, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance (Jason Lance); Castillo, Jason; Kline, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2000, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: eyed-eggs were placed in Pettit Lake; age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish and Alturas lakes for volitional spawning in September. Anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to all three lakes. Total kokanee abundance in Redfish Lake was estimated at 10,268, which was the lowest abundance since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Alturas Lake was estimated at 125,462, which was one of the highest values recorded since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Pettit Lake was estimated at 40,599, which is the third highest value recorded since 1991. Upon the recommendation of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee, the National Marine Fisheries Service reopened the kokanee fishery on Redfish Lake in 1995 in an attempt to reduce kokanee numbers. Anglers fished an estimated 3,063 hours and harvested approximately 67 kokanee during the 2000 season. Angler effort and harvest were also monitored on Alturas Lake during 2000. Effort on Alturas Lake was 5,190 hours, and harvest of

  19. [Spatiotemporal variation of epilithic algae in Xiangxi River system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xing-huan; Wu, Nai-cheng; Tang, Tao; Cai, Qing-hua

    2008-04-01

    Xiangxi River system is the greatest branch in the Hubei reservoir area of the Three Gorges reservoir. In this paper, the epilithic algae in the River and its three major tributaries were investigated from July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 218 taxa were identified, including 183 species of Bacillariophyta, 24 species of Chlorophyta, 10 species of Cyanophyta, and one species of Xanthophyta. The diatom Achnanthes linearis was the most predominant species. The richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices varied significantly (or almost significantly) over time and space, and the total average values were 32 and 1.54, respectively. The total averages of annual epilithic algal density and chlorophyll a concentration were 8.75 x 10(9) cells x m(-2) and 14.62 mg x m(-2), respectively. There were significant differences in the algal density and chlorophyll a concentration among different sampling sites, and the maximum values were observed in Gufu River tributary, which were one order of magnitude higher than the minimum ones in Jiuchong River tributary. The algal density and chlorophyll a concentration tended to be higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn, but no significant differences were observed in various seasons. Epilithic algal density and chlorophyll a concentration were significantly negatively correlated with elevation and water current, but positively correlated with the total nitrogen concentration in water.

  20. An intelligent agent for optimal river-reservoir system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, Jeffrey D.; Labadie, John W.

    2012-09-01

    A generalized software package is presented for developing an intelligent agent for stochastic optimization of complex river-reservoir system management and operations. Reinforcement learning is an approach to artificial intelligence for developing a decision-making agent that learns the best operational policies without the need for explicit probabilistic models of hydrologic system behavior. The agent learns these strategies experientially in a Markov decision process through observational interaction with the environment and simulation of the river-reservoir system using well-calibrated models. The graphical user interface for the reinforcement learning process controller includes numerous learning method options and dynamic displays for visualizing the adaptive behavior of the agent. As a case study, the generalized reinforcement learning software is applied to developing an intelligent agent for optimal management of water stored in the Truckee river-reservoir system of California and Nevada for the purpose of streamflow augmentation for water quality enhancement. The intelligent agent successfully learns long-term reservoir operational policies that specifically focus on mitigating water temperature extremes during persistent drought periods that jeopardize the survival of threatened and endangered fish species.

  1. Interactive Forecasting with the National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George F.; Page, Donna

    1993-01-01

    The National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS) consists of several major hydrometeorologic subcomponents to model the physics of the flow of water through the hydrologic cycle. The entire NWSRFS currently runs in both mainframe and minicomputer environments, using command oriented text input to control the system computations. As computationally powerful and graphically sophisticated scientific workstations became available, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognized that a graphically based, interactive environment would enhance the accuracy and timeliness of NWS river and flood forecasts. Consequently, the operational forecasting portion of the NWSRFS has been ported to run under a UNIX operating system, with X windows as the display environment on a system of networked scientific workstations. In addition, the NWSRFS Interactive Forecast Program was developed to provide a graphical user interface to allow the forecaster to control NWSRFS program flow and to make adjustments to forecasts as necessary. The potential market for water resources forecasting is immense and largely untapped. Any private company able to market the river forecasting technologies currently developed by the NWS Office of Hydrology could provide benefits to many information users and profit from providing these services.

  2. The Ribble/Wyre observatory: major, minor and trace elements in rivers draining from rural headwaters to the heartlands of the NW England historic industrial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Colin; Rowland, Phil; Scholefield, Paul; Vincent, Colin; Woods, Clive; Sleep, Darren

    2011-03-15

    Information on a new observatory study of the water quality of two major river basins in northwestern England (the Ribble and Wyre) is presented. It covers upland, intermediate and lowland environments of contrasting pollution history with sufficient detail to examine transitional gradients. The upland rivers drain acidic soils subjected to long-term acidic deposition. Nonetheless, the acidic runoff from the soils is largely neutralised by high alkalinity groundwaters, although the rivers retain, perhaps as colloids, elements such as Al and Fe that are mobilised under acid conditions. The lowland rivers are contaminated and have variable water quality due to variable urban/industrial point and diffuse inputs reflecting local and regional differences in historic and contemporary sources. For most determinands, pollutant concentrations are not a major cause for concern although phosphate levels remain high. Set against earlier studies for other regions, there may be a general decline in pollutant levels and this is most clearly observed for boron where effluent inputs have declined significantly due to reductions in household products that are flushed down the drain. High concentrations of sodium and chloride occurred briefly after a severe cold spell due to flushing of road salts. A major inventory for water quality within rural, urban, industrial and agricultural typologies is provided within data summary attachments for over 50 water quality determinands. Within the next year, the full dataset will be made available from the CEH website. This, with ongoing monitoring, represents a platform for water quality studies across a wide range of catchment typologies pertinent to environmental management of clean and impacted systems within the UK. The study provides a base of research "from source to sea" including extensions to the estuary and open sea for a semi-confined basin, the Irish Sea, where there are many issues of pollution inputs and contamination.

  3. A stochastic physical system approach to modeling river water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, W. F.; Unny, T. E.; Kay, J. J.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, concepts of network thermodynamics are applied to a river water quality model, which is based on Streeter-Phelps equations, to identify the corresponding physical components and their topology. Then, the randomness in the parameters, input coefficients and initial conditions are modeled by Gaussian white noises. From the stochastic components of the physical system description of problem and concepts of physical system theory, a set of stochastic differential equations can be automatically generated in a computer and the recent developments on the automatic formulation of the moment equations based on Ito calculus can be used. This procedure is illustrated through the solution of an example of stochastic river water quality problem and it is also shown how other related problems with different configurations can be automatically solved in a computer using just one software.

  4. IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF RIVER SYSTEM--Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Wen; Philip JAMES; YANG Kai

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization can affect the physical process of river growth, modify stream structure and further influence the functions of river system. Shanghai is one of the largest cities in the world, which is located in Changjiang(Yangtze) River Delta in China. Since the 1970s, the whole river system in Shanghai has been planned and managed by the Shanghai Water Authority. The primary management objectives in the last 30 years have been to enhance irrigation and flood-control. By using Horton-Strahler classification and Horton laws as a reference, a novel method of stream classification, in conjunction with the traditional and specially designed indicators, was applied to understanding the structure and functions of the river system in Shanghai. Correlation analysis was used to identify the interrelations among indicators. It was found that the impact of urbanization on the river system was significant although natural laws and physical characteristics marked a super-developed river system. There was an obvious correlation between the degree of urbanization and the abnormal values of some indicators. Urbanization impacts on river system such as branches engineered out, riverbank concreting and low diversity of river style were widely observed. Each indicator had distinct sensibility to urbanization so they could be used to describe different characteristics of urban river system. The function indicators were significantly related to structure indicators. Stream structure, described by fractal dimension and complexity of river system, was as important as water area ratio for maintaining river's multi-function.

  5. Elemental composition at different points of the rainwater harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, A C; Dunstan, R H; Coombes, P J

    2010-09-15

    Entry of contaminants, such as metals and non-metals, into rainwater harvesting systems can occur directly from rainfall with contributions from collection surfaces, accumulated debris and leachate from storage systems, pipes and taps. Ten rainwater harvesting systems on the east coast of Australia were selected for sampling of roof runoff, storage systems and tap outlets to investigate the variations in rainwater composition as it moved throughout the system, and to identify potential points of contribution to elemental loads. A total of 26 elements were screened at each site. Iron was the only element which was present in significantly higher concentrations in roof runoff samples compared with tank tap samples (Prainwater. Increased loads of copper were observed in hot tap samples supplied by the rainwater harvesting system via copper piping and a storage hot water system (Pcollected from a polyvinyl chloride pipe sampling point that does not supply household uses, compared with corresponding roof runoff samples (Pcollected rainwater between different study sites and between different sampling points. Atmospheric deposition was not a major contributor to the rainwater contaminant load at the sites tested. Piping materials, however, were shown to contribute significantly to the total elemental load at some locations.

  6. Studies on calcium, magnesium and sulphate in the Mandovi and Zuari river system (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Naik, S.

    Distribution of calcium, magnesium and sulphate have been examined in the tide-dominated Mandovi and Zuari river systems. Calcium and magnesium appear to take some part in the bio-geochemical cycles of the rivers and behave as semi...

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  9. Seasonal variability of total dissolved fluxes and origin of major dissolved elements within a large tropical river: The Orinoco, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque, Alain; Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Alkattan, Rana; Steiger, Johannes; Mora, Abrahan; Adèle, Georges; Castellanos, Bartolo; Lagane, Christèle; Lopez, José Luis; Perez, Jesus; Rodriguez, Militza; Rosales, Judith

    2013-07-01

    Seasonal variations of total dissolved fluxes of the lower Orinoco River were calculated taking into account four complete hydrological cycles during a five-year period (2005-2010). The modern concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) of the Orinoco surface waters were compared with data collected during the second half of the last century published in the literature. This comparison leads to the conclusion that chemical composition did not evolve significantly at least over the last thirty to forty years. Surface waters of the Orinoco at Ciudad Bolivar are between bicarbonated calcic and bicarbonated mixed. In comparison to mean values of concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) of world river surface waters (89.2 mg l-1), the Orinoco River at Ciudad Bolivar presents mainly low mineralized surface waters (2005-10: TDS 30 mg l-1). The TDS fluxes passing at this station in direction to the Atlantic Ocean between 2005 and 2010 were estimated at 30 × 106 t yr-1, i.e. 36 t km-2 yr-1. It was observed that the seasonal variations (dry season vs wet season) of total dissolved fluxes (TDS and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) are mainly controlled by discharge variations. Two groups of elements have been defined from dilution curves and molar ratio diagrams. Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl- and Na+ mainly come from the same geographic and lithologic area, the Andes. K+ and SiO2 essentially come from the Llanos and the Guayana Shield. These findings are important for understanding fundamental geochemical processes within the Orinoco River basin, but also as a baseline study in the perspective of the development of numerous mining activities related with aluminum and steel industries; and the plans of the Venezuelan government to construct new fluvial ports on the lower Orinoco for the transport of hydrocarbons.

  10. Element Geochemical Division of the Middle Segment of the Sanjiang(Three-River) Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈上越; 魏启荣; 莫宣学; 喻学惠; 曾普盛; 胡长寿

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the aim and principle of element geochemical division, the source of samples and data processing, the choice of divisional indices and the division of index value ranges. According to the geological structures and characteristic values (the accumulated value of enrichment coefficient) of the mantle-type elements (KT) this region can be divided into seven geochemical zones, i.e., the Yangtze basement, the Yangtze cover, the Jinshajiang paleo-Tethys, the Lancangjiang paleo-Tethys, the Lanping Mesozoic basin, the Indosinian granite, and the Himalayan granite. Again in accordance with the different characteristic val ues of high field strength elements (HFSE) (KNb) or radiogenic elements (KTh) 16 geochemi cal sub-zones can be divided. Meanwhile, this paper also discusses the rules of variation in char acteristic value of the various sub-zones and points out the characteristics of enrichment of ore forming elements in some of the sub-zones.

  11. Environmental and ecological water requirement of river system: a case study of Haihe-Luanhe river system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental and ecological problems induced by water resources development and utilization, this paper proposes a concept of environmental and ecological water requirement. It is defined as the minimum water amount to be consumed by the natural water bodies to conserve its environmental and ecological functions. Based on the definition, the methods on calculating the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement are determined. In the case study on Haihe-Luanhe river system, the water requirement is divided into three parts, i.e., the basic in-stream flow, water requirement for sediment transfer and water consumption by evaporation of the lakes or everglades. The results of the calculation show that the environmental and ecological water requirement in the river system is about 124×108 m3, including 57×108 m3 for basic in-stream flow, 63×108m3 for sediment transfer and 4×l08m3 for net evaporation loss of lakes. The total amount of environmental and ecological water requirement accounts for 54% of the amount of runoff (228×108 m3). However, it should be realized that the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement must be more than that we have calculated. According to this result, we consider that the rational utilization rate of the runoff in the river systems must not be more than 40%. Since the current utilization rate of the river system, which is over 80%, has been far beyond the limitation, the problems of environment and ecology are quite serious. It is imperative to control and adjust water development and utilization to eliminate the existing problems and to avoid the potential ecological or environmental crisis.

  12. Discrete element analysis of the excavation effect of cross-river tunnel on the surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-river tunnel as one of the underground constructions is complicated during its construction. For stability of tunnel excavation, it is emergency to analyze the dynamic characteristics of tunnel deformation under high water pressure. Therefore, a cross-river tunnel model is proposed based on DEM in this paper. Stiffness of particles decreases during excavation process which is as one of excavation methods. Porosity ratio of original porosity over its value at different excavation time has been considered. Radial displacements of particles at different angle around the tunnel are detected during excavation process. It shows that large deformation occurs at the vault of the excavation zone which accompanies with large radial displacement. The upper half of the tunnel performs larger deformation than the lower half part which results in many cracks in the concrete lining, the high water pressure may play an crucial role in it.

  13. Savannah River Site Geographic Information System management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    A plan for managing the development of Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in a coordinated, integrated fashion has been developed. Included in the plan are discussions on the guidance for GIS activities at the site, the overall strategy for managing GIS applications development, the specific administrative and programmatic tasks with projected completion schedules, and the organizational structure in place to direct this GIS effort. The Department of Energy-Savannah River Field Office (DOE-SR) has encouraged all primary subcontracting organizations at SRS involved with the mapping of spatial data to coordinate their efforts and be more cost effective. This plan provides a description of organized activities in 1992 for establishing a coordinated approach for developing and implementing GIS technology.

  14. Systems of elements preserving measure on varieties of groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timoshenko, E I [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-31

    It is proved that for any l, 1≤l≤r, a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) of a free metabelian group S of rank r≥2 is primitive if and only if it preserves measure on the variety of metabelian groups A{sup 2}. From this we obtain the result that a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) is primitive in the group S if and only if it is primitive in its profinite completion S-hat . Furthermore, it is proved that there exist a variety M and a nonprimitive element v∈F{sub r}(M) such that v preserves measure on M. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    1999-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

  16. Elemental (C/N ratios) and Isotope (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) Compositions of Surface Sediments from the Barrier Islands in the Nakdong River Estuary, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Woo, Han Jun; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Jae Ung; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2017-04-01

    The Nakdong River Estuary (NRE) in South Korea is a typical, artificially-manipulated estuary and blocked by two large dam. The Noksan Dam, built in 1934, blocks the flow of the West Nakdong River, and the NRE Dam was completed between 1983 and 1987 to regulate the flow of the East Nakdong River (called the Eulsuk River locally). For the past half century, several huge industrial complexes have been developed in the reclaimed land near the NRE. In the estuary, the hydraulic circulation has been markedly modified caused by the changes in the river discharge and geomorphic configuration of such as the formation of a series of barrier islands, the two large dams resulting from the artificial control of the natural river flow and upstream intrusion of saltwater by the operation of the two large dams. Consequently, the saltwater wedge that once reached approximately 40 km upstream is now blocked at the dam, considerably reducing the tidal prism. The estuary is typified by barrier-lagoon system with various subenvironments and microtidal with a 1.5 m tidal range. We investigated the elemental (C/N ratios) and isotopic (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) compositions of organic matters in various composition in the surface sediments in the NRE. In May 2015, 90 surface sediment samples were collected on and around three islands in the NRE. The mean grain size of the barrier island system in the NRE ranged from 1.1 to 8.9 Φ (average 3.9 Φ) in mean grain size, and they were composed of various sediment types, including muddy Sand (S), sandy Mud (sM), and Mud (M). A useful application of the C/N ratios is as a proxy for assessment of organic matter source change, related to the sediment origins terrestrial or marine. The C/N ratios (average, 5.88) imply that the organic matter in the study area was of marine origins, as indicated by the lower ratios between 4 and 10. The isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) indicated the deposition of algae-derived organic

  17. Boundary control of parabolic systems - Finite-element approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasiecka, I.

    1980-01-01

    The finite element approximation of a Dirichlet type boundary control problem for parabolic systems is considered. An approach based on the direct approximation of an input-output semigroup formula is applied. Error estimates are derived for optimal state and optimal control, and it is noted that these estimates are actually optimal with respect to the approximation theoretic properties.

  18. Experimental investigation of system effects in stressed-skin elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.; Isaksson, T.; Hansson, M.

    What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity...

  19. Optical system design with conformal decentered and tilted elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chang; Wubin He; Ruirui Wang; Shulong Feng

    2011-01-01

    @@ We investigate the aberration properties of the conformal optical system with decentered and tilted elements by vector aberration theory.By decentering and tilting the window and corrector of the system,two elements are effectively used together in a particular manner by aberration compensation to achieve off-axis imaging.A conceptual design is performed with a half-field of 2°, the F# of 4, and the wavelength ranging of 3700-4800 nm.The imaging quality can reach the optical diffraction limit and satisfy corresponding requirements.%We investigate the aberration properties of the conformal optical system with decentered and tilted elements by vector aberration theory.By decentering and tilting the window and corrector of the system,two elements are effectively used together in a particular manner by aberration compensation to achieve off-axis imaging.A conceptual design is performed with a half-field of 2°, the F# of 4, and the wavelength ranging of 3700-4800 nm.The imaging quality can reach the optical diffraction limit and satisfy corresponding requirements.

  20. The Mattole River Estuary: Restoration Efforts in a Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D.; Liquori, M.

    2010-12-01

    Despite extensive scientific advancement integrating our understanding of hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology in recent decades, the application of restoration in the field has been slow to evolve. This presentation will highlight 20 years of restoration practices in the Mattole River Estuary and how these practices have informed our understanding of this complex system. The Mattole River Watershed is a 304 square-mile basin located near the Mendocino Triple Junction in a remote region of California known as the “The Lost Coast” for its rugged mountains and undeveloped coastline. In addition to numerous species of fish, mammals, and over 250 bird species, the Mattole Watershed is home to three Federally-listed Threatened salmonids: California Coastal Chinook salmon, Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts coho salmon, and Northern California steelhead trout. The 64 mile-long river meets the Pacific Ocean at the northern end of the 64,000 acre King Range National Conservation Area (KRNCA), managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The watershed is dynamic, with some of the nation’s highest annual rainfall (mean = 158 cm/yr), naturally occurring steep slopes, erosive sedimentary geology, and frequent earthquakes. All of these factors have amplified the negative effects of extensive logging and associated road building between 1945 and 1970, which left a legacy of increased sediment loads and high water temperatures that have yet to recover to pre-disturbance levels, severely impairing riparian and aquatic habitats. Prior to major land disturbances, the Mattole estuary/lagoon was notable for its deep, thermally-stratified pools and numerous functioning north and south bank slough channels that flushed sediments from the river and received marine water. As flows decline in late spring, a sandbar closes off surface flow from the river to the Pacific Ocean, forming a lagoon, which persists until flows increase in the fall. Today, the estuary is poor

  1. AN IMPROVED PTV SYSTEM FOR LARGE-SCALE PHYSICAL RIVER MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To measure the surface flow in a physical river model, an improved system of Large-Scale Particle Tracking Velocimetry (LSPTV) was proposed and the elements of the PTV system were described. Usually the tracer particles of a PTV system seeded on water surface tend to form conglomerates due to surface tension of water. In addition, they can not float on water surface when water flow is shallow. Ellipsoid particles were used to avoid the above problems. Another important issue is particle recognition. In order to eliminate the influence of noise, particles were recognized by the processing of multi-frame images. The kernel of the improved PTV system is the algorithm for particle tracking. A new 3-frame PTV algorithm was developed. The performance of this algorithm was compared with the conventional 4-frame PTV algorithm and 2-frame PTV algorithm by means of computer simulation using synthetically generated images. The results show that the new 3-frame PTV algorithm can recover more velocity vectors and have lower relative error. In addition, in order to attain the whole flow field from individual flow fields, the method of stitching individual flow fields by obvious marks was worked out. Then the improved PTV system was applied to the measurement of surface flow field in Model Yellow River and shows good performance.

  2. Genetic fragmentation in India's third longest river system, the Narmada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Jamdade, Rahul; Kalyankar, Amol; Tiknaik, Anita; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2014-01-01

    India's third longest river, the Narmada, is studied here for the potential effects on native fish populations of river fragmentation due to various barriers including dams and a waterfall. The species we studied include a cyprinid fish, Catla catla, and a mastacembelid, Mastacembelus armatus, both of which are found in the Narmada. Our goal was to use DNA sequence information from the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA to explore how this fragmentation could impact the genetic structure of these fish populations. Our results clearly show that these barriers can contribute to the fragmentation of the genetic structure of these fish communities, Furthermore, these barriers enhance the effects of natural isolation by distance and the asymmetry of dispersal flows. This may be a slow process, but it can create significant isolation and result in genetic disparity. In particular, populations furthest upstream having low migration rates could be even more subject to genetic impoverishment. This study serves as a first report of its kind for a river system on the Indian subcontinent. The results of this study also emphasize the need for appropriate attention towards the creation of fish passages across the dams and weirs that could help in maintaining biodiversity.

  3. THE ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE COMPLEX AMPLITUDE IN A COUPLED BAY-RIVER SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou-de Han; Xin Wen

    2004-01-01

    We consider the numerical approximations of the complex amplitude in a coupled bay-river system in this work. One half-circumference is introduced as the artificial boundary in the open sea, and one segment is introduced as the artificial boundary in the river if the river is semi-infinite. On the artificial boundary a sequence of high-order artificial boundary conditions are proposed. Then the original problem is solved in a finite computational domain, which is equivalent to a variational problem. The numerical approximations for the original problem are obtained by solving the variational problem with the finite element method. The numerical examples show that the artificial boundary conditions given in this work are very effective.

  4. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss

    2015-04-01

    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  5. Single Spring Joint Element Based on the Mixed Coordinate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a FEM for reinforced concrete bond-slip problems, one important feature of the typical double spring joint element method is the selection of the normal stiffness, which may cause the mutual embedding problem and bring challenges to the calculation. In this paper, a novel single spring joint element method based on the mixed coordinate system is proposed to simulate the interaction of two materials. Instead of choosing the normal stiffness arbitrarily, the proposed method makes DOFs of two materials in the normal direction equal to ensure deformation compatibility. And its solid elements for the concrete are solved in global coordinate system, while the beam elements for the steel bar are solved in local coordinate system. In addition, the proposed method can also be applied to RC structures with irregular arrangements of steel bars. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed approach. Furthermore, the bond model is applied to RC beams with the description of the damage process.

  6. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s−1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  7. VULNERABILITY OF THE BIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF RIVER BED ECOSYSTEM ON REGULATORY WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Hachoł

    2017-03-01

    Field studies were carried out in growing seasons from 2008-2014 in small and medium-sized lowland watercourses in Lower Silesia. The field study included an inventory of vascular aquatic plants. Based on the results of the research values of biological indicators were calculated and statistical analysis (cluster analysis and Spearman’s rank correlation were performed. On this basis it was found that the number of aquatic plants species and diversity index may be indicators of the vulnerability of plant communities to the changes as a result of river regulation.

  8. Muskingum equation based downstream sediment flow simulation models for a river system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Briti Sundar Sil; Parthasarathi Choudhury

    2016-01-01

    Applications of sediment transport and water flow characteristics based sediment transport simulation models for a river system are presented in this study. An existing water–sediment model and a new sediment–water model are used to formulate the simulation models representing water and sediment movement in a river system. The sediment–water model parameters account for water flow characteristics embodying sediment transport properties of a section. The models are revised formulations of the multiple water inflows model describing water movement through a river system as given by the Muskingum principle. The models are applied to a river system in Mississippi River basin to estimate downstream sediment concentration, sediment discharge, and water discharge. River system and the river section parameters are estimated using a revised and the original multiple water inflows models by applying the genetic algorithm. The models estimate downstream sediment transport rates on the basis of upstream sediment/water flow rates to a system. Model performance is evaluated by using standard statistical criteria;downstream water discharge resulting from the original multiple water inflows model using the estimated river system parameters indicate that the revised models satisfactorily describe water movement through a river system. Results obtained in the study demonstrate the applicability of the sediment transport and water flow characteristics-based simulation models in predicting downstream sediment transport and water flow rates in a river system.

  9. Toward Distinct Element Method Simulations of Carbon Nanotube Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatyeva, Evgeniya; Anderson, Tyler; Nikiforov, Ilia; Potyondy, David; Ballarini, Roberto; Dumitrica, Traian

    2011-03-01

    We propose distinct element method modeling of carbon nanotube systems. The atomic-level description of an individual nanotube is coarse-grained into a chain of spherical elements that interact by parallel bonds located at their contacts. The spherical elements can lump multiple translational unit cells of the carbon nanotube and have both translational and rotational degrees of freedom. The discrete long ranged interaction between nanotubes is included in a van der Waals contact of nonmechanical nature that acts simultaneously with the parallel bonds. The created mesoscopic model is put into service by simulating a realistic carbon nanotube ring. The ring morphology arises from the energy balance stored in both parallel and van der Waals bonds. We thank NSF CAREER under Grant No. CMMI-0747684, NSF under Grant No. CMMI 0800896.

  10. Fractionation of Rare Earth Elements during Soil Formation along Feather River Basin Hillslopes in the California Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, T.; Weinman, B.; Yoo, K.; Mudd, S. M.; Kouba, C. M.; Maher, K.

    2013-12-01

    The mobility of rare earth elements (REE) has been debated by scientists for years. This study presents soil and soil moisture data from an ongoing study that examines how REEs fractionate as rock weathers into soil. The Middle Fork Feather River in Northern California, the location of the study site, takes advantage of an erosional signal propagating through the basin and compares traditional methods of REE normalization then contrasts them with elemental losses based on mass balance calculations (tau). Analyzed by ICP-MS using the whole-rock Li-borate dissolution method, soil and water sample collection took place along two differentially eroding hill slopes (a shallow slope above the knick-point and a more inclined slope below the knick-point). Using Zr as an immobile element, the mass-balance method clearly portrays REE fractionation occurring within the soils, whereas traditional REE normalization patterns do not clearly display fractionation relative to the parent material. While REEs fractionate approximately to the same extent in the topmost soils of both hill slopes, the more actively eroding hill slope fractionates REEs faster because of a faster rate of soil chemical weathering. While the full meaning of this work is still underway, current progress indicates that significant REE fractionation occurs during chemical weathering, implying that using REEs as tracers for surfaces processes requires significant care.

  11. Large barchanoid dunes in the Amazon River and the rock record: Implications for interpreting large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Renato Paes de; Galeazzi, Cristiano Padalino; Freitas, Bernardo Tavares; Janikian, Liliane; Ianniruberto, Marco; Marconato, André

    2016-11-01

    The interpretation of large river deposits from the rock record is hampered by the scarcity of direct observations of active large river systems. That is particularly true for deep-channel environments, where tens of meters deep flows dominate. These conditions are extremely different from what is found in smaller systems, from which current facies models were derived. MBES and shallow seismic surveys in a selected area of the Upper Amazonas River in Northern Brazil revealed the presence of large compound barchanoid dunes along the channel thalweg. The dunes are characterized by V-shaped, concave-downstream crest lines and convex-up longitudinal profiles, hundreds of meters wide, up to 300 m in wavelength and several meters high. Based on the morphology of compound dunes, expected preserved sedimentary structures are broad, large-scale, low-angle, concave up and downstream cross-strata, passing laterally and downstream to inclined cosets. Examples of such structures from large river deposits in the rock record are described in the Silurian Serra Grande Group and the Cretaceous São Sebastião and Marizal formations in Northeastern Brazil, as well as in Triassic Hawkesburry Sandstone in Southeastern Australia and the Plio-Pleistocene Içá Formation in the western Amazon. All these sedimentary structures are found near channel base surfaces and are somewhat coarser than the overlying fluvial deposits, favoring the interpretation of thalweg depositional settings. The recognition of large barchanoid dunes as bedforms restricted to river thalwegs and probably to large river systems brings the possibility of establishing new criteria for the interpretation of fluvial system scale in the rock record. Sedimentary structures compatible with the morphological characteristics of these bedforms seem to be relatively common in large river deposits, given their initial recognition in five different fluvial successions in Brazil and Australia, potentially enabling substantial

  12. Interactive Systems for Designing Machine Elements and Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacalak Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development of fundamentals of machine elements and assemblies design processes automation using artificial intelligence, and descriptions of structural elements’ features in a natural language. In the proposed interactive automated design systems, computational artificial intelligence methods allow communication by speech and natural language, resulting in analyses of design engineer’s messages, analyses of constructions, encoding and assessments of constructions, CAD system controlling and visualizations. The system is equipped with several adaptive intelligent layers for human biometric identification, recognition of speech and handwriting, recognition of words, analyses and recognition of messages, enabling interpretation of messages, and assessments of human reactions. The article proposes a concept of intelligent processing for analysis of descriptions of machine elements’ structural features in a natural language. It also presents the developed methodology for similarity analysis between structural features of designed machine elements and corresponding antipatterns allowing normalization of parameters of the analysed structural solutions.

  13. Occurrence of selected trace elements and organic compounds and their relation to land use in the Willamette River basin, Oregon, 1992-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.W.; Rinella, F.A.; Rounds, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1992 and 1994, the U.S.Geological Survey conducted a study of trace elements and organic compounds in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, as part of the Willamette River Basin Water Quality Study. Low-level analyses were performed for trace elements, volatile organic compounds, organochlorine compounds, and pesticides. Overall, 94 water samples were collected from 40 sites, during predominantly high-flow conditions, representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land uses. Although most observed concentrations were relatively low, some exceedances of water-quality criteria for acute and chronic toxicity and for the protection of human health were observed.

  14. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to

  15. Modeling elements of energy systems for thermal energy transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurygin A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heating industrial facilities and the residential sector in recent years is the economic and technical challenge. It has been noted that the efficiency of the heat generating equipment depends not only on its sophistication, fuel type, but also on work of the distributing network taking into account the thermal, hydraulic losses, characteristics and modes of use of heating objects – buildings and technological processes. Possibility of supplying maximum heat flow from the heating system considering mismatch of highs and types of resources consumed from individual consumers should be provided by the right choice of energy equipment set, as well as bandwidth of transport systems and possibility of its regulation. It is important not just to configure the system to work effectively in the current mode (usually at the maximum load, but in the entire load range, as the calculated mode often takes a relatively small portion of the operating time. Thus, the efficiency of heating systems is largely determined by the method used for its control, including the possibility of regulating the main units and elements of the system. The paper considers the factors affecting the system efficiency. Mathematical models of the system elements allowing adjust the amount of released heat energy for consumers have been presented. Separately the mathematical model of the control system of electric drive vehicles used in the system has been considered and implemented.

  16. Individual Dose Calculations with Use of the Revised Techa River Dosimetry System TRDS-2009D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    An updated deterministic version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS-2009D) has been developed to estimate individual doses from external exposure and intake of radionuclides for residents living on the Techa River contaminated as a result of radioactive releases from the Mayak plutonium facility in 1949–1956. The TRDS-2009D is designed as a flexible system that uses, depending on the input data for an individual, various elements of system databases to provide the dosimetric variables requested by the user. Several phases are included in the computation schedule. The first phase includes calculations with use of a common protocol for all cohort members based on village-average-intake functions and external dose rates; individual data on age, gender and history of residence are included in the first phase. This phase results in dose estimates similar to those obtained with system TRDS-2000 used previously to derive risks of health effects in the Techa River Cohort. The second phase includes refinement of individual internal doses for those persons who have had body-burden measurements or exposure parameters specific to the household where he/she lived on the Techa River. The third phase includes summation of individual doses from environmental exposure and from radiological examinations. The results of TRDS-2009D dose calculations have demonstrated for the ETRC members on average a moderate increase in RBM dose estimates (34%) and a minor increase (5%) in estimates of stomach dose. The calculations for the members of the ETROC indicated similar small changes for stomach, but significant increase in RBM doses (400%). Individual-dose assessments performed with use of TRDS-2009D have been provided to epidemiologists for exploratory risk analysis in the ETRC and ETROC. These data provide an opportunity to evaluate the possible impact on radiogenic risk of such factors as confounding exposure (environmental and medical), changes in the Techa River source

  17. An integrated multiscale river basin observing system in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.

    2015-12-01

    Using the watershed as the unit to establish an integrated watershed observing system has been an important trend in integrated eco-hydrologic studies in the past ten years. Thus far, a relatively comprehensive watershed observing system has been established in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. In addition, two comprehensive remote sensing hydrology experiments have been conducted sequentially in the Heihe River Basin, including the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) (2007-2010) and the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) (2012-2015). Among these two experiments, an important result of WATER has been the generation of some multi-scale, high-quality comprehensive datasets, which have greatly supported the development, improvement and validation of a series of ecological, hydrological and quantitative remote-sensing models. The goal of a breakthrough for solving the "data bottleneck" problem has been achieved. HiWATER was initiated in 2012. This project has established a world-class hydrological and meteorological observation network, a flux measurement matrix and an eco-hydrological wireless sensor network. A set of super high-resolution airborne remote-sensing data has also been obtained. In addition, there has been important progress with regard to the scaling research. Furthermore, the automatic acquisition, transmission, quality control and remote control of the observational data has been realized through the use of wireless sensor network technology. The observation and information systems have been highly integrated, which will provide a solid foundation for establishing a research platform that integrates observation, data management, model simulation, scenario analysis and decision-making support to foster 21st-century watershed science in China.

  18. Permafrost coverage, watershed area and season control of dissolved carbon and major elements in western Siberian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Krivtzov, I. A.; Pokrovsky, B. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Kopysov, S. G.; Zemtzov, V. A.; Kulizhsky, S. P.; Vorobiev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively), pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and Si in ~ 100 large and small rivers ( 10 000 km2. This suggested that in addition to groundwater feeding of the river, there was a significant role of surface and shallow subsurface flow linked to plant litter degradation and peat leaching. Environmental factors are ranked by their increasing effect on DOC, DIC, δ13CDIC, and major elements in western Siberian rivers as the following: watershed area water flow path (deep vs. surface) but has to be considered in the context of different climate, plant biomass productivity, unfrozen peat thickness and peat chemical composition. It can be anticipated that, under climate warming in western Siberia, the maximal change will occur in small (ionic composition, and this change will be mostly pronounced in summer and autumn. The wintertime concentrations and spring flood fluxes and concentrations are unlikely to be appreciably affected by the change of the active layer depth and terrestrial biomass productivity. Assuming a conservative precipitation scenario and rising temperature over next few centuries, the annual fluxes of DOC and K in the discontinuous permafrost zone may see a maximum increase by a factor of 2, whereas for DIC and Mg, this increase may achieve a factor of 3. The fluxes of Ca and TDSc may increase by a factor of 5. At the same time, Si fluxes will either remain constant or decrease two-fold in the permafrost-bearing zone relative to the permafrost-free zone of western Siberia.

  19. Mapping selected trace elements and major ions, 2000-2012, Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins, southwestern Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.; Landon, Matthew K.; House, Sally F.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2015-01-01

    The population of the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins has grown rapidly during the last several decades, increasing from an estimated population of almost 273,000 in 1990 (Mojave Water Agency, 2004) to more than 453,000 in 2010 (Mojave Water Agency, 2014). Groundwater is the primary source of potable water in both basins (Mojave Water Agency, 2014). Previous studies noted elevated concentrations of several trace elements, nitrate, and total dissolved solids in groundwater in portions of the two basins (Christensen and Fields-Garland, 2001; Ball and Izbicki, 2004; Izbicki and others, 2008; Mathany and Belitz, 2009; Wright and Belitz, 2010; Dawson and Belitz, 2012; and Izbicki and others, 2012). Since 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected water-quality data annually from a network of wells and has provided quality-assurance for Mojave Water Agency (MWA) data that are stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The new data and results from the joint State of California and USGS Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program assessments of regional water quality (these data are also stored in NWIS), in combination with ongoing MWA/USGS groundwater-quality monitoring provide a timely opportunity for mapping of groundwater quality in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins. The purpose of this report is to provide maps and time-series plots of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents (arsenic, boron, chromium-6, total chromium, dissolved oxygen, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitriate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total dissolved solids, uranium, and vanadium) in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins using data collected by the USGS and MWA from 2000 to 2012. These maps and plots can be accessed on this website.

  20. Risk assessment and seasonal variations of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Upper Han River, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Siyue, E-mail: lisiyue@wbgcas.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang Quanfa, E-mail: qzhang@wbgcas.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Surface water samples were collected from 42 sampling sites throughout the upper Han River during the time period of 2005-2006. The concentrations of trace metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for the seasonal variability and preliminary risk assessment. The results demonstrated that concentrations of 11 heavy metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the rainy season. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) revealed that variables governing water quality in one season may not be important in another season. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using Hazard Quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic risk, and indicated that As with HQ >1 and carcinogenic risk >10{sup -4}, was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic concerns, in particular for children. The first five largest elements to chronic risks were As, Pb, V, Se and Sb, in the dry season, while they were As, V, Co, Pb and Sb in the rainy season. This assessment would help establish pollutant loading reduction goal and the total maximum daily loads, and consequently contribute to preserve public health in the Han River basin and develop water conservation strategy for the interbasin water transfer project.

  1. Permafrost coverage, watershed area and season control of dissolved carbon and major elements in western Siberian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively, pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and Si in ~ 100 large and small rivers (2 of western Siberia sampled in winter, spring, summer and autumn over a more than 1500 km latitudinal gradient allowed for establishing the main environmental factors controlling the transport of dissolved river components in this environmentally important region, comprising continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and permafrost-free zones. There was significant latitudinal trend consisting in general decrease of DOC, DIC, SO4, and major cation (Ca, Mg, Na, K concentrations northward, reflecting the interplay between groundwater feeding (detectable mostly in the permafrost-free zone, south of 60° N and surface flux (in the permafrost-bearing zone. The trend of inorganic components was mostly pronounced in winter and less visible in spring, whereas for DOC, the trend of concentration decrease with latitude was absent in winter, and less pronounced in the spring flood than in the summer baseflow. The latitudinal trends persisted over all river watershed sizes, from 10 000 km2. This suggested that in addition to groundwater feeding of the river, there was a significant role of surface and shallow subsurface flow linked to plant litter degradation and peat leaching. Environmental factors are ranked by their increasing effect on DOC, DIC, δ13CDIC, and major elements in western Siberian rivers as the following: watershed area −2 yr−1 until 61° N, decreased two-fold in the discontinuous permafrost zone (62–66° N, and increased again to 3 t km−2 yr−1 in the continuous permafrost zone (67° N. The DIC, Mg, K and Ca followed this pattern. The total dissolved cation flux (TDS_c ranged from 1.5 to 5.5 t km−2 yr−1, similar to that in central Siberian rivers of the continuous permafrost region. While Si concentration was almost unaffected by the latitude over all seasons, the Si flux systematically

  2. Glacier shrinkage drives changes in river system hydrology and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, D. M.; Khamis, K.; Blaen, P. J.; Hainie, S.; Mellor, C.; Brown, L. E.; Milner, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    High climatic sensitivity and low anthropogenic influence make glacierized river basins important environments for examining hydrological and ecological response to global change. This paper synthesises findings from previous and ongoing research in glacierized Alpine and Arctic river basins (located in the French Pyrenees, New Zealand, Swedish Lapland and Svalbard), which adopts an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the climate-cryosphere-hydrology-ecology cascade. Data are used to advance hypotheses concerning the consequences of climate change/ variability on glacier river system hydrology and ecology. Aquatic ecosystems in high latitude and altitude environments are influenced strongly by cryospheric and hydrological processes due to links between atmospheric forcing, snowpack/ glacier mass-balance, river runoff, physico-chemistry and biota. In the current phase of global warming, many glaciers are retreating. Using downscaled regional climate projections as inputs to a distributed hydrological model for a study basin in the French Pyrenees (i.e. an environment at the contemporary limit of valley glaciation), we show how shrinking snow and ice-masses may alter space-time dynamics in basin runoff. Notably, the timing of peak snow- and ice-melt may shift; and the proportion of stream flow sourced from rainfall-runoff (cf. meltwater) may increase. Across our range of Alpine and Arctic study basins, we quantify observed links between relative water source contributions (% meltwater : % groundwater), physico-chemical habitat (e.g. water temperature, electrical conductivity, suspended sediment and channel stability) and benthic communities. At the site scale, results point towards increased community diversity (taxonomic and functional) as meltwater contributions decline and physico-chemical habitat becomes less harsh. However, basin-scale biodiversity may be reduced due to less spatio-temporal heterogeneity in water source contributions and habitats, and the

  3. Mapping differential elemental accumulation in fish tissues: assessment of metal and trace element concentrations in wels catfish (Silurus glanis) from the Danube River by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Katarina; Nikolić, Dragica M; Višnjić-Jeftić, Željka; Đikanović, Vesna; Skorić, Stefan; Stefanović, Srđan M; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Hegediš, Aleksandar; Krpo-Ćetković, Jasmina; Jarić, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Studies of metal accumulation in fish are mainly focused on the muscle tissue, while the metal accumulation patterns in other tissues have been largely neglected. Muscle is not always a good indicator of the whole fish body contamination. Elemental accumulation in many fish tissues and organs and their potential use in monitoring programs have not received proper attention. In the present study, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn concentrations were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the following 14 tissues of the wels catfish (Silurus glanis) from the Danube River: muscle, gills, spleen, liver, kidneys, intestine, gizzard, heart, brain, gallbladder, swim bladder, vertebra, operculum, and gonads. A high level of differential elemental accumulation among the studied tissues was observed. The maximum overall metal accumulation was observed in the vertebra, followed by the kidneys and liver, with the metal pollution index (MPI) values of 0.26, 0.25, and 0.24, respectively. The minimum values were observed in the gallbladder, muscle, brain, and swim bladder, with MPI values of 0.03, 0.06, 0.07, and 0.09, respectively. Average metal concentrations in the fish muscle were below the maximum allowed concentrations for human consumption. The mean As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations in the muscle were 0.028, 0.001, 0.001, 0.192, 3.966, and 3.969 μg/g wet weight, respectively. We believe that the presented findings could be of interest for the scientific community and freshwater ecosystem managers. There is a need for further research that would assess less studied tissues in different fish species.

  4. Accumulation of trace elements in sediment and fish species of Paira River, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sediments and tissues of eleven fish species (Channa punctata, Cyprinus carpio, Heteropneustes fossilis, Colisa fasciata, Channa striata, Notopterus notopterus, Tenualosa ilisha and Corica soborna were analyzed for (chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb. The abundance of trace elements in sediments were Cr > Ni > Cu > Pb > As > Cd and in fish species were Cu > Ni > Cr > Pb > As > Cd. The range of mean element concentration in fish species were Cr (0.44–0.97, Ni (0.45–1.1, Cu (0.91–1.5, As (0.18–0.37, Cd (0.016–0.20 and Pb (0.47–0.92 mg/kg wet weight (ww. The concentrations of Ni, Cd and Pb in some fish species exceeded the international permissible standards suggesting that these species are not safe for human consumption. The biota-sediment accumulation factor for the studied elements in C. soborna and T. ilisha were slightly higher than the other species indicated that these species can be used as a potential bio-indicator for the contamination study of trace elements.

  5. Using water, bryophytes, and macroinvertebrates to assess trace element concentrations in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, J.R.; Spahr, N.E.; Mize, S.V.; Boulger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined trace elements concentrations and macroinvertebrate community structure at 32 sites in 22 streams in Colorado. Sites affected by mining activities (mining sites) and sites that were minimally disturbed (nonmining sites) were selected for the assessment. Water and transplanted aquatic bryophyte samples were analyzed for trace elements. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected to assess the effects of trace elements on the aquatic community of the stream. All samples of aquatic bryophytes had detectable concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Principal components analysis of chemical and physical properties classified sites into three groups. The first group represented sites that were unaffected to minimally affected by mining activities; the second group was characterized by sites with Cd, Pb and Zn predominant in the mineralogy; and the third group was characterized by sites with Cu predominant in the mineralogy. Six macroinvertebrate families were common in the study area. Median values of total abundance, taxa richness and mayfly and stonefly abundance were reduced at mining sites. Abundances of Heptageniidae, Chloroperlidae and Rhyacophila and Baetis sp. also were reduced at sites with elevated trace element concentrations. Tanytarsini chironomids were most abundant at reference and minimally-disturbed sites.

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  7. Model based control for run-of-river system. Part 2: Comparison of control structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubomyr Vytvytskyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation and control of a run-of-river hydro power plant depend on good knowledge of the elements of the plant in the form of models. Both the control architecture of the system, i.e. the choice of inputs and outputs, and to what degree a model is used, will affect the achievable control performance. Here, a model of a river reach based on the Saint Venant equations for open channel flow illustrates the dynamics of the run-of-river system. The hyperbolic partial differential equations are discretized using the Kurganov-Petrova central upwind scheme - see Part I for details. A comparison is given of achievable control performance using two alternative control signals: the inlet or the outlet volumetric flow rates to the system, in combination with a number of different control structures such as PI control, PI control with Smith predictor, and predictive control. The control objective is to keep the level just in front of the dam as high as possible, and with little variation in the level to avoid overflow over the dam. With a step change in the volumetric inflow to the river reach (disturbance and using the volumetric outflow as the control signal, PI control gives quite good performance. Model predictive control (MPC gives superior control in the sense of constraining the variation in the water level, at a cost of longer computational time and thus constraints on possible sample time. Details on controller tuning are given. With volumetric inflow to the river reach as control signal and outflow (production as disturbance, this introduces a considerable time delay in the control signal. Because of nonlinearity in the system (varying time delay, etc., it is difficult to achieve stable closed loop performance using a simple PI controller. However, by combining a PI controller with a Smith predictor based on a simple integrator + fixed time delay model, stable closed loop operation is possible with decent control performance. Still, an MPC

  8. Effluent trading in river systems through stochastic decision-making process: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharipoor, Mohammad Amin; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2017-07-15

    The objective of this paper is to provide an efficient framework for effluent trading in river systems. The proposed framework consists of two pessimistic and optimistic decision-making models to increase the executability of river water quality trading programs. The models used for this purpose are (1) stochastic fallback bargaining (SFB) to reach an agreement among wastewater dischargers and (2) stochastic multi-criteria decision-making (SMCDM) to determine the optimal treatment strategy. The Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to incorporate the uncertainty into analysis. This uncertainty arises from stochastic nature and the errors in the calculation of wastewater treatment costs. The results of river water quality simulation model are used as the inputs of models. The proposed models are used in a case study on the Zarjoub River in northern Iran to determine the best solution for the pollution load allocation. The best treatment alternatives selected by each model are imported, as the initial pollution discharge permits, into an optimization model developed for trading of pollution discharge permits among pollutant sources. The results show that the SFB-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 14,834 while providing a relative consensus among pollutant sources. Meanwhile, the SMCDM-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 218,852, but it is less acceptable by pollutant sources. Therefore, it appears that giving due attention to stability, or in other words acceptability of pollution trading programs for all pollutant sources, is an essential element of their success.

  9. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  11. Accuracy of the photogrametric measuring system for large size elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grzelka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methods of estimating and guidelines for verifying the accuracy of optical photogrammetric measuringsystems, using for measurement of large size elements. Measuring systems applied to measure workpieces of a large size which oftenreach more than 10000mm require use of appropriate standards. Those standards provided by the manufacturer of photogrammetricsystems are certified and are inspected annually. To make sure that these systems work properly there was developed a special standardVDI / VDE 2634, "Optical 3D measuring systems. Imaging systems with point - by - point probing. " According to recommendationsdescribed in this standard research on accuracy of photogrametric measuring system was conducted using K class gauge blocks dedicatedto calibrate and test accuracy of classic CMMs. The paper presents results of research of estimation the actual error of indication for sizemeasurement MPEE for photogrammetric coordinate measuring system TRITOP.

  12. Origins of massive-type sandstones in braided river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charlotte A. L.; Turner, Brian R.

    1998-07-01

    This study details largely ignored massive-type, predominantly structureless sandstones preserved within braided fluvial successions of Carboniferous to Triassic age. Architectural element analysis reveals that these sediments were deposited within sand-dominated perennial systems of low braiding index. Cross-stratified braid bar deposits are interbedded with, and laterally equivalent to geometrically distinct, largely structureless massive-type sandbodies identified as two separate architectural elements: channel-like (SMC) and sheet-like (SMS). Sub-divisions within these broad categories define six geometric units which are texturally distinct from each other and from the structured sediments of the same lithological unit. Since massive-type sandstone elements have many features in common with the deposits of highly concentrated, laminar sediment/water flows, they are interpreted in terms of similar depositional processes. SMC elements form elongate channel-like features which trend both at high angles to, and parallel with, the palaeoflow of host fluvial channels. The lower bounding surfaces of SMC elements may be either erosive or non-erosive, and describe symmetrical cross-sections with margins dipping debris flows related to fluvial bank and/or bar collapse. SMS elements form sandsheets up to 8 m in thickness which may be traced >250 m parallel and transverse to the fluvial palaeoflow direction established from cross-stratified sandstones of adjacent architectural elements. The basal surface of SMS elements may either be undulose (where the sandbodies are termed SMSU) or erosional (where they are termed SMSE). Internally SMSU elements preserve parallel laminae marginal to basal scours, diffuse sweeping laminae, isolated cross-sets and water escape structures. The SMSU sediments are compositionally identical to the structured sandstones with which they are associated and are interpreted as the result of deposition from highly concentrated stream flows

  13. Multipole Matrix Elements for Dh-Systems and Their Asymptotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, V. F.

    A “DH-system” is defined as a multidimensional hydrogen atom (or its one-particle analogue), D≥1. Investigating many Coulomb problems in ℝD it is necessary to know exact analytical expressions of multipole matrix elements D for DH-systems, where q=(N, µ) is a set of parameters, N —"principal” and µ — "orbital” quantum numbers. The paper deals with the new method for the evaluation of similar matrix elements using new properties of Appell’s function F2(x, y) to the vicinity of the singular point (1, 1). Such approach allows: 1) to get exact analytical expressions of these matrix elements (considering the selection rules) by means of Appell’s F2 (or Clausen’s 3F2) functions; 2) to reveal “latent” symmetry of diagonal matrix elements with respect to the point k0=-3/2, the above symmetry is connected with the property of Appell’s function F2 (1,1) mirror-like symmetry; 3) to find (exact) asymptotics of the off-diagonal matrix elements in terms of Horn’s function ψ1 (x, y); 4) to prove that the orthogonality of radial functions fNµ (D, r) over N and μ for DH-systems is connected with the properties of Appell’s F2 function to the vicinity of the singular point (1, 1), it generalizes the known result for 3H-atom by Pasternack and Sternheimer, J. Math. Phys. 3, 1280 (1962).

  14. Building as active elements of energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan

    2016-01-01

    Buildings account for approximately 40% of the energy demand and 33% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union. Accordingly, there are several efforts that target energy efficiency in buildings both at the European and Swedish levels. The role of buildings in climate change mitigation, however, is not limited to energy savings. Buildings are expected to become key elements of the future smart energy systems by supplying and using energy in a more flexible way. Reducing the e...

  15. Elements of a collaborative systems model within the aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphalen, Bailee R.

    2000-10-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine the components of current aerospace collaborative efforts. There were 44 participants from two selected groups surveyed for this study. Nineteen were from the Oklahoma Air National Guard based in Oklahoma City representing the aviation group. Twenty-five participants were from the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston representing the aerospace group. The surveys for the aviation group were completed in reference to planning missions necessary to their operations. The surveys for the aerospace group were completed in reference to a well-defined and focused goal from a current mission. A questionnaire was developed to survey active participants of collaborative systems in order to consider various components found within the literature. Results were analyzed and aggregated through a database along with content analysis of open-ended question comments from respondents. Findings and conclusions. This study found and determined elements of a collaborative systems model in the aerospace industry. The elements were (1) purpose or mission for the group or team; (2) commitment or dedication to the challenge; (3) group or team meetings and discussions; (4) constraints of deadlines and budgets; (5) tools and resources for project and simulations; (6) significant contributors to the collaboration; (7) decision-making formats; (8) reviews of project; (9) participants education and employment longevity; (10) cross functionality of team or group members; (11) training on the job plus teambuilding; (12) other key elements identified relevant by the respondents but not included in the model such as communication and teamwork; (13) individual and group accountability; (14) conflict, learning, and performance; along with (15) intraorganizational coordination. These elements supported and allowed multiple individuals working together to solve a common problem or to develop innovation that could not have been

  16. EVALUATION OF WATER AND SEDIMENT QUALITIES AT RIVER MOUTHS IN THE HAIHE RIVER SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng LIU; Zhaoyin WANG; Yun HE; Dongsheng CHENG

    2007-01-01

    Water and sediment qualities are studied by analyzing samples taking from the mouths of the Haihe, Duliujian, New Ziya and Beipai rivers in the Haihe river basin in north China in 2005 and 2001, in order to find the changes of water and sediment pollutions. The concentrations of heavy metals, arsenic, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) are analyzed and results have been compared for the two times. The in-situ measurement for Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Sediment Oxygen Demand (SOD) rates were carried at the Haihe and Duliujian river mouths in 2006. The results show that the waters of the 4 river mouths are still seriously polluted, though much improved in the case of the Haihe and Duliujian rivers. The main pollutants are TP and TN in the New Ziya and Beipai rivers and mercury (Hg) at all 4 river mouths. Compared with those in 2001, the concentrations of almost all metals and arsenic in the 4 river mouths have decreased. Water quality at Haihe and Duliujian shows an improving trend, while the water quality at Beipai is similar to that of 2001. In contrast, water at the New Ziya river mouth is more severely polluted. The sediments in the 4 river mouths are not seriously polluted by heavy metals but are polluted by nitrogen and phosphorus. Most of the pollutant contents in the sediments show little change between 2001 and 2005. The in-situ DO and SOD measurement shows that the waters at the Haihe river mouth is in the state of oxygen depletion, and SOD is important consumer of DO at the river mouths. The overall analysis shows that increasing water pollution and eutrophication in waters far from cities are ongoing causes of concern.

  17. Geochemical Constraint on Sediment Sorting, Transport and Deposition Throughout the Himalayan River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    France-Lanord, C.; Lave, J.; Lupker, M.; Morin, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan river system transfers annually ca. a billion ton of sediment from the Himalayan slopes to the Bay of Bengal. The transport conditions are highly contrasted with a very steep mountainous part and a long and very flat floodplain and deltaic part. The modest slope and the subsidence in the floodplain tend to favor deposition of pebbles in the vicinity of the Himalayan outlet and of sandy sediments downstream. Because deposition preferentially involves coarse and quartz rich sediments it tends to geochemically fractionate the overall sediment load transported by the rivers [1]. This can be tracked using the evolution of major element concentrations in the sediment tacking into account the potential bias due to chemical erosion. Al/Si ratio best describes the partition between coarse quartz rich sand and phyllosilicate rich silty-clays. We use a set of chemical compositions and granulometric distribution for modern sediment samples of Himalayan rivers and selected locations in the floodplain and the Bangladesh delta. Sampling includes river depth sampling during the flood season to document river variability due to settling processes in the water column, daily sampling on the Narayani-Gandak river to document seasonal variability. We also use data from sediments deposited in the floodplain to document the geochemical effect of floodplain sequestration. Data show that grain size/mineralogical segregation becomes more pronounced downstream and is dependent on the hydrodynamic conditions [1]. At the Himalayan front, data show that Al/Si ratios vary from 0.29 to 0.20 with limited variation in the water column. Their integrated ratio is between to 0.23 and 0.24. Average pebble composition near the outlet of the Narayani is highly enriched in silica with a ratio of 0.11. Sediments sequestered in the floodplain have an average composition between 0.15 and 0.20. Downstream, Ganga in Bangladesh typically varies from 0.32 at the surface to 0.13 in the bedload with

  18. Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Sam-Wobo , M.A. Adeleke , O.A. Jayeola , A.O. Adeyi , A.S. Oluwole , M. Ikenga , A. Lawniye , J. Gazama , A. Kagni , T.O. Kosoko , O. Agbeyangi , S. Bankole , L. Toé , C.F. Mafiana & L. Yameogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05. The prevalence ofonchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skinsnip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value incertifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibilityof onchocerciasis elimination in the study area.Conclusion: Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance inannual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in thestudied communities.

  19. Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Wobo, S O; Adeleke, M A; Jayeola, O A; Adeyi, A O; Oluwole, A S; Ikenga, M; Lawniye, F; Gazama, J; Kagni, A; Kosoko, T O; Agbeyangi, O; Bankole, S; Toé, L; Mafiana, C F; Yameogo, L

    2012-06-01

    Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and community microfilarial load (CMFL) of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun river System, southwest Nigeria. Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system. The microfilarial load of the community was estimated. The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05). The prevalence of onchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skin snip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value in certifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibility of onchocerciasis elimination in the study area. Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance in annual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in the studied communities.

  20. Time-scales of erosion and weathering processes in the Himalayan river system: Element and isotope approach using the U-series; Constantes de temps des processus d'erosion et d'alteration dans le systeme himalayen: approche geochimique elementaire et isotopique par les series de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granet, M

    2007-06-15

    The time-scales of erosion and weathering processes are key parameters which need to be determined to understand the response of the reliefs to external forcing like tectonics, climate and human activities. They were recovered by using U-series nuclides analyzed in sediments and suspended materials carried by the Himalayan rivers of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. In the Ganges basin, the time-scales of weathering determined from the study of coarse sediments carried by the Kali Gandaki range from several ky, where the uplift is located, to 350 ky. Such values indicate that the bed-rocks are in situ weathered for a long period before the weathering residual products get transported in the rivers as coarse sediments. At the outlet of the high range, these sediments are carried by the tributaries of the Ganges, the Gandak and Ghaghara, during a transfer period of about 100 ka. The study of the sediments at the outlet of the Brahmaputra tributaries allows to propose time-scales of weathering ranging from 110 to 270 ky. Such long periods confirm that during their transfer in the plains, the sediments are temporarily trapped at several places in the basins. In the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the time-scales of sedimentary transfer are 575 and 160 ky, respectively. These values, which are of the same order as their response times, are much longer than the timescales of the Quaternary climate oscillations. It confirms the buffering action of the asiatic alluvial plains for the high-frequency sediment flux variations in response to external forcing in the chain. The study of suspended materials suggests that their chemical compositions result from the mixing of coarse river sediments with fine particles from various locations in the basin which are affected by vegetation recycling. By contrast to coarse sediments, the time-scales of transfer for the suspended materials are fast, e.g. a few ky, pointing the potential of U-series nuclides to assess particle transport

  1. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael

    2015-11-15

    High-technology metals - such as the rare earth elements (REE) - have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further.

  2. System Supporting Automatic Generation of Finite Element Using Image Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J; Fukuda

    2002-01-01

    A mesh generating system has been developed in orde r to prepare large amounts of input data which are needed for easy implementation of a finite element analysis. This system consists of a Pre-Mesh Generator, an Automatic Mesh Generator and a Mesh Modifier. Pre-Mesh Generator produces the shape and sub-block information as input data of Automatic Mesh Generator by c arrying out various image processing with respect to the image information of th e drawing input using scanner. Automatic Mesh Generato...

  3. Heavy metal and trace element bioaccumulation in target tissues of four edible fish species from the Danube River (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotić, Srđan; Spasić, Slađana; Višnjić-Jeftić, Zeljka; Hegediš, Aleksandar; Krpo-Ćetković, Jasmina; Mićković, Branislav; Skorić, Stefan; Lenhardt, Mirjana

    2013-12-01

    Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), European catfish (Silurus glanis), burbot (Lota lota), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from the Danube River (Belgrade section, Serbia), and samples of liver, muscle, and gills were analyzed for Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to highlight the importance of species and tissue selection in monitoring research, contaminant studies, and human health research. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between fish species in regard to metal levels in liver, muscle, and gills. The principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the studied fish species could be grouped on the basis of the level of analyzed elements in liver and gills. The Mann-Whitney test showed two subsets (one comprising two piscivorous species, pikeperch and catfish, and the other, two polyphagous species, burbot and carp) in regard to Cr and Hg levels in liver (higher levels in piscivorous species), as well as B, Fe, and Hg in gills (B and Fe with higher levels in polyphagous and Hg in piscivorous species), and As in muscle (higher levels in polyphagous species). Carp had distinctly higher levels of Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver in comparison to other three species. None of the elements exceeded the maximum acceptable concentrations (MAC). However, since Hg levels are close to the prescribed MAC levels, the consumption of these fishes can be potentially hazardous for humans.

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers

  5. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the "energy hub" formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case.

  6. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos [Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the ''energy hub'' formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case. (author)

  7. Fish assemblage shifts in the Powder River of Wyoming: an unregulated prairie river system previously considered to be relatively pristine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senecal, Anna C.; Walters, Annika W.; Hubert, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Wyoming’s Powder River is considered an example of a pristine prairie river system. While the river hosts a largely native fish assemblage and remains unimpounded over its 1,146-km course to the Yellowstone River confluence, the hydrologic regime has been altered through water diversion for agriculture and natural gas extraction and there has been limited study of fish assemblage structure. We analyzed fish data collected from the mainstem Powder River in Wyoming between 1896 and 2008. Shifts in presence/absence and relative abundance of fish species, as well as fish assemblage composition, were assessed among historical and recent samples. The recent Powder River fish assemblage was characterized by increased relative abundances of sand shiner Notropis stramineus and plains killifish Fundulus zebrinus, and decreases in sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida. Shifts in fish species relative abundance are linked to their reproductive ecology with species with adhesive eggs generally increasing in relative abundance while those with buoyant drifting eggs are decreasing. Assemblage shifts could be the result of landscape level changes, such as the loss of extreme high and low flow events and changing land use practices.

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul

    2008-12-17

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2007, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: (1) eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in November; (2) age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October; (3) age-1 smolts were released into Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River in May; and (4) hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2007. Population abundances were estimated at 73,702 fish for Redfish Lake, 124,073 fish for Alturas Lake, and 14,746 fish for Pettit Lake. Angler surveys were conducted from May 26 through August 7, 2007 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 102 anglers and estimated that 56 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.03 fish/hour for each kokanee kept. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 14 to June 13, 2007. We estimated that 5,280 natural origin and 14,256 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from

  9. Fluvial inheritances of the Cher River floodplain (region Centre, France) as elements of characterization of hydrological dynamics and their past evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssière, Anaëlle; Castanet, Cyril; Gautier, Emmanuèle; Virmoux, Clément

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphological studies of floodplains provide relevant data about evolutions of fluvial landscape over long time-scales and allow a better understanding of palaeo-environnemental evolutions. The Cher River flows from the "Massif Central" to its junction with the Loire River in the South of the "Bassin de Paris". The long-term fluvial evolutions since the LGM of this medium-sized catchment, are not well documented. However, a first prospection revealed a high potential of fluvial archives. The aim of the present work is to provide elements to characterize past fluvial dynamics based on the analysis of inherited landforms (mainly palaeo-channels) and sedimentary bodies located in the floodplain, using hydrogeomorphological methods. Data are acquired through the analysis of DEM LiDAR, geophysical methods (electric tomography) and cores (boreholes) collected in the floodplain. The analysis of DEM LiDAR and morpho-sedimentary observations yields palaeo-hydrographical reconstructions and allows two generations of topographic and sedimentary fluvial inheritances to be identified. Most ancient fluvial landforms correspond to mounds slightly higher than the floodplain level, incised by wide and shallow palaeo-channels. A second fluvial pattern, more recent, is characterized by palaeo-meanders. Measuring the width, the amplitude and the curvature, we show that some of the palaeo-meanders are much larger, wider and more sinuous than the current meanders, showing changes in past flow regime. The analysis of the filling of palaeo-channels allows us to identify firstly the transverse and longitudinal geometry of former channels. These data help us to estimate bank-full discharge of palaeo-channels. Secondly, the morpho-sedimentary analysis highlights their post-abandonment environmental changes. Three main stratigraphic units are identified. (1) At the base, there is medium and coarse sand attributed to fluvial transport. (2) It is overlain by a layer composed of organo

  10. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-07-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  11. Geographic information system planning for geotechnical and earthquake engineering applications at the Savannah River Site, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.

    1993-02-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Savannah River Site is in the planning stages of compiling a geological, geophysical, and seismological data base on an industry standard Geographic Information System (GIS). The system will serve as a tool for management and integration of already collected site data,planning for additional investigations, and for special studies such as seismic hazard and risk analyses for the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  12. Geographic information system planning for geotechnical and earthquake engineering applications at the Savannah River Site, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Savannah River Site is in the planning stages of compiling a geological, geophysical, and seismological data base on an industry standard Geographic Information System (GIS). The system will serve as a tool for management and integration of already collected site data,planning for additional investigations, and for special studies such as seismic hazard and risk analyses for the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  13. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  15. River system in Japan from a landscape ecological aspect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate characteristics associated with rivers by classification of major rivers in Japan into severaltypes based on riparian conditions.As the results of principal component analysis (PCA) with use of parameters reflecting forms and artificialalterations of respective rivers, four major components such as "comprehensive riparian size", "intactness of water front", "continuity ofstreams" and "simplicity of landform in river basin" were extracted.Subsequently, cluster analysis was performed based on principal componentscores, leading to successful classification of major rivers into 6 types.These findings disclosed that ( 1 ) the extracted principal componentsprovide effective viewpoint for classification of rivers; (2) distribution of respective classes indicates area properties; and (3) the employedquantitative procedures were found effective for classification of major rivers.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999, when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2001, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October and to Pettit and Alturas lakes in July; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September along with anadromous adult sockeye salmon that returned to the Sawtooth basin and were not incorporated into the captive broodstock program. Kokanee population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September. Only age-0 and age-1 kokanee were captured on Redfish Lake, resulting in a population estimate of 12,980 kokanee. This was the second lowest kokanee abundance estimated since 1990. On Alturas Lake age-0, age-1, and age-2 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population was estimated at 70,159. This is a mid range kokanee population estimate for Alturas Lake, which has been sampled yearly since 1990. On Pettit Lake only age-1 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population estimate was 16,931. This estimate is in the midrange of estimates of the kokanee population in Pettit Lake, which has been sampled

  19. River Maintenance Management System Using Three-Dimensional UAV Data in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, S.; Kawai, Y.

    2016-10-01

    River administration facilities such as levees and river walls play a major role in preventing flooding due to heavy rain. The forms of such facilities must be constantly monitored for alteration due to rain and running water, and limited human resources and budgets make it necessary to efficiently maintain river administration facilities. During maintenance, inspection results are commonly recorded on paper documents. Continuous inspection and repair using information systems are an on-going challenge. This study proposes a maintenance management system for river facilities that uses three-dimensional data to solve these problems and make operation and maintenance more efficient. The system uses three-dimensional data to visualize river facility deformation and its process, and it has functions that visualize information about river management at any point in the three-dimensional data. The threedimensional data is generated by photogrammetry using a camera on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

  20. Splitting rivers at their seams: bifurcations and avulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Ferguson, R.I.; Lane, S.N.; Hardy, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    River bifurcations are critical but poorly understood elements of many geomorphological systems. They are integral elements of alluvial fans, braided rivers, fluvial lowland plains, and deltas and control the partitioning of water and sediment through these systems. Bifurcations are commonly unstabl

  1. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  2. Compute Element and Interface Box for the Hazard Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Khanoyan, Garen; Stern, Ryan A.; Some, Raphael R.; Bailey, Erik S.; Carson, John M.; Vaughan, Geoffrey M.; Werner, Robert A.; Salomon, Phil M.; Martin, Keith E.; Spaulding, Matthew D.; Luna, Michael E.; Motaghedi, Shui H.; Trawny, Nikolas; Johnson, Andrew E.; Ivanov, Tonislav I.; Huertas, Andres; Whitaker, William D.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) program is building a sensor that enables a spacecraft to evaluate autonomously a potential landing area to generate a list of hazardous and safe landing sites. It will also provide navigation inputs relative to those safe sites. The Hazard Detection System Compute Element (HDS-CE) box combines a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board for sensor integration and timing, with a multicore computer board for processing. The FPGA does system-level timing and data aggregation, and acts as a go-between, removing the real-time requirements from the processor and labeling events with a high resolution time. The processor manages the behavior of the system, controls the instruments connected to the HDS-CE, and services the "heavy lifting" computational requirements for analyzing the potential landing spots.

  3. Lean Management Systems in Radiology: Elements for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stacy R; Ruter, Royce L; Tibor, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature on Lean and Lean Management Systems and how they have been implemented in healthcare organizations and particularly in radiology departments. The review focuses on the elements required for a successful implementation of Lean by applying the principles of a Lean Management System instead of a Lean tools-only approach. This review shares the successes and failures from healthcare organizations' efforts to improve the quality and safety of the services they provide. There are a limited number of healthcare organizations in the literature who have shared their experiences and additional research is necessary to determine whether a Lean Management System is a viable alternative to the current management structure in healthcare.

  4. Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

    2014-07-01

    Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

  5. Platelets--an important element of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Deptuła, W

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate cells derived from the megakaryocyte series, and have long been considered only as cells responsible for coagulation and the fibrinolysis process. However, recently more data shows that they are also effector cells in the inflammatory response and important elements of the immunological response. Platelets store and release many biologically active substances, including growth factors, cytokines and chemokines (tab. 1), which actively affect i.a. elements of the immune system, and thus become regulators of immunity and mediators of inflammatory response. Their impact on the immune system cells is also associated with the induction of leucocytes and progenitor cells to the site of pathogen permeation or vascular injury inflow, as well as endothelial cells. Interacting with neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, they not only activate them, but also form platelet-leukocyte aggregates that immobilise pathogens and prevent their spreading. Furthermore, platelets are capable of absorbing pathogens, affecting anti-infection immunity of the system. It is also assumed that the presence of receptors on their surface, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), affects their initiation and activity of the immunological response.

  6. Patient-specific modeling of human cardiovascular system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossovich, Leonid Yu.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Polienko, Asel V.; Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.; Murylev, Vladimir V.

    2016-03-01

    Object of study: The research is aimed at development of personalized medical treatment. Algorithm was developed for patient-specific surgical interventions of the cardiovascular system pathologies. Methods: Geometrical models of the biological objects and initial and boundary conditions were realized by medical diagnostic data of the specific patient. Mechanical and histomorphological parameters were obtained with the help mechanical experiments on universal testing machine. Computer modeling of the studied processes was conducted with the help of the finite element method. Results: Results of the numerical simulation allowed evaluating the physiological processes in the studied object in normal state, in presence of different pathologies and after different types of surgical procedures.

  7. A Review of Discrete Element Method Research on Particulate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A. A.; Elektorowicz, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes research done using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and explores new trends in its use on Particulate systems. The rationale for using DEM versus the traditional continuum-based approach is explained first. Then, DEM application is explored in terms of geotechnical engineering and mining engineering materials, since particulate media are mostly associated with these two disciplines. It is concluded that no research to date had addressed the issue of using the DEM to model the strength and weathering characteristics of peaty soil-slag-Portland cement-fly ash combinations.

  8. Multivariate statistical evaluation of dissolved trace elements and a water quality assessment in the middle reaches of Huaihe River, Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Guijian; Liu, Houqi; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-04-01

    A total of 211 water samples were collected from 53 key sampling points from 5-10th July 2013 at four different depths (0m, 2m, 4m, 8m) and at different sites in the Huaihe River, Anhui, China. These points monitored for 18 parameters (water temperature, pH, TN, TP, TOC, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Mn, B, Fe, Al, Mg, and Ba). The spatial variability, contamination sources and health risk of trace elements as well as the river water quality were investigated. Our results were compared with national (CSEPA) and international (WHO, USEPA) drinking water guidelines, revealing that Zn, Cd and Pb were the dominant pollutants in the water body. Application of different multivariate statistical approaches, including correlation matrix and factor/principal component analysis (FA/PCA), to assess the origins of the elements in the Huaihe River, identified three source types that accounted for 79.31% of the total variance. Anthropogenic activities were considered to contribute much of the Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, and Mn via industrial waste, coal combustion, and vehicle exhaust; Ba, B, Cr and Cu were controlled by mixed anthropogenic and natural sources, and Mg, Fe and Al had natural origins from weathered rocks and crustal materials. Cluster analysis (CA) was used to classify the 53 sample points into three groups of water pollution, high pollution, moderate pollution, and low pollution, reflecting influences from tributaries, power plants and vehicle exhaust, and agricultural activities, respectively. The results of the water quality index (WQI) indicate that water in the Huaihe River is heavily polluted by trace elements, so approximately 96% of the water in the Huaihe River is unsuitable for drinking. A health risk assessment using the hazard quotient and index (HQ/HI) recommended by the USEPA suggests that Co, Cd and Pb in the river could cause non-carcinogenic harm to human health.

  9. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to

  10. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  11. 1989 Land Cover/Use Data for the Upper Mississippi River System--Open River 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  12. 1989 Land Cover/Use Data for the Upper Mississippi River System--Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  13. 1989 Land Cover/Use Data for the Upper Mississippi River System--St Croix River

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  14. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merschel, Gila, E-mail: g.merschel@jacobs-university.de; Bau, Michael

    2015-11-15

    High-technology metals — such as the rare earth elements (REE) — have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further. - Highlights: • Corbicula fluminea shells are bioarchives of dissolved geogenic REE in

  15. A single element multiphase compulsator powered railgun systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, S.K.; Weldon, W.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Electromechanics)

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates multiphase railguns (electromagnetic launchers) powered by multiphase compensated pulsed alternators (compulsators). The polyphase system offers several advantages over the single phase system. The multiphase compulsator relaxes the strong dependence between the current pulse width necessary for the railgun and the design parameters of the generator (number of poles, rotor diameter and tip speed) thus allowing the compulsator to be designed for optimum power density and electromechanical energy conversion. The paper examines in particular the two phase system. The authors explore different methods of achieving high acceleration ratios (average to peak) in multiphase railgun systems. Some of the methods analyzed are ramping up the field current of the compulsator to counter the increasing impedance of the gun, using a railgun with varying inductance per unit length (L[prime]), and using an external variable inductor in series with the compulsator. Special attention is devoted to the external series inductor method which uses a rotary flux compressor (rfc). Several concepts to integrate the rfc and the compulsator into a single element device are discussed. Comparison between the state of the art single phase compulsator powered 9 MJ railgun system, currently under fabrication at CEM-UT and a two phase compulsator driven four rail railgun system is also presented.

  16. Rare earth elements as reactive tracers of biogeochemical weathering in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, A.; Perdrial, J. N.; Harpold, A. A.; Zapata, X.; Rasmussen, C.; McIntosh, J. C.; Schaap, M. G.; Pelletier, J. D.; Amistadi, M.; Chorover, J.

    2012-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are evaluated as potential tracers to elucidate biogeochemical weathering processes occurring during snowmelt in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico at pedon, hillslope, and catchment scales. We investigated time series of REE patterns in precipitation, soil pore water, ground water, and stream water, and related these data to REE composition of soil, rock and atmospheric dust. REE signatures in stream waters are dynamic, reflecting processes that occur along various hydrologic flowpaths during their transport to the stream, including those of parent rock weathering, water/soil interaction, and atmospheric deposition. REE patterns in stream waters during initial snowmelt reflect a signature similar to snow and soil solutions, consistent with shallow subsurface flow. REE patterns reflective of deep groundwater contribution increases during the recession of the snowmelt event. Rare earth elements and dissolved organic carbon concentrations (DOC) were positively correlated during snowmelt, consistent with REE complexation and mobilization in association with organic ligands during the period of shallow subsurface flow. Most annual (bio)chemical denudation of REE occurs during the snowmelt-derived DOC pulse. The use of Eu-anomalies allows us to elucidate what sources are contributing to the REE budget in Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (JRB-CZO). Weighted rhyodacite-tuff normalized REE distribution patterns reveal positive Eu-anomalies in the soil matrix, soil solutions, and stream waters and the anomalies were attributed to: 1) weathering of plagioclase feldspars, 2) colloidal transport, and 3) atmospheric deposition. Nd-anomalies in waters are consistent with the prevalence of subsurface flow. Pronounced negative Nd-anomalies observed in water samples collected from subsurface soil horizons and at the outlet of nested catchments within the East Fork Jemez watershed were attributed to preferential Nd adsorption by clays in the

  17. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  18. Climate Change Impacts on Stream Temperatures in the Columbia River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearsley, J. R.; Crozier, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River system, a drainage basin of 668,000 sq. km that includes the Columbia and Snake River rivers, supports a large population of anadromous, cold-water fishes. 13 species of these fishes are listed under the Endangered Species Act and are vulnerable to impacts of climate change. Bioenergetics models for these species have been developed by the federal agencies that operate the Federal Columbia River Power System. These models simulate the impacts on anadromous fishes as they move through the power system both upstream as adults and downstream as juveniles. Water temperature simulations required for input to the bioenergetics models were made for two different segments of the Columbia River system; one being the portions from the Canadian border to Bonneville Dam and the Snake River from Brownlee Dam in Idaho to its confluence and the other, the Salmon River basin in Idaho. Simulations were performed for the period 1928-1998 with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model, RBM, for existing conditions and for a two 2040 climate scenarios, a cool, dry condition (ECHO_g model) and a warm, wet condition (MIROC_3.2 model). Natural flows were simulated with the variable infiltration capacity model, VIC, and modified for Columbia River project operations using HYDSIM, a hydro system regulation model that simulates month-to-month operation of the Pacific Northwest hydropower system.

  19. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin in Washington: major-and minor-element data for sediment, water, and aquatic biota, 1987-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Fluter, Shelley L.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Rinella, Joseph F.; Crawford, J. Kent; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Bridges, Jennifer L.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Major- and minor-element concentrations are presented for streambed and suspended sediment, filtered- and unfiltered-water, and aquatic-biota samples collected during 1987-91 from the Yakima River Basin in south-central Washington. The samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-quality Assessment (NAWQA) program which is designed to provide results that are useful in understanding and managing the Nation's water resources. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of chemical data, statistical summaries, and quality- control data. These data may be used by scientists and resource managers to describe (1) spatial distribution of selected major and minor elements in sediment, water, and aquatic biota of the Yakima River Basin; (2) temporal variation for element concentrations in filtered water and in suspended sediment at selected sites; (3) suita- bility of surface water for preservation of aquatic life and protection of human health; and (4) major natural and anthropogenic sources of major and minor elements in the Yakima River Basin that affect observed water-quality conditions.

  20. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  1. Reach-scale characterization of large woody debris in a low-gradient, Midwestern U.S.A. river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Derek J.; Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Harden, Carol P.

    2016-06-01

    Addition of large woody debris (LWD) to rivers has increasingly become a popular stream restoration strategy, particularly in river systems of the Midwestern United States. However, our knowledge of LWD dynamics is mostly limited to high gradient montane river systems, or coastal river systems. The LWD-related management of low-gradient, Midwestern river systems is thus largely based on higher gradient analogs of LWD dynamics. This research characterizes fluvial wood loads and investigates the relationships between fluvial wood, channel morphology, and sediment deposition in a relatively low-gradient, semiconfined, alluvial river. The LWD and channel morphology were surveyed at nine reaches along the Big River in southeastern Missouri to investigate those relationships in comparison to other regions. Wood loads in the Big River are low (3-114 m3/100 m) relative to those of higher gradient river systems of the Pacific Northwest, but high relative to lower-gradient river systems of the Eastern United States. Wood characteristics such as size and orientation suggest that the dominant LWD recruitment mechanism in the Big River is bank erosion. Also, ratios of wood geometry to channel geometry show that the Big River maintains a relatively high wood transport capacity for most of its length. Although LWD creates sites for sediment storage, the overall impact on reach-scale sediment storage in the Big River is low (fluvial wood dynamics in low-gradient river systems of the Midwestern United States.

  2. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  3. Weathering processes and the composition of inorganic material transported through the orinoco river system, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R.F.; Koehnken, L.; Johnsson, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of river-borne material in the Orinoco River system is related primarily to erosion regime, which in turn is related to tectonic setting; especially notable is the contrast between material derived from tectonically active mountain belts and that from stable cratonic regions. For a particular morpho-tectonic region, the compositional suites of suspended sediment, bed material, overback deposits, and dissolved phases are fairly uniform are are typically distinct from whose of other regions. For each region, a consistent set of chemical weathering reactions can be formulated to explain the composition of dissolved and solid loads. In developing these formulations, erosion on slopes and storage of solids in soils and alluvial sediments are important considerations. Compositionally verymature sediment is derived from areas of thick soils where erosion is transport limited and from areas where sediments are stored for extended periods of time in alluvial deposits. Compositionally immature sediments are derived from tectonically active mountain belts where erosion is weathering limited. Weathering-limited erosion also is important in the elevated parts of the Guayana Shield within areas of sleep topography. Compared to the mountain belts, sediments derived from elevated parts of the Shield are more mature. A greater degree of chemical weathering seems to be needed to erode the rock types typical of the Shield. The major-element chemistry and mineral composition of sediment delivered by the Orinoco River to the ocean are controlled by rivers that have their headwaters in mountain belts and cross the Llanos, a region of alluvial plains within the foreland basin. The composition of sediments in rivers that drain the Shield seems to be established primarily at the site of soil formation, whereas for rivers that drain the mountain belts, additional weathering occurs during s episodes of storage on alluvial plains as sediments are transported across the Llanos

  4. Hybrid energy harvesting systems, using piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornogolub, Alexandru; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Interest in energy harvesting applications has increased a lot during recent years. This is especially true for systems using electroactive materials like dielectric polymers or piezoelectric materials. Unfortunately, these materials despite multiple advantages, present some important drawbacks. For example, many dielectric polymers demonstrated high energy densities; they are cheap, easy to process and can be easily integrated in many different structures. But at the same time, dielectric polymer generators require an external energy supply which could greatly compromise their autonomy. Piezoelectric systems, on the other hand, are completely autonomous and can be easily miniaturized. However, most common piezoelectric materials present a high rigidity and are brittle by nature and therefore their integration could be difficult. This paper investigates the possibility of using hybrid systems combining piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers for mechanical energy harvesting applications and it is focused mainly on the problem of electrical energy transfer. Our objective is to show that such systems can be interesting and that it is possible to benefit from the advantages of both materials. For this, different configurations were considered and the problem of their optimization was addressed. The experimental work enabled us to prove the concept and identify the main practical limitations.

  5. Analysis of the ancient river system in Loulan period in Lop Nur region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfeng; Jia, Peng; Nie, Yueping

    2010-09-01

    The Lop Nur region is located in the east of the Tarim Basin. It has served as the strategic passage and communication hub of the Silk Road since Han Dynasty. During Wei-Jin period, the river system there was well developed and the ancient city of Loulan was bred there. In this study, GIS is used to accomplish automatic extraction of the river course in the Lop Nur region at first using ArcGIS. Then the RCI index is constituted to extract ancient river course from Landsat ETM image with band 3 and band 4. It is concluded that the north river course of Peacock River conformed before the end of the 4th century AD according to the distribution of the entire river course of the Lop Nur region. Later, the Peacock River changed its way to south to Tarim River, and flowed into Lop Nur along the direction paralleling Altun Mountain from west to east. It was the change of the river system that mainly caused the decrease in water supply around ancient city of Loulan before the end of 4th century. The ancient city of Loulan has been gradually ruined in the sand because of the absence of water supply since then.

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  7. Performance of a coupled lagged ensemble weather and river runoff prediction model system for the Alpine Ammer River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiatek, G.; Kunstmann, H.; Werhahn, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Ammer River catchment located in the Bavarian Ammergau Alps and alpine forelands, Germany, represents with elevations reaching 2185 m and annual mean precipitation between1100 and 2000 mm a very demanding test ground for a river runoff prediction system. Large flooding events in 1999 and 2005 motivated the development of a physically based prediction tool in this area. Such a tool is the coupled high resolution numerical weather and river runoff forecasting system AM-POE that is being studied in several configurations in various experiments starting from the year 2005. Corner stones of the coupled system are the hydrological water balance model WaSiM-ETH run at 100 m grid resolution, the numerical weather prediction model (NWP) MM5 driven at 3.5 km grid cell resolution and the Perl Object Environment (POE) framework. POE implements the input data download from various sources, the input data provision via SOAP based WEB services as well as the runs of the hydrology model both with observed and with NWP predicted meteorology input. The one way coupled system utilizes a lagged ensemble prediction system (EPS) taking into account combination of recent and previous NWP forecasts. Results obtained in the years 2005-2011 reveal that river runoff simulations depict high correlation with observed runoff when driven with monitored observations in hindcast experiments. The ability to runoff forecasts is depending on lead times in the lagged ensemble prediction and shows still limitations resulting from errors in timing and total amount of the predicted precipitation in the complex mountainous area. The presentation describes the system implementation, and demonstrates the application of the POE framework in networking, distributed computing and in the setup of various experiments as well as long term results of the system application in the years 2005 - 2011.

  8. Spatio-temporal patterns and predictions of phytoplankton assemblages in a subtropical river delta system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and seasonal sampling within a subtropical river delta system, the Pearl River Delta (China), provided data to determine seasonal phytoplankton patterns and develop prediction models. The high nutrient levels and frequent water exchanges resulted in a phytoplankton community with greatest...

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  10. Modeling aquifer systems with analytic elements and subdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, C. R.

    2010-07-01

    A new approach for analytic element (AE) modeling of groundwater flow is presented. The approach divides the modeled region into polygonal subdomains, each with its own analytic flow model and its own local isotropic or anisotropic aquifer parameters. This allows analytic modeling of systems where the anisotropy ratio and direction vary spatially, an AE capability not possible without subdomains. It also allows for flexible layering in a model, with more layers in the area of interest abutting fewer layers in the far field. The approach is demonstrated in a model with seven subdomains and a mix of single-layer and triple-layer areas. Checks of the model indicate that the inter-subdomain boundary conditions can be approximated well, and where the differential equation is approximated (multilayer areas and transient flow), that approximation can be quite accurate.

  11. Performance Comparison between Structural Element of Building Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Abdul Kadir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Industrialized Building System (IBS was introduced in Malaysia in 1966, but it failed to establish itself on a continuous basis though there has been a sustained large market for residential projects even since. One of the reasons behind this shortcoming is the lack of scientific data on labor productivity that could convince policy maker. Hence, the objective of this study is to develop a standardized data collection methodology for measuring and comparing the conventional building system and IBS in term of labor productivity, crew size and cycle time. Labor productivity (man hours/m2 is defined as the man hours required to complete the structural element of one unit house. A total of 499 data points were obtained from seven residential projects constructed between January 2003 and April 2004. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA indicated that the labor productivity was significantly different between four structural building systems. The mean labor productivity for the conventional building system was 4.20 man hours/m2 followed by cast in-situ table form (2.70 man hours/m2, cast in-situ half tunnel form (1.88 man hours/m2 and pre-cast concrete system (1.33 man hours/m2. Further, the analysis of crew size indicated that the mean crew size of a conventional building system of 24 workers was significantly different from the IBS of 22 workers. However, the crew size within the IBS was found to be insignificant. The cycle time measured in days per house was found to be significantly different between structural building systems with the conventional building system of 4.9 days, cast in-situ table form of 3.9 days, cast in-situ half tunnel form of 2.9 days and pre-cast concrete system for 2.3 days. The labor productivity obtained from this study could be used as a preliminary guideline for a client or consultant to identify the most appropriate building system for executing a construction project and determining the labor requirement in the construction

  12. Viscoelastic machine elements elastomers and lubricants in machine systems

    CERN Document Server

    MOORE, D F

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic Machine Elements, which encompass elastomeric elements (rubber-like components), fluidic elements (lubricating squeeze films) and their combinations, are used for absorbing vibration, reducing friction and improving energy use. Examplesinclude pneumatic tyres, oil and lip seals, compliant bearings and races, and thin films. This book sets out to show that these elements can be incorporated in machine analysis, just as in the case of conventional elements (e.g. gears, cogs, chaindrives, bearings). This is achieved by introducing elementary theory and models, by describing new an

  13. Spatial characterization, risk assessment, and statistical source identification of the dissolved trace elements in the Ganjiang River-feeding tributary of the Poyang Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Yinghui; Wang, Min; Wang, Peng; Shi, Guangxun; Ding, Mingjun

    2017-01-01

    Surface water samples were collected from 20 sampling sites throughout the Ganjiang River during pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons, and the concentrations of dissolved trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the spatial and seasonal variations, risk assessment, source identification, and categorization for risk area. The result demonstrated that concentrations of the elements exhibited significant seasonality. The high total element concentrations were detected at sites close to the intensive mining and urban activities. The concentrations of the elements were under the permissible limits as prescribed by related standards with a few exceptions. The most of heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values were lower than the critical index limit, indicating the basically clean water used as habitat for aquatic life. As was identified as the priority pollutant of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic concerns, and the inhabitants ingesting the surface water at particular site might be subjected to the integrated health risks for exposure to the mixed trace elements. Multivariate statistical analyses confirmed that Zn, As, Cd, and Tl were derived from mining and urban activities; V, Cd, and Pb exhibited mixed origin; and Co, Ni, and Cu mainly resulted from natural processes. Three categorized risk areas corresponded to high, moderate, and low risks, respectively. As a whole, the upstream of the Ganjiang River was identified as the high-risk area relatively.

  14. Audit as Key Element of System Management Improvement in Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents what is an audit for a company, tries to regularize the quality audits, presents main differences between separate types of audits and between audit and control. There are also some exemplary types of nonconformance in a company. Each system has a risk of deficiencies. They can result from material defects or human imperfection. A good quality system should allow the company to detect them in an organized and systematical manner. It guarantees that the irregularities will be removed before they cause a defective production. Quality management consists of planning the quality via quality plans, control and research plans, and supervision and verification by audits and controls. The objective of this paper is to present a special message of audit for organizations which is the improvement of management system in company. Quality audit is used with reference to quality system and its elements, to process, products and services. It compares the real values with expected ones with reference to the activities connected with quality and their results, and planned data. Thanks to quality audits, it is possible to state if the quality management instruments achieve the desired effect. Quality audit can be conducted for the internal and external purposes. One of the quality audit purposes is to estimate if the improvement is necessary or to take corrective actions. The universality of audit, which is completed by periodic system review preformed by head management, allows the use of its application effects both on the strategic and operational effects. Audit is often misled with quality monitoring or control, i.e. activities which aim to control the process or accept the product. Therefore this paper shows the differences between the notions. The information used to conduct an audit is only based on facts (evidence objective, which really exist, independent on emotions or prejudice. They can be documented, declared, based on observed

  15. Emergy Analysis of Sustainability of Eco-economic System in Sichuan’s Baisha River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Using emergy analysis method,I conduct quantitative analysis of social,economic and natural systems in Sichuan’s Baisha River valley during the period 2002-2006,through the establishment of indicators.I compare the emergy of Baisha River valley,with that of Xinjiang’s Manas River valley and Sichuan Province,and evaluate the sustainable development conditions in Baisha River valley,in order to provide corresponding reference for the development and utilization of Baisha River valley in the future.The results show that from the perspective of emergy input of economic system,Baisha River valley is a typical ecological and economic zone with rich resources to be developed;in terms of the development of natural conditions and utilization of ecological resources,the resource utilization intensity of Baisha River valley is weak and the environmental loading ratio there is low,thus the level of emergy yield needs to be improved;the system of Baisha River valley has enormous capacity for sustainable development and good potential for development.

  16. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organic carbon and elemental carbon in Pearl River Delta Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J. J.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, K. F.; Zou, S. C.; Fung, Kochy; Li, Y.; Watson, John G.; Chow, Judith C.

    The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in atmospheric particles were investigated at eight sites in four cities (Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Zhuhai) of the Pearl River Delta Region (PRDR), China, during winter and summer 2002. The comparison of summer and winter results was made in order to investigate spatial and seasonal variations. PM 2.5 and PM 10 samples were collected on pre-fired quartz filters with mini-volume samplers and analyzed by the thermal optical reflectance (TOR) method following the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) protocol. During summer, the average OC and EC concentrations in PM 2.5 were 9.2 and 4.1 μg m -3, while those in PM 10 were 12.3 and 5.2 μg m -3. Carbonaceous aerosol accounted for 38.0% of the PM 2.5 and 32.9% of the PM 10. The daily average OC, EC, PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations in PRDR were higher in winter than in summer. The average OC/EC ratio was 2.5 for PM 2.5 and PM 10, suggesting the presence of secondary organic aerosols. The estimated secondary organic carbons in PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 4.1 and 5.6 μg m -3, respectively. The OC and EC were found to be correlated in winter (correlation coefficient r=0.82) and summer ( r=0.64), which implied that motor vehicle sources contributed to the ambient carbonaceous particles. The distribution of eight carbon fractions in OC and EC at eight sites was first reported in ambient samples in Asia, which also indicated that motor vehicle exhaust was the dominant contributor to carbonaceous particles.

  17. Microbiological studies in the Mandovi-Zuari river system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Row, A.

    Total heterotrophic and coliform bacteria were surveyed during October 1977 to September 1978 from 9 stations each along the rivers Mandovi and Zuari and 3 along the coast of Goa. Total heterotrophic population showed wide temporal and spatial...

  18. Summary of information on synthetic organic compounds and trace elements in tissue of aquatic biota, Clark Fork-Pend Oreille and Spokane River basins, Montana, Idaho, and Washington, 1974-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, data collected between 1974 and 1996 were compiled to describe contaminants in tissue of riverine species. Tissue-contaminant data from 11 monitoring programs and studies representing 28 sites in the study area were summarized. Tissue-contaminant data for most streams generally were lacking. Many studies have focused on and around mining-affected areas on the Clark Fork and Coeur d'Alene Rivers and their major tributaries. DDT and PCBs and their metabolites and congeners were the synthetic organic contaminants most commonly detected in fish tissue. Fish collected from the Spokane River in Washington contained elevated concentrations of PCB arochlors, some of which exceeded guidelines for the protection of human health and predatory wildlife. Tissue samples of fish from the Flathead River watershed contained higher-than-expected concentrations of PCBs, which might have resulted from atmospheric transport. Trace element concentrations in fish and macroinvertebrates collected in and around mining areas were elevated compared with background concentrations. Some cadmium, copper, lead, and mercury concentrations in fish tissue were elevated compared with results from other studies, and some exceeded guidelines. Macroinvertebrates from the Coeur d'Alene River contained higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc than did macroinvertebrates from other river systems in mining-affected areas. A few sportfish fillet samples, most from the Spokane River in Washington, were collected to assess human health risk. Concentrations of PCBs in these fillets exceeded screening values for the protection of human health. At present, there is no coordinated, long-term fish tissue monitoring program for rivers in the study area, even though contaminants are present in fish at levels considered a threat to human health. Development of a coordinated, centralized national data

  19. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Rob; Dornblaser, Mark M.; McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Stets, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr−1 (95% CI: 5.84 −10.46), averaging 750 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr−1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ∼6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

  20. Wandering gravel-bed rivers and high-constructive stable channel sandy fluvial systems in the Ross River area, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrel G.F. Long

    2011-07-01

    Gravel-dominated strata, inter-bedded with, and overlying coal-bearing units, are interpreted as deposits of wandering gravel-bed rivers, with sinuosity approaching 1.4. In most exposures they appear to be dominated by massive and thin planar-bedded granule to small pebble conglomerates, which would traditionally be interpreted as sheet-flood or longitudinal bar deposits of a high-gradient braided stream or alluvial fan. Architectural analysis of exposures in an open-pit shows that the predominance of flat bedding is an artefact of the geometry of the roadside exposures. In the pit the conglomerates are dominated by large scale cross stratification on a scale of 1–5.5 m. These appear to have developed as downstream and lateral accretion elements on side-bars and on in-channel bars in water depths of 2–12 m. Stacking of strata on domed 3rd order surfaces suggests development of longitudinal in-channel bar complexes similar to those observed in parts of the modern Rhône River system. Mudstone preserved in some of the channels reflects intervals of channel abandonment or avulsion. Minimum channel width is from 70 to 450 m.

  1. RIVER SYSTEM AND DISTURBANCE FACTORS IN THE LAKE TOBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zulkifli Nasution; Mashhor Mansor

    2004-01-01

    Situated at an elevation of 905 m above sea level in the Province of North Sumatra, Lake Toba and its surrounding landscapes are regarded as a natural heritage in a certain extent, as a quoted national treasure. Unfortunately degradation of the land and water resources in the watershed along Lake Toba is taking place at an alarming and totally unacceptable rate. The quality of the lake is partly depended on input the quality of the rivers. When compared to the control area the water quality that influenced by the piggeries are highly polluted. It can be concluded that the Salbe River at the downstream of the piggeries has been polluted and apparently it is a serious problem to the catchment area management. It should be noted that the polluted river would influence the water quality of the Lake Toba. Based on calculation, the permissible BOD5 according to B - river standard is 238 mg/L, it means the river still in B standard but the condition and quality are decreasing continuously. Following the Indonesian health standard the permissible BOD is - 461 mg/L. It means BOD in the river should be reduced 461 mg/L or clean program is needed.

  2. Description and assessment of the Raft River Lotic system in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal Area. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Raft River is the only perennial lotic system within this area and one concern has been the impact a spill of geothermal water would have on the biota of the stream. Identification of the structure of these communities is the baseline information which was the objective of this study. The results of the inventory in terms of potential recovery of downstream communities from the impact of geothermal water induced perturbations are discussed.

  3. Modeling of Regionalized Emissions (MoRE) into Water Bodies: An Open-Source River Basin Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephan Fuchs; Maria Kaiser; Lisa Kiemle; Steffen Kittlaus; Shari Rothvoß; Snezhina Toshovski; Adrian Wagner; Ramona Wander; Tatyana Weber; Sara Ziegler

    2017-01-01

    .... The river basin management system MoRE (Modeling of Regionalized Emissions) was developed as a flexible open-source instrument which is able to model pathway-specific emissions and river loads on a catchment scale...

  4. Selected elements and organic chemicals in bed sediment and fish tissue of the Tualatin River basin, Oregon, 1992-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Bernadine A.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of elements and organic compounds have entered the environment as a result of human activities. Such substances find their way to aquatic sediments from direct discharges to waterways, atmospheric emissions, and runoff. Some of these chemicals are known to harm fish or wildlife, either by direct toxicity, by reducing viability, or by limiting reproductive success. In aquatic systems, sediments become the eventual sink for most of these chemicals. Analyzing the sediments provides a first step in a chemical inventory that can lead to an assessment of potential biological impacts (Kennicutt and others, 1994).

  5. Selected elements and organic chemicals in bed sediment and fish tissue of the Tualatin River basin, Oregon, 1992-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Bernadine A.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of elements and organic compounds have entered the environment as a result of human activities. Such substances find their way to aquatic sediments from direct discharges to waterways, atmospheric emissions, and runoff. Some of these chemicals are known to harm fish or wildlife, either by direct toxicity, by reducing viability, or by limiting reproductive success. In aquatic systems, sediments become the eventual sink for most of these chemicals. Analyzing the sediments provides a first step in a chemical inventory that can lead to an assessment of potential biological impacts (Kennicutt and others, 1994).

  6. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Extreme Terrain Mobility Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Extreme Terrain Mobility project element is developing five technologies:Exoskeleton Development for ISS EvaluationExtreme Terrain Mobility...

  7. Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of water in aquatic systems is subject to temporal and spatial ... and lends strong support to management efforts to maintain river water quality to ... microbiological indicators, Okavango Delta, physico-chemical indicators, pollution

  8. Aquifer Boundary of the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains the boundary of the Wood River Valley aquifer system as modified and expanded from that defined by Skinner and others (2007): It has been...

  9. Estimated Thickness of Quaternary Sediment in the Wood River Valley aquifer system, South-Central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the estimated thickness of Quaternary sediment of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This isopach map was constructed by subtracting the estimated...

  10. 77 FR 23277 - Wekiva River System Advisory Management Committee Meetings (FY2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... meetings are scheduled for: May 8, 2012 (Dining Hall), August 8, 2012 (Recreation Hall), October 10, 2012... plan for the Wekiva River System and provide advice to the Secretary in carrying out...

  11. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 8 Color Infrared

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  12. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Dike Safety and Flood Risk in the Vidaa River System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Larsen, J.;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the flood risk and dike safety in the Vidaa River system, a cross-border catchment located in the southern part of Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany, is analysed. The river discharges to the Wadden Sea through a tidal sluice, and extreme water level conditions......, and increases in storm surge levels of up to 0.8 m in 2100 are estimated. The changes in extreme catchment run-off and sea water level have a significant effect on the flood risk in the river system. While most parts today have a low risk of dike overtopping with annual exceedance probabilities of 0.1 % or less...

  13. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  14. The chemistry of river-lake systems in the context of permafrost occurrence (Mongolia, Valley of the Lakes). Part I. Analysis of ion and trace metal concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopińska, Małgorzata; Szumińska, Danuta; Polkowska, Żaneta; Machowiak, Katarzyna; Lehmann, Sara; Chmiel, Stanisław

    2016-07-01

    This study provides a description of water chemistry in river-lake systems located in central Mongolia, at the borderline of permafrost occurrence. The analysis involved water samples collected from two river-lake systems: Baydrag River-Böön Tsagaan Lake system, and Shargalyuut/Tuyn Rivers-Orog Lake system. In the water samples, ions and trace elements were detected and quantified. Additionally, the parameters of pH, electrical conductivity (SEC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the sample results. Water chemistry is mostly influenced by geochemical and hydrometeorological processes. Permafrost thawing could increase the concentration of nitrogen (NH4+, NO3-) as well as Na+ and Ca2+, Cl- and SO42 -. However, it may also be an effect of other factors such as livestock farming. Seasonal drying out of lakes (e.g., Lake Orog) may also influence water chemistry by deflation of evaporites from exposed lake beds and, at the same time, with lower concentration of chemical compounds in water. The PCA shows that water samples can be divided into two groups. The first group contains lake samples, where water chemistry is shaped by prevailing evaporation processes, whereas the second includes samples from rivers and springs. Water chemistry of the latter is predominantly influenced by geochemical and hydro-meteorological processes.

  15. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.

  16. CHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF CERIUM ELEMENT IN ROCK WEATHERING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A study on existing valence state and chemical behavior of cerium element in two categories of rock weathering system in China has been carried out. In the granitoid weathering crust of Southern China,cerium as tetravalent hydroxide absorbed on clay minerals occupies 62.58 % of total amount of cerium and the cerium partitioning in the phase is 69.58 %. The depositing cerium stops its mobility downward, resulting in rare earth partitioning variation, the light rare earth partitioning is high at upper layer of weathering crust, the heavy rare earth partitioning is high at bottom layer of weathering crust, and the extracted product exists cerium lose effect. For Mn2+ as reducing agent existing in black weathering earth of Maoniuping rare earth ore,cerium is trivalent and absorbed on Mn-Fe oxide as colloid phase sediment. Colloid sediment phase can be divided into Mn-Fe combined phase and hydroxide sediment phase with cerium contents of 19.77% and 48.30%, and their cerium partitionings are 80.72% and 37.38% respectively. The Mn-Fe combined phase can selectively absorb cerium.

  17. High time-resolved elemental components in fine and coarse particles in the Pearl River Delta region of Southern China: Dynamic variations and effects of meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengzhen; Davy, Perry K; Wang, Xuemei; Cohen, Jason Blake; Liang, Jiaquan; Huang, Minjuan; Fan, Qi; Chen, Weihua; Chang, Ming; Ancelet, Travis; Trompetter, William J

    2016-12-01

    Hourly-resolved PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 samples were collected in the industrial city Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. The samples were subsequently analyzed for elemental components and black carbon (BC). A key purpose of the study was to understand the composition of particulate matter (PM) at high-time resolution in a polluted urban atmosphere to identify key components contributing to extreme PM concentration events and examine the diurnal chemical concentration patterns for air quality management purposes. It was found that BC and S concentrations dominated in the fine mode, while elements with mostly crustal and oceanic origins such as Si, Ca, Al and Cl were found in the coarse size fraction. Most of the elements showed strong diurnal variations. S did not show clear diurnal variations, suggesting regional rather than local origin. Based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) method, 3 forcing factors were identified contributing to the extreme events of PM2.5 and selected elements, i.e., urban direct emissions, wet deposition and a combination of coarse mode sources. Conditional probability functions (CPF) were performed using wind profiles and elemental concentrations. The CPF results showed that BC and elemental Cl, K, Fe, Cu and Zn in the fine mode were mostly from the northwest, indicating that industrial emissions and combustion were the main sources. For elements in the coarse mode, Si, Al, K, Ca, Fe and Ti showed similar patterns, suggesting same sources such as local soil dust/construction activities. Coarse elemental Cl was mostly from the south and southeast, implying the influence of marine aerosol sources. For other trace elements, we found vanadium (V) in fine PM was mainly from the sources located to the southeast of the measuring site. Combined with CPF results of S and V in fine PM, we concluded shipping emissions were likely an important elemental emission source.

  18. Carbon fate in a large temperate human-impacted river system: Focus on benthic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Groleau, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Fluvial networks play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. The Seine River, from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km), is studied here as an example of a large human-impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets upstream and downstream from one of the world's largest wastewater treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions using a hydrobiogeochemical model. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows for the quantification of pelagic and benthic effects on OC export toward the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e., net CO2 production). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25% of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. Benthic processes also substantially affect river metabolism under any hydrological condition. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total river respiration along the studied stretch (0.27 out of 0.86 g C m-2 d-1). Even though the importance of benthic processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, these results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and resuspension, on C cycling in downstream river systems. It opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, whereby biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics should be taken into account.

  19. From discrete elements to continuum fields: Extension to bidisperse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak R.; Thornton, Anthony R.; Weinhart, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Micro-macro transition methods can be used to, both, calibrate and validate continuum models from discrete data obtained via experiments or simulations. These methods generate continuum fields such as density, momentum, stress, etc., from discrete data, i.e. positions, velocity, orientations and forces of individual elements. Performing this micro-macro transition step is especially challenging for non-uniform or dynamic situations. Here, we present a general method of performing this transition, but for simplicity we will restrict our attention to two-component scenarios. The mapping technique, presented here, is an extension to the micro-macro transition method, called coarse-graining, for unsteady two-component flows and can be easily extended to multi-component systems without any loss of generality. This novel method is advantageous; because, by construction the obtained macroscopic fields are consistent with the continuum equations of mass, momentum and energy balance. Additionally, boundary interaction forces can be taken into account in a self-consistent way and thus allow for the construction of continuous stress fields even within one element radius of the boundaries. Similarly, stress and drag forces can also be determined for individual constituents of a multi-component mixture, which is critical for several continuum applications, e.g. mixture theory-based segregation models. Moreover, the method does not require ensemble-averaging and thus can be efficiently exploited to investigate static, steady and time-dependent flows. The method presented in this paper is valid for any discrete data, e.g. particle simulations, molecular dynamics, experimental data, etc.; however, for the purpose of illustration we consider data generated from discrete particle simulations of bidisperse granular mixtures flowing over rough inclined channels. We show how to practically use our coarse-graining extension for both steady and unsteady flows using our open-source coarse

  20. Sediment Transport Dynamic in a Meandering Fluvial System: Case Study of Chini River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, M. H. M.; Awang, S.; Shaaban, A. J.; Yahaya, N. K. E. M.; Jusoh, A. M.; Arumugam, M. A. R. M. A.; Ghani, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentation in river reduces the flood carrying capacity which lead to the increasing of inundation area in the river basin. Basic sediment transport can predict the fluvial processes in natural rivers and stream through modeling approaches. However, the sediment transport dynamic in a small meandering and low-lying fluvial system is considered scarce in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to analyze the current riverbed erosion and sedimentation scenarios along the Chini River, Pekan, Pahang. The present study revealed that silt and clay has potentially been eroded several parts of the river. Sinuosity index (1.98) indicates that Chini River is very unstable and continuous erosion process in waterways has increase the riverbank instability due to the meandering factors. The riverbed erosional and depositional process in the Chini River is a sluggish process since the lake reduces the flow velocity and causes the deposited particles into the silt and clay soil at the bed of the lake. Besides, the bed layer of the lake comprised of cohesive silt and clayey composition that tend to attach the larger grain size of sediment. The present study estimated the total sediment accumulated along the Chini River is 1.72 ton. The HEC-RAS was employed in the simulations and in general the model performed well, once all parameters were set within their effective ranges.

  1. Flow and Transport in the Hanford 300 Area Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2005-07-13

    Contaminant migration in the 300 Area unconfined aquifer is strongly coupled to fluctuations in the Columbia River stage. To better understand the interaction between the river, aquifer, and vadose zone, a 2-D saturated-unsaturated flow and transport model was developed for a vertical cross-section aligned west-east across the Hanford Site 300 Area, nearly perpendicular to the river. The model was used to investigate water flow and tracer transport in the vadose zone-aquifer-river flow system, in support of the ongoing study of the 300 Area uranium plume. The STOMP simulator was used to model 1-year from 3/1/92 to 2/28/93, a period when hourly data were available for both groundwater and river levels. Net water flow to the river (per 1-meter width of shoreline) was 182 m3/y in the base case, but the cumulative exchange or total flow back and forth across the riverbed was 30 times greater. The low river case had approximately double the net water and Groundwater tracer flux into the river as compared to the base case.

  2. Assessment of the behavior of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soil from the Sarno River Basin through a compositional data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Thiombane; Vivo Benedetto, De; Albanese, Stefano; Martín-Fernández, Josep-Antoni; Lima, Annamaria; Doherty, Angela

    2017-04-01

    The Sarno River Basin (south-west Italy), nestled between the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex and the limestone formations of the Campania-Apennine Chain, is one of the most polluted river basins in Europe due to a high rate of industrialization and intensive agriculture. Water from the Sarno River, which is heavily contaminated by the discharge of human and industrial waste, is partially used for irrigation on the agricultural fields surrounding it. We apply compositional data analysis on 319 samples collected during two field campaigns along the river course, and throughout the basin, to determine the level and potential origin (anthropogenic and/or geogenic) of the potentially toxic elements (PTEs). The concentrations of 53 elements determined by ICP-MS, and were subsequently log-transformed. Using a clr-biplot and principal factor analysis, the variability and the correlations between a subset of extracted variables (26 elements) were identified. Using both normalized raw data and clr-transformed coordinates, factor association interpolated maps were generated to better visualize the distribution and potential sources of the PTEs in the Sarno Basin. The underlying geology substrata appear to be associated with raised of levels of Na, K, P, Rb, Ba, V, Co, B, Zr, and Li, due to the presence of pyroclastic rocks from Mt. Somma-Vesuvius. Similarly, elevated Pb, Zn, Cd, and Hg concentrations are most likely related to both geological and anthropogenic sources, the underlying volcanic rocks and contamination from fossil fuel combustion associated with urban centers. Interpolated factors score maps and clr-biplot indicate a clear correlation between Ni and Cr in samples taken along the Sarno River, and Ca and Mg near the Solofra district. After considering nearby anthropogenic sources, the Ni and Cr are PTEs from the Solofra tannery industry, while Ca and Mg correlate to the underlying limestone-rich soils of the area. This study shows the applicability of the

  3. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is d

  4. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  5. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is d

  6. Floodplain morphodynamics and distribution of trace elements in overbank deposits, Vistula River Valley Gorge near Solec nad Wisłą, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowska, Ewa; Falkowski, Tomasz; Tatur, Andrzej; Kałmykow-Piwińska, Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Geological and geochemical investigations were carried out in the floodplain of the Vistula River Valley gorge near Solec nad Wisłą (Małopolska Gorge of the Vistula River). Geological mapping was supported by DEM and remote sensing analysis. Sediment samples were taken from depths of 0.5 m and 1.5 m from all geomorphological features identified. The geochemical analysis included determination of Cr, V, Sr, Ba, Ni, Cu, Co, As, Pb and Zn concentrations. Results indicate that the main factors affecting the pattern of features in the floodplain of this area are (1) the highly dynamic flood flow in the narrow section of the gorge and (2) the relief of the top surface of the sub-alluvial basement. The variable concentrations of trace elements are closely related to the floodplain features. Their concentrations can be considered as valuable geochemical proxies that enable a more thorough reconstruction of the sedimentary evolution of the Vistula River Valley and other similar river valleys, especially in gorge sections.

  7. A container dispatching system for river ports based on distributed intelligent agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Zeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the expansion of business scope of river ports, it demands higher loading and unloading efficiency. Automation, informatization and intelligentization become the only way to development of river ports. This paper establishes an informatization framework for river ports at first. The key process in river port is container dispatching. Therefore, this paper designs a container dispatching system based on business intelligence. It can be divided into four levels, data source layer, data warehouse layer, data service layer and application layer. The main modules are discussed in detail. At last, through performance comparison and analysis before and after the system implementation in Whampoa, the system is proved to have a lot of real benefits.

  8. The responses of hydro-environment system in the Second Songhua River Basin to melt water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the continuous monitoring data of hydrology and water quality in the period from 1972 to 1997, the responses of hydro-environment system to melt water in the Second Songhua River basin were derived. Because of melt water, the water quality in the Second Songhua River is good and changes very except that the contents of Hg and Mn in the water are higher. The contribution of melt water to the water fluxes in the Second Songhua River basin is distinct: the water flow in April increases remarkably, reaches the peak in the upper reaches. The pollutant contributions and water pollution indices (WPIs) of the Second Songhua River in April are high in the upper reaches while that in the lower reaches are low. The responses of hydro-environment system to melt water of that basin are affected by content of packed snow and the underlining surface systems.

  9. Concentrations of elements in eggs of least terns and piping plovers from the Missouri River, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Selenium concentrations were slightly elevated in unsuccessful eggs of interior least terns and piping plovers from nesting areas along the Missouri River in North...

  10. Assessing human and natural impacts on the hydrogeomorphological trajectory of a non-equilibrium river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Pascale; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Demers, Sylvio; Olsen, Taylor

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the hydrogeomorphological trajectory of a river allows us to document the impact of environmental changes on the river, but also to determine sustainable management solutions in the cases of a non-equilibrium river system. The hydrogeomorphological trajectory is obtained through the quantification of morphological and hydrological changes that have occurred in a river system over time. This paper aims at documenting the hydromorphological trajectory of the Matane River, a gravel-bed river located on the north shore of the Gaspé peninsula, Québec. This river has been highly impacted by wood rafting in the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Since the second half of the 20th century, there has been widespread use of bank stabilization structures to protect the road, particularly in the downstream sections of the valley. In addition to these human impacts, the river is highly sensitive to environmental changes related to hydrological variability, it is partly controlled by the presence of bedrock outcrops in some reaches and it is prone to severe river ice jams. A combination of field surveys, LiDAR Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and high-resolution imagery was used to obtain key hydrogeomorphological variables such as water surface slope, width and unit stream power for the 50-km downstream reach of the Matane River. GIS scripts developed in ArcGIS allowed us to automatically extract unit stream power from the LiDAR DEM. The comparison with a field survey of water surface slope revealed a very good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.87). The trajectory analysis was performed from aerial photographs from 1963 to 2009. The relationship between unit stream power extracted from the LiDAR DEM and river migration rate is not very strong. This is likely due to the impact of bank stabilization and bedrock outcrops. When examining the entire 50km reach, the trajectory analysis reveals that the river width decreased, the eroded flood plain

  11. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  12. An Integrated Decision Support System for Water Quality Management of Songhua River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiping; Yin, Qiuxiao; Chen, Ling

    2010-11-01

    In the Songhua River Basin of China, many water resource and water environment conflicts interact. A Decision Support System (DSS) for the water quality management has been established for the Basin. The System is featured by the incorporation of a numerical water quality model system into a conventional water quality management system which usually consists of geographic information system (GIS), WebGIS technology, database system and network technology. The model system is built based on DHI MIKE software comprising of a basin rainfall-runoff module, a basin pollution load evaluation module, a river hydrodynamic module and a river water quality module. The DSS provides a friendly graphical user interface that enables the rapid and transparent calculation of various water quality management scenarios, and also enables the convenient access and interpretation of the modeling results to assist the decision-making.

  13. Dissolved indium and rare earth elements in three Japanese rivers and Tokyo Bay: Evidence for anthropogenic Gd and In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Lerche, Dorte; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Tsutsumi, Makoto

    2000-12-01

    New data on the dissolved (river-estuaries and Tokyo Bay are presented. Unique shale-normalized REE patterns with a distinct positive Gd anomalies and a strong heavy-REE enrichment were seen throughout the data. The dissolved Gd anomaly is caused by local anthropogenic input mainly due to recent use of Gado-pentetic acid as a medical agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hospitals. The heavy-REE enrichment may be attributed to fractionation during weathering and transport in the upstream of the rivers, and only partially to removal of light- and middle-REE enriched river colloids by the use of a new ultrafiltration technique. Dissolved In concentrations in the Japanese rivers are extraordinarily high as compared to those in the pristine Chao Phraya river of Thailand reported elsewhere (Nozaki et al., in press). Like Gd, the high dissolved In in the study area can also be ascribed to recent use of In-containing organic compound, In(DTPA) 2- in medical diagnosis. Thus, in the highly populated and industrialized area, dissolved heavy metal concentrations in rivers and estuaries may be significantly perturbed by human activities and the fate of those anthropogenic soluble substances in the marine environment needs to be investigated further.

  14. The influence of land-use patterns in the Ruvu river watershed on water quality in the river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoye, Elizabeth; Machiwa, John F.

    This work assessed the impacts of land-use patterns in the Ruvu river basin on water quality in the river system. Seasonal changes in water quality parameters were also investigated. Ten river water-sampling stations were selected and samples were collected and analysed according to standard analytical procedures. The results showed that physico-chemical parameters of river water ranged as follows: pH, from 6.95 ± 0.09 to 8.07 ± 0.23; temperature, from 14.0 ± 0.06 to 31.1 ± 0.4 °C; EC, from 39.8 ± 0.8 to 48,734 306 μs/cm; TDS, from 19.9 ± 0.4 to 24,367 ± 152.9 mg/l; turbidity, from 3.0 ± 0.6 to 840 ± 69.3 NTU and DO, from 6.8 ± 0.02 to 16.78 mg/l. The ranges for nutrient concentrations were NO 3-N, from 0.006 ± 0.0003 to 0.62 ± 0.3 mg/l; NH 4-N, from 0.34 ± 0.17 to 16.2 ± 0.5 mg/l; PO 4-P, from 0.009 ± 0.001 to 1.75 ± 0.2 mg/l and TP, from 0.02 ± 0.003 to 3.56 ± 0.38 mg/l. Generally, water samples from stations with forested catchments had high levels of DO and low levels of NH 4-N and NO 3-N compared to those from farmland, industrial, residential and market places. There were clear seasonal variations showing an increase in the concentrations of nutrients during rainy season. The results show impairment of the water quality of the river by anthropogenic activities in the catchment. Water pollution prevention strategies to ensure prevention of pollution and protection of water resources in the Ruvu river watershed are recommended.

  15. Landscape ecology of the Upper Mississippi River System: Lessons learned, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2016-03-22

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) is a mosaic of river channels, backwater lakes, floodplain forests, and emergent marshes. This complex mosaic supports diverse aquatic and terrestrial plant communities, over 150 fish species; 40 freshwater mussel species; 50 amphibian and reptile species; and over 360 bird species, many of which use the UMRS as a critical migratory route. The river and floodplain are also hotspots for biogeochemical activity as the river-floodplain collects and processes nutrients derived from the UMR basin. These features qualify the UMRS as a Ramsar wetland of international significance.Two centuries of land-use change, including construction for navigation and conversion of large areas to agriculture, has altered the broad-scale structure of the river and changed local environmental conditions in many areas. Such changes have affected rates of nutrient processing and transport, as well as the abundance of various fish, mussel, plant, and bird species. However, the magnitude and spatial scale of these effects are not well quantified, especially in regards to the best methods and locations for restoring various aspects of the river ecosystem.The U.S. Congress declared the navigable portions of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) a “nationally significant ecosystem and nationally significant commercial navigation system” in the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) and launched the Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, the first comprehensive program for ecosystem restoration, monitoring, and research on a large river system. This fact sheet focuses on landscape ecological studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to support decision making by the UMRR with respect to ecosystem restoration.

  16. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouping Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM. This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  17. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-12-22

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  18. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Yakima River Basin Aquifer System, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Jones, M.A.; Ely, D.M.; Keys, M.E.; Olsen, T.D.; Welch, W.B.; Cox, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Yakima River basin aquifer system underlies about 6,200 square miles in south-central Washington. The aquifer system consists of basin-fill deposits occurring in six structural-sedimentary basins, the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and generally older bedrock. The basin-fill deposits were divided into 19 hydrogeologic units, the CRBG was divided into three units separated by two interbed units, and the bedrock was divided into four units (the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, the Tertiary, and the Quaternary bedrock units). The thickness of the basin-fill units and the depth to the top of each unit and interbed of the CRBG were mapped. Only the surficial extent of the bedrock units was mapped due to insufficient data. Average mapped thickness of the different units ranged from 10 to 600 feet. Lateral hydraulic conductivity (Kh) of the units varies widely indicating the heterogeneity of the aquifer system. Average or effective Kh values of the water-producing zones of the basin-fill units are on the order of 1 to 800 ft/d and are about 1 to 10 ft/d for the CRBG units as a whole. Effective or average Kh values for the different rock types of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary units appear to be about 0.0001 to 3 ft/d. The more permeable Quaternary bedrock unit may have Kh values that range from 1 to 7,000 ft/d. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of the units is largely unknown. Kv values have been estimated to range from about 0.009 to 2 ft/d for the basin-fill units and Kv values for the clay-to-shale parts of the units may be as small as 10-10 to 10-7 ft/d. Reported Kv values for the CRBG units ranged from 4x10-7 to 4 ft/d. Variations in the concentrations of geochemical solutes and the concentrations and ratios of the isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon in groundwater provided information on the hydrogeologic framework and groundwater movement. Stable isotope ratios of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) indicated dispersed sources of groundwater recharge to

  19. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Controlling Robots over Time Delay Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This element involves the development of software that enables easier commanding of a wide range of NASA relevant robots through the Robot Application Programming...

  20. Transformation of organic carbon, trace element, and organo-mineral colloids in the mixing zone of the largest European Arctic river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The estuarine behavior of organic carbon (OC and trace elements (TE was studied for the largest European sub-Arctic river, which is the Severnaya Dvina; this river is a deltaic estuary covered in ice during several hydrological seasons: summer (July 2010, 2012 and winter (March 2009 baseflow, and the November–December 2011 ice-free period. Colloidal forms of OC and TE were assessed using three pore size cutoff (1, 10, and 50 kDa using an in-situ dialysis procedure. Conventionally dissolved ( The most important result of this study is the elucidation of the behavior of the "truly" dissolved low molecular weight LMW fraction containing Fe, OC, and a number of insoluble elements. The concentration of the LMW fraction either remains constant or increases its relative contribution to the overall dissolved ( Overall, the observed decrease of the colloidal fraction may be related to the coagulation of organo-ferric colloids at the beginning of the mixing zone and therefore the replacement of the HMW1 kDa–0.22 μm portion by the LMW fraction. These patterns are highly reproducible across different sampling seasons, suggesting significant enrichment of the mixing zone by the most labile (and potentially bioavailable fraction of the OC, Fe and insoluble TE. The size fractionation of the colloidal material during estuarine mixing reflects a number of inorganic and biological processes, the relative contribution of which to element speciation varies depending on the hydrological stage and time of year. In particular, LMW ligand production in the surface horizons of the mixing zone may be linked to heterotrophic mineralization of allochthonous DOM and/or photodestruction. Given the relatively low concentration of particulate vs. dissolved load of most trace elements, desorption from the river suspended material was less pronounced than in other rivers in the world. As a result, the majority of dissolved components exhibited either a conservative (OC and

  1. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.; Dai, M.; Huang, W.; Liu, Q.; Chen, H.; Xu, L.

    2010-10-01

    Organic matter in surface sediments from the upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary and Lingdingyang Bay, as well as the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf was characterized using a variety of techniques, including elemental (C and N) ratio, bulk stable organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13C), and carbohydrate composition analyses. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was 1.21±0.45% in the upper reach, down to 1.00±0.22% in Lingdingyang Bay and to 0.80±0.10% on the inner shelf and 0.58±0.06% on the outer shelf. δ13C values ranged from -25.1‰ to -21.3‰ in Lingdingyang Bay and the South China Sea shelf, with a trend of enrichment seawards. The spatial trend in C/N ratios mirrored that of δ13C, with a substantial decrease in C/N ratio offshore. Total carbohydrate yields ranged from 22.1 to 26.7 mg (100 mg OC)-1, and typically followed TOC concentrations in the estuarine and shelf sediments. Total neutral sugars, as detected by the nine major monosaccharides (lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucose), were between 4.0 and 18.6 mg (100 mg OC)-1 in the same sediments, suggesting that significant amounts of carbohydrates were not neutral aldoses. Using a two end-member mixing model based on δ13C values and C/N ratios, we estimated that the terrestrial organic carbon contribution to the surface sediment TOC was ca. 78±11% for Lingdingyang Bay, 34±4% for the inner shelf, and 5.5±1% for the outer shelf. The molecular composition of the carbohydrate in the surface sediments also suggested that the inner estuary was rich in terrestrially derived carbohydrates but that their contribution decreased offshore. A relatively high abundance of deoxyhexoses in the estuary and shelf indicated a considerable bacterial source of these carbohydrates, implying that sediment organic matter had undergone extensive degradation and/or transformation during transport. Sediment budget based on calculated regional accumulation rates

  2. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. He

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter in surface sediments from the upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary and Lingdingyang Bay, as well as the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf was characterized using a variety of techniques, including elemental (C and N ratio, bulk stable organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13C, and carbohydrate composition analyses. Total organic carbon (TOC content was 1.21±0.45% in the upper reach, down to 1.00±0.22% in Lingdingyang Bay and to 0.80±0.10% on the inner shelf and 0.58±0.06% on the outer shelf. δ13C values ranged from −25.1‰ to −21.3‰ in Lingdingyang Bay and the South China Sea shelf, with a trend of enrichment seawards. The spatial trend in C/N ratios mirrored that of δ13C, with a substantial decrease in C/N ratio offshore. Total carbohydrate yields ranged from 22.1 to 26.7 mg (100 mg OC−1, and typically followed TOC concentrations in the estuarine and shelf sediments. Total neutral sugars, as detected by the nine major monosaccharides (lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucose, were between 4.0 and 18.6 mg (100 mg OC−1 in the same sediments, suggesting that significant amounts of carbohydrates were not neutral aldoses. Using a two end-member mixing model based on δ13C values and C/N ratios, we estimated that the terrestrial organic carbon contribution to the surface sediment TOC was ca. 78±11% for Lingdingyang Bay, 34±4% for the inner shelf, and 5.5±1% for the outer shelf. The molecular composition of the carbohydrate in the surface sediments also suggested that the inner estuary was rich in terrestrially derived carbohydrates but that their contribution decreased offshore. A relatively high abundance of deoxyhexoses in the estuary and shelf indicated a considerable bacterial source of these carbohydrates, implying that sediment organic matter had undergone extensive degradation and

  3. Evaluation of an operational water cycle prediction system for the Laurentian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Vincent; Durnford, Dorothy; Smith, Gregory; Dyck, Sarah; Martinez, Yosvany; Mackay, Murray; Winter, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) is implementing new numerical guidance products based on fully coupled numerical models to better inform the public as well as specialized users on the current and future state of various components of the water cycle, including stream flow and water levels. Outputs from this new system, named the Water Cycle Prediction System (WCPS), have been available for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River watershed since June 2016. WCPS links together ECCC's weather forecasting model, GEM, the 2-D ice model C-ICE, the 3-D lake and ocean model NEMO, and a 2-D hydrological model, WATROUTE. Information concerning the water cycle is passed between the models at intervals varying from a few minutes to one hour. It currently produces two forecasts per day for the next three days of the complete water cycle in the Great Lakes region, the largest freshwater lake system in the world. Products include spatially-varying precipitation, evaporation, river discharge, water level anomalies, surface water temperatures, ice coverage, and surface currents. These new products are of interest to water resources and management authority, flood forecasters, hydroelectricity producers, navigation, environmental disaster managers, search and rescue teams, agriculture, and the general public. This presentation focuses on the evaluation of various elements forecasted by the system, and weighs the advantages and disadvantages of running the system fully coupled.

  4. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdettin Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS. In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1 digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2 simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, and (3 preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1 and (2.

  5. The ESA River & Lake System: Current Capabilities and Future Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Richard G.; Salloway, Mark; Berry, Philippa A. M.;

    Measuring the earth's river and lake resources using satellite radar altimetry offers a unique global monitoring capability, which complements the detailed measurements made by the steadily decreasing number of in-situ gauges. To exploit this unique remote monitoring capability, a global pilot sc...

  6. Structural and elemental analysis of bottom sediments from the Paraíba do Sul River (SE, Brazil) by analytical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguens, Flávio Costa; Oliveira, Martha Lima de; Ferreira, Amanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Laís Rodrigues; Melo, Edésio José Tenório de; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Veiga de

    2016-03-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is a medium-sized river that flows through the Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Brazilian states the three most developed states in Brazil. Industrial parks and cities have historically been established along the river basin. The waters of PSR are used in agriculture, industry and human consumption of over 20 million people, including Rio de Janeiro City. Furthermore, the river receives effluent from these activities: agricultural runoff, industrial waste, and domestic sewage. Therefore, PSR has been considered polluted, particularly by heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metals in bottom sediments grains of the PSR, to infer their elemental composition, and to characterize individual sediment grains morphology, a non-destructive methodology - X-ray microanalyses (Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to Energy Dispersive X-rays Spectrometer/SEM/EDS) - was used. Heavy metals - Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Ag, Ba, Au, La, Ce, Nd, Th, Y, Sn, Os and Pb - were detected by SEM/EDS in bottom sediment grains from PSR, predominantly in grains with equivalent diameter ≤10 μm. They occurred as silicates, oxides (hydro-oxides), sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, phosphates and chlorides. All detected heavy metals occurred as, at least, one kind of soluble metal compound, mainly due to ionic exchange from silicates, with the exception of Ag, which was chloride, sulfate or metallic as Os, Au and Pb. These results corroborate heavy metal PSR pollution and food chain risk, considering that near-shore continental shelf is free of heavy metals contamination. Our results also give support to the hypothesis that the PSR estuary can act as a trap for these elements.

  7. Neuromorphic elements and systems as the basis for the physical implementation of artificial intelligence technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V. A.; Emelyanov, A. V.; Lapkin, D. A.; Erokhin, V. V.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    The instrumental realization of neuromorphic systems may form the basis of a radically new social and economic setup, redistributing roles between humans and complex technical aggregates. The basic elements of any neuromorphic system are neurons and synapses. New memristive elements based on both organic (polymer) and inorganic materials have been formed, and the possibilities of instrumental implementation of very simple neuromorphic systems with different architectures on the basis of these elements have been demonstrated.

  8. Source and mobility of Rare Earth Elements in a sedimentary aquifer system: Aquitaine basin (Southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, P. J.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Millot, R.; Malcuit, E.

    2011-12-01

    The study of rare earth elements (REEs) in natural waters initially involved an examination of their occurrence and behavior in seawater and coastal waters such as estuaries. Since the 1990s, REE geochemistry has been applied to continental waters such as rivers and lakes and groundwaters. Rare earth elements) are of great interest because of their unique characteristics and have been used in the study of many geological processes like weathering and water-rock interaction processes, provenance of sediments, etc... With the evolution of analytical techniques like new generation ICP-MS, much attention had been paid towards the water geochemistry of REEs. However, there is a need of more investigations devoted to REEs in large groundwater systems, especially on the understanding of the distribution of REEs and their evolution in such systems. In this frame, large sedimentary aquifer systems often constitute strategic water resources for drinking water supply, agriculture irrigation and industry, but can also represent an energetic resource for geothermal power. Large water abstractions can induce complete modification of the natural functioning of such aquifer systems. These large aquifer systems thus require water management at the basin scale in order to preserve both water quantity and quality. The large Eocene Sand aquifer system of the Aquitaine sedimentary basin was studied through various hydrological, chemical and isotopic tools. This system extends over 116,000 km2 in the South west part of the French territory. The aquifer being artesian in the west of the district and confined with piezometric levels around 250-m depth in the east. The 'Eocene Sands', composed of sandy Tertiary sediments alternating with carbonate deposits, is a multi-layer system with high permeability and a thickness of several tens of metres to a hundred metres. The Eocene Sand aquifer system comprises at least five aquifers: Paleocene, Eocene infra-molassic sands (IMS), early Eocene

  9. 40 CFR 57.402 - Elements of the supplementary control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Supplementary Control System Requirements § 57.402 Elements of the supplementary control system. Each supplementary control system shall contain the following... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of the supplementary control...

  10. Carbon fate in a large temperate human-impacted river system: focus on benthic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Groleau, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, several studies highlighted the important role of fluvial networks in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Therefore, for sustainable C management, in-river C processing needs to be well understood. The Seine River from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km) is studied here as a pertinent example of a large human impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets up- and downstream one of the world's largest waste water treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions through hydro-biogeochemical distributed modelling. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows the quantification of the effect of pelagic and benthic processes on OC export towards the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e. net CO2 emission). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25 % of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. River metabolism is also significantly affected by benthic processes, whatever the hydrological conditions. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total ecosystem respiration along the studied stretch (0.23 out of 0.86 gC.m-2.d-1). These results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and re-suspension on C cycling, in large human-impacted temperate river systems and on C export to the estuaries. Even though the importance of benthos processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, this work highlights its importance for downstream river systems and opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, in which biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics must be taken into account.

  11. Trace element and isotopic composition of apatite in carbonatites from the Blue River area (British Columbia, Canada) and mineralogy of associated silicate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Roger; Chudy, Thomas; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.; Wu, Fu-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Apatites from the Verity, Fir, Gum, Howard Creek and Felix carbonatites of the Blue River (British Columbia, Canada) area have been investigated with respect to their paragenesis, cathodoluminescence, trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic composition. Although all of the Blue River carbonatites were emplaced as sills prior to amphibolite grade metamorphism and have undergone deformation, in many instances magmatic textures and mineralogy are retained. Attempts to constrain the U-Pb age of the carbonatites by SIMS, TIMS and LA-ICP-MS studies of zircon and titanite were inconclusive as all samples investigated have experienced significant Pb loss during metamorphism. The carbonatites are associated with undersaturated calcite-titanite amphibole nepheline syenite only at Howard Creek although most contain clasts of disaggregated phoscorite-like rocks. Apatite from each intrusion is characterized by distinct, but wide ranges, in trace element composition. The Sr and Nd isotopic compositions define an array on a 87Sr/86Sr vs²Nd diagram at 350 Ma indicating derivation from depleted sub-lithospheric mantle. This array could reflect mixing of Sr and Nd derived from HIMU and EM1 mantle sources, and implies that depleted mantle underlies the Canadian Cordillera. Although individual occurrences of carbonatites in the Blue River region are mineralogically and geochemically similar they are not identical and thus cannot be considered as rocks formed from a single batch of parental magma at the same stage of magmatic evolution. However, a common origin is highly probable. The variations in the trace element content and isotopic composition of apatite from each occurrence suggest that each carbonatite represents a combination of derivation of the parental magma(s) from mineralogically and isotopically heterogeneous depleted mantle sources coupled with different stages of limited differentiation and mixing of these magmas. We do not consider these carbonatites as primary direct

  12. Processes at Water Intake from Mountain Rivers into Hydropower and Irrigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vatin Nikolai; Lavrov Nikolai; Loginov Gennadi

    2016-01-01

    In paper, researches of riverbed and hydraulic processes at the water intake from mountain rivers are observed. Classification of designs of the mountain water intake structures, based on continuity signs is offered. Perfecting of base designs of water intake structures of a mountain-foothill zone and means of their hydraulic automation is carried out. The technological, theoretical and experimental substantiation of parameters of basic elements of these designs with a glance of hydromorphome...

  13. Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Fish Tissue and Bed Sediment in the Delaware River Basin, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Brightbill, Robin; Bilger, Michael

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program activities in the Delaware River Basin (DELR), samples of fish tissue from 21 sites and samples of bed sediment from 35 sites were analyzed for a suite of organic compounds and trace elements. The sampling sites, within subbasins ranging in size from 11 to 600 square miles, were selected to represent 5 main land-use categories in the DELR -forest, low-agricultural, agricultural, urban, and mixed use. Samples of both fish tissue and bed sediment were also collected from 4 'large-river' sites that represented drainage areas ranging from 1,300 to 6,800 square miles, areas in which the land is used for a variety of purposes. One or more of the organochlorine compounds-DDT and chlordane metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), and dieldrin- were detected frequently in samples collected over a wide geographic area. One or more of these compounds were detected in fish-tissue samples from 92 percent of the sites and in bed-sediment samples from 82 percent of the sites. Concentrations of total DDT, total chlordanes, total PCBs, and dieldrin in whole white suckers and in bed sediment were significantly related to urban/industrial basin characteristics, such as percentage of urban land use and population density. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total phthalates, and phenols- were detected frequently in bed-sediment samples. All three types of SVOCs were detected in samples from at least one site in each land-use category. The highest detection rates and concentrations typically were in samples from sites in the urban and mixed land-use categories, as well as from the large-river sites. Concentrations of total PAHs and total phthalates in bed-sediment samples were found to be statistically related to percentages of urban land use and to population density in the drainage areas represented by the sampling sites. The samples of fish tissue and bed

  14. Impact of river overflowing on trace element contamination of volcanic soils in south Italy: Part I. Trace element speciation in relation to soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, Portici, 80055 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: adamo@unina.it; Zampella, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, Portici, 80055 Naples (Italy); Gianfreda, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, Portici, 80055 Naples (Italy); Renella, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Universita di Firenze, P.le delle Cascine 28, 50144 Firenze (Italy); Rutigliano, F.A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Terribile, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, Portici, 80055 Naples (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    Volcanic soils affected by different numbers of polluted river flooding events were investigated. Chromium and Cu were the major soil contaminants. Nickel, Fe, Zn and Mn total content never exceeded the Italian mandatory limits. The distribution of Cr and Cu total contents among studied soils indicated that only Cr contamination was related to overflowing events. In polluted soils, sequential chemical extractions revealed a preferential association of Cr and Cu with organic forms. A progressive Cr insolubilization with ageing was observed. Significant amounts of Cr and Cu were extracted by NH{sub 4}-oxalate, suggesting metals association with short-range-order aluminosilicates and organo-mineral complexes. Possible methodological drawbacks in the use of the EU-BCR chemical speciation protocol on volcanic soils are discussed. Micromorphology and SEM/WDS analyses revealed Cr and Cu enriched silt and clay coatings in surface and subsurface soil horizons, suggesting a transfer of metal-rich sediments along the soil pore network with water movement. - River overflowing adds up soil with Cr-rich sediments which, although chemically low reactive, transfer metal along the soil pore network during water movement.

  15. A decision support system for water quality issues in the Manzanares River (Madrid, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Solera, Abel

    2010-05-15

    The Manzanares River, located in Madrid (Spain), is the main water supplier of a highly populated region, and it also receives wastewater from the same area. The effluents of eight Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) downstream of the river, which represent 90% of the flow in the middle and lower parts of the river, are the primary sources of water pollution. Although the situation has improved slightly in the last two years, the water in the river is highly polluted, making it uninhabitable for aquatic life. Water quality modelling is typically used to assess the effect of treatment improvements in water bodies. In this work, the GESCAL module of the Aquatool Decision Support System Shell was used to simulate water quality in the Manzanares River. GESCAL is appropriate for modelling in an integrated way water quality for whole water resources systems, including reservoirs and rivers. A model was built that simulates conductivity, phosphorous, carbonaceous organic matter, dissolved oxygen, organic nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrates. The period from October 2006 to September 2008 was selected for calibration due to the many treatment modifications that occurred during this time. An earlier and longer period, from October 2000 to September 2006, was used for validation. In addition, a daily model was used to analyse the robustness of the GESCAL model. Once the GESCAL model was validated, different scenarios were considered and simulated. First, different combinations of nutrient elimination among the different WWTPs were simulated, leading to the conclusion that investments have to focus on three of the proposed WWTPs. Moreover, these treatments will not be sufficient to maintain fish habitat conditions at all times. Additional measures, such as the increment of the flow in the river or oxygen injection, were simulated. Incrementing the flow of the Manzanares River has been shown to be an efficient means of increasing water quality, but this implies an increment in the

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  17. River management under transformation: The emergence of strategic adaptive management of river systems in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Pollard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas such as the Kruger National Park (KNP face many management challenges, of which ensuring a healthy flow of rivers into the park is one of the most important. Although previous management policies isolated the KNP from its neighbours, this position has changed as the KNP seeks to negotiate a respected ‘place’ for water and conservation in a competitive environment. A major catalyst for this re-orientation has been the response from the KNP to the growing water crisis where its position needed to be seen within the wider catchment and policy context in South Africa. This paper presents an overview of the transforming management practices of the KNP in a changing political, socio-economic and environmental context, through the lens of water resources. We show that the KNP management model moved beyond inward-looking, isolationist policies to adopt responsivity to major change factors. The new approach was applied first in the sphere of river management in the KNP after which it spread to other domains such as fire and game management. It explicitly incorporates an experimental–reflexive orientation and considers management as a process of learningby- doing. This paper strives to review the transformation since the onset of explicit adaptive management of these rivers. The development of a new stewardship, based on a stakeholdercentred vision and on learning-focused management, has been a main achievement for the KNP. A closer partnership between researchers, managers and field staff, supported with buyin and co-learning, has led to a management framework based on a clear vision informed by stakeholder involvement, an objectives hierarchy, a scoping of management options, a monitoring system and a reflective evaluation process with feedback loops. Although developed through a focus on rivers, the framework can be embraced for the management of ecosystems as a whole.Conservation implications: The explicit adoption of strategic

  18. Impact of nanoparticles and colloids on glacial meltwater: A comparative study of rare earth elements in glacial meltwater rivers and terminal lakes in Iceland and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael

    2014-05-01

    anomalies. Comparison of the trace element distribution of river particulates (200 nm-filter residues) to that of the respective glacial meltwater (200 nm filtrates) reveals very close similarities, suggesting that REY bound to colloids and nanoparticles dominate the dissolved trace element distribution in these meltwater rivers. Meltwaters in New Zealand show similar REY patterns, although the heavy REY depletion is less pronounced (LaSN/GdSN: 0.35-0.75; GdSN/YbSN: 1.19-1.99) and they do not show positive Eu anomalies. As in Iceland, comparison of filter residues and dissolved REY concentrations reveals close similarities. Our results suggest that the dissolved REY distribution in glacial meltwater rivers and lakes is controlled by colloids and nanoparticles smaller than 200 nm. Hence, the REY distribution in the REY pool delivered via glacial meltwater rivers to estuaries depends on catchment lithology which will, therefore, also control the Nd isotopic signature of REY input into seawater. In contrast, REY concentrations and REY distribution in the dissolved riverine REY flux into seawater will be affected by estuarine removal and remineralization processes, and may strongly differ from those observed in the waters before they enter the estuaries.

  19. Mississippi River Navigation System. Environmental Evaluations of Proposed Mooring Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    crayfish, oligochetes, nematodes , snails, clams, mussels and tubifex worms. Fish commonly found in the Kentucky River and tributaries are carp, drum...with ash, poplar, tulip tree, sugar maple, and pawpaw as associate species. The floodplain portions of the basin include southern "swamp" species...such as oak, hickory, ash, poplar, tulip tree, sugar maple and associated species. Understories include rhododendron, laurel, dogwood and wild cherry

  20. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  1. The Seine system: introduction to a multidisciplinary approach of the functioning of a regional river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Mouchel, Jean-Marie; Silvestre, Marie

    2007-04-01

    The Seine basin (France) is dominated by the megalopolis of Paris (10 millions inhabitants), surrounded by intensive agricultural areas: it represents an important example of regional territory strongly affected by anthropogenic activity. In the scope of the PIREN-Seine program, an interdisciplinary study of this basin was conducted. This paper introduces a special issue of the Science of the Total Environment devoted to the results of this program. It summarizes the main features of the Seine river system, the physical characteristics of its drainage network and its watershed, and the nature and spatial distribution of human activities. The scientific approaches used for the study of the system are described, emphasizing the role of material budgeting, mathematical modeling and historical reconstruction. Some functional characteristics of the Seine watershed and drainage network are summarized, showing that the system is now essentially controlled by anthropogenic constraints.

  2. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. MODELING THE FATE AND TRANSPORT OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN UNSTEADY RIVER-ESTUARINE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Chin CHEN; Jan-Tai KUO

    2002-01-01

    This research develops a generalized,one-dimensional,finite difference model for simulating the distribution of toxic substances in a river-estuarine system. The three sub-models for unsteady flow,sediment transport,and the reaction of toxic substances are also presented using an uncoupled numerical method. The paper also includes experimental work for sorption/desorption,field measurements of organic carbon content in the heavily polluted Keelung River,and a laboratory study of cohesive sediment transport for the model calibration and verification. In addition,this study simulates the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Keelung River in northern Taiwan as a case study. Encouraging results are obtained,and suggest that the modeling approach could be extended to simulate the fate and transport of sorbed pollutants in tidal river.

  4. Relative Distributions of Dreissena bugensis and Dreissena polymorpha in the Lower Don River System, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhulidov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. F.; Nalepa, T. F.; Scherbina, G. H.; Zhulidov, D. A.; Gurtovaya, T. Yu.

    2004-07-01

    A survey was conducted in the lower Don River system in Russia to confirm the presence of Dreissena bugensis, and to compare its distribution relative to that of Dreissena polymorpha. In 1999 and 2001-2002, dreissenid mussels were collected at 15 sites in the main river, in connecting reservoirs, and in a major tributary, the Manych River. Collections were made near stations where long-term monitoring data on total mineral (sum of principal ions) and calcium content were available. Both dreissenid species were found at all sites, with D. bugensis comprising 4-75% of all dreissenids at individual sites. D. bugensis was relatively more abundant than D. polymorpha in the Manych River where total mineral and calcium content was significantly higher than in the Don River, suggesting the two species may have different calcium requirements. Examination of archived samples indicated that D. bugensis was present in the Don River system as early as the 1980s, presenting the unresolved enigma of why D. bugensis has not displaced D. polymorpha as the dominant species as typically found over shorter time periods in other water bodies. (

  5. Stream-sediment geochemistry in mining-impacted streams : sediment mobilized by floods in the Coeur d'Alene-Spokane River system, Idaho and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Ikramuddin, Mohammed

    2005-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with the dispersion of metal-enriched sediment into the Coeur d'Alene-Spokane River system downstream from the Coeur d'Alene Mining District in northern Idaho have been a cause of litigation since 1903, 18 years after the initiation of mining for lead, zinc, and silver. Although direct dumping of waste materials into the river by active mining operations stopped in 1968, metal-enriched sediment continues to be mobilized during times of high runoff and deposited on valley flood plains and in Coeur d'Alene Lake (Horowitz and others, 1993). To gauge the geographic and temporal variations in the metal contents of flood sediment and to provide constraints on the sources and processes responsible for those variations, we collected samples of suspended sediment and overbank deposits during and after four high-flow events in 1995, 1996, and 1997 in the Coeur d'Alene-Spokane River system with estimated recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 100 years. Suspended sediment enriched in lead, zinc, silver, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, and copper was detected over a distance of more than 130 mi (the downstream extent of sampling) downstream of the mining district. Strong correlations of all these elements in suspended sediment with each other and with iron and manganese are apparent when samples are grouped by reach (tributaries to the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, the main stem of the Coeur d'Alene River, and the Spokane River). Elemental correlations with iron and manganese, along with observations by scanning electron microscopy, indicate that most of the trace metals are associated with Fe and Mn oxyhydroxide compounds. Changes in elemental correlations by reach suggest that the sources of metal-enriched sediment change along the length of the drainage. Metal contents of suspended sediment generally increase through the mining district along the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, decrease

  6. Fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage system, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongshan; Li, Zongmeng; Pan, Baotian; Liu, Fenliang; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-04-01

    As a drainage system located in arid western China, the Shiyang River, combined with considerable fluvial strata and landform information, provides an environmental context within which to investigate fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change. Sedimentological analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating enabled us to reconstruct the processes and fluvial styles of three sedimentary sequences of the Shagou and Hongshui rivers in the Shiyang drainage system. Our results present a variety of river behaviors during the late Quaternary in these areas. In the upstream Shiyang River, Zhangjiadazhuang (ZJDZ) profile of the Shagou was dominated by aggradation and a meandering channel pattern at 10.6-4.2 ka, while a noticeable channel incision occurred at ~ 4.2 ka followed by lateral channel migration. In the downstream Shiyang River, Datugou (DTG) profile of the Hongshui was an aggrading meandering river from 39.7 to 7.2 ka while channel incision occurred at 7.2 ka. Another downstream profile, Wudunwan (WDW) of the Hongshui was also characterized by aggradation from 22.4 to 4.8 ka; however, its channel pattern shifted from braided to meandering at ~ 13 ka. A discernable downcutting event occurred at ~ 4.8 ka, followed by three channel aggradation and incision episodes prior to 1.8 ka. The last 1.8 ka has been characterized by modern channel and floodplain development. The fluvial processes and styles investigated have a close correlation with late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage. During cold phases, the WDW reach was dominated by aggradation with a braided channel pattern. During warm phases, the rivers that we investigated were also characterized by aggradation but with meandering channel patterns. Channel incision events and changes of fluvial style occurred mainly during climate transitions.

  7. Impact of river overflowing on trace element contamination of volcanic soils in south Italy: part I. Trace element speciation in relation to soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, P; Zampella, M; Gianfreda, L; Renella, G; Rutigliano, F A; Terribile, F

    2006-11-01

    Volcanic soils affected by different numbers of polluted river flooding events were investigated. Chromium and Cu were the major soil contaminants. Nickel, Fe, Zn and Mn total content never exceeded the Italian mandatory limits. The distribution of Cr and Cu total contents among studied soils indicated that only Cr contamination was related to overflowing events. In polluted soils, sequential chemical extractions revealed a preferential association of Cr and Cu with organic forms. A progressive Cr insolubilization with ageing was observed. Significant amounts of Cr and Cu were extracted by NH(4)-oxalate, suggesting metals association with short-range-order aluminosilicates and organo-mineral complexes. Possible methodological drawbacks in the use of the EU-BCR chemical speciation protocol on volcanic soils are discussed. Micromorphology and SEM/WDS analyses revealed Cr and Cu enriched silt and clay coatings in surface and subsurface soil horizons, suggesting a transfer of metal-rich sediments along the soil pore network with water movement.

  8. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, S.; Zarazúa, G.; Ávila-Pérez, P.; Carapia-Morales, L.; Martínez, T.

    2010-06-01

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn Kα. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 µg/g) > S (7593.3 µg/g) > Fe (4406.6 µg/g) > Ca (2601.8 µg/g) > Mn (604.2 µg/g) > Ti (230.7 µg/g) > Zn (51.65 µg/g) > Sr (43.55 µg/g) > Rb (18.61 µg/g) > Cu (12.78 µg/g) > Cr (6.45 µg/g) > Ni (4.68 µg/g) > Pb (4.32 µg/g) > Br (4.31 µg/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  9. Seasonal variability in the sources of particulate organic matter of the Mekong River as discerned by elemental and lignin analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erin E.; Keil, Richard G.; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Alin, Simone R.

    2012-03-01

    The Mekong River ranks within the top ten rivers of the world in terms of water discharge and sediment load to the ocean, yet its organic matter (OM) composition remains unstudied. This river is experiencing anthropogenically forced changes due to land use and impoundment, and these changes are expected to intensify in the future. Accordingly, we monitored the composition (including vascular-plant signatures) of Mekong River fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) over a one-year period. Autochthonous production comprises a greater proportion of FPOM during the dry season than in the rainy season, as demonstrated by higher percent organic carbon values (7.9 ± 2.4 versus 2.2 ± 0.4%), lower yields of lignin normalized to carbon (0.40 ± 0.05 versus 1.1 ± 0.3 mg (100 mg OC)-1), and an increase in N:C ratios toward phytoplankton values during the dry season (from 0.06 to 0.12). Changes in the lignin-phenol composition of FPOM suggest that gymnosperms contribute more toward FPOM composition during the dry season, with angiosperms dominating in the wet season. This is supported by calculations of the lignin phenol vegetation index of riverine FPOM, which increases between the dry to wet seasons (dry: 29.4 ± 15.0 versus wet: 74.6 ± 17.3). These changes likely reflect seasonal differences in the proportion of flow that is coming from the Upper and Lower Basin, corresponding to compositional differences between the vegetation of these regions. Therefore, this work provides a baseline understanding of FPOM variability that can be used to assess how future change will affect this river.

  10. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Apartado Postal 890, Metepec, C.P. 52149 (Mexico); Zarazua, G., E-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Avila-Perez, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Apartado Postal 890, Metepec, C.P. 52149 (Mexico); Carapia-Morales, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Martinez, T. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn K{alpha}. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 {mu}g/g) > S (7593.3 {mu}g/g) > Fe (4406.6 {mu}g/g) > Ca (2601.8 {mu}g/g) > Mn (604.2 {mu}g/g) > Ti (230.7 {mu}g/g) > Zn (51.65 {mu}g/g) > Sr (43.55 {mu}g/g) > Rb (18.61 {mu}g/g) > Cu (12.78 {mu}g/g) > Cr (6.45 {mu}g/g) > Ni (4.68 {mu}g/g) > Pb (4.32 {mu}g/g) > Br (4.31 {mu}g/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  11. Ground-based radar reflectivity mosaic of mei-yu precipitation systems over the Yangtze River-Huaihe River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yali; Qian, Weimiao; Gong, Yu; Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Da-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The 3D radar reflectivity produced by a mosaic software system, with measurements from 29 operational weather radars in the Yangtze River-Huaihe River Basins (YRHRB) during the mei-yu season of 2007, is compared to coincident TRMM PR observations in order to evaluate the value of the ground-based radar reflectivity mosaic in characterizing the 3D structures of mei-yu precipitation. Results show reasonable agreement in the composite radar reflectivity between the two datasets, with a correlation coefficient of 0.8 and a mean bias of -1 dB. The radar mosaic data at constant altitudes are reasonably consistent with the TRMM PR observations in the height range of 2-5 km, revealing essentially the same spatial distribution of radar echo and nearly identical histograms of reflectivity. However, at altitudes above 5 km, the mosaic data overestimate reflectivity and have slower decreasing rates with height compared to the TRMM PR observations. The areas of convective and stratiform precipitation, based on the mosaic reflectivity distribution at 3-km altitude, are highly correlated with the corresponding regions in the TRMM products, with correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.97 and mean relative differences of -7.9% and -2.5%, respectively. Finally, the usefulness of the mosaic reflectivity at 3-km altitude at 6-min intervals is illustrated using a mesoscale convective system that occurred over the YRHRB.

  12. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  13. Characterising physical habitats and fluvial hydromorphology: A new system for the survey and classification of river geomorphic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletti, Barbara; Rinaldi, Massimo; Bussettini, Martina; Comiti, Francesco; Gurnell, Angela M.; Mao, Luca; Nardi, Laura; Vezza, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphic units are the elementary spatial physical features of the river mosaic at the reach scale that are nested within the overall hydromorphological structure of a river and its catchment. Geomorphic units also constitute the template of physical habitats for the biota. The assessment of river hydromorphological conditions is required by the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD) for the classification and monitoring of water bodies and is useful for establishing links between their physical and biological conditions. The spatial scale of geomorphic units, incorporating their component elements and hydraulic patches, is the most appropriate to assess these links. Given the weakness of existing methods for the characterisation and assessment of geomorphic units and physical habitats (e.g., lack of a well-defined spatiotemporal framework, terminology issues, etc.), a new system for the survey and characterisation of river geomorphic units is needed that fits within a geomorphologically meaningful framework. This paper presents a system for the survey and classification of geomorphic units (GUS, geomorphic units survey and classification system) aimed at characterising physical habitats and stream morphology. The method is embedded into a multiscale, hierarchical framework for the analysis of river hydromorphological conditions. Three scales of geomorphic units are considered (i.e., macro-units, units, sub-units), organised within two spatial domains (i.e., bankfull channel and floodplain). Different levels of characterisation can be applied, depending on the aims of the survey: broad, basic, and detailed level. At each level, different, complementary information is collected. The method is applied by combining remote sensing analysis and field survey, according to the spatial scale and the level of description required. The method is applicable to most of fluvial conditions, and has been designed to be flexible and adaptable according to the

  14. The Study Elements and Indicators of Risk Management System for Secondary Schools in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandee, Methenan; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Leamvijarn, Subunn

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this research aimed 1) to study the elements and indicators of risk management system for secondary schools in Thailand. 2) to study suitable the elements and indicators of the risk management system for secondary schools in Thailand. 3) to study the results of CFA (Confirmatory Factors Analysis) risk management process of risk…

  15. UNIFIED MODELS OF ELEMENTS OF POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS BASED ON EQUATIONS IN PHASE COORDINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Vepryk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The models of electrical machines in the phase coordinates, the universal algorithm for the simulation of separate elements in a d-q coordinates system and in a phase-coordinates system are proposed. Methodology. Computer methods of investigation of transients in electrical systems are based on a compilation of systems of differential equations and their numerical integration solution methods. To solve differential equations an implicit method of numerical integration was chosen. Because it provides to complete structural simulation possibility: firstly developing models of separate elements and then forming a model of the complex system. For the mathematical simulation of electromagnetic transients in the elements of the electrical systems has been accepted the implicit Euler-Cauchy method, because it provides a higher precision and stability of the computing processes. Results. In developing the model elements identified two groups of elements: - Static elements and electrical machines in the d-q coordinates; - Rotating electrical machines in phase coordinates. As an example, the paper provides a model of synchronous and asynchronous electric machines in the d-q coordinates system and the phase coordinate system. The generalization algorithm and the unified notation form of equations of elements of an electrical system are obtained. It provides the possibility of using structural methods to develop a mathematical model of power systems under transient conditions. Practical value. In addition, the using of a computer model allows to implement multivariant calculations for research and study of factors affecting the quantitative characteristics of the transients.

  16. Non–invasive sampling of endangered neotropical river otters reveals high levels of dispersion in the Lacantun River System of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic dispersion, levels of population genetic structure, and movement of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis were investigated by screening eight polymorphic microsatellites from DNA extracted from fecal samples, collected in a hydrologic system of the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico. A total of 34 unique genotypes were detected from our surveys along six different rivers, and the effect of landscape genetic structure was studied. We recovered 16 of the 34 individuals in multiple rivers at multiple times. We found high levels of dispersion and low levels of genetic differentiation among otters from the six surveyed rivers (P > 0.05, except for the pairwise comparison among the Lacantún and José rivers (P < 0.05. We recommend that conservation management plans for the species consider the entire Lacantún River System and its tributaries as a single management unit to ensure the maintenance of current levels of population genetic diversity, because the population analyzed seems to follow a source–sink dynamic mainly determined by the existence of the major river.

  17. The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongbo; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A; Naito, Kensuke; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Moodie, Andrew J; Wang, Yuanjian; Wu, Baosheng; Parker, Gary

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams.

  18. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river systemriver Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Göransson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The turbidity variation in time and space is investigated in the downstream stretch of the river Göta Älv in Sweden. The river is heavily regulated and carries the discharge from the largest fresh water lake in Sweden, Lake Vänern, to the outflow point in Göteborg Harbour on the Swedish west coast. The river is an important waterway and serves as a fresh-water supply for 700 000 users. Turbidity is utilised as a water quality indicator to ensure sufficient quality of the intake water to the treatment plant. The overall objective of the study was to investigate the influence of rainfall, surface runoff, and river water flow on the temporal and spatial variability of the turbidity in the regulated river system by employing statistical analysis of an extensive data set. A six year long time series of daily mean values on precipitation, discharge, and turbidity from six stations along the river were examined primarily through linear correlation and regression analysis, combined with nonparametric tests and analysis of variance. The analyses were performed on annual, monthly, and daily bases, establishing temporal patterns and dependences, including; seasonal changes, impacts from extreme events, influences from tributaries, and the spatial variation along the river. The results showed that there is no simple relationship between discharge, precipitation, and turbidity, mainly due to the complexity of the runoff process, the regulation of the river, and the effects of Lake Vänern and its large catchment area. For the river Göta Älv, significant, positive correlations between turbidity, discharge, and precipitation could only be found during periods with high flow combined with heavy rainfall. Local precipitation does not seem to have any significant impact on the discharge in the main river, which is primarily governed by precipitation at catchment scale. The discharge from Lake Vänern determines the base level for the turbidity in the river

  19. Status and trends of selected resources in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry L.; Hagerty, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    Like other large rivers, the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) serves a diversity of roles. The UMRS provides commercial and recreational fishing, floodplain agriculture, drinking water for many communities, an important bird migration pathway, a variety of recreational activities, and a navigation system that transports much of the country's agricultural exports. These multiple roles present significant management challenges. Regular assessment of the condition of the river is needed to improve management plans and evaluate their effectiveness. This report provides a summary of the recent status (mean and range of conditions) and trends (change in direction over time) for 24 indicators of the ecological condition of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers using data collected through the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). The 24 indicators were grouped into seven categories: hydrology, sedimentation, water quality, land cover, aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and fish. Most of the data used in the report were collected between about 1993 and 2004, although some older data were also used to compare to recent conditions.Historical observations and current LTRMP data clearly indicate that the UMRS has been changed by human activity in ways that have diminished the ecological health of the river. The data indicate that status and trends differ among regions, and we expect that regional responses to various ecological rehabilitation techniques will differ as well. The continuing role of the LTRMP will be to provide the data needed to assess changes in river conditions and to determine how those changes relate to management actions, natural variation, and the overall ecological integrity of the river system.

  20. Predicting groundwater flow system discharge in the river network at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alice; Ridolfi, Luca; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between rivers and aquifers affects the quality and the quantity of surface and subsurface water since it plays a crucial role for solute transport, nutrient cycling and microbial transformations. The groundwater-surface water interface, better known as hyporheic zone, has a functional significance for the biogeochemical and ecological conditions of the fluvial ecosystem since it controls the flux of groundwater solutes discharging into rivers, and vice versa. The hyporheic processes are affected by the complex surrounding aquifer because the groundwater flow system obstructs the penetration of stream water into the sediments. The impact of large-scale stream-aquifer interactions on small scale exchange has generally been analyzed at local scales of a river reach, or even smaller. However, a complete comprehension of how hyporheic fluxes are affected by the groundwater system at watershed scale is still missing. Evaluating this influence is fundamental to predict the consequences of hyporheic exchange on water quality and stream ecology. In order to better understand the actual structure of hyporheic exchange along the river network, we firstly examine the role of basin topography complexity in controlling river-aquifer interactions. To reach this target, we focus on the analysis of surface-subsurface water exchange at the watershed scale, taking into account the river-aquifer interactions induced by landscape topography. By way of a mathematical model, we aim to improve the estimation of the role of large scale hydraulic gradients on hyporheic exchange. The potential of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of a benchmark case's study, which shows how the topographic conformation influences the stream-aquifer interaction and induces a substantial spatial variability of the groundwater discharge even among adjacent reaches along the stream. The vertical exchange velocity along the river evidences a lack of autocorrelation. Both the groundwater

  1. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  2. Spatially explicit habitat models for 28 fishes from the Upper Mississippi River System (AHAG 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Brian S.; Sauer, J.S.; Richards, N.; Bowler, M.; Schlifer, B.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental management actions in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) typically require pre-project assessments of predicted benefits under a range of project scenarios. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) now requires certified and peer-reviewed models to conduct these assessments. Previously, habitat benefits were estimated for fish communities in the UMRS using the Aquatic Habitat Appraisal Guide (AHAG v.1.0; AHAG from hereon). This spreadsheet-based model used a habitat suitability index (HSI) approach that drew heavily upon Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1980) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The HSI approach requires developing species response curves for different environmental variables that seek to broadly represent habitat. The AHAG model uses species-specific response curves assembled from literature values, data from other ecosystems, or best professional judgment. A recent scientific review of the AHAG indicated that the model’s effectiveness is reduced by its dated approach to large river ecosystems, uncertainty regarding its data inputs and rationale for habitat-species response relationships, and lack of field validation (Abt Associates Inc., 2011). The reviewers made two major recommendations: (1) incorporate empirical data from the UMRS into defining the empirical response curves, and (2) conduct post-project biological evaluations to test pre-project benefits estimated by AHAG. Our objective was to address the first recommendation and generate updated response curves for AHAG using data from the Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) element. Fish community data have been collected by LTRMP (Gutreuter and others, 1995; Ratcliff and others, in press) for 20 years from 6 study reaches representing 1,930 kilometers of river and >140 species of fish. We modeled a subset of these data (28 different

  3. Integrated Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System of the Upper Bussento river basin (Cilento and Vallo Diano Geopark, S-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, D.; Cuomo, A.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.; Guida, M.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Cestari, A.; Siervo, V.; Benevento, G.; Sorvino, S.; Doto, R.; Verrone, M.; De Vita, A.; Aloia, A.; Positano, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean river ecosystem functionings are supported by river-aquifer interactions. The assessment of their ecological services requires interdisciplinary scientific approaches, integrate monitoring systems and inter-institutional planning and management. This poster illustrates the Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System build-up in the Upper Bussento river basin by the University of Salerno, in agreement with the local Basin Autorities and in extension to the other river basins located in the Cilento and Vallo Diano National Park (southern Italy), recently accepted in the European Geopark Network. The Monitoring System is based on a hierarchical Hydro-geomorphological Model (HGM), improved in a multiscale, nested and object-oriented Hydro-geomorphological Informative System (HGIS, Figure 1). Hydro-objects are topologically linked and functionally bounded by Hydro-elements at various levels of homogeneity (Table 1). Spatial Hydro-geomorpho-system, HG-complex and HG-unit support respectively areal Hydro-objects, as basin, sector and catchment and linear Hydro-objects, as river, segment, reach and section. Runoff initiation points, springs, disappearing points, junctions, gaining and water losing points complete the Hydro-systems. An automatic procedure use the Pfafstetter coding to hierarchically divide a terrain into arbitrarily small hydro-geomorphological units (basin, interfluve, headwater and no-contribution areas, each with a unique label with hierarchical topological properties. To obtain a hierarchy of hydro-geomorphological units, the method is then applied recursively on each basin and interbasin, and labels of the subdivided regions are appended to the existing label of the original region. The monitoring stations are ranked consequently in main, secondary, temporary and random and located progressively at the points or sections representative for the hydro-geomorphological responses by validation control and modeling calibration. The datasets

  4. Metal removal via particulate material in a lowland river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Brown, J G; Dee, T J; Hegan, A F

    2012-01-01

    Twelve month surveys of acid-soluble and dissolved trace metal concentrations in the lower Waikato River (in 1998/9 and 2005/6) showed abnormally low particulate Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and mass flux in autumn, when the suspended particulate material (SPM) had a relatively high diatom and organic carbon content, and low Fe and Al content. Dissolved Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations also decreased in autumn, while dissolved Fe and Pb concentrations were unaffected. While SPM settlement under the low river flow conditions present in autumn can explain the removal of particulate metals, it does not explain dissolved metal removal. SPM-metal interaction was therefore investigated using seasonal monitoring data, experimental adsorption studies, sequential extraction and geochemical modelling. Pb binding to SPM occurred predominantly via Fe-oxide surfaces, and could be reliably predicted using surface complexation adsorption modelling. Dissolved Mn concentrations were controlled by the solubility of Mn oxide, but enhanced removal during autumn could be attributed to uptake by diatoms. Zn and Cu were also adsorbed on Fe-oxide in the SPM, but removal from the water column in autumn appeared augmented by Zn adsorption onto Mn-oxide, and Cu adsorption onto the organic extracellular surfaces of the diatoms.

  5. A Novel Hydro-information System for Improving National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Z.; Wang, S.; Liang, X.; Adams, T. E.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A novel hydro-information system has been developed to improve the forecast accuracy of the NOAA National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). An MKF-based (Multiscale Kalman Filter) spatial data assimilation framework, together with the NOAH land surface model, is employed in our system to assimilate satellite surface soil moisture data to yield improved evapotranspiration. The latter are then integrated into the distributed version of the NWSRFS to improve its forecasting skills, especially for droughts, but also for disaster management in general. Our system supports an automated flow into the NWSRFS of daily satellite surface soil moisture data, derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and the forcing information of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). All data are custom processed, archived, and supported by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information and Services Center (GES DISC). An optional data fusing component is available in our system, which fuses NEXRAD Stage III precipitation data with the NLDAS precipitation data, using the MKF-based framework, to provide improved precipitation inputs. Our system employs a plug-in, structured framework and has a user-friendly, graphical interface, which can display, in real-time, the spatial distributions of assimilated state variables and other model-simulated information, as well as their behaviors in time series. The interface can also display watershed maps, as a result of the integration of the QGIS library into our system. Extendibility and flexibility of our system are achieved through the plug-in design and by an extensive use of XML-based configuration files. Furthermore, our system can be extended to support multiple land surface models and multiple data assimilation schemes, which would further increase its capabilities. Testing of the integration of the current system into the NWSRFS is

  6. ROMANIA AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. THE STATE OF FACT AND THE DANUBE RIVER AS A KEY-ELEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BACIU Adrian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the evolution of economic and social situation in Romania in 1990-2007, and after that it is focalized upon possible paths to follow in order to provide a sustainable development in this geographical area, taking account of the way Romanian society and the political leadership could use the huge potential given by Danube river in order to attain this objective.

  7. Projecting Cumulative Benefits of Multiple River Restoration Projects: An Example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River System in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  8. Distribution and accumulation of elements (As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn) in tissues of fish species from different trophic levels in the Danube River at the confluence with the Sava River (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotić, S; Višnjić Jeftić, Ž; Spasić, S; Hegediš, A; Krpo-Ćetković, J; Lenhardt, M

    2013-08-01

    Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), European catfish (Silurus glanis), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and gobies (Neogobius gymnotrachelus, Neogobius melanostomus) were collected from the Danube River (Belgrade section), and samples of liver, muscle, or whole-body composites (in the case of gobies) were analyzed for As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn with inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry to find out if there was a correlation between accumulation of these elements in predatory and prey species, as well as in pairs of species with overlapping diets. Concentrations of all analyzed elements were either higher (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in liver than in muscle, or equal (As, Hg), except for Hg in carp, which was higher in muscle. Mercury concentration in liver and muscle of predators (catfish, pikeperch) was significantly (<10(-4)) higher than in prey fishes (carp and gobies). The results indicate that Hg concentration was biomagnified through the food chain. Concentrations of As, Fe, and Hg in carp liver and gobies whole-body composite were similar, but carp had significantly (<10(-4)) higher values of Zn and Cu in liver. The regression analysis and trendline equations indicate that the concentrations of all tested elements, except for As in liver, and Mn and Fe in muscle, were similar in predatory fish (pikeperch and catfish), on one hand, and in prey fish (carp and gobies), on the other hand. Distinctly high Zn concentration in carp is very common in this species due to its physiology. Concentrations of Hg and Zn were higher than the maximum acceptable concentration due to the high pollution level in this section of the Danube River, accordingly posing a risk for the human consumption of these fish species.

  9. Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects of effective management for operating pump and treat (P&T) systems based on lessons learned from conducting optimization evaluations at 20 Superfund-financed P&T systems.

  10. Drought early warning based on optimal risk forecasts in regulated river systems: Application to the Jucar River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-Monteagudo, David; Solera, Abel; Andreu, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Droughts are a major threat to water resources systems management. Timely anticipation results crucial to defining strategies and measures to minimise their effects. Water managers make use of monitoring systems in order to characterise and assess drought risk by means of indices and indicators. However, there are few systems currently in operation that are capable of providing early warning with regard to the occurrence of a drought episode. This paper proposes a novel methodology to support and complement drought monitoring and early warning in regulated water resources systems. It is based in the combined use of two models, a water resources optimization model and a stochastic streamflow generation model, to generate a series of results that allow evaluating the future state of the system. The results for the period 1998-2009 in the Jucar River Basin (Spain) show that accounting for scenario change risk can be beneficial for basin managers by providing them with information on the current and future drought situation at any given moment. Our results show that the combination of scenario change probabilities with the current drought monitoring system can represent a major advance towards improved drought management in the future, and add a significant value to the existing national State Index (SI) approach for early warning purposes.

  11. Technology System of Low Energy Housing of Water Town in Southern Bank of Yangze River Based on SI System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiJu Yang; Qing Gao; Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Development of new vernacular dwelling of water town in the southern bank of the Yangze River is an important approach to improve rural appearance, infrastructure, quality of life, and to realize new urbanization of this area. How would this process to inherit the quintessence of traditional local⁃style dwelling as well as integrate with low energy consumption technology is also an important problem due to the valuable Chinese traditional architectural culture in this area. Taking SI system as breaking point, this paper analyzes the green ecological characteristics of traditional residence in the south of the lower reaches of the Yangze River, discusses the current residential technology of low energy consumption, and proposes the low energy consumption residential technology integration system in the south of the lower reaches of the Yangze River. Based on this, this paper takes the SDC2013 entry “solark” as a practical application case study and further expounds the prospects of this technology system.

  12. A digital underwater video camera system for aquatic research in regulated rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Benjamin M.; Irwin, Elise R.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a digital underwater video camera system to monitor nesting centrarchid behavior in the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, 20 km below a peaking hydropower dam with a highly variable flow regime. Major components of the system included a digital video recorder, multiple underwater cameras, and specially fabricated substrate stakes. The innovative design of the substrate stakes allowed us to effectively observe nesting redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus in a highly regulated river. Substrate stakes, which were constructed for the specific substratum complex (i.e., sand, gravel, and cobble) identified at our study site, were able to withstand a discharge level of approximately 300 m3/s and allowed us to simultaneously record 10 active nests before and during water releases from the dam. We believe our technique will be valuable for other researchers that work in regulated rivers to quantify behavior of aquatic fauna in response to a discharge disturbance.

  13. Impact of river overflowing on trace element contamination of volcanic soils in south Italy: Part II. Soil biological and biochemical properties in relation to trace element speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ascoli, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)]. E-mail: rosaria.dascoli@unina2.it; Rao, M.A. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)]. E-mail: maria.rao@unina.it; Adamo, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)]. E-mail: adamo@unina.it; Renella, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, P.le delle Cascine 28, 50144 Firenze (Italy)]. E-mail: giancarlo.renella@unifi.it; Landi, L. [Dipartimento di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, P.le delle Cascine 28, 50144 Firenze (Italy)]. E-mail: loretta.landi@unifi.it; Rutigliano, F.A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)]. E-mail: floraa.rutigliano@unina2.it; Terribile, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)]. E-mail: terribil@unina.it; Gianfreda, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)]. E-mail: liliana.gianfreda@unina.it

    2006-11-15

    The effect of heavy metal contamination on biological and biochemical properties of Italian volcanic soils was evaluated in a multidisciplinary study, involving pedoenvironmental, micromorphological, physical, chemical, biological and biochemical analyses. Soils affected by recurring river overflowing, with Cr(III)-contaminated water and sediments, and a non-flooded control soil were analysed for microbial biomass, total and active fungal mycelium, enzyme activities (i.e., FDA hydrolase, dehydrogenase, {beta}-glucosidase, urease, arylsulphatase, acid phosphatase) and bacterial diversity (DGGE characterisation). Biological and biochemical data were related with both total and selected fractions of Cr and Cu (the latter deriving from agricultural chemical products) as well as with total and extractable organic C. The growth and activity of soil microbial community were influenced by soil organic C content rather than Cu or Cr contents. In fact, positive correlations between all studied parameters and organic C content were found. On the contrary, negative correlations were observed only between total fungal mycelium, dehydrogenase, arylsulphatase and acid phosphatase activities and only one Cr fraction (the soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound). However, total Cr content negatively affected the eubacterial diversity but it did not determine changes in soil activity, probably because of the redundancy of functions within species of soil microbial community. On the other hand, expressing biological and biochemical parameters per unit of total organic C, Cu pollution negatively influenced microbial biomass, fungal mycelium and several enzyme activities, confirming soil organic matter is able to mask the negative effects of Cu on microbial community. - In studied soils organic C content resulted the principal factor influencing growth and activity of microbial community, with Cu and Cr contents having a lower relevance.

  14. CRevolution 2—Origin and evolution of the Colorado River system, workshop abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Beard, L. Sue; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Young, Richard A.; Billingsley, George H.

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium, held in Flagstaff, Arizona, involved 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built upon two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus, where possible, while articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift and new and controversial hypotheses for the pre-6 Ma presence and evolution of ancestral rivers that may be important in the history and birth of the present Colorado River. There is a consensus that plateau tilt and uplift models must be tested with multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology to determine the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forces that shape the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, Arizona and region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in shaping the landscape of elevated plateaus.

  15. Water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing using advanced ion chromatographic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiko TANAKA; Chao-Hong SHI; Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI

    2012-01-01

    The water quality monitoring operation to evaluate the water quality of polluted river is an extremely important task for the river-watershed management/control based on the environmental policy.In this study,the novel,simple and convenient water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing,China was carried out using an advanced ion chromatography (IC) consisting of ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC) with conductivity detection for determining simultaneously the common anions such as SO42 -,Cl -,and NO3- and the cations such as Na+,NH4+,K+,Mg2+,and Ca2+,the ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with visible detection for determining simultaneously the nutrient components such as phosphate and silicate ions,and the IEC with the enhanced conductivity detection using a post column of K+ -form cation-exchange resin for determining HCO3- -alkalinity as an inorganic-carbon source for biomass synthesis in biological reaction process under the aerobic conditions.According to the ionic balance theory between the total equivalent con-centrations of anions and cations,the water quality evaluation of the Jialing-River waters taking at different sampling sites in Chongqing metropolitan area was carried out using the advanced IC system.As a result,the effectiveness of this novel water quality monitoring methodology using the IC system was demonstrated on the several practical applications to a typical biological sewage treatment plant on Jialing-River of Chongqing.

  16. Water Quality Assessment of the River Nile System:An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RIFAAT A. WAHAAB; MOHAMED I. BADAWY

    2004-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of the present article is to assess and evaluate the characteristics of the Nile water system, and identify the major sources of pollution and its environmental and health consequences. The article is also aimed to highlight the importance of water management via re-use and recycle of treated effluents for industrial purpose and for cultivation of desert land. Method An intensive effort was made by the authors to collect, assess and compile the available data about the River Nile. Physico-chemical analyses were conducted to check the validity of the collected data. For the determination of micro-pollutants, Gas Chromatography (GC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used. Heavy metals were also determined to investigate the level of industrial pollution in the river system. Results The available data revealed that the river receives a large quantity of industrial, agriculture and domestic wastewater. It is worth mentioning that the river is still able to recover in virtually all the locations, with very little exception. This is due to the high dilution ratio. The collected data confirmed the presence of high concentrations of chromium and manganese in all sediment samples. The residues of organo-chlorine insecticides were detected in virtually all locations. However, the levels of such residues are usually below the limit set by the WHO for use as drinking water. The most polluted lakes are Lake Maryut and Lake Manzala.Groundwater pollution is closely related to adjacent (polluted) surface waters. High concentrations of nutrients, E. coli, sulfur, heavy metals, etc. have been observed in the shallow groundwater, largely surpassing WHO standards for drinking water use. Conclusion A regular and continuous monitoring scheme shall be developed for the River Nile system. The environmental law shall be enforced to prohibit the discharge of wastewater (agricultural, domestic or industrial) to River Nile system.

  17. Elements of social representation theory incollaborative tagging systems

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Zeni Marchiori; Andre Luiz Appel; Eduardo Michellotti Bettoni; Denise Fukumi Tsunoda; Frank Coelho de Alcântara

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the information representation process based on the Moscovici's Social Representation Theory and domain analysis in Information Science. The aim was to identify mechanisms and constituent dimensions of social representation in collaborative tagging systems/social bookmarking systems. Scientific knowledge was defined as the object/phenomenon of representation in these systems; and the tag as the shareable structure of meaning that connects participants and resources. The...

  18. Space HVAC systems - a manual. Vol. 3. Constructional elements. Handbuch der Klimatechnik. Bd. 3. Bauelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Vol. 3 of this series describes the design, function and fundamentals of calculation of air conditioning system elements and gives hints on their fields of application. Subjects: Heat transfer media; air moisturizers and dehumidifiers and their application in HVAC systems; refrigerators; air filters; ducts and auxiliary elements; fans; air conditioners; measuring methods and equipment for HVAC systems; fire protection and mechanical smoke prevention; clean room technology. (HWJ).

  19. Development of River Traffic in the Traffic System of Central Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Badanjak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available From the aspect of public transport of passengers andgoods, the traffic system in Central Croatia consists of road,rail, air and river subsystems. Regarding their share in the volumeof passenger and cargo transport as well as the carried outtransport operations in the traffic system of Central Croatia,road and rail traffic are the dominant traffic subsystems. Regardingits technical, technological, organizational and economicindicators, the river traffic system represents the less developedsubsystem of the traffic system of Central Croatia, andthe situation in this respect is not much different at the nationallevel either.The possibilities for the development of river traffic systemhave not been sufficiently used, although the potential trafficdemand for the transportation services are substantial, especiallywhen considering the river Sava which potentially offersa direct connection to the trunk European waterway. The advantagesof the Central Croatian location undoubtedly lie inthe traffic and geo-strategic position, but the value of this locationcan be used only then when the quality level of the trafficsystem and the construction level of the infrastructurecatch up with the ones in the developed European countries.The conditions for the traffic development are first of allstrong and daily faster changes in the strata, especially regardingthe implementation of new solutions and increasing theefficiency of the overall traffic system. It is precisely for thisreason that special interest should be to study the traffic valuesaccording to the available data, establish their possiblerules as function of time, and design appropriate mathematicalmodels with the aim of forecasting the traffic developmentin the future.

  20. Processes at Water Intake from Mountain Rivers into Hydropower and Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatin Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper, researches of riverbed and hydraulic processes at the water intake from mountain rivers are observed. Classification of designs of the mountain water intake structures, based on continuity signs is offered. Perfecting of base designs of water intake structures of a mountain-foothill zone and means of their hydraulic automation is carried out. The technological, theoretical and experimental substantiation of parameters of basic elements of these designs with a glance of hydromorphometric characteristics of the mountain rivers is given. Complex hydraulic researches of kinematic characteristics and carrying ability of a two-phase stream on water intake structures are executed. Bases of a technique of engineering calculation of the offered designs of water intake structures and the recommendation of their designing and maintenance in various hydrological regimes are developed.

  1. Coalbed gas systems, resources, and production and a review of contrasting cases from the San Juan and Powder River basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, W.B. [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Coalbed gas is stored primarily within micropores of the coal matrix in an adsorbed state and secondarily in micropores and fractures as free gas or solution gas in water. The key parameters that control gas resources and producibility are thermal maturity, maceral composition, gas content, coal thickness, fracture density, in-situ stress, permeability, burial history, and hydrologic setting. These parameters vary greatly in the producing fields of the United States and the world. In 2000, the San Juan basin accounted for more than 80% of the United States coalbed gas production. This basin contains a giant coalbed gas play, the Fruitland fairway, which has produced more than 7 tcf (0.2 Tm{sup 3}) of gas. The Fruitland coalbed gas system M and its key elements contrast with the Fort Union coalbed gas play in the Powder River basin. The Fort Union coalbed play is one of the fastest developing gas plays in the United States. Its production escalated from 14 bcf (0.4 Gm{sup 3}) in 1997 to 147.3 bcf (4.1 Gm{sup 3}) in 2000, when it accounted for 10.7% of the United States coalbed gas production. By 2001, annual production was 244.7 bcf (6.9 Gm{sup 3}). Differences between the Fruitland and Fort Union petroleum systems make them ideal for elucidating the key elements of contrasting coalbed gas petroleum systems.

  2. Mixing as a driver of temporal variations in river hydrochemistry: 2. Major and trace element concentration dynamics in the Andes-Amazon transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, J. Jotautas; Torres, Mark A.; Clark, Kathryn E.; West, A. Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Variations in riverine solute chemistry with changing runoff are used to interrogate catchment hydrology and to investigate chemical reactions in Earth's critical zone. This approach requires some understanding of how spatial and temporal averaging of solute-generating reactions affect the dissolved load of rivers and streams. In this study, we investigate the concentration-runoff (C-Q) dynamics of a suite of major (Na, Mg, Ca, Si, K, and SO4) and trace (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ge, Li, Mn, Mo, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sr, U, V, and Zn) elements in nested catchments of variable size, spanning the geomorphic gradient from the Andes Mountains to the Amazon Foreland-floodplain. The major elements exhibit various degrees of dilution with increasing runoff at all sites, whereas the concentrations of most trace elements either increase or show no relationship with increasing runoff in the three larger catchments (160-28,000 km2 area). We show that the observed main stem C-Q dynamics are influenced by variable mixing of tributaries with distinct C-Q relationships. Trace element C-Q relationships are more variable among tributaries relative to major elements, which could be the result of variations in geomorphology, lithology, and hydrology of the subcatchments. Certain trace metals are also lost from solution during in-channel processes (possibly related to colloidal size-partitioning), which may exert an additional control on C-Q dynamics. Overall, we suggest that tributary aggregation effects should be assessed in heterogeneous catchments before C-Q or ratio-Q relationships can be interpreted as reflecting catchment-wide solute generation processes and their relationship to hydrology.

  3. Elements of a Model State Education Agency Diffusion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojkowski, Charles

    A study, presented to the National Dissemination Conference, provides a conceptualization of a model diffusion system as it might exist within a state education agency (SEA) and places this diffusion model within the context of the SEA's expanding role as an educational service. Five conclusions were reached regarding a model diffusion system.…

  4. ELEMENTS OF CONTROL OVER HIERARCHIE SYSTEMS WITH ASSUMED HIERARCHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir N. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of control over dynamic hierarchy system. The model was proposed for dealing with systems with assumed order in the technical problem of predicting destructions depending onto the amount of defects on different scale levels. The problem of the closest to a certain point of shelf life of hierarchy system is solved. The example of approach control during the given time is given. The problem concerns mathematic programming. Formulation of multi-parameter vector optimization criteria (improvement with its own hierarchy and the formal exercise of multi-criteria optimization of the model parameters. The research can achieve clarity about the conditions under which the structure is preserved. Managing sustainable development system with a given level of the hierarchy for the technical systems can only be achieved in keeping

  5. Heat loads of transparent construction elements and sun shading systems; Waermelasten transparenter Bauteile und Sonnenschutzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Binder, B.; Vonbank, R.

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a test system installed at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) in Duebendorf, Switzerland, for the investigation of heat gain by glazing elements often used in modern architecture and the efficiency of shading elements. The two climatically controlled test cells for the measurement of the thermal characteristics of facade elements and shading systems are described and the results of measurements made using various types of glazing and shading systems - including external and internal lamellas, blinds and extendible fabric sunshades - are presented. The results are analysed and interpreted in a comprehensive appendix.

  6. DYNAMIC MODELLING OF BAR-GEAR MIXED MULTIBODY SYSTEMS USING A SPECIFIC FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A new dynamic model for mixed, flexible bar and gear multibody systems is developed based on a specific finite element method, and a new gear-element is proposed. The gear-element can take into account the time variant stiffness, the gear errors and mass unbalance. The model for geared multibody systems can couple the gear meshing and the flexibility of all contained components. The kinematic and dynamic analyses of the geared multibody systems are expounded and illustrated on an example composed of three gears, two bars and one slider.

  7. On the element dispersion of Oker river sediments (Lower Saxony); investigations by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Zur Element-Dispersion an Flusssedimenten der Oker (Niedersachsen); roentgenfluoreszenz-spektrometrische Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matschullat, J. (Inst. fuer Mineralogie und Mineralische Rohstoffe, TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)); Niehoff, N.; Poertge, K.H. (Geographisches Inst., Goettingen Univ. (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    Sediments (< 63 [mu]m) of the partly contaminated Oker river were investigated in a profile from its source in the upper Harz mountains to its mouth in the Aller river by X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Two analytical programs for the calculation of XRF-intensities (UniQuant and OxiQuant) are compated and their respective applications are briefly discussed. The results of both programs are generally in good agreement. As (4.100), Ba (6.600), Cu (1.200), Mo (270), Nb (280), Ni (150), Pb (15.000), and Zn (21.000) show variations to two oders of magnitude and distinct local influences (maximum concentrations in mg/kg). Ce (200), Co (150), Cr (180), Ga (90), Sn (120), Sr (200) and Zr (2.300), together with P (5.700), are enriched up to one order of magnitude. Trends or obvious local influences can be distinguished. La, Nd, Pr, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th, U, V, and Y, like all major and most secondary elements do not show trends. The variations of the concentrations are [+-] 30% from the regional background. Data for the regional geogenic background of the stream sediments are presented for the first time. (orig./EF).

  8. Concentrations of metals and trace elements in different tissues of nine fish species from the Međuvršje reservoir (West Morava River Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đikanović Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Element concentrations in selected fish species from different trophic levels were analyzed. The following fish species were analyzed: common nase (Chondrostoma nasus, roach (Rutilus rutilus, freshwater bream (Abramis brama, barbel (Barbus barbus, Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio,chub (Squalius cephalus, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, wels catfish (Silurus glanisand northern pike (Esox lucius. Fish were collected from the Međuvršje Reservoir (West Morava River Basin, western Serbia during 2012, and samples of liver, muscle and gills were analyzed for As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The liver and gills had the highest measured element concentrations, with Cu, Zn, Fe and Sr being the most prominent. The bioaccumulation of metals was species-specific, with the accumulation exhibiting the following trends: Prussian carp > northern pike > freshwater bream > European perch > chub > common nase > barbell > roach > wels catfish; Li>Pb>Zn>Cu>Fe>Ba>Mn>Sr>Cr>As>Mo>Ni>B, in all examined species; for Co, Cd and Hg, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was 0. Results of this study point to the tissue-specific differences in element concentrations, and to distinct differences between fish species regarding the accumulation patterns: common nase, with the highest accumulation observed in the liver, and Prussian carp, with the highest accumulation observed in the gills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173045 i br. 37009

  9. Assessment of Trace Element Levels in Muscle Tissues of Fish Species Collected from a River, Stream, Lake, and Sea in Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Küpeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, Çark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals. Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.5–48.5, B: 0.06–3.30, Ba: 0.09–2.92, Cr: 0.02–1.64, Cu: 0.13–2.28, Fe: 7.28–39.9, Mn: 0.08–11.4, Ni: 0.01–26.1, Sr: 0.17–13.5, and Zn: 11.5–52.9 µg g−1. The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and World Health Organization (WHO.

  10. Element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Australia: biotic and geographic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffree, R A; Markich, S J; Twining, J R

    2001-02-01

    The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Se, U, and Ti were determined in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) captured in three adjacent catchments of Kakadu National Park, within the Alligator Rivers Region of northern Australia. This study provides, for the first-time, baseline concentrations of elements in both flesh and osteoderms of wild crocodiles. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the effects of total crocodile length, estimated age, gender, inferred reproductive status, physical condition, and catchment of capture on element concentrations in both tissues. The Mg concentration (log10) in the flesh and osteoderms of C. porosus significantly (p 0.05) effects of gender or inferred reproductive status on element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms were found. The mean concentrations (log10) of Al, Ba, Cr, Ni, and Pb in flesh and Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, and U in the osteoderms were significantly (p crocodiles. They also point to the utility of crocodiles as long-term biomonitors of their environment.

  11. Elements of banking intermediation in the Algerian Banking system and the means to activate it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habbar Abderezak, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Banking intermediation raises several interrelated issues for banks, the central bank and the Treasury. It is linked to the gross domestic product, money supply and bank liquidity, etc. These elements will be examined in this article to learn the elements of bank intermediation in the Algerian banking system and ways of strengthening it.

  12. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surficial sediments from a tropical river-estuary-shelf system: A case study of Kelantan River, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Jun; Bong, Chui Wei; Xu, Yong-Hang; Hassan, Meor Hakif Amir; Ye, Xiang; Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu; Li, Yun-Hai; Lai, Zhi-Kun; Xu, Jiang; Loh, Kar Hoe

    2017-08-11

    To understand the source-to-sink of pollutants in the Kelantan River estuary and the adjacent shelf area in Malaysia, a total of 42 surface sediment samples were collected in the Kelantan River-estuary-shelf system to analyze for grain size, total organic carbon (TOC) content, Al and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). The surficial sediments were mainly composed of clayey silt and the TOC content in sediments decreased from the river to the shelf. The surficial sediments experienced Pb pollution; Cr only showed a certain level of pollution in the coastal area of the estuary but not in other areas, and Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd showed no pollution. The heavy metals mainly originated from natural weathering and erosion of rocks and soils in the catchment and enriched near the river mouth. Total organic carbon can promote the enrichment of heavy metals in sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Adaptive Management Approach for Summer Water Level Reductions on the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.L.; Barko, J.W.; Clevenstine, R.; Davis, M.; Galat, D.L.; Lubinski, S.J.; Nestler, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    understanding, the main questions still associated with drawdowns include (1) the effects of frequency of drawdowns (from once every few years to multiple years in succession); (2) timing of the beginning of drawdowns (follow the descending arm of the flood pulse versus always beginning in early summer); (3) long-term benefits (greater than 5-6 years), especially as compared to known short-term loses (e.g., mortality of mussels in exposed areas, loss of submersed vegetation in exposed areas, cost of advanced dredging); and (4) the effects in northern (above pool 14) versus southern pools (pool 14 and below, and the Illinois River). An adaptive management design should address these questions to reduce uncertainty in predictions of drawdown effects and help determine if different implementation strategies are needed in different parts of the system. Given that drawdowns will continue to be used as a management tool on the UMRS, we suggest that some drawdowns be conducted in an adaptive management context that helps meet management objectives, but also provides efficient learning about the questions listed above. We propose two different, but interrelated, experimental designs to address these questions. Both designs call for conducting multiple drawdowns in multiple pools (2-4 pools) to allow direct comparison of results and produce rapid learning. However, the report does not provide a detailed scope of work for carrying out the designs. If managers choose to implement one of the experimental designs, specifics of choosing appropriate pools and developing a monitoring plan will need to be determined through collaboration among managers, researchers, and statisticians. We suggest characteristics to consider in selecting treatment and reference pools (study sites) and also provide guidance for developing a monitoring plan. Some aspects of these two designs could be implemented individually, but by implementing individual elements, direct comparisons of some design features

  14. Seasonal Fluxes and Cycling of Trace Metals in Semi-Arid Fluvial Systems: Leichhardt River, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, A. K.; Taylor, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the storage and transfer of trace metal contaminants in water and sediment within the upper Leichhardt River Catchment (1,113 km2), Mount Isa, north-west Queensland. The Leichhardt River runs adjacent to Mount Isa City and the Cu and Pb-Zn-Ag Mount Isa Mine and smelter (MIM) and feeds Lake Moondarra, Mount Isa's potable water supply. The river flows only during the monsoonal wet season (December- March) and for the remainder of the year is characterised by a series of disconnected temporary and permanent pools ranging in length from 10 m to 1 km. These pools are significant because they act as storage zones for water-soluble and sediment-associated metals and serve as refugia for native and domestic fauna during protracted intervals between wet season flows. To recognise seasonal fluxes and cycling patterns of trace metal contaminants in the Leichhardt River system this study investigates the physico-chemical water quality of the wet season flows and the subsequent seasonal variations in the dry season pool water. In January 2007 two floods were studied using sixteen rising stage water quality samplers along the Leichhardt River. The samplers were placed above and below MIM, and within selected tributaries draining MIM to ascertain the specific impacts from mining activities on water quality. Grab samples were also collected during the floods and on the falling stages of flow within the river system. Following this, dry season water quality sampling commenced on eleven remnant pools over a period of 8 months. Overall 60 wet season and 34 dry season water samples were collected and analysed for physico-chemical (pH, EC, DO, TDS, SS) variables in the field and total and water soluble cations, trace elements of concern (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and anions via ICP-MS and ion chromatography, respectively. In addition, mineralogical and geochemical analysis was undertaken on 34 bottom sediment samples collected from the pools. Analysis of the temporal metal

  15. Elements of a coastal ocean forecasting system for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Radhakrishnan, K.

    After about four decades of investment in infrastructure for ocean research, an appropriate initiative for India now would be to build a coastal ocean forecasting system to support the country's myriad activities in its Exclusive Economic Zone...

  16. The habitat preferences of fishes from the Limpopo river system, Transvaal and Mocambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Gaigher

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The species composition of fishes in the Limpopo River system is described. The frequency of occurrence for eachhabitat type is expressed as a percentage of the habitats sampled. A check list of species is presented and the species can be grouped into five habitat preferences.

  17. Founder effects and genetic population structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Danish river system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1996-01-01

    The influence of founder effects on the genetic population structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was studied in a small Danish river system. Samples of trout from seven locations were analysed by allozyme electrophoresis and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis...

  18. Seismic analysis of the APR1400 nuclear reactor system using a verified beam element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-beom [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Park, No-Cheol, E-mail: pnch@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Young-Pil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34142 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A simplified beam element model is constructed based on the real dynamic characteristics of the APR1400. • Time history analysis is performed to calculate the seismic responses of the structures. • Large deformations can be observed at the in-phase mode of reactor vessel and core support barrel. - Abstract: Structural integrity is the first priority in the design of nuclear reactor internal structures. In particular, nuclear reactor internals should be designed to endure external forces, such as those due to earthquakes. Many researchers have performed finite element analyses to meet these design requirements. Generally, a seismic analysis model should reflect the dynamic characteristics of the target system. However, seismic analysis based on the finite element method requires long computation times as well as huge storage space. In this research, a beam element model was developed and confirmed based on the real dynamic characteristics of an advanced pressurized water nuclear reactor 1400 (APR1400) system. That verification process enhances the accuracy of the finite element analysis using the beam elements, remarkably. Also, the beam element model reduces seismic analysis costs. Therefore, the beam element model was used to perform the seismic analysis. Then, the safety of the APR1400 was assessed based on a seismic analysis of the time history responses of its structures. Thus, efficient, accurate seismic analysis was demonstrated using the proposed beam element model.

  19. Gulf sturgeon spawning migration and habitat in the Choctawhatchee River system, Alabama-Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, D.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Parauka, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Information about spawning migration and spawning habitat is essential to maintain and ultimately restore populations of endangered and threatened species of anadromous fish. We used ultrasonic and radiotelemetry to monitor the movements of 35 adult Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (a subspecies of the Atlantic sturgeon A. oxyrinchus) as they moved between Choctawhatchee Bay and the Choctawhatchee River system during the spring of 1996 and 1997. Histological analysis of gonadal biopsies was used to determine the sex and reproductive status of individuals. Telemetry results and egg sampling were used to identify Gulf sturgeon spawning sites and to examine the roles that sex and reproductive status play in migratory behavior. Fertilized Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected in six locations in both the upper Choctawhatchee and Pea rivers. Hard bottom substrate, steep banks, and relatively high flows characterized collection sites. Ripe Gulf sturgeon occupied these spawning areas from late March through early May, which included the interval when Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected. For both sexes, ripe fish entered the Choctawhatchee River significantly earlier and at a lower water temperature and migrated further upstream than did nonripe fish. Males entered the Choctawhatchee River at a lower water temperature than females. Results from histology and telemetry support the hypothesis that male Gulf sturgeon may spawn annually, whereas females require more than 1 year between spawning events. Upper river hard bottom areas appear important for the successful spawning of Gulf sturgeon, and care should be taken to protect against habitat loss or degradation of known spawning habitat.

  20. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary...

  1. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  2. Detection of salmonellae from fish in a natural river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, James; Wheeler, Phil E; Obafemi, Shola; Valdez, Jessica; Forstner, Michael R J; Bonner, Timothy H; Hahn, Dittmar

    2008-09-01

    Sediment, water, and fish gut samples taken at three sites near the headwaters of the San Marcos River, Texas, were analyzed for salmonellae Salmonella spp. by culture and molecular techniques. While enrichment cultures from sediment and water samples from the two uppermost sites were negative for salmonellae in polymerase chain reaction analyses, both sediment and water samples were positive at the downstream site. At all sites, salmonellae were present in the guts of different fishes (e.g., largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus). The highest percentage of detection (33% of analyzed fish) occurred at the downstream site, whereas detection percentages at the upper two sites were 18% and 17%. Detection of salmonellae was usually limited to one segment of the gut (i.e., upper or lower part). Serovars were highly variable among individuals and differed between the upper and lower gut in the only individual (a common carp) that had salmonellae in both gut segments. In situ hybridization demonstrated that salmonellae were normally associated with particulate material in the gut and occurred in highly variable numbers ranging from an occasional organism to a majority of the gut microbe population. These results demonstrate the presence of different serovars of potentially human pathogenic salmonellae among four ecologically distinct fishes within natural environments. They also suggest that salmonellae are not components of the indigenous microbial community in fish intestines but rather are ingested with particulate material.

  3. SIMULATION OF POLLUTANTS IN RIVER SYSTEMS USING FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAHEER Iqbal; CUI Guang Bai

    2002-01-01

    This paper using finite difference scheme for the numerical solution of advection-dispersion equation develops a one-dimensional water quality model. The model algorithm has some modification over other steady state models including QUAL2E, which have been used steady state implementation of implicit backward-difference numerical scheme. The computer program in the developed model contains a special unsteady state implementation of four point implicit upwind numerical schemes using double sweep method. The superiority of this method in the modeling procedure results the simulation efficacy under simplified conditions of effluent discharge from point and non-point sources. The model is helpful for eye view assessment of degree of interaction between model variables for strategic planning purposes. The model has been applied for the water quality simulation of the Hanjiang River basin using flow computation model. Model simulation results have shown the pollutants prediction, dispersion and impact on the existing water quality.Model test shows the model validity comparing with other sophisticated models. Sensitivity analysis was performed to overview the most sensitive parameters followed by calibration and verification process.

  4. Beam shaping element for compact fiber injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichman, L.S.; Dickey, F.M.; Shagam, R.N.

    2000-01-05

    Injection of high power, multi-mode laser profiles into a fiber optic delivery system requires controlling a number of injection parameters to maximize throughput and minimize concerns for optical damage both at the entrance and exit faces of the fiber optic. A simple method for simultaneously achieving a compact fiber injection geometry and control of these injection parameters, independent of the input source characteristics, is provided by a refractive lenslet array and simple injection lens configuration. Design criteria together with analytical and experimental results for the refractive lenslet array and short focal length injection lens are presented. This arrangement provides a uniform spatial intensity distribution at the fiber injection plane to a large degree independent of the source mode structure, spatial profile, divergence, size, and/or alignment to the injection system. This technique has application to a number of laser systems where uniform illumination of a target or remote delivery of high peak power is desired.

  5. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  6. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  7. Chromatographic study of element 104 in the system HCl/triisobutylphosphate (TBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.; Paulus, W.; Kratz, J.V.; Seibert, A.; Thoerle, P.; Zauner, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Bruechle, W.; Jaeger, E.; Schaedel, M.; Schausten, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Schumann, D. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Eichler, B.; Jost, D.T.; Tuerler, A.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    With the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus ARCA chromatic experiments have been performed using the chemical system hydrochloric acid/tributylphosphate with element 104 (Rf). The results indicate that Rf behaves more like its homolog Hf. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  8. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  9. Information as a Regulative Element in Higher Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Jussi; Holtta, Seppo

    2008-01-01

    The existence of information asymmetry has ascended to a significant role in higher education systems. The article makes an attempt to conceptualise the interaction of universities with their environment, stakeholders, and the state by paying special attention to the role and substance of information asymmetry. The existence of information…

  10. Systems Biology: The elements and principles of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhoff, H.V.; Winder, C.; Messiha, H.; Simeonidis, E.; Adamczyk, M.; Verma, M.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Dunn, W.

    2009-01-01

    Systems Biology has a mission that puts it at odds with traditional paradigms of physics and molecular biology, such as the simplicity requested by Occam’s razor and minimum energy/maximal efficiency. By referring to biochemical experiments on control and regulation, and on flux balancing in yeast,

  11. The interrelations amongst control system elements in public sector organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the decisions that public sector organizations make with regard to the design and use of their management control system. New Public Management, based on economics theory, suggests that employees in the public sector should be freed from traditional bureaucratic

  12. Finite-state machines as elements in control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, G. H.; Walsh, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    Demonstration that approximate solutions to certain classes of differential and difference equations can be expressed in form of finite state machines. Based on this result, a finite-state machine model of an adaptive gain changer in an aircraft stability augmentation system is developed. Results of simulated flights using the finite-state machine gain changer are presented.

  13. Importance of nanoparticles and colloids from volcanic ash for riverine transport of trace elements to the ocean: evidence from glacial-fed rivers after the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Volcanic ashes are often referenced as examples for natural nanoparticles, yet the particle size distribution glacial-fed rivers, glacial surface runoff, glacial base flow, and pure glacial meltwater from southern Iceland, that had been sampled 25 days after the explosive eruptions at Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. In addition to the dissolved concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the 450 nm-filtered waters, we also studied the respective filter residues (river particulates >450 nm) and volcanic ash. In spite of the low solubilities and high particle-reactivities of the elements studied, most water samples show high dissolved concentrations, such as up to 971 ng/kg of Ce and 501 ng/kg of Zr. Except for the pure glacial meltwater and glacial base flow, all waters display the same shale-normalized REE patterns with pronounced light and heavy REE depletion and positive Eu anomalies. While such patterns are unusual for river waters, they are similar to those of the respective river particulates and the volcanic ash, though at different concentration levels. The distribution of dissolved Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the waters also matches that of filter residues and ash. This strongly suggests that in all 450 nm-filtered river waters, the elements studied are associated with solid ash particles smaller than 450 nm. This reveals that volcanic ash-derived nanoparticles and colloids are present in these glacial-fed rivers and that such ultrafine particles control the trace element distribution in the surface runoff. Subsequent to explosive volcanic eruptions, these waters provide terrigenous input from landmasses to estuaries, that is characterized by a unique trace element signature and that subsequent to modification by estuarine processes delivers a pulse of nutrients to coastal seawater in regions not affected by plume fall-out.

  14. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program: Elements of Floating-Debris Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    a variety of materials from plastic bottles to sage brush, but it is t’quialy wood in soiw shape or form--from whole trees to lawn furniture. The...REPAIR, EVALUATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REHABILITATION’RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT REMVR-HY-3 ELEMENTS O F FLOATING- DEBRIS CONTROL SYSTEMS’ by...TITLE (Include Security Classification) Elements of Floating- Debris Control Systems 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Perham, Roscoe E. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME

  15. Multi-elemental contamination and historic record in sediments from the Santos-Cubatao Estuarine System, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz-Silva, Wanilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Machado, Wilson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica; Matos, Rosa H.R. E-mail: wanilson@ige.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper records for the first time the contamination history and identifies the sources of 38 elements in sediments from the Santos-Cubatao Estuarine System (SE Brazil), at one of the most industrialized areas in Latin America. The compositions of samples from a 260 cm long sediment core collected in the Morrao River estuary were determined by ICP-MS. Enrichment factors, principal component analysis, correlation matrixes, and the characterization of geochemical signatures permitted a consistent data evaluation. Contaminant elements such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb, and Bi were associated with steel plant-derived Fe concentrations, while Be, Ca, Sc, Co, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U were associated with fertilizer industry-derived P concentrations. An overlap of sedimentary Fe distribution and local steel plant production indicated that Fe is a reliable marker of the contamination history, allowing the estimation of sedimentation rates over a period of 45 years of industrial activities. (author)

  16. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE-Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in FY 1994 with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. The plan outlines seven major subelements which focus on materials issues and manufacturing processes. Work is currently under way in four of the seven major subelements. There are now major projects on coatings and process development, scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technology, materials characterization, and technology information exchange.

  17. Conjugation and the periodic system of the elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorygin, P. P.; Burshtein, Konstantin Ya

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge of the characteristics and mechanisms of the interaction of the active centres of complex molecules is of primary importance for the development of theoretical and applied organic chemistry, promotes a more productive utilisation of the enormous amount of experimental data available, facilitates predictions and the search for new routes to and new varieties of the synthesis, industrial technology, and applications of organic compounds, and leads to more complete ideas about their functions in chemical, physical, and physiological processes. The studies in this field have been subjected to a critical survey and attention has been paid to the possibility of distinguishing different forms of the mutual influence of atomic groups, the establishment of correlations between different parameters of conjugation and of the role of relativistic effects, the characteristics of conjugation systems incorporating heteroatoms from different groups in the Periodic System, and the study of the evolution of excited molecules. The bibliography includes 188 references.

  18. ELEMENTS OF APPROXIMATION THEORY FOR SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains an exposition of the essentials of the theory of linear least square approximation for scientists. Its format is based on the...has some knowledge of Hilbert space theory. The unifying concept which prevails throughout the report allows the treatment of the problems of least ... square approximation in a variety of fields. Applications to problems of linear systems, networks, and communication theory are included. (Author)

  19. Imaging beneath the skin of large tropical rivers: System morphodynamics of the Fly and Beni Rivers revealed by novel sub-surface sonar, deep coring, and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, R. E.; Grenfell, M.; Lauer, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rivers dominate Earth's fluvial fluxes for water, carbon, and mineral sediment. They are characterized by large channels and floodplains, old system histories, prolonged periods of flooding, and a clay-dominated sediment flux. However, the underlying bed & floodplain strata are poorly understood. Available data commonly stem from skin-deep approaches such as GIS analysis of imagery, shallow sampling & topographic profiling during lower river stages. Given the large temporal & spatial scales, new approaches are needed to see below lag deposits on mobile sandy beds & deep into expansive floodbasins. Furthermore, such data are needed to test whether we can interpret large tropical river morphology using analogies to small temperate systems. Systems in a dynamic state of response to sea level rise or an increase/contrast in sediment load would provide especially valuable insight. Last August we conducted a field campaign along the Fly and Strickland Rivers in Papua New Guinea (discharge ~5,350 CMS) and this September we investigated the Beni River in Northern Bolivia (discharge ~3,500 CMS). Results were obtained using a novel measurement method: a high-power (>4kW) dual-frequency SyQwest sub-bottom profiler customized to best image 10-20m below the river/lake bed in shallow water. We were able to distinguish sandy deposits from harder clay and silt lenses and also collected bed grab samples to verify our sonar results. Deep borehole samples (5-15m), bank samples, and push cores confirmed observations from the sonar profiling. We simultaneously collected side-scan sonar imagery plus DGPS records of water/bed elevations that could be used to parameterize numerical models. We have now analyzed these results in some detail. Findings for the Fly River include: 1) The prevalence of hard clay beneath the bed of the Lower Fly River and many locations along the Strickland River, retarding migration; 2) Unusual bed morphology along the lower Middle Fly River, where the

  20. SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR BATCH ACCEPTABILITY AND TEST CASES OF THE PRODUCT COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH THORIUM AS A REPORTABLE ELEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.

    2010-10-07

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which is operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), has recently begun processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) by combining it with Frit 418 at a nominal waste loading (WL) of 36%. A unique feature of the SB6/Frit 418 glass system, as compared to the previous glass systems processed in DWPF, is that thorium will be a reportable element (i.e., concentrations of elemental thorium in the final glass product greater than 0.5 weight percent (wt%)) for the resulting wasteform. Several activities were initiated based upon this unique aspect of SB6. One of these was an investigation into the impact of thorium on the models utilized in DWPF's Product Composition and Control System (PCCS). While the PCCS is described in more detail below, for now note that it is utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to evaluate the acceptability of each batch of material in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) before this material is passed on to the melter. The evaluation employs models that predict properties associated with processability and product quality from the composition of vitrified samples of the SME material. The investigation of the impact of thorium on these models was conducted by Peeler and Edwards [1] and led to a recommendation that DWPF can process the SB6/Frit 418 glass system with ThO{sub 2} concentrations up to 1.8 wt% in glass. Questions also arose regarding the handling of thorium in the SME batch acceptability process as documented by Brown, Postles, and Edwards [2]. Specifically, that document is the technical bases of PCCS, and while Peeler and Edwards confirmed the reliability of the models, there is a need to confirm that the current implementation of DWPF's PCCS appropriately handles thorium as a reportable element. Realization of this need led to a Technical Task Request (TTR) prepared by Bricker [3] that identified some specific SME-related activities that the Savannah River National Laboratory

  1. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow for the Yakima River basin aquifer system, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D.M.; Bachmann, M.P.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A regional, three-dimensional, transient numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Yakima River basin aquifer system to better understand the groundwater-flow system and its relation to surface-water resources. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-management agencies and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies that consider the interrelation between groundwater availability and surface-water resources.

  2. Design of an expert system for mitigating trace element toxicity in cancer risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, P T; Vinod, P T; Phoha, Vir V; Iyengar, S S; Iyengar, Puneeth

    2013-01-01

    Cancer risk management involves obliterating excess concentration of cancer causing trace elements by the natural immune system and hence intake of nutritious diet is of paramount importance. Human diet should consist of essential macronutrients that have to be consumed in large quantities and trace elements are to be consumed in very little amount. As some of these trace elements are causative factors for various types of cancer and build up at the expense of macronutrients, cancer risk management of these trace elements should be based on their initial concentration in the blood of each individual and not on their tolerable upper intake level. We propose an information theory based Expert System (ES) for estimating the lowest limit of toxicity association between the trace elements and the macronutrients. Such an estimate would enable the physician to prescribe required medication containing the macronutrients to annul the toxicity of cancer risk trace elements. The lowest limit of toxicity association is achieved by minimizing the correlated information of the concentration correlation matrix using the concept of Mutual Information (MI) and an algorithm based on a Technique of Determinant Inequalities (TDI) developed by the authors. The novelty of our ES is that it provides the lowest limit of toxicity profile for all trace elements in the blood not restricted to a group of compounds having similar structure. We demonstrate the superiority our algorithm over Principal Component Analysis in mitigating trace element toxicity in blood samples.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Deep-Ocean Mining Pipe System by Discrete Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; LIU Shao-jun; LI Li

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of a pipe system is one of the most crucial problems for the entire mining system.A discrete element method (DEM) is proposed for the analysis of a deep-ocean mining pipe system,including the lift pipe,pump,buffer and flexible hose.By the discrete element method,the pipe is divided into some rigid elements that are linked by flexible connectors.First,two examples representing static analysis and dynamic analysis respectively are given to show that the DEM model is feasible.Then the three-dimensional DEM model is used for dynamic analysis of the mining pipe system.The dynamic motions of the entire mining pipe system under different work conditions are discussed.Some suggestions are made for the actual operation of deep-ocean mining systems.

  4. Elements of the efficiency system improvement of foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sitko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of industrial systems is being ranked among important factors industrial engineering in foundry. He determines internal production abilities of foundry. It is possible to describe the effectiveness the measure of matching closely possibilities maximum number of products for definite quality standards, at the optimal use of production factors and with the application the best methods pouring out. The second worship of article is devoted to problems market supply casting products. They discussed comprehensive you will eat a little of processes supplying.

  5. Organic and volatile elements in the solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remusat L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrites and comets have accreted primitive materials from the early solar system. Those materials include organics, water and other volatile components. The most primitive chondrites and comets have undergone few modifications on their respective parent bodies and can deliver to laboratories components that were present at the origin of the protosolar nebula. Here I present a review of the organic material and volatile components that have been studied in the most primitive chondrites, and the last data from the stardust mission about the cometary record. This paper focuses on materials that can be studied in laboratories, by mass spectrometry, ion probes or organic chemistry techniques.

  6. A finite element simulation system in reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Xiaozhong [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Reservoir engineering is performed to predict the future performance of a reservoir based on its current state and past performance and to explore other methods for increasing the recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir. Reservoir simulations are routinely used for these purposes. A reservoir simulator is a sophisticated computer program which solves a system of partial differential equations describing multiphase fluid flow (oil, water, and gas) in a porous reservoir rock. This document describes the use of a reservoir simulator version of BOAST which was developed by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research in July, 1991.

  7. Scaling characteristics of mountainous river flow fluctuations determined using a shallow-water acoustic tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sawaf, Mohamad Basel; Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Kagami, Junya; Bahreinimotlagh, Masoud; Danial, Mochammad Meddy

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the scaling exponent properties of mountainous river flow fluctuations by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Streamflow data were collected continuously using Fluvial Acoustic Tomography System (FATS), which is a novel system for measuring continuous streamflow at high-frequency scales. The results revealed that river discharge fluctuations have two scaling regimes and scaling break. In contrast to the Ranting Curve method (RC), the small-scale exponent detected by the FATS is estimated to be 1.02 ± 0.42% less than that estimated by RC. More importantly, the crossover times evaluated from the FATS delayed approximately by 42 ± 21 hr ≈2-3 days than their counterparts estimated by RC. The power spectral density analysis assists our findings. We found that scaling characteristics information evaluated for a river using flux data obtained by RC approach might not be accurately detected, because this classical method assumes that flow in river is steady and depends on constructing a relationship between discharge and water level, while the discharge obtained by the FATS decomposes velocity and depth into two ratings according to the continuity equation. Generally, this work highlights the performance of FATS as a powerful and effective approach for continuous streamflow measurements at high-frequency levels.

  8. A stochastic conflict resolution model for water quality management in reservoir river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerachian, Reza; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, optimal operating rules for water quality management in reservoir-river systems are developed using a methodology combining a water quality simulation model and a stochastic GA-based conflict resolution technique. As different decision-makers and stakeholders are involved in the water quality management in reservoir-river systems, a new stochastic form of the Nash bargaining theory is used to resolve the existing conflict of interests related to water supply to different demands, allocated water quality and waste load allocation in downstream river. The expected value of the Nash product is considered as the objective function of the model which can incorporate the inherent uncertainty of reservoir inflow. A water quality simulation model is also developed to simulate the thermal stratification cycle in the reservoir, the quality of releases from different outlets as well as the temporal and spatial variation of the pollutants in the downstream river. In this study, a Varying Chromosome Length Genetic Algorithm (VLGA), which has computational advantages comparing to other alternative models, is used. VLGA provides a good initial solution for Simple Genetic Algorithms and comparing to Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) reduces the number of state transitions checked in each stage. The proposed model, which is called Stochastic Varying Chromosome Length Genetic Algorithm with water Quality constraints (SVLGAQ), is applied to the Ghomrud Reservoir-River system in the central part of Iran. The results show, the proposed model for reservoir operation and waste load allocation can reduce the salinity of the allocated water demands as well as the salinity build-up in the reservoir.

  9. Development and application of a large scale river system model for National Water Accounting in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Vaze, Jai; Kim, Shaun; Hughes, Justin; Yang, Ang; Teng, Jin; Lerat, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate models, are of very coarse spatial resolutions and lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing water accounts, which have become increasingly important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scales. A continental scale river system model called Australian Water Resource Assessment River System model (AWRA-R) has been developed and implemented for national water accounting in Australia using a node-link architecture. The model includes major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. Two key components of the model are an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. The results in the Murray-Darling Basin shows highly satisfactory performance of the model with median daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.64 and median annual bias of less than 1% for the period of calibration (1970-1991) and median daily NSE of 0.69 and median annual bias of 12% for validation period (1992-2014). The results have demonstrated that the performance of the model is less satisfactory when the key processes such as overbank flow, groundwater seepage and irrigation diversion are switched off. The AWRA-R model, which has been operationalised by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for continental scale water accounting, has contributed to improvements in the national water account by substantially reducing accounted different volume (gain/loss).

  10. Distribution and mobility of heavy elements in floodplain agricultural soils along the Ibar River (Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo). Chemometric investigation of pollutant sources and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barać, Nemanja; Škrivanj, Sandra; Bukumirić, Zoran; Živojinović, Dragana; Manojlović, Dragan; Barać, Milan; Petrović, Rada; Ćorac, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of a high-magnitude flood event on heavy elements (HEs) pollution and mobility in the agricultural soils along Ibar River in Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo. The study area was one of the most important Pb/Zn industrial regions in Europe. Soil samples (n = 50) collected before and after the floods in May 2014 were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The results indicated that the floods significantly increased not only the pseudo total concentrations of HEs in the soil but also their mobile and potentially bioavailable amounts. Moreover, higher concentrations (both pseudo total and potentially bioavailable) were found in the agricultural soils closer to the industrial hotspots. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis successfully grouped the analyzed elements according to their anthropogenic or natural origin. The floods significantly increased the potential ecological risk of HEs associated with Pb/Zn industrial activities in the study area. The potential ecological risk of Cd after the floods was highest and should be of special concern.

  11. The Discolouration of Human Teeth from Archaeological Contexts: Elemental Analysis of a Black Tooth from a Roman Cranium Recovered from the River Witham, Lincoln, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A human cranium was recovered from the River Witham, Lincoln, UK, at Stamp End Lock during a police operation in 2002. Although extensive trauma was noted, the skull was not of forensic interest since radiocarbon dating revealed that the individual had lived during the Roman occupation of Lincoln, almost 2,000 years ago. The skull had unusual black “metallic” staining on the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. As this kind of staining is relatively uncommon, it was investigated to determine the possible cause. An individual tooth was subjected to two elemental analyses: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX. A small sample (n=21 of modern teeth was also analysed for comparison to determine “normal” ranges of certain elements. Analysis of the ancient tooth shows very high levels of manganese (275 µg/g and iron (1540 µg/g compared to modern teeth values (1.90 µg/g Mn and 40.81 µg/g Fe. These results were consistent with the black staining arising from iron and manganese infiltrating bone and dental tissue from the depositional environment, and not a consequence of diet, pathological process or cultural practices.

  12. SOFTWARE AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM OF YENISEI RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kadochnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the questions of formation of problem-focused geoinformation system of the Yenisei river basin based on interdisciplinary scientific studies. The creation of a system, in which are collected and systematized information about its river network, will provide an opportunity for analysis and modeling of hydrological processes various natural and man-made phenomena, qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resources, ecological status. Methodological basis of development is a regional system of indicators for sustainable environmental management. Development is created in the service-oriented paradigm on the basis of geoportal technologies, interactive web mapping, distributed storage and data processing. The focus in this article is paid to the problems of software design and technological support, the characteristics of software components implementation of the web GIS, the effective processing and presentation of geospatial data.

  13. Two-Dimensional River Flow Patterns Observed with a Pair of UHF Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A pair of ultrahigh-frequency (UHF radars system for measuring the two-dimensional river flow patterns is presented. The system consists of two all-digital UHF radars with exactly the same hardware structure, operating separately at 329–339 MHz and 341–351 MHz. The adoption of direct radio frequency (RF sampling technique and digital pulse compression simplifies the structure of radar system and eliminates the distortion introduced by the analog mixer, which improves the SNR and dynamic range of the radar. The field experiment was conducted at Hanjiang River, Hubei province, China. Over a period of several weeks, the radar-derived surface velocity has been very highly correlated with the measurements of EKZ-I, with a correlation coefficient of 0.958 and a mean square error of 0.084 m/s.

  14. Early accretion of water and volatile elements to the inner Solar System: evidence from angrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R.; Hauri, Erik H.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Lapen, Thomas J.; Berger, Eve L.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Marschall, Horst R.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Righter, Kevin; Sarafian, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Inner Solar System bodies are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrite meteorites, yet the source(s) and mechanism(s) of volatile-element depletion and/or enrichment are poorly constrained. The timing, mechanisms and quantities of volatile elements present in the early inner Solar System have vast implications for diverse processes, from planetary differentiation to the emergence of life. We report major, trace and volatile-element contents of a glass bead derived from the D'Orbigny angrite, the hydrogen isotopic composition of this glass bead and that of coexisting olivine and silicophosphates, and the 207Pb-206Pb age of the silicophosphates, 4568 ± 20 Ma. We use volatile saturation models to demonstrate that the angrite parent body must have been a major body in the early inner Solar System. We further show via mixing calculations that all inner Solar System bodies accreted volatile elements with carbonaceous chondrite H and N isotope signatures extremely early in Solar System history. Only a small portion (if any) of comets and gaseous nebular H species contributed to the volatile content of the inner Solar System bodies. This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'.

  15. Early accretion of water and volatile elements to the inner Solar System: evidence from angrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Hauri, Erik H; McCubbin, Francis M; Lapen, Thomas J; Berger, Eve L; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; Gaetani, Glenn A; Righter, Kevin; Sarafian, Emily

    2017-05-28

    Inner Solar System bodies are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrite meteorites, yet the source(s) and mechanism(s) of volatile-element depletion and/or enrichment are poorly constrained. The timing, mechanisms and quantities of volatile elements present in the early inner Solar System have vast implications for diverse processes, from planetary differentiation to the emergence of life. We report major, trace and volatile-element contents of a glass bead derived from the D'Orbigny angrite, the hydrogen isotopic composition of this glass bead and that of coexisting olivine and silicophosphates, and the (207)Pb-(206)Pb age of the silicophosphates, 4568 ± 20 Ma. We use volatile saturation models to demonstrate that the angrite parent body must have been a major body in the early inner Solar System. We further show via mixing calculations that all inner Solar System bodies accreted volatile elements with carbonaceous chondrite H and N isotope signatures extremely early in Solar System history. Only a small portion (if any) of comets and gaseous nebular H species contributed to the volatile content of the inner Solar System bodies.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Trace Elements (Pb, Zn, Cu in Blood of Mute Swan (Cygnus olor from the Isonzo River Nature Reserve (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Isani*, M Cipone, G Andreani, E Carpenè, E Ferlizza, K Kravos1 and F Perco1

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead concentrations in blood of 45 specimens of mute swan from the molting area of the Isonzo River Mouth Nature Reserve (Italy were determined in two consecutive years (2006-2007, some birds were neck ringed to identify their homing behavior. The second sampling included whole body X-ray radiography and Cu and Zn plasma analyses to investigate the health impact of putative Pb exposure. X-ray images of all investigated specimens did not show any radiopacity due to the ingestion of metal bodies. Lead levels (0.08-0.44 g/ml were in the range of those reported for swans living in unpolluted or slightly polluted environments and excluded acute intoxication, as confirmed by clinical investigation. Zinc concentrations ranged between 2.93 and 7.59 g/ml and were one order of magnitude higher than Cu concentrations (0.21-0.42 g/ml. The negative correlation between Pb and Zn concentrations could be indicative of adverse health effects caused by chronic lead exposure. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting Pb, Zn and Cu blood levels, X-ray radiographies and data on the origin of swan populations.

  17. Structural elements regulating amyloidogenesis: a cholinesterase model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Létitia Jean

    Full Text Available Polymerization into amyloid fibrils is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative syndromes. Amyloid assembly is governed by properties of the sequence backbone and specific side-chain interactions, since fibrils from unrelated sequences possess similar structures and morphologies. Therefore, characterization of the structural determinants driving amyloid aggregation is of fundamental importance. We investigated the forces involved in the amyloid assembly of a model peptide derived from the oligomerization domain of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, AChE(586-599, through the effect of single point mutations on beta-sheet propensity, conformation, fibrilization, surfactant activity, oligomerization and fibril morphology. AChE(586-599 was chosen due to its fibrilization tractability and AChE involvement in Alzheimer's disease. The results revealed how specific regions and residues can control AChE(586-599 assembly. Hydrophobic and/or aromatic residues were crucial for maintaining a high beta-strand propensity, for the conformational transition to beta-sheet, and for the first stage of aggregation. We also demonstrated that positively charged side-chains might be involved in electrostatic interactions, which could control the transition to beta-sheet, the oligomerization and assembly stability. Further interactions were also found to participate in the assembly. We showed that some residues were important for AChE(586-599 surfactant activity and that amyloid assembly might preferentially occur at an air-water interface. Consistently with the experimental observations and assembly models for other amyloid systems, we propose a model for AChE(586-599 assembly in which a steric-zipper formed through specific interactions (hydrophobic, electrostatic, cation-pi, SH-aromatic, metal chelation and polar-polar would maintain the beta-sheets together. We also propose that the stacking between the strands in the beta-sheets along the fiber axis could

  18. A system for environmental model coupling and code reuse: The Great Rivers Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, B.; Rice, J.; Treinish, L.; Barford, C.

    2008-12-01

    As part of the Great Rivers Project, IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish & wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the modeling framework aspect of this project. In our approach to these and other environmental modeling projects, we see a flexible, extensible modeling framework infrastructure for defining and running multi-step analytic simulations as critical. In this framework, we divide monolithic models into atomic components with clearly defined semantics encoded via rich metadata representation. Once models and their semantics and composition rules have been registered with the system by their authors or other experts, non-expert users may construct simulations as workflows of these atomic model components. A model composition engine enforces rules/constraints for composing model components into simulations, to avoid the creation of Frankenmodels, models that execute but produce scientifically invalid results. A common software environment and common representations of data and models are required, as well as an adapter strategy for code written in e.g., Fortran or python, that still enables efficient simulation runs, including parallelization. Since each new simulation, as a new composition of model components, requires calibration

  19. A Review of Flood-Related Storage and Remobilization of Heavy Metal Pollutants in River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszewski, Dariusz; Grygar, Tomáš Matys

    Recently observed rapid climate changes have focused the attention of researchers and river managers on the possible effects of increased flooding frequency on the mobilization and redistribution of historical pollutants within some river systems. This text summarizes regularities in the flood-related transport, channel-to-floodplain transfer, and storage and remobilization of heavy metals, which are the most persistent environmental pollutants in river systems. Metal-dispersal processes are essentially much more variable in alluvia than in soils of non-inundated areas due to the effects of flood-sediment sorting and the mixing of pollutants with grains of different origins in a catchment, resulting in changes of one to two orders of magnitude in metal content over distances of centimetres. Furthermore, metal remobilization can be more intensive in alluvia than in soils as a result of bank erosion, prolonged floodplain inundation associated with reducing conditions alternating with oxygen-driven processes of dry periods and frequent water-table fluctuations, which affect the distribution of metals at low-lying strata. Moreover, metal storage and remobilization are controlled by river channelization, but their influence depends on the period and extent of the engineering works. Generally, artificial structures such as groynes, dams or cut-off channels performed before pollution periods favour the entrapment of polluted sediments, whereas the floodplains of lined river channels that adjust to new, post-channelization hydraulic conditions become a permanent sink for fine polluted sediments, which accumulate solely during overbank flows. Metal mobilization in such floodplains takes place only by slow leaching, and their sediments, which accrete at a moderate rate, are the best archives of the catchment pollution with heavy metals.

  20. A Seven-Year Major and Trace Element Study of Rain Water in the Barcés River Watershed, A Coruña, NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation constitutes an important source of soluble materials to surface waters and, in areas where they are diluted precipitation (either dry or wet) it can be the most relevant solute source. Certain trace elements may have a limited natural availability in soils and rocks although they can be important with respect the operation of different biogeochemical cycles, for the computation of local/regional atmospheric pollutant loads or from the global mass budget. In the present study we report the results obtained in a long-lasting (December 2008-December 2015) monitoring survey of the chemical composition of bulk precipitation as monthly-integrated samples taken at the headwaters of the Barcés river watershed (A Coruña, Spain). This location was selected based on the necessity of quantification of the chemical composition and elemental loads associated with the different water types (stream water, ground water and precipitation) contributing to the flooding of the Meirama lake. Available data includes information on meteorological parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, total and PAR radiation and precipitation) as well as a wide bundle of physico-chemical (pH, redox, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Mn, Fe, NH4, Cs, Rb, Ba, Zn, Cu, Sb, Ni, Co, Cr, V, Cd, Ag, Pb, Se, Hg, Ti, Sn, U, Mo, F, Cl, Br, SO4, NO3, NO2, Al, As, PO4, SIO2, B, O2, DIC, DOC) and isotopic (18Ov-smow and 2Hv-smow) constituents. The average pH of local precipitation is 5.6 (n=65) which is consistent with the expected value for natural, unpolluted rain water. Most of the studied elements (eg. Na, Ca, K, Mg, SiO2, etc.) shows significant increases in their concentration in the dry period of the year. That points towards a more significant contribution of dry deposition in these periods compared with the wet ones. The average electrical conductivity is about 67 S/cm while the average chloride

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix R: Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region`s non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region`s power producers to maximize the power system`s reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed in 1964 as an important component of regional plans to maximize the Northwest`s hydro resource capability. Maximization also included the development of storage projects on the Columbia River in Canada pursuant to the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. Because of the link between power coordination and Treaty issues, the current parties to the PNCA, currently are contemplating entering into a replacement or renewed power coordination agreement. Because the power coordination agreement is a consensual arrangement, its ultimate provisions must be acceptable to all of its signatories. This Appendix R to the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Columbia River System is a presentation of the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement.

  2. Spatial-temporal fluvial morphology analysis in the Quelite river: It's impact on communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Judith; Gracia, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    SummaryDuring 2008 and 2009 heavy rainfall took place around the Mazatlan County in the Sinaloa state, Mexico, with a return period (Tr) between 50 and 100 years. As a result, the region and its infrastructure, such as the railways and highways (designed for a Tr = 20 years) were severely exposed to floods and, as a consequence damage caused by debris and sediments dragged into the channel. One of the highest levels of damage to the infrastructure was observed in the columns of Quelite River railway's bridge. This is catastrophic as the railway is very important for trade within the state and also among other states in Mexico and in the USA. In order to understand the impact of the flooding and to avoid the rail system being damaged it is necessary to analyse how significant the changes in the river channel have been. This analysis looks at the definition of the main channel and its floodplain as a result of the sediment variability, not only at the bridge area, but also upstream and downstream. The Quelite River study considers the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing data to map, recognise and assess the spatio-temporal change channel morphology. This increases the effectiveness of using different types of geospatial data with in situ measurements such as hydrological data. Thus, this paper is an assessment of a 20 years study period carried out using historical Landsat images and aerial photographs as well as recent Spot images. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of local topography and flow volumes were also used. The results show the Quelite River is an active river with a high suspended sediment load and migration of meanders associated to heavy rainfall. The river also has several deep alluvial floodplain channels which modified the geometry and other morphological characteristics of the channel in the downstream direction. After the identification of the channel changes, their causes and solutions to control, the channel

  3. Determining the dispersion characteristics of rivers from the frequency response of the system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, Peter; Palancar, MaríA. C.; Aragón, José M.; Gil, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    A new method of determining the parameters of an aggregated dead zone model (ADZ) to predict longitudinal dispersion in rivers is presented. The method is based on the frequency response analysis (FRA) of observed field tests, which consist of tracer injections (input) and measurement of tracer in downstream sampling points (output) located downstream from the injection point. The ADZ is a combination of plug and completely mixed flow compartments. The ADZ parameters (number of compartments, mean residence time, and delay time) are evaluated by means of Bode plots that give the system order (number of compartments), gain, time constant (mean residence time of each compartment) and delay time. The FRA-ADZ method was checked with tracer data runs in two Spanish rivers, the Tagus and the Ebro rivers. The experimental tracer concentration versus time distributions were compared with the ADZ predicted curves, which were calculated using parameters obtained from the FRA method, and with curves predicted by several classical models. The residence time of several reaches within the two studied rivers was predicted by the FRA-ADZ method with a relative error lower than 10%. The method is generally applicable to ideal and nonideal inputs and is particularly well suited to arbitrary-shaped initial source concentration distributions.

  4. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media.

  5. Application of Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) for Dungun River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, I.; Nor, N. D. M.; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; K, F.; Hanapi, M. N.; L, Livia

    2013-06-01

    The Northeast monsoon happening during the months of October until January is the major rainy season found in the eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The Dungun river basin (1,858 km2) is exposed to this season thus experiencing characteristically regular flooding due to the prolong rainfall events. The annual rainfall over the river basins are 2,880 mm with great proportion falling in the months of December (19.4%). This study is to apply the Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model which Dungun river basin has been chosen for this study as the catchments have range of flood and relevant data that can be used to develop the model. The satellite data used in this study is provided by JAXA Global Rainfall Watch. The main feature of this real-time flood analysis model is the satellite-based rainfall data input employed during the model creation phase. The performance of the model for the river basins from satellite and ground-based rainfall data are compared using three error analysis methods.

  6. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn

  7. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  8. A New Integrated Slot Element Feed Array for Multi-beam Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngvesson, K. S.; Johansson, J. F.; Kollberg, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    A feed array consisting of constant width slot antennas (CWSA's), fed from a block containing fin-line transitions, has been developed. The array has a two-dimensional configuration, with five elements each on five parallel substrates. Beam-widths are compatible with use in f/D-1.0 multi-beam systems, with optimum taper. Array element spacings are close to a factor of two smaller than for other typical arrays, and spill-over efficiency is about 65%.

  9. THE ACCOUNTING INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM, ESTABLISHED WITHIN THE STATE TREASURY, AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT IN SUBSTANTIATING DECISIONS<