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Sample records for river sc brazil

  1. Distribution of nutrients in fluvial sediment of the Itajai-Açu river, Blumenau, SC, Brazil

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    Joseane Susin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the occurrence of nitrogen (Ntotal, NH4+, NO3- e NO2- and phosphorus (Ptotal in fluvial sediments of the Itajaí-Açu River, on the river's course in the urban area of Blumenau city. At the eight sites where the samples were collected, the total nitrogen presented values below those recommended in the CONAMA nº 344/2004 Resolution for sediments which is 4,800.00 µg g-1, with values of 350.00 µg g-1 to 2,100.00 µg g-1. The total phosphorus also presented values below the one recommended by the CONAMA nº 344/2004 Resolution for sediments which is 2,000.00 µg g-1. The values found for total phosphorus varied from 61.50 µg g-1 to 378.00 µg g-1, and were determined as the addition of the organic and the inorganic phosphorus. As for the summation of the NH4+, NO3- and NO2- ions at the eight sites where the sample were collected, it can be observed a greater quantity of these ions in any collecting site and in the other sites the values were low. The content values for the NO2- ions for the studied eight sites were low when compared to the values observed for the NH4+ ion.

  2. Spatial and temporal variation of the zooplankton community in the area of influence of the Itajaí-açu River, SC (BRAZIL

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    Charrid Resgalla Junior

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available On the north coast of the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil, the Itajaí-Açu River mouth shows a low-saline water plume on the internal shelf with strong density gradients. This oceanographic condition has a possible influence over the pelagic community, and it has been little investigated on the Brazilian coast. The present work seeks to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of the zooplankton community in the area of influence of the Itajaí-açu River, and its relations with the abiotic forces of temperature (seasonal variation and salinity of the river plume. For this purpose, 14 monthly oceanographic cruises were carried out during the years 2002 and 2003, to obtain physical and chemical parameters, and zooplankton hauls in 9 sampling points. The zooplankton analyses were carried out at the lowest taxon possible to characterize the resident community of the river mouth. It was observed that the zooplankton presented the highest densities in winter and spring. The species with higher densities and frequencies of occurrence were Paracalanus quasimodo, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Acartia lilijeborgi, Temora stylifera, T. turbinata, and Penilia avirostris, indicating a prevalence in this region, of Tropical Water from the Brazil Current and greater similarity with the coastal community of the Southeast region of Brazil. However, even for the species typical of Tropical Water, there were alterations in dominance of the species, due to the seasonality and level of flow rate of the river on the salinity of the internal shelf of the study area.No norte do estado de Santa Catarina (Brasil a desembocadura do Rio Itajaí-açu apresenta uma pluma de água de baixa salinidade e com forte gradiente de densidade sobre a plataforma interna. Essa condição oceanográfica pode influenciar a comunidade pelágica costeira local e este processo tem sido pobremente investigado na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as varia

  3. Haematological and gill responses in parasitized tilapia from valley of Tijucas River, SC, Brazil Respostas hematológica e branquial de tilápia parasitada do vale do Rio Tijucas, SC, Brasil

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    Tatiana Maslowa Pegado de Azevedo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Santa Catarina there is no information about haematological and parasitological characteristics of fish maintained in feefishing operations and manured ponds. This work compared the haematological characteristics of Nile tilapia parasitized or not, captured in a property situated in Nova Trento, SC, Brazil, between August 2003 and July 2004. During the studied period, the water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, ammonia and transparency were measured. Ten fish were collected monthly either in a feefishing or in a pond receiving pig manure, and anesthetized with benzocaine solution for haematological, parasitological and histopathological exams. From a total of 360 analyzed fish, 64 (17.8% were parasitized with Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus sp. (Monogenoidea: Ancyrocephalidae, 20 (5.5% with Trichodina sp. (Protozoa: Ciliophora, and four (1.1% with Lamproglena sp. (Crustacea: Lernaeidae. The total number of erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leucocytes, glucose rate and the percentages of hematocrit, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils did not show relation with parasitism. Histopathological analysis showed moderate hyperplasia and absence of congestion. The low level of parasitism found in the animals was not responsible for haematological alterations.No Estado de Santa Catarina não existe informação sobre características hematológicas e parasitológicas que compare peixes mantidos em pesque-pague e com dejetos de suínos. Este trabalho estudou as características hematológicas da tilápia do Nilo parasitada ou não, capturada numa propriedade em Nova Trento, SC, Brasil, entre agosto de 2003 e julho de 2004. Durante o período a temperatura da água, pH, oxigênio, alcalinidade e transparência foram medidos. Dez peixes foram mensalmente coletados no pesque-pague e num viveiro que recebia dejetos de suínos, anestesiados com benzocaína para análise hematológica, parasitológica e histopatol

  4. 76 FR 25545 - Safety Zone; Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display, Little River, Little River, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display, Little River, Little River, SC AGENCY: Coast... zone on the waters of Little River in Little River, South Carolina during the Blue Crab Festival... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive notice of the Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display...

  5. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. 165.708 Section 165.708 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. (a... Cooper River. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (2) All waters within 100 yards of the...

  6. 33 CFR 334.460 - Cooper River and tributaries at Charleston, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and tributaries at... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.460 Cooper River and tributaries at Charleston, SC. (a) The areas: (1) That portion of the Cooper River beginning on the west shore...

  7. 76 FR 75450 - Safety Zone; Container Crane Relocation, Cooper and Wando Rivers, Charleston, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Container Crane Relocation, Cooper and Wando Rivers, Charleston, SC AGENCY: Coast... moving safety zone around a barge transporting two container cranes on the Cooper and Wando Rivers during... barge will transit the Cooper and Wando Rivers. Because of the size of the two container cranes and the...

  8. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and Charleston....470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area No. 1 is that portion of the Cooper River beginning near the westerly shore north of Shipyard Creek at...

  9. 77 FR 51700 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Wando River, Cainhoy, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... shape in the ``Actions'' column. If you submit your comments by mail or hand delivery, submit them in an... Wando River mile 10.0, Cainhoy, Berkeley County, South Carolina has a vertical clearance of 6 feet in...

  10. Natural Diet of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Itapocoroy Inlet, Penha, SC, Brazil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1995, 332 individuals of the Callinectes ornatus species were collected from the Itapocoroy inlet in Penha, Sta. Catarina, Brazil to study its natural diet and the seasonal variations of diet. Results showed a diversified trophic spectrum with a generalized dietary strategy comprising the algae, macrophyta, foraminiferida, mollusca, polychaeta, crustacea, echinodermata, Osteichthyes and NIOM (Nonidentified Organic Matter groups.Alimentação natural de Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, SC - Brasil. No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1995, foram coletados 332 indivíduos de Callinectes ornatus, procedentes da Armação do Itapocoroy (Penha, SC. Foi estudada a alimentação natural da espécie e as variações sazonais da dieta. Os resultados mostram um espectro trófico diversificado, com estratégia alimentar generalista, sendo Algas, Macrófitas, Foraminiferida, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Osteichthyes e matéria orgânica não identificada, os grupos que compõem sua dieta.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome and Importance of Associated Variables in Children and Adolescents in Guabiruba - SC, Brazil

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    Nilton Rosini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The risk factors that characterize metabolic syndrome (MetS may be present in childhood and adolescence, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.Objective:Evaluate the prevalence of MetS and the importance of its associated variables, including insulin resistance (IR, in children and adolescents in the city of Guabiruba-SC, Brazil.Methods:Cross-sectional study with 1011 students (6–14 years, 52.4% girls, 58.5% children. Blood samples were collected for measurement of biochemical parameters by routine laboratory methods. IR was estimated by the HOMA-IR index, and weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were determined. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between risk variables and MetS.Results:The prevalence of MetS, IR, overweight and obesity in the cohort were 14%, 8.5%, 21% and 13%, respectively. Among students with MetS, 27% had IR, 33% were overweight, 45.5% were obese and 22% were eutrophic. IR was more common in overweight (48% and obese (41% students when compared with eutrophic individuals (11%; p = 0.034. The variables with greatest influence on the development of MetS were obesity (OR = 32.7, overweight (OR = 6.1, IR (OR = 4.4; p ≤ 0.0001 for all and age (OR = 1.15; p = 0.014.Conclusion:There was a high prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents evaluated in this study. Students who were obese, overweight or insulin resistant had higher chances of developing the syndrome.

  12. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil.

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    Blume, K K; Macedo, J C; Meneguzzi, A; Silva, L B; Quevedo, D M; Rodrigues, M A S

    2010-12-01

    The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W), Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅), turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA) regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI) used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS). Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  13. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

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    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  14. Zooplankton community of Parnaíba River, Northeastern Brazil

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    Ludmilla Cavalcanti Antunes Lucena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim:The objective of the present work is to present a list of species of zooplankton (Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda from the Parnaíba River. Additionally, we provide comments on their distribution along the river, and between dry and wet seasons.MethodsZooplankton was collected with a plankton net (60 µm mesh and concentrated into a volume of 80 mL for further analysis, during the dry (October 2010 and wet (April 2011 seasons. Sampling was restricted to the marginal areas at depths between 80 and 150 cm.ResultsA total of 132 species was recorded among the three zooplankton groups studied. During the dry season a total of 82 species was registered and 102 species was registered for the wet season. Rotifera contributed with 66.7% of the species, followed by Cladocera (26.5% and Copepoda (6.8%.ConclusionsThe richness of species observed was high compared to other large rivers in Brazil. In the context of current policies for water management and river diversions in northeastern Brazil, the present study highlights the importance of this river system for biodiversity conservation.

  15. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Identification and characterisation of the proteins bound by specific phage-displayed recombinant antibodies (scFv) obtained against Brazil nut and almond extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Silvia; Madrid, Raquel; García-García, Aina; Alcocer, Marcos; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2018-03-01

    Almonds and Brazil nuts are widely consumed allergenic nuts whose presence must be declared according to food labelling regulations. Their detection in food products has been recently achieved by ELISA methods with recombinant antibodies (scFv) isolated against complete Brazil nut and almond protein extracts. The screening of phage-scFv libraries against complete protein extracts confers a series of advantages over the use of purified proteins, as recombinant proteins might alter their native folding. However, using this strategy, the nature of the target detected by phage-displayed antibodies remains unknown, and requires further research to identify whether they are nut allergens or other molecules present in the extract, but not related to their allergenic potential. Electrophoretic, chromatographic, immunological and spectrometric techniques revealed that the Brazil nut (BE95) and almond (PD1F6 and PD2C9) specific phage-scFvs detected conformational epitopes of the Brazil nut and almond 11S globulins, recognised by WHO/IUIS as Ber e 2 and Pru du 6 major allergens. Circular dichroism data indicated that severe heat treatment would entail loss of epitope structure, disabling scFv for target detection. The presence of important Brazil nut and almond allergens (Ber e 2 and Pru du 6) in foodstuffs can be determined by using phage-display antibodies BE95, PD1F6 and PD2C9 as affinity probes in ELISA. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Ants of João da Cunha Island, SC, Brazil: composition and diversity

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    Ricardo Corbetta

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The ant species of João da Cunha Island, SC, were collected both manually and by the use of attractive baits of honey and sardine. The samples were taken at 10 sites, each having one bait of each type, totalling 20 samples in each collection. A total of 14 genera, 52 species and 5 subfamilies was sampled in one year of monthly sampling. The richest genera were Pheidole (16 species and Camponotus (9. The biological diversity values were high, and the ant fauna presented a strong seazonality on account of this diversity. The greatest similarity between seasons of the year was observed between spring and summer, followed by autumn and winter.

  18. Distribution of Chironomidae in a semiarid intermittent river of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, R L; Carvalho, L K; Medeiros, E S F

    2012-12-01

    The effects of the intermittency of water flow on habitat structure and substrate composition have been reported to create a patch dynamics for the aquatic fauna, mostly for that associated with the substrate. This study aims to describe the spatial distribution of Chironomidae in an intermittent river of semiarid Brazil and to associate assemblage composition with environmental variables. Benthic invertebrates were sampled during the wet and dry seasons using a D-shaped net (40 cm wide and 250 μm mesh), and the Chironomidae were identified to genus level. The most abundant genera were Tanytarsus, Polypedilum, and Saetheria with important contributions of the genera Procladius, Aedokritus, and Dicrotendipes. Richness and density were not significantly different between the study sites, and multiple regression showed that the variation in richness and density explained by the environmental variables was significant only for substrate composition. The composition of genera showed significant spatial segregation across the study sites. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed significant correspondence between Chironomidae composition and the environmental variables, with submerged vegetation, elevation, and leaf litter being important predictors of the Chironomidae fauna. This study showed that Chironomidae presented important spatial variation along the river and that this variation was substantially explained by environmental variables associated with the habitat structure and river hierarchy. We suggest that the observed spatial segregation in the fauna results in the high diversity of this group of organisms in intermittent streams.

  19. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River – RS, Brazil

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    C. Steffens

    Full Text Available Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil, one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.

  20. Temporal variation in seed predation by insects in a population of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae) in Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, F R; Begnini, R M; Lopes, B C; Castellani, T T

    2012-02-01

    Insect seed predation may vary depending on seed production. The present study considers the hypothesis that the rates of seed predation tend to be smaller in years of higher fruit production. Thus, we monitored the production of fruits and predation of seeds of the palm Syagrus romanzoffiana over 2 years in the Atlantic Forest (Parque Municipal da Lagoa do Peri, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil), between July 2006 and June 2008. Plots of 0.25 m(2) were fitted under 20 mother plants and fruits were monthly collected for assessment of abundance and seed predation. There was variation in fruit production between the 2 years and among reproductive plants. Predation rates were high and occurred in the predispersal phase by the Curculionidae Revena rubiginosa Boheman, Anchylorhynchus aegrotus Fahraeus, and Anchylorhynchus variabilis Gyllenhal. Seed predation by these species of Anchylorhynchus is first registered in the present study. In average, about 60% of the seeds monthly produced in the population tend to escape insect predation in year of high or low production, becoming available for recruitment. The predation rate was not related to the amount of fruits produced per reproductive plant. Also, different than expected, there was a positive relation between the rates of seed predation and the total of fruits produced monthly on the plots. Thus, no evidence for the satiation of insect seed predators was found in this study with S. romanzoffiana.

  1. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo Jose; angulo@geologia.ufpr.br; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  2. Incidental catch of marine turtles by the artisanal fisheries on Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil

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    Natalia Hanazaki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The five species of sea turtles, which inhabit the Brazilian shore, have a wordwide distribution and are threatened with extinction. The south of Brazil is characterized as a feeding and breeding area of at least three of these species. The presence of turtles close to the shore and their incidental catch are occurrences reported by artisan fishermen of the Island of Santa Catarina in this work. The study was based on a questionnaire, applied to fishermen and fishfarmers at selected spots on the island. Scientific and popular names were matched using illustrations. The spots with the highest number of events and captures were close to the islands, rocky coasts and stony grounds, i.e. areas related with the foraging habits of the most abundant species, Chelonia mydas. The place, depth and size of the net are characteristics, which influence the capture. The time the net remains in the water is a factor which is fundamental to the survival of the captured turtles. The flesh of the turtle is used as an occasional feeding resource. Capacitation programs and training applied to the communities involved are recommended.

  3. Evaluation of the sampling methods applied to phycoperiphyton studies in the Ratones River estuary, Brazil Avaliação dos métodos de coleta aplicados no estudo do ficoperifíton no estuário do rio Ratones, SC, Brasil

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    Bianca Vettorato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The present study aimed on testing the efficiency of four sampling methods for identification and quantification applied in studies on the biodiversity and spatial-temporal distribution of the phycoperiphyton in the Ratones River estuary; METHODS: The sampling were carried out in three sampling stations along the Ratones River in March and August 2008. The methodologies used for the separation of the periphyton from the sediment were made with the use of sieves and trapping tissue. A removing method through manual agitation and "in situ" analysis was used for epiphytes. To evaluate the efficiency of the methodology for periphyton, data on phytoplankton was included for comparative reasons; RESULTS: The trapping method option was the most appropriate for removing the live specimens from the sediment, and to try to minimize the problems found with the other two methodologies tested. In the case of the epiphytic microalgae the best counting technique resulted from the "in situ" method; CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the results presented here support the difficulties faced in studying phycoperiphytic samples in estuaries, which are shallow and dynamic environments, and for that reason the communities occurring in these areas are constantly influenced by the sediment.OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho tem por objetivo testar a eficiência de quatro métodos de coleta para a identificação e quantificação empregadas no estudo sobre a biodiversidade e distribuição espaço temporal do ficoperifíton no estuário do rio Ratones; MÉTODOS: As coletas foram realizadas em três estações de amostragem ao longo do rio Ratones em março e agosto de 2008. As metodologias testadas para separação do perifíton do sedimento foram realizadas através do uso de peneiras e armadilhas de tecido. Para as epífitas, foi utilizado método de remoção através de agitação manual e análise "in situ". Para avaliar a eficiência da metodologia para perifíton, foram

  4. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. These data...

  5. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil....

  6. Relating stream function and land cover in the Middle Pee Dee River Basin, SC

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    A.D. Jayakaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The study region comprised sixteen stream sites and associated contributing watersheds located in the Middle Pee Dee River Basin (MPDRB of South Carolina, USA. Study focus: The study was conducted between 2008 and 2010 to quantify how indices of streamflow varied with land cover characteristics analyzed at multiple spatial scales and fluvial geomorphic characteristics of sampled streams in the MPDRB. Study objectives were to relate three indices of streamflow that reflect recent temporal flow variability in a stream, with synoptic stream geomorphological measurements, and land cover type at specific spatial domains. New hydrological insights for the region: Modifications to the landscape, hydrologic regime, and alteration to channel morphology, are major threats to the functioning of riparian ecosystem functions but can rarely be linked to a single common stressor. Results from the study showed that in the MPDRB, wetland cover in the riparian corridor was an important factor, correlating significantly with stream flashiness, channel enlargement, and bed substrate character. It was also shown that a combination of stream geomorphological characteristics when combined with landscape variables at specific spatial scales were reasonable predictors of all three indices of streamflow. The study also highlights an innovative statistical methodology to relate land cover data to commonly measured metrics of streamflow and fluvial geomorphology. Keywords: Flashiness, Stream habitat, Flow indices, Land cover analysis, Wetlands, Coastal plain, Bed material, Partial least squares regression, Pee Dee River, South Carolina

  7. Defense-Waste-Processing Faclity, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 10 3 m 3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

  8. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Envgy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 10 3 m 3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

  9. History of water quality parameters - a study on the Sinos River/Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, G B; Figueiredo, J A S; Quevedo, D M

    2015-05-01

    Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI) from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM) covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one.

  10. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Senteio Smith

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y

  11. Arsenic in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.; Magalhaes, M.R.L.; Santos, M.L.O.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Fonseca, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on arsenic distribution in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian forests of urban and rural areas in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the As levels in invertebrates from riverine forests of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 -comparator method. After correction of mass fractions, values higher than 0.10 mg kg -1 were quantified in invertebrates from both urban and agricultural areas. An unexpected As mass fraction of 13 mg kg -1 obtained in the Coleopteran pest Macrodactylus pumilio indicated resistance to As-containing-pesticides. (author)

  12. The role of ethnic tourism in the food knowledge tradition of Tyrolean migrants in Treze Tílias, SC, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Elisabeth; Haselmair, Ruth; Pirker, Heidemarie; Vogl, Christian R

    2018-04-06

    Food knowledge and consumption in the context of migration is an important topic in ethnobiological research. Little research is done on the process of how external factors impact food knowledge amongst migrants. Taking into account social organisation and power relations of food knowledge transmission and distribution of food knowledge, this study sheds light on how the accessibility of resources, the predominant cuisine in the host country and ethnic tourism influences the food knowledge tradition of Tyrolean migrants and their descendants in Treze Tílias. Field research was conducted in Austria and Brazil in 2008-2009, using free-listing, social network analysis and participatory observation. The collected data was analysed by calculating Smith's Salience index, visualising personal and social networks and qualitative text analysis. Tyroleans in Austria had a different perception and a higher agreement of what Tyrolean food comprises than Tyroleans in Brazil, indicating different developments: Tyrolean migrants adapted their food habits according to available resources and over time in Brazil. Later, ethnic tourism had a strong impact: In Treze Tílias, dishes with the highest Smith's Salience index-forming the core of cultural food knowledge-strongly coincided with Tyrolean food served in ethnic restaurants, whose staff were perceived to be experts in Tyrolean food. Despite most food knowledge in Treze Tílias was transmitted within families, ethnic food prepared in restaurants and hotels determined the shared perception of what Tyrolean food comprises. Perceived as experts, the staff in ethnic restaurants were in a powerful position to transform cultural food knowledge by providing institutionalised and standardised knowledge about Tyrolean food.

  13. Chemical elements in soils of riverside areas of the Piracicaba river basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Lira, Marcelo B.G.; Paiva, José D.S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of the soil quality of the Piracicaba River Basin, located in the State of São Paulo, is of extreme environmental importance, as it ensures the functionality of the basin ecosystems and environmental protection. However, there are few studies focused on the concentration of chemical elements in soils of environmental protection zones of highly populated riverside regions. In view of the above, this work aims to determine the concentration of chemical elements in the soils located on the banks of the Piracicaba River by the Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm profiles. Subsequently, the samples were dried in an oven at 80 deg C and comminuted with the aid of mortar and pistil. 250 mg portions were transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated in 10 13 cm -2 .s -1 neutron flux for 4 hours at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute -IPEN / SP, Brazil. The determination of the chemical elements was conducted by the k0-INAA method from the Quantu program. Comparing the results obtained with the soil values of an untouched area of Atlantic Forest - Carlos Botelho State Park, the maximum values obtained of As (29 mg / kg) and Zn (185 mg / kg) were about 5 times greater. However, concentrations of terrigenous elements such as Fe and Sc were also high in some cases, indicating that there is also a contribution of the source material (rocks) to the high concentrations observed in the riverside soils

  14. A geometria fractal da rede de drenagem da bacia hidrográfica do Caeté, Alfredo Wagner-SC Fractal geometry of the drainage network of the Caeté river watershed, Alfredo Wagner-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Redin Vestena

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar e avaliar a dimensão fractal da rede de drenagem da bacia hidrográfica do Caeté, em Alfredo Wagner, SC, a partir de diferentes métodos, com o propósito de caracterizar as formas geomorfológicas irregulares. A rede de drenagem apresenta propriedades multifractais. As dimensões fractais para os segmentos individuais (df e para a rede de drenagem inteira (Df foram determinadas por métodos que se fundamentaram nas razões de Horton e pelo método da contagem de caixas (Box-Counting. A rede de drenagem tem característica de autoafinidade. A dimensão fractal proveniente da relação de parâmetros obtidos pelas Leis de Horton apresentou resultados dentro dos limiares da teoria da geometria fractal.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the fractal dimensions of the drainage network of the Caeté river watershed, Alfredo Wagner/SC, with different methods in order to characterize the irregular geomorphologic forms. The drainage network possesses multi-fractal properties. That is why the fractal dimensions for the individual segments (df and for the entire network (Df were evaluated with Horton's Laws and the Box-Counting method. The drainage network has self-affinity characteristics. The fractal dimension obtained through the parameters relationship of Horton's Laws showed the results within the thresholds of the fractal geometry theory.

  15. Environmental risk assessment in five rivers of Parana River basin, Southern Brazil, through biomarkers in Astyanax spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ivaldete Tijolin; Ceccon, Juliana Parolin; Glinski, Andressa; Liebel, Samuel; Grötzner, Sonia Regina; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Benedito, Evanilde; Ortolani-Machado, Claudia Feijó; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, water quality of five river sites in Parana River basin (Brazil), utilized for public water supply, was assessed through a set of biomarkers in fish Astyanax spp. Population growth and inadequate use of land are challenges to the preservation of biodiversity and resources such as water. Some physicochemical parameters as well as somatic indexes, gills and liver histopathology, genotoxicity, and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated. The highest gonadosomatic index (GSI) and antioxidant parameters (catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, non-protein thiols), as well as the lowest damage to biomolecules (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage) were observed in site 0 (Piava River), which is located at an environmental protected area. Site 1, located in the same river, but downstream site 0 and outside the protection area, presents some level of impact. Fish from site 2 (Antas River), which lack of riparian forest and suffer from silting, presented the highest micronucleus incidence and no melanomacrophages. Differently, individuals from site 3 (Xambrê River) and site 4 (Pinhalzinho River) which receive surface runoff from Umuarama city, urban and industrial sewage, have the highest incidences of liver and gill histopathological alterations, including neoplasia, which indicated the worst health conditions of all sites. In particular, site 4 had high levels of total nitrogen and ammonia, high turbidity, and very low oxygen levels, which indicate important chemical impact. Comparison of the biomarkers in fish allowed classification of the five sites in terms of environmental impact and revealed that sites 3 and 4 had particular poor water quality.

  16. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus; Marcia Suelí Bohn; Maria Virginia Petry

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland e...

  17. Growth of Araucaria angustifolia in the Embrapa/Epagri forest reserve, Caçador, SC, Brazil Crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia na Reserva Florestal Embrapa/ Epagri, Caçador, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria Forest is one of most threatened phyto-physiognomies in the Atlantic Forest domain,
    presenting great ecological-economical importance. Nevertheless, there are still lacks of knowledge concerning growth and dynamic of important species, as Araucaria angustifolia. The objective of this work was to recover  the past growth of Araucaria angustifolia, native from Caçador, SC, Brazil, by measuring growth rings and to estimate the average periodic diametric increment. The growth rings were counted and measured, using a stereoscope microscope, in increment cores of 0.5 cm collected from 32 adult trees. The measurements were done with LINTAB measuring table, with 0.01 mm of precision. The samples sizes were irregular, varying from 4.2 to 20.2 cm long. The trees presented average diameter breast height (DBH of 76.3 cm, varying from 10.7 to 141.3 cm. The periodic diameter increment from the last 10 years was 0.4 cm, varying from 0.11 to 1.15 cm. It was observed differences among trees, but there was a tendency of reduction of growth rhythm in larger trees, being more
    evident in trees with more than 110 cm of DBH.A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM é uma das fitofisionomias mais ameaçadas da área de domínio da
    Mata Atlântica, apresentando grande importância ecológico-econômica. Apesar disso, ainda existem lacunas de conhecimento sobre a produtividade primária, o crescimento e a dinâmica de espécies importantes, como a Araucaria angustifolia. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o crescimento anual de Araucaria angustifolia, nativa do Município de Caçador, SC, pela medição dos anéis de crescimento. A contagem e medição dos anéis de crescimento foram feitas com o auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico, em baguetas de 0,5 cm de diâmetro, coletadas de 32 árvores adultas. As medições foram feitas com o medidor de anéis de crescimento LINTAB, com precisão de 0,01 mm. O comprimento das amostras

  18. Tourism marketing: A study of the use of information and communication technology in travel agencies and tourism of Balneário Camboriú (SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos da Silva Flores

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The information and communication technologies (ICT have significant effects on the market in an increasingly competitive landscape. In the services sector, because of its intangibility, the quality of communication with all stakeholders connected directly to the organizations make all the difference to your business success. The agency in tourism sector has been adapting to new ICT tools. This study aimed to investigate, from a descriptive quantitative approach, the level of use of ICT for some travel agencies and tourism city of Balneário Camboriú (SC, Brazil in its relationship with customers, suppliers and partners, as well as in marketing their products and services and their promotional strategies. As methodological procedures adopted the literature and field research, which consisted of the application of questionnaires to travel agents and tourism sites. The results showed that tools like email still has the same level of use that the fixed and mobile telephony and social networking featured prominently only in the relationship with customers. It is believed that a qualitative research with consumers can contribute to a better understanding of the use of ICT tools by travel agents and tourism.

  19. Strategies for market orientation in the tourism sector of Balneário Camboriú and Bombinhas (SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marcelo Ardigó

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing competitiveness of the tourism sector demands from the organizations a greater capacity in responding to the marketing demands. In this context the market orientation (MO assumes a relevant role regarding the intensification and maintenance of businesses. The MO has been the focus of several studies which the main findings correlate the superior development of the organizations in different aspects of the business performance. Considering the relevance of the theme, this study characterized as research-type survey, descriptive type, had the objective of analyzing the scale determinants for the OM level evaluation proposed by Hoorley, Saunders and Piercy (2005 in the companies context in the food sector also the lodging in two cities in the central north coast of Santa Catarina state (Brazil: Balneário Camboriú e Bombinhas, in which the tourism represents the main economic source. We have sought to evaluate the relation between the OM and the subjective financial results according to the manager’s perception, and comparing the OM level development between the two cities. The findings do not present clear evidences that a major level of OM can influence positively or negatively in the financial results of the researched organizations. The association between financial development, OM and their determinants had been less significant in the evaluation of the two cities. The research has also indicated that the OM global construct is positive and significant with all of its determinants.

  20. The ichthyofauna of drifting macrophyte mats in the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, C. K.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the fish assemblages associated with drifting macrophyte mats and consider their possible role as dispersal vectors in the Ivinhema River, a major tributary of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Fish associated with drifting mats were sampled in the main river channel during January and March 2005, when the wind and/or the increased water level were sufficient to transport macrophyte stands. Fish in the drifting mats were sampled with a floating sieve (4 m long x 2 m wide x 0.6 m high, and 2 mm mesh size). In the laboratory, larvae, juvenile, and adult fish were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. In four drifting macrophyte mats we captured 218 individuals belonging to at least 28 species, 17 families, and 6 orders. Aphyocharax dentatus, Serrasalmus spp., and Trachelyopterus galeatus were the most abundant taxa associated with the mats, but species richness ranged from 6 to 24 species per mat. In addition, 85% of the total number of individuals caught was larvae and juveniles. Although preliminary and based on limited samples, this study of drifting macrophyte mats was the first one in the last unregulated stretch of the Paraná River remaining inside Brazilian territory, and alerts us to the potential role of macrophytes mats as dispersers of fish species in the region.

  1. Range extension of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther,1864 to the Pindaré river drainage, of Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin of northeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Cristofore Guimarães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports range extansion of Moenkhausia oligolepis to the Pindaré river drainage, of the Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. This species was previously known only from Venezuela, Guianas, and the Amazon River basins. In addition, we present some meristic and morphometric data of the specimens herein examined and discuss on its diagnostic characters.

  2. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomiero, Leandro; Braga, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira) subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed....

  3. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, F. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed.

  4. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  5. Spawning of migratory fish species between two reservoirs of the upper Uruguay River, Brazil

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    David A. Reynalte-Tataje

    Full Text Available This study investigated the migratory fish spawning within the reservoirs of the Machadinho and Itá dams (upper Uruguay River, Brazil and its relationship to environmental variables. Sampling was conducted in the lotic region of the river in two sites between the dams' reservoirs: Uruguay (main river and Ligeiro (tributary. Sampling included nine consecutive reproductive periods (RP spanning the period from 2001 to 2010 and was conducted at night on the water surface using cylindrical-conical plankton nets (0.5 mm mesh; environmental variables were also recorded. The spawning of the migratory species Salminus brasiliensis, Prochilodus lineatus, and Steindachneridion scriptum was registered: S. brasiliensis and P. lineatus spawned in the tributary river at the end of spring/beginning of summer, during flooding and during periods of high water temperature. Steindachneridion scriptum spawned in the main river at the beginning of spring. The study showed that S. brasiliensis, P. lineatus, and S. scriptum are able to spawn in small lotic river stretches within two reservoirs, but only under very specific and not common environmental conditions.

  6. Fractal geometry of the drainage network of the Caeté river watershed, Alfredo Wagner-SC

    OpenAIRE

    Vestena, Leandro Redin; Kobiyama, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar e avaliar a dimensão fractal da rede de drenagem da bacia hidrográfica do Caeté, em Alfredo Wagner, SC, a partir de diferentes métodos, com o propósito de caracterizar as formas geomorfológicas irregulares. A rede de drenagem apresenta propriedades multifractais. As dimensões fractais para os segmentos individuais (df) e para a rede de drenagem inteira (Df) foram determinadas por métodos que se fundamentaram nas razões de Horton e pelo método da conta...

  7. Lowstand Turbidites and Delta Systems of the Itararé Group in the Vidal Ramos region (SC, southern Brazil

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    Carla Gimena Puigdomenech

    Full Text Available Turbidites have captioned the attention of sedimentologists during the last decades due their importance as hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, their relationship to delta systems still deserves further studies. This paper presents examples from a late deglacial to early post-glacial deltaic and turbidite strata exposed in the surroundings of Vidal Ramos (Santa Catarina State, Brazil, southern portion of the Paraná Basin. There, the uppermost part of the Mafra Formation and the Rio do Sul Formation onlap the Proterozoic basement and comprises an up to 360 m thick package. It includes (base to top black shales, mass transport deposits (MTD and sandy turbidites (Mafra Formation as well as thin bedded turbidites (tbt, including one interval of black shales and sandy turbidites, overlain by proximal delta front sandstones (Rio do Sul Formation. The analysis of the succession shows two more than 150 m thick coarsening-upwards deltaic successions composed of turbidite sand sheets at their base (prodelta, followed by partially collapsed thin bedded turbidites (delta slope wedge and delta front sandstones. Both turbidite sand-sheets abruptly overlay black shale intervals related to maximum flooding surfaces and therefore record correlative conformities. A detailed stratigraphic section elaborated from the correlation of four logs (1/100 suggests that distal delta front sands includes both thin bedded turbidites and wave reworked sands whereas the proximal delta front was dominated by long-lived underflows (hyperpycnal flows. The succession suggests that the most expressive turbidite beds (base of the delta systems have resulted from relative sea-level falls (early lowstand whereas the thin-bedded turbidites were related to the development of the late lowstand wedge. Black shales represent the transgressive systems tract and HST were not deposited or preserved in the area. High sediment supply associated with lowstand tracts could explain the occasional

  8. Profile of fishers in foz of Araguaia river, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo Zacarkim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the profile of the fishermen of the mouth of the river Araguaia. 562 fishermen belonging to six colonies were interviewed, being these of the colonies of Araguatins (Z-1, Aragominas (Z-24, Araguanã (Z-3 located in the state of Tocantins and Xambioá (Z-33; Piçarra (Z-55 and São Geraldo do Araguaia (Z-88 in the state of Pará. It is observed that artisanal fishermen are constitute mainly by sexy male, with low education, with an average of five members in the family, for the most part have house and vessel own. The fishermen are in great part associated with the a colonies of fishermen and receives an average of three minimum salaries. It was also observed that most works in activity over six hours per day and its main fishing tool is the gillnet. In the general context, it is understood that small-scale fisheries is a way of life of these people which assign a unique identity, which should be preserved.

  9. The Araguaia River as an Important Biogeographical Divide for Didelphid Marsupials in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Loss, Ana Carolina; Heller, Rasmus; Fonseca, Carlos; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2015-01-01

    The riverine barrier model suggests that rivers play a significant role in separating widespread organisms into isolated populations. In this study, we used a comparative approach to investigate the phylogeography of 6 didelphid marsupial species in central Brazil. Specifically, we evaluate the role of the mid-Araguaia River in differentiating populations and estimate divergence time among lineages to assess the timing of differentiation of these species, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The 6 didelphid marsupials revealed different intraspecific genetic patterns and structure. The 3 larger and more generalist species, Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis, and Philander opossum, showed connectivity across the Araguaia River. In contrast the genetic structure of the 3 smaller and specialist species, Gracilinanus agilis, Marmosa (Marmosa) murina, and Marmosa (Micoureus) demerarae was shaped by the mid-Araguaia. Moreover, the split of eastern and western bank populations of the 2 latter species is consistent with the age of Araguaia River sediments formation. We hypothesize that the role of the Araguaia as a riverine barrier is linked to the level of ecological specialization among the 6 didelphid species and differences in their ability to cross rivers or disperse through the associated habitat types. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Characterization of chemical elements of fruits of Leucaena leucocephala in riverside areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Magalhães, Marcelo R.L. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro; Silva, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala is present in several environments. Its fruit is widely used in cattle feed. However, it is classified as an invasive species, causing problems in the restoration of impacted areas. The Piracicaba River Basin is heavily affected by urbanization and industrialization, which shows the proliferation of this species. Considering the importance of this tree species for Brazil, the present study quantifies chemical elements in fruits of this species by applying Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis, method k 0 . Samples were collected in riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, at different periods (dry and rainy season). After collection, the samples were shattered and transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated with neutrons. Certified reference materials were used to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, all material was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm-2s-1 for 8 hours. Ni-Cr alloy was used for the monitoring of thermal neutron flux. High Resolution Range Spectrometry with HPG detectors was employed for the measurement of the induced radioactivity, allowing the quantification of the chemical elements. Compared with available results of chemical analysis of pods, the chemical elements Ca, K, Ba, Cr and Se presented high concentrations. We also quantified chemical elements of environmental relevance such as As, Hg, Br, Ce, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th and Yb, indicating the need for element dynamics studies in the environments occupied by this invasive species

  11. Transporte de ortofosfato e de nitrato na microbacia do Ribeirão Fortuna, SC Transportation of orthophosphate and nitrate in Ribeirão Fortuna microbasin, SC, Brazil

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    Adilson Pinheiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi a base primeira para se determinar o transporte de ortofosfato e nitrato no escoamento da microbacia do Ribeirão Fortuna, situada no município de Timbó, SC, como parte do Projeto Microbacias desenvolvido pela EPAGRI, em Santa Catarina. As coletas foram realizadas em quatro seções fluviométricas do curso de água principal e analisadas as concentrações das substâncias de interesse. Utilizou-se o modelo hidrológico IPHS1 para simulação do processo de transformação da precipitação em vazão, enquanto os parâmetros do modelo foram calibrados para uma estação fluviométrica, localizada nas proximidades e que possui série histórica de vazões médias diárias. Calcularam-se as cargas transportadas e se estabeleceram correlações entre as vazões escoadas e as cargas de ortofosfatos e nitratos. Constatou-se que as cargas específicas de ortofosfato são superiores às de nitrato e a área ocupada pelas culturas anuais e campo/pastagem na bacia explica as cargas anuais específicas estimadas de ortofosfato, porém, o uso do solo agrícola nas sub-bacias não está relacionado com o transporte de nitratos na rede de drenagem.The objective of this work was to determine the orthophosphate and nitrate loads in runoff at the Ribeirão Fortuna micro-basin, located in the municipality of Timbó, in Itajaí basin. This micro-basin was monitored by the Micro-basin Project, developed by EPAGRI, in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Samples were collected in four fluviometric sections along the main water course and substance concentrations were analysed. The IPHS1 hydrologic model was used for simulating the transformation process of precipitation in discharge. Model parameters were calibrated for a fluviometric station located nearby, which has a historical series of daily average discharge. The annual loads were calculated and correlations were established between the runoff discharge and orthophosphate and

  12. Ecologia da polinização da amoreira-preta (Rubus sp (Rosaceae em Timbó-SC, Brasil Pollination ecology of blackberry (Rubus sp. (Rosaceae in Timbo (SC, Brazil

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    Leônidas João de Mello Junior

    2011-09-01

    the flower of blackberry in a cultivated area and analysis of pollination behavior. The experiments were carried out in an area of blackberry crop, in December of 2005 in the city of Timbó (SC, Southern Brazil. The highest fruit set (48.3% ± 3,2 occurred in the free pollination (natural treatment where insects were not excluded. The occurrence of selfing was verified, however with o lower fruit set (12.2% ± 4,9. Anemophily was not observed in the species. The nectar evaluation in Rubus sp. resulted in values compatible with the melit tophily syndrome. Bees (Hymenoptera were the main floral visitors collected and observed on the flowers of Rubus sp., representing 97% of the individuals. They initiate the foraging activity at 8 a.m., with a peak activity at 12 a.m. and declining until 4 p.m. in the survey were sampled 1.360 bees, belonging to four families and 13 species. Halictidae was the family with highest amount of species (N = 7 and Apidae most abundant (1.288 individuals in the survey. Apidae was mainly represented by Apis mellifera, which is a exotic species, whose sample was of 1.246 individuals. The data of the abundance and the observation of its behavior, pointed A. mellifera as the main pollinator of Rubus sp, in the studied area, but also confirms that the other native species of bees, participate in the pollination process of Rubus sp.

  13. Parasitism by Monogenoidea in Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characiformes, Characidae cultivated in Paraná River (Brazil

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    M. S. L. Leão

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the occurrence, prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of monogenoidean parasites in Piaractus mesopotamicus farmed in cages in the reservoir of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Station, Paraná River, Brazil. The parasite distribution pattern and the correlation of prevalence and abundance with the total length of hosts were also investigated. Four monogenoidean species were collected: Anacanthorus penilabiatus, A. toledoensis, Mymarothecium ianwhitingtoni and M. viatorum. All the parasites collected in P. mesopotamicus showed the typical aggregated distribution pattern, and the abundance and the prevalence did not shown any correlation with the total length of hosts.

  14. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil

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    MC Barros

    Full Text Available The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22% of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.

  15. Metal concentrations in surface sediments of Paraiba do Sul River (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.O.; Calza, C.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; UERJ, Rio de Janeiro; Araujo, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Paraiba do Sul River is located in a strategic region between the most important urban and industrial centers of Brazil. In the last years, an increase in the water pollution has been reported, caused by the untreated domestic sewerage of the inhabitants, effluents discharged by various industries, mining activities and sand extraction from the riverbed. This work used total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF) to determine metals in the bioavailable and residual fractions from the surface sediments. The metals identified were Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. (author)

  16. Metazoan endoparasites of Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil

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    Wagner Vicentin

    Full Text Available In the period of October 2007 to August 2008, 152 specimens ofPygocentrus nattereri were caught in the Negro River in the Nhecolândia region, central Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The specimens were necropsied and a total of 4,212 metazoan endoparasites were recovered, belonging to 10 taxons:Procamallanus (Spirocamallanusinopinatus, Philometridae gen. sp.,Eustrongylides sp., Brevimulticaecum sp.,Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Echinorhynchus paranensis (Acanthocephala, Leiperia gracile,Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 andSubtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. This is the first record of two parasite species from P. nattereri: E. paranensis and L. gracile.

  17. Influence of habitat heterogeneity on anuran diversity in Restinga landscapes of the Parnaíba River delta, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Kássio C; Guzzi, Anderson; Ávila, Robson W

    2018-01-01

    Anurans have close associations with environmental conditions and therefore represent an interesting vertebrate group for examining how resource availability and environmental variables influence species diversity. Associations between habitat heterogeneity and anuran species diversity were tested in the Restinga landscapes of the Parnaíba River delta in northeastern Brazil. Twenty-one anuran species were sampled in the rainy season during monthly excursions (December 2015 to June 2016) into areas of Restinga on two islands in the Parnaíba River delta. The fourth highest anuran diversity was found in this type of environment in Brazil and is the third in northeastern Brazil. Microenvironments, characterized by a combination of vernal pools with different vegetational and physical structures, better explained anuran species composition in the Parnaíba River delta.

  18. Amazon river basin evapotranspiration and its influence on the rainfall in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folegatti, M. V.; Wolff, W.

    2017-12-01

    Amazon river basin (ARB) presents a positive water balance, i.e. the precipitation is higher than evapotranspiration. Regarding the regional circulation, ARB evapotranspiration represents an important source of humidity for the South of Brazil. Thus, the aim of this work is to answer the question: how much is the correlation between ARB evapotranspiration and rainfall in South of Brazil? The shapefiles data of ARB and countries/states boundary were obtained through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), respectively. According to rasters data, the precipitation was obtained from study of Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) for images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), under code MOD16A2, whereas rasters data for evapotranspiration were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), under code 3B43_V7. The products MOD16A2 and 3B43_V7 have a respective spatial resolution of 0.5º and 0.25º, and a monthly temporal resolution from January/2000 to December/2014. For ARB and South region of Brazil was calculated the mean evapotranspiration and mean precipitation through the pixels within of the respective polygons. To answer the question of this work was performed the cross-correlation analysis between these time series. We observed the highest value for the lag that corresponds the begin of spring (October), being 0.3 approximately. As a result, the mean precipitation on South region of Brazil during spring and summer was in the order of 15% to 30 %, explained by ARB evapotranspiration. For this reason, the maintenance of ARB is extremely important for water resource grant in South of Brazil.

  19. Diversity of non-biting midge larvae assemblages in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Márcia Regina; Secretti, Elisangela

    2012-01-01

    The richness and composition of a mountain-river chironomid larvae assemblage in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil were studied, and compared with other riverine non-biting midge larvae assemblages previously studied in the country. Additionally, the influence of some regional-scale environmental characteristics on the spatial distribution of these assemblages was tested. The specimens were collected at 12 sites in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin (in the state of Rio Grande do Sul) between April 2000 and May 2002. Around 100 taxa were recorded. The dominant taxa belonged to the genera Rheotanytarsus, Cricotopus, Polypedilum, and Pseudochironomus. Twenty-two rare taxa were found, representing 22% of the total of taxa inventoried. Fourteen genera (Aedokritus, Axarus, Endotribelos, Kiefferulus, Manoa, Oukuriella, Phaenopsectra, Stenochironomus, Xenochironomus, Xestochironomus, Cardiocladius, Metriocnemus, Paracladius, and Rheocricotopus) represent new occurrences in Rio Grande do Sul. The similarity analysis of the chironomid larvae assemblages inventoried in 32 regions of Brazil indicated five groups with similarity higher than 50%. The groups, when the effects of spatial autocorrelation were removed, displayed a weak positive correlation between the assemblage composition and the aquatic system or hydraulic conditions and the hydrographic basin, and a weak negative correlation in relation to the biome. The altitude showed no correlation with the composition of the assemblage. The relatively high richness of the region surveyed in relation to other Brazilian regions corroborates some tendencies already noted in other parts of the world, such as: i) lotic systems may constitute an exception to the rule that diversity is greater in tropical regions, ii) regions of transitional relief may contain the greatest richness of Chironomidae, and iii) in rivers, the group might have its spatial distribution influenced to a greater extent by local environmental

  20. ADROINDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION OF CHAPECÓ-SC -BRAZIL (1950-2010: A VIEW ABOUT THE URBAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND CONFLITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Facco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chapecó is a city of Catarinense West which has considerable regional influence and whose urbanization process is associated to an intense agroindustrial activity, during the last decades. This article treats the increasing urbanization of Chapecó from 1950 to 2010 decades, highlighting, in cartograms, this expression along the years, focusing the,3 urban and environmental impacts occurred, in special, about the occupation of river system basin of public supply and the conflict of the occurred use. The present study had as objective to comprehend this urban occupation process and, more specifically, as the aim to understand how it occurred, as also how to identify the main conflicts of soil use that occurred in it and its implications, as availing the influence that the occupation territorial plans had in this process, as well the historical, political and economical context. The work had as base an air photo analysis of the city in six different time cutting, they are: 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000, together the Municipal Prefecture of Chapecó/SC, file done the also, it was collect of referent data to the approval action of new allotments and analysis of director plans of the city. The results demonstrate, clearly, the urban process of Chapecó was strongly influenced by the installation of the main industries of the city, by roads and by the first university installed in the town. It was found an advance in the urbanization by a non-planned form, providing an evaluation of this urbanization, as reflections to the action of public sector and society in order to find an occupation to balance interests to an economical developing in the city, as to the conservation of water resources, which are fundamentals to the same developing process and to the population quality life.

  1. Habitat preferences of common native fishes in a tropical river in Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcus Rodrigues da Costa

    Full Text Available We determined in this study the habitat preferences of seven native fish species in a regulated river in Southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that fishes differ in habitat preference and that they use stretches of the river differing in hydraulic characteristics and substrate type. We surveyed fishes in four 1-km long river stretches encompassing different habitat traits, where we also measured water depth, velocity, and substrate type. We investigated preference patterns of four Siluriformes (Loricariichthys castaneus, Hoplosternum littorale, Pimelodus maculatus, and Trachelyopterus striatulus and three Characiformes (Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, Oligosarcus hepsetus, and Hoplias malabaricus, representing approximately 70% of the total number of fishes and 64% of the total biomass. We classified fishes into four habitat guilds: (1 a slow-flowing water guild that occupied mud-sand substrate, composed of two Siluriformes in either shallow ( 8 m, L. castaneus waters; (2 a run-dwelling guild that occurs in deep backwaters with clay-mud substrate, composed of the Characiformes A. aff. bimaculatus and O. hepsetus; (3 a run-dwelling guild that occurs in sandy and shallow substrate, composed of T. striatulus; and (4 a fast-flowing guild that occurs primarily along shorelines with shallow mud bottoms, composed of H. malabaricus and P. maculatus. Our hypothesis was confirmed, as different habitat preferences by fishes appear to occur in this regulated river.

  2. Trace element fluxes in sediments of an environmentally impacted river from a coastal zone of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; Singh, Vijay P; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Piscoya, Victor Casimiro; Guerra, Sérgio M S

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding trace element concentrations and fluxes in suspended sediments and bedload are scarce. To fill this gap and meet the international need to include polluted rivers in future world estimation of trace element fluxes, this study aimed to determine the trace element fluxes in suspended sediment and bedload of an environmentally impacted river in Brazil. Water, suspended sediment, and bedload from both the upstream and the downstream cross sections were collected. To collect both the suspended sediment and water samples, we used the US DH-48. Bedload measurements were carried out using the US BLH 84 sampler. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). As and Hg were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-FIAS). The suspended sediments contributed more than 99 % of the trace element flux. By far Pb and to a less extent Zn at the downstream site represents major concerns. The yields of Pb and Zn in suspended sediments were 4.20 and 2.93 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively. These yields were higher than the values reported for Pb and Zn for Tuul River (highly impacted by mining activities), 1.60 and 1.30 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively, as well as the Pb yield (suspended + dissolved) to the sea of some Mediterranean rivers equal to 3.4 kg km(2) year(-1). Therefore, the highest flux and yield of Pb and Zn in Ipojuca River highlighted the importance to include medium and small rivers-often overlooked in global and regional studies-in the future estimation of world trace element fluxes in order to protect estuaries and coastal zones.

  3. Evaluation of water quality at the source of streams of the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

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    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos River Basin (SRB is located in the northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º20' to 30º10'S and 50º15' to 51º20'W, southern Brazil, and covers two geomorphologic provinces: the southern plateau and the central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin, has an area of approximately 800 km2 and contains 32 counties. The basin provides drinking water for 1.6 million inhabitants in one of the most important industrial centres in Brazil. This study describes different water quality indices (WQI used for the sub-basins of three important streams in the SRB: Pampa, Estância Velha/Portão and Schmidt streams. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters assessed bimonthly using samples collected at each stream source were used to calculate the Horton Index (HI, the Dinius Index (DI and the water quality index adopted by the US National Sanitation Foundation (NSF WQI in the additive and multiplicative forms. These indices describe mean water quality levels at the streams sources. The results obtained for these 3 indexes showed a worrying scenario in which water quality has already been negatively affected at the sites where three important sub-basins in the Sinos River Basin begin to form.

  4. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE, AIKEN, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D

    2006-10-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on ''rapid'' and, because the available keys contained a large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained more genera than we would likely encounter and because this larger number of genera required both more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher) more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  5. K-Ar geology, geochemistry and geochronology from the Maria River region dikes, Parana State southeastern part, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Renato Oliveira da; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Oliveira, Elson Paiva de

    1996-01-01

    The paper synthesizes the geological, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data from the Maria River region dikes, situated at the southeastern part of the Para State, Brazil. It identifies five groups of dikes and determines the age of these dikes, through the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) methodology

  6. SRTXRF analysis in sediments from the Paraiba do Sul river (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareira, Marcelo O.; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos; Araujo, Francisco Gerson

    2005-01-01

    The Paraiba do Sul is a medium-sized river located in a region between the two most important urban and industrial centers of Brazil (Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo), with 1145 km in length and a drainage basin of 55400 km 2 . Formed by the junction of the Paraibuna and Paraitinga rivers, it arises in Serra da Bocaina (Sao Paulo state) and flows to the Atlantic Ocean until its mouth in Atafona (Rio de Janeiro State). In the last years, has been reported an increase in the water pollution, caused by the untreated domestic sewerage of the inhabitants, effluents discharged by various industries, mining activities and sand extraction of the riverbed. Consequently, a decline in the diversity and abundance of the fish species has been observed. This work used the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF) technique to determine the heavy metals levels in the bioavailable and residual fractions from the surface sediment, in sampling points along the Paraiba do Sul River Basin. The samples were collected from November 2002 to April 2003. The analysis was performed at XRF beamline D09B of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using a white beam for the excitation and a Si(Li) semiconductor detector with resolution of 165 eV. All samples were excited for 100 s. The elements found in the sediment samples were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. (author)

  7. OSL dating of sediments from Negro and Solimões rivers – Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, M.; Soares, E.A.A.; Mittani, J.C.R.; Yee, M.; Tatumi, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the OSL dating results of Quaternary fluvial deposits from the confluence of Negro and Solimões rivers were studied. The equivalent doses (D e ) of sediments were obtained using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol. Statistic studies were made using frequency histogram, weighted histogram and Radial plot in order to analyze the D e fluctuations. Ages from 74.5 to 205 thousand of years (Pleistocene) were recorded. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate the natural radioisotopes concentrations of the samples and low concentrations were found with values between 0.64 and 3.71 ppm for 235 U and 238 U; 2.01–9.77 ppm for 232 Th; already, for 40 K, the concentration was negligible. The OSL dating of sediments has contributed to a better understanding of the evolution of Negro and Solimões rivers, in Amazon, Brazil. - Highlights: ► OSL dating of fluvial terraces from Amazon. ► SAR protocols applied to Amazon sediments dating. ► OSL dating of Solimão and Negro rivers sediments

  8. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

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    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  9. Dissolved black carbon along the land to ocean continuum of Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva Junior, Jomar; Dittmar, Thorsten; Niggemann, Jutta; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Rivers annually carry 25-28 Tg of pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (or dissolved black carbon, DBC) into the ocean, which is equivalent to about 10% of the entire land-ocean flux of dissolved organic carbon (Jaffé et al., Science 340, 345-347). Objective of this study was to identify the main processes behind the release and turnover of DBC on a riverine catchment scale. As model system we chose the land to ocean continuum of Paraíba do Sul River (Brazil), the only river system for which long-term DBC flux data exist (Dittmar, Rezende et al., Nature Geoscience 5, 618-622). The catchment was originally covered by Atlantic rain forest (mainly C3 plants) which was almost completely destroyed over the past centuries by slash-and-burn. As a result, large amounts of wood-derived charcoal reside in the soils. Today, fire-managed pasture and sugar cane (both dominated by C4 plants) cover most of the catchment. Water samples were collected at 24 sites along the main channel of the river, at 14 sites of the main tributaries and at 21 sites along the salinity gradient in the estuary and up to 35 km offshore. Sampling was performed in the wet seasons of 2013 and 2014, and the dry season of 2013. DBC was determined on a molecular level as benzenepolycarboxylic acids after nitric acid oxidation (Dittmar, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 6, 230-235). Stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were determined in solid phase extractable dissolved organic carbon (SPE-DOC) to distinguish C4 and C3 sources. Our results clearly show a relationship between hydrology and DBC concentrations in the river, with highest DBC concentrations in the wet season and lowest in the dry season. This relationship indicates that DBC is mainly mobilized from the upper soil horizons during heavy rainfalls. A significant correlation between DBC concentrations and δ13C-SPE-DOC indicated that most of DBC in the river system originates from C3 plants, i.e. from the historic burning event of the Atlantic rain

  10. Metal concentrations in surface water and sediments from Pardo River, Brazil: human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renato I S; Sampaio, Carolina F; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2014-08-01

    Pardo River (Brazil) is suffering from an important anthropogenic impact due to the pressure of highly populated areas and the influence of sugarcane cultivation. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of 13 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Tl, Sn, V and Zn) in samples of surface water and sediments from the Pardo River. Furthermore, the human health risks associated with exposure to those metals through oral intake and dermal absorption were also evaluated. Spatial and seasonal trends of the data were closely analyzed from a probabilistic approach. Manganese showed the highest mean concentrations in both water and sediments, remarking the incidence of the agricultural activity and the geological characteristics within the basin. Thallium and arsenic were identified as two priority pollutants, being the most important contributors to the Hazard Index (HI). Since non-carcinogenic risks due to thallium exposure slightly exceeded international guidelines (HI>1), a special effort should be made on this trace element. However, the current concentrations of arsenic, a carcinogenic element, were in accordance to acceptable lifetime risks. Nowadays, there is a clear increasing growth in human population and economic activities in the Pardo River, whose waters have become a serious strategic alternative for the potential supply of drinking water. Therefore, environmental monitoring studies are required not only to assure that the current state of pollution of Pardo River does not mean a risk for the riverside population, but also to assess the potential trends in the environmental levels of those elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  12. Medicinal animals: knowledge and use among riverine populations from the Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Andréa Leme da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article documents the use of animals in the home medicine among riverine populations from the Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data were collected through interviews and observations concerning to the knowledge and everyday practices of the use of medicinal animals. About 60 animal species are known with medicinal purposes. The knowledge is well distributed between sexes (men and women and localities (urban and rural. The use of medicinal animals is embedded in etiological concepts and involves a complex cosmological vision of the cure process. The rural exodus and the facilitated access to the western medicine may be promoting the loss of the traditional knowledge, which can be mitigated through the valorization and transmission of this knowledge to the future generations.

  13. Gorduras em pães comercializados em Florianópolis (SC | Fats in bread products sold in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Elinete E. de Lima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O tipo de óleo/gordura utilizado na fabricação de pães interfere nas suas propriedades sensoriais e nutricionais. Assim, objetivou-se identificar os tipos de óleos/gorduras declarados nos rótulos dos pães (n = 320 comercializados em padarias e supermercados (n = 23 da região central de Florianópolis (SC. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado (x². Aproximadamente 20% dos pães estavam sendo comercializados sem rótulo, todos de fabricação própria. Na avaliação das listas dos ingredientes os óleos/gorduras mais frequentes foram: gorduras vegetais (possíveis fontes de gordura trans (32%, óleos vegetais (25% e gordura de palma (18%. No entanto, apenas 5,6% dos pães apresentaram em seus rótulos gordura trans na porção. Os pães com maior ocorrência de gordura vegetal foram: hambúrguer/hot dog (92%, bisnaguinha (92% e de forma (82%. Já o grupo de pão integral industrial se destacou por conter principalmente óleos vegetais (88%. O grupo pão doce (100%, fabricado com gordura animal e gordura vegetal hidrogenada, apresentou maiores quantidades de gordura total. Conclui-se que há necessidade de melhorias com relação à rotulagem de pães; que pães industriais, especialmente os integrais, contêm gorduras mais saudáveis discriminadas em seus rótulos; pães hambúrguer/hot dog, bisnaguinha, de forma e doce, as menos saudáveis. =============================================== The type of oils/fats used in bread manufacturing affects the sensory and nutritional properties of bread products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the types of oils/fats described on the labels of bread products (n = 320 sold in bakeries and supermarkets (n = 23 in the central region of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The chi-squared test (χ² was used to analyze the data. Approximately 20% of the bread products available were not labeled. These products were made at the in-store bakeries

  14. Temporal evaluation of soil use conflicts in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil

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    Kaio Cesar Cardoso de Lima Fonseca Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of permanent preservation areas (PPA is mainly associated to their environmental role to maintain, preserve, and conserve water resources and ecosystems within a basin. The objective of this study was to delimitate and quantify the areas of PPA along watercourses as well as anthropized areas within PPAs boundaries, in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil. PPAs area was delimited considering boundaries according to the Brazilian Forest Law. We sampled areas within the watercourses classified up to hierarchical Level 4. Watercourses handling draw, automatic delimitation of PPA, and visual classification of the soil use conflicts based on LANDSAT 5 TM of 1985, 1998 and 2011 were carried out on Geographical Information System ArcGIS. PPA of the watercourses sampled in this study represent 1.14% (24,491.35 ha of the drainage area of the Formoso river basin. For 1985, an area of about 3,616.48 ha was quantified, which is characterized by conflicts related to soil use. However, these conflict areas were reduced to 3,341.25 ha and 3,345.37 ha, respectively, for 1998 and 2011. Due to the intense agricultural land expansion observed in the basin in the last decades, the mentioned reductions in soil use conflicts between 1985 and 1998 and subsequent maintenance can be linked to changes on Brazilian environmental legislation.

  15. Assessment of Mercury Concentration in Turtles (Podocnemis unifilis in the Xingu River Basin, Brazil

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    Marina Teófilo Pignati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on mercury contamination in aquatic biota deal with the effect of consuming metal-contaminated organisms on human health. In this study, we examined the factors that cause mercury contamination in Podocnemis unifilis in the Xingu River Basin of Mato Grosso and Pará States, Brazil. We quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy with cold vapor the total mercury (THg content in the liver and muscle samples of 50 Podocnemis unifilis specimens collected from the basin. The liver and muscle samples contained 134.20 ± 119.30 ng g−1 THg and 24.86 ± 26.36 ng g−1 THg, respectively. Each chelonian or meal has, on average, 5.34× more Hg than the highest level established as acceptable. From the results it can be inferred that, given the weekly consumption of chelonians, the riverine and indigenous communities in the Xingu River Basin are at risk of chronic consumption of Hg in amounts beyond the acceptable limit. The potential high risk to the health of this population is evident; however, the risk classification needs to be further studied.

  16. FLUVIAL PROCESSES IN ATTACHMENT BARS IN THE UPPER PARANÁ RIVER, BRAZIL

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    Vanessa Cristina Dos Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bars are semi-submerged fluvial forms associated with the availability of sediments and a temporal dynamic, whose dimensions are controlled by the flow and depth of the channel.  Attachment bars are very common in large anabranching river systems and play an important role in island formation and ecology. The Upper Paraná River exhibits an anabranching pattern characterized by channels of different sizes, separated by islands and bars. The objective of this work is to present the processes involved in the formation and development of attachment bars in Santa Rosa Island, situated in Porto Rico, State of Parana, Southern Brazil. Acquisition campaigns were performed to obtain data on channel hydraulics (ADCP equipment, morphometry (Echo-sound profiles and textural parameters (grain-size analyses at high and medium water levels. Santa Rosa Island divides the flow into two channels of distinct hydraulic and sedimentary dynamics. Flow diversion produces a decrease in flow velocity and consequent sediment deposition near the upstream end of Santa Rosa Island. The formation and maintenance of attachment bars in Santa Rosa Island is related to flow competence reduction and the occurrence of divergent currents. Vegetation cover and flow regime control its permanence. 

  17. Technical knowledge and water resources management: A comparative study of river basin councils, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Bell, Andrew R.; Engle, Nathan L.; Formiga-Johnsson, Rosa Maria; Nelson, Donald R.

    2010-06-01

    Better understanding of the factors that shape the use of technical knowledge in water management is important both to increase its relevance to decision-making and sustainable governance and to inform knowledge producers where needs lie. This is particularly critical in the context of the many stressors threatening water resources around the world. Recent scholarship focusing on innovative water management institutions emphasizes knowledge use as critical to water systems' adaptive capacity to respond to these stressors. For the past 15 years, water resources management in Brazil has undergone an encompassing reform that has created a set of participatory councils at the river basin level. Using data from a survey of 626 members of these councils across 18 river basins, this article examines the use of technical knowledge (e.g., climate and weather forecasts, reservoir streamflow models, environmental impact assessments, among others) within these councils. It finds that use of knowledge positively aligns with access, a more diverse and broader discussion agenda, and a higher sense of effectiveness. Yet, use of technical knowledge is also associated with skewed levels of power within the councils.

  18. Water quality monitoring of the Pirapó River watershed, Paraná, Brazil

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    E. C. Bortoletto

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Pirapó River watershed in Paraná, Brazil, and identify the critical pollution sites throughout the drainage basin. The water quality was monitored during the period from January 2011 to December 2012. Nine points distributed throughout the main channel of the Pirapó River were sampled for a total of 17 samplings. The water quality was evaluated based on the determination of 14 physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Analysis of the variables monitored in the Pirapó River watershed using factor analysis/principal components analysis (FA/PCA indicated the formation of three distinct groups of parameters: water temperature (Twater, dissolved oxygen (DO and a group composed of total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity and nitrite (NO2–. The parameters Twater and DO exhibited a relationship with the seasonality, and the TSS, turbidity, and NO2– levels were correlated with surface runoff caused by rainfall events. Principal component analysis (PCA of the sampling points enabled the selection of the 10 most important variables from among the 14 evaluated parameters. The results showed that the nitrate (NO3–, NO2–, TSS, turbidity and total phosphorous (TP levels were related to the soil type, and the parameters DO, electrical conductivity (EC, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3 and thermotolerant coliforms (TC were related to organic matter pollution, with the P5 sampling site being the most critical site. The ordination diagram of the sampling points as a function of the PCA indicated a reduction from 9 to 5 sampling points, indicating the potential for decreasing the costs associated with monitoring.

  19. The ichthyofauna of drifting macrophyte mats in the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

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    Cíntia Karen Bulla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the fish assemblages associated with drifting macrophyte mats and consider their possible role as dispersal vectors in the Ivinhema River, a major tributary of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Fish associated with drifting mats were sampled in the main river channel during January and March 2005, when the wind and/or the increased water level were sufficient to transport macrophyte stands. Fish in the drifting mats were sampled with a floating sieve (4 m long x 2 m wide x 0.6 m high, and 2 mm mesh size. In the laboratory, larvae, juvenile, and adult fish were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. In four drifting macrophyte mats we captured 218 individuals belonging to at least 28 species, 17 families, and 6 orders. Aphyocharax dentatus, Serrasalmus spp., and Trachelyopterus galeatus were the most abundant taxa associated with the mats, but species richness ranged from 6 to 24 species per mat. In addition, 85% of the total number of individuals caught was larvae and juveniles. Although preliminary and based on limited samples, this study of drifting macrophyte mats was the first one in the last unregulated stretch of the Paraná River remaining inside Brazilian territory, and alerts us to the potential role of macrophytes mats as dispersers of fish species in the region.Nesse trabalho as assembleias de peixes associadas a bancos de macrófitas flutuantes à deriva foram descritas. Além disso, foi considerado o possível papel desses bancos como vetores de dispersão no rio Ivinhema, importante tributário do alto rio Paraná, Brasil. Os peixes associados aos bancos à deriva foram amostrados no canal principal desse rio, entre os meses de Janeiro a Março de 2005, quando o vento e/ou o aumento no nível da água foram suficientes para transportar os bancos de macrófitas. Os peixes foram amostrados com uma rede flutuante (4 m de comprimento x 2 m de largura x 0,6 m de altura e 2 mm de tamanho de malha. No

  20. Mass balance in the monitoring of pollutants in tidal rivers of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Raquel Pinhão; Rodrigues, Ana Paula de Castro; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello; Bidone, Edison Dausacker

    2011-10-01

    This study addressed the identification and monitoring of pollution sources of terrestrial origin in rivers (domestic sewage and industrial effluents) and critical fluvial segments in highly polluted environments under tidal influence (mixing marine and continental sources) from Guanabara Bay Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mass balance of contaminants was determined in conditions of continuous flow (low tide) during dry season (lower dilution capability). The results allowed the evaluation of the potential of contaminant mass generation by the different river segments and the estimation of their natural and anthropogenic components. The water quality of Iguaçú and Sarapuí Rivers were evaluated for metals and biochemical oxygen demand. The method gave an excellent response, including the possibility of sources identification and contaminated river segments ranking. The approach also offers fast execution and data interpretation, being highly efficient.

  1. [Helminth parasites of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae) from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sonia M C; Ceccarelli, Paulo S; Luque, José L

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea) in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda) in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea) and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala) in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100%) and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%). Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively). All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.

  2. Sobrepeso em crianças menores de 6 anos de idade em Florianópolis, SC Overweight in children under 6 years of age in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

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    Arlete Catarina Tittoni Corso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a prevalência de sobrepeso através do índice de peso para altura, classificação expressa em escore-Z, padrão de referência do National Center for Health Statistics, em 3 806 crianças menores de seis anos de idade, residentes no município de Florianópolis, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Obteve-se uma prevalência de 1,9% de desnutrição e 6,8% de sobrepeso, sendo este predominante em crianças residentes em áreas não carentes, do sexo feminino e menores de dois anos de idade. A prevalência de sobrepeso deste estudo foi comparada com aquelas encontradas em outras regiões do Brasil e em outros países. Aplicou-se o teste chi2 (Mantel-Haenszel, para verificar a associação de casos com sobrepeso entre áreas carentes e não carentes, sexo e faixa etária. Observou-se associação estatisticamente significante (pThe prevalence of overweight in 3,806 children under six years of age, living in the city of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was determined through weight for height Z-scores (National Center for Health Statistics reference. Results showed an incidence of 1.9% for malnutrition and 6.8% for overweight, and this last one predominated in female children under the age of two, living in not-so-poor areas. The prevalence of overweight in this study was compared to those found in other regions of Brazil and in other countries. The chi2 Mantel-Haenszel test was applied to verify the association of overweight occurrence with poor/not poor areas, sex and age. Statistically significant association (p<0.05 was observed among children under two years of age. This result is similar to the one found by Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição for Brazil in 1989.

  3. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae) in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Luciana B.; Anjos, Luiz dos

    2006-01-01

    We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae), a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs...

  4. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

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    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  5. Hydrologic cycle and dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in two intermittent rivers of the semi-arid region of Brazil

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    F. Pedro

    Full Text Available The dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in intermittent rivers is generally related to the characteristics of the resistance and resilience of plants to hydrologic disturbances of flood and drought. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, intermittent rivers and streams are affected by disturbances with variable intensity, frequency, and duration throughout their hydrologic cycles. The aim of the present study is to determine the occurrence and variation of biomass of aquatic macrophyte species in two intermittent rivers of distinct hydrologic regimes. Their dynamics were determined with respect to resistance and resilience responses of macrophytes to flood and drought events by estimating the variation of biomass and productivity throughout two hydrologic cycles. Twenty-one visits were undertaken in the rewetting, drying, and drought phases in a permanent puddle in the Avelós stream and two temporary puddles in the Taperoá river, state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The sampling was carried out by using the square method. Floods of different magnitudes occurred during the present study in the river and in the stream. The results showed that floods and droughts are determining factors in the occurrence of macrophytes and in the structure of their aquatic communities. The species richness of the aquatic macrophyte communities was lower in the puddles of the river and stream subject to flood events, when compared to areas where the run-off water is retained. At the beginning of the recolonization process, the intensity of the floods was decisive in the productivity and biomass of the aquatic macrophytes in the Taperoá river and the Avelós stream. In intermediate levels of disturbance, the largest values of productivity and biomass and the shortest time for starting the recolonization process occurred.

  6. Perfil farmacoepidemiológico dos pacientes diabéticos participantes do programa Hiperdia em Tubarão-SC, BrasilPharmacoepidemiological profile of diabetic patients participants of Hiperdia program in Tubarão-SC, Brazil

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    Gustavo Paes Silvano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A maior compreensão da fisiopatologia do diabetes mellitus tem contribuído para o desenvolvimento de novas terapias farmacológicas além daquelas já padronizadas. Em função da alta incidência de diabetes mellitus e outras condições, como hipertensão arterial sistêmica e depressão, é comum encontrar pacientes em politerapia, que demanda aumento do conhecimento das interações entre as classes de fármacos empregadas. Promover a adesão dos pacientes à terapia farmacológica é um desafio importante para os profissionais de saúde e um fator imprescindível para o sucesso no manejo do diabetes mellitus. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o perfil farmacoepidemiológico dos pacientes com diabetes mellitus cadastrados no programa Hiperdia da cidade de Tubarão-SC, Brasil. Métodos: estudo observacional descritivo com aplicação de questionários e coleta de dados de prontuários. Resultados: os 133 pacientes que participaram do estudo eram, em sua maioria, masculinos (54,1%, com uma média de 64,7 ± 10,1 anos, glicemia de jejum de 126,0 ± 46,8 mg/dL e hemoglobina glicada de 7,7 ± 1,4%. Os medicamentos mais frequentes foram os que atuam no sistema cardiovascular (29,5% e sistema nervoso (25,6%. Apenas 21,8% dos pacientes foram considerados aderentes ao tratamento farmacológico. Os diabéticos tratados com metformina e sitagliptina apresentaram a melhor resposta metabólica. Conclusões: os diabéticos participantes do programa Hiperdia são na maioria idosos, homens, apresentando alta incidência de sobrepeso, hipertensão arterial e outras complicações em consequência da hiperglicemia crônica, além de má adesão ao tratamento e baixa resposta terapêutica na combinação de metformina com uma sulfonilureia.

  7. Downstream passage of fish larvae and eggs through a small-sized reservoir, Mucuri river, Brazil

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    Paulo S. Pompeu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In South America, one important symptom of the failure of fish passages to sustain fish migratory recruitment is the inability of eggs and larvae to reach the nurseries. This is especially so when the breeding areas are located upstream of a reservoir, and the floodplain is downstream of the dam. Therefore, the transport of fish larvae and eggs across reservoir barriers is a key factor in the development of effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for migratory fish larvae and egg transportation across a small size reservoir in eastern Brazil. We sampled fish daily between 15th October 2002 and 15th February 2003 (spawning period in the Mucuri River, immediately upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the Santa Clara Power Plant dam. Our study was the first to indicate the possibility of successful larval passage through the reservoir of a hydroelectric reservoir and dam in South America, and showed that the passage of migratory fish larvae was associated significantly with residence time of water in the reservoir. The relatively short water residence time and elevated turbidity of the Santa Clara's reservoir waters during the rainy season certainly contributed to the successful passage, and can be considered as key factors for a priori evaluations of the feasibility of a downstream larval passage.

  8. Radionuclides release to three rivers by ore treatment unit at Caldas, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Carmo, R.F. do; Py Junior, D.A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is a uranium mining and milling plant, situated at Caldas city, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was disabled in the mid 90's. This unit releases controlled effluents to three rivers: Ribeirao das Antas (at point 014, influenced by the waste pile), Ribeirao Soberbo (point 025, influenced by the waste pond) and Corrego da Consulta (at point 076, influenced by the open pit mine). Water samples collected at these points were analyzed for U{sub nat}, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra content in the particulate and soluble fractions, and the behavior of radionuclide releases and their fractions was investigated. U{sub nat} and {sup 228}Ra showed identical behaviors at these three points. U{sub nat} at point 014 (waste pile) behaved different from described in recent literature data. The isotopes of Ra should exhibit the same behavior at each point, but this was not observed at point 025 (waste pond). {sup 232}Th release showed equal activity concentration near the waste pile (point 014) and near the waste pond (point 025), whilst near the open pit mine (point 076) the soluble fraction showed a concentration of activity greater than the particulate fraction. Finally, {sup 210}Pb showed a different behavior at each point. Due to the great differences in behaviors of each radionuclide, it was not possible to establish a temporal pattern of release which requires assessment over a longer period of time. (author)

  9. [Work-related accidents in traditional fishermen from the Medium Araguaia River region, Tocantins, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone Neto, Domingos; Cordeiro, Ricardo Carlos; Haddad, Vidal

    2005-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional study of work-related accidents among traditional fishermen in the Medium Araguaia River region of Tocantins, Brazil. From June to August 2002, fishermen from the Municipality of Araguacema were interviewed about the organization of their work activities and work-related accidents during the previous six months. Of the 92 participating fishermen, 56 reported having suffered a work-related accident (annual incidence was 82.6%). Some 95.7% of those interviewed did not regularly pay social security insurance as self-employed workers and were not aware of their social rights and duties. For fishermen reporting accidents, this proportion was 98.2%. Approximately 23.0% had another work activity, mainly as construction workers (47.6%) or sport-fishing guides (23.9%). Injuries inflicted by aquatic animals were the main form of accidents (about 86.0%). From these results, it is apparent that accidents from aquatic animals are an important health hazard, in some cases causing temporary work incapacity.

  10. MECHANISMS CONTROLLING SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE COBRAS RIVER SUB-BASIN, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    ALEXANDRE DE OLIVEIRA LIMA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stream water quality is dependent on many factors, including the source and quantity of the streamflow and the types of geology and soil along the path of the stream. This study aims to evaluate the origin and the mechanisms controlling the input of ions that effect surface water quality in the sub-basin of the Rio das Cobras, Rio Grande do Norte state, Northeastern Brazil. Thirteen ponds were identified for study: three in the main river and ten in the tributaries between, thus covering the whole area and lithology of the sub-basin. The samples were collected at two different times (late dry and rainy periods in the hydrological years 2009 and 2010, equating to total of four collection times. We analyzed the spatial and seasonal behavior of water quality in the sub-basin, using Piper diagrams, and analyzed the source of the ions using Guibbs diagram and molar ratios. With respect to ions, we found that water predominate in 82% sodium and 76% bicarbonate water (cations and anions, respectively. The main salinity control mechanism was related to the interaction of the colloidal particles (minerals and organic sediment with the ions dissolved in water. Based on the analysis of nitrates and nitrites there was no evidence of contamination from anthropogenic sources.

  11. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

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    F. A. LANSAC-TÔHA

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  12. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

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    LANSAC-TÔHA F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  13. Radionuclides release to three rivers by ore treatment unit at Caldas, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Carmo, R.F. do; Py Junior, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is a uranium mining and milling plant, situated at Caldas city, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was disabled in the mid 90's. This unit releases controlled effluents to three rivers: Ribeirao das Antas (at point 014, influenced by the waste pile), Ribeirao Soberbo (point 025, influenced by the waste pond) and Corrego da Consulta (at point 076, influenced by the open pit mine). Water samples collected at these points were analyzed for U nat , 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 228 Ra content in the particulate and soluble fractions, and the behavior of radionuclide releases and their fractions was investigated. U nat and 228 Ra showed identical behaviors at these three points. U nat at point 014 (waste pile) behaved different from described in recent literature data. The isotopes of Ra should exhibit the same behavior at each point, but this was not observed at point 025 (waste pond). 232 Th release showed equal activity concentration near the waste pile (point 014) and near the waste pond (point 025), whilst near the open pit mine (point 076) the soluble fraction showed a concentration of activity greater than the particulate fraction. Finally, 210 Pb showed a different behavior at each point. Due to the great differences in behaviors of each radionuclide, it was not possible to establish a temporal pattern of release which requires assessment over a longer period of time. (author)

  14. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland environment, and an endangeredspecies: Triclaria malachitacea. Bird abundance differed from woodland (n = 426 individuals to urban environments (n = 939 individuals (F2,6 = 7.315; P = 0.025. Species composition and feeding guilds differed significantly in the bird community structures among these three riparian environments. In the grassland and urban environments there were more generalist insectivorous species, while in the woodland environments we find more leaf and trunk insectivorous species and frugivorous species, sensitive to human impacts. Bird species can be biological quality indicators and they contribute to ecosystems performing relevant functions. With the knowledge on bird community structure and their needs, it is possible to implement management practices for restoration of degraded riparian environments.

  15. Environmental Investigation of Psychiatric Pharmaceuticals: Guandu River, Rio De Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals are considered to be important environmental contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate their presence in water intended for public supply to Municipally of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The regional environmental assessment was done from the analysis of surface water and distribution for the presence of psychiatric drugs. The study reveals the presence of benzodiazepine derivatives in all samples of surface water samples of the Guandu River, with the amounts of 42 ng L-1, 198 ng L-1 and 335 ng L-1 for bromazepam, clonazepam, and diazepam, respectively. The population served by Companhia Estadual de Águas e Esgotos (CEDAE is the order of ten million. Psychiatric pharmaceuticals, in particular, are thought to impose significant ecological risks. A better understanding of the real impact of these pollutants implies a comprehensive evaluation of their persistence and fate in environmental matrices. The studies presented in this article are intended to contribute to improve the knowledge about the occurrence of some psychiatric drugs in the water supply.

  16. Mass balance of arsenic fluxes in rivers impacted by gold mining activities in Paracatu (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidone, Edison; Cesar, Ricardo; Santos, Maria Carla; Sierpe, Ricardo; Silva-Filho, Emmanuel Vieira; Kutter, Vinicius; Dias da Silva, Lílian I; Castilhos, Zuleica

    2018-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is a dangerous and carcinogenic element and drinking water is its main pathway of human exposure. Gold mines are widely recognized as important sources of As pollution. This work proposes the assessment of As distribution along watersheds surrounding "Morro do Ouro" gold mine (Paracatu, southeastern Brazil). A balance approach between filtered As fluxes (As river segments was applied. Ultrafiltration procedure was used to categorize As into the following classes: particulate > 0.1 μm, colloidal  10 kDa, dissolved  1 kDa, and truly dissolved river segment that suggests As accumulation in sediments along the rivers in both urban and rural areas, mainly due to SPM sedimentation and sorption by Fe oxyhydroxides. Ultrafiltration shattering showed concentrations of decreasing As with particle size; the SPM load (> 0.1 μm) was almost one order higher to dissolved load (< 1 kDa).

  17. Sequence stratigraphy of Taciba and Rio Bonito formations in Mafra, SC area, eastern Parana Basin, Brazil; Estratigrafia de sequencias das formacoes Taciba e Rio Bonito (Membro Triunfo) na regiao de Mafra/SC, leste da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The Taciba and Rio Bonito ('lower' Triunfo Mbr) formations are divided into six depositional sequences based on cores, gamma-ray and electrical logs from shallow drillings from northern Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Each sequence is formed by two systems tracts, a lower one, sandy (low stand) and an upper one, shaly (high stand). The Taciba Formation has three sequences, S{sub 0} to S{sub 2}; sequence S{sub 0} has a thick turbidite sandstone at the base (Rio Segredo Member) that pinches out towards the eastern margin and even disappears in the Mafra outcrop area. Sequence S{sub 1} varies from a thin fluvial-estuarine system to a thick turbidite sandstone of a channelled fan system; S{sub 1} upper shaly system tract is marine in well PP-11, and it is glacially influenced in well PP-10. Sequence S{sub 2} is a thick sandstone body of shallow marine origin, but restricted to one well (PP-11); its upper shaly tract is dominated by massive siltstones intercalated with thin, distal tempestites. The 'lower' Triunfo Member (or 'Taciba- Triunfo transition') begins with the arrival of deltaic clastics of sequence S{sub 3} lower tract, coarsening-up from medial- to proximal delta front sandstones. Sequence S{sub 4} is quite similar to S{sub 3}, both showing sandstone pro gradation from north to south, as opposed to the southwest-sourced transgressive diamictites. Sequence S{sub 5} consists of fluvial deposits at well PP-12, and two transgressive cycles from wells PP-11 to PP-9, each one of them composed of fluvial-estuarine to marine systems. Well PP-10 is an exception, where the lower cycle presents de glaciation to marine deposits. (author)

  18. Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905 (Teleostei, Loricariidae from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani de Oliveira Mendes-Neto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil. Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of H. regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of H. regani in the São Francisco River Basin is reported for the first time here. The study also revealed distinct differences in the location of the Ag-NORs between the analyzed populations that enable individuals from the Piumhi River, Mogi-Guaçu River and Tietê River to be distinguished from one another. Thus, the data obtained indicate the possibility of geographic variation fixing different karyotypes even in the same basin of origin.

  19. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  20. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  1. Foraminiferal assemblages along the intertidal zone of Itapanhaú River, Bertioga (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Camila Cunha; Kukimodo, Isabela; Semensatto, Décio

    2017-11-01

    Foraminifera found in intertidal zones have been successfully used in studies examining relative sea level monitoring around the world. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish the typical foraminiferal assemblages of different salinity regimes and sediment sub aerial exposition. In the present work we collected 27 sediment samples from 5 transversal transects in the mangroves of the Itapanhaú River (Bertioga, SP, Brazil). Transects were distributed along salinity and altitudinal gradients in order to study the community structure of recent foraminifera in terms of diversity and species composition. We identified 35 species and described 5 groups of species in different environmental settings, from downstream to upstream and from margin to landward in the mangrove forest, associated with salinity regime and sediment proportional exposure time. These variables seem to primarily control species distribution and community structure in the intertidal zone, although dissolution of calcareous taxa cannot be ruled out. The first group is dominated by Ammonia spp. and Elphidium spp., colonizes the mouth of the river on an unvegetated tidal flat in the lowest portion of the intertidal zone, under a polyhaline regime. This group exhibits the smallest sub aerial exposition (19,3%) as well as comparatively high species diversity. The second group is formed by a sample dominated by Trochammina inflata and Arenoparrella mexicana, obtained in a polyhaline area on the margin of the mangrove. The third group is dominated by Miliammina fusca and Ammotium spp., and colonizes mesohaline mangrove forests, with proportional exposure time of between 50 and 75%, and high species diversity. The fourth group comprises communities dominated by M. fusca and T. inflata, and colonizes the intermediate level in the interior of the mangrove forest, exhibiting high species diversity. The fifth group comprises communities broadly dominated by M. fusca, colonizing oligohaline margins and the

  2. Water demand and offer in River Tibagi (BHRT- Londrina, Paraná, Brazil : basic sanitary or energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Domenes Zapparoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the demands for the use and reuse of water in the municipality of Londrina and energy production in the Tibagi River, Paraná, Brazil. The material and method are composed of bibliographic review, having as a conceptual and the principles governing the environmental public policy. As primary source analyzes the documents "term of reference for preparation of the submission of the plan of the Tibagi River ", project municipality of Londrina "farmer water guard" and the "program of conservation, rational use and reuse of water in the city of Londrina" and the delimitation of the study marched on the Tibagi River and the municipality of Londrina in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The results show that for preservation of the basin, the state and some municipalities have certain laws and water resources management projects, but not sufficient. For that to occur a conservation more efficient, effective in practice is required for some laws to ensure the water, multi-use and awareness of the population that also has the duty to protect and conserve this resource so essential to the human being. Unable to verify that the adoption of instruments on economic, social and marketing. The study leads to the conclusion that the interests comes if splitting between energy production and sanitation. This study has not exhausted the subject search continuity and suggests how other instruments of financial compensation for attendance to this environmental services market that uses water as a raw material.

  3. Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringel, S.R.B.

    1980-08-01

    The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author) [pt

  4. Mercury fractionation in dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) of the Madeira River in Brazil using metalloproteomic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, C P; Bittarello, A C; Padilha, C C F; Leite, A L; Moraes, P M; Buzalaf, M A R; Zara, L F; Padilha, P M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of mercury fractionation in muscle samples of dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) from the JIRAU Hydroelectric Power Plant in the Madeira River Basin in the Amazon region of Brazil. The proteome of the dourada muscle was separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE). The mercury present in the protein spots was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after acid mineralisation in an ultrasound bath. The protein spots in which the presence of mercury was detected were characterised by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) after tryptic digestion. The GFAAS determinations indicated that 65% of the mercury was linked to the protein fraction with a molar mass (Mm) of less than 90 kDa. The mercury concentrations in the seven spots in which this protein fraction was present were in the range of 11.40-35.10 μg kg(-1). Based on the mercury concentrations, it was possible to estimate that the protein spots contained approximately 1-3 mercury atoms per protein molecule. The ESI-MS/MS analysis allowed characterisation of the seven protein spots as the following proteins: protein NLRC5 (molar mass=18.10, pI=6.30); 39S ribosomal protein L36 mitochondrial (molar mass=15.40, pI=8.23); N-alpha-acetyltransferase 20 (Mm=15.95, pI=8.80); Mth938 domain-containing protein (Mm=15.01, pI=9.60); ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a (Mm=9.80, pI=7.60); parvalbumin alpha (Mm=12.40, pI=3.80) and parvalbumin beta (Mm=13.10, pI=3.45). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of River Basins: Effects on Stream Captures in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Silva, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are mainly driven by river processes that control the dynamic reorganization of networks. Discovering and identifying whether river basins are in geometric equilibrium or disequilibrium requires an analysis of water divides, channels that shift laterally or expand upstream and river captures. Issues specifically discussed include the variation of drainage area change and erosion rates of the basins. In southeastern Brazil there are two main escarpments with extensive geomorphic surfaces: Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains. These landscapes are constituted of Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic rocks, presenting steep escarpments with low-elevation coastal plains and higher elevation interior plateaus. To identify whether river basins and river profiles are in equilibrium or disequilibrium in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, we used the proxy (χ), evaluating the effect of drainage area change and erosion rates. We selected basins that drain both sides of these two main escarpments (oceanic and continental sides) and have denudation rates derived from pre-existing cosmogenic isotopes data (Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais). Despite being an ancient and tectonically stable landscape, part of the coastal plain of Serra do Mar Mountain in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná is in geometric disequilibrium, with water divides moving in the direction of higher χ values. To achieve equilibrium, some basins located in the continental side are retracting and disappearing, losing area to the coastal basins. On the contrary, there are some adjacent sub-basins that are close to equilibrium, without strong contrasts in χ values. The same pattern was observed in Serra da Mantiqueira (Minas Gerais state), with stream captures and river network reorganization in its main rivers. The initial results suggest a strong contrast between erosion rates in the continental and the oceanic portions of the escarpments.

  6. Application of water quality biological indices using diatoms as bioindicators in the Gravataí river, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE. Salomoni

    Full Text Available The Gravataí river situated in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre has an area of approximately 2.020 km² and provides public water supply to about 500,000 inhabitants in 5 municipalities (latitude 29° 45'-30° 12' S; longitude 50° 27'-51° 12' W. The river basin has two regions with distinctive characteristics of occupation: the upper course shows intensive farming and the lower course presents urban and industrial uses. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the water quality in the Gravataí River (RS, Brazil by using physical, chemical and microbiological variables, and the water quality biological indices (WQBI formulated for southern Brazilian rivers based on epilithic diatom communities as indicators. For comparison purposes, a local WQBI, called the Gravataí WQBI, was also used where species were given new saprobic values (s and indicative values (vi according to their occurrence and abundance in the river, using multivariate analytical techniques. The biological samples were taken every three months at six stations along the Gravataí River between September 2000 and August 2002. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the water indicated a pollution gradient down the river, from the headwaters to the mouth, detected mainly by considering a significant decrease in the concentration of dissolved oxygen and turbidity, as well as a significant increase in BOD5, total nitrogen, ortho-phosphate and thermotolerant coliforms. Comparing the results obtained, differences were found regarding the predominant pollution levels as higher in the Gravataí WQBI, although both corroborated a tendency for the contamination gradient to increase from the headwaters to the mouth. Given the local anthropic changes, it is of great importance to continue the study of diatom species tolerance to organic pollution and eutrophication in different lotic systems of the region.

  7. Identification of fish nursery areas in a free tributary of an impoundment region, upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the importance of different environments of the Ligeiro River (upper Uruguay River, Brazil in fish reproduction. For this purpose, three environments (sampling sites were selected: rapids, a pool, and the mouth of the Ligeiro River. Ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled six times per month from September, 2006 to March, 2007. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton samples were collected early in the evening with plankton nets (64 µm and 500 µm, respectively. Benthos samples were also collected early in the evening with a Van Veen dredge. Local abiotic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water speed, alkalinity, water hardness, and water transparency were measured simultaneously with the biotic data sampling and were complemented by regional variables (water flow and precipitation. A total of 43,475 eggs and 2,269 larvae were captured. Of these larvae, 80.1% were in the pre-flexion and larval yolk stages. Digestive tract content showed that the greatest degree of repletion among the larvae in more advanced phases occurred in the pool environment. Water speed was the main characteristic used to differentiate the river's rapids and mouth from the pool. The abundance of zooplankton and benthos was not related to the distribution of densities among the different components of the ichthyoplankton. A greater abundance of eggs and larvae with yolk was found in the rapids and river mouth. Ordination analyses showed a connection between the advanced stage larvae and the pool environment. In conclusion, the rapids and river mouth of the Ligeiro River's are important locations for fish reproduction, particularly in regard to spawning and drifting of the ichthyoplankton's initial stages, whereas the pool represents a nursery place for larval growth.

  8. Análise da qualidade de água dos principais rios do município de Rio Negrinho (SC / Analysis of water quality of principal rivers in the Rio Negrinho city (SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Malutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As bacias hidrográficas do rio Preto e do rio Negrinho são as principais unidades do município de Rio Negrinho (SC. Nestas, há pontos de monitoramento de alguns parâmetros de qualidade de água realizados pelo Programa Intermunicipal da Água. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar a análise da qualidade de água nesses vários pontos de monitoramento nos principais rios desse município. Para entender melhor os recursos hídricos da região em termos tanto de qualidade quanto de quantidade, foram feitas análises de correlações entre os dados monitorados de qualidade de água e os dados de vazão diários simulados pelo modelo SWAT. Não se encontrou correlação significativa entre os dados de vazão simulados pelo modelo SWAT e os dados de qualidade de água em todos os pontos analisados. Foi identificado que os rios Serrinhas e Banhado, os quais se localizam na bacia do rio Negrinho, apresentaram índices de qualidade de água inferiores aos demais rios estudados devido principalmente aos efluentes provindos da urbanização. Foi identificado que há medianas, vários outlier e valores extremos dos parâmetros de DBO e OD que ficaram muito acima da legislação vigente.

  9. Geology, petrography and geochemistry of the A-type granites from the Morro Redondo Complex (PR-SC, southern Brazil, Graciosa Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDERICO C.J. VILALVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Morro Redondo Complex is one of the most important occurrences of the Graciosa A-type Province, southern Brazil. It consists of the Papanduva and Quiriri granitic plutons and a contemporaneous bimodal volcanic association. The Papanduva Pluton includes massive and deformed peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites with Na-Ca and Na-amphiboles and clinopyroxenes. The deformed types are the most evolved rocks in the province and carry rare ‘agpaitic’ minerals, some being described for the first time in granites from Brazil. The larger Quiriri Pluton comprises massive, slightly peraluminous, biotite syeno- and monzogranites with rare Ca-amphibole. Biotite compositions are relatively homogeneous, whereas sodic amphiboles and clinopyroxenes show increasing Na and Fe3+ evolving paths. The Morro Redondo granites are ferroan, with high SiO2, alkalis and HFSE contents; the peralkaline types registering the highest fe#. LILE and HFSE abundances increase with the agpaitic index and the most evolved are HHP granites, with radiogenic heat production up to 5.7 µWm–3. Geothermobarometric estimates indicate emplacement under low pressures (∼100 MPa, at temperatures up to 850-800 °C, and relatively reduced (QFM and oxidized (+1 REPLACE_LT ΔQFM REPLACE_LT +3 environments for the Papanduva and Quiriri Plutons, respectively. In both cases, melts evolved to relatively high oxidation states upon crystallization progress.

  10. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz Luiz, Tatiane; Roquetti Velludo, Marcela; Carvalho Peret, Alberto; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Moldenhauer Peret, André

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the ...

  11. Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300. Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions.

  12. Evaluation of the Siltation of River Taquari, Pantanal, Brazil, through 210Pb Geochronology of Floodplain Lake Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy José M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the 210Pb geochronology of seven bottom sediment cores, collected in three floodplain lakes located in the area of the middle Taquari River, Pantanal, Brazil. In five of them, a significant increase in the sediment mass deposition rate was observed, reflecting an increase of the sediment input to the Pantanal. Additionally, in order to validate the 210Pb results, the mercury content was determined for two sediment cores, showing that despite a constant concentration, the flux of Hg has increased due to an increase in the mass sedimentation rate. This increase can be attributed to the expansion of agricultural activity in the upper Taquari River during the last 25 years.

  13. Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil

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    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

  14. Anthropogenic gadolinium anomalies and rare earth elements in the water of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Francisco Ferreira; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), measured in water samples from Atibaia River and its tributary Anhumas Creek, Brazil, present excess of dissolved gadolinium. Such anthropogenic anomalies of Gd in water, already described in other parts of the world, result from the use of stable and soluble Gd chelates as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Atibaia River constitutes the main water supply of Campinas Metropolitan area, and its basin receives wastewater effluents. The REE concentrations in water samples were determined in 0.22-μm pore size filtered samples, without and after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction with bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate. This preconcentration method was unable to retain the anthropogenic Gd quantitatively. The probable reason is that the Gd chelates dissociate slowly in acidic media to produce the free ion that is retained by the phosphate ester. Strong correlations between Gd and constituents or parameters associated with effluents confirmed the source of most Gd in water samples as anthropogenic. The shale-normalized REE patterns of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek water samples showed light and heavy REE enrichment trends, respectively. Also, positive Ce anomalies in many Atibaia River samples, as well as the strong correlations of the REE (except Gd) with terrigenous elements, imply that inorganic colloidal particles contributed to the REE measured values.

  15. Rare earth elements in sediment profiles from marginal lagoons of the Moji-Guacu River basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.R.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Tavares, G.A.; Silva, N.C. da; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment cores from Catingueiro, Barrinha and Rio das Pedras marginal lagoons of the Moji-Guacu River basin were analyzed for rare earth elements (REEs), Fe, Ta and Th by instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA). Data indicated similarities between Catingueiro and Barrinha lagoons, while a distinct scenario was seen for Rio das Pedras likely due to changes of sedimentation rate in 1950's. By using Fe, Sc, Ta and Th as conservative elements, double normalization technique was performed in order to assess the distribution pattern of Ce, Eu, La, Sm and Tb for each core. In all cases, it was evident a depletion of lighter REE elements in the Rio das Pedras lagoon. (author)

  16. Structural and hydrological controls on the development of a river cave in marble (Tapagem Cave - SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sallun Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapagem Cave (or Devil’s Cave is a river cave developed in the dolomite marble karst of the Serra do André Lopes (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Although this region is a plateau with significant variation in elevation and a humid subtropical climate, the cave is an anomalous feature in the André Lopes karst because there are few other caves. The marble, which is in a synclinal structure with subjacent phyllites, is a karst aquifer perched above the regional base level (Ribeira River and has little allogenic recharge. The cave developed on a secondary anticline on the northwest flank of the marble synform forming a blind valley, the Tapagem River sink, that is an underground tributary of Ostras River. Development of the cave is due to the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley and the large allogenic catchment area of the sink. In plan view, the morphology of the cave can be divided into three different sectors. The first sector, known as the Tourist Sector, has extensive collapse rooms, fossil passages and a variety of speleothems of notable dimensions. The second and most extensive sector is the river passage, which is a sinuous gallery controlled by marble banding with NE-SW cleavage and NW-SE fractures. In cross-section, the passages are vadose canyons up to 70 m in height, controlled by the marble banding. Four NW-SE diabase dykes in this passage do not affect its direction in plan view. The third sector is an extensive network of passages and collapse rooms, which are interlaced in plan view and on different levels, forming a maze pattern. Initially, the Tapagem and Ostras Rivers developed on a gentle surface and flowed into the Ribeira River. With the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley, the Tapagem River partially infiltrated via a paleosink into the upper passage of the “Erectus Room," remaining a half-blind valley. Following a series of collapses and obstructions, the River next infiltrated via the current

  17. The development of viticulture and the possibilities of implantation wine tourism routes in the Region of São Joaquim (SC, Brazil

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    Flavia Baratieri Losso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the origins and development of viticulture in the region of São Joaquim (SC, this paper proposes wine tourism routes for an area of the Serra de Santa Catarina already recognized for their experience to the segment of tourism in rural areas, based on their climatic and scenic resources. In order to achieve those goals are focused on the introduction and development of production of fine wines, as well as tourism in the region. Although the investigation has focused on the central cities of Bom Retiro, São Joaquim, Urubici and Urupema, where are the wines with wine companies launched in the market since 2004, the coverage area of research also includes the cities of Bom Jardim da Serra and Lages, because of its significance for the development of activities linked to tourism. As a fundamental theoretical basis is used the category of socio-spatial formation allied to the idea of geographical combinations, the analysis of the geographical area, considering how they are combined, over time, the physical, biological and human. The interest in wine in altitude, its origins, evolution and current situation in Santa Catarina, stems from the understanding that this reality presents itself as a new potential to be exploited by tourism, in view of the natural landscape features of the producing areas, the new parameters of articulation of resources and strategies of competitiveness that has affected the global market and domestic wines. Thus, grape growing and wine production in the region of São Joaquim provides an alternative to the growth of regional tourism, from the definition and deployment scripts for the practice of wine tourism.

  18. Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ortêncio-Filho

    Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.

  19. Temporal and spatial distribution of young Brachyplatystoma spp. (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River (Brazil) before the construction of two hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella-Ribeiro, A; Assakawa, L F; Torrente-Vilara, G; Zuanon, J; Leite, R G; Doria, C; Duponchelle, F

    2015-04-01

    Monthly (April 2009 to May 2010) bottom-trawl sampling for Brachyplatystoma species along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River in Brazil revealed that Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii larvae and juveniles were present in low abundances in all areas and during all hydrological periods. The presence of larvae and juveniles throughout the hydrological cycle suggests asynchronous spawning in the headwaters of the Madeira River. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Diel and seasonal movements of grumatã Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1836 (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae in the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

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    NA. Pesoa

    Full Text Available Prochilodus lineatus is a reophilic migratory species of economical importance for local fisheries which is widely distributed in Brazil. The present study investigated diel and seasonal movement patterns, spawning migration and habitat use of P. lineatus in the Sinos River, Southern Brazil. Between August 2002 and March 2004, 19 grumatãs were tagged internally with digitally coded radio transmitters. Tracking was conducted weekly by boat or aircraft, and six fixed data loggers recorded movements of tagged fish. Results showed that the mean distance covered per fish and day was positively related with fish weight (p = 0.03; n = 19. Grumatã showed preference for river streches surrounded by wetlands (p < 0.001; n = 286. Their diel activity pattern displayed one peak at 7 hours, and a second at 15 hours. During the night, activity was significantly reduced (p = 0.01. The seasonal movements pattern showed increased activity in October 2002 - March 2003 and from October 2003 to January 2004. Multiple regression analysis did not show a significant relationship between distance covered and temperature or water level (p = 0.116; n = 19. No synchronized long distance spawning migrations were observed. The mean distance covered by the individuals/day showed a negative significant relationship with number of tracking days (p = 0.022; n = 19, indicating a higher probability of being captured for more mobile individuals. The preservation of the still existing wetlands and reduction of the fishing pressure are essential for the future conservation of the grumatã population of the Sinos River.

  1. Metal and metalloid distribution in different environmental compartments of the middle Xingu River in the Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Danielle Regina Gomes; Faccin, Henrique; Molin, Thaís Ramos Dal; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Amado, Lílian Lund

    2017-12-15

    Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni were analyzed during rainy and dry seasons in water, sediment, soil, and two fish species. The analysis took place at four points in the Xingu River, one point in the Fresco River, and two mining pits in the southeastern area of the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. In the water, the total concentration of As (>0.14μg/L) was higher than the local reference values at all sampling points and in both seasons. Ordination analysis (PCA) highlighted As and Cu elements in the water. PERMANOVA showed that the metals behaved differently in the water throughout the monitored season and between sampling points. The sites with mining activity were the regions that were the most contaminated by metals. Samples of sediment (Ni>18mg/kg and Cr>37.30mg/kg) and soil (Pb>72mg/kg, Cr>75mg/kg and Ni>30mg/Kg) showed concentrations above the recommended by local legislation. Metal values in the muscle of both fish species were relatively low at all sampling points and in both monitored seasons. Concentrations in water, sediment, and soil showed that some points of the Xingu River, Fresco River and mining pits are contaminated by trace elements, mainly As, Hg, Cr, Pb, and Ni. This was the first study about trace elements in the Middle Xingu River, which leads us to conclude that rainfall and cassiterite mining activities strongly influence the mobilization of metals, especially in abiotic compartments. However, the fish analyzed did not exhibit relevant levels of contamination. This indicates low risk for human consumption. Additionally, results highlight the need to establish local criteria to define contamination limits for different metals while taking into account local geochemistry particularities and biome diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of the index WQI-CCME with data aggregation per monitoring campaign and per section of the river: case study-Joanes River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Geane Silva; de Oliveira, Iara Brandão

    2018-03-07

    This work applied the Water Quality Index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (WQI-CCME), to communicate the water quality per section of the Joanes River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil. WQI-CCME is a statistical procedure that originally requires the execution of at least four monitoring campaigns per monitoring location and the measurement of at least four parameters. This paper presents a new aggregation method to calculate the WQI-CCME because, to apply the original method in Joanes River, a huge loss of information would occur, by the fact that, the number of analyzed parameters varied between the monitoring campaigns developed by the Government Monitoring Program. This work modified the original aggregation method replacing it by a data aggregation for a single monitoring campaign, in a minimum of four monitoring locations per section of the river and a minimum of four parameters per monitoring location. Comparison between the calculation of WQI-CCME for river sections, with the index, WQI-CETESB, developed by the Brazilian Environmental Sanitation and Technology Company-CETESB, proved the applicability of the new aggregation method. The WQI-CETESB has it bases on the WQI from the National Sanitation Foundation and uses nine fixed parameters. As WQI-CCME uses the totality of the analyzed parameters without restrictions, it is more flexible, and the results seem more adequate to indicate the real river water quality. However, the WQI-CCME has a more stringent water quality scale in comparison with the WQI-CETESB, resulting in inferior water quality information. In conclusion, the WQI-CCME with a new aggregation method is adequate for communicating the water quality at a given time, per section of a river, respecting the minimum number of four analyses and four monitoring points. As a result, without a need to wait for other campaigns, it reduces the cost of a monitoring program and the period to communicate the water quality. The

  3. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  4. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  5. Crop water parameters of irrigated wine and table grapes to support water productivity analysis in the Sao Francisco river basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bassoi, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy and water balance parameters were measured in two commercial vineyards in the semiarid region of the São Francisco river basin, Brazil. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was acquired with the Bowen ratio surface energy balance method. The ratio of the latent heat flux to the available energy, or

  6. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, Thiago E.M.; Oliveira, Ana C.A.X. de; Paumgartten, Francisco J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals

  7. Application of the hydrologic model AÇUMOD based on GIS for water resources management of Pirapama River, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richarde Marques da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the application of the distributed hydrological model based on GIS – AÇUMOD to estimate the water discharges and potentialities of Pirapama river sub-basins, to be used by the Pirapama River Basin Committee (COBH-Pirapama. The model application included several steps, such as: precipitation data selection, basin discretization into cells, and model parameter calibration using try-and-error technique. The model was calibrated and validated with monthly precipitation data for the period 1987–2001. It was noted that the following parameters were the most important ones during the calibration process: infiltration function, soil minimum water capacity to generate runoff, and soil mean water storage capacity, which directly affect the computed runoff volume. The difference between observed and computed runoff during the calibration and validation processes were respectively -12.65% and 18.87%. The results of the simulated discharges by AÇUMOD, compared to observed ones, showed that the model satisfactorily represents the water basin behavior and, therefore, it can be considered a promising tool for rain-runoff simulation, permanence curve estimation, and discharge regionalization or prediction for Pirapama river basin as well as to other basins in the northeastern Brazil costal area.

  8. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, Thiago E.M.; Oliveira, Ana C.A.X. de [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil); Paumgartten, Francisco J.R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil)], E-mail: paum@ensp.fiocruz.br

    2008-03-15

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals.

  9. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  10. Abiotic features of a river from the Upper Tietê River Basin (SP, Brazil along an environmental gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Eichbaum Esteves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to assess the spatial and seasonal variation of the water quality and physical habitat characteristics along the upper-middle stretch of the Paraitinga River, a tributary of Tietê River, considering the potential influence of different riparian conditions along the stretch studied.MethodsSixteen sites with different riparian vegetation, including native forest, secondary forest, pasture, and eucalyptus were sampled during the dry and rainy seasons of 2004/2005, before the damming of the Paraitinga Reservoir. Several physicochemical and habitat parameters were determined and data analyzed in relation to spatial distribution and potential influence of riparian conditions.ResultsWater quality parameters were in general within the limits established by CONAMA for Class 2 waters, except for turbidity and total phosphorus. There were seasonal and spatial differences in the limnological parameters along the stretch studied and apparently they were related to point specific influences associated with land use and canopy cover. Habitat characteristics were markedly different between the upper and middle river stretches, especially in relation to depth, width, substrate and canopy cover.ConclusionsAlthough a direct influence on the observed variables could not be attributed solely to the riparian vegetation, vegetation cover seemed to affect particular stream characteristics. Open pasture and eucalyptus sites were subject to point specific effects that caused phosphorus inputs and higher turbidity and temperature, and showed different morphological features, suggesting that land use at the sub-watershed scale was an important factor affecting stream conditions.

  11. Storage and remobilization of suspended sediment in the lower amazon river of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.E.; Santos, U.De. M.; Salati, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the lower Amazon River, suspended sediment is stored during rising stages of the river and resuspended during falling river stages. The storage and resuspension in the reach are related to the mean slope of the flood wave on the river surface; this slope is smaller during rising river stages than during falling stages. The pattern of storage and resuspension damps out the extreme values of high and low sediment discharge and tends to keep them near the mean value between 3.0 ?? 106 and 3.5 ?? 106 metric tons per day. Mean annual discharge of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon is between 1.1 ?? 109 and 1.3 ?? 109 metric tons per year.

  12. Impacts of the Urbanization Process on Water Quality of Brazilian Savanna Rivers: The Case of Preto River in Formosa, Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Luiz Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The release of domestic sewage in water resources is a practical feature of the urbanization process, and this action causes changes that may impair the environmental balance and the water quality for several uses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urbanization on the surface water quality of the Preto River throughout the town of Formosa, Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected at five points along the river, spatially distributed from one side to the other of the town of Formosa, from May to October of 2012. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, as well as variance and cluster analysis. Point P2, the first point after the city, showed the worst water quality indicators, mainly with respect to the total and fecal coliform parameters, as well as nitrate concentrations. These results may be related to the fact that this point is located on the outskirts of the town, an area under urbanization and with problems of sanitation, including absence of sewage collection and treatment. The data observed in this monitoring present a public health concern because the water body is used for bathing, mainly in parts of Feia Lagoon. The excess of nutrients is a strong indicator of water eutrophication and should alert decision-makers to the need for preservation policies.

  13. Bacterial Community Associated with Fish and Water from Congonhas River, Sertaneja, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Américo de Sousa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacteriological study was conducted on fish and water from Congonhas River, Sertaneja (22º58’ S; 50º58’ W, Paraná State, Brazil. From 44% of the analysed fish, bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus were isolated. The group most frequently isolated from fish was Aeromonas. In the water, the bacterial groups detected were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus and Flavobacterium, from which Flavobacterium and Acinetobacter were the most abundant. The numbers of Colony Forming Units per millilitre of water varied from 3.1x10² to 1.0 x 10³. Although a clear pattern was not detected in the susceptibilities/resistances of the isolated strains to nine antimicrobial substances, Gram negative aerobic bacteria were more resistant than the other strains. A simultaneous resistance to furazolidone, oxolinic acid and norfloxacin, particularly in the bacteria isolated from fish, as well as in the aerobic strains isolated from water was observed. The antimicrobial substances to which less resistances were found were oxytetracycline in the strains isolated from water, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol in those isolated from fish.Foi realizado um estudo da comunidade bacteriana de peixes e da água do rio Congonhas, próximo à sua foz no rio Tibagi, município de Sertaneja, Paraná, Brasil. De 44% dos peixes analisados, foram isoladas estirpes de Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococcus, Bacillus e Lactobacillus. Destas, a mais abundante foi Aeromonas. Na água do rio Congonhas foram detectados os grupos Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus e Flavobacterium, dos quais os predominantes foram Flavobacterium e Acinetobacter. Os números de unidades formadoras de colônias por mililitro de água variaram entre 3,1x10² e 1,0x10³. Embora não tenha

  14. Structural control over well productivity in the Jundiaí River Catchment, Southeastern Brazil

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    Mirna A. Neves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The well productivity in crystalline terrains is extremely changeable and depends on external factors, in addition to the intrinsic properties of rocks. In the Jundiaí River Catchment, Southeastern Brazil, the main factor that influences well productivity is the existence of open discontinuities permeability in geologic environments that favor groundwater recharge. In that area, Pre-Cambrian shear and fault zones were reactivated throughout geologic time, controlling the morphostructural compartments and the Cenozoic sedimentary deposition. Superposition of productivity data and structural maps showed that more productive wells are concentrated mainly along the regional geologic structures. The structural control over well productivity is also noticeable in detailed scale. Using fine scale maps we show that the most productive wells are located in areas where brittle structures with NW-SE and E-W directions denote the action of neotectonic transtensional stress. The comprehension of evolutionary geologic history allied to fracturing analysis proved to be an efficient and a low cost technique, which is adequate for selecting areas for further developments using more expensive methods.A produtividade dos poços tubulares profundos em terrenos cristalinos é extremamente variável e depende, além das propriedades intrínsecas da rocha, de fatores externos a ela. Na bacia do rio Jundiaí, Região Sudeste do Brasil, a existência de descontinuidades abertas em situações geológicas favoráveis à recarga constitui o principal fator que influencia a produtividade dos poços. Nesta área, zonas de cisalhamento e zonas de falhas pré-cambrianas reativadas ao longo do tempo geológico controlam a compartimentação morfoestrutural e a deposição de sedimentos cenozóicos. O cruzamento do mapa estrutural com os dados dos poços que explotam o Sistema Aqüífero Cristalino mostrou que poços com produtividade elevada em relação aos demais concentram

  15. Occurrence of female sexual hormones in the Iguazu river basin, Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Karina Scurupa Machado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual hormones have attracted the attention of the scientific community due to the effects that they cause by interfering in the endocrine system. Many contemporary studies have sought to monitor some of the main female sexual hormones in surface waters in Brazil. Current article evaluates the presence of 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone and progesterone in the surface waters of Curitibaand the surrounding metropolitan area in the state of Paraná, Brazil, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, performed at 7 different sites. The study revealed that a range of concentrations between 0.07 and 13.45 µg L-1 of female sexual hormones was extant; higher values than these were found in other regions ofBrazil and in other countries. Higher concentrations have been attributed to the region´s sanitation due to large sewage amounts. Sewage discharge has also been confirmed by results of limnological parameters.

  16. Environmental factors predicting fish community structure in two neotropical rivers in Brazil

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    Yzel Rondon Súarez

    Full Text Available In order to assess the organization patterns of the fish communities in the Jogui and Iguatemi rivers, we collected fish with gill nets tri-monthly from November 1999 to August 2000. Hypostomus ancistroides and Parauchenipterus galeatus were the most abundant species in the Jogui and Iguatemi rivers, respectively. Longitudinal variation was more important than seasonal in determining the species composition in both rivers, and the difference between seasons was not statistically significant. Altitude was the most important factor determining species distribution.

  17. Loading 076 assemblies in two IV-04 transport casks for transport to the U.S. Savannah River Site (SC); Trasferimento di 72 elementi irraggiati MTR dalla piscina dell`impianto EUREX a due contenitori IU-04 per il trasporto al Savannah River Site-Department of Energy (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gili, Michele [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1997-09-01

    The National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments has signed with the US Department of Energy a contract for the transfer of 150 irradiated MTR fuel assemblies stored in the EUREX plant pool at The National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments Research Centre of Saluggia. The first scheduled transport has been made in february 1997 and has involved the successful loading of 76 assemblies in two IU-04 (Pegase) transport casks. The loaded casks have been shipped to the U.S. Savannah River Site (SC).

  18. Phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Elaine Bernini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests were compared in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Vegetation sampling was performed by the plot method, and the diameter at breast height (DBH and height of individuals > 1 m tall were recorded. The results indicated that the planted forest had lower average DBH and basal area and higher density of trunks in relation to natural forest. The distribution of individuals by height class and the distribution of stems per diameter class showed that the planted forest was younger. Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle occurred in both forests, while Avicennia schaueriana was found only in the planted forest. Laguncularia racemosa showed greater dominance and relative density at all sites analyzed, probably because it is characteristic of sites with less marine influence and the fact that the estuary had been altered by human disturbance.

  19. Ectoparasites as numerical dominant species in parasite community of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R L B; Azevedo, R K; Abdallah, V D; Luque, J L

    2011-08-01

    Sixty specimens of singing catfish Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877) (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) collected from Guandu River (22º 48' 32" S and 43º 37' 35" W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from October 2006 to March 2009, were necropsied to study their parasites. From the 60 specimens of T. striatulus examined 57 were parasitised by at least one parasite species. The majority of the parasite specimens collected were monogeneans followed by Nematoda, Digenea and Hirudinea. Cosmetocleithrum sp. was the numerically predominant species with highest prevalence and abundance. The parasites of T. striatulus showed the typical pattern of aggregated distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the host and their abundance. The mean parasite species richness was not correlated with the host's total body length and sex. Values of the Brillouin index of diversity had a mean of H = 0.083 ± 0.136.

  20. Spatial synchrony of a highly endemic fish Assemblage (Segredo Reservoir, Iguaçu River, Paraná State, Brazil

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    W. M. Domingues

    Full Text Available In this study, patterns of spatial synchrony in population fluctuations (cross-correlation of an endemic fish assemblage of a Neotropical reservoir (Segredo Reservoir, Iguaçu River, Paraná State, Brazil were reported. First, the level of population synchrony for 20 species was estimated. Second, population synchrony was correlated, using the Mantel test, with geographical distances among sites (n = 11 and also environmental synchrony (temperature. Nine species presented significant correlations between spatial synchrony and geographic distances (Astyanax sp. b, Astyanax sp. c, Pimelodus sp., Hoplias malabaricus, Crenicichla iguassuensis, Hypostomus derbyi, Hypostomus myersi, Rhamdia branneri, and R. voulezi. Considering the ecology of the species and the significant relationship between population and environmental synchronies, it seems that environmental stochasticity is the most plausible hypothesis in explaining the observed synchrony patterns.

  1. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Y. Fujimoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias, Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish.

  2. Oligosarcus jacuiensis (Characiformes: Characidae, a new species from the Uruguay and Jacuí River basins, southern Brazil

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    Naércio Aquino Menezes

    Full Text Available The new species herein described, collected in the Jacuí and Uruguay River basins, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, can be distinguished from the already known species of the genus, but Oligosarcus jenynsii, O. perdido, O. acutirostris, O. solitarius and O. hepsetus, by the number of perforated lateral line scales. It shares with the first two species the absence of a premaxillary foramen, present in the last three species and differs from O. jenynsii by having a smaller orbital diameter and the tip of the pectoral fin failing to reach the pelvic-fin origin, and from O. perdido by the presence of more horizontal scale rows around the caudal peduncle.

  3. Clinical and histopathological profile of basal cell carcinoma in a population from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil Perfil clínico e histopatológico do carcinoma basocelular em amostra populacional de Criciúma, SC, Brasil

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    Letícia Pangendler Peres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a local, invasive epidermal neoplasia, the most common type of which is nodular basal cell carcinoma. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of basal cell carcinoma, characterizing its distribution in accordance with patients' age, gender, the site of the lesion and its histopathological characteristics. Anatomopathology reports of cases of basal cell carcinoma diagnosed in Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil between June 2005 and June 2007 were analyzed. A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted. The majority of patients were females over 40 years of age. Most of the tumors were of the nodular type and were situated on the face. There was ulceration in 27.5%, infiltration in 24.5% and invasion of the deep dermis in 61.8%. Local data must be evaluated in order to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis.O carcinoma basocelular é uma neoplasia epidérmica invasiva local, cujo tipo mais frequente é nódulo-ulcerativo. O objetivo foi estudar a ocorrência de CBC, caracterizando sua distribuição segundo idade, sexo, localização e características histopatológicas. Analisaram-se laudos anatomopatológicos de CBC, diagnosticados em Criciúma/SC, entre junho de 2005 e junho de 2007. Elaborou-se um estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal. Predominou após os 40 anos, no sexo feminino, do tipo nodular e localizado na face. Houve ulceração em 27,5%, infiltração em 24,5%, invasão de derme profunda em 61,8%, entre outros. É necessário conhecer dados locais para reforçar a importância do diagnóstico precoce.

  4. Dissolved Black Carbon in the Headwaters-To Continuum of PARAÍBA do Sul River, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Jomar S. J.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Niggemann, Jutta; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Gomez-Saez, Gonzalo V.; Rezende, Carlos E.

    2017-02-01

    Rivers annually carry 25-28 Tg carbon in the form of pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (dissolved black carbon, DBC) into the ocean, which is equivalent to about 10% of the entire riverine land-ocean flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The objective of this study was to identify the main processes behind the release and turnover of DBC on a riverine catchment scale. As a model system, we chose the headwater-to-ocean continuum of Paraíba do Sul River (Brazil), the only river system with long-term DBC flux data available. The catchment was originally covered by Atlantic rain forest (mainly C3 plants) which was almost completely destroyed over the past centuries by slash-and-burn. As a result, large amounts of wood-derived charcoal reside in the soils. Today, fire-managed pasture and sugar cane (both dominated by C4 plants) cover most of the catchment area. Water samples were collected along the river, at the main tributaries, and also along the salinity gradient in the estuary and up to 35 km offshore during three different seasons. DBC was determined on a molecular level as benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BPCAs). Stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were determined in solid phase extractable DOC (SPE-DOC) to distinguish C4 and C3 sources. Our results clearly show a relationship between hydrology and DBC concentrations in the river, with highest DBC concentrations and fluxes in the wet season (flux of 770 moles .sec 1 in 2013 and 59 moles .sec 1 in 2014) and lowest in the dry season (flux of 27 moles .sec 1). This relationship indicates that DBC is mainly mobilized from the upper soil horizons during heavy rainfalls. The relationship between DBC concentrations and δ13C-SPE-DOC indicated that most of DBC in the river system originated from C3 plants, i.e. from the historic burning event of the Atlantic rain forest. A conservative mixing model could largely reproduce the observed DBC fluxes within the catchment and the land to ocean continuum. Comparably slight

  5. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Fabiano Tomazini da

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

  6. Relationships of vascular epiphytes with environmental factors along the Tibagi River forests, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete Bonnet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationships of vascular epiphyte richness with climatic, geomorphologic, pedologic and forest structural factors, that change along the Tibagi River. The floristic turnover of the 188 registered species was high, indicating the singularity and importance of the communities to the conservation of epiphytes in the river basin. The similarity was greater between geographically closer areas, which made possible the creation of three groups of epiphytic communities distributed along the river. The greatest richness of epiphytes was registered in the medium Tibagi, where the phytogeographic units are in liaison and the forests present the best conservation status. The increase of epiphytic richness is only significantly and positively related to the maximal diameter of trees, an important environmental factor of the enlargement of alpha diversity. The beta diversity results, probably, from environmental heterogeneity which is principally represented by distinctive geomorphologic patterns and climatic conditions between study areas and different environmental regions of the river.

  7. Effect of abiotic variables on fish eggs and larvae distribution in headwaters of Cuiabá River, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Simoni Ramalho Ziober

    Full Text Available Researches on ichthyoplankton seems to be an important tool to identification of spawning areas and periods for freshwater fish. Ichthyoplankton was sampled monthly in the headwaters of the Cuiabá River, upper Paraguay River basin, (Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and in four of its tributaries, between November 2007 and March 2008, to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae and the influence of regional and local variables on their distribution. In total, 22,067 eggs and 1,045 larvae were collected. A significant negative correlation was found between egg density and the variables of river level and flow volume. Larval density was not significantly correlated with any of the regional variables. The egg and larval densities were significantly higher at the sampling sites in the main river. The highest densities were found in environments with greater river widths, intermediate depths and lowest values of dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, and transparency. Anostomidae, Zungaro zungaro, Bryconamericus spp., Pimelodus spp., Pimelodidae, Auchenipteridae, and Siluriformes were the most abundant groups of larvae, and were observed at the sampling sites in the main river. The study site is an important spawning area for migratory and, non-migratory fish species, and highlight the importance of the main river to the reproductive event, by the influence of local variables transparency and river width, which in turn maybe temporally influenced by the river level.

  8. Genetic diversity of pacu and piapara broodstocks in restocking programs in the rivers Paraná and Paranapanema (Brazil

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    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu and Leporinus elongatus (piapara broodstocks used in restocking programs in the rivers Paraná and Paranapanema is analyzed. One hundred and twenty specimens (two broodstocks of each species from fish ponds in Palotina PR Brazil and in Salto Grande SP Brazil were assessed. Ten primers produced 96 fragments, comprising 68 (70.83% and 94 (97.92% polymorphic fragments for P. mesopotamicus and L. elongatus broodstocks, respectively. Differences (p < 0.05 in the frequency of 15 and 27 fragments were detected for each species, without exclusive fragments. Shannon Index (0.347 - 0.572 and the percentage of polymorphic fragments (57.3% - 94.8% revealed high intra-population genetic variability for all broodstocks. Results of molecular variance analyses (AMOVA showed that most variations do not lie between the broodstocks but within each broodstock (89%. Genetic (0.088 and 0.142 and identity (0.916 and 0.868 distance rates demonstrated similarity between the broodstocks of each species, corroborated by Fst (0.1023 and 010.27 and Nm (4.18 and 4.33 rates, with a slight genetic difference due to genic flux. High intrapopulation genetic variability and similarity between the broodstocks of each species was also detected, proving a common ancestry.

  9. Four new species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on Mugil liza (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Vanessa D; de Azevedo, Rodney K; Luque, José L

    2009-08-01

    Four species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae), i.e., L. tainhae n. sp., L. brasiliensis n. sp., L. guanduensis n. sp., and L. lizae n. sp., are described. The specimens were collected from the gills of Mugil liza (Mugilidae) from the Guandu River (22 degrees 48'32"S, 43 degrees 37'35"W), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January 2008 and March 2008. The male copulatory organ of L. tainhae n. sp. differs from the all known species of this genus in having the largest accessory piece, the length of accessory piece exceeding the length of the copulatory organ tube, and the distal tip of the lower lobe crossing the upper lobe. Ligophorus brasiliensis n. sp. and L. guanduensis n. sp. have a similar shape of the accessory piece, but in L. guanduensis n. sp. the lower lobe is larger than the upper lobe (as opposed to L. brasiliensis n. sp.), the ratio between length of upper lobe and the length of the proximal part of the accessory piece before the bifurcation is shorter and the distal tip of the lower lobe extends to the level of the upper lobe (in L. brasiliensis n. sp. the distal tip of lower lobe crossing the upper lobe). In L. lizae n. sp., the terminal bifurcations of the accessory piece are equal in length and unequal in the other 3 new species. Species of Ligophorus are recorded for the first time from Brazil.

  10. Evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water from the River Paraíba do Sul, in Brazil, with the Allium cepa L. test

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    A. Barbério

    Full Text Available This work investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water from the River Paraíba do Sul (Brazil using Allium cepa roots. An anatomo-morphological parameter (root length, mitotic indices, and frequency of micronuclei were analysed. Eight bulbs were chosen at random for treatment for 24 to 120 hours with the River water collected in the years of 2005 and 2006 from sites in the cities of Tremembé and Aparecida (São Paulo state, Brazil. Daily measurements of the length of the roots grown from each bulb were carried out throughout the experiment. Mitotic index (MI and frequency of micronuclei (MN were determined for 2000 cells per root, using 3-5 root tips from other bulbs (7-10. Only in the roots treated with samples of the River water collected in 2005 in Tremembé city was there a decrease in the root length growth compared to the respective control. However, a reduction in MI values was verified for both sites analysed for that year. Considering the data involving root length growth and especially MI values, a cytotoxic potential is suggested for the water of the River Paraíba do Sul at Tremembé and Aparecida, in the year of 2005. On the other hand, since in this year the MN frequency was not affected with the river water treatments, genotoxicity is not assumed for the river water sampled at the aforementioned places.

  11. CERN: SC-33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    On 22 April a forward-looking CERN also looked back for a day, when the 'SC-33' event reviewed the achievements of CERN's first machine, the 600 MeV SynchroCyclotron (SC), which closed down on 17 December after 33 years of valiant service

  12. CERN: SC-33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-06-15

    On 22 April a forward-looking CERN also looked back for a day, when the 'SC-33' event reviewed the achievements of CERN's first machine, the 600 MeV SynchroCyclotron (SC), which closed down on 17 December after 33 years of valiant service.

  13. S-C Mylonites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lister, G.S.; Snoke, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of foliations are commonly developed in mylonites and mylonitic rocks: (a) S-surfaces related to the accumulation of finite strain and (b) C-surfaces related to displacement discontinuities or zones of relatively high shear strain. There are two types of S-C mylonites. Type I S-C

  14. Concentrations of heavy metals in river sediments of the Canes River Basin, the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Meneses Silva, M.; Teixeira de Andrade, G.

    2010-01-01

    Research about chimism in the Bengalas river basin was performed as a part of the environmental study project developed in the area, encompassing several knowledge fields. Among these, Environmental Geochemistry played an important role. This work presents the results related to heavy metals in stream sediments, indicating its origins (natural or anthropic) and its availability for aquatic biota. The basin under study has 135.07 Km2, laying in the oriental portion of the Teresópolis country, 100 Km far from the of Rio de Janeiro city. The rivers forming the Bengalas basin cut Pre-Cambrian terrain, formed by Orthognaiss takes 70% of the area, post-tectonic granite(20%), migmatite gneiss (10%) and gabro dikes. The methodology used was the determination of the content of heavy metals through sequencial extraction technique, consisting in the selective remove of metals in the geochemical fractions found in the sediments, cation exchange (bioavailable), carbonaceous, reducible and organic (potentially bioavailable) and residual (non available).The analyze of the results showed that iron was present in all sequential phases and predominated in the residual phase The same behavior was verified for zinc and copper. Manganese had the best distribution through the fractions due to its redox character, allowing bigger solubility and transportation; it appeared in the exchange, residual, organic and carbonaceous phases. Cadmium was found only in the carbonaceous phase, confirming its geochemical tendency. Chrome, on the other hand, was present in the residual and organic phase, while lead was found in the residual and carbonaceous phase

  15. Genetic diversity of Prochilodus lineatus stocks using in the stocking program of Tietê River, Brazil

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    Ricardo Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the genetic diversity in four brood stocks and one juvenile stock of curimba Prochilodus lineatus in a Hydropower plant in São Paulo - Brazil, using the Tietê River stocking program. Materials and methods. Five RAPD primers were used to amplify the extracted DNA from 150 fin-clip samples. Results. Fifty-nine fragments were polymorphic, 52 had frequencies with significant differences (p<0.05, 45 had low frequencies, 54 were excluded, and two were fixed fragments. High values for polymorphic fragments (71.19% to 91.53% and Shannon index (0.327 to 0.428 were observed. The genetic divergence values within each stock were greater than 50%. Most of the genetic variation was found within the groups through the AMOVA analysis, which was confirmed by the results of the identity and genetic distance. High ancestry levels (FST among the groups value indicated high and moderate genetic differentiation. The estimates of number of migrants by generation (Nm indicated low levels of gene flow. High and moderate genetic divergence between groups (0.58 to 0.83 was observed. Conclusions. The results indicate high variability within the stocks, and genetic differentiation among them. The fish stocks analyzed represent a large genetic base that will allow the fish technicians to release juveniles without genetic risks to wild populations present in the river. These genetic procedures may be used as models for other migratory species, including those threatened by extinction.

  16. Ethnobotany of therapeutic teas in the Urubueua de Fátima River community in Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Homobono Brito de Moura

    2016-05-01

    Ethnobotanical studies in Brazil have shown that teas are the main form of therapeutic treatment in traditional communities. The aim of this research was to evaluate the knowledge of traditional practices in Urubueua de Fátima River community in Abaetetuba, Pará through identification of the plants used to prepare medicinal teas and the local methods of preparation. We also evaluated the importance of plants for therapy and treatment of the most frequent diseases, and investigated the quality of drinking water for the population, which is essential for the preparation of teas, and the relationship between water quality and riparian health. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 35 locals, and for each plant species used we calculated importance value, percent agreement on primary uses, percent agreement on corrected primary uses, and interviewee consensus factor. Microbiological analysis was conducted for water samples collected at three different points of Urubueua River. Eighty-two recipes of therapeutic teas were reported in total. Mentha sp. had the highest importance value, and Lippia alba (Mill NE Brown and Ficus maxima Mill were the plants most agreed upon concerning primary reasons for use. Residents aged between 60 and 69 years hold vast knowledge of tea plants and recipes, which are often employed in traditional medicines. Total and fecal coliforms present in samples from the population water supply indicate a risk for diarrheal disease, as mentioned in recurring clinical data.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative representation of the coal mining impact in the rivers of Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amboni, M.M.; Campos, J.J.; Zanuz, M.; Baldoni Gomes, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presented details of an information processing methodology for an environmental database that was designed within a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate the impact of coal mining on 3 watersheds in the Santa Catarina coal basin. An environmental reclamation project covering an area of approximately 1,950 km 2 is currently being conducted in the region. Water resources in the area of study were identified using geographical and statistical maps and orthophotos. Monitoring point influence areas were established based on terrain numeric models of the watersheds combined with a near-monitoring point surface polluted area analysis. Features related to rivers and monitoring points were then related with each other using a commercial software tool. Acidity parameters and hydrography parameters were identified as important parameters for establishing pollution levels. Maps produced using the methodology have been integrated with an environmental parameters monitoring report that is provided to the federal courts of Brazil annually. To date, 6 percent of the total river length in the 3 watersheds has been monitored. Approximately 5 percent of the monitored area is polluted with acid mine drainage (AMD). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Assessing the spatial pattern of a river water quality in southern Brazil by multivariate analysis of biological and chemical indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. B. Cassanego

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the genotoxicity and chemical quality of the Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. During two years, bimonthly, cuttings of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea with flower buds were exposed to river water samples from Caraá, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Taquara and Campo Bom, which are municipalities located in the upper, middle and lower stretches of the Rio dos Sinos basin. Simultaneously, chemical parameters were analyzed, rainfall data were surveyed and negative (distilled water and positive (0.1% formaldehyde controls were made. Micronuclei (MCN frequencies were determined in tetrads of pollen grain mother cells. From the upper stretch toward the lower, there was an increase in the frequency of MCN and in concentrations of chemical parameters. Cadmium, lead, copper, total chromium and zinc were present at the four sites and a concentration gradient was not demonstrated along the river. The multivariate analysis revealed that two principal components exist, which accounted for 62.3% of the observed variances. Although genotoxicity was observed in Santo Antônio da Patrulha, the water presented higher mean values for most of the assessed parameters, in the lower stretch, where urbanization and industrialization are greater. The spatial and temporal pattern of water quality observed reinforces the importance of considering the environmental factors and their effects on organisms in an integrated way in watercourse monitoring programs.

  19. Fish trophic structure in a first order stream of the Iguatemi River basin, Upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaneide Nogueira Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We described the spatial distribution of fish trophic groups in the Água Boa Stream, MS, Brazil. Specimens were caught using electrofishing in the upper, intermediate and lower stretches of the stream, between March and November 2008. We analyzed 415 stomach contents of 24 species. Detritus/sediment and aquatic invertebrates were the main exploited resources. Ordination analysis categorized the species in six trophic groups. Aquatic invertivores showed the highest richness (10 species, followed by detritivores (08 species, omnivores (03 species, terrestrial invertivores (03 species, algivores (02 species and herbivore (01 species. Three trophic groups occurred in the upper stretch, six in the intermediate and five in the lower. Detritivores, omnivores and algivores showed the highest density, while detritivores and aquatic invertivores presented the highest biomass. Autochthonous resources were particularly important to the studied fish fauna, especially aquatic invertebrates, so, conservation actions reducing the simplification of the habitat by silting and recovering the riparian forest are essential to maintain the ichthyofauna of the Água Boa Stream.

  20. Dissolved nitrogen in rivers: comparing pristine and impacted regions of Brazil

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    LA Martinelli

    Full Text Available Riverine nitrogen distribution is increasingly controlled by anthropogenic activities in their watersheds, regardless of spatial scale, climate, and geographical zone. Consequently, modelling efforts to predict the export of nitrogen from rivers worldwide have used attributes such as population density, land use, urbanization and sanitation. These models have greatly enhanced our understanding of the sources and fate of nitrogen added to terrestrial systems and transported to rivers and streams, especially for developed countries of the North temperate zone. However, much of the world's population lives in developing countries of the tropics, where the effects of human activities on riverine N exports are still poorly understood. In an effort to close this gap, we compare riverine nitrogen data from 32 Brazilian rivers draining two contrasting regions in this tropical country in terms of economic development - the State of São Paulo and the Amazon. Our data include nitrogen in different dissolved forms, such as Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN and Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON. The results show that nitrogen concentrations decreased as river runoff increased in both study areas, and that concentrations were significantly higher in rivers draining the most economically developed region. The relationships between nitrogen concentrations and fluxes with demographic parameters such as population density were also determined and compared to those in temperate systems. In contrast to temperate watersheds, we found that nitrogen fluxes increased only after population densities were higher than 10 individuals per km².

  1. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  2. Fish larvae assemblages in two floodplain lakes with different degrees of connection to the Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Salete Daga

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the abundance, attributes of assemblages, and spatial and temporal distributions of fish larvae and their relationships with some abiotic variables in two floodplain lakes with different degrees of connection to the Paraná River in Ilha Grande National Park, PR, Brazil. Four sampling sites were chosen, two in each floodplain lake. Night samples were taken with plankton nets during three spawning seasons (monthly, from October to March from 2001 to 2005. The highest diversity and abundance were recorded at Saraiva Lake, with 25 taxa being identified. In Xambrê Lake, only sedentary species were captured, and the most abundant species were Plagioscion squamosissimus and Hypophthalmus edentatus. The greatest abundance of larvae was found in the second spawning season. In the Saraiva Lake, the most abundant species were Moenkhausia aff. intermedia, Hyphessobrycon sp., and Bryconamericus stramineus, but larvae of known migratory species were also documented. In this lake, the greatest abundance of larvae was found in the third spawning. Larvae abundance was influenced by water temperature and conductivity. The high diversity and abundance recorded in Saraiva Lake may be a result of its connectivity with the Paraná River, and the low diversity and abundance observed at Xambrê Lake are likely due to its isolation from the river. This work shows the importance of these lagoons for fish development, for both sedentary and migratory species. Both lagoons may be considered to have extreme ecological importance and they are also extremely susceptible to impacts, so any careless disturbance may cause irreversible damage.

  3. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is

  4. 210Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Vergotti, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350 km sector of the river. The 210 Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess 210 Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess 210 Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the 210 Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. - Highlights: • Gold mining activities. • Madeira River basin at Amazon area. • Pb-210 chronological method. • Models for evaluating sedimentation rates

  5. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River Site (USDOE) D-Area Oil Seepage Basin (631-G), Aiken, SC, August 14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The D-Area Oil Seepage Basin (D-Area OSB) Operable Unit (OU) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). No Action is the selected remedy for shallow soil, surface water and sediment, because no constituents of concern (COCs) were identified for them in the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA). The selected remedy for D-Area OSB groundwater is Alternative GW-2: Natural Attenuation/Groundwater Mixing Zone (GWMZ) with Institutional Controls

  6. [Stingrays in rivers in southeastern Brazil: occurrence localities and impact on the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone Neto, Domingos; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, our aim was to describe the process of colonization of the upper Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil, by stingrays, showing the current situation, likely trend and impact caused and discussing some management actions and mitigation measures. Interviews were held with riverbank people and health professionals, to gather information on occurrences of stingrays and accidents associated with these animals, along with underwater observations and collection of specimens, between 2004 and 2009 in localities in the States of São Paulo, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, in the southeastern, southern and part of the central-western regions of Brazil. Three species of stingrays were identified in the study area, thus demonstrating that they were using the paths opened by the Tietê-Paraná Waterway to disperse. Sixteen victims of accidents involving these animals were found, mainly bathers and fishermen. Attention was drawn to the fact that these cases had not been reported, yet they presented high morbidity with notable temporary incapacity for work. This is the first report on biological invasion involving species of elasmobranchs in the literature and, because stingrays are colonizing densely populated areas and are expanding their range of distribution each year, it can be expected that their negative interactions with humans will intensify, with important changes in the epidemiological profile of accidents due to venomous animals occurring in southeastern Brazil.

  7. Suspended matter and nutrient gradients of a small-scale river plume in Sepetiba Bay, SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Paiva Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal river plumes represent one of the final stages of material transport across the land-sea interface. Most studies, however have focused on the behavior of medium to large sized river plumes of coastal-shelf waters, whereas small sized river plumes acting within estuaries have been neglected. This study addressed the behavior of suspended particulate matter (SPM, dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN, DIP and DSi and Chlorophyll a (Chl. a of a small sized river plume derived from the closely lain São Francisco and Guandú river channels, set in the Sepetiba Bay estuary, SE-Brazil. Two surface water sampling campaigns were conducted, one in January 2003 (humid summer conditions and the other in June 2003 (dry winter conditions. On both occasions, the plumes dispersed in a SE direction towards the inner portion of the bay. The "wet" event plume was more turbid, nutrient rich and dispersed beyond nearshore waters, whereas the "dry" event plume proliferated as a narrow, less turbid and more nutrient poor film alongshore. Both exhibited a marked degree of patchiness, induced by the differential input of materials from the river sources and resuspension processes from the shallow nearshore bottom. The São Francisco river channel was the main source of freshwater, SPM and nutrients, except for ammonia (NH4+-N derived from domestic effluents of the Guandú river. The mesohaline portion of the estuarine mixing zone of the plumes behaved as a slight source for SPM, DSi and DIP, due to bottom resuspension processes. N:P molar ratios ranged between 80:1 and 20:1 along the estuarine gradient, being higher in the summer than in the winter event, indicating that DIP was the potential nutrient limiting primary production. Chl. a concentrations increased at the outer premises of the plume, suggesting that the short residence times and turbidity of the plume waters, hampered primary production nearshore, particularly during the summer occasion. The small

  8. Wide reproductive period of a long-distance migratory fish in a subtropical river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evoy Zaniboni-Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salminus brasiliensis is a potamodromous fish species that occurs in southern South American rivers. In spite of its ecological and economic relevance, information regarding the reproductive biology of S. brasiliensis is still scarce. This study used data from 18 years of continuous sampling in the Upper Uruguay River Basin, analyzing 718 adult fish (307 males, 243 females, 168 undefined captured at different months of the year. The results showed that the reproductive timing for S. brasiliensis is wide in the Upper Uruguay River, with the occurrence of mature fish between the month of August and March and spawned individuals between July and May of the next year. These results were sustained by the increase of gonadal somatic relationship (GSR from August. The reproductive timing of S. brasiliensis in the Upper Uruguay River may start between the middle winter and early spring (from late July to late September, and may extend until the late summer and middle fall (from the middle February to early May. These findings contribute to information on the general biology of S. brasiliensis and provide valuable knowledge to management programs and to conservation efforts of this fisheries resource.

  9. Ecological impact from large constructions of hydroelectric power plants in Parana River, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, Argentino A.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis over environmental impacts on Parana River as a result of the hydroelectric power plants construction is presented. Hydroelectric dams, also including the planned ones, are showing during the explanation, and biologic aspects are discussed. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from Tiete river between Salesopolis and Suzano, SP (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegre, Gabriel Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Once introduced into the aquatic environment, many substances can bind or be adsorbed by organic particles in suspension. Depending on the river morphology and hydrological conditions, these particles in suspension containing the contaminants can be deposited along its course, becoming part of the bottom sediments, making them actual sinks and often a source of contamination for the water column and benthic organisms. In the assessment of water, sediment has been one of the most important indicators of the contamination levels in aquatic ecosystems, representing the deposition of contaminants in the environment that occurred over the years and even decades. The Tiete River cross the Sao Paulo state, however, in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, the river shows the most severe degradation. In the region of Salesopolis, the waters of the Tiete River are used for public supply, but across the city of Mogi das Cruzes the water quality decreases significantly. Considering the importance of the Tiete river and the sediment for the aquatic biota, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of the sediment at five points along the Tiete river, between the cities of Salesopolis and Suzano, Sao Paulo. Four sampling were carried out: two in the summer (rainy season) and two in winter (dry season). The whole sediment was assessed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia, respectively, the elutriate was assessed by chronic toxicity test using C. dubia, while the porewater was evaluated by acute toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri. Samples of river water were also evaluated for chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia. The quantification of metals and hydrocarbons in sediment samples was also carried out in order to correlate the biological effects with the chemical contamination. The obtained results with the whole sediment test indicate Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano cities as the most toxic sites and also as the sites with the highest

  11. (210)Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Vergotti, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350km sector of the river. The (21)(0)Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess (21)(0)Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess (21)(0)Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the (21)(0)Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediment of the Corumbataí River, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Jardim

    Full Text Available The Corumbataí River drains an economically important area which is mainly represented by the municipalities of Piracicaba and Rio Claro. In view of the impacts caused by the discharge of industrial waste and domestic sewage into the Piracicaba River, the Corumbataí has become increasingly significant as a source of water for the municipality of Piracicaba. However, chemical, physical, and microbiological analyses carried out prior to the present study had already indicated a decline in the quality of the Corumbataí waters. This study aimed to assess, through water and sediment samples, both acute and chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna and Daphnia similis, and to analyze acid-volatile sulfide (AVS and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM in the sediment. Resulting data were intended to be a contribution to future projects for the management and recuperation of this system. To that aim, water and sediment were collected at seven Corumbataí sampling stations in November 2003 and March 2004. Acute toxicity to D. similis was detected in water and sediment samples from the Piracicaba station, located at the mouth of the Corumbataí River. Chronic toxicity was identified in the water or sediment samples of all stations, with the exception of Analândia Montante (upstream, at the head of the river. This was found to affect survival, growth, and fecundity of the test-organisms. The AVS and SEM analyses showed the bioavailability of the metals, thus explaining toxicity found in bioassaying samples of water and sediment. The use of two test-organism species made it possible to obtain a better assessment of the condition of both water and sediment samples of the Corumbataí River.

  13. Determination of metals by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and evaluation of toxicity of a river impacted by coal mining in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuada, R M; Menezes, C T B; Pavei, P T; Peralba, M C R; Dos Santos, J H Z

    2009-04-30

    Metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in the region of Criciuma (Brazil), a region impacted by coal mining, were determined in water and sediments using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy. Samples were collected from the Mãe Luzia River (south Brazil) at five different stations, from the source down to the river mouth (Ararangua estuary). Water and sediment toxicity were also evaluated using bioassays with Daphnia magna as the bioindicator. The metal present in the highest concentrations both in water (1.3-11 mg L(-1)) and in sediments (34-142 mg L(-1)) was iron. Results suggest an influence of coal mining on the aquatic receptors, showing a clear relationship between metal content (mostly Fe) and ecotoxicity.

  14. Benthic Bacillariophyta of the Paripe River estuary in Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    AN. Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the benthic diatom composition from the estuary sediment in the Pernambuco State, based on 32 samples. Samples were collected monthly from September through December 1999 (dry period and from April through July 2000 (rainy period during four pre established sampling stations. Results indicated 19 families and 31 specific and infraspecific taxa. Eight new records were founded for Pernambuco State: Auliscus coelatus, Fallacia nummularia, Navicula algida, Plagiograma pulchellum, Terpsinoe americana, Triceratium antideluvianna and Tryblionella coarctata and one, Auliscus punctatus Bailey, in northeastern Brazil.

  15. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  16. Sanguinicola platyrhynchi n. sp. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae parasite of visceral cavity of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840 (Pisces: Pimelodidae from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUIDELLI G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species is of the genus Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 described, Sanguinicola platyrhynchi n. sp., digenetic parasite of visceral cavity of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840 from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. The species has been thus included because of the presence of separate dorsal genital pores, while differing from other species of the same genus mainly in digestive apparatus features, genital pore position, and infection site. Emendation of generic diagnosis is included.

  17. Bacteria of fecal origin in mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) in the Cocó River estuary, Ceará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Ana I.M.; Vieira,Regine H.S.F.; Menezes,Francisca G.R.; Fonteles-Filho,Antonio A.; Torres,Regina C.O.; Sant'Anna,Ernani S.

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the microbiological quality of mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), collected at a natural oyster bed in the estuary of Cocó river (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil). MPN values were used for estimating the total (TC) and fecal (FC) coliforms and Enterococcus spp. TC and FC MPN values in the whole muscle and intervalve liquid ranged from 1,600/g and from

  18. Fish, lower Ivinhema River basin streams, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Súarez, Y. R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ivinhema River basin is one of the main tributaries of the western portion of Paraná River. However,few data are available on the fish communities of its streams. Monthly samples were made in seven streams of the lowerportion of the basin, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, using a rectangular sieve 1.2 x 0.8 m, with 2 mm mesh size.Forty-six fish species were found in these streams. The richness estimated according to the bootstrap procedure was 50species. At least two of the captured species were not previously recorded for the upper Paraná basin, indicating theneed of new sampling effort in this region.

  19. Using ASCEM Modeling and Visualization to Inform Stakeholders of Contaminant Plume Evolution and Remediation Efficacy at F-Basin Savannah River, SC – 15156

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wainwright, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Arora, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faybishenko, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Krishnan, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hubbard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Moulton, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lipnikov, K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gable, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Freshley, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-28

    Communication with stakeholders, regulatory agencies, and the public is an essential part of implementing different remediation and monitoring activities, and developing site closure strategies at contaminated sites. Modeling of contaminant plume evolution plays a critical role in estimating the benefit, cost, and risk of particular options. At the same time, effective visualization of monitoring data and modeling results are particularly important for conveying the significance of the results and observations. In this paper, we present the results of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) project, including the discussion of the capabilities of newly developed ASCEM software package, along with its application to the F-Area Seepage Basins located in the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). ASCEM software includes state-of-the-art numerical methods for simulating complex flow and reactive transport, as well as various toolsets such as a graphical user interface (GUI), visualization, data management, uncertainty quantification, and parameter estimation. Using this software, we have developed an advanced visualization of tritium plume migration coupled with a data management system, and simulated a three-dimensional model of flow and plume evolution on a high-performance computing platform. We evaluated the effect of engineered flow barriers on a nonreactive tritium plume, through advanced plume visualization and modeling of tritium plume migration. In addition, we developed a geochemical reaction network to describe complex geochemical processes at the site, and evaluated the impact of coupled hydrological and geochemical heterogeneity. These results are expected to support SRS’s monitoring activities and operational decisions.

  20. DIVERSITY AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE ICHTHYOPLANKTON IN THE LOWER AMAZON RIVER, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Maia Zacardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated (i the taxonomic composition of the larval fish fauna of the lower Amazon River, (ii the structure of the larval assemblage, and (iii the relationship between the abundance of the ichthyoplankton and environmental variables, in order to evaluate the importance of this river sector as spawning and nursery grounds for the region’s fish species. Data were collected monthly between January and December 2013 during the day and at night sampling cycles. A total of 2,295 fish eggs and 46,298 larvae were collected, quantified and classified larvae in 63 taxa. These larvae belonged to species with a variety of reproductive strategies. Individuals at a very early stage of development made up 92% of the specimens collected. High densities of larvae were recorded between January and March, corresponding to the breeding season of most of the species exploited by local fisheries. This peak in density was associated with the period in which rainfall, river water levels, and dissolved oxygen concentrations all peaked, while pH and electrical conductivity reached their lowest levels. The results of the present study confirmed that a number of different fish species use the margins of the lower Amazon river as spawning grounds and nurseries, as well as dispersal routes. This emphasizes the importance of these areas for the reproduction of local fish species and the maintenance of their populations, and highlights the need for the preservation of these areas and the more effective regulation of the closed season. Keywords: Amazon; distribution; fish eggs and larvae; environmental variables; conservation.

  1. Integrated modeling of water quantity and quality in the Araguari River basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Salla, Marcio Ricardo; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Solera, Abel; Álvarez, Joaquín Andreu; Pereira, Carlos Eugênio; Alamy Filho, José Eduardo; De Oliveira, André Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The Araguari River basin has a huge water resource potential. However, population and industrial growth have generated numerous private and collective conflicts of interest in the multiple uses of water, resulting in the need for integrated management of water quantity and quality at the basin scale. This study used the AQUATOOL Decision Support System. The water balance performed by the SIMGES module for the period of October 2006 to September 2011 provided a good representation of the reali...

  2. Soil organic matter and soil acidity in Mangrove areas in the river Paraiba Estuary, Cabedelo, Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wilma Vasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are of great environmental significance, because of their fragility and role in feeding and breeding various animal species. In northeastern Brazil, the disorderly occupation of estuarine areas and the urban sprawl have led to a considerable loss of the original area occupied by mangroves. In the municipality of Cabedelo, State of Paraíba, there are about 4,900 ha of remnant mangrove areas in the estuarine complex of the Paraíba River. However, information about the attributes of mangrove soils at this location is quite scarce. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil organic matter and soil acidity in mangroves located in the estuary of the Paraíba River, State of Paraíba, Brazil, in order to increase the database of soil attributes in this region. The study area is in local influence of the Restinga de Cabedelo National Forest (Flona, an environmental conservation unit of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. For the choice of sampling points, we considered an area that receives direct influence of the eviction of domestic and industrial effluents. The soil of the study area is an “Organossolo Háplico” in Brazilian Soil Classification (Histosol, and was sampled at four point sites: one upstream of the effluent discharge (P1, one in the watercourse receiving effluent water (P2, one downstream of the effluent discharge (P3 and another near Flona (P4, at 0-20 and 20-40 cm, in four replications in time (28/08/2012 in the morning and afternoon, and 21/01/2013 in the morning and afternoon. Potential acidity, pH and soil organic matter (SOM were determined. No significant differences were detected in the potential acidity of the four collection sites, which ranged from 0.38 to 0.45 cmolc dm-3. Soil pH was greatest at point P4 (7.0 and lowest at point P1 (5.8. The SOM was highest at point P1 (86.4 % and lowest at P2 (77.9 %. The attributes related to soil acidity were not sensitive to indicate

  3. Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira river basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil, as revealed by paleomorphological analysis

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    Ericson H. Hayakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient drainage systems are being increasingly documented in the Amazon basin and their characterization is crucial for reconstructing fluvial evolution in this area. Fluvial morphologies, including elongate belts, are well preserved along the Madeira River. Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission favored the detection of these features even where they are covered by dense rainforest. These paleomorphologies are attributed to the shifting position of past tributaries of the Madeira River through avulsions. These radial paleodrainage networks produced fan-shaped morphologies that resemble distributary megafans. Distinguishing avulsive tributary systems from distributary megafans in the sedimentary record is challenging. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion in this Amazonian area during the late Quaternary is related to tectonics due to features as: (i straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections. These characteristics altogether lead to propose that the radial paleodrainage present at the Madeira River margin results from successive avulsions of tributary channels over time due to tectonics.

  4. Bioavailability of pollutants sets risk of exposure to biota and human population in reservoirs from Iguaçu River (Southern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, F Y; Pereira, M V M; Lottermann, E; Santos, G S; Stremel, T R O; Doria, H B; Gusso-Choueri, P; Campos, S X; Ortolani-Machado, C F; Cestari, M M; Neto, F Filipak; Azevedo, J C R; Ribeiro, C A Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    The Iguaçu River, located at the Southern part of Brazil, has a great socioeconomic and environmental importance due to its high endemic fish fauna and its potential to generate hydroelectric power. However, Iguaçu River suffers intense discharge of pollutants in the origin of the river. In a previous report, the local environmental agency described water quality to improve along the river course. However, no study with integrated evaluation of chemical analysis and biological responses has been reported so far for the Iguaçu River. In the current study, three different Brazilian fish species (Astyanax bifasciatus, Chrenicicla iguassuensis, and Geophagus brasiliensis) were captured in the five cascading reservoirs of Iguaçu River for a multi-biomarker study. Chemical analysis in water, sediment, and muscle indicated high levels of bioavailable metals in all reservoirs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in the bile of the three fish species. Integration of the data through a FA/PCA analysis demonstrated the poorest environmental quality of the reservoir farthest from river's source, which is the opposite of what has been reported by the environmental agency. The presence of hazardous chemicals in the five reservoirs of Iguaçu River, their bioaccumulation in the muscle of fish, and the biological responses showed the impacts of human activities to this area and did not confirm a gradient of pollution between the five reservoirs, from the source toward Iguaçu River's mouth. Therefore, diffuse source of pollutants present along the river course are increasing the risk of exposure to biota and human populations.

  5. Temporal Trends and Hydrological Controls of Fisheries Production in the Madeira River (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. A.; Lima, M. A.; Doria, C.

    2016-12-01

    Amazonian river systems are characterized by a strongly seasonal flood pulse and important hydrologic effects have been observed in the dynamics of fish stocks and fishing yields. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from hydropower development will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects and impacts on fish and fisheries are expected to be potentially irreversible. In this work we investigate shared trends and causal factors driving fish catch in the Madeira River (a major tributary of the Amazon) before dam construction to derive relationships between catch and natural hydrologic dynamics. We applied Dynamic Factor Analysis to investigate dynamics in fish catch across ten commercially important fish species in the Madeira River using daily fish landings data including species and total weight and daily hydrological data obtained from the Brazilian Geological Service. Total annual catch averaged over the 18-yr period (1990-2007) was 849 tons yr-1. Species with the highest catch included curimatã, dourada/filhote and pacu, highlighting the importance of medium and long-distance migratory species for fisheries production. We found a four-trend dynamic factor model (DFM) to best fit the observed data, assessed using the Akaike Information Criteria. Model goodness of fit was fair (R2=0.51) but highly variable across species (0.16 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.95). Fitted trends exhibited strong and regular year-to-year variation representative of the seasonal hydrologic pulsing observed on the Madeira River. Next, we considered 11 candidate explanatory time series and found the best DFM used four explanatory variables and only one common trend. While the model fit with explanatory variables was lower (R2=0.31) it removed much reliance on unknown common trends. The most important explanatory variable in this model was maximum water level followed by days flooded, river flow of the previous year and increment. We found unique responses to hydrological

  6. Diet of Astyanax species (Teleostei, Characidae in an Atlantic Forest River in Southern Brazil

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    Fábio Silveira Vilella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of six species of Astyanax from river Maquiné are described. Fishes were sampled bi-monthly from November/95 to September/96 in two zones of the river. Items were identified, counted and had their abundance estimated according to a semi-quantitative scale. Frequency of occurrence, alimentary importance index (IFI values and a similarity analysis of diets for each species-river zone sample were examined. All the species were considered typically omnivorous, with insects and vegetal matter being the most important items in their diet. These species could act as seed dispersers, particularly for macrophytes. Intra-specific spatial differences were not observed in comparisons of samples from two diferent regions of the river, except for A. fasciatus. The presence of Podostemaceae macrophytes in the mid-course of the river seemed to be important both as an autochthonous food resource and as habitat for several organisms preyed by the Astyanax species.Seis espécies do gênero Astyanax, presentes no rio Maquiné, RS, foram estudadas quanto aos seus hábitos alimentares. Os exemplares foram amostrados bimensalmente de novembro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 nas zonas ritral e potamal do rio. Os itens alimentares foram identificados e quantificados de acordo com uma escala semi-quantitativa de abundância, utilizando-se para análise a frequência de ocorrência e um índice de importância alimentar para cada espécie e zona do rio. Análises multivariadas de agrupamento e ordenação foram utilizadas para comparar as dietas intra e interespecíficas. Todas as espécies foram consideradas onivoras, sendo que os itens mais importantes foram os insetos e restos de vegetais superiores. Sugere-se que as espécies estudadas possam atuar como dispersoras de sementes, particularmente para macrófitas. Diferenças espaciais intraespecíficas não foram encontradas, exceto para A. fasciatus. A presença de Podostemaceae no curso médio do rio parece

  7. Promoção de saúde e qualidade de vida entre mães de pré-adolescentes: um estudo etnográfico enfocado em Timbó/SC-Brasil Promoción de salud y calidad de vida entre madres de preadolescentes: un estudio etnografico enfocado en Timbó/SC-Brasil Health promotion and quality of life among mothers of preadolescents: a focused ethnography study in Timbó/SC-Brazil

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    Vera Radünz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este é um estudo etnográfico enfocado, realizado com 10 mães de pré-adolescentes da OASE (Ordem Auxiliadora Senhoras Evangélicas em Timbó, Santa Catarina, Brasil. O objetivo foi descrever variações em padrões dos fenômenos promoção de saúde, qualidade de vida e comportamento de risco a partir das perspectivas das mães, explorando como influenciam seus filhos, protegendo-os de comportamento de risco tais como álcool, fumo, outras drogas e violência. Utilizamos entrevista semi-estruturada, observação participante, diário de campo, genograma e fotografias. Os dados foram analisados segundo Bardin e os resultados agrupados em 4 categorias: mães encaram sua função como desafio; ser saudável como condição de qualidade de vida; impedimentos para atingir qualidade de vida; práticas de promoção à saúde para proteger filhos de comportamento de risco. O estudo evidenciou a crença das mães como participantes na promoção de saúde, o que poderá orientar a elaboração de políticas de saúde e encorajar mudanças de comportamento.Estudio etnográfico enfocado, realizado con 10 madres de preadolescentes que participan en OASE (grupo de ayuda de mujeres evangélicas en Timbó, SC/Brasil. El objetivo fue describir las variaciones sobre los patrones de promoción de la salud, calidad de vida y comportamiento de riesgo bajo las perspectivas de las madres, explorando como estas influyen en sus hijos y los protegen de comportamientos de riesgo como alcohol, cigarro, otras drogas y violencia. Se utilizaron: entrevista semiestructurada, observación participante, diario de campo, genograma y fotografías. Los datos fueron analizados con base en Bardin y los resultados formaron cuatro categorías: madres encaran su función como un desafío; ser saludable como condición de calidad de vida; impedimentos para alcanzar calidad de vida; prácticas de promoción de salud. El estudio evidenció la creencia de las madres como participantes

  8. Synoptic thermodynamic and dynamic patterns associated with Quitandinha River flooding events in Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fabricio Polifke; Justi da Silva, Maria Gertrudes Alvarez; Rotunno Filho, Otto Corrêa; Pires, Gisele Dornelles; Sampaio, Rafael João; de Araújo, Afonso Augusto Magalhães

    2018-05-01

    Natural disasters are the result of extreme or intense natural phenomena that cause severe impacts on society. These impacts can be mitigated through preventive measures that can be aided by better knowledge of extreme phenomena and monitoring of forecasting and alert systems. The city of Petropolis (in a mountainous region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) is prone to heavy rain events, often leading to River overflows, landslides, and loss of life. In that context, this work endeavored to characterize the thermodynamic and dynamic synoptic patterns that trigger heavy rainfall episodes and the corresponding flooding of Quitandinha River. More specifically, we reviewed events from the time period between January 2013 and December 2014 using reanalysis data. We expect that the overall description obtained of synoptic patterns should provide adequate qualitative aid to the decision-making processes involved in operational forecasting procedures. We noticed that flooding events were related to the presence of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), frontal systems (FS), and convective storms (CS). These systems showed a similar behavior on high-frequency wind components, notably with respect to northwest winds before precipitation and to a strong southwest wind component during rainfall events. Clustering analyses indicated that the main component for precipitation formation with regard to CS systems comes from daytime heating, with the dynamic component presenting greater efficiency for the FS configurations. The SACZ events were influenced by moisture availability along the vertical column of the atmosphere and also due to dynamic components of precipitation efficiency and daytime heating, the latter related to the continuous transport of moisture from the Amazon region and South Atlantic Ocean towards Rio de Janeiro state.

  9. Temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton in the Ivinhema River (Mato Grosso do Sul State/ Brazil: influence of environmental variables

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    David Augusto Reynalte-Tataje

    Full Text Available Information on ichthyoplankton is an important tool in determining reproduction periods that - if associated to environmental variables - allows for inferences about the factors that regulate their intensity, beginning, and ending. In this context, this study aims to establish (i ichthyoplankton composition; (ii temporal variations in the overall density of eggs and larvae and among the most important taxa; and (iii the influence of some abiotic and biotic variables on these organisms' abundance. Ichthyoplankton sampling was undertaken during the period between April 2005 and March 2006 at the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin (MS/Brazil. Differences in the ichthyoplankton's temporal variation were evaluated using unifactorial ANOVAs. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson's correlation were used for the relationships between eggs and larvae densities and environmental variables. A total of 3,341 eggs and 2,896 larvae were captured during the period studied, and most of them were medium-sized and large species that carried out some type of reproductive migration. The highest densities of eggs and larvae occurred during the months of spring and summer, except for those of Bryconamericus stramineus, which was most abundant during the winter. The density of ichthyoplankton was most positively correlated with the water's outflow and temperature. However, Plagioscion squamosissimus was positively related to the increase in pH and in zooplanktonic organisms, while B. stramineus was inversely correlated with water outflow and temperature. The study concludes that spawning is most intense in the spring and summer, especially between November and January, and is related to the greatest values of water temperature and outflow. Nevertheless, the response and reproductive intensity in relation to the environmental variables vary according to the species.

  10. Geomorphological and morphometric analysis of the river basin of Salsa, south coast of the state of Paraiba / Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, M.E.; Nascimento, J.; Furrier, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to extend the knowledge on the geomorphology of the river basin of Salsa , located in the municipality of Conde, State of Paraíba / Brazil . The research was to develop guiding object thematic maps related to morphometric aspects of the basin such as fluvial hierarchy , hypsometric and slope . After obtaining the morphometric data can assess the likely tectonic influences on the morphology of this basin. Literature searches , acquisition and analysis of cartographic data (satellite imagery , topographic and thematic maps), where with the help of software SPRING 5:03 , were made the thematic maps of the basin : For this research, the following milestones have been met. In addition, there have been two topographic profiles of the area through which it was possible to further analyze the geomorphological aspects and clinográficos watershed. Already in possession of the first results of this research it was observed with the analysis of charts and topographic profiles the high level of dissection Barriers Training and dissection of this discrepancy between the left and right margins . Barriers in Education, was observed indicative of tectonics from setbacks headwater quite different slots and obsequente towards the River Salsa (SN), which is discordant from the direction of the main waterways and Training Barriers own inclination is that WE . These findings are important because the geomorphological analysis of litoestatigráfica unit is of paramount importance for the understanding of the mechanisms governing the morphology of the northeast coast, mainly in relation to the mechanisms that govern the morphology of watersheds coast of Paraiba

  11. New records of amphoroid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from Cachoeira River, Northeast Brazil

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    KP Cavalcante

    Full Text Available Amphoroid taxa have been revised in recent decades. Many species formerly assigned to Amphora have been transferred to other recently proposed genera, as Seminavis (Naviculaceae and Halamphora (Catenulaceae. In Brazil, there are few studies focused on amphoroid taxonomy. This study presents a taxonomic investigation of five uncommon amphoroid taxa from Brazilian diatom flora: Seminavis pusilla, S. strigosa, Amphora ectorii, Halamphora ghanensis and Halamphora sp. Seminavis strigosa is identical in valve morphology and morphometrical data to Amphora twenteana, and its synonymy is proposed. Seminavis pusilla, poorly found in Brazilian waters, has expanded its distribution. Halamphora ghanensis is a new record to American continent while Amphora ectorii are new to Brazilian aquatic systems. Halamphora sp. has distinct ultrastructural features in relation to similar species and is probably new for science.

  12. Chironomidae and Oligochaeta for water quality evaluation in an urban river in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Beatriz Jabour Figueiraujo Vescovi; Rodrigues, Luciana Falci Theza; de Oliveira, Gilmar Simões; da Gama Alves, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Considering the importance of benthic macroinvertebrates for diagnosis of variations in the ecological conditions of aquatic habitats, the aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages along an organic pollution gradient. The fauna specimens were obtained with the use of artificial substrates, and the environmental variables were recorded at five sites of the São Lourenço River, during 12 months. Metrics of the assemblage and detrended correspondence analysis were used to verify the response of the fauna to the pollution gradient. Procrustes analysis was used to verify whether the data on the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages, as well as the taxonomic and numerical resolution of these groups, provide similar results in relation to the pollution gradient. The richness, evenness, and taxonomic composition of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages varied significantly among the collection sites, with distinct conservation conditions. Genera of the subfamilies Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae were associated with the sites upstream of the urban area, where the dissolved oxygen levels are higher. Species of Oligochaeta and the genus Chironomus were associated with more organically polluted sites. No concordance was observed in the response of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages in relation to the environmental variables, indicating the need to use both groups in biomonitoring studies. On the other hand, both the data on composition (presence or absence) and those on the lowest taxonomic resolution (abundance of subfamilies) were effective to diagnose the pollution gradient in the river studied. Therefore, when the environmental conditions along a river's gradient are contrasting, we suggest the use of the lowest taxonomic resolution of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta in biomonitoring. That procedure considerably reduces the assessment time, besides being a method that can be used by people not

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton in the upper Uruguay river, Brazil

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    Samara Hermes-Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of fish eggs and larvae was analyzed in three sections of the Upper Uruguay river, in a stretch of 290 km. Samples were collected monthly from October, 2001 to March, 2002 during 48-h cycles at 6-h intervals between each sampling. Surface and bottom samples were collected with a 0.5-mm mesh cylindroconical net. Fishes from the Upper Uruguay river were reproductively active mainly from October to January, and this activity was more intense at the Ligeiro and Chapecó tributaries and Chapecó main river. It was observed that the tributaries are important spawning grounds and larval nursery sites, indicating the importance of preserving such environments.Foram analisadas a distribuição e abundância de ovos e larvas de peixes em três seções do Alto rio Uruguai, num trecho de 290 km. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente no período de outubro de 2001 a março de 2002, durante um ciclo de 48 horas com intervalos de 6 horas entre as amostragens. Foram feitas coletas de superfície e fundo, nas margens e no canal central do rio, utilizando-se redes de plâncton do tipo cônicocilíndricas de malha 0,5mm. As maiores ocorrências foram verificadas entre os meses de outubro a janeiro, sendo que a atividade reprodutiva foi mais intensa nos tributários Ligeiro e Chapecó e no rio Uruguai, na foz do rio Chapecó. Foi observado neste estudo que alguns tributários se destacam como locais de desova e desenvolvimento de larvas de peixe, indicando a importância de se preservar estes ambientes.

  14. Microglanis pataxo, a new catfish from southern Bahia coastal rivers, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento-Soares,Luisa M.; Martins-Pinheiro,Ronaldo F.; Aranda,Arion T.; Chamon,Carine C.

    2006-01-01

    A new pseudopimelodid catfish of the genus Microglanis, collected in small rivers at the lower and middle Peruípe, middle Jucuruçu and Cahy basins, in the southeastern coast of the Bahia state, is described. The new species has a comparatively high number of anal fin proximal radials, 12, shaped as thin tubes, the last one bearing a laminar extension; a pectoral fin spine with a bony point and with a smaller number of serrations on its posterior border; seven pleural ribs and a narrow head wi...

  15. Feeding ecology of Rhinodoras dorbignyi (Kner, 1855 (Siluriformes: Doradidae in the Paranapanema River, SP, Brazil

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    Felipe Pontieri de Lima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies describing the diet of fish are important to determine trophic chain relationships, habitat occupation, trophic niches, and to define food habits of species. To describe the diet of Rhinodoras dorbignyi, six collections were made bimonthly in the upper Paranapanema River, SP, from April 2010 to February 2011. Of the 63 samples collected, 30 had stomach content. The diet of this species was determined using two methods: (i alimentary index (AI% and (ii graphical analysis of feeding strategy. Based on the results, R. dorbignyi is an insectivorous species and autochthonous items play an important role in the diet of this species.

  16. Soil gamma ray spectrometry of the Buquira river basin, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Alice

    2002-12-01

    Natural radioactivity found in rocks and its evaluation been frequently used for studies of environmental geochemistry, particularly those of detection and control of pollutants and the consequent changes in environment after antropic interferences. In this work natural radioactivity in forty nine soil samples in the basin of Buquira river, at the Northeast region of Sao Paulo State, has been analysed and measured with a Ge-HP gamma ray spectrometer. A table with the most relevant results found in rocks is shown and discussed. (author)

  17. Endohelminths in Cichla piquiti(Perciformes, Cichlidae from the Paraná River, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Lidiane Franceschini

    Full Text Available Fifty specimens of Cichla piquiti were collected from the Paraná River downstream of the Ilha Solteira Hydroelectric Power Station in Brazil and surveyed for endohelminth parasites. All fish were parasitised by at least one helminth species (overall prevalence [P] = 100%. Eight parasite taxa were present: the nematode Procamallanus(Procamallanus peraccuratus in the intestines; third-stage larvae of the anisakids Contracaecumsp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in the visceral cavity, mesentery and serosa of the stomach and intestines and on the liver and spleen; the trematodes Austrodiplostomum compactum in the eye (metacercariae and Genarchella genarchella in the stomach; and the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus, Proteocephalus microscopicus, and Sciadocephalus megalodiscus in the intestines. Hysterothylaciumsp. larvae (P = 86% and P. microscopicus (P = 74% were the most prevalent parasites. Anisakids were more prevalent and abundant in the dry season. A negative correlation between the abundances of Hysterothylacium sp. and P. microscopicuswas observed, suggesting a competitive/antagonistic relationship between these parasites. Cichla piquiti represents a new host for four parasite species. These new records significantly increase the list of parasites of C. piquiti, contributing to the knowledge of the host-parasite relationship and the geographical distribution of these helminths.

  18. Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil

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    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil, a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997 and rainy (March, 1998 periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata, Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05; 31 = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31 = -3.0600; p < 0.01 between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxaand macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales, followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xingó. Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system.

  19. Sedimentation rates in Atibaia River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil, using 210Pb as geochronometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaris, T P P; Bonotto, D M

    2011-01-01

    The constant initial concentration (CIC) of unsupported/excess (210)Pb model was successfully used to assess (210)Pb data of nine sediment cores from Atibaia River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. The (210)Pb-based apparent sediment mass accumulation rates ranged from 47.7 to 782.4 mg/cm(2)yr, whereas the average linear sedimentation rates between 0.16 and 1.32 cm/yr, which are compatible with the calculated sediment mass fluxes, i.e. a higher sediment mass accumulation rate yielded a higher linear sedimentation rate. The higher long-term based accumulation rate tended to be found in topographically softer regions. This occurs because the sediments are preferentially transported in topographically steeper regions instead of being deposited. Anthropic activities like deforestation possibly interfered with the natural/normal sedimentation processes, which increased in accordance with modifications on the channel drainage. The radionuclide geochronology as described in this paper allows determination of sedimentation rates that are compatible with values estimated elsewhere. The adoption of an appropriate factor generated from previous laboratory experiments resulted in a successful correction for the (222)Rn-loss from the sediments, bringing the estimate of the parent-supported (in-situ produced) (210)Pb to reliable values required by the CIC model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. First record of parasitism in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae at Jaguaribe River estuary - Ceará, Brazil

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    RC Sabry

    Full Text Available Mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae were sampled monthly in the estuary of Jaguaribe River, on the east coast of Ceará State, Brazil, between August, 2000 and December, 2001, making up 170 individuals. The water temperature varied from 26 to 30 °C and salinity from 21 to 42‰. The animals' size ranged from 3.4 to 7.2 cm height. Macroscopical and histopathological analyses were carried out in the oysters' tissues. The histological exams showed protozoans and metazoans of genera Nematopsis and Tylocephalum, respectively. Nematopsis prevalence varied from 60 to 100% and it was higher in the gills and mantle. The oocysts presented a mean size of 11.5 µm (±1.32 length and 9.1 µm (±1.06 width (n = 30, up to 3 oocysts/phagocyte having been observed. Several animals presented focal hemocitical reaction. The percentage of Tylocephalum was 1.7%. In spite of the high infection prevalence by Nematopsis, infected animals did not have their reproductive cycle impaired.

  1. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-04

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

  2. Landscapes and ethno-knowledge in the Ticuna and Cocama agriculture at upper River Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Sandra do Nascimento Noda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The units of landscape in the Cocama and Ticuna agriculture, in the upper River Solimões, are characterized by productionarrangements and management of natural resources. This paper aims to characterize these agro-ecological based practices,the landscaped results and its regional applicability. The survey was conducted in Novo Paraíso, at Bom Intento Island,and in Nova Aliança, both located in the municipality of Benjamin Constant, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The social andeconomic organization of Ticuna and Cocama Peoples is founded on kinship and communal ownership of natural resources,including spaces for gathering. Family units, despite their weak linkages with the market and its rules, have in the logicof reciprocity the motivation for the production, transmission and management of resources and factors of production.The landscapes are reconstructed by agro-ecological production derived from ethno-knowledge and correspond to theinherent processes of management and conservation of flora and fauna. This process allows the existence of compleximbrications of constantly changing landscapes in which forms of production are recreated for sufficiency and sustainability.

  3. Structure of parasites community in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (Cichlidae), a host from the Amazon River system in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the component communities of parasites in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis from a tributary of the Amazon River system, in Northern Brazil. In 32 fish examined, 902,551 parasites were collected, including Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Sciadicleithrum geophagi, Posthodiplostomum sp., Clinostomum marginatum, Echinorhynchus paranensis, Neoechinorhynchus pterodoridis, and Dolops longicauda. I. multifiliis was the dominant and abundant parasite species. The ectoparasites presented aggregate dispersion, but the endoparasites showed random dispersion pattern. Mean species richness was 4.0 ± 1.5 parasites, mean Brillouin diversity (HB) was 0.33 ± 0.28, mean evenness was 0.15 ± 0.13, and Berger-Parker dominance (d) was 0.85 ± 0.17. The species richness of parasites and HB were positively correlated with the length of hosts. There was positive correlation between the abundance of P. pillulare and length and weight, between the abundance of I. multifiliis and weight, as well as between the abundance of E. paranensis and N. pterodoridis and the length of hosts. Body condition of the hosts was not affected by moderate parasitism. The low diversity of endoparasites indicates that C. orbicularis is a host with low position in the food web. This is the first record of all these parasites for C. orbicularis.

  4. Analysis by RAPD of the genetic structure of Astyanax altiparanae (Pisces, Characiformes in reservoirs on the Paranapanema River, Brazil

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    Maria Sueli Papa Leuzzi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the RAPD technique was used to analyze the genetic structure of populations of the fish Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae, Tetragonopterinae living in the lower, middle and upper Paranapanema River, Brazil. The aim was to assess this structure regarding fish handling and conservation programs. The genetic variability (P was found to be 42.64%, 75% and 75% in the low, middle and upper reaches, respectively. The dendrogram of genetic similarity, obtained by comparative analysis of the sets of samples from the three sites, showed the formation of three clusters. All of the genetic parameters used indicate that the population in the lower Paranapanema is genetically different from those in the middle and upper sections. The theta P test shows that the low Paranapanema is highly differentiated from the middle (0.2813 and upper (0.2912 Paranapanema, while the differentiation between the last two is moderate (0.0895. The data obtained in the present work suggest that recolonization and conservation studies should not be focused on the species A. altiparanae as such, but on the conservation units, because they are the genetically differentiated populations.

  5. Metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus, an invasive species in the Tietê River, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ivan Moura Lapera

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focused on the characterization and analysis of communities and infra-communities of metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus caught in Promissão Reservoir in the Tietê River in Borborema (21°39′58”S, 49°8′49”W, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty adult specimens caught by professional fishermen in March 2015 were necropsied. The fish presented an average standard length of 25.2 ± 2.2 cm and average weight of 328.82 ± 89.03 g. A total of 5,227 specimens of metazoan parasites were collected: 2,880 (55.1% adult Diplectanum piscinarius (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae and 2,347 (44.9% Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae, both with 100% prevalence and mean abundance of 57.6 and 46.9, respectively. Parasite diversity was low (species richness = 2, with a Simpson index (D equal to 0.505, and low values of Brillouin (HB = 0.687 and Margalef diversity (I = 0.117 indices. Berger-Parker’s index of dominance (p = 0.551 indicated a slight dominance of the monogenean parasite D. piscinarius. There was a positive correlation, assessed by Pearson coefficient between parasite abundance of D. piscinarius and standard length (r = 0.43 and weight (r = 0.51 of hosts.

  6. Synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the Caatingas of the São Francisco River, Northeastern Brazil

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    Miranda de Melo, José Iranildo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a commented synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the basin of the lower-middle and lower stretches of the São Francisco River in Northeast Brazil (states of Pernambuco and Bahia. Five genera and 21 species were recorded: Euploca, with six species; Cordia, with five; Varronia, with four; and Heliotropium and Myriopus, represented by three species each. A new combination in the genus Myriopus is here proposed. Keys for the separation of genera and species as well as distributional and geographical data are provided.Este trabajo presenta una sinopsis comentada de la familia Boraginaceae sensu lato en la cuenca media y baja del río São Francisco, nordeste del Brasil (estados de Pernambuco y Bahía. Se reconocen cinco géneros y 21 especies: Euploca, con seis especies; Cordia, con cinco; Varronia, con cuatro y Heliotropium y Myriopus, representados por tres especies cada. Se propone una combinación nueva en el género Myriopus. Así mismo, se aportan claves para la separación de los géneros y especies y datos sobre la distribución geográfica y la ecología de las especies.

  7. Multitemporal analysis of estimated soil loss for the river Mourão watershed, Paraná - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, C H; Passig, F H; Kelniar, A R; Piza, M A; Carvalho, K Q; Arantes, E J

    2015-12-01

    The multitemporal behavior of soil loss by surface water erosion in the hydrographic basin of the river Mourão in the center-western region of the Paraná state, Brazil, is analyzed. Forecast was based on the application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) with the data integration and estimates within an Geography Information System (GIS) environment. Results had shown high mean annual rain erosivity (10,000 MJ.mm.ha(-1).h(-1).year(-1)), with great concentration in January and December. As a rule, soils have average erodibilities, exception of Dystroferric Red Latisol (low class) and Dystrophic Red Argisol (high class). Although the topographic factor was high (>20), rates lower than 1 were predominant. Main land uses comprise temporal crops and pasture throughout the years. The watershed showed a natural potential for low surface erosion. When related to usage types, yearly soil loss was also low (Soil loss over the years did not provide great distinctions in distribution standards, although it becames rather intensified in some sectors, especially in the center-eastern and southwestern sections of the watershed.

  8. Multitemporal analysis of estimated soil loss for the river Mourão watershed, Paraná – Brazil

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    C. H. Graça

    Full Text Available The multitemporal behavior of soil loss by surface water erosion in the hydrographic basin of the river Mourão in the center-western region of the Paraná state, Brazil, is analyzed. Forecast was based on the application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE with the data integration and estimates within an Geography Information System (GIS environment. Results had shown high mean annual rain erosivity (10,000 MJ.mm.ha–1.h–1.year–1, with great concentration in January and December. As a rule, soils have average erodibilities, exception of Dystroferric Red Latisol (low class and Dystrophic Red Argisol (high class. Although the topographic factor was high (>20, rates lower than 1 were predominant. Main land uses comprise temporal crops and pasture throughout the years. The watershed showed a natural potential for low surface erosion. When related to usage types, yearly soil loss was also low (<50 ton.ha–1.year–1, with more critical scores that reach rates higher than 150 ton.ha–1.year–1. Soil loss over the years did not provide great distinctions in distribution standards, although it becames rather intensified in some sectors, especially in the center-eastern and southwestern sections of the watershed.

  9. Biological variables of Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Itapecerica River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    CAMILA F. SALES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Herein we determine for the first time the reproduction parameters and population structure of Hypostomus francisci in the Itapecerica River, São Francisco Basin. A total of 250 specimens was captured quarterly between March 2010 and February 2012. Body weight, total length and weight of the gonads were obtained in the laboratory. Gonad samples were submitted to histological and histochemical techniques. Females with spawning capable ovaries were used to determine the fecundity and relative fecundity. Sex ratio with 1:1.01 (female:male was observed. Males were more numerous than females for individuals smaller than 170 mm, however the number of females was significantly greater for specimens larger than 330 mm. The length-weight relationship estimated for H. francisci indicates negative-allometric growth. Females spawning capable were observed mostly in November-December-January. Two cohorts of oocytes at a determined time evidencing the development type group-synchronic. The eggs reaching 3.4 mm and the fecundity ranged from 312-1,460 oocytes with an average of 585.81 ± 337.43 oocytes per female. The reproductive parameters and population structure of H. francisci from Itapecerica River suggested that this species showed singular reproductive tactics among congeners.

  10. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Edson Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of T. stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for T. stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m, 6 submetacentric (sm, 2 subtelocentric (st and 40 acrocentric (a, for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family.

  11. Influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover in urban river basin: case study in Campinas/SP, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Silva, Alessandra; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: In most Brazilian municipalities, urban development was not based on adequate planning; one of the consequences was the reduction of the original vegetation, limiting the forest formations to scarce and isolated fragments. In Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, the vegetation fragmentation was mainly related to the expeditions and to the cycles of sugar cane and coffee. In this way, the present study aims to identify, quantify and evaluate the remaining arboreal vegetation spatial distribution in the Anhumas River Basin - Campinas/SP, Brazil. This study was developed with the aid of GIS software and field visits in order to construct a diagnosis of these areas and subsidize future actions required and to discuss the influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover. The area was initially occupied by the Atlantic Forest (semi-deciduous forest) and drains one of the oldest urban occupation areas in the municipality; according to researchers, based on the water and geomorphological conditions of the basin, it can be subdivided into high, medium and low course. With a total area of 156,514 km2, only 16.74% are classified as green areas; where just 1.07% and 6.17% of total area represents forests and reforestation areas, respectively. The remaining green areas consists of: wetlands close to water bodies, but with no presence of trees and shrubs (area of 0.12% of the basin); urban green space, including parks and squares (2.19%); and natural field, constituted by natural non-arboreous vegetation (7.18%). In a scenario like this, a characteristic situation is the forest fragmentation; this process results in native vegetation remnants, isolated and more susceptible to external interference, coming from, for example, the proximity to agricultural areas or others land uses. The ecological knowledge of the remnants and their correct management can not only make it possible to diagnose current problems and to estimate future influences, but also to point out the

  12. Prevalência de níveis pressóricos elevados e fatores associados em adultos de Lages/SC Prevalencia de niveles de presión elevados y factores asociados en adultos de la ciudad de Lages/SC Prevalence of high blood pressure levels and associated factors among adults in Southern Brazil

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    Giana Zarbato Longo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Poucos estudos de base populacional foram realizados em cidades de médio porte para estimar a prevalência de níveis pressóricos elevados e fatores associados. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência dos níveis pressóricos elevados e fatores associados em adultos de Lages, SC. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional em adultos de 20 a 59 anos da zona urbana (n=2.022. A variável dependente foi nível pressórico elevado com valores > 140/90 mmHg. Variáveis independentes: sexo, idade, escolaridade, renda familiar per capita, cor da pele auto-referida, índice de massa corporal, tabagismo, problemas com álcool, atividade física, e diabete melito auto-referida. Para verificar as associações foi usado o teste de qui-quadrado e de tendência linear. A análise múltipla foi realizada por meio da regressão de Poisson RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi de 98,6%. A prevalência de níveis pressóricos elevados foi de 33,7% (IC95% 31,7-36,1 para a população em geral variando de 31,1% nos homens a 38,1% nas mulheres. Após o ajuste por possíveis variáveis de confusão foram associados com nível pressórico elevado: indivíduos do sexo masculino (RP = 1,4 IC 95% 1,2-1,7, aqueles com idades mais avançadas (pFUNDAMENTO: Pocos estudios de base poblacional se llevaron a cabo en ciudades de porte medio para estimar la prevalencia de niveles de presión elevados y de factores asociados. OBJETIVO: Prevalencia de Niveles de Presión Elevados y Factores Asociados en Adultos de la ciudad de Lages, SC MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal de base poblacional en adultos de 20 a 59 años de la zona urbana (n=2.022. La variable dependiente fue un nivel de presión elevado con valores > 140/90 mgHg. Variables independientes: sexo, edad, escolaridad, renta familiar per capita, color de la piel auto-referida, índice de masa corporal, tabaquismo, problemas con alcohol, actividad física, y diabetes mellitus auto-referida. Se utilizó la prueba Chi

  13. A biogeochemical and isotopic view of Nitrogen and Carbon in rivers of the Alto Paraíba do Sul basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagnani, E. D. C.; Coletta, L. D.; Lins, S. R. M.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Rossete, A. L. M.; Andrade, T. M. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of potential flows of elements in tropical ecosystems is not well represented in the literature, even being very important. The Paraíba do Sul River drains the three more economically developed states in Brazil: São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro and its basin is considered extremely altered. Despite its economic and social importance (~ 5.3 mi inhabitants), we don't know much about carbon and nitrogen transport into its rivers and how these are affected by soil use changes. This work aimed to investigate these nutrients, using an isotopic and a biogeochemical approach, at some third order (Paraibuna, Paraitinga and Paraíba do Sul), second and first order rivers, all inserted at the Alto Paraíba do Sul Basin. In general, the low dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, total dissolved nitrogen and inorganic N concentrations found in the first order rivers, showed the lower variation, despite changes in the soil use. Forested rivers presented higher DOC (3.3 mg.L-1) and TDN (14.2 mM) concentrations than the pasture rivers (2.6 mg.L-1 and 13.8 mM), while these presented higher DIC concentrations than those ones (90.2 mM and 71.2 mM). In third order rivers, the concentrations were also very low. Both carbon and nitrogen contents at the fine and coarse fractions of the suspended particulate material (SPM) were lower at Paraitinga and Paraiba do Sul Rivers. At the Paraibuna River, the fine fraction of SPM presented 25% of C concentration. The concentrations found at the coarse fraction were also higher at this river. The N concentrations were higher at the fine fraction and, consequently, this fraction presented higher C:N ratio. These observations allow us to say that the coarse fraction might be related to plant material, while the fine fraction is probably related to the soils. The δ13C in the SPM was lower in the Paraibuna River, probably due to the predominance of forest, while in the other ones pasture was the main soil use

  14. Microglanis pataxo, a new catfish from southern Bahia coastal rivers, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae

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    Luisa M. Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available A new pseudopimelodid catfish of the genus Microglanis, collected in small rivers at the lower and middle Peruípe, middle Jucuruçu and Cahy basins, in the southeastern coast of the Bahia state, is described. The new species has a comparatively high number of anal fin proximal radials, 12, shaped as thin tubes, the last one bearing a laminar extension; a pectoral fin spine with a bony point and with a smaller number of serrations on its posterior border; seven pleural ribs and a narrow head width. We provide information on the external morphology and also on some osteological features for the new species. A key to species is presented for the coastal drainages between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia states.

  15. Litho stratigraphy of precambrian rocks in middle Xingu river basin -Altamira, Para state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.V. dos; Sousa Filho, E.E. dos; Tassinari, C.C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The basement rocks from the Xingu river is divided into five litho stratigraphic units. They are broadly characterized by domains of ortho and para gneisses, volcano-sedimentary sequences, migmatites and by syntectonic and latetectonic granitoids. In addition acid to intermediate volcanics (Iriri formation) and several sub-volcanic granitic plutons (Maloquinha suite) also occur within the investigated area, as well as basic intrusions and minor arenous sediments covers, slightly metamorphosed. Geochronological studies carried out on the basement rocks and on the volcanics demonstrates an geologic evolution restricted to the trans Amazonian cycle (2.1 - 1.9 Ga). Sr isotopic evolution (high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios) suggest that strong reworking of crustal material occurred at this time, in association with the tectonic evolution of the Maroni-Itacaiunas mobile belt related to the lower proterozoic, which borders the northern and northerneast part of the Archean central Amazonian province. (author)

  16. Determination of natural radioactivity levels in sediments: Caravelas river, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, R.F.; Trindade Filho, O.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Peixoto, J.G. P., E-mail: rfcarmo@bolsista.ird.gov.br, E-mail: octavio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: delgado@ird.gov.br, E-mail: guilherm@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Evangelista, H., E-mail: evangelista.uerj@gmail.com [Lab. de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais (LARAMG/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Due to intensive human activity in the region and disorderly occupation, the Caravelas River estuary has not yet evaluated the contribution of natural radioactivity. In order to determine the natural radioactivity levels in sediments, the activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, were calculated using a gamma spectrometry system for measuring the concentration of radiation in samples. Results for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K ranged from (18.03 to 191.51), (28.57 to 118.25) and (134.06 to 186.80) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, within of detection limits. The estimated uncertainty levels were less than 10% (k = 1). (author)

  17. Determination of natural radioactivity levels in sediments: Caravelas river, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, R.F.; Trindade Filho, O.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Peixoto, J.G. P.; Evangelista, H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to intensive human activity in the region and disorderly occupation, the Caravelas River estuary has not yet evaluated the contribution of natural radioactivity. In order to determine the natural radioactivity levels in sediments, the activities of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K, were calculated using a gamma spectrometry system for measuring the concentration of radiation in samples. Results for "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K ranged from (18.03 to 191.51), (28.57 to 118.25) and (134.06 to 186.80) Bq.kg"-"1, respectively, within of detection limits. The estimated uncertainty levels were less than 10% (k = 1). (author)

  18. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Hermes de Oliveira Machado Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  19. Feeding ecology of Rhinodoras dorbignyi (Kner, 1855 (Siluriformes: Doradidae in the Paranapanema River, SP, Brazil

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    Felipe Pontieri de Lima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n1p67 Studies describing the diet of fish are important to determine trophic chain relationships, habitat occupation, trophic niches, and to define food habits of species. To describe the diet of Rhinodoras dorbignyi, six collections were made bimonthly in the upper Paranapanema River, SP, from April 2010 to February 2011. Of the 63 samples collected, 30 had stomach content. The diet of this species was determined using two methods: (i alimentary index (AI% and (ii graphical analysis of feeding strategy. Based on the results, R. dorbignyi is an insectivorous species and autochthonous items play an important role in the diet of this species.

  20. Seasonal diet shift in a Tetragonopterinae (Oateichthyes, Characidae from the Ubatiba river, RJ, Brazil

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    Mazzoni R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we describe feeding habits of Deuterodon sp. from the Ubatiba River and explore if diet changes according to a temporal cycle of dry and wet seasons. We observed that Deuterodon sp. fed on an extremely high diversity of items ranging from organic matter, sediment (sand plus quartz parts, algae, seeds and leaves to animal organisms, such as, crustaceans, oligochaets and several life stages of terrestrial and aquatic insects, indicating an omnivorous diet. An important shift in the use of feeding resources was also registered; animal and vegetal items had alternated importance between both seasons. Allochthonous vs. autochthonous items analysis showed predominance of allochthonous items during dry season while no significant differences were registered during wet season.

  1. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

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    B. Collischonn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (understood as a 95 % percentile of the flow duration curve in a ratio of three to one, meaning that downstream water users are experiencing more frequent water shortages than upstream ones. The management strategy implemented in 2008 has the objective of equalizing risk for all water users and consists of a set of rules designed to restrict water withdrawals according to current river water level (indicative of water availability and water demand. Under that rule, larger farmers have proportionally larger reductions in water use, preserving small subsistence irrigators. Moreover, dry season streamflow is forecasted at strategic points by the end of every rainy season, providing evaluation of shortage risk. Thus, water users are informed about the forecasts and corresponding restrictions well in advance, allowing for anticipated planning of irrigated areas and practices. In order to enforce restriction rules, water meters were installed in all larger water users and inefficient farmers were obligated to improve their irrigation systems’ performance. Finally, increases in irrigated area are only allowed in the case of annual crops and during months of higher water availability (November to June. The strategy differs from convectional approached based only on water use priority and has been successful in dealing with natural variability of water availability, allowing more water to be used in wet years and managing risk in an isonomic manner during dry years.

  2. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. DiSC-OPAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Pedersen, Rasmus; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    of such systems. The simulation tool should be able to model Electrical Grid and flexible assets with different time scales and resolution levels fulfilling specific functionalities. In this paper DiSC-OPAL, an OPAL-RT compatible toolbox library for modelling of assets is presented. The library is suitable...

  4. SC tuning fork

    CERN Document Server

    The tuning fork used to modulate the radiofrequency system of the synchro cyclotron (SC) from 1957 to 1973. This piece is an unused spare part. The SC was the 1st accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990. In the SC the magnetic field did not change with time, and the particles were accelerated in successive pulses by a radiofrequency voltage of some 20kV which varied in frequency as they spiraled outwards towards the extraction radius. The frequency varied from 30MHz to about 17Mz in each pulse. The tuning fork vibrated at 55MHz in vacuum in an enclosure which formed a variable capacitor in the tuning circuit of the RF system, allowing the RF to vary over the appropriate range to accelerate protons from the centre of the macine up to 600Mev at extraction radius. In operation the tips of the tuning fork blade had an amplitude of movement of over 1 cm. The SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements from 1973 to 1975, including the installation of a...

  5. A new Scleromystax species (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae from coastal rivers of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. Britto

    Full Text Available The recently resurrected callichthyid catfish genus Scleromystax includes species occurring in several Brazilian coastal river basins from southern Bahia to southern Santa Catarina. Several character states, especially those related to sexual dimorphism, demonstrate the monophyly of Scleromystax. Examination of Scleromystax specimens sampled from streams in the Ilha de Santa Catarina and Nova Veneza, and the rio Mampituba basin, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul States, revealed that they constitute a new taxon, and thus the southernmost record for the genus. Scleromystax salmacis, new species, has coloration similar to that of S. macropterus, differing from that species mainly by the absence of a black spot on the base of the median caudal-fin rays, and transverse blotches along the body more irregular than those in S. macropterus. In addition to differences in coloration and external and osteological characters, the new species differs from S. barbatus and S. prionotos by its more rounded snout. The new taxon is also distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a single perforated dorsolateral body plate, similar to the condition found in some Aspidoras species, orientation of the ventral keel of the scapulocoracoid, and by the absence of sexually dimorphic features.

  6. Evaluation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of water samples from the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bianchi

    Full Text Available Some water bodies in the Sinos River Basin (SRB have been suffering the effects of pollution by residential, industrial and agroindustrial wastewater. The presence of cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds could compromise the water quality and the balance of these ecosystems. In this context, the research aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the water at four sites along the SRB (in the cities of Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio, using bioassays in fish and cell culture. Samples of surface water were collected and evaluated in vitro using the Astyanax jacuhiensis fish species (micronucleus test and comet assay and the Vero lineage of cells (comet assay and cytotoxicity tests, neutral red - NR and tetrazolium MTT. The micronucleus test in fish showed no significant differences between the sampling sites, and neither did the comet assay and the MTT and NR tests in Vero cells. The comet assay showed an increase in genetic damage in the fish exposed to water samples collected in the middle and lower sections of the basin (Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio when compared to the upper section of the basin (Santo Antônio da Patrulha. The results indicate contamination by genotoxic substances starting in the middle section of the SRB.

  7. DDT concentration in fish from the Tapajós River in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosivaldo de Alcântara; Lopes, Anna Sylmara da Costa; de Souza, Larissa Costa; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-06-01

    DDT and metabolites were measured in six species of fish collected from the Tapajós River in the village of Barreiras, near the town of Itaituba in the Brazilian Amazon region. The selected fish were the most consumed and economically important to the local people. DDT was used frequently in this region for malaria control. Fish samples were analyzed after extraction by microwave-assisted extraction in hexane/acetone (8:2, v/v) by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Residues of op'-DDT and pp'-DDT and metabolites were detected, including pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, and op'-DDE, in 98% of the samples, with a greater abundance of pp'-DDT. Total DDT levels were 7.1-249.5 ng g(-1) wet weight (w.w). The DDE/DDT ratio was low, indicating recent exposure to DDT. The study area that may be related to generated waste used in public health campaigns to combat mosquitos (Anopheles spp.), still present in the Amazon environment, that transmit malaria. DDT levels and metabolites found in fish species do not present risks to human health because they are below acceptable limits for consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Thiago da Silva Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p23 Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  9. Feeding ecology of stream-dwelling Characidae (Osteichthyes: Characiformes from the upper Tocantins River, Brazil

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    Maíra Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we studied the trophic ecology of four Characidae species from the Cavalo Stream, upper Tocantins River, considering diet overlap and trophic niche breadth. The diet of the four species was composed of adult and immature insects, both autochthonous and allochthonous in origin. Autochthonous items dominated the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858, Bryconamericus sp., and Creagrutus atrisignum Myers, 1917. By contrast, allochthonous items were dominant in the diet of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758. Trophic niche breadth varied among species, with the highest value recorded for M. dichroura (0.48, followed by Bryconamericus sp. (0.39, A. bimaculatus (0.33 and C. atrisignum (0.29. Similarity analysis revealed two groups with different patterns of food preference. The first group was composed of insectivorous and the second by omnivorous species. The overlap in food items consumed by the four species studied was high. We suggest that resources are not limited in this stream and that competition might not be regulating these populations. This is one more case corroborating the general pattern registered for Tropical environments, where resource partitioning and specialization are responsible by the organization of fish communities.

  10. Rescaled range analysis of streamflow records in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Marcelo Vitor Oliveira; Celeste, Alcigeimes B.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrological time series are sometimes found to have a distinctive behavior known as long-term persistence, in which subsequent values depend on each other even under very large time scales. This implies multiyear consecutive droughts or floods. Typical models used to generate synthetic hydrological scenarios, widely used in the planning and management of water resources, fail to preserve this kind of persistence in the generated data and therefore may have a major impact on projects whose design lives span for long periods of time. This study deals with the evaluation of long-term persistence in streamflow records by means of the rescaled range analysis proposed by British engineer Harold E. Hurst, who first observed the phenomenon in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, Hurst's procedure is enhanced by a strategy based on statistical hypothesis testing. The case study comprises the six main hydroelectric power plants located in the São Francisco River Basin, part of the Brazilian National Grid. Historical time series of inflows to the major reservoirs of the system are investigated and 5/6 sites show significant persistence, with values for the so-called Hurst exponent near or greater than 0.7, i.e., around 40% above the value 0.5 that represents a white noise process, suggesting that decision makers should take long-term persistence into consideration when conducting water resources planning and management studies in the region.

  11. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  12. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km 2 and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16%, respectively

  13. Characterization of chemical elements of fruits of Leucaena leucocephala in riverside areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil; Caracterização de elementos químicos de frutos de Leucaena leucocephala em áreas ribeirinhas da Bacia do Rio Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Elvis J.; Magalhães, Marcelo R.L. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com [Centro de Ciência Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: vsrodrigues89@gmail.com, E-mail: i-cavalcante@uol.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Bruno F., E-mail: brunodasilva1996@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala is present in several environments. Its fruit is widely used in cattle feed. However, it is classified as an invasive species, causing problems in the restoration of impacted areas. The Piracicaba River Basin is heavily affected by urbanization and industrialization, which shows the proliferation of this species. Considering the importance of this tree species for Brazil, the present study quantifies chemical elements in fruits of this species by applying Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis, method k{sup 0}. Samples were collected in riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, at different periods (dry and rainy season). After collection, the samples were shattered and transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated with neutrons. Certified reference materials were used to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, all material was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 13} cm-2s-1 for 8 hours. Ni-Cr alloy was used for the monitoring of thermal neutron flux. High Resolution Range Spectrometry with HPG detectors was employed for the measurement of the induced radioactivity, allowing the quantification of the chemical elements. Compared with available results of chemical analysis of pods, the chemical elements Ca, K, Ba, Cr and Se presented high concentrations. We also quantified chemical elements of environmental relevance such as As, Hg, Br, Ce, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th and Yb, indicating the need for element dynamics studies in the environments occupied by this invasive species.

  14. Parasitological survey of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, in the Pacoti River Estuary, Ceará State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Rachel Costa; Gesteira, Tereza Cristina Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel Magenta; Barracco, Margherita Anna; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia, Ostreidae) is commonly collected by fisherwomen in the estuaries of the Ceará State (CE), Northeastern Brazil. Despite the socioeconomic importance of this natural resource, there are few studies on the health of the oysters in this region. This study aimed to survey pathological changes in the mangrove oyster C. rhizophorae in the estuary of the Pacoti River, CE. Adult oysters were collected in August 2008 (N=450) and December 2009 (N=450) at three sites of the Pacoti estuary and in 2010 (N=600) samplings were done quarterly at one site which has showed the higher prevalence de Perkinsus. Macroscopical and histological analyses were used to evaluate pathological changes, Ray's Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (RFTM) to detect Perkinsus spp. and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and DNA sequencing to identify Perkinsus species. In 2009, RFTM assay detected Perkinsus sp. infecting the tissues of C. rhizophorae with low prevalences of 1.3%, 6.7% e 7.3% in sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and in 2010, in site 3, prevalence was 2% (12 of 600 oysters). PCR did not confirm any positive case in 2009 and only 5 in 2010. The phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that the Perkinsus species infecting oysters C. rhizophorae of this study belongs to Perkinsus beihaiensis. The histology confirmed 11 cases of Perkinsus sp. infecting the C. rhizophorae in 2009, and only two cases in 2010. Nematopsis sp. was the protozoan observed with greater prevalence (up 96.7%). Other found protozoa were: Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Ancistrocoma - like and an unknown ovarian parasite. The metazoa found were the polychaete Polydora with high prevalences, a turbellarian, possibly of the genus Urastoma, an unidentified digenean metacercariae and larvae of cestode Tylocephalum. A continuous monitoring of diseases in bivalves from this natural population is recommended, since the phylogenetic analyses indicate the occurrence of P. beihaiensis

  15. Identification of fish nursery areas in a free tributary of an impoundment region, upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the importance of different environments of the Ligeiro River (upper Uruguay River, Brazil in fish reproduction. For this purpose, three environments (sampling sites were selected: rapids, a pool, and the mouth of the Ligeiro River. Ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled six times per month from September, 2006 to March, 2007. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton samples were collected early in the evening with plankton nets (64 µm and 500 µm, respectively. Benthos samples were also collected early in the evening with a Van Veen dredge. Local abiotic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water speed, alkalinity, water hardness, and water transparency were measured simultaneously with the biotic data sampling and were complemented by regional variables (water flow and precipitation. A total of 43,475 eggs and 2,269 larvae were captured. Of these larvae, 80.1% were in the pre-flexion and larval yolk stages. Digestive tract content showed that the greatest degree of repletion among the larvae in more advanced phases occurred in the pool environment. Water speed was the main characteristic used to differentiate the river's rapids and mouth from the pool. The abundance of zooplankton and benthos was not related to the distribution of densities among the different components of the ichthyoplankton. A greater abundance of eggs and larvae with yolk was found in the rapids and river mouth. Ordination analyses showed a connection between the advanced stage larvae and the pool environment. In conclusion, the rapids and river mouth of the Ligeiro River's are important locations for fish reproduction, particularly in regard to spawning and drifting of the ichthyoplankton's initial stages, whereas the pool represents a nursery place for larval growth.O presente estudo visa determinar a importância de diferentes ambientes do rio Ligeiro (alto rio Uruguai/Brasil na reprodução dos

  16. Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudiney Ringenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Pierce's disease of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is a serious problem in some regions of North America, not yet reported in Brazil. In this study, a survey of potential sharpshooter (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae and spittlebug (Hemiptera, Cercopidae vectors of X. fastidiosa was conducted in vineyards at the São Francisco River Valley, a major grape growing region in Brazil. Four vineyards of Vitis vinifera L. were sampled fortnightly from June/2005 to June/2007, using yellow sticky cards, each placed at two different heights (45 cm aboveground and 45 cm above the crop canopy in 10 sampling localities. A total of 4,095 specimens of sharpshooters were collected, nearly all from 3 Proconiini species, Homalodisca spottii Takiya, Cavichioli & McKamey, 2006 (96.8% of the specimens, Tapajosa fulvopunctata (Signoret, 1854 (3.1%, and Tretogonia cribrata Melichar, 1926 (1 specimen. Hortensia similis (Walker, 1851 (2 specimens was the only Cicadellini species. Only 1 cercopid specimen, belonging to Aeneolamia colon (Germar, 1821, was trapped. Even though they are not considered potential Xylella vectors, 2 Gyponini leafhoppers were collected: Curtara samera DeLong & Freytag, 1972 (11 specimens and Curtara inflata DeLong & Freytag, 1976 (1 specimen. Homalodisca spottii was observed feeding and mating on green branches of grapevines, in addition to egg masses. Because of its prevalence on the crop canopy, occurrence throughout the year (with peaks from February to August, and ability to colonize grapevines, H. spottii could be an important vector if a X. fastidiosa strain pathogenic to grapevines becomes introduced at the São Francisco River Valley.

  17. Economic valuation of the Emas waterfall, Mogi-Guaçu River, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Peixer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Emas waterfall in Mogi-Guaçu River is regionally recognized as an important fishing spot and touristic place. The first reports of the professional and sport fishing there date back from the 30's, which is the same period when the tourism took place. The present paper provides an environmental valuation of this place and an assessment of the differences among the major groups of people using the area. During 2006 we interviewed 33 professional fishers, 107 sport fishers, 45 tourists and 103 excursionists in order to estimate the Willingness to Pay (WTP for each category and to analyze the influence of socioeconomic factors by means of logistic regressions and ANCOVAs. The WTP of professional fisher was significantly influenced by age and education, and the WTP for the sport fishers was influenced by the family income. The variables that influenced the tourists' and excursionists' WTP were sex and education. The total annual aggregated value to maintain the waterfall in the current conditions was estimated in US$ 11.432.128, and US$ 55.424.283 to restore it.A Cachoeira de Emas, no Rio Mogi-Guaçu, é reconhecida regionalmente como um importante local para a pesca e o turismo. Os primeiros registros da pesca profissional e esportiva no local datam da década de 30, que é o mesmo período em que a atividade do turismo teve seu início. O presente artigo fornece uma valoração ambiental deste local e identifica as diferenças entre os principais grupos de pessoas que o frequentam. Durante o ano de 2006 nós entrevistamos 33 pescadores profissionais, 107 pescadores esportivos, 45 turistas e 103 excursionistas para estimar a Disposição a Pagar ( P de cada categoria e para analisar a influência de fatores socioeconômicos através de regressões logísticas e ANCOVAs. A DAP dos pescadores profissionais foi significativamente influenciada pela idade e escolaridade e a DAP dos pescadores esportivos foi significativamente influenciada pela renda

  18. Hydro-Economic Modeling with Minimum Data Requirements: An Application to the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M.; Maneta, M.; Vosti, S.; Wallender, W.; Howitt, R.

    2008-12-01

    Policymakers have been charged with the efficient, equitable, and sustainable use of water resources of the São Francisco River Basin (SFRB), Brazil, and also with the promotion of economic growth and the reduction of poverty within the basin. To date, policymakers lack scientific evidence on the potential consequences for growth, poverty alleviation or environmental sustainability of alternative uses of water resources. To address these key knowledge gaps, we have linked a hydrologic and an economic model of agriculture to investigate how economic decisions affect available water, and vice versa. More specifically, the models are used to predict the effects of the application of Brazilian federal surface water use policies on farmer's net revenues and on the hydrologic system. The Economic Model of Agriculture. A spatially explicit, farm-level model capable of accommodating a broad array of farm sizes and farm/farmer characteristics is developed and used to predict the effects of alternative water policies and neighbors' water use patterns on crop mix choice. A production function comprised of seven categories of non-water-related inputs used in agriculture (land, fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, hired labor, family labor and machinery) and four water-related inputs used in agriculture (applied water, irrigation labor, irrigation capital and energy) is estimated. The parameters emerging from this estimated production function are then introduced into a non-linear, net revenue maximization positive mathematical programming algorithm that is used for simulations. The Hydrological Model. MIKE Basin, a semi-distributed hydrology model, is used to calculate water budgets for the SFRB. MIKE Basin calculates discharge at selected nodes by accumulating runoff down the river network; it simulates reservoirs using stage-area-storage and downstream release rule curves. The data used to run the model are discharge to calculate local runoff, precipitation, reference ET, crop

  19. A case of leucism in House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in an island of São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leucism in birds is a genetic disorder characterized by the total absence of melanin in some or all feathers, but unlike albinism, the other body parts, such as eyes, beak, and tarsi remain with the typical color of the species. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus is a bird native from Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been introduced in North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Currently, it is the bird species with the largest geographical range. Here, we report the record of a leucistic specimen of Passer domesticus from Rodeadouro island, São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil.

  20. Multielement determination in river-water of Sepetiba Bay tributaries (Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.M.; Castro, C.R.F.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; Rio de Janeiro State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in the surface waters of tributaries of the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil (Piraque, Ita, Sao Francisco, Guarda, Guandu Mirim, Vala do Sangue and Engenho Novo rivers) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Eighteen trace elements could be determined in the dissolved and the suspended particulate phases: Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. The elemental concentration values were compared to the values recommended by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  1. Biological aspects of Schizodon nasutus Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Anostomidae in the low Sorocaba river basin, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    GA. Villares Junior

    Full Text Available Four biological aspects of Schizodon nasutus in the low Sorocaba river basin, São Paulo, Brazil were analysed. These were accomplished during the year seasons. The fish diet and the feeding activity were investigated by studying the repletion index, which showed no significant differences between seasons. The food items analysed by frequency of occurrence and dominance showed a predominance of vegetable items in the diet. The reproduction, analysed by using the gonadosomatic index, indicated that the reproductive period occurs during the summer period when temperatures are higher and rainfalls are more intense. The amount of accumulated fat and condition factor varied according to reproduction, especially for females.

  2. Mercury contents in aquatic macrophytes from two reservoirs in the Paraíba do Sul: Guandú river system, SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Molisani

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study to determine the Hg content in the five most abundant aquatic macrophyte species (Elodea densa, Sagittaria montevidensis, Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes in two artificial reservoirs flooded by water diverted from the Paraíba do Sul river, SE Brazil. The potential of these species for Hg accumulation and their role in Hg transport along the river system due to macrophyte management were evaluated. Mercury concentrations were higher in free-floating than in rooted species. Roots were also richer in Hg than were leaves. Dry weight Hg concentrations in leaves and roots from all species varied from 46-246 ng.g-1 to 37-314 ng.g-1, respectively. These values are higher than those reported for uncontaminated lakes in Brazil and in other tropical areas and similar to those reported for moderately contaminated sites. Mercury concentrations can be attributed to fluvial transport from the heavily industrialized Paraíba do Sul river basin. Intensive sampling of Pistia stratiotes from two sites in the Vigário reservoir was performed to evaluate the capacity of Hg incorporation in short periods of time. The results showed a significant negative correlation between Hg content and size class of individual plants, demonstrating the importance of juveniles, fast growing plants in absorbing Hg. The foremost impact related to Hg contents in the studied area concerns the periodic removal of macrophytes for reservoir management, followed by disposal in nearby areas. This results in the mobilization of 0.52 to 1.3 Kg of Hg per year, a significant fraction of the Hg burden present in reservoir waters. Disposal of such material may result in Hg leaching to river systems, affecting the Hg transfer throughout the basin.

  3. Effects of extended absence of flooding on the fish assemblages of three floodplain lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo dos Santos Pompeu

    Full Text Available In the Neotropics, a large proportion of fish communities of large rivers use floodplain as habitats for feeding, reproduction, and refuge. An evaluation was made of the effects of extended dry periods on the species richness, abundance and local extinction of fish species in three marginal lagoons in the middle São Francisco River, southeastern Brazil. The studied lagoons fail to receive river floods during the study period (1994-1996. A gradual reduction in richness and abundance was observed in all lagoons. Migratory fish species had the highest probability to become extinct in the two lagoons that remained with large water volume. Species tolerant to low levels of dissolved oxygen had the lowest probability of local extinction in the lagoon showing an abrupt reduction in water volume. Similar changes to those observed in the current study are likely to occur in the floodplains if dams would be constructed in this segment of the river. Adequate water releases from Três Marias reservoir, located upstream, should be considered as a management tool for producing episodic flooding on the marginal lagoons of the region.

  4. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Tatiane Ferraz; Velludo, Marcela Roquetti; Peret, Alberto Carvalho; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Peret, André Moldenhauer

    2011-06-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50) than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish.

  5. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.

  6. Nesting ecology of Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812 and Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Brazil

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    PD. Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available Nest site has influence on incubation duration and hatching success of two Neotropical turtles, the Giant Amazon River Turtle (Podocnemis expansa and Yellow-Spotted Side-Neck Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis - "Tracajá". The 2000 and 2001 nesting seasons have been monitored at the Javaés River in Bananal Island, Brazil. Although they nest on the same beaches, there is a separation of the nesting areas of P unifilis and P. expansa nests on the upper parts of the beach. The incubation duration for P. expansa is influenced by the nesting period, the height of the nest from the river, the clutch size, and the grain size in the site of the nest. Nests of Podocnemis expansa placed in coarse sediments have shorter incubation duration than those placed in finer sediments. The hatching success in P. expansa is influenced by grain size, incubation duration, and nesting period. The grain size is negatively correlated with hatching success, indicating that the nests situated in finer-grained sand have better chances of successful egg hatching than those in coarser-grained sand. Nests of the end of the reproductive season have lower hatching success and incubation duration than those at the start of the season. For P. unifilis, the nesting period and nest depth influence the incubation duration; moreover, the river dynamics significantly affect the hatching success. The oscillation of the river level and the moment of initial increase, the height of the nest from the river level, and the nesting period are all decisive components for hatching success. The results of this research show the importance of protecting areas with great geological diversity, wherein the features of the environment can affect the microenvironment of nests, with consequences on incubation duration and hatching success.

  7. Temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton in the Forquilha river, upper Uruguay riverBrazil: Relationship with environmental factors - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.17993

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    Carolina Antonieta Lopes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae in the Forquilha river (upper Uruguay river/Brazil and its relationship with environmental variables. Ichthyoplankton and abiotic factors were sampled from September 2006 to August 2007. At the laboratory, samples were sorted and larvae were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. For data analysis we applied One-way Anova, Tukey’s test, Pearson correlation and PCA. In this study 200 eggs and 308 larvae were collected, showing differences in the temporal distribution and influence of abiotic factors. Larvae were identified in all stages of development, being distributed in three order and eight families. These results point that the lower portion of the Forquilha river is an important drift and nursery area for fish larvae of the upper Uruguay river. The breeding season for most species was greatly marked, between October and January, coinciding with the increase in temperature and decrease of the water flow. The response of reproductive intensity varies according to the environmental variables.

  8. Erosion rates and landscape evolution of the lowlands of the Upper Paraguay river basin (Brazil) from cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do Nascimento; Bierman, Paul R.; Assine, Mario Luis; Rood, Dylan H.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Merino, Eder Renato

    2015-04-01

    The importance of Earth's low sloping areas in regard to global erosion and sediment fluxes has been widely and vigorously debated. It is a crucial area of research to elucidate geologically meaningful rates of land-surface change and thus the speed of element cycling on Earth. However, there are large portions of Earth where erosion rates have not been well or extensively measured, for example, the tropical lowlands. The Cuiabana lowlands are an extensive low-altitude and low-relief dissected metamorphic terrain situated in the Upper Paraguay river basin, central-west Brazil. Besides exposures of highly variable dissected metamorphic rocks, flat residual lateritic caps related to a Late Cenozoic planation surface dominate interfluves of the Cuiabana lowlands. The timescale over which the lowlands evolved and the planation surface developed, and the rate at which they have been modified by erosion, are poorly known. Here, we present measurements of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in outcropping metamorphic bedrock and clastic-lateritic caps to quantify rates of erosion of the surface and associated landforms in order to better understand the Quaternary landscape evolution of these lowlands. Overall, slow erosion rates (mean 10 m/Ma) suggest a stable tectonic environment in these lowlands. Erosion rates vary widely between different lithologies (range 0.57 to 28.3 m/Ma) consistent with differential erosion driving regional landform evolution. The lowest erosion rates are associated with the low-relief area (irregular plains), where clastic-laterite (mean 0.67 m/Ma) and quartzite (mean 2.6 m/Ma) crop out, whereas the highest erosion rates are associated with dissection of residual hills, dominated by metasandstone (mean 11.6 m/Ma) and phyllite (mean 27.6 m/Ma). These data imply that the Cuiabana lowland is comprised of two dominant landform sets with distinct and different dynamics. Because the planation surface (mostly lowlands) is lowering and losing mass more

  9. A historical case in the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline: slope on the Curriola River; Caso historico no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil: encosta no Rio Curriola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson Regis; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.593 kilometers since Rio Grande City in Bolivia until Canoas City, in south Brazil. The pipeline crosses a lot of types of geological fields and difficult topography. The south spread of the gas pipeline is the most interesting because of its hard topography combined with the variety of geological materials, such as, colluvium deposits and debris flow areas. Curriola River is located at the kilometer 408, north part of Parana State. In this area, the pipeline crosses slopes of 45 degrees of inclination. The down part of Curriola's slope is composed by a non-resistance material (clay and little rock blocks) with a high porosity. Every year, during the rainy seasons, tension cracks are observed evidencing the earth movement. The slope stability is above the minimum expected for pipeline operation. The aim of this paper is to present the site characterization of the Curriola River Slope, together with all the investigation made in order to supply the studies with condensed information for the slope stabilization. (author)

  10. Effects of flooding of the River Paraná on the temporal activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae), at the border state of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Almério de Castro; Paula,Marcia Bicudo de; Natal,Delsio; Gotlieb,Sabina Léa Davidson; Mucci,Luis Filipe

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Study of the temporal activity of malaria vectors during the implantation of a hydroelectric power station on the River Paraná, intended to generate electrical energy. The river separates the States of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Brazil. The objective was to verify whether alterations occurred in the wealth and diversity indices of Anopheles, following two successive floods, extended to the temporal activity and nycthemeral rhythm followed over a five year period. METHO...

  11. Chemical characterization of bottom sediments from Ribeira de Iguape river, Parana and Sao Paulo states, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: fjcastro@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(ELTA/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN-CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) suffered under lead mining activities in the region. Although in 1996 all such activities ceased, the mining activities left behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities mainly in the hydrographic basin of Ribeira de Iguape river. In the present study the chemical characterization of bottom sediments was undertaken and the concentration of the major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb and Sc) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were determined. The validation of the analytical methodology was performed by means of certified reference materials analyses and Z-score criterion was used. Eight points were sampled at the Ribeira de Iguape river and its majorities from Adrianopolis (Pr) (site 01) to Registro (SP) (site 08). Granulometric analyses and textural classification were undertaken in the sediment samples. The results obtained by using INAA were compared to UCC (Upper Continental Crust) reference values. The environmental tools of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (GI) were used to assess the degree of metal contamination in the sediment samples. Samples from site 5 (Betari river - Iporanga, SP) presented high values for As, Sb and Zn and greater IGeo (3.1 - 5.5) and EF (>7.0) values for these elements classifying this point as highly polluted for these elements as well as a strong anthropogenic contribution. Site 7 (Ribeira river - Eldorado, SP) was considered moderately polluted for As, Br and Sb. The high concentration levels of some metals and metalloids reflect the contribution of mining activities from the past in the region. From the results it can be seen that although mining activities no longer exist since 1996, the deleterious effects in the environment are still present and strong. (author)

  12. Chemical characterization of bottom sediments from Ribeira de Iguape river, Parana and Sao Paulo states, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Francisco J.V.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2013-01-01

    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) suffered under lead mining activities in the region. Although in 1996 all such activities ceased, the mining activities left behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities mainly in the hydrographic basin of Ribeira de Iguape river. In the present study the chemical characterization of bottom sediments was undertaken and the concentration of the major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb and Sc) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were determined. The validation of the analytical methodology was performed by means of certified reference materials analyses and Z-score criterion was used. Eight points were sampled at the Ribeira de Iguape river and its majorities from Adrianopolis (Pr) (site 01) to Registro (SP) (site 08). Granulometric analyses and textural classification were undertaken in the sediment samples. The results obtained by using INAA were compared to UCC (Upper Continental Crust) reference values. The environmental tools of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (GI) were used to assess the degree of metal contamination in the sediment samples. Samples from site 5 (Betari river - Iporanga, SP) presented high values for As, Sb and Zn and greater IGeo (3.1 - 5.5) and EF (>7.0) values for these elements classifying this point as highly polluted for these elements as well as a strong anthropogenic contribution. Site 7 (Ribeira river - Eldorado, SP) was considered moderately polluted for As, Br and Sb. The high concentration levels of some metals and metalloids reflect the contribution of mining activities from the past in the region. From the results it can be seen that although mining activities no longer exist since 1996, the deleterious effects in the environment are still present and strong. (author)

  13. Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

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    Daniel M. Limeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only loci Aat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's F IS, F IT and F STover all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statu nascendi.

  14. Influence of net-cage fish farming on zooplankton biomass in the Itá reservoir, SC, Brazil Influência da piscicultura em tanque-rede sobre a biomassa do zooplâncton no reservatório de Itá, SC, Brasil

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    Bruna Roque Loureiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to verify the influence of net-cage fish farming on zooplankton biomass in the Itá reservoir (Uruguay River, Brazil. METHODS: Samples were collected monthly from October/2009 to May/2010 at the surface and at the bottom in two sampling stations, the net-cage area and in a control area using a Van Dorn bottle and a plankton net (68 µm. RESULTS: The Cladocera and Copepoda biomass was estimated by dry weight using a micro-analytical balance, and the Rotifera biomass by Biovolume. Total zooplankton biomass varied between 6.47 and 131.56 mgDW.m-3 Calanoida copepod presented the highest value of biomass (127.56 mgDW.m-3 and rotifers, despite having an important contribution to total density, showed a maximum biomass of 2.01 mgDW.m-3. Zooplankton biomass at the net-cage area surface was higher when compared with the control area during the months of October to January. However, the zooplankton biomass was similar at the bottom of the two areas throughout the studied period. From February until May, zooplankton biomass decreased in both sampling stations, a fact probably associated with the flushing of the reservoir, followed by an increase in water transparency and a decrease in chlorophyll-a concentration in the following months (February to May. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of fish farming on zooplankton biomass was detected at the surface of the net-cage area only from October to January. From February to May this influence was not found, probably by the influence of the flushing of the reservoir.OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve o objetivo de verificar a influencia da piscicultura em tanque-rede sobre a biomassa da comunidade zooplanctônica no reservatório de Itá (Rio Uruguai, Brasil. METODOLOGIA: Foram realizadas coletas mensais de outubro/2009 a maio/2010 na superfície e no fundo em dois pontos amostrais, ponto tanque-rede e em uma área controle, com o auxílio da garrafa Van Dorn e rede de plâncton (68 µm. RESULTADOS

  15. Speciation and quantification of Hg in sediments contaminated by artisanal gold mining in the Gualaxo do Norte River, Minas Gerais, SE, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Penha Rhodes, Valdilene; de Lena, Jorge Carvalho; Santolin, Camila Vidal Alves; da Silva Pinto, Thais; Mendes, Louise Aparecida; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2017-12-28

    The Iron Quadrangle in SE Brazil was, in the eighteenth century, one of the most important Au producing regions of Brazil. In this region, gold is produced, even today, by artisanal methods that use Hg to increase the extraction efficiency with no control of Hg release to water systems and the atmosphere. In this context, the Gualaxo do Norte River is of particular interest; its springs are located in the Doce River basin, an important Brazilian basin that supplies water for 3.5 million people. The main goal of this work was to quantify and speciate the Hg in the sediments of the Gualaxo do Norte River using a direct mercury analyzer and gas chromatography-pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence detection system. Statistical analyses consisted of principal component analysis, aiming to assess interactions among elements and species and to group the variables in factors affecting the properties of sediment. The results show that total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (CH 3 Hg + ) concentrations in samples ranged from 209 to 1207 μg kg -1 and from 0.07 to 1.00 μg kg -1 , respectively (methylation percentages from 0.01 to 0.27%). Thermal desorption analysis showed that mercury is mainly present in the oxidized form, and correlation analyses pointed to a relationship between THg and MnO, indicating that manganese can oxidize and/or adsorb Hg. Together, MO and CH 3 Hg + are important parameters in the third principal component, indicating the influence of OM on the methylation process. This first investigation on Hg methylation in this small-scale gold mining area points to the possibility of Hg bioaccumulation and to the need of better understanding the biogeochemical cycle of Hg in this area. Samples were collected in 2012, prior to the 2015 Fundão Dam disaster. The results are also a record of the characteristics of the sediment prior to that event.

  16. Quality index of the surface water of Amazonian rivers in industrial areas in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adaelson Campelo; Faial, Kleber Raimundo Freitas; do Carmo Freitas Faial, Kelson; da Silva Lopes, Iris Danielly; de Oliveira Lima, Marcelo; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Mendonça, Neyson Martins

    2017-10-15

    In this study was to evaluate the waters quality of the Murucupi River, located in urban agglomerate area and intense industrial activity in Barcarena City, Pará State. The Arapiranga River in Abaetetuba City was used as control area (Background), next to Barcarena. Was used the Water Quality Index (WQI) based on nine variables analized. Waters quality of the Arapiranga and Murucupi rivers were regular to good and bad to good, respectively. Anthropogenic influence on the Murucupi River was higher, mainly by the disposal of domestic effluents from the urban agglomerate and of the industrial waste tailing basins upstream of this river. Due to its less inhabited environment and further away from the area urban and industrial, the Arapiranga River was more preserved. Waters pollution of around these area is increasingly intense, and restricted its uses for various purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of mercury levels in sediment and soil samples from Vila Nova river basin, in Amapa State, Brazil, using radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, C.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Guimaraes, J.R.D.; Forti, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Results from a survey on mercury concentration in sediments and soils from a gold mining area along the Vila Nova river, in Amapa State, Brazil, are presented. These values were compared with those from the Igarape Pedra Preta basin, an area unaffected by mining activities. Total mercury contents were determined in the muddy (silt+clay) fraction of the sediments and in the -1 for soils and 14 μg x kg -1 for sediments when 200 mg of sample were analysed. The Hg results obtained from a comparison between our current method (RNAA) and CV AAS are also presented. Mercury levels showed to be very high in the soils and sediments collected in the Vila Nova river (up to 2 mg x kg -1 ) when compared to background values (0.3 mg x kg -1 ) for this region. An enrichment factor was calculated, using Al as a normalizing factor. It showed values up to 8 in sediments of the Vila Nova river basin, indicating a relatively high degree of pollution as compared to the values of about 1 for the samples of the Igarape Pedra Preta basin. (author)

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution in density and biomass of two Pseudodiaptomus species (Copepoda: Calanoida in the Caeté river estuary (Amazon region - North of Brazil

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    A. Magalhães

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass distribution of the planktonic copepods Pseudodiaptomus richardi and P. acutus along a salinity gradient were investigated in the Caeté River Estuary (North-Brazil in June and December, 1998 (dry season and in February and May, 1999 (rainy season. Copepod biomass was estimated using regression parameters based on the relation of dry weight and body length (prosome of adult organisms. The Caeté River Estuary was characterized by high spatial and temporal variations in salinity (0.8-37.2‰. Exponential length-weight relationships were observed for both Pseudodiaptomus species. Density and biomass values oscillated between 0.28-46.18 ind. m-3 and 0.0022-0.3507 mg DW. m-3 for P. richardi; and between 0.01-17.02 ind. m-3 and 0.0005-0.7181 mg DW. m-3 for P. acutus. The results showed that the contribution of P. richardi for the secondary production in the Caeté River Estuary is more important in the limnetic zone than in other zones where euhaline-polyhaline regimes were predominant. However, it was not possible to observe a clear pattern of spatial and temporal distribution for P. acutus.

  19. Distribution and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from an urban river basin at the Metropolitan region of Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Natalicio Ferreira; Peralta-Zamora, Patricio; Grassi, Marco Tadeu

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in surface sediment samples from nine sites located at the Iguaçu River Basin in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil to evaluate their distribution and sources. The total concentration of the PAHs was greater for sediments from highly urbanized areas, while the sediments from the Iraí Environmental Protection Area (Iraí EPA) showed significantly low concentrations. The sediments from the Iguaçu and Barigui rivers were classified as highly contaminated, while those from the Cercado and Curralinho rivers were classified as moderately contaminated. The predominance of PAHs containing two to four aromatic rings in most of the samples suggested the direct input of raw sewage into the water resources evaluated. Benzo[g,h,i]perylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were predominant in sediments from the areas under the greatest urban and industrial development. The correlation between thermodynamic stability and the kinetics of evolution presented by the isomeric pairs indicated that combustion is the predominant source of PAHs in the sediments because the combustion of fossil fuels affected most of the points evaluated, followed by combustion of biomass and eventually combustion of oil product inputs. In general, the results showed that areas under strong urban influence, as well as the Iraí EPA, receive contributions of PAHs from similar sources.

  20. História do cuidado ao recém-nascido na Maternidade Carmela Dutra - Florianópolis-SC/Brasil (1956-2001 Historia del cuidado al recién nacido en la Maternidad Carmela Dutra - Florianópolis - SC/Brasil (1956-2001 History of the care of newborns at Maternity Carmela Dutra - Florianópolis - SC/Brazil (1956-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Regina Petters Gregório

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa qualitativa de abordagem sócio-histórica com o objetivo de analisar as práticas de cuidado desenvolvidas, pelas enfermeiras, ao recém-nascido na Maternidade Carmela Dutra, Florianópolis-SC, no período de 1956 a 2001. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram nove enfermeiras que trabalharam na Maternidade no período demarcado. Os dados foram categorizados utilizando-se análise de conteúdo temática com base no referencial foucaultiano. Emergiram três categorias: O bebê nascia e passava por uma janelinha para o berçário; As mães não eram donas dos filhos; O prematuro era bem embrulhadinho e levado da sala de parto para o berçário de alto risco. Os resultados mostraram que as práticas de cuidados prestadas aos recém-nascidos passaram por muitas transformações importantes e desafiantes para as enfermeiras. A pesquisa possibilitou conhecer o cotidiano do trabalho das enfermeiras, iluminando o interior das práticas de cuidado e as relações de poder-saber, fortalecendo sua identidade e colaborando para a construção profissional.Investigación cualitativa con abordaje social e histórico que tiene el objetivo de analizar las prácticas de cuidado desarrolladas por las enfermeras al recién nacido en la Maternidad Carmela Dutra, Florianópolis-SC, durante el período desde 1956 hasta 2001. Los sujetos de la investigación fueron nueve enfermeras que trabajaron en la Maternidad durante el período demarcado. Los datos fueron categorizados utilizando el análisis de contenido temático con base en el referencial foucaultiano. Emergieron tres categorías: El bebé nacía y pasaba por una ventanita hasta la cuna; Las madres no eran las dueñas de los hijos; El prematuro era conducido de la sala de parto a la cuna de alto riesgo bien envuelto. Los resultados mostraron que las prácticas de cuidados prestadas a los recién nacidos pasó por muchas transformaciones importantes y desafiantes para las enfermeras. La pesquisa posibilit

  1. The influence of flood pulse on fish communities of floodplain canals in the Middle Solimões River, Brazil

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    Raniere G. C. Sousa

    Full Text Available The functioning of large river systems with adjacent floodplains is strongly influenced by the flood pulse. This phenomenon is the main structuring force for the biota, including fish communities that use floodplain environments for spawning, feeding, nursery and refuge. In floodplains and in the entire basin, the volume of water controls internal flows. During rising water, the high discharge of the river acts as a natural barrier to the canals that connect floodplain lakes and the Solimões River, because the water flows from river to lake. During the dry period, there is a reduction of discharge and the water flow is reversed or stationary. These canals are environments with distinct ecological characteristics such as differentiated limnology and water level variation intensely affected by the hydrological cycle. Therefore, we surveyed the influence of the flood pulse on fish communities that inhabit two canals that connect floodplain lakes to the Middle Solimões River. Particularly, we evaluated the hypothesis that the Solimões River flow direction is not perfectly parallel to its banks, which creates peripheral flows that direct water from the rivers to the floodplain lake canals. Our analysis indicated that the seasonal pattern is stronger than the spatial. Beside this, we observed that the positions of the canals in relation to the main river flow somehow affect the fish assemblages. Finally, we conclude that the flood pulse is the main structuring force acting on these fish communities.

  2. Interannual variability of phytoplankton in the main rivers of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil: influence of upstream reservoirs

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    LC. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The interannual variation of phytoplankton communities in the three main rivers of the Upper Paraná River floodplain is evaluated in relation to changes in the hydrosedimentological regime. These changes are a result of climatic variability and the formation of Porto Primavera Reservoir, located at the upper Paraná River. Phytoplankton species richness and density were investigated in rivers during a prior period (1993-1994 and eight years after reservoir impoundment (2000-2007. Multiple analyses were conducted to test the differences between these time periods in order to find predictor variables for phytoplankton attributes. A total of 454 phytoplanktonic taxa were found. The regression analysis revealed significant differences between periods. In the years following construction of the Porto Primavera dam, species richness was lower in the Paraná River and density was higher in the three rivers. In general, the algal density decreased from 2005 to 2007. Diatoms and cyanobacteria contributed significantly to the total density during the period from March 1993 to February 1994. The years 2000-2007 presented the lowest diatom contribution to species richness and the highest cyanobacteria contribution. From 2000 on, cryptomonads and cyanobacteria dominated. The interannual variability of phytoplankton was probably influenced by changes in hydrosedimentological regime due to climatic variations (La Niña and El Niño - Southern Oscillation events - ENSO and the operational procedures associated with an upstream reservoirs. Studies on climatic variability and its effects on hydrosedimentological regimes of the Paraná, Baía and Ivinhema rivers and the biota therein are necessary to obtain subsidies for management, including decisions related to the operation of dams upstream and downstream of the study area, with the purpose of minimizing risks to the Environmental Protection Area.

  3. Soil moisture behavior in an experimental basin in Northeast of brazil - the case of Guaraira river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura Ramos Filho, Geraldo; das Neves Almeida, Cristiano; da Silva Freitas, Emerson

    2017-04-01

    In 2003, a hydrological network of the semiarid region (REHISA in Portuguese) was created in Brazil. Since then, experimental watersheds in this region have been providing hydro meteorological data collected in automatic gauges. One of these basins is the Guaraíra river basin, which is operated and maintained by the Federal University of Paraíba. This experimental watershed is located in the coastal region of Paraíba state, where the average annual rainfall is 1.700 mm. According to Köppen its climate is tropical with dry summer, and the drainage area is 5,84 km2. At this experimental basin four rainfall and one climate gauges were installed in 2003. In all of these gauges the soil moisture is monitored hourly with a Time Domain Reflectometry probe representing the 30 cm layer. According to previous analysis the spatial distribution of rainfall in the experimental basin is very low and also soil texture, which is sandy. However, the land use is different and the behavior of the soil moisture is also different. Thus, this paper present part of a study that tries to understand the difference between two gauges, in terms of soil moisture. In order to do this, two years data base were used of different gauges, gauges 2 and 4. In the first part of the study, just the descendent part of the soil moisture curve were used. Different data periods were select from a peak to a stabilization point and then the soil moisture Drying Rate (DR) was calculated to show the speed that a peak reaches the stabilization point. The data analysis was carried out considering the whole data together, then the data were shared into dry and wet periods. The results show that for the gauge 2 the DR range from 0.0335 to 2.772x10-3 kg/kg.h, with an average of 0.632x10-3 kg/kg.h. On the other hand, the gauge 4 present values that range from 0.0139 to 3.617x10-3 kg/kg.h, with an average of 0.375x10-3 kg/kg.h. As can be seen, both gauges presented different DR. When the data set is share into

  4. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

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    Luciana B. Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae, a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs. Flowering occurred during the rainy season, October to December. Nectar standing crop per flowerwas relatively constant throughout the day, which apparently resulted in hummingbirds visiting the plant throughout the day. Energetic content of the nectar in each flower (66.5J and that required daily by hummingbird visitors (up to 30kJ would oblige visits to hundreds of flowers each day, and thus movements between plants that should result in pollen flow. Three hummingbird species visited the flowers: the Gilded Sapphire (Hylocharis chrysura, the Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis, and the Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris. The frequency of hummingbird visitation, nectar features, and the scarcity of other hummingbird-visited flowers in the study area, indicate that P. crocea is an important nectar resource for short-billed hummingbirds in the study site.Investigamos a morfologia floral, as características do néctar e a visita de beija-flores a Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae, uma espécie ornitófila arbustiva comumente encontrada no sub-bosque da vegetação ripária na planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. As flores são distílicas, sendo o dimorfismo estilete-estames acompanhado por outras variações morfológicas no comprimento da corola, altura das anteras, comprimento das anteras e comprimento e forma das papilas estigmáticas. Não foi observada reciprocidade estrita na posição dos estigmas e

  5. Diet and trophic structure of the fish assemblage in the mid-course of the Teles Pires River, Tapajós River basin, Brazil

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    Eurizângela P. Dary

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out in a section of the middle course of the Teles Pires River, a clear water river that drains ancient and highly eroded geological formations, and where five hydropower plants are planned or in construction. In this study we tested the hypothesis that local fish fauna is mainly sustained by autochthonous food resources, with modest changes in the trophic structure of fish assemblages along the hydrometric cycle. Sampling was performed every three months between July 2008 and May 2009 at seven sites distributed along a 50-km section of the river. Piscivores was the most representative group in terms of biomass, abundance and species richness, followed by herbivores, insectivores and omnivores. The trophic structure did not change significantly during the hydrometric cycle, only omnivores showed significant temporal variation in abundance. The main food resources consumed by the ichthyofauna were of autochthonous origin, mainly immature aquatic insects and fish. Eight of 34 species showed temporal variations of the food resources consumed. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that the fish fauna of large, clear water rivers can be sustained by autochthonous resources. This contributes to understanding some determinants of fish production in large Neotropical rivers.

  6. Structural and elemental analysis of bottom sediments from the Paraíba do Sul River (SE, Brazil) by analytical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguens, Flávio Costa; Oliveira, Martha Lima de; Ferreira, Amanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Laís Rodrigues; Melo, Edésio José Tenório de; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Veiga de

    2016-03-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is a medium-sized river that flows through the Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Brazilian states the three most developed states in Brazil. Industrial parks and cities have historically been established along the river basin. The waters of PSR are used in agriculture, industry and human consumption of over 20 million people, including Rio de Janeiro City. Furthermore, the river receives effluent from these activities: agricultural runoff, industrial waste, and domestic sewage. Therefore, PSR has been considered polluted, particularly by heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metals in bottom sediments grains of the PSR, to infer their elemental composition, and to characterize individual sediment grains morphology, a non-destructive methodology - X-ray microanalyses (Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to Energy Dispersive X-rays Spectrometer/SEM/EDS) - was used. Heavy metals - Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Ag, Ba, Au, La, Ce, Nd, Th, Y, Sn, Os and Pb - were detected by SEM/EDS in bottom sediment grains from PSR, predominantly in grains with equivalent diameter ≤10 μm. They occurred as silicates, oxides (hydro-oxides), sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, phosphates and chlorides. All detected heavy metals occurred as, at least, one kind of soluble metal compound, mainly due to ionic exchange from silicates, with the exception of Ag, which was chloride, sulfate or metallic as Os, Au and Pb. These results corroborate heavy metal PSR pollution and food chain risk, considering that near-shore continental shelf is free of heavy metals contamination. Our results also give support to the hypothesis that the PSR estuary can act as a trap for these elements.

  7. Temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton in the Ivinhema River (Mato Grosso do Sul State/ Brazil: influence of environmental variables

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    David Augusto Reynalte-Tataje

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on ichthyoplankton is an important tool in determining reproduction periods that - if associated to environmental variables - allows for inferences about the factors that regulate their intensity, beginning, and ending. In this context, this study aims to establish (i ichthyoplankton composition; (ii temporal variations in the overall density of eggs and larvae and among the most important taxa; and (iii the influence of some abiotic and biotic variables on these organisms' abundance. Ichthyoplankton sampling was undertaken during the period between April 2005 and March 2006 at the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin (MS/Brazil. Differences in the ichthyoplankton's temporal variation were evaluated using unifactorial ANOVAs. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson's correlation were used for the relationships between eggs and larvae densities and environmental variables. A total of 3,341 eggs and 2,896 larvae were captured during the period studied, and most of them were medium-sized and large species that carried out some type of reproductive migration. The highest densities of eggs and larvae occurred during the months of spring and summer, except for those of Bryconamericus stramineus, which was most abundant during the winter. The density of ichthyoplankton was most positively correlated with the water's outflow and temperature. However, Plagioscion squamosissimus was positively related to the increase in pH and in zooplanktonic organisms, while B. stramineus was inversely correlated with water outflow and temperature. The study concludes that spawning is most intense in the spring and summer, especially between November and January, and is related to the greatest values of water temperature and outflow. Nevertheless, the response and reproductive intensity in relation to the environmental variables vary according to the species.As informações sobre o ictioplâncton são ferramentas importantes para a determinação do

  8. Genetic evidence for two species of the genus Pimelodus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae in the Iguaçu River (Brazil

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    Renesto Erasmo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of reproductive isolation between two morphs of catfish, endemic to the Iguaçu River (Brazil, was examined by enzyme starch gel electrophoresis. Tissues of 19 catfish (Pimelodus ortmanni and 15 of a similar morph (Pimelodus sp., which differs from P. ortmanni by presenting larger and more scattered dusky spots on its skin, were analyzed. A Nei's (1978 genetic identity of 0.551 was determined by the analysis of 22 enzyme loci. The loci EST*1, EST*2, GDH*1, GPI*1, GPI*2, IDH*1, MDH*1, MDH*2, and PGM*1 were fixed for different alleles in each morph, that is, no heterozygote was found for these loci. The enzymatic patterns observed for the two morphs indicate both that the taxa are reproductively isolated and that they in fact represent separate species.

  9. Commentary on the journal of Lourens Lourenszoon (1618-1625 and his stay among the Arocouros on the Lower Cassipore River, Amapa (Brazil

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    Neil L. Whitehead

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This commentary presents an overview of the place of Lourens Lourenszoon’s account of his captivity among the Arocouros (Palikur Indians in relation to other contemporary sources on the native peoples of Guyana. In particular the claims as to witnessing of both cannibalism as well as the capture of a 'headless-man' provide a rich context in which to situate broader issues of ethnographic epistemology and eye-witness observation. Such marvels and monstrosities are closely associated with early wring on the Americas and in this way the account of Lourens Lourenszoon is an important addition to the debates on interpretation of historical documents across cultural space. This new translation also provides important demographic and geographical information on the situation of the native population of the Cassiporé River and region of Amapá (Brazil in the early seventeenth century that can inform further archaeological, ethnohistorical andethnographic investigation.

  10. Commentary on the journal of Lourens Lourenszoon (1618-1625 and his stay among the Arocouros on the Lower Cassiporé River, Amapá (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Whitehead

    Full Text Available This commentary presents an overview of the place of Lourens Lourenszoon's account of his captivity among the Arocouros (Palikur Indians in relation to other contemporary sources on the native peoples of Guyana. In particular the claims as to witnessing of both cannibalism as well as the capture of a 'headless-man' provide a rich context in which to situate broader issues of ethnographic epistemology and eye-witness observation. Such marvels and monstrosities are closely associated with early wring on the Americas and in this way the account of Lourens Lourenszoon is an important addition to the debates on interpretation of historical documents across cultural space. This new translation also provides important demographic and geographical information on the situation of the native population of the Cassiporé River and region of Amapá (Brazil in the early seventeenth century that can inform further archaeological, ethnohistorical and ethnographic investigation.

  11. Mapping of the 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the upper Paraná river basin, Brazil

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    Carlos Alexandre Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was undertaken in order to determinate the chromosomal distribution pattern of 18S and 5S ribosomal DNAs (rDNA in four populations of the characid fish Astyanax altiparanae from the upper Paraná river basin, Brazil. The 18S rDNA probe FISH revealed numerical and positional variations among specimens from the Keçaba stream compared to specimens of the other populations studied. In contrast to the variable 18S rDNA distribution pattern, highly stable chromosomal positioning of the 5S rDNA sites was observed in the four A. altiparanae populations. Divergence in the distribution pattern of 18S and 5S rDNA sites is also discussed.

  12. The Tragedy of the Krenak People for the Death of the Doce / Uatu River, in the Disaster Of Samarco / Vale / BHP, Brazil

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    Thiago Henrique Fiorott

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Brazil witnessed the biggest environmental disaster of its history - the rupture of the Samarco / Vale / BHP mining dam in Mariana-MG. The impacts of this tragedy have brought environmental, social, and economic damages, among others. One of the most exploited peoples was the Krenak - whose lands are located on the banks of the river, which they call Uatu (Rio Grande / Rio Doce. The objective of the article is to describe the impacts of the disaster on the sustainability of the Krenak people. It was a qualitative research, case study, which used primary and secondary data. The results demonstrate the death of fish, and other animals, important for a traditional Krenak food safety. As families were left without drinking water, that made impossible social activities, education, health, culture, religion, economy and leisure. In the view of the Krenak people, the major consequence was the death of Uatu, subtracting an important element of their identity, territoriality and sustainability.

  13. SEROLOGICAL DETECTION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN FREE-RANGING NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES (Sapajus spp., Alouatta caraya) FROM THE PARANÁ RIVER BASIN, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Walfrido Kühl; Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira; Alves, Max Moreira; Rocha, Tatiana Carneiro; Gomes, Eliane Carneiro; Menoncin, Fabiana; Batista, Paulo Mira; Silva, Lineu Roberto da; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Hilst, Carmen Lúcia Scortecci; Aguiar, Lucas M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Passos, Fernando de Camargo; Souza, Júlio Cesar de; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are considered as the natural hosts of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as other pathogens, and can serve as natural sentinels to investigate epizootics and endemic diseases that are of public health importance. During this study, blood samples were collected from 112 Neotropical primates (NTPs) (Sapajus nigritus and S. cay, n = 75; Alouatta caraya, n = 37) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin, Brazil, located between the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected in 4.5% (5/112) of NTPs, specifically in 6.7% (5/75) of Sapajus spp. and 0% (0/37) of A. caraya. In addition, all samples were negative for the presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. These results suggest that free-ranging NTPs were exposed to HAV within the geographical regions evaluated.

  14. Diversions of the Ribeira river flow and their Influence on Sediment Supply in the Cananeia-Iguape Estuarine-Lagoonal System (SE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaggia, Flaminia; Jovane, Luigi; Alessandretti, Luciano; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens C.; Rodelli, Daniel; Bueno Benedetti Berbel, Gláucia; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2018-04-01

    The Cananéia-Iguape system is a combined estuarine-lagoonal sedimentary system, located along the SE coast of Brazil. It consists of a network of channels and islands oriented mainly parallel to the coast. About 165 years ago, an artificial channel, the Valo Grande, was opened in the northern part of this system to connect a major river of the region, the Ribeira River, to the estuarine-lagoon complex. The Valo Grande was closed with a dam and re-opened twice between 1978 and 1995, when it was finally left open. These openings and closures of the Valo Grande had a significant influence on the Cananéia-Iguape system. In this study we present mineralogical, chemical, palaeomagnetic, and geochronological data from a sediment core collected at the southern end of the 50-km long lagoonal system showing how the phases of the opening and closure of the channel through time are expressed in the sedimentary record. Despite the homogeneity of the grain size and magnetic properties throughout the core, significant variations in the mineralogical composition showed the influence of the opening of the channel on the sediment supply. Less mature sediment, with lower quartz and halite and higher kaolinite, brucite, and franklinite, corresponded to periods when the Valo Grande was open. On the other hand, higher abundance of quartz and halite, as well as the disappearance of other detrital minerals, corresponded with periods of absence or closure of the channel, indicating a more sea-influenced depositional setting. This work represented an example of anthropogenic influence in a lagoonal-estuarine sedimentary system, which is a common context along the coast of Brazil.

  15. Caracterização funcional do sistema reprodutivo da aroeira-vermelha (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, em Florianópolis-SC, Brasil Characterization of the functional reproductive system of the pink-pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

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    Maurício Lenzi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dioicia como sistema reprodutivo de S. terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae, em uma área com influência antrópica e em outra área de restinga, no município de Florianópolis-SC. Durante dois períodos reprodutivos, desenvolveram-se os tratamentos de polinização livre e cruzada manual, realizados em plantas de ambos os sexos, e tratamentos de anemofilia, agamospermia e partenocarpia, realizados apenas em plantas femininas. Os tratamentos de polinização que resultaram em frutificação foram o livre, maior média 45%, e cruzada manual, maior média 56,2%, confirmando-se funcionalmente a dioicia da espécie. Os demais tratamentos de polinização não resultaram em frutificação, indicando que o gineceu reduzido das flores masculinas não é funcional, a espécie não é anemófila, não é apomítica e não possui partenocarpia. A razão pólen/óvulo entre uma flor masculina e uma flor feminina foi alta (99.267: 1, classificando a espécie como xenogâmica.Dioecy, as the reproductive system of S. terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae, was investigated in an area with human interference and in a sandbank area, in the municipal district of Florianópolis, SC. During two reproductive periods the following pollination tests were performed: open pollination and manual cross-pollination have been developed in plants of both sexes, and tests of anemophily, agamospermy and parthenogenesis, accomplished only in female plants. Pollen grains have been germinated in different sucrose concentrations to verify their viability. The pollination treatments that resulted into fruit set were the open pollination, with the greatest average of 45%, and manual cross-pollination, with the greatest average of 56,2%. The other pollination tests did not result in fruit set, showing that the reduced gynoecium of the male flowers is not functional, proving dioecy of the species, neither the species is anemophilic, nor apomitic, and it does not present

  16. First report of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus in South America, infecting mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the Paraíba River (NE, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Santana, Lucas Nunes; Fernández-Boo, Sergio; Ramilo, Andrea; Cao, Asunción; Villalba, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The present work aimed to study the infection by Perkinsus sp. in the mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the estuary of the Paraíba River (Paraíba State, Brazil). Perkinsosis was detected by incubation of oyster gill pieces in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium. The monthly prevalence values were all above 70%, thus infection was not likely to be a transient event. Perkinsus sp. parasites isolated from eight oysters were propagated in vitro. PCR-RFLP analysis of in vitro cultured cells as well as the sequences of the rDNA ITS region allowed the identification of the in vitro propagated parasites as Perkinsus marinus. Phylogenetic analyses using rDNA ITS region sequences strongly supported the Perkinsus sp. from Paraíba in a monophyletic group with P. marinus. Thus, the results confirmed the species affiliation of Paraíba Perkinsus sp. as P. marinus. This is the first report of P. marinus in Brazil and South America and the first report of P. marinus naturally infecting C. rhizophorae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, in Brazil: new insights from molecular data

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    Gabriel Iketani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.

  18. RICHNESS AND FLORISTIC COMPOSITION OF THE FERN COMMUNITY IN RIPARIAN FOREST OF THE RIVER ‘CADEIA’, IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

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    Ivanete Teresinha Mallmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813327The present study analyzed richness and specific composition of the fern community in fragments fromthe riparian forest of river ‘Cadeia’, under different levels of human impact, in Santa Maria do Herval, RioGrande do Sul state, Brazil. An amount of 120 sample units were delimited, equitably distributed in threefragments (FI, II and III in which all species were surveyed and the richness was recorded. The floristiccomposition among fragments was compared using Jaccard’s index and spatial distribution of units wasevaluated through multidimensional scaling. Richness data were presented in the form of rarefaction curvesbased on samples and non-parametric diversity estimators. A total of 40 species were found, belonging to13 families. The greater floristic similarity was between FI and FII. Sample units from FI formed the mostdefined grouping and they had more exclusive species than the others. The rarefaction curve for the totalsampling almost reached the asymptote and estimators indicated a maximum of 45 species, which meansthat the majority of species was surveyed at the study site. A decreasing gradient of mean richness per unitwas observed as the urbanization increased in the matrix habitat of the fragments. These results form a database to be used in management, conservation and reforestation measures in degraded riparian forests. Theycan be directly compared to results from other studies that used rarefaction and richness estimators, whichis not possible to do with many of the surveys accomplished in Brazil so far.

  19. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

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    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  20. Soil gamma ray spectrometry of the Buquira river basin, SP, Brazil; Gamametria de solos da bacia do rio Buquira, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Alice

    2002-12-01

    Natural radioactivity found in rocks and its evaluation been frequently used for studies of environmental geochemistry, particularly those of detection and control of pollutants and the consequent changes in environment after antropic interferences. In this work natural radioactivity in forty nine soil samples in the basin of Buquira river, at the Northeast region of Sao Paulo State, has been analysed and measured with a Ge-HP gamma ray spectrometer. A table with the most relevant results found in rocks is shown and discussed. (author)

  1. Larval Pseudoproleptus sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Santos, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2009), s. 634-638 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Pseudoproleptus * Macrobrachium * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  2. Evaluation of the metal contamination associated to the leachate in the Chururupe-Ilheus (Bahia State, Brazil) river by using INAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Mario R. de S.; Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Santos, Balbino L. dos

    2002-01-01

    The site of this research is in Ilheus city located at Bahia State in Brazil. Residues generated by the urban activities from this city are collected and disposed at a place without sanitary control called ' Lixao do Cururupe' close to Cururupe river. The leachate from the water drainage through the mass of garbage flows into the river. This solution is rich in organic and inorganic pollutants. There is not any information about the environmental impact caused by this dump. The objective of this study is to evaluate the contamination caused by metals due to the presence of leachate into Rio Cururupe. Water, sediment and crustaceans (Ucides cordatus) samples were collected in different points considering the dump location. Extra samples were also taken in Rio Acuipe 20 km from Rio Cururupe for comparison. After appropriate treatment the samples were analyzed using the technique Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The parameters pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and Biochemistry Oxygen Demand from the water samples were also determined. (author)

  3. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepaguá Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Thiago E M; De-Oliveira, Ana C A X; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2008-03-01

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ("Nile tilapia", Oreochromis niloticus and "acará", Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepaguá Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes.

  4. Use of food resources and resource partitioning among five syntopic species of Hypostomus (Teleostei: Loricariidae in an Atlantic Forest river in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Abilhoa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We analyzed the diet and resource partitioning among five syntopic species of Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 in the Corumbataí River in southeastern Brazil. The gut contents of 352 individuals were assessed and 21 food items were identified and quantified under an optical microscope. The food items found in the gut contents indicate that these suckermouth loricariids are bottom-dwelling detritivorous/periphytivorous catfishes. PERMANOVA and SIMPER analyses indicated variation in the consumption of some resources, and the contribution of periphytic algae was primarily responsible for such dissimilarity. ECOSIM analyses of dietary overlap showed evidence of resource sharing among all species in the dry and rainy periods. This is most likely the result of the predominance of detritus and autochthonous items such as algae and aquatic immature insects in all gut contents. Our data suggest that trophic resources available in the Corumbataí River are explored and partitioned among Hypostomus species, all specialized in surface-grazing foraging behaviour.

  5. REPTILE SPECIES COMPOSITION IN THE MIDDLE GURGUÉIA AND COMPARISON WITH INVENTORIES IN THE EASTERN PARNAÍBA RIVER BASIN, STATE OF PIAUÍ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLÁUDIA RENATA MADELLA-AURICCHIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The reptile diversity of the Middle Gurguéia River Basin in southern Piauí, Brazil, is little known. The rapid expansion of agriculture in the region is converting the Cerrado and Caatinga into large farming areas, which threatens biodiversity and hastens its loss. In this study, 68 specimens of reptiles from a university collection were examined, comprising 29 species: ten lizards, one amphisbaenian, 15 snakes, two turtles and one crocodilian. They were collected from five locations in the Middle Gurguéia Basin, a region not previously evaluated for reptiles. The most abundant species is a member of Tropidurus. Comparison with eight other areas in the eastern Parnaíba Basin indicated that the diversity of reptiles in the Middle Gurguéia is similar to that in other Caatinga-Cerrado ecotone areas. The reptile assemblage in the eastern Parnaíba Basin comprises 100 species of reptiles: 39 lizards, five amphisbaenians, 50 snakes, four chelonians and two crocodilians. This study expanded the known distributions of some reptiles and recorded the first occurrence of Helicops leopardinus (Schlegel, 1837 for Piauí. A cluster analysis showed that the reptile composition concords with the habitat where species were found, i.e. Cerrado, Caatinga or ecotone. Studies that associate habitat structure with each species are essential to propose efficient strategies for reptile management and conservation for the entire Parnaíba River Basin, mostly in areas that are not yet protected.

  6. Soil loss prediction in Guaraíra river experimental basin, Paraíba, Brazil based on two erosion simulation models

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    Jorge Flávio Cazé B. da Costa Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two hydrological models to estimate soil losses and sediment yield due to sheet and channel erosion, at the basin outlet, are applied to Guaraíra River Experimental Basin, located in Paraíba State, northeastern Brazil. The soil erosion models are (a the classical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, which is used to simulate annual and monthly soil losses; and (b Kineros model, which is used to simulate the sediment yield within the basin. Kineros model is a physically-based distributed model that uses a cascade of planes and channels to represent the basin and to describe the processes of interception, infiltration, surface runoff and erosion within the basin. The USLE is computed using land use, soil erodibility, topographic digital maps, as well as observed rainfall data. It was found that Guaraíra river experimental basin has a low potential for soil losses; however, specific areas which are susceptible to the erosion process in the basin could be detected by the modeling techniques coupled to a GIS (Geographic Information System.

  7. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND RELATIVE CONDITION FACTOR OF Arapaima gigas SCHINZ, 1822 FROM EXTRACTIVE RESERVE OF JURUÁ RIVER, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Silva da Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arapaima gigas (pirarucu is a large fish greatly appreciated in Amazon region. The present work determined the weight-length relationship and the relative condition factor (Kn of eviscerated pirarucu specimens from the extractive reserve (RESEX of Juruá river, Amazonas, Brazil. The relative frequency distributions by weight class indicated amplitude between 20,000 and 115,000g and the classes of greatest frequency were between 30,000 and 80,000g. The equation that describes 3.0157 this relationship is W = 0.0092L3.0157, showing an isometric growth. Kn presented values of 0.98 ± 0.01, ranging between 0.94-1.01. The results indicate that fish stock of A. gigas in the RESEX of Juruá river presents good management conditions since most of the fish caught presented commercial weight and high utilization of meat, and also the equations of weight-length relationship and Kn values can be considered as reference for A. gigas eviscerated of the studied region. Palavras-chave: pirarucu, biometric, homeostasis, management. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p124-126

  8. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.

  9. Mutagenic potential of pollutans in the water of the Paraíba do Sul river, Tremembé, SP, Brazil, using the Allium cepa test

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    Agnes Barbério

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenicity can be related to chromosomic breaks induced by environmental pollutants. The aim of this research was to characterize the mutagenic potential of the pollutants in the water of the Paraíba do Sul river, in Tremembé city, São Paulo State, Brazil, analyzing chromosomal changes in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa, in the summer (April and winter (August of 2008. The bulbs were exposed for 72 h to the treatments: water from river, Hoagland solution (negative control and 15 µg/L from MMS – methyl methanesulfonate (positive control. In each treatment, three bulbs were exposed and for each bulb, five slides were prepared. For mitotic index (MI and micronucleus (MN frequency rate, a total of 2,000 cells per root/slide were analyzed and 100 cells for the chromosome aberrations (CA. In April, the pollutants induced a high mutagenic potential in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa, the frequency rate of MN, stickiness and CA from non-identified type were greater than the negative control. In August, the only significant change found was the chromosome bridges. There was no significant change for MI. These results indicate that the effluents which have varied sources are inducing harmful effects on the bioindicator, therefore, it is important to keep biomonitoring and adopting effluents control measures. The measures are important because these waters are used primarily for public supply and irrigation.

  10. Concentration and distribution of heavy metals in river sediments in the basin of the formosa river, buritizeiros county, minas gerais state, brazil. Natural antropogenic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggio, H.; Horn, H. A.; Bilal, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Formoso river is an important tributary of The Sao Francisco River in the Northwest of Minas Gerais State. There are more than 100 families who live and depend exclusively on the natural and environmental resources of its basin. It is inserted in the Cerrado Biome where its waters drain large agropecuary landed estates, what directly influences the physicochemical characteristics of superficial waters and streams sediments. The Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn parameters were analyzed in 22 sediment samples using the chemical partial acid extraction technique and ICP-OES reading and the results were compared to the CONAMA resolution 344/04. It was found that the levels of Cd and Cr are above the levels recommended by this resolution. Mineral characterization was done by X-Ray diffractometry and geochemical litho types analysis was done by ICP-AAS. The presence of these elements in the longitudinal profile whose main sources are the litho types. There is a link between the lithopedologic variable, the typology of the fluvial channel, the hydrodynamic of the basin and the distribution and transport of metals throughout the longitudinal profile of the river of Cd and Cr. The morphologic characteristics of the fluvial canal and the hydrodynamics of the basin have played an important role as a mechanism for the distribution and transport of metals in the sediments

  11. Solar-Aligned Pictographs at the Paleoindian Site of Painel do Pilão along the Lower Amazon River at Monte Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher Sean

    2016-01-01

    The archaeological sites near Monte Alegre, along Brazil's lower Amazon River, provide new information on the little-known activities and symbolism of South American Paleoindians toward the end of the Ice Age. While paleoindian sites like Monte Verde in Chile, or Guitarrero Cave in Peru, are located near the pacific coast, Monte Alegre lies much further inland, 680 km upriver from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Coast. With excavated wood charcoal radiocarbon dated as early as 13,200 calibrated years ago, the hill-as a source of sandstone and quartz lithics-supplied early pioneers with adequate tools needed for colonizing the interior of the continent. Once there, they painted rock art on the landscape, which bears a record of the sun's horizon positions throughout the year. At just 2° south of the equator, Monte Alegre shows no overt seasonal changes beyond fluctuating rainfall amounts, unlike at higher latitudes where temperature, amount of daylight, foliage, and forms of precipitation markedly change. Near the equator, solar and stellar horizon sightings most visibly track the passage of time and seasonal cycles. However, horizons are often hidden behind high forest canopy throughout much of the Amazon Rainforest; but in the Monte Alegre hill ridges looming above the river, paleoindians could hike above the canopy to peer at the horizon, more effectively synchronizing their activities to ecological cycles. This research suggests that Monte Alegre paleoindians delimited the azimuthal range of the sun in a solar year with notational pictographs aligned to horizon sightings at Painel do Pilão, and leaving a painted grid of tally marks that might have served as a rudimentary early calendar. The broad-reaching implication for early Americans is that through the strategic placement of rock art, these ancient artists fostered predictive archaeorecording from which resources could be optimally extracted, ceremonial activities could be consistently

  12. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  13. Effect of seasonal flooding cycle on litterfall production in alluvial rainforest on the middle Xingu River (Amazon basin, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, M; Giarrizzo, T; Jesus, A J S

    2015-08-01

    The assumption for this study was that litterfall in floodplain environments of the middle Xingu river follows a pattern of seasonal variation. According to this view, litterfall production (total and fractions) was estimated in four alluvial rainforest sites on the middle Xingu River over an annual cycle, and examined the effect of seasonal flooding cycle. The sites included two marginal flooded forests of insular lakes (Ilha Grande and Pimentel) and two flooded forests on the banks of the Xingu itself (Boa Esperança and Arroz Cru). Total litterfall correlated with rainfall and river levels, but whereas the leaf and fruit fractions followed this general pattern, the flower fraction presented an inverse pattern, peaking in the dry season. The litterfall patterns recorded in the present study were consistent with those recorded at other Amazonian sites, and in some other tropical ecosystems.

  14. Chemical characterization of particulate material at Piracicaba and Atibaia rivers, SP, Brazil, through X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Edwin Pastor Espinoza; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP

    2000-01-01

    Samples of the particulate materials from Piracicaba and Atibaia rivers were collected on the period form winter(dry period) to summer(wet period) of 1996, at locations on the Piracicaba river bay, SP, by using cellulose acetate membrane of 0.45μm of pore diameter. The analysis have been done by using the energy dispersion instrumental x-ray fluorescence technique, activating those samples with x-ray tubes (target of Mo and filter of Zr on 25 kV - 20 mA) and quantifying the elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn by film methodology

  15. Deuterium and oxygen-18 concentrations in rain and river waters from Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Parana States, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Oliveiro J.; Salati, Eneas

    1982-01-01

    The main object of this paper was to study the concentration of deuterium (D) and Oxygen-18 ( 18 O) in the rain and river waters from the States of Minas Gerais, Sao paulo and Parana. Monthly samples were prepared and analysed at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-ESALQ-USP) with the use of CH-4 ( 18 O) and GD-150 (D) mass spectrometers of Varian-Mat. In order to correlate the D and 18 O of the rain water the equation δD = 9.22 + 7.17δ18 was found. Considering the three equations separately it was observed that the parameter a = δD -bδ18 increases from the South to the North. For the Piracicaba River (city of Piracicaba only), the D and 18 O relationship was expressed by δD = -10.98 + 4.88δ18. The States of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo can be divided according to the weight-average concentrations (δ18 m% 0 ). This division is not possible from Parana. Considering the average from the weight average concentration (annually and summer) for the three States, the annual average (D and 18 O) is slightly richer than the summer average, showing the importance of the amount effect, mainly for the States of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. The rivers studied had little variation in the 18 O concentrations with no definite periodicity. The rivers from the North of Minas Gerais are slightly richer in 18 O than the rivers from the South. The waters from Rio Grande in the South of Minas Gerais State are poorer in 18 O than the water of the same river in the 'Triangle'region. The δ18% 0 data for the rivers Grande, Parnaiba and Parana are very similar, so there is no way to compute the contribution of the first and the second rivers in the formation of the third. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Phytoplankton of the portion of the Paranapanema River to be dammed for construction of the Rosana Hydroelectric Plant, Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil; Fitoplancton do trecho a represar do Rio Paranapanema (Usina Hidreletrica de Rosana), Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicudo, Carlos E. de M.; Bicudo, Denise de C.; Castro, Ana Alice J. de; Picelli-Vicentim, M. Marcina [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia

    1992-12-31

    The phytoplankton community of the 120 Km long portion of the Paranapanema River located between the Salto Grande Hydroelectric Plant reservoir and the river mouth at the Parana River is surveyed. This part of the river will be dammed for construction of the Rosana hydroelectric System in the State of Sao Paulo, southern Brazil. An inventory was completed for 4 collecting stations, and based on the study of 48 samples gathered bimonthly during the period from November 1985 to September 1986. Each collection is represented by a net concentrated and a raw total phytoplankton sample. Except for the Bacillariophyceae, study of which is still in progress, the other classes present were the following in order of their local representation: Chlorophyceae with 23 taxa, Zygnemaphyceae (= Cyanophyceae) with 9, Tribophyceace (= Xanthophyceae) with 2 each one, and Oedogoniophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Chrysophyceae with a single taxon each, to a total of 55 taxa identified. (author) 27 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  18. First coil for the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1955-01-01

    The coils for the SC magnet were stored in the large hangar of the Cointrin Airport (to make sure that they would be available before snow and ice would block the roads and canals from Belgium, where they were built).

  19. Chemical elements in soils of riverside areas of the Piracicaba river basin, São Paulo, Brazil; Elementos químicos em solos de áreas ribeirinhas da bacia hidrográfica do rio Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Elvis J.; Lira, Marcelo B.G.; Paiva, José D.S., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: liramarcelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: paivajds@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The monitoring of the soil quality of the Piracicaba River Basin, located in the State of São Paulo, is of extreme environmental importance, as it ensures the functionality of the basin ecosystems and environmental protection. However, there are few studies focused on the concentration of chemical elements in soils of environmental protection zones of highly populated riverside regions. In view of the above, this work aims to determine the concentration of chemical elements in the soils located on the banks of the Piracicaba River by the Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm profiles. Subsequently, the samples were dried in an oven at 80 deg C and comminuted with the aid of mortar and pistil. 250 mg portions were transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated in 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} neutron flux for 4 hours at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute -IPEN / SP, Brazil. The determination of the chemical elements was conducted by the k0-INAA method from the Quantu program. Comparing the results obtained with the soil values of an untouched area of Atlantic Forest - Carlos Botelho State Park, the maximum values obtained of As (29 mg / kg) and Zn (185 mg / kg) were about 5 times greater. However, concentrations of terrigenous elements such as Fe and Sc were also high in some cases, indicating that there is also a contribution of the source material (rocks) to the high concentrations observed in the riverside soils.

  20. Detecção de estruturas parasitárias em hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil Detection of parasitic structures in vegetables commercialized in the city of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolivar Soares

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a presença de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas em hortaliças consumidas cruas na cidade de Florianópolis,SC, no período de junho de 2003 a maio de 2004. Foram estudadas amostras alface (Lactuca sativa, agrião (Nasturtium officinale e rúcula (Chicarium sp, num total de 750, provenientes do comércio ("sacolões", supermercados e feiras livres. Tais amostras foram lavadas e submetidas ao método de sedimentação espontânea em água por 24 horas. Todas as variedades de hortaliças examinadas apresentaram elevados percentuais de contaminação, porém com maior freqüência no agrião. Observou-se uma grande variedade de protozoários, responsáveis pela transmissão elevada de enfermidades intestinais, na população da região metropolitana de Florianópolis. Ressalta-se a importância das hortaliças na transmissão de enfermidades intestinais, havendo conseqüentemente necessidade de medidas que propiciem uma melhoria na qualidade higiênico-sanitária destas.The presence of transmissible forms of enteroparasites in vegetables consumed raw in Florianópolis city was evaluated in the period concerned between June 2003 and May 2004. A total of 750 samples, including lettuce (Lactuva sativa, watercress (Nasturtium officinale and of rocket (Chicarium sp, commercially available from street markets and supermarkets, were analyzed. All samples were washed and submitted to the sedimentation method. Elevated degrees of contamination were found in all samples analyzed, with higher frequencies being found in the watercress samples. A large variety of protozoans were detected, the levels of which are compatible with the elevated frequency of occurrence in the population of the metropolitan region of the city of Florianópolis. Therefore, the importance of the vegetables in the transmission of intestinal diseases is emphasized, which requires adequate measurements to be taken in order to provide an improvement in the hygienic

  1. Diversity and genetic distance in populations of Steindachnerina in the upper Paraná river floodplain of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A V; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Pavanelli, C S; Júlio, H F; Panarari, R S

    2002-08-01

    Whereas four species of the genus Steindachnerina occur in the Paraná river basin, S. insculpta was the only endemic species of the region under analysis, which is the third lower section of the upper Paraná river. Among other factors, this species has been characterised by the absence of spots in the basal region of the dorsal fin. However, various specimens with this characteristic appeared in the region after the construction of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Plant in 1982. An analysis of the genetic variability of Steindachnerina populations with or without spots is provided. Specimens were collected in different sites of the floodplain of the upper Paraná river and samples were compared by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique and morphological analyses. Ninety-eight amplified loci with nine random primers were analysed in 19 specimens of each phenotype. Data for genetic distance showed great divergences between the two phenotypes and indicate two different species. Spotted specimens may be identified as S. brevipinna, found in the region downstream Sete Quedas Falls. The species must have overcome the geographical barrier during the building of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam that submerged the waterfalls and which became an obstacle between the upper and middle Paraná river some 150 km downstream. Since phenotypes do not share dominant alleles, absence of gene flow has been suggested.

  2. Calibration of hydrodynamic model MIKE 11 for the sub-basin of the Piauitinga river, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Folegatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Piauitinga river sub-basin the environment has been suffering from negative actions by humans such as deforestation around springs, inadequate use of the uptaken water, inappropriate use in domestic activities, siltation and sand exploitation, and contamination by domestic, industrial and agricultural residuals. The present study presents the one-dimensional hydrodynamic MIKE 11 model calibration that simulates the water flow in estuary, rivers, irrigation systems, channels and other water bodies. The aim of this work was to fit the MIKE 11 model to available discharge data for this sub-basin. Data from the period of 1994 to 1995 were used for calibration and data from 1996 to 2006 for validation, except the 1997 year, from which data were not available. Manning’s roughness coefficient was the main parameter used for the Piauitinga river sub-basin discharge calibration and other parameters were heat balance, water stratification and groundwater leakage. Results showed that the model had an excellent performance for the Piauitinga basin and had an efficiency coefficient of 0.9 for both periods. This demonstrates that this model can be used to estimate the water quantity in Piauitinga river sub-basin.

  3. Phylogenetic signal and major ecological shifts in the ecomorphological structure of stream fish in two river basins in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    Full Text Available We tested the contribution of the phylogenetic and specific components to the ecomorphological structure of stream fish from the upper Paraguai River and upper São Francisco River basins, and identified nodes in the phylogenetic tree at which major ecological shifts occurred. Fish were sampled between June and October of 2008 in 12 streams (six in each basin. In total, 22 species from the upper Paraguai River basin and 12 from the upper São Francisco River were analyzed. The ecomorphological patterns exhibited phylogenetic signal, indicating that the ecomorphological similarity among species is associated with the degree of relatedness. A strong habitat template is most likely to be the primary cause for a high phylogenetic signal. A significant contribution from the specific component was also detected, supporting the idea that the phylogenetic signal occurs in some clades for some traits, but not in others. The major ecological shifts were observed in the basal nodes, suggesting that ecological niche differences appear to accumulate early in the evolutionary history of major clades. This finding reinforces the role of key traits in the diversification of Neotropical fishes. Ecological shifts in recent groups could be related to morphological modifications associated with habitat use.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  5. The first interconnection 500 Kv Brazil - Argentina. The design aspects of the crossing over the Uruguay river; Primeira interconexao 500 kV Brasil-Argentina. Aspectos de projeto da travessia sobre o Rio Uruguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vilson Renato da [Engelineas Consultoria e Projetos Ltda., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: engeline@portoweb.com.br; Silva, Joao Batista Guimaraes Ferreira da; Guimaraes, Rogerio Peixoto [ABB, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Menezes, Ruy Carlos Ramos de [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This document reports some aspects involving the employed engineering solutions in the project for the crossing above the uruguay river at the border between Brazil and Argentina. It is approached the related design aspects to the chosen place for the crossing, investigations about the river flood quotas and mainly the design criteria, with emphasis in probabilistic methodology application for reliability evaluation and in the need of attending the established requirements by the Argentine regulator organs. Finally, it is made a design description standing out the plotation, structures and foundations.

  6. Lipídios em sedimentos arqueológicos: resultados preliminares do sítio arqueológico Rio do Meio, Ilha de Santa Catarina (SC Lipids in archaeological sediments: preliminary results of the archaeological site Rio do Meio, Santa Catarina Island (SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Augusto Hansel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição de lipídios em sedimentos arqueológicos do sítio Rio do Meio, Ilha de Santa Catarina. Nos extratos totais de lipídios, analisados por cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massas (CG e CG-EM, predominaram os compostos ácidos e álcoois saturados. Foram detectados pelo menos dois tipos de matéria orgânica: uma antiga e outra comparativamente recente. Na primeira, o extrato total de lipídios foi dominado por ácidos graxos de cadeias curtas ( Ac20:0 e Al20:0. Em contraste, na deposição classificada como recente, foram identificados em maiores teores os ácidos e álcoois de cadeias longas (> Ac20:0 e Al20:0. Neste estudo, foi possível observar a incorporação de material orgânico procedente de fontes de origem vegetal, bacteriana e, possivelmente, animal (gorduras nos sedimentos arqueológicos analisados.In this study the distribution of lipid compounds was evaluated in sediment samples of an archaeological site Rio do Meio, Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. In the total lipid extracts, analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC and GC-MS, saturated fatty acids and alcohols were predominant. At least two sources of organic matter were detected, an older and a more recent one. In the old deposit, the most abundant lipids were short-chain fatty acids ( Ac20:0 and Al20:0. In contrast, the fresh deposit was dominated by long-chain fatty acids and alcohols (> Ac20:0 and Al20:0. This paper described the incorporation of vegetal, bacterial and possible animal (fat sources into the archaeological sediments analyzed.

  7. Carbon sources and trophic position of the main species of fishes of Baía River, Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetta G. I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the carbon source and trophic position of the main species of fishes, of the Paraná River floodplain, we analysed the proportion of stable carbon (delta13C and nitrogen (delta15N isotopes in muscle of fishes sampled in the rainy season. We analyzed adult individuals of Loricariichthys platymetopon, Schizodon borellii, Leporinus lacustris, Auchenipterus osteomystax, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus friderici, and Serrasalmus marginatus. These data were compared with the results obtained by the analyzing stomach contents. The primary producers found in the Baía River were the C3 plants (riparian vegetation, macrophytes, periphyton, and phytoplankton and the C4 plants (macrophytes. The results of the contribution analysis revealed that the carbon used by the species was derived from C3 plants. According to the trophic position estimates (diet and delta15N, the species primarily consumed Loricariichthys platymetopon, Schizodon borellii, Leporinus lacustris, and Leporinus friderici and, secondarily Auchenipterus osteomystax, Iheringichthys labrosus, and Serrasalmus marginatus. There was no significant difference between the two methods utilized.

  8. Headwater Capture Evidenced by Paleo-Rivers Reconstruction and Population Genetic Structure of the Armored Catfish (Pareiorhaphis garbei) in the Serra do Mar Mountains of Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sergio M. Q.; Berbel-Filho, Waldir M.; Araújo, Thais F. P.; Lazzarotto, Henrique; Tatarenkov, Andrey; Avise, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Paleo-drainage connections and headwater stream-captures are two main historical processes shaping the distribution of strictly freshwater fishes. Recently, bathymetric-based methods of paleo-drainage reconstruction have opened new possibilities to investigate how these processes have shaped the genetic structure of freshwater organisms. In this context, the present study used paleo-drainage reconstructions and single-locus cluster delimitation analyses to examine genetic structure on the whole distribution of Pareiorhaphis garbei, a ‘near threatened’ armored catfish from the Fluminense freshwater ecoregion in Southeastern Brazil. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) were obtained from five sampling sites in four coastal drainages: Macaé (KAE), São João (SJO), Guapi-Macacu [sub-basins Guapiaçu (GAC) and Guapimirim (GMI)], and Santo Aleixo (SAL). Pronounced genetic structure was found, involving 10 haplotypes for cytB and 6 for coi, with no haplotypes shared between localities. Coalescent-based delineation methods as well as distance-based methods revealed genetic clusters corresponding to each sample site. Paleo-drainage reconstructions showed two putative paleo-rivers: an eastern one connecting KAE and SJO; and a western one merging in the Guanabara Bay (GAC, GMI, and SAL). A disagreement was uncovered between the inferred past riverine connections and current population genetic structure. Although KAE and SJO belong to the same paleo-river, the latter is more closely related to specimens from the Guanabara paleo-river. This discordance between paleo-drainage connections and phylogenetic structure may indicate an ancient stream-capture event in headwaters of this region. Furthermore, all analyses showed high divergence between KAE and the other lineages, suggesting at least one cryptic species in the latter, and that the nominal species should be restricted to the Macaé river basin, its type locality. In

  9. Headwater Capture Evidenced by Paleo-Rivers Reconstruction and Population Genetic Structure of the Armored Catfish (Pareiorhaphis garbei in the Serra do Mar Mountains of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Q. Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paleo-drainage connections and headwater stream-captures are two main historical processes shaping the distribution of strictly freshwater fishes. Recently, bathymetric-based methods of paleo-drainage reconstruction have opened new possibilities to investigate how these processes have shaped the genetic structure of freshwater organisms. In this context, the present study used paleo-drainage reconstructions and single-locus cluster delimitation analyses to examine genetic structure on the whole distribution of Pareiorhaphis garbei, a ‘near threatened’ armored catfish from the Fluminense freshwater ecoregion in Southeastern Brazil. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 were obtained from five sampling sites in four coastal drainages: Macaé (KAE, São João (SJO, Guapi-Macacu [sub-basins Guapiaçu (GAC and Guapimirim (GMI], and Santo Aleixo (SAL. Pronounced genetic structure was found, involving 10 haplotypes for cytB and 6 for coi, with no haplotypes shared between localities. Coalescent-based delineation methods as well as distance-based methods revealed genetic clusters corresponding to each sample site. Paleo-drainage reconstructions showed two putative paleo-rivers: an eastern one connecting KAE and SJO; and a western one merging in the Guanabara Bay (GAC, GMI, and SAL. A disagreement was uncovered between the inferred past riverine connections and current population genetic structure. Although KAE and SJO belong to the same paleo-river, the latter is more closely related to specimens from the Guanabara paleo-river. This discordance between paleo-drainage connections and phylogenetic structure may indicate an ancient stream-capture event in headwaters of this region. Furthermore, all analyses showed high divergence between KAE and the other lineages, suggesting at least one cryptic species in the latter, and that the nominal species should be restricted to the Macaé river basin, its type

  10. Composição de esteróis e ácidos graxos de ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas em Florianópolis - SC, em duas estações do ano Fatty acids and sterols composition of oyster cultivated in two seasons of the year in Florianópolis - SC city-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Parisenti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os ácidos graxos e esteróis das ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas em Florianópolis em duas estações do ano. As ostras foram secas em estufa a 60 °C por 48 horas e trituradas. A fração lipídica foi determinada pelo método de Soxhlet e os ácidos graxos identificados por cromatografia gasosa. As ostras apresentaram um teor de lipídios considerado baixo nas duas estações, sendo maior na primavera (2,7 g.100 g-1 que no verão (1,5 g.100 g-1. As ostras coletadas na primavera apresentaram maior proporção de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados que as do verão, sendo que ambas apresentaram boas quantidades de ácidos graxos da série ômega-3, 550 mg.100 g-1 (verão e 892 mg.100 g-1 (primavera. Quanto aos esteróis totais, as ostras da primavera (27,1 mg.100 g-1 apresentaram maior proporção de que as do verão (8,4 mg.100 g-1, sendo a proporção de colesterol somente 42% no verão e 45% na primavera. As ostras de cultivo da região de Florianópolis, localizada no sul do Brasil, contêm lipídios benéficos à saúde incluindo ácidos graxos da série ômega-3 e baixo teor de colesterol. Pela sua composição lipídica, as ostras em quantidade e forma de preparo adequada, podem fazer parte de uma dieta saudável.The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of sterols and fatty acids of oysters cultivated in Florianopolis-SC in two seasons of the year. Oysters were dried in oven at 60 °C for 48 hours and ground. Lipids were determined by Soxhlet method and fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography. Oysters collected during the spring showed a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids than oysters collected during summer. Even so, both samples showed good quantities of n-3: 550 mg.100 g-1 (summer and 892 mg.100 g-1 (spring. Oysters collected during the spring showed a higher content of total steroids; however, only 42% (summer and 45% (spring of these steroids were

  11. Classification of mechanisms, climatic context, areal scaling, and synchronization of floods: the hydroclimatology of floods in the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

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    C. H. R. Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Floods are the main natural disaster in Brazil, causing substantial economic damage and loss of life. Studies suggest that some extreme floods result from a causal climate chain. Exceptional rain and floods are determined by large-scale anomalies and persistent patterns in the atmospheric and oceanic circulations, which influence the magnitude, extent, and duration of these extremes. Moreover, floods can result from different generating mechanisms. These factors contradict the assumptions of homogeneity, and often stationarity, in flood frequency analysis. Here we outline a methodological framework based on clustering using self-organizing maps (SOMs that allows the linkage of large-scale processes to local-scale observations. The methodology is applied to flood data from several sites in the flood-prone Upper Paraná River basin (UPRB in southern Brazil. The SOM clustering approach is employed to classify the 6-day rainfall field over the UPRB into four categories, which are then used to classify floods into four types based on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the rainfall field prior to the observed flood events. An analysis of the vertically integrated moisture fluxes, vorticity, and high-level atmospheric circulation revealed that these four clusters are related to known tropical and extratropical processes, including the South American low-level jet (SALLJ; extratropical cyclones; and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ. Persistent anomalies in the sea surface temperature fields in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans are also found to be associated with these processes. Floods associated with each cluster present different patterns in terms of frequency, magnitude, spatial variability, scaling, and synchronization of events across the sites and subbasins. These insights suggest new directions for flood risk assessment, forecasting, and management.

  12. Classification of mechanisms, climatic context, areal scaling, and synchronization of floods: the hydroclimatology of floods in the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos H. R.; AghaKouchak, Amir; Lall, Upmanu

    2017-12-01

    Floods are the main natural disaster in Brazil, causing substantial economic damage and loss of life. Studies suggest that some extreme floods result from a causal climate chain. Exceptional rain and floods are determined by large-scale anomalies and persistent patterns in the atmospheric and oceanic circulations, which influence the magnitude, extent, and duration of these extremes. Moreover, floods can result from different generating mechanisms. These factors contradict the assumptions of homogeneity, and often stationarity, in flood frequency analysis. Here we outline a methodological framework based on clustering using self-organizing maps (SOMs) that allows the linkage of large-scale processes to local-scale observations. The methodology is applied to flood data from several sites in the flood-prone Upper Paraná River basin (UPRB) in southern Brazil. The SOM clustering approach is employed to classify the 6-day rainfall field over the UPRB into four categories, which are then used to classify floods into four types based on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the rainfall field prior to the observed flood events. An analysis of the vertically integrated moisture fluxes, vorticity, and high-level atmospheric circulation revealed that these four clusters are related to known tropical and extratropical processes, including the South American low-level jet (SALLJ); extratropical cyclones; and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Persistent anomalies in the sea surface temperature fields in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans are also found to be associated with these processes. Floods associated with each cluster present different patterns in terms of frequency, magnitude, spatial variability, scaling, and synchronization of events across the sites and subbasins. These insights suggest new directions for flood risk assessment, forecasting, and management.

  13. Caracterização dos argilominerais usados em matéria-prima cerâmica, da formação Rio do Rasto, Bacia do Paraná, no município de Turvo, SC Characterization of clay minerals used in the ceramic industry, from Rio do Rasto formation, Paraná basin, exploitation in Turvo, SC, Brazil

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    J. A. Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No sudeste de Santa Catarina existem inúmeras minas de exploração de argilas destinadas à indústria cerâmica da região. Para o conhecimento desta matéria prima foi realizada a caracterização em detalhe de uma frente de lavra em atividade. A exploração é realizada em terrenos sedimentares da Formação Rio do Rasto (Permiano Superior na Bacia do Paraná que afloram como morros testemunho. Foram coletadas quatorze amostras representativas dos níveis desta mina composta de argilitos com intercalação de siltitos de pequena espessura. As amostras foram analisadas por difratometria de raios X pelo método do pó na rocha total e na fração In the southeastern part of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, many mines of clays used as raw material for the ceramic industry are found. A detail study of this material was developed in a mine in activity. The exploitation of clays is held in sedimentary rocks of Rio do Rasto Formation (Upper Permian in the Paraná Basin. The outcrops are in hills testimonies. Fourteen samples were collected and represent the levels of this mine which consisted of argillites with intercalation of slim siltite layer. These samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction using the powder method and in the fraction < 4 µm. The chemical composition was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Petrographic observations in thin section were also performed. Scanning electron microscope images was obtained in samples fragments by secondary electron method. Electron microprobe microanalysis was performed in one thin section. The results showed large vertical variation in the mineralogy and it has been identified three different levels. Up to 2.00 m there is a predominance of smectite. Between 5.50 m 2.00 m the smectite is the main clay mineral, but with significant amounts of illite/mica and above 5.50 m occurs large increase in K-feldspar and detrital mica. Studies in detail by X-ray diffraction (determination of the b

  14. Looking for Damming Effects on the Sedimentation Rates in the Estuary Region of the Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderley, C. V.A. [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, PUC-RIO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoya, J. M. [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, PUC-RIO, Rio de Janeiro and Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, IRD, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rezende, C. E. [Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, UENF, Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M. L.D.P.; Carvalho, Z. L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, IRD, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the sedimentation rates at Paraiba do Sul estuary and to correlate them with the strong erosion that occurs in Atafona, Rio de Janeiro. The coastal line of Atafona has been regressing in the last 50 years and the sea has destroyed some constructions. There are traces that one of the factors of the situation in Atafona is the disruption of the equilibrium deposition-erosion. The sedimentation rates will show the influence of the river material input and when it happened, enabling the evaluation of the human and natural impacts suffered by the river. The work was based on three transects, north, centre and south, where 10 sediment cores with about 350 sediment samples were collected in January 2010. The sedimentation rates were obtained based on {sup 210}Pb dating and the data validated based on the heavy metal profiles and the local anthropogenic impacts records. (author)

  15. Habitats and trophic relationships of Chironomidae insect larvae from the Sepotuba River basin, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakka, C M M; Grzybkowska, M; Pinha, G D; Takeda, A M

    2014-05-01

    Benthic habitats are linked by physical processes and are essential elements in assessing of the distribution dynamics of Chironomidae dipteran insects and their role in aquatic ecosystems. This work presents results of distribution patterns of chironomids larvae in 38 sites that are abundant in the study site, inhabiting the substrate of the main river channel, rapids, tributary brook, floodplain lakes and reservoir along the Sepotuba River from its mouth at the Paraguay River to the headwater region. A total of 1,247 larvae was registered. The most abundant taxa were Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. (25.2%), Cricotopus sp.3 (23.0%) and Tanytarsus sp. (15.0%). Fissimentum desiccatum were found only in the reservoir; Fissimentum sp.2 and Tanytarsus cf. T. obiriciae sp.2 in floodplain lakes, and Goeldichironomus sp. in the main channel. The low diversity of the sites S06 and S35 is caused by the near-exclusive presence of the species Cricotopus sp.3, alone or together with one or another taxon (Tanytarsus sp., Djalmabatista sp.3). Collectors-filterers represent 16%, collectors-gatherers 15%, predators 11% and scrapers only 1%. The predators dominated in the secondary channel (±88 ind/m2), corresponding to 40% of the total of this group. Cryptochironomus sp.2 (34%) and Ablasbemyia gr. annulata (26%) were the most abundant among the predators. The differences along the river course are decisive for the formation of distinct or discontinuous communities and the limits become obvious though the interrelations between the populations in the community, as for instance, competition for food and habitats.

  16. Influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors at the bottom sediments in a Doce River tributary in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Deyse Almeida; da Fonseca Santiago, Aníbal; Nascimento, Laura Pereira; Roeser, Hubert Mathias Peter

    2017-03-01

    In developing countries, it is uncommon to find watersheds that have been the object of detailed environmental studies. It makes the assessment of the magnitude of environmental impacts and pollution of these sites difficult. This research demonstrated ways to understand the dynamics of river bottom sediments contamination, even for watersheds with a lack of environmental data. Based on geochemical affinity, we conducted a comprehensive study on the concentration of metals and metalloids. Then, we discussed the probable origin of the concentration of these elements at the bottom sediment along the Matipó River. The Matipó River is an important tributary of the Doce River, which stood out in international headlines because of the mining tailing dam disaster in Mariana, Minas Gerais, in 2015. The bottom sediment samples were taken in 25 stations located along the basin in different seasonal periods. The results showed that copper ([Formula: see text] = 464.7 mg kg -1 ) and zinc ([Formula: see text] = 287.7 mg kg -1 ) probably have natural origin, despite of the high concentrations. Lead ([Formula: see text] = 28.0 mg kg -1 ), chromium ([Formula: see text] = 153.2 mg kg -1 ), and nickel ([Formula: see text] = 41.8 mg kg -1 ) also had high concentrations at some collecting stations, and this probably reflected the local natural conditions. The bedrock of the studying basin is dominantly composed of metabasalts and metatonalites interlayered with calcitic and dolomitic metalimestone. On the other hand, the concentration was worrisome in stations near human activities, possibly due to impacts caused by unsustainably agriculture and livestock.

  17. The fate of copepod populations in the Paranapanema River (São Paulo, Brazil, downstream from the Jurumirim dam

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    Mitsuka Patricia Maria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal changes in the structure of copepod populations were examined during the dry and rainy seasons in a 42 km stretch of the Paranapanema River downstream from the dam of the Jurumirim Reservoir. Samples were taken in the "lacustrine" zone of the reservoir near the dam, and also at 12 stations distributed in the middle and the lateral regions of the channel of the Paranapanema River downstream from the dam. The following species of Cyclopoida were found at the sites: Thermocyclops decipiens, Thermocyclops minutus, Paracyclops sp., Tropocyclops sp and Mesocyclops sp., and of Calanoida: Argyrodiaptomus furcatus, Notodiaptomus iheringi and Notodiaptomus conifer. In the reservoir sampling station, the copepod abundance during the dry and rainy seasons corresponded to 41 and 51% of the total zooplankton, respectively. This difference could be related to the rainfall and water level variations, and especially to the influence of variables such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a contents. No significant differences in organism numbers were recorded among samples of zooplankton taken in the middle and near-bank parts of the river. In relation to longitudinal variation in the Paranapanema River stretch, a significant decrease in density and disappearance of some species were recorded 11km downstream of the dam during the dry season. At the stations 32km from the dam, a drastic reduction in copepod abundance was observed in the rainy season. These observations could be linked not only to environmental changes from lentic to lotic conditions, but also to the combination of certain factors such as current velocity, water outflow of the reservoir, and rainfall.

  18. Study of heavy metal concentration and partitioning in the Estrela River: implications for the pollution in Guanabara Bay - SE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M. A. Rangel; José A. Baptista Neto; Estefan M. Fonseca; John McAlister; Bernard J. Smith

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the geochemical analysis of ten sediment samples collected along the fluvial system of the Estrela River, which flows into the northern portion of Guanabara Bay, shows the presence of anthropogenic impacts in this area. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni obtained were slightly higher, when compared with values found innatural environments. The particle size and organic matter content in most of the analyzed stations showed featuresnot conducive to the accumulation ...

  19. Geochemistry and mineralogy of recent sediments of Guanabara Bay (NE sector) and its major rivers - Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    FARIA, MARCIA DE MELO; SANCHEZ, BRAZ A.

    2001-01-01

    Geochemical and clay mineralogical studies of bottom sediments collected along the Macacu and Caceribu rivers and Guanabara Bay were carried out in order to investigate the relationship between major source areas and recent sediments of the bay. Clay mineralogy includes different groups with selective distribution conditioned by geomorphic features and depositional settings. Micaceous clay minerals are abundant near parent rock in the upper course, whereas kaolinite derived from varied source...

  20. Quality monitoring and assessment of mercury contamination in water and sediments of the Botafogo river, PE, Brazil

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    Joelma Moraes Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 80's, the riverside population of Rio Botafogo, in the Santa Cruz channel, Itamaracá has undergone critical environmental situations due to poorly planned growth and inadequate soil occupation, and as a consequence, a loss in environmental quality resulted. In 1963, an industry for production of chlorine and caustic soda produced by electrolytic cell of mercury was installed in the Botafogo river. By mid-1987, a discharge of inorganic mercury between 22 and 35 tones of mercury in this river was estimated. In addition to this industry, others of different types were installed in recent years along the sides of this river. Based on previous studies, we conducted a new assessment of contaminated sites, comparing the changes over the years concerning the quality of water and sediment of the Botafogo river, in which the locations of collection, the need to increase the network of environmental monitoring were investigated. The parameters defined for analysis of water were: pH, dissolved oxygen (OD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonia and phosphorus concentration, color, turbidity and mercury content. It was monitored the concentration of mercury in the sediments. The values of pH, turbidity, DO, BOD and ammonia usually showed values within the limits established by CONAMA Resolution No 357. Color parameters have remained consistently high, probably caused by continuous withdrawal of sand before the points of collection. The content of phosphorus was high, until the beginning of 2005, and remained within standards required by legislation until the end of this research. In the studied area, it has been installed, since 1963, an industry for chlorine and caustic soda production, which uses in its manufacturing process electrolytic cell of mercury. In this experiment, the impact of mercury has been observed.

  1. Effect of urbanization on bird community in riparian environments in Caí River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Brummelhaus, Jaqueline; Bohn, Márcia Sueli; Petry, Maria Virginia

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p81 Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which respond differently to impacts. We compare richness, abundance and composition of birds in riparian environments with different urbanization gradients in Caí River, Rio Grande do Sul. We conducted observations in woodland, grassland and urban environments, between September/2007 and August/2008. We recorded 130 bird species, 29...

  2. Migration and spawning of female surubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco river, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, Boyd; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2007-01-01

    Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December to pre-spawning staging sites located 0–11 km from the spawning ground. In the spawning season (November–March), pre-spawning females migrated back and forth from nearby pre-spawning staging sites to PR for short visits to spawn, mostly during floods. Multiple visits to the spawning site suggest surubim is a multiple spawner. Most post-spawning surubims left the spawning ground to forage elsewhere, but some stayed at the spawning site until the next spawning season. Post-spawning migrants swam up or downstream at ground speeds up to 29 km day-1 during January–March. Construction of proposed dams in the main stem and tributaries downstream of TMD will greatly reduce surubim abundance by blocking migrations and changing the river into reservoirs that eliminate riverine spawning and non-spawning habitats, and possibly, cause extirpation of populations.

  3. Reproductive aspects of piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura and Serrasalmus marginatus into the upper Paraná River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, C S

    2003-02-01

    Construction of the Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the drowning of that natural geographic barrier, with consequent invasion of Serrasalmus marginatus in the upper stream. This event was followed by the reduction in the abundance of the native species, S. spilopleura. Analyzes of reproductive activity these species revealed that in lotic waters S. marginatus had a very intense reproductive activity while activity of S. spilopleura was nil. This, probably made it possible for the invading species to occupy new environments into the Upper Paraná River, using the river as an entry port. In the 1987-1988 period there was a marked decline in reproductive activity of S. spilopleura reflecting the negative effects of its interaction with the invading species, S. marginatus. The assertiveness of S. marginatus in caring for its offspring and aggressiveness in establishing its feeding territory may be the determining factor for its competitive superiority over S. spilopleura, and consequently its success in colonizing the Upper Paraná River. In addition to the negative interference of S. marginatus, a possible recruitment failure of S. spilopleura could have benefited the colonization of the floodplain by the invader species.

  4. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil

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    M. C. Paula-Bueno

    Full Text Available Abstract Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  5. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  6. Reservoir stratification affects methylmercury levels in river water, plankton, and fish downstream from Balbina hydroelectric dam, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Daniele; Forsberg, Bruce R; Amaral, João H F; Leitão, Rafael P; Py-Daniel, Sarah S; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2014-01-21

    The river downstream from a dam can be more contaminated by mercury than the reservoir itself. However, it is not clear how far the contamination occurs downstream. We investigated the seasonal variation of methylmercury levels in the Balbina reservoir and how they correlated with the levels encountered downstream from the dam. Water, plankton, and fishes were collected upstream and at sites between 0.5 and 250 km downstream from the dam during four expeditions in 2011 and 2012. Variations in thermal stratification of the reservoir influenced the methylmercury levels in the reservoir and in the river downstream. Uniform depth distributions of methylmercury and oxygen encountered in the poorly stratified reservoir during the rainy season collections coincided with uniformly low methylmercury levels along the river downstream from the dam. During dry season collections, the reservoir was strongly stratified, and anoxic hypolimnion water with high methylmercury levels was exported downstream. Methylmercury levels declined gradually to 200 km downstream. In general, the methylmercury levels in plankton and fishes downstream from the dam were higher than those upstream. Higher methylmercury levels observed 200-250 km downstream from the dam during flooding season campaigns may reflect the greater inflow from tributaries and flooding of natural wetlands that occurred at this time.

  7. Reproductive aspects of piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura and Serrasalmus marginatus into the Upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho C. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the drowning of that natural geographic barrier, with consequent invasion of Serrasalmus marginatus in the upper stream. This event was followed by the reduction in the abundance of the native species, S. spilopleura. Analyzes of reproductive activity these species revealed that in lotic waters S. marginatus had a very intense reproductive activity while activity of S. spilopleura was nil. This, probably made it possible for the invading species to occupy new environments into the Upper Paraná River, using the river as an entry port. In the 1987-1988 period there was a marked decline in reproductive activity of S. spilopleura reflecting the negative effects of its interaction with the invading species, S. marginatus. The assertiveness of S. marginatus in caring for its offspring and aggressiveness in establishing its feeding territory may be the determining factor for its competitive superiority over S. spilopleura, and consequently its success in colonizing the Upper Paraná River. In addition to the negative interference of S. marginatus, a possible recruitment failure of S. spilopleura could have benefited the colonization of the floodplain by the invader species.

  8. Reproductive aspects of piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura and Serrasalmus marginatus into the Upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Agostinho

    Full Text Available Construction of the Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the drowning of that natural geographic barrier, with consequent invasion of Serrasalmus marginatus in the upper stream. This event was followed by the reduction in the abundance of the native species, S. spilopleura. Analyzes of reproductive activity these species revealed that in lotic waters S. marginatus had a very intense reproductive activity while activity of S. spilopleura was nil. This, probably made it possible for the invading species to occupy new environments into the Upper Paraná River, using the river as an entry port. In the 1987-1988 period there was a marked decline in reproductive activity of S. spilopleura reflecting the negative effects of its interaction with the invading species, S. marginatus. The assertiveness of S. marginatus in caring for its offspring and aggressiveness in establishing its feeding territory may be the determining factor for its competitive superiority over S. spilopleura, and consequently its success in colonizing the Upper Paraná River. In addition to the negative interference of S. marginatus, a possible recruitment failure of S. spilopleura could have benefited the colonization of the floodplain by the invader species.

  9. Geochronology of granitoids and gnaisses from the Rio Maria, Mata Geral farm and Itacaiunas river regions, southern Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvao, R.M.G. de; Tassinari, C.C.G.; Bezerra, P.E.L.; Prado, P.

    1984-01-01

    Granitoids and gneisses occurring at Rio Maria, Mata Geral farm and Itacaiunas river regions, southern Para, underwent radiometric age determinations by Rb/Sr method using conventional isochrons. Results obtained from the Rio Maria and Mata Geral farm regions allowed te establishment of a reference 2,600 my Rb/Sr isochron with an initial Sr 87 /Sr 86 ratio of 0.7009. This result resembles the one obtained for granitoids and gneisses hosting rocks of the Serra do Inaja greenstone belt, located some what south of this area, which yielded, in Rb/Sr isochron, a radiometric age of 2,696 + - 79 my with an initial Sr 87 /Sr 86 ratio of 0.701. Results obtained from the Itacaiunas river region allowed for the establishment of a Rb/Sr referential isochron of 2,480 + - 40 my wth an initial Sr 87 /.Sr 86 ratio of 0.7072. Due to low initial ratios, it is suggested that the rocks from the Rio Maria, Mata Geral farm and Serra do Inaja regions formed from Mafic crust or superior mantle reworking, while those from the Itacaiunas river region, due to a high initial ratio, result from reworking at high crustal levels. (Author) [pt

  10. Sedimentation processes and beach morphodynamics active at the Doce River mouth, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Jacqueline Albino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal sedimentation model in the Doce River mouth and surroundings extends beyond the hydraulic jetty effect created by its stream-flow. During flooding, marine sediments transported by longshore currents are retained on the updrift side, causing strandline progradation. As the longshore current direction varies, local depositional and erosional effects can be produced and identified laterally within beach profiles from north and south of the Doce River mouth area. Sedimentological studies carried out in this river, beach and adjacent inner continental shelf sands showed that, at present, the influence of Doce River sediments is restricted to the area surrounding its mouth. Meanwhile, beach morphodynamic stages and present-day coastal-plain processes of sedimentation are directly affected by the Doce River discharge as a natural continuation of the Quaternary geological evolution of the area.A sedimentação costeira adjacente à desembocadura do Rio Doce, Espírito Santo, Brasil destaca o efeito de jato hidráulico desempenhado pela descarga fluvial. Por ocasião da enchente, os sedimentos marinhos transportados pela corrente longitudinal são represados a barlamar da desembocadura, causando progradação nas praias adjacentes e erosão nas praias situadas a sotamar da desembocadura fluvial. Com a inversão do rumo da deriva litorânea, os processos erosivos e construtivos se invertem. Estudos sedimentológicos realizados nos sedimentos do rio, das praias e da plataforma continental interna adjacente à desembocadura, indicam que a contribuição da carga do rio Doce é atualmente restrita às áreas imediatamente vizinhas. Contudo, a tipologia das praias e os processos de sedimentação da planície costeira são diretamente afetados pela descarga do rio Doce, sendo a continuação dos processos de sedimentação identificada na evolução geológica da área.

  11. Development of standardized radioactive 46Sc solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hongshan; Jia Zhang; Yu Yiguang; Sun Naiyao

    1988-01-01

    A method of preparation of standardized radioactive 46 Sc solution is developed. The separation of 46 Sc, the composition of 46 Sc solution and its stability, and radioactivity measurement of 46 Sc are systematically studied. The results obtained in the study and in the applications in many laboratories have shown that our method is effective and reliable

  12. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  13. Prevalência da dor orofacial e seu impacto no desempenho diário em trabalhadores das indústrias têxteis do município de Laguna, SC Prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the oral health-related quality of life of textile industries workers of Laguna, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Telino de Lacerda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinadas as tendências em saúde da população idosa brasileira utilizando-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998-2008. O estudo incluiu uma amostra probabilística de 105.254 pessoas com > 60 anos de idade. A média da idade foi de 69 anos e 56% eram mulheres. Houve um aumento gradativo da boa autoavaliação da saúde (39,3%, 43,5% e 45,0% em 1998, 2003 e 2008, respectivamente e uma diminuição na prevalência de artrite, doença do coração e depressão autorreferidas. A prevalência da hipertensão (43.9%, 48.8% e 53.3%, respectivamente e do diabetes autorreferidos (10.3%, 13.0% e 16.1% respectivamente aumentou acentuadamente. A prevalência da incapacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária (alimentar-se, tomar banho ou ir ao banheiro permaneceu estável (6.5%, 6.4% e 6.9%, respectivamente. A realização de três ou mais consultas médicas nos 12 meses precedentes aumentou 21% entre 1998 e 2008. As hospitalizações diminuíram 10% no mesmo período. Essas tendências foram independentes do sexo e da idade. Os resultados mostram melhora em algumas dimensões da saúde dos idosos, mas não em todas. As mudanças no uso de serviços de saúde ocorreram como esperado em decorrência da expansão das atividades de atenção primária no Brasil.The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the daily performance of workers in the textile industry in the municipality of Laguna, Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving all workers (n= 267 of the five textile industries of the municipality in 2004 was conducted. Data were obtained through the questionnaire proposed by Locker and Gruska to measure the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP indicator. Socio-demographic data such as gender, age, level of schooling, income, job function and absenteeism due to orofacial pain was collected. Data were descriptively analyzed and the prevalence ratios, confidence

  14. (210)Pb and composition data of near-surface sediments and interstitial waters evidencing anthropogenic inputs in Amazon River mouth, Macapá, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, José Reinaldo Cardoso; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-04-01

    Activity profiles of excess (210)Pb determined in three sediment cores from Amazon River mouth, Macapá city, Brazil, provided the evaluation of sedimentation rates, contributing to a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the site that is the capital of Amapá State and is drained by the waters of the huge Amazon River. Chemical data were also determined in the sediments, allowing identify signatures coupled to anthropogenic inputs held in the past in Amapá State. Significant direct relationships between LOI (loss on ignition) and organic matter were found for all sediments profiles. Silica was found to be inversely related to organic matter in the three profiles; its decrease accompanied an increase on the specific surface of the sediments. This relationship was confirmed by a great number of inverse significant correlations among silica and oxides Na(2)O, K(2)O, CaO, MgO, Al(2)O(3), P(2)O(5), Fe(2)O(3) and MnO. It was possible to identify the role of organic matter on adsorption of several oxides in the core sediments profiles. Apparent sediment mass accumulation rates corresponding to values between 450 and 2510 mg cm(-2)yr(-1) were obtained, and are compatible with the results of others studies. The (210)Pb activities in one sampling point suggested the occurrence of anthropogenic inputs related to the initial period of the mining activities conducted in Serra do Navio, Amapá State, for the commercialization of Mn ores. This was reinforced by the abrupt fluctuations in chemical data obtained for the sediments and composition of the interstitial waters occurring there. The Atlantic hurricane activity also appeared to affect the sedimentation rates in the area, as two different values were recorded in each profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest in the Sinos River basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: richness, floristic composition and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, M D; Becker, D F P; Cunha, S; Droste, A; Schmitt, J L

    2015-05-01

    The Atlantic Forest, which has a vast epiphytic richness, is a priority area for preservation, listed as one of the five most important world hotspots. Vascular epiphyte richness, composition and community structure were studied in two fragments, one of the ombrophilous (29º43'42"S and 50º22'00"W) and the other of the seasonal (29º40'54"S and 51º06'56"W) forest, both belonging to the Atlantic Forest biome in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each fragment, 40 trees, divided into four ecological zones, were analyzed. In each zone, the occurrence of the species was recorded, and the importance value of each species was calculated according to the frequency of phorophytes and intervals, and cover scores. The Shannon index was calculated for the two communities. In the fragment of the ombrophilous forest (F1), 30 epiphytic species were recorded, and in the seasonal forest (F2), 25. The highest importance value was found for Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota in both fragments. The diversity indexes for F1 (H'=2.72) and F2 (H'=2.55) were similar and reflected the subtropical location of the areas. The decrease in mean richness in both fragments in zone 3 (internal crown) to zone 4 (external crown) may be associated with time and space availability for epiphyte occupation and microclimate variations. Exclusive species were found in the areas, which suggest that a greater number of preserved fragments may result in a greater number of preserved epiphytic species in the Sinos River basin.

  16. Monitoring of trace-levels of herbicides in the Cachoeira River in Bahia State, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severo, Maria Isabel; Oliveira, Eduardo; Caribe, Ana Cristina; Revel, Gilles; Oliveira, Arno Heeren

    1995-01-01

    A systematic study was undertaken in order to find out which of the most relevant elements can be determined in water normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation and a suitable mono standard method. Standardized water from Cachoeira river and croustaceous samples were brought to dryness by freeze-drying and irradiated in quartz at a neutron flux of 10 14 cm -2 s -1 . Trace element contents in quartz ampoules from different origins were determined separately. The following elements were preliminarily identified: Cr, Co, Cu, Br, Sb, Cs, Ce, Nb, Au, Pa, Zn, La, Sm. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of Batalha river reservoir for water captation and supply of the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Calcidoni Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the composition and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates were evaluated in the reservoir of water captation of Batalha river for treatment and supplying of the city of Bauru. The samples were collected in dry (from June to August, 2005 and rainy (from December, 2005 to February, 2006 seasons. We analyzed and identified 840 organisms belonging to 8 taxa in dry season and 4 taxa in rainy season. The system presented low abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates probably due to the water quality and its physical and chemical variations associated with rain events.

  18. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Ferreira, Kalley Ricardo Clementino; Pinto, Raimundo Nonato Leite; Aird, Steven Douglas

    2015-06-18

    Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. Then antibiotic was suspended; however, after two more days and additional tests, cephalosporin therapy was initiated, and proved successful. Pain worsened despite increasingly powerful analgesics, until debridement of the wound was performed after one month. The wound finally closed ~70 days after the accident, but the patient continued to have problems wearing shoes even eight months later. Chemistry and pharmacology of Potamotrygon venom and mucus, and clinical management of freshwater stingray envenomations are reviewed in light of the present case. Bacterial infections of stingray puncture wounds may account for more long-term morbidity than stingray venom. Simultaneous prophylactic use of multiple antibiotics is recommended for all but the most superficial stingray wounds. Distinguishing relative contributions of venom, mucus, and bacteria will require careful genomic and transcriptomic investigations of stingray tissues and contaminating bacteria.

  19. Metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil Metazoários endoparasitos de Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Brasil

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    Wagner Vicentin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to inventory the metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus, 91 specimens were examined. They were captured in the Negro River in Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil, from October 2007 to August 2008. Parasites of six taxa were recovered: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercarial type Diplostomulum (Digenea, Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda and Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 and Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. The latter five species are reported for the first time in S. marginatus.Com o objetivo de inventariar os metazoários endoparasitos em Serrasalmus marginatus, no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram examinados 91 espécimes capturados no período de outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Foram registrados seis táxons parasitos: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercária do tipo Diplostomulum (Digenea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda; e Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 e Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. As últimas cinco espécies citadas são registradas pela primeira vez em S. marginatus.

  20. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomazini da Conceicao, Fabiano; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Jimenez-Rueda, Jairo Roberto; Frutuoso Roveda, Jose Arnaldo

    2009-01-01

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order 40 K> 226 Ra> 232 Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  1. Economic assessment of urban watersheds: developing mechanisms for environmental protection of the Feijão river, São Carlos - SP, Brazil

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    FH Machado

    Full Text Available In order to determine the willingness of the population of São Carlos (a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil to pay for the environmental protection (WTP of the Feijão River's watershed, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM, as well as the bidding-games technique, were used. In October 2010, 280 questionnaires were applied to a probabilistic sample of the population. A multivariate logistic regression model was built, creating five scenarios adjusted to the age and probability to pay according to the significant variables found. Concerning the WTP, 56% of the interviewees showed willingness to pay a monthly amount using the water bill as a vehicle for this. The WTP average was 1.94 US Dollar (USD, with a standard deviation of 1.91 USD. The total annual amount for the scenario that considers the whole population over 18 years old was of USD 3,930,616.80. The main argument for the negative WTP was that the interviewees could not afford it (14%.

  2. Relief evolution of the Continental Rift of Southeast Brazil revealed by in situ-produced 10Be concentrations in river-borne sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, André Augusto Rodrigues; Rezende, Eric de Andrade; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; da Silva, Juliana Rodrigues; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to quantify the denudation dynamics of the Brazilian passive margin along a segment of the Continental Rift of Southeast Brazil. The denudation rates of 30 basins that drain both horsts of the continental rift, including the mountain ranges of the Serra do Mar (seaside horst); and the Serra da Mantiqueira (continental horst); were derived from 10Be concentrations measured in sand-sized river sediment. The mean denudation rate ranges from 9.2 m Ma-1 on the plateau of the Serra do Mar to 37.1 m Ma-1 along the oceanic escarpment of the Serra do Mar. The seaward-facing scarps of both mountain ranges exhibit mean denudation rates that are approximately 1.5 times those of the inland-facing scarps. The escarpments of the horst nearer to the ocean (Serra do Mar) exhibit higher denudation rates (mean 30.2 m Ma-1) than the escarpments of the continental horst (Serra da Mantiqueira) (mean 16.5 m Ma-1). The parameters that impact these denudation rates include the catchment relief, the slope gradient, the rock and the climate. The incongruent combination of a mountainous landscape and moderate to low 10Be-based denudation rates averaging at ∼20 m Ma-1 suggests a reduction in intraplate tectonic activity beginning in the Middle Quaternary or earlier.

  3. Management of water use in the Paraíba River, PB, Brazil basin based on water grants and charge models

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    Márcia Araújo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in the management of water resources is to advance water distribution mechanisms to allow them to balance the basin's available water with the demands of its various economic sectors. This research evaluated the combined use of a model of grant optimization with a proposed model of charging for the use of raw water in order to assist decision makers in the distribution of water of the Acauã Reservoir, located in the basin of the Paraiba River in the State of Paraiba, Brazil. The grant model allowed optimizing the achievement of the demand requests according to water use priorities defined in four scenarios, balancing demand and availability. It was shown that it can be used in decision-making processes in the evaluation of new grant requests in basins controlled by reservoirs. The proposed charging model incorporated various profiles of water users using various coefficients which enabled the definition of the amount to be charged to encourage the rational use of water, not just a tax collection mechanism.

  4. Occurrence of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in Leopoldo's inlet (Ressaco do Leopoldo, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil

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    Andréa Bialetzki

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the occurrence, temporal distribution and nychthemeral variation of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 were undertaken in Leopoldo's Inlet, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil. Seventeen thousand and sixty specimens (11,786 larvae and 5,274 juveniles were captured with a conicalcylindrical plankton net of mesh 0.5mm in monthly samples between February 1991 and February 1992. Results show that the greatest densities of larvae (301.83 larvae/10m³ and juveniles (168.8/10m³ of this species were caught in December 1991. Largest captures were made during the night. With regard to abiotic factors water temperature ranged from 20º to 30ºC, pH ranged from 5.66 to 7.37 and electric conductivity ranged from 51.83 to 65.33µS/cm. Relationship between the density of larvae and juveniles and abiotic factors was calculated by the Principal Components Analysis (PCA which revealed the influence of some limnological variables especially on the distribution of larvae.

  5. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Jorge da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae, in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. Then antibiotic was suspended; however, after two more days and additional tests, cephalosporin therapy was initiated, and proved successful. Pain worsened despite increasingly powerful analgesics, until debridement of the wound was performed after one month. The wound finally closed ~70 days after the accident, but the patient continued to have problems wearing shoes even eight months later. Chemistry and pharmacology of Potamotrygon venom and mucus, and clinical management of freshwater stingray envenomations are reviewed in light of the present case. Bacterial infections of stingray puncture wounds may account for more long-term morbidity than stingray venom. Simultaneous prophylactic use of multiple antibiotics is recommended for all but the most superficial stingray wounds. Distinguishing relative contributions of venom, mucus, and bacteria will require careful genomic and transcriptomic investigations of stingray tissues and contaminating bacteria.

  6. Trypanosomatids (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida in three species of Armored Catfish from Mogi-Guaçu river, Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pereira Molina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trypanosome infections have been reported in several species of fish, in majority of cases described on the basis of morphological characteristics. Trypanosomes in fish are heteroxenous and transmitted by hirudineans. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and density of infections by Trypanosoma sp. in blood from three species of catfish, Hypostomus regani, H. strigaticeps, H. albopunctatus, from the Mogi Guaçu River, Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. Further, this study intends to characterize the Trypanosoma specimens found in the blood of these fish by morphological and molecular techniques. The trypanosomes overall prevalence observed was 47.6% with a general average density of 0.75 parasites/µl of blood. Hypostomus regani and Hypostomus strigaticeps showed a significant difference in prevalence. The average densities of parasites were not significantly different among the three fish species. Similar findings were observed for the monthly variations in densities. The parasites found in the three species of catfish studied showed similar morphological characteristics. The morphological data and the statistical analyses used in this study didn’t show the formation of groups. The analyses provided evidence of the presence of pleomorphisms in the trypanosomes found in the three studied fish.

  7. Patterns of parasitism by Amblyomma rotundatum (Ixodidae on Rhinella schneideri (Bufonidae in islands of São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We sampled ticks from specimens of the rococo toad Rhinella schneideriby flannel dragging on two Islands located in the São Francisco River near the Três Marias hydroelectric dam, southeastern Brazil. A total of 120 toads was examined, of which 63 (52.5% were parasitized only by Amblyomma rotundatumtotaling 96 larvae, 163 nymphs and 134 females. The burden of parasitism ranged from one to 43 ticks, with a mean intensity of infestation of 6.2±5.5 ticks per host. The tick A. rotundatumexhibited highly aggregated distribution. Peak abundance of larvae and nymphs occurred in the dry season (May to September, whereas peak abundance of females occurred in the wet season (October to April. We collected most ticks near the head and hind limbs of R. schneideri. The finding of two engorged A. rotundatumnymphs in the same resting places of two toads and the absence of this species in the dragged areas suggest a nidicolous behavior at the studied site.

  8. Small mammals in the diet of barn owls, Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes along the mid-Araguaia river in central Brazil

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    Rita G. Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed 286 Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769, pellets from two nests in different environments along the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil. Our analyses revealed that these owls feed mainly on small mammals, especially rodents. Owls from the riverbanks at Fazenda Santa Fé had a more diverse diet, preying mainly on rodents that typically inhabit riparian grasslands - Holochilus sciureus Wagner, 1842 - and forests - Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 and Oecomys spp., which probably also occur in forest borders or clearings. On the other hand, owls from an agroecosystem at Fazenda Lago Verde preyed mostly on rodent species common in these agrarian fields, Calomys tocantinsi Bonvicino, Lima & Almeida, 2003. Additionally, we compared small mammal richness estimates based on the analysis of owl pellets with estimates from live-trapping in the same areas. Owl pellets revealed two rodent species undetected by live traps - Euryoryzomys sp. and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 - and four rodent species were trapped, but not found in owl pellets - Oecomys roberti Thomas, 1904, Pseudoryzomys simplex (Winge, 1887, Rhipidomys ipukensis Rocha, B.M.A. Costa & L.P. Costa, 2011, and Makalata didelphoides (Desmarest, 1817. Traps yielded higher species richness, but these two methods complement each other for surveying small rodents.

  9. Anatomy and genetic diversity of two populations of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) from the Tibagi River basin in Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, E A; Ruas, C F; Medri, P S; Medri, C; Medri, M E; Bianchini, E; Pimenta, J A; Rodrigues, L A; Ruas, P M

    2011-03-29

    Knowledge of the effects of flooding on plant survival is relevant for the efficiency of management and conservation programs. Schinus terebinthifolius is a tree of economic and ecological importance that is common in northeast Brazil. Flooding tolerance and genetic variation were investigated in two riparian populations of S. terebinthifolius distributed along two different ecological regions of the Tibagi River basin. Flooding tolerance was evaluated through the investigation of young plants, submitted to different flooding intensities to examine the morphological and anatomical responses to this stress. The growth rate of S. terebinthifolius was not affected by flooding, but total submersion proved to be lethal for 100% of the plants. Morphological alterations such as hypertrophied lenticels were observed in both populations and lenticel openings were significantly higher in plants from one population. Genetic analysis using DNA samples obtained from both populations showed a moderate degree of genetic variation between populations (13.7%); most of the variation was found within populations (86.3%). These results show that for conservation purposes and management of degraded areas, both populations should be preserved and could be used in programs that intend to recompose riparian forests.

  10. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF Leporinus copelandii (Pisces: Anostomidae FEMALES FROM THE LOWER PARAÍBA DO SUL RIVER BASIN, RJ – BRAZIL

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    Ana Paula Ribeiro Costa Erthal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were investigate the reproductive biology of the fish Leporinus copelandii, a specie at risk of extinction in the lower Paraíba do Sul River basin. During a period of 14 months, a total of 143 females of red-piau were captured, between Itaocara and Campos dos Goytacazes cities (RJ, Brazil. A histological study shows four stages of the oocyte development (I, II, III and IV and five stages of the reproductive cycle of females: rest (1, initial maturation (2A, intermediary (2B, advanced (2C and spawned (4 were identified. The pattern of L. copelandii oocyte development suggests development type synchronous in two groups, characterizing total spawning. Spawned females were captured in November, two months after the peak of frequency of competent females for reproduction. Histologically, a little occurrence of empty follicles was observed in spawned females. The medium diameter of the type IV oocyte of the spawned females (1475.1 ± 884.3mm was significantly larger (Tukey, P <0.001; VC = 41.73%; n = 259 than advanced maturation females (1202.6 ± 245.3mm, what allows suggesting that the study place probably doesn't represent the reproductive area of L. copelandii.

  11. Ticks on birds from Cerrado forest patches along the Uberabinha river in the Triângulo Mineiro region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Khelma Torga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe ticks parasitizing birds in forest fragments along the Uberabinha River, a major watercourse that cuts through patches of remnants of Brazilian savannah in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Overall 352 birds from 62 species, overwhelmingly, Passeriformes, were captured with mist-nets. The most abundant bird species was Basileuterus hypoleucus (n=36, followed by Lanio penicillata (n=24 and Thalurania furcata (n=23. Thirty one birds, all Passeriformes, were found infested with 56 ticks from which 12 were larvae and 44 nymphs, all from the Amblyomma genus. Highest infestation prevalence was found on Taraba major (66.6%, Thamnophilus pelzeni (60% and Saltator maximus (50%. The mean intensity of tick infestation was low (1.8 tick per infested bird with most of the parasites located on the neck (60% of birds, followed by the head (20%. All larvae were attached to the skin around the eyes of birds. Amblyomma nodosum was the most numerous tick species found attached to birds (n=23 nymphs, 52.3% of nymphs followed by Amblyomma longirostre (n=5, 11.4% of nymphs. Ecological relationships are discussed.

  12. Spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in an Atlantic Forest river, Southern Brazil

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    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    Full Text Available This study described the feeding habits of the characin Astyanax aff. fasciatus. The diet compositions of specimens from two sites (A and B on a river in Southern Brazil were compared according to the size of individuals and seasonal period. The collections were performed monthly from March 2005 to February 2006, where the stomach contents of 290 specimens were assessed. Food items for A. aff. fasciatus were basically composed of plants and insects, especially leaf fragments, seeds, fruits, filamentous algae, aquatic and terrestrial insects and insect fragments. At site A, the most common items were insect and plant fragments. Conversely at site B, plant fragments were more representative. In general, all items of animal origin showed the highest feeding index values at site A, whereas at site B detritus and grass items were more abundant. The composition of items varied seasonally, with higher diversity of items being recorded during the spring at both sites. Smaller individuals preferred items of animal origin, while the larger ones consumed mainly items of plant origin. According to its size, A. aff. fasciatus in this study may be considered a species with insectivorous tendencies when immature or herbivorous tendencies when adult. Nevertheless, its feeding habits may be flexible according to resource availability, showing wide ontogenetic, besides spatial and temporal variation.

  13. Genetic diversity of the forage peanut in the Jequitinhonha, São Francisco, and Paranã River valleys of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azêvedo, H S F S; Sousa, A C B; Martins, K; Oliveira, J C; Yomura, R B T; Silva, L M; Valls, J F M; Assis, G M L; Campos, T

    2016-09-09

    Arachis pintoi and A. repens are legumes with a high forage value that are used to feed ruminants in consortium systems. Not only do they increase the persistence and quality of pastures, they are also used for ornamental and green cover. The objective of this study was to analyze microsatellite markers in order to access the genetic diversity of 65 forage peanut germplasm accessions in the section Caulorrhizae of the genus Arachis in the Jequitinhonha, São Francisco and Paranã River valleys of Brazil. Fifty-seven accessions of A. pintoi and eight of A. repens were analyzed using 17 microsatellites, and the observed heterozygosity (H O ), expected heterozygosity (H E ), number of alleles per locus, discriminatory power, and polymorphism information content were all estimated. Ten loci (58.8%) were polymorphic, and 125 alleles were found in total. The H E ranged from 0.30 to 0.94, and H O values ranged from 0.03 to 0.88. By using Bayesian analysis, the accessions were genetically differentiated into three gene pools. Neither the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean nor a neighbor-joining analysis clustered samples into species, origin, or collection area. These results reveal a very weak genetic structure that does not form defined clusters, and that there is a high degree of similarity between the two species.

  14. Sc-45 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of precipitation in dilute Al-Sc alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celotto, S; Bastow, TJ

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with Sc-45 is used to determine the solid solubility of scandium in aluminium and to follow the precipitation of Al3Sc during the ageing of an Al-0.06 at.% Sc alloy via the two fully resolved peaks, corresponding to Sc in the solid solution Al matrix and to Sc in the

  15. Seasonal variations in water quality of an oxbow lake in response to multiple short-time pulses of flooding (Jataí Ecological Station--Mogi-Guaçu River, Luiz Antonio, SP-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, A V; Mozeto, A A

    1999-01-01

    Mogi-Guaçu River is a six-order floodplain river in the upper Paraná River Basin, Southern Brazil. Its yearly discharge varies from a minimum of 100 m3.s-1 to a maximum of 600 m3.s-1. Diogo Lake is a shallow lake located at its floodplain within the Jataí Ecological Station (Luiz Antonio, São Paulo State) and is connected throughout the year to the river through a narrow and shallow channel. The main finding of this study is that the river hidrology controls the annual variations in lake hydrochemistry through a series of hydraulic effects related to oscillations in river discharge. Lake water quality is a resultant of differential contribution from local and regional watersheds. During the low water period, lake water quality is determined by inputs from Cafundó Creek, which drains the local watershed into the lake. Raising the river level during the rain season results in the damming of lake and culminates with the entrance of river waters into the plain. The geochemistry of waters in this system is determined by weathering of sandstones with basalt intrusions. Waters are acidic (river pH = 6.00 to 7.02 and stream-lake pH = 5.15 to 6.7) and dominant cations are Na+ and K+. Major anions are almost exclusively represented by bicarbonate and an unknown concentration of organic acid anions. The overall ionic load of these soft waters in the system is therefore very low.

  16. Assessment of sediments from Tiete River - toxicity and trace elements - from Salesopolis to Suzano counties, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegre, Gabriel F.; Borrely, Sueli; Nascimento, Thuany M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, sediment samples from the Tiete River were evaluated for toxicity and trace metals (5 sampling sites). The studied region includes Salesopolis to Suzano and surroundings, a highly industrialized area. The study involved toxicity evaluation (sediment, elutriate and pore-water) and the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements on sediments. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). The concentration values obtained for the metals As, Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL). Regarding toxicity, whole sediments and elutriate fractions were evaluated using chronic assays for Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the pore water was carried out for Vibrio fischeri toxicity assays. These assays followed Brazilian Standardized Methods (ABNT). Whole sediments and elutriate evidenced negative biological effects, even at Salesopolis county, the control site (less impacted area). The worst effects were obtained at Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano counties (sampling stations 3 and 4). The elutriate fractions collected at the same stations showed acute toxicity in two of three samples (C. dubia). When pore water was evaluated, a toxicity gradient which increased as the river flowed through Mogi das Cruzes county was obtained. Regarding toxic metal contents in the sediment samples points 3 and 4 exceeded the TEL oriented values for As, Cr, Hg and Zn and point 4 also exceeded the PEL values for all these elements. (author)

  17. Seasonal study of concentration of heavy metals in waters from lower São Francisco River basin, Brazil

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    A. M. Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we determined the concentration of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the water lower São Francisco River basin, to evaluate the influence of urbanization and industrialization on environmental changes in the water resource. All samples were analyzed using the IUPAC adapted method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The sampling stations located near the industrial areas were influenced by industrialization because they presented higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu. The other sampled locations showed changes with regard the trace elements probably originating in the soil, like Fe, Zn and Pb. There was a gradual increase in the concentrations of metals, in general, in the period of highest rainfall of the hydrographic network. Overall, except for Zn and Mn, the trace elements exceeded the maximum allowed value established by national legislation (CONAMA. Lower São Francisco River basin has suffered interference from urbanization and industrialization, so awareness programs should be developed so as to control and lessen future problems.

  18. REMOTE SENSORING AND GEOPROCESSMENT APPLIED TO THE GEOLOGICALGEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE JAPARATUBA RIVER BASIN, SERGIPE – BRAZIL

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    Sanmy Silveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to apply remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques to characterize the geologicalgeomorphological interrelationships of the Japaratuba River Basin (BHRJ, located in the northeast of the state of Sergipe. The methodology employed is the acquisition of SRTM data (Shuttle Radar Topographyc Mission to extract the drainage automatically, as well as the shaded relief that supported the automatic methods of extraction of geological lines and representation of linear tops. The methods enabled semi-quantitative analyzes in the mapping of the geological-geomorphological structures, where the rosette diagrams show that the three variables used in the drainage survey, the linear structures and the linear representation of tops are grouped preferably in the NW-SE direction And a subordinate trend in the NE-SW direction, due to the structural control exerted by the basement rocks. The study serves as a source of information on the relief forms present in the region, as well as presents the risks of erosion, and restrictions for the urban use and occupation of the Japaratuba River Basin.

  19. Occurrence and spatial-temporal distribution of herbicide residues in the Ipojuca River sub-basin, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Adson da S. G. Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The intensive use of pesticides to control pests in agriculture has exposed the environment and humans to a variety of risks. Among the crops with higher consumption of these compounds there is the sugarcane, developed in regions bordered by large watersheds. In this work, the occurrence of pesticides in the water of Ipojuca River was investigated in a 50 km range of its eastern portion, in a region noted for intense agroindustrial activity, especially by sugarcane cultivation, in the state of Pernambuco. Among fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and carbamates, 238 pesticides were investigated in the Ipojuca River using the technique of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The study, conducted in the months of May, June, October and November 2012, detected the presence of Diuron and Ametryn herbicide residues in 100% of the water samples at concentrations from 0.01 to 1.4 μg L-1. The detection of these herbicides, even at residual concentrations, can lead to perceptible ecological changes in the long term, such as the reduction of the biological potential of animal and plant species.

  20. Export and retention of dissolved inorganic nutrients in the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

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    Maria A.M. SILVA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations and physical-chemical variables were determined in the lower reaches of the Cachoeira River watershed, from November 2003 to October 2004. Concentration of nutrients were high and highly variable. Mean concentrations and standard deviation of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate were 25.4 ± 25.1; 3.9 ± 3.9; 62.2 ± 54.9; 15.8 ± 9.0 and 129.0 ± 5.6 (μmol L-1, respectively. Nutrient retention was observed mainly during the dry season. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were especially high in those periods. The Cachoeira River can be considered eutrophicated, and such condition becomes more intense with low fluvial flow during the dry months. Despite the spatial/temporal changes of the species of inorganic nitrogen, a removal of dissolved inorganic nitrogen was observed in relation to dissolved silicon and to phosphorus, with consequences for estuarine biogeochemistry. The basin exports annually about 3.5, 2.2 and 0.3 t y-1 of dissolved silicon, nitrogen, and phosphate to the estuary, respectively. The eutrophication and growth of macrophytes is responsible for most of these changes in nutrient fluxes to the estuary and coastal waters.

  1. Environmental quality integrated indicator applied to the management of the Jiquiriçá river watershed, BA, Brazil

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    Raquel Maria de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work social, economic and environmental aspects were studied using the concept of programming by commitment, with the objective of structuring an integrated indicator capable of estimating the degree of the environmental quality of the Jiquiriça river basin, BA, composed by the indicator of environmental salubrity, water quality and soil’s protection. For the determination of the environmental salubrity indicator, data of the following variables were collected: existence of treated water supply, disposition and treatment of solid residues, diseases vectors control, the existence of the Agenda 21, socioeconomics data and indices of human development for each municipal district located in the area of the watershed. The indicator of the water quality was structured based on the analysis of water samples collected in eight sampling points along Jiquiriçá river and determined by seven parameters. The indicator of soil’s protection was based on the analysis of maps obtained according to the weight of each steepness and land use class. Results indicate that the watershed is in a poor equilibrium condition and suggest the need for structural investments as well as changes in public polices. The methodology used was efficient for this watershed management and could be used as tool for the environmental planning of the region, once it can be adapted to several situations depending on the data availability.

  2. Temporal characterization of Arsenic in das Velhas River hydrographic basin waters, MG, Brazil for one decade (1998 - 2007

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    Mônica Maria Diniz Leão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, a metalloid with wide distribution in nature, can be found in natural environments in the forms of high toxicity. Monitoring conducted in the Basin of the das Velhas River, MG, demonstrates the occurrence of this metal in all sampling stations distributed over the water course and main tributaries. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the time trends of concentration of arsenic in water courses of the basin of das Velhas River, considering the data of twenty-nine monitoring stations from 1998 to 2007. The tests included the verification of seasonality, autocorrelation and temporal trend with the non-parametric tests of Mann-Kendall and Mann-Kendall seasonal. Eight sampling stations showed seasonality, with higher concentrations observed in rainy season. The autocorrelation was virtually nonexistent, which may be associated with low sample found in a monitoring program (three to six months. Only seven monitoring stations showed significant negative trend, indicating a reduction in the concentration of arsenic over the period studied. The results showed that the time trend studies have great relevance for the management of pollution of water resources from tracking data, providing subsidies for preventive and corrective measures differentiated between the stations and sampling periods of the year and also be used in evaluation of the effectiveness of these measures.

  3. Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil

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    Ilma Hiroko Higuti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State of Paraná. Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4 and one along the Penedo River (Station 5 were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná. Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4 e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5 para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC e fecais (FC, temperatura e pH. A contamina

  4. Development of a solid-phase extraction system modified for preconcentration of emerging contaminants in large sample volumes from rivers of the lagoon system in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vitor Sergio Almeida; Riente, Roselene Ribeiro; da Silva, Alexsandro Araújo; Torquilho, Delma Falcão; Carreira, Renato da Silva; Marques, Mônica Regina da Costa

    2016-09-15

    A single method modified for monitoring of emerging contaminants in river water was developed for large sample volumes. Water samples from rivers of the lagoon system in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were analyzed by the SPE-HPLC-MS-TOF analytical method. Acetaminophen was detected in four rivers in the concentration range of 0.09μgL(-1) to 0.14μgL(-1). Salicylic acid was also found in the four rivers in the concentration range of 1.65μgL(-1) to 4.81μgL(-1). Bisphenol-A was detected in all rivers in the concentration range of 1.37μgL(-1) to 39.86μgL(-1). Diclofenac was found in only one river, with concentration of 0.22μgL(-1). The levels of emerging organic pollutants in the water samples of the Jacarepaguá hydrographical basin are significant. The compounds are not routinely monitored and present potential risks to environmental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variability in Oligosarcus paranensis (Teleostei: Characiformes from the São Francisco river, Ivaí river basin – Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.14179

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    Michele Rocha dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of Oligosarcus paranensis was estimated from a population collected in São Francisco river, Prudentópolis county in Paraná State (Brazil using the electrophoresis in starch gel technique. Eleven enzymatic systems were analyzed: Aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT; E. C. 2.6.1, Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; E. C. 1.1.1.1, Esterase (EST; E. C. 3.1.1.1, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI; E. C. 5.3.1.9, Glycerol-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH; E. C. 1.1.1, Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; E. C. 1.1.1.42, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E. C. 1.1.1.27, Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; E. C. 1.1.1.37 , Malate dehydrogenase NADP (ME; E. C. 1.1.1.40, Phosphoglucomutase (PGM; E. C. 5.4.2.2 and Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORB; E.C. 1.1.1.14. Twenty loci were identified through 15% corn starch gel electrophoresis of which nine (45% were polymorphic. The average expected heterozygosity was estimated as 0.1229 ± 0.1728, and the observed was 0.0586 ± 0.1069, indicating high genetic variability. The average value of FIS = 0.5145 indicates homozygote excess.  

  6. Caloric density of aquatic macrophytes in different environments of the Baía river subsystem, upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil

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    Célia de Almeida Lopes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the caloric density of leaves, stems and roots of aquatic macrophytes in different environments of the Baía subsystem (Baía river and Fechada and Guaraná lagoons on the Upper Paraná river floodplain, in addition to identify the variability between ecological groups. Samplings of Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia spp, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia azurea, Polygonum sp, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were carried out in February 2003. Spatial differences in the caloric densities were not observed for these plants. Caloric density values varied from 1906.9 cal/g dry weight (root to 4675.0 cal/g dry weight (leaf. However, significant differences between the caloric content averages of the vegetative structures were observed only for Polygonum sp and Salvinia spp. In relation to the ecological groups, the highest average value was verified for the emergent macrophytes (3529.7 ± 722.5, which were significantly different from the floating ones (3056.5 ± 571.0. There was no difference between the sites included in the subsystem when the caloric densities were compared.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a densidade calórica de folhas, caules e raízes de macrófitas aquáticas, em diferentes ambientes do subsistema Baía (Rio Baía e lagoas Fechada e do Guaraná na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, além de identificar a variabilidade entre grupos ecológicos. As amostragens foram realizadas em fevereiro de 2003, sendo coletadas amostras de diferentes macrófitas, Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia spp, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia azurea, Polygonum sp, Cyperaceae e Poaceae. Diferenças espaciais nas densidades calóricas não foram observadas para as plantas estudadas. Os valores de densidade calórica variaram de 1906,9 cal/g de peso seco (raiz a 4675,0 cal/g de peso seco (folha. Entretanto, diferenças significativas entre as médias dos conteúdos calóricos das estruturas vegetativas foram

  7. Origin, transport and fate of the dissolved organic matter produced in the watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva Junior, Jomar; Soares Gonçalves Serafim, Tassiana; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Dittmar, Thorsten; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is an important river from Southeastern Brazil that flows through the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The PSR is responsible for the water supply of over 14 million of the habitants. Due the human occupation and anthropic pressure, only 8% of it is original forest cover remains in the form of small fragmented patches. The remaining of the basin is mostly covered by grasses, such as pasture and sugar cane. Isotopic studies allows the monitoring of ecosystem changes and promotes specific links between ecology, land use and biogeochemical processes. We investigated the isotopic composition of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in PSR. Our objective was to identify how extensive land use changes, from forest (C3 Plants) to pasture and sugar cane (C4 Plants), have affected river biogeochemistry of organic matter transported by PSR. Water samples were collected at 24 sites along the main channel of the PSR, 14 sites samples at the tributaries and 21 sites samples in the estuarine and marine environmental until 35km of the coast. Sampling was performed in the wet season of the 2013 and the dry season of the 2013. The fluvial and estuarine samples were processed with conventional filtration and the marine samples were processed with the cross-flow filtration. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the PPL cartridges (Styrene divinyl benzene polymer). Isotope measurements, organic carbon and nitrogen concentration were performed with a isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (Thermo Finningan). The 13C and the 15N values ranged from -20.0‰ and -29.0‰, and from -0.80 to 4.59 respectively, while the (C/N)a ratio varied between 8 and 41. The 13C were depleted in 13C at the river samples from the wet season, and in the estuary and marine areas as well. The 13C average values observed during the wet season in the PSR and in the estuarine samples are close to those

  8. Selection of an experimental fish ladder located at the dam of the Itaipu Binacional, Paraná River, Brazil

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    Domingo Rodriguez Fernandez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific selection of a weir and orifice type experimental fish ladder in the dam of the Itaipu Reservoir (Paraná River was evaluated by samplings in the river downstream and at two points along the ladder (at heights of 10 m and 27 m during 28 months. Among the 65 species recorded in the river (immediate downstream of the dam, 27 were captured on the ladder. The species that showed highest density on the ladder, the majority migratory, were moderately, or only slightly, abundant downstream. Among the most abundant species downstream, only one, non-migratory, was recorded in the ladder. The structure presented a negative selection in relation to large migratory pimelodids that might be overcome by enlarging the scale of its design. The sampling demonstrated a moderate selection of species along the ladder and its hydraulic model proved satisfactory regarding the attraction and efficient ascent of the fishes.A seleção específica de uma escada de peixes do tipo seqüência de tanques, com passagem de fundo (tipo weir and orifice, na barragem da hidrelétrica de Itaipu (rio Paraná, foi avaliada através de amostragens no rio a jusante (amostragem trimestral em 1997 e em dois pontos ao longo da escada (10 e 27m de altura; nov/94 a jan/97 e nov/94 a fev/97, respectivamente. Das 65 espécies registradas no rio imediatamente a jusante da barragem, 27 foram capturadas na escada. As espécies com maior densidade na escada, em sua maioria migradoras, tiveram abundância moderada ou baixa a jusante. Entre as mais abundantes a jusante, apenas uma, não migradora, foi registrada na escada. A escada apresentou seleção negativa aos grandes pimelodídeos migradores que pode ser superada com a ampliação na escala do projeto. As amostragens evidenciaram baixa seletividade específica ao longo da escada, sendo seu modelo hidráulico satisfatório na atração e eficiente na ascensão de peixes.

  9. [Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musfeld, D A; Bühler, E M; Heinzl, S

    2001-01-01

    The Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder clinically manifested by tetraphocomelia, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, and craniofacial abnormalities (skull, eyes, lip, and palate), accompanied at times by centromer puffing and splitting, renal abnormalities, heart defect, clitoral or penile enlargement, and bilateral corneal opacities. Mental retardation is common in surviving patients.

  10. Rotary condenser for SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    During 1975 the SC2 performance was improved among other things by redesigning some of the elements of the ROTCO (Annual Report 1975, p. 55). The photo shows an interior wiew of the housing of the rotary condenser and of the sixteen sets of shaped stator blades.

  11. Arboreous vegetation of an alluvial riparian forest and their soil relations: Porto Rico island, Paraná river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos João Batista

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of alluvial deposits in floodplains forms islands and sandbanks. Deposits frequently accumulate at the river margins and on islands with consequent side growths. One of these sandbanks which started to form in 1952 annexed an area of 12.4ha to the Porto Rico island (53masculine15?W and 22masculine45?S. At present a forest fragment of approximately 2.0 ha exists in this place. The structural analysis of arboreous vegetation of this fragment showed a floristic gradient related to the physical and chemical variations of the substratum. High density of pioneer species associated to the absence of recruitment of new individuals of these and other successional categories indicated that the forest was impaired in its succession process. This fact could be associated with constant disturbances caused by cattle in the area.

  12. Anaerobic degradation of anionic surfactants by indigenous microorganisms from sediments of a tropical polluted river in Brazil

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    Iolanda Cristina Silveira Duarte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS is widely used in the formulation of domestic and industrial cleaning products, the most synthetic surfactants used worldwide. These products can reach water bodies through the discharge of untreated sewage or non-effective treatments. This study evaluates the ability of the microorganisms found in the Tietê river sediment to degrade this synthetic surfactant. The experiment was conducted in a bioreactor, operated in batch sequences under denitrifying conditions, with cycles of 24 hours and stirring at 150rpm, using 430mL of sediments and 1 070mL of a synthetic substrate consisting of yeast extract, soluble starch, sodium bicarbonate and sucrose. LAS was added at different concentrations of 15mg/L and 30mg/L. The reactor operation was divided into the biomass adaptation to the synthetic substrate without LAS and three experimental conditions: a addition of 15mg/L of LAS; b 50% reduction the co-substrate concentration and 15mg/L of LAS, and c addition of 30mg/L of LAS and 100% co-substrate concentration. The results showed that the degradation efficiency of LAS was directly related to the addition of co-substrates and the population of denitrifying bacteria. The removal of LAS and nitrate can be achieved simultaneously in wastewater with low organic loads. The reduction in the co-substrates concentration was directly influenced by the number of denitrifying bacteria (2.2x10(13 to 1.0x10(8MPN/gTVS, and consequently, LAS degradation (60.1 to 55.4%. The sediment microorganisms in the Tietê river can be used as an alternative inoculum in the treatment of wastewater with nitrate and LAS contamination.

  13. Arsenic and trace metals in river water and sediments from the southeast portion of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varejão, Eduardo V V; Bellato, Carlos R; Fontes, Maurício P F; Mello, Jaime W V

    2011-01-01

    The Iron Quadrangle has been one of the most important gold production regions in Brazil since the end of the seventeenth century. There, arsenic occurs in close association with sulfide-rich auriferous rocks. The most abundant sulfide minerals are pyrite and arsenopyrite, yet trace metal sulfides occur in subordinate phases as well. Historical mining activities have been responsible for the release of As and trace metals to both aquatic and terrestrial environments close to mining sites in the region. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the distribution and mobility of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in streams in the southeast portion of the Iron Quadrangle between the municipalities of Ouro Preto and Mariana, the oldest Brazilian Au mining province. Total concentrations of some trace metals and arsenic in water were determined. The four-stage sequential extraction procedure proposed by the commission of the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) was used to investigate the distribution of these elements in stream sediments. Arsenic concentration in water was > 10 μg L⁻¹ (maximum limit permitted by Brazilian environmental regulations for water destined for human consumption) at all sampling sites, varying between 36.7 and 68.3 μg L⁻¹. Sequential extraction in sediments showed high concentrations of As and trace metals associated with easily mobilized fractions.

  14. Influence of urbanisation on water quality in the basin of the upper Uruguay River in western Santa Catarina, Brazil Influência da urbanização sobre a qualidade da água na bacia do alto Rio Uruguai no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Raquel Zeni Ternus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the limnological characteristics of rivers flowing through urban and rural areas in the upper Uruguay River basin in western Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil. METHODS: Sampling sites in the tributaries were selected along the longitudinal gradient and the different use of the soil in adjacent areas. Samples were collected bimonthly from March 2005 to August 2006. The following were analysed: depth, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration (DO, water temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphorus were analysed. RESULTS: In most of the rivers analysed, we found a continuum from the spring to the river mouth that was characterised by a gradual increase in electrical conductivity, COD, phosphorus, alkalinity, nitrite and nitrate. However, an alteration from this pattern was found in rivers passing through urban areas. This deviation was due to high organic matter input poured into the rivers from these areas. CONCLUSIONS: Degraded riparian forest was observed along most of the bodies of water, which facilitates the entry of pollutants. Although the studied area suffers from intense farming activity (agriculture and livestock and has the highest concentration of swine livestock in the country, the rivers that were most altered from their natural state were those that were influenced by sewage and industrial effluents from urban development.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar as características limnológicas de rios que atravessam áreas rurais e urbanas na bacia do alto Rio Uruguai no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pontos nos afluentes, obedecendo ao gradiente longitudinal e diferente uso do solo das áreas adjacentes. As amostragens foram bimestrais de março de 2005 a agosto de 2006. Foram analisadas as variáveis profundidade, pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio dissolvido (OD

  15. Determination of 46Sc in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Bijun; Ji Zhaogang; Wang Juying

    1985-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of 46 Sc in water is presented. 46 Sc in water is concentrated with Fe(OH) 3 ; Then 46 Sc is extracted with TBP and purified by precipitating it with Amygdalic Acid. Finally the precipitate is ignited into Sc 2 O 3 under 800 deg C and β-activity is counted. In this method chemical reeovery for Sc was (90.8 +- 2.8)% and radiochemical recovery for 46 Sc was (89.8 +- 3.8)%. Purification factors for some of the relevant Radionuclides ranged from 10 3 to 10 5

  16. ESTIMATIVA DO BALANÇO SEDIMENTAR DA BACIA DO RIO TIJUCAS (SC-BRASIL A PARTIR DA APLICAÇÃO DO MODELO HIDROLÓGICO SWAT / ESTIMATE OF SEDIMENT BUDGET OF THE TIJUCAS RIVER BASIN APPLYING SWAT HYDROLOGIC MODEL

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    Jean Berná Paim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopt a basin as a hydrological unit to understand the physical processes related to the water and sediment production is important because its characteristics (area, shape and topography can determine its use in a sustainable manner. This study is aim in the test of the applicability of hydrologic model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool in the Tijucas River Basin to quantify the water and sediment production along it sub-basins. Together, geoprocessing techniques were applied with the creation of a database of geographical information to describe the region. On this database is included the daily precipitation an temperature data of the gauges distributed on the watershed, soil data, a land use map and the digital elevation model (DEM to create the Hydrologic Response Units (HRU’s. A time series with flow values and sediment concentration measured are very important to calibrate and validate the model output parameters. After the calibration of the initial results, the Flow Gauge number 102 presented a Nash and Sutcliffe Coefficient - COE = 0.6 indicating a good adjust of the model. The results were used to create a sediment production map for Tijucas River Basin, when the 10 years average ranged between 0.5 ton/ha and 9.0 ton/ha in some sub-basins.

  17. Geochemistry and mineralogy of recent sediments of Guanabara Bay (NE sector and its major rivers - Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil

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    MARCIA DE MELO FARIA

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical and clay mineralogical studies of bottom sediments collected along the Macacu and Caceribu rivers and Guanabara Bay were carried out in order to investigate the relationship between major source areas and recent sediments of the bay. Clay mineralogy includes different groups with selective distribution conditioned by geomorphic features and depositional settings. Micaceous clay minerals are abundant near parent rock in the upper course, whereas kaolinite derived from varied sources is gradually concentrated towards the estuary. In the Guanabara Bay, kaolinite accumulates near river mouths, while micaceous clay minerals are converted into mixed layers in the estuary. Analyses of heavy metal contents reveal higher levels of Zn and Cu in sediments of the bay than in river sediments. Profiles along rivers indicate a downstream decrease of heavy metals, whereas in the bay geochemical trends display greater variations. In general river mouth sediments present the lowest concentrations. At the north and east of Paquetá Island anomalous areas with the highest heavy metal contents occur. Cu tends to concentrate in A correlação dos sedimentos recentes da Baía de Guanabara com as suas principais áreas-fontes foi realizada a partir de análises geoquímicas e de argilominerais em amostras de fundo coletadas ao longo dos rios Macacu e Caceribu e na baía. Os argilominerais indicam uma distribuição seletiva intimamente associada às características do relevo e aos ambientes deposicionais. Os argilominerais micáceos são predominantes na região do alto curso próximos à área-fonte primária, enquanto que a caulinita, proveniente da decomposição de diversos minerais, se concentra gradativamente em direção ao estuário. Na Baía de Guanabara observa-se um acúmulo de caulinita na região de foz dos rios, ao passo que os argilominerais micáceos são convertidos em interestratificados e depositados no fundo da baía. As análises geoqu

  18. [Soil mesofauna in differents systems of land use soil in Upper River Solimões, AM, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, José W De; Oliveira, Viviane Dos S; Dambros, Cristian De S; Tapia-Coral, Sandra C; Acioli, Agno N S

    2010-01-01

    The mesofauna has an important function in the soil and it is represented mainly by Acari Oribatida and Collembola. We report the first data on the density and diversity of the soil mesofauna in Benjamin Constant, Amazonas State, Brazil. The following systems were evaluated: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry system, cultivated areas and pastures. A total of 101 samples were collected 100 m apart from each other and specimens were collected by using Berlese-Tullgren method. The highest density was registered in secondary forest (29,776 specimens.m-2). Acari Oribatida was the dominant group (7.072 specimens.m-2) in the pasture, suggesting that mites show higher capacity of adaptation to disturbed environments and/or due to the presence of gregarious species. The density of Collembola (5,632 specimens.m-2) was higher in secondary forest. Formicidae was the dominant group (27,824 specimens.m-2) and its highest density occurred in the secondary forest (12,336 specimens.m-2). Seven species and ten morphospecies of Isoptera and three species of Symphyla were identified. The highest density and diversity were found in secondary forest. One supposes that the low density of mesofauna found in all of the studied systems is being influenced by soil structure and composition as well as litter volume. For SUT, the composition of taxonomic groups in the cultivated areas is similar to the one found in primary forest, while the groups found in the agroforestry system are similar to those in the pasture, which may help to decide on land use strategies.

  19. The ecological dynamics of Barra Bonita (Tietê River, SP, Brazil reservoir: implications for its biodiversity

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    JG. Tundisi

    Full Text Available Barra Bonita reservoir is located in the Tietê River Basin - São Paulo state - 22° 29" to 22° 44" S and 48° 10° W and it is the first of a series of six large reservoirs in this river. Built up in 1963 with the aim to produce hydroelectricity this reservoir is utilized for several activities such as fish production, irrigation, navigation, tourism and recreation, besides hydroelectricity production. The seasonal cycle of events in this reservoir is driven by the hydrological features of the basin with consequences on the retention time and on the limnological functions of this artificial ecosystem. The reservoir is polymitic with short periods of stability. Hydrology of the basin, retention time of the reservoir and cold fronts have an impact in the vertical and horizontal structure of the system promoting rapid changes in the planktonic community and in the succession of species. Blooms of Microcystis sp. are common during periods of stability. Superimposed to the climatological and hydrological forcing functions the human activities in the watershed produce considerable impact such as the discharge of untreated wastewater, the high suspended material contributions and fertilizers from the sugar cane plantations. The fish fauna of the reservoir has been changed extent due to the introduction of exotic fish species that exploit the pelagic zone of the reservoir. Changes in the primary productivity of phytoplankton in this reservoir, in the zooplankton community in the diversity and organization of trophic structure are a consequence of eutrophication and its increase during the last 20 years. Control of eutrophication by treating wastewater from urban sources, adequate agricultural practices in order to diminish the suspended particulate matter contribution, revegetation of the watershed and riparian forests along the tributaries are some possible restoration measures. Another action that can be effective is the protection of wetlands in

  20. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

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    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.El pez tucunaré (Cichla piquiti, nativo del sistema de la cuenca del rio Tocantins-Araguaia, fue introducido en la cuenca del río Paranaíba, parte del sistema del río Paraná. En este ecosistema trófico de planicie aluvial, las relaciones entre comunidades de peces están definidas por diferentes factores que pueden ser modificados debido a la represa del río, y da como resultado grandes cambios en la interacción biológica en éstos hábitats. La represa de Cachoeira Dourada forma parte de una serie de represas en el río Paranaíba en el Brasil central, donde el tucunaré se ha establecido. Una investigación sobre su espectro alimentario, combinado con información sobre sus caracter

  1. The use of biomarkers for assessing effects of pollutant stress on fish species from a tropical river in Southeastern Brazil

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    Claudio Nona Morado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are measurements within an organism that respond to environmental effects and are used as tools in bioassessment programs since they reflect physiological changes induced by exposure to pollutants. The hepatosomatic index (HSI and the condition factor (CF in three fish species Geophagus brasiliensis, Hypostomus affinis and Hypostomus auroguttatus were used to assess effects of pollutant stress in a tropical river during two seasons (dry and wet. Fish from the least disturbed sites had the lowest condition factor (CF and the lowest HSI, whereas those from sites near pollutant discharges had the highest CF and HSI. Higher HSI and lower CF occurred during the dry season. It is suggested that species adapted to stressful conditions take advantage on food availability from organic loads or unoccupied niches by lesser tolerant species, increasing CF. We concluded that higher HSI values were directly associated with environmental stress whereas the higher CF values are related to availability of food resources derived from organic loads or other sources. CF and HSI are simple and cost-effective, thus suitable as routine screening tools in pollution monitoring, but caution should be taken in relating changes in physiological measurements and any specific pollutant to prevent misinterpretation.

  2. Larvae of migratory fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi in the lotic remnant of the Paraná River in Brazil

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    Evelyn Barzotto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fish larvae and adults are morphologically distinct from each other and have different ecological requirements. Research on the dynamics of ichthyoplankton provides valuable information about the early stages of the life cycle of fish. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of the larval stages of three migratory species - Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816, Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 - to identify possible spawning areas in the last lotic remnant of the upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian territory. A total of 26 points were sampled monthly from October 2003 to November 2004. The PERMANOVA detected significant differences between the months only for S. brasiliensis (Pseudo-F = 3.88, p = 0.0021 and P. corruscans (Pseudo-F = 3.35, p = 0.004. Among the environmental variables, temperature was the most important and the Mantel test detected a significant correlation between temperature and the densities, only for P. lineatus (r = 0.09, p = 0.03. The species in our data chose for spawning tributaries that are not dammed, of which most are outside conservation areas. Therefore, recruitment, maintenance and possible actions aiming to recover the stocks of these species are dependent on the conservation of tributaries and floodplain lakes in the region, in addition to monitoring to prevent fishing during the reproductive period.

  3. Faunistic analyses of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea in a florest fragment near the Uruguay River, Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to describe the grasshopper community (Orthoptera and Acridoidea through the analysis of the fauna, in the Lajeado Monte Alegre region, on the bank of the Uruguay River, in the town of Chapecó, Santa Catarina. The collections were carried out on weekly basis, from October 2001 to September 2002, with the use of ground traps, buttnets, insect umbrellas and collections from leaves. The rates of abundance, frequency, constancy, dominance and diversity were measured. In total, 713 acridoids were collected, corresponding to 18 species, 17 genera, and 3 families. From the Acrididae family 13 species were sampled: Abracris flavolienata, Allotruxalis strigata, Amblytropidia sola, Amblytropidia sp., Cylindrotettix chacoensis, Dichroplus misionensis, Eurotettix lilloanus, Metaleptea brevicornis adspersa, Orphulella punctata, Parorphula graminea, Rhammatocerus brunneri, Ronderosia bergi and Schistocerca flavofasciata. From the Romaleidae family, 4 species: Staleochlora viridicata, Chromacris speciosa, Zoniopoda tarsata and Xyleus discoideus. From the Tridactylidae family, 2 unidentified nymphs were collected. The dominant species was A. strigata.

  4. Cytogenetic analysis of Baryancistrus xanthellus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Ancistrini, an ornamental fish endemic to the Xingu River, Brazil

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    Larissa A. Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Baryancistrus xanthellus is a species from the Ancistrini tribe known commonly as "amarelinho " or "golden nugget pleco". It is one of the most popular and valued ornamental fishes due to its color pattern. Also, it is an endemic species from the Xingu River occurring from Volta Grande do Xingu, region where the Belo Monte Hydropower Dam is being built, to São Félix do Xingu. The current study aimed to cytogenetically characterize B. xanthellus . Results point to the maintenance of 2n=52, which is considered the most common condition for the tribe, and a single nucleolus organizer region (NOR. Mapping of the 18S rDNA confirmed the NOR sites, and the 5S rDNA was mapped in the interstitial position of a single chromosome pair. The 18S and 5S rDNA located in different pairs constitute an apomorphy in Loricariidae. Large blocks of heterochromatin are present in pairs 1 and 10 and in the regions equivalent to NOR and the 5S rDNA. Data obtained in this study corroborated with the currently accepted phylogenetic hypothesis for the Ancistrini and demonstrate evidence that the genus Baryancistrus occupies a basal position in the tribe.

  5. Selection of habitat by the jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae, in the upper Paraná River, Brazil

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    Laury Cullen Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We used data from VHF and GPS radio-tagged jaguars, Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758 to quantify jaguar habitat selection and how adult individuals in the Upper Paraná River region selected among the available habitat types. We followed the framework in which animals make decisions about resource use at hierarchical stages, namely selection of home range within a study area (second-order selection and selection of patches within a home range (third-order selection. We quantified habitat preferences at two orders of selection with respect to habitat types and to test the null hypothesis that habitat utilization by jaguars was random at both study sites. Using compositional analysis, we assessed habitat selection by jaguars at second- and third-orders of selection. Jaguars consistently preferred dense marshes and primary forests, and avoided human-dominated areas such as intensively managed open pastures. Although the avoidance of disturbed and developed habitat types by jaguars is not surprising, this is the first study to document it. If small protected areas, such as the ones already existing in the Upper Paraná region, are to sustain jaguar populations they, must include and protect as many primary forests and marshlands as possible, so that jaguars can disperse, hunt wild prey and take care of their cubs without being disturbed. What is urgently needed in these jaguar-protected areas is the creation of larger protected areas that can sustain jaguars in their favored habitat.

  6. Environmental education in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, municipality of Porto Rico (Paraná State, Brazil

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    AT. Obara

    Full Text Available Since 2003, researchers, faculty, graduate and undergraduate students from the State University of Maringá have been working alongside teachers from the state and local schools in the municipality of Porto Rico (Paraná State, located on the banks of the Paraná River. Their objective is to outline actions and strategies with the purpose of building methodological paths to insert environmental education into the school curriculum. Based on the action-research methodology, the group has developed the following programs: a the Continuing Education Program in Environmental Education; b the Development of Interdisciplinary Projects; c the Insertion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs; and d the Production of Teaching Materials. The evaluations of the programs indicate that teachers have been able to gradually build a theoretical and methodological basis for environmental education while simultaneously growing into the role of teacher-researchers as they create the conditions to investigate their pedagogical practices, reflect upon them, share experiences, innovate, and make the teaching-learning process more significant. Allied to the advances in educational practices and with the aid of ICTs, the activities developed in the classroom, in the field and in the lab - all of which involve natural and cultural aspects of the region - have contributed to teachers' and students' better understanding of the ecological, cultural, social and economic value of the floodplain, and consequently, of the importance of preservation and management in order to maintain local biodiversity.

  7. Impacts of the construction of the Port of Suape on phytoplankton in the Ipojuca River estuary (Pernambuco-Brazil

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    Koening Maria Luise

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the impact on phytoplankton, sampling was conducted monthly at 4 fixed stations, from April/86 to March/87 at diurnal low and high tide using a plankton net (65 mum mesh size and a 1 L Van Dorn bottle. Among the 133 taxa identified, marine littoral euryhaline species were most common, outranking Gyrosigma balticum (Ehrenberg Rabenhorst, Nitzschia sigma (Kützing Wm. Smith, Licmophora abbreviata Agardh, Climacosphenia moniligera Ehrenberg, Surirella febigerii Lewis, Terpsinoe musica Ehrenberg and Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenberg Reiman and Lewis. The port construction caused significant changes to the phytoplankton community with a strong influence of marine species (mainly dinoflagellate because of the opening of the reef near the river mouth in 1983. The shallow depth and hydrodynamic brought many littoral species to the water columm. The community was composed by marine euryhaline and limnetic organisms, influenced by the salinity, rain and tide. Species diversity was high (> 3 bits.cel-1 owing to the high environmental heterogeneity (marine, freshwater and benthic interactions. After the port implantation, a strong decrease occurred in phytoplankton density owing to high loads of suspended matter. Lowest values (121,00 cells.l-1 were registered during rainy season. During dry season, when light intensity was higher, phytoplankton presented highest density ( 1,789,000 cells.l-1.

  8. Effect of urbanization on bird community in riparian environments in Caí River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Jaqueline Brummelhaus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p81 Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which respond differently to impacts. We compare richness, abundance and composition of birds in riparian environments with different urbanization gradients in Caí River, Rio Grande do Sul. We conducted observations in woodland, grassland and urban environments, between September/2007 and August/2008. We recorded 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland environments, including an endangered species: Triclaria malachitacea. Bird abundance differed between woodland and urban environments (426 individuals in woodland, 721 in grassland and 939 in urban. Species composition and feeding guilds contributed significantly to differentiation of bird community structures in these three riparian environments. In open environments (grassland and urban we recorded more generalist feeding guilds and bird species, while in riparian woodland environments, we find guilds and species more sensitive to human impacts. Bird species may be biological quality indicators and contribute to natural economy. With the knowledge of bird community structure and their needs, it is possible to establish management practices for riparian restoration of degraded environments in the region.

  9. Climate and Hydrological Data Analysis for hydrological and solute transport modelling purposes in the Muriaé River basin, Atlantic Forest Biome, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana; Künne, Annika; Kralisch, Sven; Fink, Manfred; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The Muriaé River basin in SE Brazil has been experiencing an increasing pressure on water resources, due to the population growth of the Rio de Janeiro urban area connected with the growth of the industrial and agricultural sector. This leads to water scarcity, riverine forest degradation, soil erosion and water quality problems among other impacts. Additionally the region has been suffering with seasonal precipitation variations leading to extreme events such as droughts, floods and landslides. Climate projections for the near future indicate a high inter-annual variability of rainfall with an increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events combined with a statistically significant increase in the duration of dry periods and a reduced duration of wet periods. This may lead to increased soil erosion during the wet season, while the longer dry periods may reduce the vegetation cover, leaving the soil even more exposed and vulnerable to soil erosion. In consequence, it is crucial to understand how climate affects the interaction between the timing of extreme rainfall events, hydrological processes, vegetation growth, soil cover and soil erosion. In this context, physically-based hydrological modelling can contribute to a better understanding of spatial-temporal process dynamics in the Earth's system and support Integrated Water Resourses Management (IWRM) and adaptation strategies. The study area is the Muriaé river basin which has an area of approx. 8000 km² in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro States. The basin is representative of a region of domain of hillslopes areas with the predominancy of pasture for livestock production. This study will present some of the relevant analyses which have been carried out on data (climate and streamflow) prior to using them for hydrological modelling, including consistency checks, homogeneity, pattern and statistical analyses, or annual and seasonal trends detection. Several inconsistencies on the raw data were

  10. Non-volant mammals from the Upper Paraná River Basin: a data set from a critical region for conservation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Fernando; Hannibal, Wellington; Godoi, Mauricio N; Martins, Fernando I; Oliveira, Roniel F; Figueiredo, Valquiria V; Casella, Janaina; de Sá, Érica F G G

    2018-02-01

    The data set represents the first attempt at a large-scale inventory of non-volant mammals, with potential applications to performing macroecological studies, developing conservation strategies, and undertaking population and community ecology research, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation. Our objectives for compiling these data were to summarize information about inventories of non-volant mammals in the critically important area of the Upper Paraná River Basin by focusing on species richness and index of frequency of occurrence and to identify gaps in knowledge regarding non-volant mammal communities in order to guide future sampling efforts. The data set comprises studies on communities of non-volant mammals from 52 locations covering more than 1,000 km 2 and comprises portion of four Brazilian states in the Upper Paraná River Basin. We listed 81 species of non-volant mammals distributed among 58 genera, 22 families, and 9 orders. Rodentia (28 species) was the richest order, followed by Carnivora (17 spp.) and Didelphimorphia (15 spp.). The richest family was Cricetidae (20 spp.), followed by Didelphidae (15 spp.), and Dasypodidae and Felidae (six spp.). Considering national conservation status, one species are considered endangered and 16 vulnerable. Considering global conservation status, 7 species are considered vulnerable, 10 are considered near threatened, and 6 are data deficient. According to the index of frequency of occurrence, Myrmecophaga tridactyla was the most frequent species, occurring at 88.64% of all sites, while 25 species were considered very restricted, occurring in just 2.56% of all sites. In general, the non-volant mammal fauna was composed of mainly very restricted (VR, 25 species) and localized species (L, 25 species), which account for 61.7% of the known species, while 38.3% are restricted (R, 8 species), common (C, 16 species), and widespread (W, 7 species). Seven marsupials and five

  11. Magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsubo, T., E-mail: tohtsubo@np.gs.niigata-u.ac.jp; Kawamura, Y.; Ohya, S. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, Radioisotope Center (Japan); Nishimura, K. [Toyama University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Muto, S. [Neutron Science Laboratory, KEK (Japan); Shinozuka, T. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonances were measured for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc oriented at 8 mK in an Fe host metal. The magnetic hyperfine splitting frequencies at an external magnetic field of 0.2 T were determined to be 63.22(11) MHz and 64.81(1) MHz for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc, respectively. With the known magnetic moment of {mu}({sup 44m}Sc)=+3.88 (1) {mu}{sub N}, the magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is deduced as {mu}({sup 44}Sc)=+3.785(12) {mu}{sub N}. The measured magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is discussed in terms of the shell model using the effective interactions.

  12. First record of Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) (Teleostei: Osteoglossomorpha), the "pirarucu", in the upper Paraná River basin, Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Fernando; Casatti, Lilian; Manzotti, Angelo; Ravazzi, Délcero

    2015-01-01

    Arapaima gigas (Schinz), the "pirarucu", is one of largest freshwater fish of the Neotropical region, naturally occurring in the Amazon, Essequibo, and Orinoco river basins. Herein, it is first recorded from the Grande River, in the upper Paraná River basin. This record is based on the finding of one dead specimen on the left margin of the Grande River, and in situ observation of juveniles and adults in the river.

  13. A water quality index model using stepwise regression and neural networks models for the Piabanha River basin in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Boas, M. D.; Olivera, F.; Azevedo, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of water quality through 'indexes' is widely used in environmental sciences. There are a number of methods available for calculating water quality indexes (WQI), usually based on site-specific parameters. In Brazil, WQI were initially used in the 1970s and were adapted from the methodology developed in association with the National Science Foundation (Brown et al, 1970). Specifically, the WQI 'IQA/SCQA', developed by the Institute of Water Management of Minas Gerais (IGAM), is estimated based on nine parameters: Temperature Range, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Fecal Coliforms, Nitrate, Phosphate, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The goal of this study was to develop a model for calculating the IQA/SCQA, for the Piabanha River basin in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), using only the parameters measurable by a Multiparameter Water Quality Sonde (MWQS) available in the study area. These parameters are: Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The use of this model will allow to further the water quality monitoring network in the basin, without requiring significant increases of resources. The water quality measurement with MWQS is less expensive than the laboratory analysis required for the other parameters. The water quality data used in the study were obtained by the Geological Survey of Brazil in partnership with other public institutions (i.e. universities and environmental institutes) as part of the project "Integrated Studies in Experimental and Representative Watersheds". Two models were developed to correlate the values of the three measured parameters and the IQA/SCQA values calculated based on all nine parameters. The results were evaluated according to the following validation statistics: coefficient of determination (R2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Final Prediction Error (FPE). The first model was a linear stepwise regression between three independent variables

  14. Short-lived U and Th isotope distribution in a tropical laterite derived from granite (Pitinga river basin, Amazonia, Brazil): Application to assessment of weathering rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, D.; Bernat, M.; Nahon, D.

    1995-12-01

    We have analyzed samples of a 15 m thick profile weathered from the Madeira granite, located in the Pitinga basin river, north of Manaus, in the state of Amazonia, Brazil. This profile consists essentially of a yellow-red saprolite covered by a soil. U and Th concentrations are particularly high in the granite (20 and 80 μg/g respectively). Normalized element to Th concentrations indicate that Th is most resistant to chemical weathering, except to some extent in the top soil. Higher concentrations in the saprolite compared to the granite comprise a relative enrichment, resulting from a loss of mass. The saprolites are initially generated by a descending weathering front which alters the granite to a yellow-red saprolite, a second front, close to the top, turns the saprolite into a soil. Weathering has led to leaching of U. The 234U/ 238U and 230Th/ 238U isotopic ratios are in radioactive disequilibrium. Numerous nodules are present and apparently started to form at the base of the saprolite. These nodules achieve more developed form during their relative ascent until they are reached by the descending top front where they undergo dissolution. The Th and Pb are concentrated in the nodules close to the top front. The U, being more mobile, is strongly leached by the first front, and most of the remainder, freed by the second, engages in a descending flux which supplies the underlying saprolite. Using the data an attempt is made to model the isotopic distribution in the profile. We conclude that the first front has descended at a rate of 5 cm/1000 yt, and that the time needed to create the saprolite must have been around 300,000 yr.

  15. Microbiological quality of water from the rivers of Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil, and the susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs and pathogenicity of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giowanella, Melissa; Bozza, Angela; do Rocio Dalzoto, Patricia; Dionísio, Jair Alves; Andraus, Sumaia; Guimarães, Edson Luiz Gomes; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2015-11-01

    Water safety is determined by several markers, and Escherichia coli is one of the most important indicators of water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological parameters in environmental samples of fresh water from rivers of Curitiba and its metropolitan area in Paraná State, Brazil. In addition, we evaluated the pathogenicity and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs in E. coli. These evaluations were performed by quantitative and qualitative methods employing selective media for isolating thermotolerant coliforms and biochemical tests for identifying E. coli. Pathogenic strains of E. coli were detected by PCR multiplex using specific primers. From the water samples, 494 thermotolerant coliforms were obtained, of which 96 (19.43%) isolates were characterized as E. coli. Three isolates were identified as enteroaggregative E. coli, one as enterotoxigenic E. coli, one as enteropathogenic E. coli, and two carried the Eae virulence gene. E. coli susceptibility to commonly employed antimicrobial drugs was analyzed by the disc diffusion method. The results showed 49 (51.04%) isolates resistant to all the drugs assayed, 16 (16.67%) with an intermediate resistance to all drugs, and 31 (32.29%) intermediately or fully resistant to one or more drugs tested. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline 30 μg, streptomycin 10 μg, and ceftazidime 30 μg. Detection of E. coli is associated with water contamination by fecal material from humans and warm-blooded animals. The occurrence of resistant strains can be the result of the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs and poor sanitation in the areas assayed.

  16. Relative growth in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 (Brachyura, Ocypodidae from Garças River mangrove, Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salise Brandt Martins

    Full Text Available A study on the relative growth was carried out in a population of the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis from the mangrove of Garças River, Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, southern Brazil. The dimensions analyzed were the length of the major chela (LMC of males and width of the abdomen (AW of females, because they are related to reproductive activities of waving (males and egg incubation (females. The cheliped handedness in males was also analyzed. The LMC was measured in 480 males, the AW in 566 females, and all crabs had the carapace width (CW measured that was considered as the reference dimension for both sexes. The inflection point in the graphs between each the dimensions and CW was calculated with the aid of the software REGRANS. The CW ranged from 2.33 to 8.33 mm in males and from 1.65 to 7.79 mm in females. The relationship between CW and LMC showed an inflection point at 4.14 mm CW among males, and between CW and AW at 3.52 mm CW among females. The allometric growth was positive for both dimensions throughout the entire ontogeny of both sexes, before and after the puberty. The equations describing the relationship between CW and LMC in males were: logLMC = - 0.695960 + 1.72.logCW for juveniles and logLMC = - 1.212513 + 2.5.logCW for adults. In females, the equations were logAW = - 0.519071 + 1.02.logCW and logAW = - 0.902874 + 1.73.logCW, respectively for juveniles and adults. The population of U. uruguayensis from Guaratuba Bay is composed of the smallest crabs, and it also attains morphological sexual maturity at smallest CW. The frequency of occurrence of right and left handed males was statistically the same (1:1 as in most population of fiddler crabs.

  17. The monotony of transferrin and esterase electrophoretic patterns in pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) from Santa Cruz Lake, Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A S

    2008-05-07

    Starch gel electrophoresis was used for examining the transferrin gene locus (Tf) and two esterase gene loci (Est-1 and Est-D1) of a pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) population sample collected from Santa Cruz Lake, Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. The Tf locus was tentatively classified as being polymorphic, showing two double-banded patterns (Tf(12) and Tf(22)) of the three theoretically expected ones (Tf(11), Tf(12) and Tf(22)), presumably controlled by two co-dominant alleles, Tf(1) and Tf(2). The monotony detected in pirarucu Tf locus genotypes showing a very high proportion of the double-banded heterozygote pattern Tf(12) (95% of the sampled individuals) may indicate the possibility of their having come from representatives of the same brood begotten by a pair of fish, where a single-banded Tf(11) homozygote pattern male would have crossed with a single-banded Tf(22) homozygote pattern female, or vice versa. One zone of electrophoretic activity was detected in esterase, presumably controlled by a monomorphic Est-1 locus with the fixed allele Est-1(1) where all individuals showed the single-banded Est-1(11) homozygote pattern. Esterase-D also displayed one zone of electrophoretic activity, presumably controlled by a monomorphic Est-D1 locus with a fixed allele Est-D1(1) where all individuals revealed the single-banded Est-D1(11) genotype pattern. The monotony comprised by single-banded genotype patterns in both esterase systems tested may also indicate the possibility of the individuals from the sample examined having come from representatives of the same brood begotten by a pair of fish with both the male and female having the same genotypes.

  18. Assessing of biotic integrity of the fish community in a heavily impacted segment of a tropical river in Brazil

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    Benjamin Carvalho Teixeira Pinto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A index of biotic integrity (IBI was applied to assess the ecological health at seven sites of ca. 338 km extension of the Paraíba do Sul river, in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to evaluate the index response to changes in environmental quality during two seasons (winter/dry versus. summer/wet. Eight metrics were selected to IBI in three categories: 1 species richness and habitat composition; 2 indicator species; and 3 trophic structure. The IBI, based on the least impacted regional condition, showed the highest value at the most upstream site (Queluz=km 0 - Acceptable, then decreasing downstream and reaching the lowest record at Volta Redonda (km 125 - Impacted; afterwards there was an increasing quality toward the most downstream sites until reaching better scores at Além Paraíba (km 338 - Moderate Impacted/ Acceptable. During the winter/dry seasons a clearer spatial trend was detected when compared with oscillations in summer/wet. The IBI proved to be a suitable tool to evaluate environmental quality in this tropical and very altered large river, since it was sensitive to non-source point pollution changes, which occurred all over the studied area.O Índice de Integridade Biótica (IBI foi aplicado em sete locais do rio Paraíba do Sul, cobrindo uma extensão de 338 km, e incorporando um trecho de grande densidade industrial. O objetivo foi avaliar a resposta do índice às mudanças na qualidade ambiental durante dois períodos (inverno/seco versus verão/úmido. O IBI foi determinado através de oito métricas compreendidas em três categorias da comunidade de peixes: 1 riqueza de espécies e composição de habitats; 2 espécies indicadoras; e 3 estrutura trófica. Utilizou-se a condição menos impactada da região como abordagem para a comparação dos locais, com os mais altos valores ocorrendo nos locais mais a montante (Queluz=km 0 - Aceitável, diminuindo mais abaixo e atingindo os piores valores em

  19. Population structure of Trachelyopterus albicrux (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae from the Ibicuí River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Éverton Luis Zardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine some of the biological aspects of Trachelyopterus albicrux by analyzing its population structure. The study focused on sex proportion, length and the relation of weight/length. Samples were taken every two months, from December 1999 to January 2002, in lotic and lentic environments along the Ibicui River between the cities of São Vicente do Sul and Itaqui, in Rio Grande do Sul. The following nets were used: 10m nets with 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0cm mesh; 20m nets with 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0cm mesh; and 4.0/20.0, 5.0/20 and 6.0/20.0 sweep nets (all mesh sizes were in cm and measured between adjacent knots. The nets stayed in the water for 24 hours, and were checked every 6 hours. A total of 122 males and 112 females were captured, which had a standard average length (Ls of 13.27cm and a total average weight (Wt of 95.95g. There was no significant difference between the males and females. The weight/length relation was calculated using the equation Wt = 0,0224 × Ls3,1691 for males and Wt = 0,0127 × Ls3,4 for females. Trachelyopterus albicrux showed isometric growth, with the coefficient value of the linear regression equation equal to 3.1691 for males and 3.4 for females.

  20. Feeding of Eigenmannia trilineata (Pisces, Sternopygidae (Lopez & Castello, 1966, in the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

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    Danielle Peretti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed on various aspects related to the feeding of Eigenmannia trilineata in the upper Paraná River floodplain, from June 1993 to July 1994, at four places with different types of bottom and waters speed. A number of 279 fish had its stomachal contents analyzed by occurence and point methods in which it was applied on its frequencies the feeding index. Two hundred an sixty two specimens were utilized to the analysis of the feeding activity that it was based on frequency and middle degree of stomach repletion. For the morfological analyse utilized 12 individuals. It was verified fourteen items on species diet which it was found chiefly Chironomidae (Diptera and detritus. Seasonal, area variations were verified in feeding activity and the participation of constituent items in diet. The results showed that the species presents nightly and benthophagous habits, with morfological characters of the carnivorous species.Os estudos foram realizados sob vários aspectos relacionados à alimentação de Eigenmannia trilineata na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, de junho de 1993 a julho de 1994 em quatro locais com diferentes tipos de fundo e velocidade de águas. Um número de 279 peixes tiveram seus estômagos analisados pelos métodos de ocorrência e pontos sendo aplicado sobre suas frequências o índice alimentar. Duzentos e sessenta e dois indivíduos foram utilizados para a análise da atividade alimentar, a qual foi baseada sobre a freqüência e grau de repleção médio dos estômagos. Para a análise morfológica foram utilizados 12 indivíduos. Foi verificado 14 itens na dieta da espécie, encontrando-se principalmente Chironomidae (Diptera e detritos. Variações sazonais e de área foram verificados na atividade alimentar e na participação dos itens constituintes da dieta. Os resultados mostraram que a espécie apresenta hábitos noturno e bentófago, com características morfológicas de espécies carnívoras.

  1. Water quality and toxicity of river water downstream of the uranium mining facility at Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira C.; Vascocnellos, Luisa M.H.; Simoes, Francisco F. Lamego; Clain, Almir F.; Scassiotti, Walter F.; Antunes, Ivan; Ferreira, Ana M.; Nascimento, Marcos R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The uranium mining site of Pocos de Caldas consists of open mine pit, tailings, waste rock dumps and an acid rock drainage problem, which has the potential to impact upon freshwater of the Ribeirao das Antas catchment. The high level of manganese (value of 1.8 mg/L) contained in the discharge water (DW) is an important factor affecting the water quality of the river (water quality criterion for aquatic life for Mn is 0.1 mg/L). Water quality criteria (WQC) are used for regulatory purpose and intended to define concentrations of chemicals in water that are protective of aquatic life and human health. WQC is a standard, although it is recognized that in some instances these criteria may be overprotective as metal bioavailability and hence toxicity is dependent on water chemistry. The toxicity assessment of WD was performed by bioassays with Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia as bioindicators. As DW showed no toxicity to the organisms and the chemical analysis and dose assessments pointed U and Mn as the most important metals for water toxicity, the U and Mn toxicities were evaluated in the DW spiked with U and Mn. Acute uranium toxicity (48 h immobilisation test) for Daphnia similis was determined as a LC50 value (concentration that is toxic to 50% of test organisms) around 0.05-0.06 mg/L, value close to the one found for effects on reproduction, a 7 day LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) of 0.062 mg/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia. The value of NOEC (no-observed effect concentration) for U was 0.03 mg U/L, which is higher than the concentration corresponded to the authorized dose limit for 238 U (0.004 mg/L) and higher than the uranium WQC (0.02 mg U/L). The manganese concentration in the DW is lower than the found value of LC50 (11.5 mg/L), LOEC (10 mg/L) and NOEC (5 mg Mn/L). (author)

  2. Study of heavy metal concentration and partitioning in the Estrela River: implications for the pollution in Guanabara Bay - SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. A. Rangel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the geochemical analysis of ten sediment samples collected along the fluvial system of the Estrela River, which flows into the northern portion of Guanabara Bay, shows the presence of anthropogenic impacts in this area. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni obtained were slightly higher, when compared with values found innatural environments. The particle size and organic matter content in most of the analyzed stations showed featuresnot conducive to the accumulation of pollutants due to the low organic matter content and the strong presence ofsand fraction. There was also the fractionation of heavy metals in sediments and it was found the prominence ofresidual and reducible phase, besides the significant occurrence of organic fractions in some analyzed stations. Thesefactors, thus, highlight the potential risks of contamination, where the metals associated with the organic phase canbecome bioavailable in processes of dissolution, provided by physico-chemical changes that can occur in this aquaticenvironment.Neste estudo, analises geoquímicas de dez amostras de sedimentos coletadas ao longo do sistema fluvial do rio Estrela, que deságua na porção norte da Baía de Guanabara, evidenciam a presença de impactos antropogênicos nesta área. As concentrações de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr e Ni obtidas foram ligeiramente elevadas, quando comparados com valores encontrados em ambientes naturais. A granulometria e o teor de matéria orgânica na maioria dos pontos analisados mostraram características não favoráveis à acumulação destes poluentes devido à baixa concentração de matéria orgânica e à forte presença de fração areia. Realizou-se também o fracionamento dos metais pesados nos sedimentos e constatou-se a preeminência da fase residual e redutível, além da ocorrência significativa da fração orgânica em alguns pontos analisados. Estes fatores evidenciam, portanto, riscos potenciais de contamina

  3. A conservationist approach on environmental diagnosis of ground use in the Iguatemi river basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.9001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Gomes Souto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape Ecology is a contemporary approach in conservation studies in which, coupled to the development and use of GIS-based tools, provides new methods for the analysis of forest fragments. Based on these new approaches, the environmental assessment of ground use in the Iguatemi river basin Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil is provided through conservation-based flora and ecology aspects. A regional map of ground use with field-collected data using Rapid Ecological Assessment methodology and digital satellite images was prepared. AER analysis showed a highly impacted region featuring intense transformation in ground use with a conversion of 87% of native forest into grazing and agriculture land. The general situation is inconsistent with APA guidelines, the conservationist unit which operates in the river basin. PPAs’ recovery, erosion control and adjustment to current environmental regulations are mandatory.  

  4. Dissolved Nitrogen and Phosphorus Dynamics in the Lower Portion of the Paraiba do Sul River, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Aparecida Leite Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paraíba do Sul river lower reach was monitored monthly between August 1995 and July 1996. This study was aimed at evaluating the temporal dynamics of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus and its main controlling factors. Minimum and maximum observed values were as follows: N-NO2- - 0.08/0.51; N-NO3- - 21/57; N-NH4+ - 1.4/6.7; DON - 4.9/86.0; DIN -24.5/60.9; P-PO4(3- - 0.43/1.66; DOP - 0.05/0.92; pH - 6.2/7.8; Dissolved Oxygen - 6.4/10.1; Conductivity - 48/74; Temperature - 20.5/31.1 (Nutrients - µM; Dissolved Oxygen - mg/l; Conductivity - µS/cm; Temperature - °C. Discharge presented a characteristic seasonal variation, showing a peak in January. Increasing P-PO4(3-, DOP, N-NH4+ and N-NO2- concentrations with increasing discharges could be associated to the partial flooding of inumerous fluvial islands and floodplains and to the agricultural practices of sugar cane crops that during the wet season could transfer nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the fluvial channel.O Rio Paraíba do Sul foi monitorado mensalmente na sua porção inferior, entre agosto de 1995 e julho de 1996, objetivando estudar a dinâmica temporal de nitrogênio e fósforo dissolvidos e avaliar seus principais fatores controladores. Os valores mínimos e máximos observados para os parâmetros analisados foram os seguintes: N-NO2- - 0,08/0,51; N-NO3- - 21/57; N-NH4+ - 1,4/6,7; Nitrogênio Orgânico Dissolvido (NOD - 4,9/86,0; Nitrogênio Inorgânico Dissolvido (NID - 24,5/60,9; P-PO4(3 - - 0,43/1,66; Fósforo Orgânico Dissolvido (POD - 0,05/0,92; pH - 6,2/7,8; Oxigênio Dissolvido - 6,4/10,1; Condutividade - 48/74; Temperatura - 20,5/31,1 (Nutrientes - µM; Oxigênio Dissolvido - mg/l; Condutividade - µS/cm; Temperatura - °C. A vazão apresentou uma variação sazonal característica, com pico de descarga em janeiro. A elevação das concentrações de P-PO4(3 -, POD, N-NH4+ e N-NO2- com o aumento da vazão pode estar associada à inundação parcial de numerosas

  5. Resultado de partos domiciliares atendidos por enfermeiras de 2005 a 2009 em Florianópolis, SC Resultado de partos domiciliares atendidos por enfermeras de 2005 a 2009 en Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil Outcomes of planned home birth assisted by nurses, from 2005 to 2009, in Florianópolis, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Green Koettker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal sobre resultados obstétricos e neonatais dos partos domiciliares planejados assistidos por enfermeiras obstétricas em Florianópolis, SC. Dados coletados nos prontuários de 100 parturientes assistidas de 2005 a 2009 apontam 11 transferências hospitalares, sendo nove submetidas a cesariana. A maioria das que pariram no domicílio apresentou batimentos cardíacos fetais (94,0% e evolução no partograma normais (61,0%, adotou posição vertical na água, no período expulsivo (71,9%, e os recém-nascidos receberam Apgar do 5° minuto > 7 (98,9%. A frequência de episiotomia foi 1,0%, 49,4% não necessitaram sutura perineal. Os resultados indicam que o parto domiciliar é seguro.Estudio transversal sobre resultados obstétricos y neonatales de los partos domiciliares planificados asistidos por enfermeras obstétricas en Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil. Datos colectados en los prontuarios de 100 parturientas asistidas de 2005 a 2009, señalan 11 transferencias hospitalarias, siendo nueve sometidas a cesárea. La mayoría de las que parieron en el domicilio presentó pulsaciones cardíacas fetales (94,0% y evolución en el partograma normales (61,0%, adoptó posición vertical en el agua, en el período expulsivo (71,9%, y los recién nacidos recibieron Apgar al 5° minuto >7 (98,9%. La frecuencia de episiotomía fue 1,0%, 49,4% no necesitaron sutura perineal. Los resultados indican que el parto domiciliar es seguro.A cross-sectional study was performed to analyze obstetric and neonatal results of planned home births assisted by obstetric nurses in the city of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data collected from the medical records of 100 parturient women cared for between 2005 and 2009 indicated 11 hospital transfers, nine of which underwent a Cesarean section. The majority of women who had a home birth showed normal fetal heart beat (94.0% and progress on the partogram (61.0%, vertical water delivery was the position most

  6. Condições mais frequentes em um ambulatório de perícia neurológica The most common disorders in neurological clinic for medico-legal assessment of labour capacity at the Brazilian Social Security System (INSS in Florianópolis - SC, Brazil

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    Paulo Cesar Trevisol-Bittencourt

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as condições nosológicas vistas em perícia neurológica em um ambulatório de referência estadual do Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social (INSS, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, durante o período de outubro de 97 a maio de 98. MÉTODO: Revisão dos relatórios especializados das perícias solicitadas ao especialista em neurologia, com identificação dos diagnósticos finais dos 108 pacientes encaminhados para avaliação. RESULTADOS: Os diagnósticos mais comuns em ordem decrescente de frequência foram: epilepsia, doenças reumatológicas, distúrbios psiquiátricos, alterações neurológicas associadas a alcoolismo crônico, síndrome pós TCE e doença vascular cerebral. CONCLUSÕES: Doenças neurológicas podem determinar importante grau de incapacidade no trabalhador catarinense. Contudo, existe um subestimado potencial de recuperação funcional. Além disso, diversas condições não genuinamente neurológicas são encaminhadas para avaliação especializada.OBJECTIVE: To present the most frequent diagnosis among patients refered for neurological evaluation to estimate their labour capacities at the unit of National Institute of Social Security (INSS, Florianópolis-SC, southern Brazil. METHOD: Review of all medical records of 108 patients evaluated between October 97 and May 98. The sample was submited to judicious medico-legal assessment to define their final diagnosis. RESULTS: Neurological evaluation disclosed as the commonest disorders, in decreasing order of frequency: epilepsy, rheumatic diseases, psychiatric illnesses, neurological disorders related to chronic alcoholism, head trauma syndrome and cerebrovascular diseases. CONCLUSION: Neurological disorders may be responsible for important disability among workers in our society. However, the potential for social rehabilitation, often underestimated, must be considered. Moreover, diverse non-neurological conditions used to be sent for

  7. Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, A; Kumar, P; Dutta, S; Narang, A

    2001-06-01

    A severely growth retarded baby was born at 38 weeks gestation. He had multiple craniofacial anomalies, microbrachycephaly, phocomelia in the upper limbs and renal cysts visible on ultrasound. He died of recurrent apneas. The autopsy showed left sided multicystic dysplastic kidney and absence of one testis. Cytogenetic studies did not reveal any abnormality. The phenotypic features match those described in the Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome. A literature review revealed that 50% of these patients have chromosomal defects and antenatal detection is possible on ultrasound and by chromosome analysis of the amniocytes.

  8. Drift of ichthyoplankton in two channels of the Paraná River, between Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bialetzki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of drift of ichthyoplankton in two channels in the River Paraná, Brazil, were made. Sampling was undertaken from October 1995 to April 1996 during nychthemeral cycles. Water samples were collected to determine several environmental variables. Eggs densities largely differed to layers, times of day and months. In both the channels, highest occurrence of eggs was detected between January and March; greater concentrations at the bottom, during night. With regard to larvae, densities were significantly different in channels, times of days and months. Maximum occurrences were seen in the right channel, in both layers, with largest capture between January and March. Surface of the both channels presented highest density of larvae during night. Water temperature, electrical conductivity and flux velocity were different in the two channels, however, these variables and larvae density didn't showed correlations. This indicates that there was another possible factor, might be influencing the distribution of ichthyoplankton.Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a deriva do ictioplâncton em dois canais com diferentes condições de topografia e velocidade de fluxo, entre os estados do Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul (Brasil. As amostragens foram realizadas no período de outubro de 1995 a abril de 1996, durante ciclos nictemerais. Amostras de água foram coletadas para determinação de algumas variáveis ambientais. A densidade de ovos diferiu significativamente entre os estratos, horários e meses; sendo que em ambos os canais, as maiores ocorrências de ovos foram verificadas entre janeiro e março, com maiores concentrações no fundo durante o período noturno. Com relação as larvas, as densidades diferiram entre os canais, horários e meses. As maiores ocorrências foram observas no canal direito, em ambos estratos, com maior período de captura entre janeiro e março. A superfície dos canais apresentou as maiores densidades de larvas

  9. Light and scanning electron microscopy of Henneguya arapaima n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) and histology of infected sites in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas: Pisces: Arapaimidae) from the Araguaia River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, M M; Arana, S; Ceccarelli, P S; Adriano, E A

    2008-10-20

    In this report, we describe Henneguya arapaima n. sp., a parasite of the gill arch and gall bladder of Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) collected in the Araguaia River, in the municipality of Nova Crixás, Goiás State, central Brazil. The plasmodia were white, round or ellipsoidal and measured 200-600 microm. Parasite development was asynchronous and the mature spores were fusiform and had smooth wall. The spores measurements were (range, with means+/-S.D. in parentheses): total length-48.4-53.1 microm (51.6+/-3.4 microm), body length-13.5-15.2 microm (14.2+/-0.8 microm), body width-5.1-6.1 microm (5.7+/-0.5 microm), body thickness-4.7-5.3 microm (4.9+/-0.2 microm) and caudal process length-38.0-41.2 microm (38.3+/-2.9 microm). The polar capsules were elongated and of unequal size, with lengths of 6.3-6.8 microm (6.5+/-0.2) and 6.2-6.6 microm (6.3+/-0.1) for the longest and shortest axes, respectively. Capsule width was 1.4-1.6 microm (1.5+/-0.1). Histological analysis showed that the plasmodia occurred in the tunica adventitia of the gall bladder and were delimited by a thin capsule of connective tissue. In the gill arch, the plasmodia were also surrounded by connective tissue similar to the endomesium of striated skeletal muscle cells. Sixty-five juvenile specimens of A. gigas weighing 1.0-25.0 kg were examined, 17 (26.1%) of which were infected. Of these, 14 (82.3%) had cysts in the gall bladder, two (11.7%) had cysts in the gill arch and only one (5.9%) had cysts in both organs. When the fish were grouped by weight, the prevalence of infection in fish weighing up to 10.0 kg (20.7%) was significantly lower than in fish weighing 10.1-25.0 kg (50%) (G=3.93; d.f.=1; p<0.05).

  10. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.Atividade crepuscular de culicídeos (Diptera, Culicidae no peridomicílio e remanescentes de matas ciliares do Rio Tibagi. Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Mosquitos atraídos por humanos foram coletados por uma hora em torno do crepúsculo vespertino (meia hora antes e meia hora depois, de abril a dezembro de 2006, em dois locais (mata ciliar e peridomicílio na bacia do Rio Tibagi, município de Palmeira, Estado do Paraná. Foram capturados 749 mosquitos distribuídos em 13 espécies. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42,86% e Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40,59% foram as espécies mais freqüentes. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas entre as médias de indivíduos capturados entre os pontos de mata ciliar e peridomicílio para Ps. champerico (t = -0,792; g.l. = 16; p = 0

  11. The colours of Hubble Sc galaxy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskudaryan, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    The colorimetric data on the nuclei of the Sc galaxies are given. Comparison of the following parameters: color of a nucleus, integral color of a galaxy, Byurakan class, and spectral type of normal spirals gives the possibility to conclude: (1) The colors of the nuclei of the Sc galaxies have a high dispersion in its values. In all Byurakan classes the galaxies with intensely red and blue nuclei occur; (2) Some Sc galaxies exhibit a discrepancy between the spectral and morphological types. The results of colorimetry of nuclei indicate that almost all such Sc galaxies have intensely red nuclei which, naturally, provide for these late spectral types. It can be assumed that the intensely red color of the nuclei of such Sc galaxies is a result of a new type of activity of these nuclei; and (3) some Sc galaxies show the characteristics of the Markarian objects

  12. A new species of Jainus (Monogenea, gill parasite of Schizodon borellii (Characiformes, Anostomidae from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.6168 A new species of Jainus (Monogenea, gill parasite of Schizodon borellii (Characiformes, Anostomidae from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.6168

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Cezar Pavanelli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jainus piava n. sp. is described from the gills of Schizodon borellii (Boulenger, 1900 (Characiform, commonly named as piava from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. The new species differs from the other members of Jainus in the following features: ventral bar thin broadly V-shaped and male copulatory organ (MCO a coil of about 1.5 rings. Jainus piava n. sp. is similar to species of Jainus by having a ventral anchor base with flattened superficial root and elongate rodlike deep root.Jainus piava n. sp. is described from the gills of Schizodon borellii (Boulenger, 1900 (Characiform, commonly named as piava from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. The new species differs from the other members of Jainus in the following features: ventral bar thin broadly V-shaped and male copulatory organ (MCO a coil of about 1.5 rings. Jainus piava n. sp. is similar to species of Jainus by having a ventral anchor base with flattened superficial root and elongate rodlike deep root.

  13. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  14. Academic Training - Pulsed SC Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 2, 3, June 29, 30, 31 May, 1, 2 June 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Pulsed SC Magnets by M. Wilson Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mech...

  15. A reassessment of the suspended sediment load in the Madeira River basin from the Andes of Peru and Bolivia to the Amazon River in Brazil, based on 10 years of data from the HYBAM monitoring programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchel, Philippe; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean Loup; Moquet, Jean Sébastien; Martinez, Jean Michel; Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Baby, Patrice; Fuertes, Oscar; Noriega, Luis; Puita, Oscar; Sondag, Francis; Fraizy, Pascal; Armijos, Elisa; Cochonneau, Gérard; Timouk, Franck; de Oliveira, Eurides; Filizola, Naziano; Molina, Jorge; Ronchail, Josyane

    2017-10-01

    The Madeira River is the second largest tributary of the Amazon River. It contributes approximately 13% of the Amazon River flow and it may contribute up to 50% of its sediment discharge to the Atlantic Ocean. Until now, the suspended sediment load of the Madeira River was not well known and was estimated in a broad range from 240 to 715 Mt yr-1. Since 2002, the HYBAM international network developed a new monitoring programme specially designed to provide more reliable data than in previous intents. It is based on the continuous monitoring of a set of 11 gauging stations in the Madeira River watershed from the Andes piedmont to the confluence with the Amazon River, and discrete sampling of the suspended sediment concentration every 7 or 10 days. This paper presents the results of the suspended sediment data obtained in the Madeira drainage basin during 2002-2011. The Madeira River suspended sediment load is estimated at 430 Mt yr-1 near its confluence with the Amazon River. The average production of the Madeira River Andean catchment is estimated at 640 Mt yr-1 (±30%), the corresponding sediment yield for the Andes is estimated at 3000 t km-2 yr-1 (±30%), and the average denudation rate is estimated at 1.20 mm yr-1 (±30%). Contrary to previous results that had mentioned high sedimentation rates in the Beni River floodplain, we detected no measurable sedimentation process in this part of the basin. On the Mamoré River basin, we observed heavy sediment deposition of approximately 210 Mt yr-1 that seem to confirm previous studies. But while these studies mentioned heavy sedimentation in the floodplain, we showed that sediment deposition occurred mainly in the Andean piedmont and immediate foreland in rivers (Parapeti, Grande, Pirai, Yapacani, Chimoré, Chaparé, Secure, Maniqui) with discharges that are not sufficiently large to transport their sediment load downstream in the lowlands.

  16. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  17. Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

  18. Relation between environmental variables and the fish community structure in streams of das Mortes and Xingu river basins – MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscylla Rodrigues Matos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental variables may determine and structure the composition of fish fauna. Studies comparing differences between physical and chemical variables of water between close river basins are few. This paper aimed to check which limnological variables are related to the distribution of fish species in two river basins. For this, 20 streams were sampled, divided between das Mortes and Xingu river basins. At each point one measured a total of 8 environmental variables. Fishes were collected through trawl. Total richness was 57 species, 29 of them from Xingu river basin, 35 from das Mortes river basin, and 7 species common to both river basins. The analyses showed that the streams in these two basins have distinct limnological and faunal features. The streams in Xingu river basin had lower pH values which may have been influenced by the high rates of organic decomposition. The streams of das Mortes river showed higher values of suspended matter and chlorophyll, probably due to higher degradation of streams and lower vegetation cover levels.

  19. Alimentação complementar e características maternas de crianças menores de dois anos de idade em Florianópolis (SC Complementary feeding and maternal characteristics of children younger than two years old in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Elizabeth Nappi Corrêa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre o período de introdução de alimentos complementares e características socioeconômicas maternas e biológicas de crianças menores de dois anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 516 mães de crianças com menos de dois anos de idade entrevistadas no dia da Campanha Nacional de Vacinação em Unidades de Saúde de 2004 na cidade de Florianópolis (SC. Foram coletados dados sobre a época de introdução de alimentos complementares e características socioeconômicas maternas e biológicas da criança. A análise de regressão logística múltipla foi aplicada para verificar a associação da introdução de cada tipo de alimento com as características estudadas. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que, dentre as crianças menores de dois anos de idade, apenas 28,7% haviam recebido aleitamento materno exclusivo até os seis meses e, dentre as crianças que estavam com menos de seis meses no momento da pesquisa, apenas 49,6% estavam recebendo aleitamento materno exclusivo. Observou-se, ainda, que 80% das crianças receberam fruta, 77,5% receberam suco natural associados ao aleitamento materno e 36,8% receberam leite modificado, em substituição ao aleitamento materno, antes de completarem seis meses de idade. A análise de regressão multivariada identificou que as mães com menor grau de escolaridade e que trabalhavam fora de casa apresentaram mais chance de introduzir precocemente alimentos aos seus filhos. CONCLUSÕES: Baixa escolaridade materna e atividade fora do lar se associaram à introdução precoce de alimentos.OBJECTIVE: In children younger than two years old, to verify the association between complementary food introduction, socioeconomic characteristics of mothers and biological characteristics of children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 516 mothers of children younger than two years old who were interviewed during 2004 national campaign for vaccination in health care clinics of Florian

  20. Conhecimento popular e utilização dos medicamentos genéricos na população do município de Tubarão, SC General awareness and use of generic medication among citizens of Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Raquel Blatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora os genéricos tenham sido introduzidos no país para oferecer alternativa mais acessível aos medicamentos de referência, representam apenas 14% das vendas em unidades no conjunto do mercado farmacêutico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar o nível de conhecimento e o grau de utilização de genéricos em residentes do município de Tubarão, SC. Para isso, realizou-se um estudo transversal com uma amostra de 234 entrevistados, estratificada por bairro. Quanto ao grau de utilização, a maioria dos entrevistados já havia utilizado genéricos, e metade possuía pelo menos um exemplar dessa opção em casa. Para verificar o conhecimento sobre os diferentes tipos de medicamentos, realizou-se um teste de identificação de figuras de embalagens representativas das versões genérico, de referência e similar do paracetamol e do atenolol, 91,0% dos sujeitos identificaram corretamente todas as figuras. Ser de classe econômica mais elevada, já ter utilizado medicamento genérico, acreditar que o genérico tem o mesmo efeito que o medicamento de referência, encontrar medicamentos genéricos nas farmácias com facilidade e costumar comprar o genérico foram fatores associados positivamente com a identificação correta.Although generic medication has been introduced in the country to offer an accessible alternative to brand-name medication, it represents only 14% of sales in number of units within the pharmaceutical market. The aim of this work was to research the level of awareness and the use of generic products among residents of the municipality of Tubarão, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. A transversal study was carried out with a sample of 234 interviewees, distributed among municipal areas. With regard to use, the majority of those interviewed had used generic medication, and half of them had at least one such product in their home. To verify awareness of different types of medication, pictures with the generic, brand name and

  1. Determining Regional Actual Evapotranspiration of Irrigated Crops and Natural Vegetation in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil Using Remote Sensing and Penman-Monteith Equation

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    Antônio H. de C. Teixeira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve sustainable development and to ensure water availability in hydrological basins, water managers need tools to determine the actual evapotranspiration (ET on a large scale. Field energy balances from irrigated and natural ecosystems together with a net of agro-meteorological stations were used to develop two models for ET quantification at basin scale, based on the Penman-Monteith equation. The first model (PM1 uses the resistances to the latent heat fluxes estimated from satellite measurements, while the second one (PM2 is based on the ratio of ET to the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 and its relation to remote sensing parameters. The models were applied in the Low-Middle São Francisco river basin in Brazil and, after comparison against field results, showed good agreements with PM1 and PM2 explaining, respectively, 79% and 89% of the variances and mean square errors (RMSE of 0.44 and 0.34 mm d−1. Even though the PM1 model was not chosen for ET calculations, the equation for surface resistance (rs was applied to infer the soil moisture conditions in a simplified vegetation classification. The maximum values of rs were for natural vegetation—caatinga (average of 1,937 s m−1. Wine grape and mango orchard presented similar values around 130 s m−1, while table grape presented the lowest ones, averaging 74 s m−1. Petrolina and Juazeiro, in Pernambuco (PE and Bahia (BA states, respectively, were highlighted with the biggest irrigated areas. The highest increments are for vineyards and mango orchards. For the first crop the maximum increment was verified between 2003 and 2004 in Petrolina-PE, when the cultivated area increased 151%. In the case of mango orchards the most significant period was from 2005 to 2006 in Juazeiro-BA (129%. As the best performance was for PM2, it was selected and used to analyse the regional ET at daily and annual scales, making use of Landsat images and a geographic information system for different

  2. Differential environmental impacts on small and medium size rivers from center of São Paulo State, Brazil, and regional management perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Caroline dos Reis Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate, comparatively, the influence of distinct environmental impacts in the watershed on the rivers Capivara, Lavapés, Araquá and Pardo and the transference of effects downstream. METHODS: The limnological/water quality study was carried out in rainy (March/2007 and dry (September/2007 seasons, considering 17 sampling stations. RESULTS: Variables such as channel width and depth, water velocity and temperature increased towards the river's mouth; water transparency, velocity and dissolved oxygen were higher in the upstream regions. Light penetration was total at most sampling stations and pH was predominantly acid. The sampling stations impacted by pollution sources, Lavapés and Araquá Rivers, exhibited higher values of electric conductivity, suspended solids, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, total dissolved phosphorus, BOD, and thermotolerant coliforms. Higher values of electric conductivity, turbidity and suspended solids were observed in the rainy season, whereas higher chlorophyll concentrations occurred in the dry season. The Lavapés River exhibits the worst environmental condition, while Capivara River is under better state of conservation. This study shows that it is urgent the implementation of measures for preservation and restoration of these regional aquatic ecosystems. All studied rivers were influenced by seasonal variation, sewage discharges and by watershed use and occupation. The TSI is a good analysis tool. The studied rivers export organic matter and TN, TP and SS loads to Tietê and Paranapanema rivers. CONCLUSIONS: This study show the importance of river management and that the accelerated degradation of the river systems indicates the little progress of the Brazilian legislation in terms of preservation and good management practices and that the interface between science, law, management and conservation need to be improved.

  3. Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Voznyak, O.M.; Bodak, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Phase equilibria in Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems are investigated at 1070 K. Sc 2+x W 3-x Si 4 ternary compound (0≤x≤1) is determined, its crystal structure (Ce 2 Sc 3 Si 4 structural type), as well as, change of elementary cell parameters and microhardness within homogeneity range are determined. Regularities of component interaction within Sc-M-Si(Ge) (M-Cr, Mo, W) ternary system are determined. Ternary systems with Mo and W are more closer to each other according to the phase equilibria character, than to ternary systems with Cr

  4. Functional groups of entomofauna associated to aquatic macrophytes in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i1.7822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sabino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the structure of functional groups of entomofauna associated to aquatic macrophytes in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Six samples were taken in different seasonal periods; ebb, dry and wet. The organisms were collected using D net (300 m mesh, sweeping five times through the roots of macrophyte banks at each sample session. Three environments were compared (open, intermediary, close using data from six collection sites, through which were analyzed absolute abundance, observed richness of families and the sampled specimens were also separated in functional groups. A total of 60 families from 12 orders of Insecta were registered, totaling 19,773 sampled insects. The largest number of families was categorized into predators functional group, with 34 families collected, followed by the collectors with 17, shredders-herbivores ten and scrapers eight.

  5. SC-FDMA for mobile communications

    CERN Document Server

    Abd El-Samie, Fathi E

    2013-01-01

    SC-FDMA for Mobile Communications examines Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA). Explaining this rapidly evolving system for mobile communications, it describes its advantages and limitations and outlines possible solutions for addressing its current limitations. The book explores the emerging trend of cooperative communication with SC-FDMA and how it can improve the physical layer security. It considers the design of distributed coding schemes and protocols for wireless relay networks where users cooperate to send their data to the destination. Supplying you with the re

  6. [The endoparasitic helminths of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the two localities (Lagoon and gutter of the River) of the Guandu River, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Marcia C; Santos, Michelle D; Monteiro, Cassandra M; Martins, Amanda N; Ederli, Nicole B; Brasil-Sato, Marilia C

    2008-09-01

    Between November 2003 and March 2004, fourty specimens of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 from Guandu River and thirty-nine from Guandu Lagoon (Nova Iguaçu, RJ) were collected, for the analysis of endoparasitic fauna. A total of 236 specimens of Cucullanus pinnai Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928 (Nematoda, Cucullanidae) were collected, being 163 adult specimens in the gut, three in the stomach and 70 larvae in the celomatic cavity and seven specimens of adults Nomimoscolex sp. (Eucestoda, Proteocephalidea) in the gut were found. Cucullanus pinnai presented prevalence (P) 77.50%, mean intensity (MI) 3.40 and mean abundance (MA) 2.60 on River and P: 66.67%, MI: 5.04, MA: 3.36 on Lagoon. Nomimoscolex sp. presented on River P: 2.50%, MI: 2.00, MA: 0.05, and P: 10.26%, MI: 1.25, MA: 0.13 on Lagoon. There was not significant positive interspecific association on the lagoon. In this research, the endoparasitic richness of P. maculatus was scarcest than similar studies in Guandu River and others rivers of different basins. The results about C. pinnai could be suggesting that the cycle of C. pinnai evolve only a host, occurring a histotrophic fase, in this case, in P. maculatus. Periodic analysis of the endoparasites indices in P. maculatus through the years may be used to describe the hydric quality of the Guandu River.

  7. Application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of total mercury and other elements of interest in soil and sediment samples from Serra do Navio and Vila Nova River Basin, Amapa, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Cristina

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is presented a survey on total mercury determination by a radiochemical method in sediment and soil samples from two regions, in the state of Amapa: Serra do Navio (background area) and Vila Nova river basin (gold mining area). The method consisted in leaching of the irradiated samples with acqua regia in a Parr bomb, and heating in microwave oven, for one minute. Then the solvent extraction technique was applied, using bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate (Bi(DDC) 3 ) as extractant agent. The organic phase, containing 197 Hg and 203 Hg radioisotopes, was measured in a gamma spectrometer with hyper pure Ge detector. This method eliminated the interference of the 279.54 keV photopeak of 75 Se on 279.2 keV photopeak of 203 Hg, besides improving counting statistics of both Hg radioisotopes. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Ho, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr were also determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two irradiation series were carried out to quantify these elements in soil and sediment samples; a short term irradiation allowed to evaluate Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V levels, and by long term irradiation, the other elements were determined. Precision and accuracy of radiochemical procedure were verified by means of analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment and Lake Sediment, for sediments and GXR-5, for soils. For the instrumental analysis, the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment, Soil 7, JB-1 and Oyster Tissue were used. The samples were also submitted to X ray diffraction, in Instituto de Geoscience-USP, to observe mercury behaviour with mineralogy. Aluminium concentration was determined by X ray fluorescence method, in the Department of Materials, IPEN/CNEN-SP, making possible enrichment factor calculation so that mercurial contamination in the gold mining area (Vila Nova river basin) could be evaluated. The mercury levels obtained in this

  8. Weight-of-evidence on environmental impact assessment of metal contaminated sediments in the São Francisco river (Três Marias - Minas Gerais - Brazil: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF. Almeida

    Full Text Available The weight-of-evidence - WOE approach was used to assess the environmental impact of sediments contaminated by metals in the São Francisco river and one of its tributaries, Consciência creek, both affected by anthropic activities, in the region of Três Marias (Minas Gerais/Brazil. The assessment provided support to a risk management decision. The WOE was based on bulk metal analysis, AVS-SEM assays, elutriate tests, ecotoxicity assays, benthic community assessment and a comparison for the reference area. Brazilian legislation and other available literature were used as criteria to evaluate the lines of evidence. All samples, except for the reference area, presented some contamination. However, geochemical testing for bioavailability studies showed that toxicity is unlikely as suggested by the chemical results. Ecotoxicity and benthic structure studies provided further information to support decision making. Metal acid volatile sulfide formation mechanisms were identified, which can eventually attenuate metal toxicity observed. The removal of active sources of contamination (for example, from tailings dumps associated with Monitoring Natural Recovery could be sufficient to eventually lessen the risk of the biota in São Francisco river sediments.

  9. Helmintos parasitos do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae, no rio Araguaia, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Helminth parasites of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. C. dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 65 exemplares de pirarucu em agosto de 2004, provenientes do rio Araguaia, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil para o estudo dos seus helmintos parasitos. Cinco espécies foram registradas parasitando Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea nas brânquias, Nilonema senticosum e Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda na vesícula gasosa e no estômago respectivamente; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea e Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala no intestino. Os valores mais altos de prevalência foram observados para D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96,9%. Os maiores valores de intensidade e abundância média foram calculados para C. brasiliense e N. senticosum (61 e 46,9, respectivamente. Todas estas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez na Bacia do Rio Araguaia.Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%. Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively. All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.

  10. Zooplankton abundance in the River Kars, Northeast Turkey: Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Turkey: Impact of environmental variables. H. Özbay1* and ... in the river. Key words: River Kars, zooplankton, running water, environmental factors. ..... tergestina (Branchiopoda: Onychopoda) in Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Braz.

  11. METHODOLOGY FOR AUTOMATICALLY DELIMITING PERMANENT PRESERVATION AREAS ALONG WATER COURSES - THE USE OF GIS IN THE HYDROLOGICAL BASIN OF THE SERGIPE RIVER, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janisson Batista de Jesus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along watercourses have been the focus of numerous studies, not only because of the fragility and ecological relevance of riverine vegetation, but also because of the inefficiency demonstrated in conforming to the legislation protecting it. One of the major difficulties encountered in terms of guaranteeing the effective conservation of these riverside areas is the absence of methodologies that can be used to define them rapidly and accurately without manually determining the widths of the rivers or assigning only uniform linear values for the entire watercourse. The present work sought to develop a spatial analysis methodology capable of automatically defining permanent preservation areas along watercourses using geographic information system (GIS software. The present study was undertaken in the Sergipe River basin, "considering the river itself and its principal affluents. We used the database of the Digital Atlas of Hydrological Resources (SEMARH/SE, and the delimitations of the PPAs were performed using ArcGIS 10.1 and the XToolPro 9.0 extension. A total of 5,003.82 hectares of Permanent Preservation Areas were delimited along the margins of the rivers analyzed, with a margin of error of <1% in delimiting the widths of the rivers within the entire area considered. The methodology described here can be used to define PPAs efficiently, relatively rapidly, and with very small margins of error, thus representing a technological advance in terms of using GIS for land management.

  12. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head..., SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost tip of Folley Island to the... easternmost extremity of Hilton Head at latitude 32°13.0′ N. longitude 80°40.1′ W. [CGD 77-118a, 42 FR 35784...

  13. Seasonal variation in larval density of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae in the Iguaçu and Paraná rivers, in the region of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The larval density of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae was monitored from January 2005 to February 2006 at two points along the Paraná and the Iguaçu Rivers, near Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brazil. The results indicated two density peaks in the Paraná River: a lower peak between March and June and a higher peak in October. In the Iguaçu River, the values were much lower, yet they also showed a peak between September and October. A reduction in the reproductive activity was observed in both the rivers between July and August. The average larval density at the collection point in the Paraná reached 948.5 larvae/m³, with a peak of 2,999.5 larvae/m³ in October. The present study represented the first quantification of the larval density of L. fortunei in the lower reaches of the Iguaçu River, downstream of the Iguaçu falls.A densidade larval do molusco invasor Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae foi monitorada entre janeiro de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006 em dois pontos dos rios Paraná e Iguaçu, na região de Foz do Iguaçu, PR. Os resultados registraram dois picos de densidade no rio Paraná: entre março e junho e um maior em outubro. No rio Iguaçu, os valores foram muito inferiores, mas também com um pico entre setembro-outubro. Em ambos os rios foi verificada uma pausa reprodutiva entre os meses de julho-agosto. A densidade média de larvas de L. fortunei no ponto amostrado no rio Paraná chegou a 948.5 larvas/m³, com pico de 2.999,5 larvas/m³ em outubro. O presente estudo representa a primeira quantificação da densidade larval de L. fortunei no rio Iguaçu, a jusante das Cataratas do Iguaçu.

  14. Decision support for the management of water resources at Sub-middle of the São Francisco river basin in Brazil using integrated hydro-economic modeling and scenarios for land use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, M. G. A.; Souza da Silva, G.

    2016-12-01

    Hydro-economic models can measure the economic effects of different operating rules, environmental restrictions, ecosystems services, technical constraints and institutional constraints. Furthermore, water allocation can be improved by considering economical criteria's. Likewise, climate and land use change can be analyzed to provide resilience. We developed and applied a hydro-economic optimization model to determine the optimal water allocation of main users in the Lower-middle São Francisco River Basin in Northeast (NE) Brazil. The model uses demand curves for the irrigation projects, small farmers and human supply, rather than fixed requirements for water resources. This study analyzed various constraints and operating alternatives for the installed hydropower dams in economic terms. A seven-year period (2000-2006) with water scarcity in the past has been selected to analyze the water availability and the associated optimal economic water allocation. The used constraints are technical, socioeconomic and environmental. The economically impacts of scenarios like prioritizing human consumption, impacts of the implementation of the São Francisco river transposition, human supply without high distribution losses, environmental hydrographs, forced reservoir level control, forced reduced reservoir capacity, alteration of lower flow restriction were analyzed. The results in this period show that scarcity costs related ecosystem service and environmental constraints are significant, and have major impacts (increase of scarcity cost) for consumptive users like irrigation projects. In addition, institutional constraints such as prioritizing human supply, minimum release limits downstream of the reservoirs and the implementation of the transposition project impact the costs and benefits of the two main economic sectors (irrigation and power generation) in the region of the Lower-middle of the São Francisco river basin. Scarcity costs for irrigation users generally

  15. Hidrogeochemical comparative study of the Jaú and Jacaré-Guaçu River watersheds, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, A. D. G. de; TUNDISI, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    The main subject of the present work was to carry out a hydrochemistry comparative study between two river basins in São Paulo State: the Jacaré-Guaçu Basin (21°37'-22°22'S and 47°43'-48°57'W) and the Jaú Basin (22°09'-22°28'S and 48°16'-48°47'W). Nine sampling points in the Jacaré-Guaçu River and eight in the Jaú River were established. The water sampling was performed once each two months from March/95 to September/95. The following variables were analyzed: temperature (°C), pH, conductivit...

  16. Integrated assessment of chemical quality and genotoxicity of the water of the Luiz Rau Stream in the lower stretch of the Sinos River Basin, in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Tamires Petry; Gustavo Marques da Costa; Tatiane Benvenuti; Marco Antônio Siqueira Rodrigues; Annette Droste

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the chemical quality and genotoxicity of the water of the Luiz Rau Stream in Novo Hamburgo (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) and investigated the relationship between the genetic damage observed in Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea and the chemical parameters analyzed. Water samplings were collected bimonthly from September 2012 to March 2013 from two sites, near the headspring (S1) and near the mouth (S2). Cuttings with flower buds were exposed to water from the sites and dist...

  17. Excesso de peso e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em adolescentes de Florianópolis, SC Exceso de peso y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en adolescentes de Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil Overweight and health-related quality of life in adolescents of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Kunkel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de adolescentes e sua associação com o excesso de peso. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 467 adolescentes de 15 a 18 anos de idade de uma escola pública de Florianópolis, SC, e de seus respectivos pais, realizado em 2007. Sobrepeso e obesidade foram definidos pelo índice de massa corporal. A combinação de sobrepeso e obesidade foi considerada como excesso de peso. A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde foi avaliada por meio do questionário sobre qualidade de vida pediátrica PedsQL 4.0, versões adolescente e pais. Análises dos dados incluíram estatística descritiva e regressão logística com estimação de razões de chances brutas e ajustadas. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta entre adolescentes foi de 99,4% e entre os pais 53,4%. As prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade foram de 12,2% e 3,6%, respectivamente. O grupo com excesso de peso obteve menores escores de qualidade de vida que o grupo sem excesso de peso, exceto para o domínio emocional nos adolescentes e na saúde psicossocial para os pais. Após o ajuste, a chance de um adolescente com excesso de peso ter baixa qualidade de vida foi 3,54 vezes (IC 95% 1,94;6,47 maior que um adolescente sem excesso de peso. Adolescentes do sexo feminino apresentaram escores mais baixos de qualidade de vida. CONCLUSÕES: A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde foi significativamente mais baixa em adolescentes com excesso de peso. Medidas dirigidas ao controle de peso na população adolescente e instrumentos de avaliação de qualidade de vida constituem-se importantes aliados para um melhor e mais completo entendimento deste importante problema de saúde pública.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de adolescentes y su asociación con exceso de peso. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con 467 adolescentes de 15 a 18 años de edad de una escuela pública de Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil, y de sus

  18. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-01-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  19. Application of remote sensing data to land use and land cover assessment in the Tubarao River coastal plain, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    By means of aerial photography and MSS-LANDSAT data a land use/land cover classification was applied to the Tubarao River coastal plain. The following classes were identified: coal related areas, permanently flooded wetlands, periodically flooded wetlands, agricultural lands, bare soils, water bodies, urban areas, forestlands.

  20. Contribution to the study of the weathering rate of minerals and rocks in the drainage basin of the Paraguacu river - Bahia - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, A.B.

    1978-12-01

    The concentrations of Na + , Mg ++ , Ca ++ , K + , SiO 2 , SO sup(=) 4 , alcalinity and pH have been determined for twenty-nine surface water samples of the Paraguacu river drainage basin, mainly in the Utinga River sub-basin. The stable isotope ratio of carbon 13 C/ 12 C as well as concentration of 14 C was determined for some samples. The ion influence on local aerosol chemistry has also been subtracted from all samples. The analytical results were used to determine the current rate of weathering the rocks of this region and study the sources of dissolved carbon in this water. The analysis of the data shows that weathering processes are influenced by the local lithology. The data from them Utinga river suggests that dissolution of limestone contributes a large percentage of ions. The influence of groundwater in the river flow also brings high concentrations of Na + , Mg ++ and Ca ++ ions from aerosols, presumeably concentrated by evapo-transpiration. The presence of aerosols in the samples used is remarkable, the contribution of salts from silicate weathering is rather small. It is proposed that the dissolution of limestone and decomposition of organic matter might explain the origin of carbon in some of the samples but others appear to have suffered equilibration with atmospheric CO 2 . (Author) [pt

  1. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from Tiete river between Salesopolis and Suzano, SP (Brazil); Avaliacao ecotoxicologica de sedimentos do rio Tiete, entre os municipios de Salesopolis e Suzano, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, Gabriel Fonseca

    2009-07-01

    Once introduced into the aquatic environment, many substances can bind or be adsorbed by organic particles in suspension. Depending on the river morphology and hydrological conditions, these particles in suspension containing the contaminants can be deposited along its course, becoming part of the bottom sediments, making them actual sinks and often a source of contamination for the water column and benthic organisms. In the assessment of water, sediment has been one of the most important indicators of the contamination levels in aquatic ecosystems, representing the deposition of contaminants in the environment that occurred over the years and even decades. The Tiete River cross the Sao Paulo state, however, in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, the river shows the most severe degradation. In the region of Salesopolis, the waters of the Tiete River are used for public supply, but across the city of Mogi das Cruzes the water quality decreases significantly. Considering the importance of the Tiete river and the sediment for the aquatic biota, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of the sediment at five points along the Tiete river, between the cities of Salesopolis and Suzano, Sao Paulo. Four sampling were carried out: two in the summer (rainy season) and two in winter (dry season). The whole sediment was assessed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia, respectively, the elutriate was assessed by chronic toxicity test using C. dubia, while the porewater was evaluated by acute toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri. Samples of river water were also evaluated for chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia. The quantification of metals and hydrocarbons in sediment samples was also carried out in order to correlate the biological effects with the chemical contamination. The obtained results with the whole sediment test indicate Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano cities as the most toxic sites and also as the sites with the highest

  2. Hafnium and neodymium isotopes and REY distribution in the truly dissolved, nanoparticulate/colloidal and suspended loads of rivers in the Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Schmidt, Katja; Münker, Carsten; Dantas, Elton L.

    2017-09-01

    Radiogenic isotopes in river sediments and river waters have been widely used in provenance studies, as these samples naturally integrate the geology/chemistry of the entire catchment. While the Hf and Nd isotope systems are coupled during igneous processes, they are decoupled during supergene processes at the Earth's surface, which is reflected by the isotope composition of riverine sediments. We present the first data for both Hf and Nd isotope compositions of the dissolved (0.2 μm-filtrates rich in nanoparticles and colloids, NPCs) and the truly dissolved (1 kDa-ultrafiltrates) load of rivers. Hafnium and Nd isotope compositions and concentrations of the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) and Hf were determined for suspended particles (>0.2 μm) as well as for the dissolved and the truly dissolved load of the Rio Solimões, the Amazon's largest tributary draining the Andes, and of the Rio Negro, an organic NPC- and particle-rich river draining the rainforest of northern Amazonia. We also analyzed the Nd isotope compositions of suspended sediments and 0.2 μm-filtered water samples from the Amazon River and its tributaries Rio Tapajos, Rio Xingu and Rio Jari. Our novel results clearly show that the decoupling of the Hf and Nd isotope systems is related to incongruent weathering processes on the continent, as this decoupling can already be observed in the different Hf and Nd pools, i.e. in the particulate, the NPC-dominated dissolved and the truly dissolved load of rivers. In the Rio Negro and Rio Solimões, a strong particle size-dependent difference in Hf isotope composition is observed. Values of εHf become more radiogenic as filter poresize decreases, which can be related to the density- and size-dependent distribution of Hf-rich minerals, e.g. zircons, and their absence from the truly dissolved pool. In contrast, the Nd isotope composition of Amazonian river waters reflects that of their catchment geology. Tributaries draining the Precambrian Brazilian and

  3. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Araújo

    Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.

  4. Structure and bonding of ScCN and ScNC: Ground and low-lying states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalemos, Apostolos; Metropoulos, Aristophanes; Mavridis, Aristides

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The experimentally unknown systems ScCN and ScNC have been studied through single reference CISD and CCSD(T) methods. A total of 20 = 10 (ScCN) + 10 (ScNC) states were examined. All states are quite ionic whereas ScNC(X ∼3 Δ) is stabler than ScCN(X ∼3 Δ) by ∼5 kcal/mol. Display Omitted Highlights: ► We have studied through ab initio methods the polytopic system Sc[CN]. ► A series of low lying states for both isomeric forms have been examined. ► Around equilibrium the system displays a pronounced Sc + [CN] − ionic character. - Abstract: We have studied the experimentally unknown Sc[CN] molecular system in both its isomeric forms, scandium cyanide (ScCN) and isocyanide (ScNC), through ab initio computations. We report energetics, geometries, harmonic frequencies, and dipole moments for the first 20 Sc[CN] states correlating diabatically to Sc + ( 3 D, 1 D, 3 F) + CN − (X 1 Σ + ). Both isomers have a pronounced ionic character around equilibrium due to the high electron affinity of the CN group and the low ionization energy of the Sc atom. According to our calculations the ScNC isomer (X ∼3 Δ) is stabler than the ScCN(X ∼3 Δ) by ∼5 kcal/mol.

  5. PAH Baselines for Amazonic Surficial Sediments: A Case of Study in Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Northern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Camila Carneiro Dos Santos; Santos, Ewerton; Ramos, Brunalisa Silva; Damasceno, Flaviana Cardoso; Correa, José Augusto Martins

    2018-06-01

    The 16 priority PAH were determined in sediment samples from the insular zone of Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Southern Amazon River mouth). Low hydrocarbon levels were observed and naphthalene was the most representative PAH. The low molecular weight PAH represented 51% of the total PAH. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling sites are not significantly different. Source analysis by PAH ratios and principal component analysis revealed that PAH are primary from a few rate of fossil fuel combustion, mainly related to the local small community activity. All samples presented no biological stress or damage potencial according to the sediment quality guidelines. This study discuss baselines for PAH in surface sediments from Amazonic aquatic systems based on source determination by PAH ratios and principal component analysis, sediment quality guidelines and through comparison with previous studies data.

  6. Digenea, Nematoda, Cestoda, and Acanthocephala, parasites in Potamotrygonidae (Chondrichthyes from the upper Paraná River floodplain, states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavanelli, G. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents the first study on the endoparasitic fauna of Potamotrygon falkneri and P.motoro in the upper Paraná River floodplain. Fishes were collected by fishing rod and gillnetting in different stations ofthe floodplain, from March, 2005 to September, 2006. Parasites were sampled, fixed and preserved according tospecialized literature. About half of the analyzed fish were parasitized by at least one of the following species ofendoparasites: Clinostomum complanatum, Genarchella sp. and Tylodelphys sp. (metacercaria (Digenea;Acanthobothrium regoi, Rhinebothrium paratrygoni, Paroncomegas araya and Potamotrygonocestus travassosi(Cestoidea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (larva, Cucullanus sp., Echinocephalus sp. and Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda; andQuadrigyrus machadoi (Acanthocephala. Some species were already registered in Chondrichthyes and others werepreviously recorded in Osteichthyes from the study area. The study listed ten new records of parasites in the host P.falkneri, one new record in the host P. motoro and five new records in the locality upper Paraná River.

  7. Study of human occupation impacts in the Batedor river basin in the Mantiqueira Mountain in the municipal district of Cruzeiro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrographic basins as territorial units integrating the management of hydric resources is essential to guarantee sustainable use of natural resources in these basins. The establishment of the Paraíba do Sul hydrographic basins committee, in 1994, determined the need for management planning and action integration in the Paraíba do Sul basin which incorporates a variety of industries and intense land use. The Batedor river, in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, flows into the Passa Vinte which is an affluent of Paraíba do Sul river. Its mouth is located at 22°31’0.63”S and 45°01’2.07”W. Its farthest water contributing source lies about 8.5 km, near the Itaguaré peak 2,308 m high, in the Mantiqueira Mountain on the border of São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. To characterize land use in the Batedor hydrographic basin, Landsat imagery and topographic charts were analyzed based on remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. This paper describes the study of impacts related to land and water resources use in the Batedor river basin and the generation of educational environmental material. Results have shown that this basin has good water supply, has no flooding risk and has several springs running down the Mantiqueira Moutain slopes that form young creeks with few meanders. Irregular human occupation for housing and subsistence agriculture, mainly banana plantations can be seen in deep slopes and riparian areas, as well as degraded pastures that indicate inappropriate land use and no conformance to pertinent legislation. The decrease in forest vegetation cover can cause severe erosion with significant soil loss and sediment deposition in the river, thus reducing water quality and quantity during the dry season. This basin is currently responsible for 70% of the Cruzeiro, SP water supply.

  8. Using Google Earth Engine To Apply Spectral Mixture Analysis Over Landsat 5TM Imagery To Map Fire Scars In The Alto Teles Pires River Basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The two most extensive biomes in Brazil, the Amazon Forest and the Cerrado (the Brazilian savanna), are subject to many fire events every dry season. Both biomes are well-known for their ecological and environmental importance but, due to the intensive human occupation over the last decades, they have been experiencing high deforestation rates with much of their natural landscape being converted to agriculture and pasture uses. The Cerrado, as a savanna, has naturally evolved adapted to fire. According to some researchers, this biome has been exposed to fire for the last 25 million years, forging the diversification of many C4 grass species, for example. The Amazon forest does not have similar characteristics and studies have shown that forest areas that have been already burned become more prone to recurrent burns. Forest patches that are close to open areas have their edges exposed to higher insolation and greater turbulence, drying the understory vegetation and litter, turning those areas more susceptible to fire events. In cases where grass species become established in the understory they can be a renewable source of fuel for recurrent burns. This study aimed to identify and map fire scars present in the region of Alto Teles Pires river basin, State of Mato Grosso - Brazil, during 10 years (2002-2011). This region is located in the transition zone between the two biomes and is known for its high deforestation rates. By taking advantage of the Landsat 5TM imagery collection present in Google Earth Engine platform as well as applying Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) techniques over them it was possible to estimate fractions of Green Vegetation (GV), Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation (NPV), and Soil targets, which are the surfaces that compose the vast majority of the landscape in the study region. Iteratively running SMA analysis over the imagery using burned vegetation endmembers allowed us to further identify fire scars present in the region, returning excellent

  9. Pantanal of Cáceres: granulometric composition of bottom sediments in the Paraguay River between the outfall of the Cabaçal River and the city of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Roberto dos Santos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to verify the granulometric composition of bottom sediments along the longitudinal profile of the Paraguay River between the outfall of the Cabaçal River and the city of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, comprised by the geographic coordinates 15°58’00’’ and 16°50’00’’ South Latitude and 57°40’00’’ and 57°44’00’’ West Longitude. Work activity was conducted to characterize the sites and sediments collection with Van Veen sediment sampler (seven samples; textural analysis of the sediments by the pipetting and sieving method (the method uses a combination of sieving and sedimentation. The Paraguay River exhibits a meandering style with two distinct periods (periodic flooding regime and drought that associated with of bottom sediments alternate processes of erosion, transport and deposition from the discernible changes in the complex landscaping. Thus, the concentration of sand in the bed load transported in the channel (five samples is related to environmental elements and land use. The fine sediments are transferred to the features (bays and ponds and flood plain; the intense fluvial dynamics and the course (alluvial deposition areas contribute to changes in channel and morphologic features (capacity transport and sediment depositions.

  10. Hydro energetic inventory study from Chapecozinho river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, S.C.; Sureck, M.A.A.; Nascimento, P.R.; Kawasaki, M.; Silva Felipe, R. da.

    1990-01-01

    The Hydro energetic Inventory Study in Chapecozinho River Basin, Brazil is described, comparing the proposed results in 1979 with the actual review in 1989. An analysis for solution the socio-economic and environment problems is also presented. (author)

  11. Laser photoelectron spectrometry of Sc- and Y-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigerle, C.S.; Herman, Z.; Lineberger, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The photoelectron spectra of Sc - and Y - have been obtained in a crossed ion- and laser-beam experiment. Analysis of the Sc - spectrum yields two bound terms of 3d4s 2 4p configuration ( 1 D 0 and 3 D 0 ), with EA(Sc) = 0.189 +- 0.020 eV and an excited-state binding energy of 0.042 +- 0.020 eV. Similarly, the (4d5s 2 5p) 1 D 0 ground state of Y - is bound by 0.308 +- 0.012 eV and a (4d5s 2 5p) 3 D 0 excited term is bound by 0.165 +- 0.025 eV. With the determination of the bound electronic configuration of Sc - as 3d4s 2 4p, the order of filling of electron shells of the first transition series negative ions is found to be 4s 2 ep, 3d4s 2 4p, the order of filling of electron shells of the first transition series negative ions is found to be 4s 2 4p, 3d4s 2 4p, followed by 3dsup(k) 4s 2 (k = 3, 4, ..., 10). (orig.)

  12. Final Scientific Report: DE-SC0008580

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, Gerald T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-03-16

    We report scientific, technical, and organizational accomplishments under DE-SC0008580. This includes 10 publications, 5 patent or provisional patent applications, beamtime with important results at both LCLS and APS, and new progress in understanding target design for x-ray heating experiments at x-ray heating facilities.

  13. The Synchrocyclotron (SC) in building 300

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    The red magnet of CERN's first accelerator, the Synchrocyclotron (SC), has occupied a large part of Hall 300 since it was installed in the late 1950s. The remaining part of the 300-square-metre building has been used as a storage room since the accelerator was shut down in 1990. Now a public exhibition will breathe new life into the hall.

  14. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator.

  15. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator. On the left, Marinus van Gulik. (See Photo Archive 7402005 and Annual Report 1974, p. 44.)

  16. Knowledge insufficient: the management of haemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecker, Lydia H; Schaefer, Beverly A; Luchtman-Jones, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Although haemoglobin SC (HbSC) accounts for 30% of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States and United Kingdom, evidence-based guidelines for genotype specific management are lacking. The unique pathology of HbSC disease is complex, characterized by erythrocyte dehydration, intracellular sickling and increased blood viscosity. The evaluation and treatment of patients with HbSC is largely inferred from studies of SCD consisting mostly of haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients. These studies are underpowered to allow definitive conclusions about HbSC. We review the pathophysiology of HbSC disease, including known and potential differences between HbSS and HbSC, and highlight knowledge gaps in HbSC disease management. Clinical and translational research is needed to develop targeted treatments and to validate management recommendations for efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life for people with HbSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Dandara M M; Nascimento, Douglas M; Ferreira, Emmanoela N; Rocha, Pollyana D; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.

  18. Larvae occurrences of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae in an area under dam influence in the upper Paraná River region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn B. da Silva

    Full Text Available Rhamdia quelen (Jundiá is a catfish species of great interest to fish producers and researchers due to several favorable characteristics for inclusion in the Brazilian list of commercially raised fish. It has a wide geographical distribution, with occurrences reported from Central Argentina to South Mexico. Studies on the biological aspects of this species have been limited to captive adult fishes that were researched for farming purposes. Research related to ichthyoplankton has provided valuable information on spawning periods and sites and other aspects of breeding for numerous species of fish. This information is crucial for implementing management and protection strategies for these species. The studied floodplain is located in a lotic remnant between the Reservoirs of Itaipu and Engenheiro Sérgio Motta. This area is located inside a protected area (Ilha Grande National Park in the last portion of dam-free land along the Paraná River in the Brazilian territory; however, it is still threatened by the negative effects of the dams. We conducted monthly nocturnal collections during four periods from October to March, 2003 to 2007, in 22 locations along the main channel, secondary lakes and main tributaries of the Paraná River. After collection, the individuals were classified according to the degree of development and the notochord flexion and caudal fin support elements. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA, ANOVA and Pearson correlation to relate abiotic and larval density data. The increase of capture abundances in the four studied stages suggests that R. quelen is finding conditions that are favorable to its reproduction. The increase in captures can generate questions regarding R. quelen reproductive activity, for instance, whether the species is adapting or is influenced by environmental changes created by the Paraná River dams.

  19. Genetic variability of wild populations of Leporinus elongatus in the São Domingos River - MS Brazil: a preliminary view on the construction of the hydroelectric plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electricity used in Brazil comes from hydroelectric plants, mainly due to the great availability of its water resources. However, the construction of these plants denotes serious problems related to migration of native fish and the genetic conservation of stocks. Current study evaluates two wild population of Leporinus elongatus (piapara located downstream (Population A - PopA and upstream (Population B - PopB of the Cachoeira Branca before the construction of the São Domingos hydroelectric plant (HPP in the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Thirty samples from caudal fins were collected and analyzed for each population. Eighty-nine fragments, including 72 polymorphic ones (80.9%, were analyzed. Low fragments (less than 0.100 in both populations (PopA = 2 and PopB = 3 were identified. Nine fixed fragments (frequency 1.000 (PopA = 3 and PopB = 6, and four exclusive fragments (PopA = 3 and PopB = 1 were also reported. The genetic variability within populations, calculated by Shannon Index and by percentage of polymorphic fragments, indicated high rates of intrapopulation variability (PopA = 0.309 and 61.80% and PopB = 0.392 and 71.90%, respectively. Genetic distance and identity rates (0.089 and 0.915, respectively were different between populations, whilst AMOVA showed that most variations lie within the populations and not between them. Fst and Nm rates showed moderate genetic differentiation with low numbers of migrants. Results reveal populations with high intra-population genetic variability and genetic differentiation, with low gene flow. The passage ladders of São Domingos HPP should control fish transposition to preserve genetic variability.

  20. Hydrogeologic monitoring of the Paraíba do Sul river floodplain area subject to sand mining in the Tremembé municipality, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and hydrobacterial aspects of the surface and groundwater in the floodplain of the Paraíba do Sul river in Tremembé municipality, the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer experimental site was monitored based on four wells and eight associated piezometers with daily measures of water levels in continuous operation since December 3, 2009. In addition, data from a modular weather station in operation since March 2010 and data from the quality of surface water and groundwater have been analyzed in the period between March 2010 and March 2011. The water balance between April 2010 and March 2011 was estimated to verify the periods of water deficiency and excess. Data loggers installed in the piezometers enabled daily groundwater levels monitoring to establish the influence of the Paraíba do Sul river in the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer and also they allowed the determination of the water loss to the atmosphere. A hydrogeological model with simplified equations, based on hydraulics parameters obtained in the wells pump tests, was implemented to calculate the amount of daily evapotranspiration and the average distance of the water loss from the wells to the atmosphere. An evaporation rate of 83.4 m3/h from the open-pit sand mine located at 212.2 m and of 89.2 m3/h for the one at 885.0 m average distance from the monitoring wells were observed. Chemical and bacteriological analysis involving multiple parameters were performed in the period from March 2010 to March 2011 in groundwater collected in wells, in the open-pit mines and in the waters of the Paraíba do Sul river. The results allowed to observe the influences of the Paraíba do Sul river as well as the contamination from fertilizers and pesticides from the agriculture practiced in the floodplain area on the quality of the groundwater.

  1. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de

    1996-07-01

    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  2. When You Get What You Haven't Paid for: Molecular Identification of "Douradinha" Fish Fillets Can Help End the Illegal Use of River Dolphins as Bait in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Haydée A; da Silva, Vera M F; Santos, Teresa E C; Moreira, Stella M; do Carmo, Nivia A S; Solé-Cava, Antonio M

    2015-01-01

    The fishery for Calophysus macropterus, an Amazonian necrophagous catfish, is highly detrimental to river dolphins and caimans, which are deliberately killed for use as bait. In the Brazilian Amazon, this fishery has increased over the last decade, in spite of the rejection of scavenger fishes by Brazilian consumers. It was suspected that C. macropterus fillets were being sold in Brazilian markets, disguised as a fictitious fish (the "douradinha"). We collected 62 fillets from "douradinha" and other suspiciously named fish from 4 fish-processing plants sold at 6 markets in Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazon, and sequenced the cytochrome b gene to identify fillets to species. Sixty percent of fillets labeled "douradinha" or with other deceptive names were actually C. macropterus. Six other fish species of low commercial value were also found. The presence of dolphin tissue in the stomach contents of C. macropterus was confirmed by mtDNA control region sequencing. Our results formed the scientific basis for a moratorium on the fishing and fraudulent selling of C. macropterus, issued by the Brazilian Ministries of the Environment and Fisheries. Exposure of this fraud via the mass media can help end the illegal use of dolphins as bait in Brazil. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Source identification of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and sediments from Iguaçu River Watershed, Paraná, Brazil using the CHEMSIC method (CHEMometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotta, Fabiana D C; Christensen, Jan H

    2012-04-27

    A chemometric method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of pre-processed and combined sections of selected ion chromatograms (SICs) is used to characterise the hydrocarbon profiles in soil and sediment from Araucária, Guajuvira, General Lúcio and Balsa Nova Municipalities (Iguaçu River Watershed, Paraná, Brazil) and to indicate the main sources of hydrocarbon pollution. The study includes 38 SICs of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and four of petroleum biomarkers in two separate analyses. The most contaminated samples are inside the Presidente Getúlio Vargas Refinery area. These samples represent a petrogenic pattern and different weathering degrees. Samples from outside the refinery area are either less or not contaminated, or contain mixtures of diagenetic, pyrogenic and petrogenic inputs where different proportions predominate. The locations farthest away from industrial activity (Balsa Nova) contains the lowest levels of PAC contamination. There are no evidences to conclude positive matches between the samples from outside the refinery area and the Cusiana spilled oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecologia da ictiofauna de um córrego de cabeceira da bacia do alto rio Paraná, Brasil Ecology of the ichthyofauna of a headwater stream of the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Mara Lemes

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies were conducted in the ichthyofauna of Cedro, a small headwater stream located in a degraded area of State of São Paulo, Brazil, situated in the upper Paraná River basin. These are the results of two non-consecutive years observations and collections in two biotopes of that stream: a pool and a rapid. The ecological characteristics studied change in space and time. The present richness of species is high (21 species, nine of which are constant, six accessory and six accidental. The diversity is low (0.69 to 2.38, and the numeric predominance, from one to three species, occurred in both biotopes. The most frequent species are Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1859 (28.1%, Corydoras cf. aeneus (Gill, 1858 (20.3% and Hypostomus cf. ancistroides (Ihering, 1911 (19.8%. The density ranges from 0.7 to 19.8 specimens/m³. The similarity index indicates high similarity between the ichthyofauna (45.0% to 95.0% inside the same or contiguous biotopes. The evenness (0.46 to 1.0 is comparable to those found in similar studies carried out in other streams.

  5. Fish associated with aquatic macrophytes in the Chacororé-Sinhá Mariana Lake system and Mutum River, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, E B; Da-Silva, C J

    2009-02-01

    On the left bank of the Cuibá River, one of the main tributaries of the Pantanal in Mato Grosso, are located the Chacororé and Sinhá Mariana Lakes and the Mutum River, the littoral regions of which are covered with aquatic macrophytes, dominated by the species Eichhornia crassipes and Eichhornia azurea. To examine the ichthyofauna associated with this vegetation, in the year 2003, 3510 fish were collected, distributed among 83 species, and the limnological variables verified near the macrophyte stands where they were sampled. The most abundant and richest order was the Characiformes, followed by the Gymnotiformes and Siluriformes. Analysis of similarity showed a very low, or null, index that the limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide habitat sufficiently homogeneous to give. The limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provid