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Sample records for river rhine germany

  1. Anatomy of pollution: Rivers of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flintrop, C.; Hohlmann, B.; Jasper, T. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    North Rhine-Westphalia, the most industrialized and densely populated state of Germany, is drained by six major tributaries of the Rhine: the Sieg, Wupper, Ruhr, Erft, Emscher, and Lippe. The first four drain predominantly catchments with Phanerozoic siliciclastic rocks, while the latter two dewater Cretaceous carbonate basins. Together, the rivers account for {approximately}11 percent of the Rhine water, and they reflect various stages of pollution, from a moderately polluted Sieg and Ruhr to the heavily damaged Emscher. The {delta}{sup 18}O H{sub 2}O of -8.5{+-}1.5 permil SMOW suggests that summer recharge into local aquifers is the main source of water in these rivers. Down-stream, the water becomes enriched in {sup 18}O, by {approximately}2 permil, due to low altitude precipitation and because of evaporation, particularly in artificial lakes. However, thermal fractionation, when water is utilized for cooling in power stations and smelters, also contributes to this trend. State-wide, and down-stream within rivers, the increasing pollution levels are characterized by rising salt concentrations (from normal riverine values up to a third of seawater), by up to two orders of magnitude CO{sub 2} overpressures, oxygen depletion, and enhanced nutrient concentrations. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} demonstrate that microbial respiration of C{sub org} in soil/groundwater systems accounts for about 50 to 100 percent of the entire DIC, with the higher values typical of more polluted ecosystems. Evasion of gaseous CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere and microbial nitrification are the most important processes for the riverine aquatic cycles of carbon and nitrogen, resulting in more advanced dissipation of CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the less polluted ecosystems. Denitrification may fuel generation of some {open_quotes}excess{close_quotes} CO{sub 2} only in the highly polluted ecosystems, such as the Emscher. 58 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Impact of nitrogen reduction measures on the nitrogen loads of the river Ems and Rhine (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, F.; Bogena, H.; Goemann, H.; Hake, J. F.; Kreins, P.; Kunkel, R.

    The REGFLUD-project, commissioned by Germany’s Federal Research Ministry (BMBF), addresses the problem of reducing diffuse pollution from agricultural production. The objective of the project is the development and application of multi-criteria scientific methods, which are able to predict diffuse pollution in river basins subject to economic feasibility and social acceptability. The selected river basins (the entire Ems basin and sub-catchments of the Rhine) cover a variety of landscape units with different hydrological, hydrogeological and socio-economic characteristics. This paper focuses on the analysis of the effects of certain policy measures to reduce diffuse pollution by nitrogen. For this purpose, a model system consisting of an agricultural sector model, a water balance model and a residence time/denitrification model was combined and applied. First results indicate a wide range of annual nitrogen surpluses for the rural areas between less than 10 N ha -1 a -1 up 200 kg N ha -1 a -1, or more depending on the type and intensity of farming. Compared to the level of nitrogen surpluses the level of nitrogen inputs into the surface waters is relatively moderate because of degradation processes during transport in soil and groundwater. Policy impact analyses for a nitrogen tax and a limitation of the livestock density stress the importance of regionally adjusted measures.

  3. A new flagship peritrich (Ciliophora, Peritrichida) from the River Rhine, Germany: Apocarchesium arndti n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norf, Helge; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    We discovered a free-living peritrich ciliate with outstanding features in the River Rhine. Its morphology and 18S rRNA gene sequence were studied with standard methods. Apocarchesium arndti n. sp. has several peculiarities. (i) There are ordinary zooids, macrozooids, and microzooids, which form a hemispherical rosette on a discoidal base, the stalk dish, locking the approximately 18 microm wide and up to 2 mm long, spirally contracting colony stalk. (ii) The stalk myoneme is connected only to the microzooids. (iii) A rosette contains up to 50 zooids not connected to each other but individually attached to the stalk dish with the scopula. (iv) The ordinary zooids are epistylidid, trumpet-shaped (approximately 6:1 length:width), about 180 x 30 microm in size, and have an ellipsoidal macronucleus subapically between oral cavity and dorsal side. (v) The myoneme system of the zooids, which can contract individually, forms a tube-like structure in the narrow posterior half of the cell. (vi) The silverline pattern belongs to the transverse-striate type. (vii) The oral apparatus is of usual structure, with kinety 1 of peniculus 3 distinctly shortened proximally. (viii) The 18S rRNA places A. arndti n. sp. as a distinct lineage near Vorticella and Carchesium. These data are used to provide an improved diagnosis of the genus Apocarchesium. Features (i)-(iii) and the molecular data indicate that Apocarchesium could be the type genus of a new peritrich family.

  4. Changes of floodplain morphology by water mills: Legacy sediments stored behind mill dams as archive and source for pollution - Examples from the Wurm River, Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchty-Lemke, Michael; Frings, Roy; Hagemann, Lukas; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Maaß, Anna-Lisa; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The Wurm River (Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany) is a small stream in a low mountain area near the Dutch-German border that has seen a lot of anthropogenic changes of its morphology since medieval times. Among other influencing factors, water mills, in particular, had an early impact on the sediment dynamics and created sediment traps. Several knickpoints in the long profile may represent the legacy of mill damming - or founded mill building at these spots. The knickpoints may also represent the aftermath of the colliery history. A study site in the upper reaches of the Wurm River features erosion terraces, incised following the demise of a mill dam in the early 20th century. The mill pond most likely collected sediment and additives e.g. used in agricultural and industrial processes. These legacy sediments from behind former mill dams provide information about anthropogenic pollution, particularly for the era of industrialization in the vicinity of the old industrial area of the city of Aachen. Along with the demise of the mill dam and the increased incision tendency, the sediments are also a secondary source for pollution in case of remobilization of contaminated sediments. Two major research questions are addressed. A) Which individual hydrological and geomorphological processes, both upstream and downstream, triggered the incision and the construction of the erosion terraces, which are preserved in the mill pond sediments? Is either the demised mill dam, or subsidence effects, or a combination of both the determining factor? B) Which contaminants are retained in the sediments? Is there a detectable point source for the pollutants or is it a mixture of diffuse anthropogenic (industry, agriculture, traffic, wastewater) and natural origin? To tackle these questions, sedimentological data are combined with geomorphological mapping and evaluation of historical data. A soil profile provides insight into the architecture of the floodplain, which is built of riverbed

  5. Speciation of heavy metals in River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega, F.A.; Weng, L.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical speciation of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb in River Rhine was studied by measuring free ion concentration and distribution in nanoparticles, and by comparing the measurement with speciation modeling. Concentrations of free metal ions were determined in situ using Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). T

  6. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Thomas; Hauk, Armin; Walter, Ulrich; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the ‘great garbage patches’. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, not a single great river has yet been studied for the surface microplastics load over its length. We report the abundance and composition of microplastics at the surface of the Rhine, one of the largest European rivers. Measurements were made at 11 locations over a stretch of 820 km. Microplastics were found in all samples, with 892,777 particles km -2 on average. In the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, a peak concentration of 3.9 million particles km -2 was measured. Microplastics concentrations were diverse along and across the river, reflecting various sources and sinks such as waste water treatment plants, tributaries and weirs. Measures should be implemented to avoid and reduce the pollution with anthropogenic litter in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Thomas; Hauk, Armin; Walter, Ulrich; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-12-08

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the 'great garbage patches'. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, not a single great river has yet been studied for the surface microplastics load over its length. We report the abundance and composition of microplastics at the surface of the Rhine, one of the largest European rivers. Measurements were made at 11 locations over a stretch of 820 km. Microplastics were found in all samples, with 892,777 particles km (-2) on average. In the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, a peak concentration of 3.9 million particles km (-2) was measured. Microplastics concentrations were diverse along and across the river, reflecting various sources and sinks such as waste water treatment plants, tributaries and weirs. Measures should be implemented to avoid and reduce the pollution with anthropogenic litter in aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Flood trends along the Rhine: the role of river training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vorogushyn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have detected positive trends in flood flows in German rivers, among others, at Rhine gauges over the past six decades. The presence and detectability of the climate change signal in flood records has been controversially discussed, particularly against the background of massive river training measures in the Rhine. In the past the Rhine catchment has been heavily trained, including the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. The present study investigates the role of river training on changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the effect of the Rhine weir cascade and of a series of detention basins was investigated. By homogenising the original flood flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be from a few percentage points to more than 10 percentage points smaller compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures, and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges during this period was partly caused by an unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. This superposition resulted from an acceleration of the Rhine waves due to the construction of the weir cascade and associated channelisation and dike heightening. However, at the same time, tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual maximum Rhine peaks, showed strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of another driver or drivers which acted alongside river training.

  9. A hydrodynamic-numerical model of the river Rhine [online

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Thu, Pham Thi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract During the last centuries the river Rhine underwent a major regulation process which separated the river­bed from its flood plains and reduced the available areas for flooding. The river was straightened and the consequence is the discharge conditions were strongly changed and many recorded flood events were occurred. Serious floods at the river Rhine in 1993 and 1995 resulted in the policy "Room for the Rivers" and in 1998 in the "Action Plan Flood Defenc...

  10. Genotoxic and teratogenic effect of freshwater sediment samples from the Rhine and Elbe River (Germany) in zebrafish embryo using a multi-endpoint testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Käufer, M; Gartiser, S; Hafner, C; Schiwy, S; Keiter, S; Gründemann, C; Hollert, H

    2015-11-01

    The embryotoxic potential of three model sediment samples with a distinct and well-characterized pollutant burden from the main German river basins Rhine and Elbe was investigated. The Fish Embryo Contact Test (FECT) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) was applied and submitted to further development to allow for a comprehensive risk assessment of such complex environmental samples. As particulate pollutants are constructive constituents of sediments, they underlay episodic source-sink dynamics, becoming available to benthic organisms. As bioavailability of xenobiotics is a crucial factor for ecotoxicological hazard, we focused on the direct particle-exposure pathway, evaluating throughput-capable endpoints and considering toxicokinetics. Fish embryo and larvae were exposed toward reconstituted (freeze-dried) sediment samples on a microcosm-scale experimental approach. A range of different developmental embryonic stages were considered to gain knowledge of potential correlations with metabolic competence during the early embryogenesis. Morphological, physiological, and molecular endpoints were investigated to elucidate induced adverse effects, placing particular emphasis on genomic instability, assessed by the in vivo comet assay. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the extent of induced cell death, since cytotoxicity can lead to confounding effects. The implementation of relative toxicity indices further provides inter-comparability between samples and related studies. All of the investigated sediments represent a significant ecotoxicological hazard by disrupting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Beside the induction of acute toxicity, morphological and physiological embryotoxic effects could be identified in a concentration-response manner. Increased DNA strand break frequency was detected after sediment contact in characteristic non-monotonic dose-response behavior due to overlapping cytotoxic effects. The embryonic zebrafish toxicity model along with the in vivo comet

  11. Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended solids an

  12. Anthropogenic dissolved and colloid/nanoparticle-bound samarium, lanthanum and gadolinium in the Rhine River and the impending destruction of the natural rare earth element distribution in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaksız, Serkan; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The strong increase in the consumption of rare earth elements (REE) in high-tech products and processes is accompanied by increasing amounts of REE released into the environment. Following the first report of Gd contamination of the hydrosphere in 1996, anthropogenic Gd originating from contrast agents has now been reported worldwide from river and estuarine waters, coastal seawater, groundwater and tap water. Recently, microcontamination with La, that is derived from a point source where catalysts for petroleum refining are produced, has been detected in the Rhine River in Germany and the Netherlands. Here we report the occurrence of yet another REE microcontamination of river water: in addition to anthropogenic Gd and La, the Rhine River now also shows significant amounts of anthropogenic Sm. The anthropogenic Sm, which enters the Rhine River north of Worms, Germany, with the same industrial wastewater that carries the anthropogenic La, can be traced through the Middle and Lower Rhine to the Netherlands. At Leverkusen, Germany, some 250 km downstream from the point source at Worms, anthropogenic Sm still contributes up to 87% of the total dissolved Sm concentration of the Rhine River. Results from ultrafiltration suggest that while the anthropogenic Gd is not particle-reactive and hence exclusively present in the truly dissolved REE pool (high-tech applications, these critical metals have now become emerging contaminants that should be monitored, and it appears that studies of their biogeochemical behavior in natural freshwaters might soon no longer be possible.

  13. What drives flood trends along the Rhine River: climate or river training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vorogushyn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rhine River catchment was heavily trained over the past decades and faced the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. For the same time period, several studies detected positive trends in flood flows and faced the challenge of flood trend attribution, i.e. identifying the drivers of observed change. The presented study addresses the question about the responsible drivers for changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the role of river training measures including the Rhine weir cascade and a series of detention basins in enhancing Rhine floods was investigated. By applying homogenisation relationships to the original flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, the relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be smaller up to about 20% points compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges was partly caused by the unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. It resulted from the acceleration of the Rhine waves due to construction of the weir cascade. However, at the same time, the tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual Rhine peaks, showed very strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of a large-scale driver such as climate variability/change which acted along with river training. In particular, the analysis suggests that the river training measures fell in a period with increasing flood trends driven by factors other than river training of the Rhine main channel.

  14. Future flood risk estimates along the river Rhine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. te Linde

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, water management is moving from flood defence to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. It is expected that climate change and socio-economic development will lead to an increase in flood risk in the Rhine basin. To optimize spatial planning and flood management measures, studies are needed that quantify future flood risks and estimate their uncertainties. In this paper, we estimated the current and future fluvial flood risk in 2030 for the entire Rhine basin in a scenario study. The change in value at risk is based on two land-use projections derived from a land-use model representing two different socio-economic scenarios. Potential damage was calculated by a damage model, and changes in flood probabilities were derived from two climate scenarios and hydrological modeling. We aggregated the results into seven sections along the Rhine. It was found that the annual expected damage in the Rhine basin may increase by between 54% and 230%, of which the major part (~ three-quarters can be accounted for by climate change. The highest current potential damage can be found in the Netherlands (110 billion €, compared with the second (80 billion € and third (62 billion € highest values in two areas in Germany. Results further show that the area with the highest fluvial flood risk is located in the Lower Rhine in Nordrhein-Westfalen in Germany, and not in the Netherlands, as is often perceived. This is mainly due to the higher flood protection standards in the Netherlands as compared to Germany.

  15. Historical geomorphic analysis (1932-2011) of a by-passed river reach in process-based restoration perspectives: The Old Rhine downstream of the Kembs diversion dam (France, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, F.; Piégay, H.; Schmitt, L.; Rollet, A. J.; Ferrier, V.; Béal, D.

    2015-05-01

    The Old Rhine downstream of the Kembs diversion dam is one of the largest by-passed river reaches in the world (50 km). It offers a unique opportunity to study the morphological effects of by-passing and address physical and ecological restoration approaches in regulated rivers. We conduct a space-time analysis of channel adjustment over a period of 80 years (1932 to 2011). We examine planform changes (from aerial photographs), erosional and depositional patterns (from vertical profiles), sediment sizes within the active channel and the new established floodplain, and we date riparian vegetation encroachment. Results show that the Old Rhine exhibited rapid response to the completion of the by-passing scheme in the 1950s, with a 26% narrowing in median active channel width between 1956 and 2008, from vegetation encroachment on dewatered channel margins (mostly groyne fields). The narrowing was accompanied by overbank fine sediment deposition (~ 1.5 cm y- 1 aggradation since 1950) as well as slight bed degradation (~ 0.7 cm y- 1 since 1950). We found no downstream propagation of active channel narrowing over time, nor propagation of bed degradation. The channel was already significantly adjusted prior to the diversion scheme, following the nineteenth century river straightening and groyne construction. By-passing (dewatering) mainly provided new pioneer habitat for synchronous vegetation establishment and promoted channel stability by decreasing sediment transport owing to peak flow reduction. The morphological budget calculated over the past 20 years estimated a downstream output for coarse sediments at 16,000 m3 y- 1, with 80% originating from bed degradation and 20% from bank erosion, without significant inputs from upstream. The present-day morphodynamics remain sensitive to changes because of dynamic bed armouring (strategies for altered rivers. Recommended activities are gravel reintroduction with particle-sizes finer than the armoured river bed to enhance

  16. Comparative Study of Flood Risk Management and Land Use in the Deltas of Rhine River, Yellow River and Mississippi River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang B; Guangzhou, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rhine River in the Netherlands, the Yellow River in China and the Mississippi River in the U.S. are three great rivers in the world. Each of them is performing a significant role in the country. The delta area for each river, in particular, is served as the centre in importance and commonly the

  17. The impact of climate change on the water quality of the Rhine river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bokhoven, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this research the effect of hydrological extremes on water quality are studied for the Rhine River, in order to assess potential water quality effects of climate change. The water quality of the Rhine was studied for the periods 1975-1977 and 1987-2005. During these periods eight hydrological ext

  18. Flood-related variations in provenance of fine-grained palaeochannel sediments in the Rhine river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Perk, Marcel; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Ypma, Jochem; Brewer, Paul A.; Prins, Maarten A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Middelkoop, Hans

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we examine flood-related variations in provenance of fine-grained palaeochannel sediments from the Bienener Altrhein (Germany), an abandoned river channel close to the apex of the Rhine river delta. Geochemical and grain size analyses were conducted on channel-fill sediments from multiple core sections, ranging from 1.15 m to 8.48 m depth, which represents pre-industrial sediment deposited from approximately 1550 AD to 1850 AD. In addition, four sediment cores of ~ 1 m length were retrieved from channel-fills or overbank deposits along the Upper Rhine and the three main tributaries of the Rhine in Germany (Neckar River, Main River and Moselle River). Sediment geochemistry was analysed using an Itrax X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner. Four elements (Ti, Co, Rb, W) were selected for further analysis based on the following a priori criteria: (1) The elements must be associated with minerals in the fine particle size fractions; 2) they must not be susceptible to precipitation-dissolution reactions during early diagenenis of the sediment; 3) the elements must be detected in the vast majority of the measurements; 4) the difference between the minimum and maximum number of the XRF counts for the upstream cores must be greater than 50% of the average number of counts. The XRF counts for these elements were standardised to z-scores and were subsequently corrected for the variation clay content ( 150 μm), which was primarily deposited during historical flood events. The results show the Mahalanobis distances are larger than 1 for most increments, which indicates that the four sampled upstream sites do not entirely cover all sources of sediment deposited in the Bienener Altrein channel. The logtransformed Mahalonibis distance correlates significantly (α = 0.05) with the >150 μm particle size fraction for the Upper Rhine River (negative) and the Moselle River (positive). This implies that the proportion of fine sediment that originates from the upper

  19. High Rhine power plant Rheinfelden and hydroelectric power in Germany; Hochrheinkraftwerk Rheinfelden und Wasserkraft in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurkiewicz, Jacek [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    In Germany, electric energy had been generated from water power since 1880; in the beginning, it was a dominating factor along with energy generation from coal, but it lost its importance as from 1950 when crude oil, natural gas and nuclear power became dominant. Since 1991, however, many small hydroelectric power plants have again been put into operation, or have been newly built, as a consequence of the government aids granted. In the Hochrhein (High Rhine) region, the German-Swiss power plant Rheinfelden was reconstructed, and other major hydroelectric power plants are being modernized. Technically, a much greater potential could be used, but this is currently not practicable for economical and ecological reasons. (orig.)

  20. Bladder cancer and occupational exposures in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Frank; Urfer, Wolfgang; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to carcinogenic substances and development of bladder cancer was assessed from a case-control study conducted in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The study consisted of 156 cases with bladder cancer and 336 controls with prostate cancer. The primary focus was the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), since most individuals were considered exposed mainly to substances in this group. Data were collected from male patients who had applied for cancer rehabilitation treatment. Nominally significant smoking-adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates were obtained for frequent exposures to bitumen (OR = 2.92, 95% CI 1.32-6.48) and tar (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.04-4.21) and an ever exposure to paints (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.10-2.61). A frequent exposure to pitch showed a non-significant elevated risk (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 0.77-12.10).

  1. Ecological networks in river rehabilitation scenarios: Rhine-Econet; summary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfert, H.P.; Harms, W.B.; Marteijn, E.C.L.; Reijnen, R.

    1996-01-01

    The significance of an ecological network of natural areas for a successful nature conservation and rehabilitation strategy of the Lower Rhine between Gorinchem (Netherlands) and Duisburg (Germany) is indicated. A scenario approach is used to illuminate variations in the planning of 10 000 ha of new

  2. Seasonality of low flows and dominant processes in the Rhine River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongal, H.; Demirel, M.C.; Booij, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Low flow forecasting is crucial for sustainable cooling water supply and planning of river navigation in the Rhine River. The first step in reliable low flow forecasting is to understand the characteristics of low flow. In this study, several methods are applied to understand the low flow characteri

  3. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of prefential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bense, V.F.; Gumm, L.P.; Dennis, P.; Hiscock, N.; Cremer, N.; Simon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low d2H and d18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7¿×¿10-4 cm3 (STP) g–1¿±¿2.2 % which is app

  4. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of prefential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bense, V.F.; Gumm, L.P.; Dennis, P.; Hiscock, N.; Cremer, N.; Simon, S.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low d2H and d18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7¿×¿10-4 cm3 (STP) g–1¿±¿2.2 % which is app

  5. Benchmark verification of deterministic and ensemble forecasts for the river Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osnabrugge, Bart; Weerts, Albrecht; Verkade, Jan; den Toom, Matthijs; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Sprokkereef, Eric

    2016-04-01

    As part of the IMPREX project (IMproving PRedictions and management of EXtremes) we perform a benchmark verification study (tier 1) of an operational active hydrological forecasting system of the river Rhine. We assess the current forecast skill and contributions of current DA methods (e.g. error correction) to forecast skill. Our results will be compared with previous verification studies (Renner et al., 2009, Verkade et al., 2013) for the Rhine. Based on the results we will identify weaknesses and opportunities for future improvements. After model improvements and introduction of more advanced (ensemble) DA methods the benchmark will be conducted again later in the project (tier 2). From these experiments, we hope to show the relative importance of data assimilation, the availability of real-time hydrologic measured data in comparison with (improved) meteorological forecast skill and their effect on hydrologic predictability for the river Rhine.

  6. How fish benefit from floodplain restoration along the lower River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the beneficial value of newly created secondary channels and reconnected oxbow lakes along the lower River Rhine for fish and to give advice on position, shape and character of future water bodies. These water bodies should contribute to the rebuilding of th

  7. Evaluation of the Non-Formal Forest Education Sector in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: Organisations, Programmes and Framework Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Anne; Mrosek, Thorsten; Martinsohn, Anna; Schulte, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Although a large number of different organisations offer various forest education programmes within Germany, specific information (i.e., sectoral and programme content and provision at a state level) is lacking. This study used a survey of all 61 forest education organisations (43 respondents) in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, to…

  8. Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Emde

    Full Text Available Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens, Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454, Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695 and Orchestia cavimana (1,448 were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby and invertebrates (amphipods under special consideration of parasite dispersal.

  9. Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal.

  10. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of prefential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low d2H and d18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7¿×¿10-4 cm3 (STP) g–1¿±¿2.2 % which is approximately four orders of magnitude higher than expected due to solubility equilibrium with the atmosphere. Groundwater age dating based on estimated in situ production and terrigenic flux of heliu...

  11. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of preferential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low δ2H and δ18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7 × 10−4 cm3 (STP) g–1 ± 2.2 % which is approximately four orders of magnitude higher than expected due to solubility equilibrium with the atmosphere. Groundwater age dating based on estimated in situ production and terrigenic flux of heliu...

  12. Geoarchaeological research for Roman waterworks in the Rhine-Meuse river delta, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Jan; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van Leeuwen, Liz; Anker, Emiel

    2015-04-01

    It is known that Romans in the Low Countries at the northern margin of their empire were practicing diverse systems of water state management to maintain economic and above all strategic stability. In early Roman period Romans created a shipping route from the Rhine towards the north by digging canals and constructing dams. This was done in order to submit the northern part of Germania through the Waddenzee and the German rivers Eems, Weser and Elbe. During the middle Roman period the Romans had canceled their efforts to submit Germania. In that period we know the River Rhine as the limes, which not only was a borderline of the Roman empire, but can also be seen as a guarded transport route. The research area is situated in the eastern part of the Rhine-Meuse river valley/delta system. The area represents a highly dynamic geological history of erosion and deposition close to the river system's equilibrium point. In order to reconstruct the former landscape and investigate whether traces of Roman waterworks could be indicated or disproved geoarchaeological coring campaigns have been carried out with lithological, textural and palaeoecological analyses. The results of the research presented in this poster will be: 1) Assessment of the condition of the covered Pleistocene sediments in the area, 2) Identification of the buried gullies and levees in the vicinity of the remains of the Roman castellum 'Carvium ad molem', which should have been built at the bifurcation of the delta branches of Rhine and Waal, 3) Chronological control of gullies and levees, 4) Landscape reconstruction in different time periods. Finally based on the geoarchaeological results a comment will be made on the location of the Drusus dam in the study area, the landscape context of the castellum and its position on the apex of the Insula Batavorum.

  13. Degradation and recovery of the freshwater fauna in the lower sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaate, bij de A.

    2003-01-01

    Exponential increase of anthropogenic stress in European rivers, like Rhine and Meuse, started several centuries ago when inhabitants of floodplains used them for an increasing number of purposes. Step by step, the river basins lost their naturalness and ecological integrity. Usually, river regulati

  14. Human impact on the Middle and Late Holocene floodplain sediment characteristics along the River Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Prins, M.; Toonen, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Rhine catchment has an extensive history of human land use. Deforestation to create arable land started as early as 6300 cal BP, at the onset of the Late Neolithic. This caused increased erosion and sediment production on the hillslopes in the upstream part of the fluvial system. Recent studies show that this human-induced erosion also increased the suspended load sedimentation rates in the Rhine trunk valley and delta from approximately 3000 years ago. Besides such changes in the quantity of fine sediment, it is hypothesised that human land use may also change the source of the sediment supplied to the fluvial system. Sediment released by erosion during agricultural practises may be different than the sediments that erode under conditions of forest cover. If this is true, the Late Holocene floodplain sediments have different characteristics in terms of grain size and texture than older floodplain deposits (Middle Holocene). To test this, we collected 15 cores from three large stretches along the trunk Rhine River: the Upper Rhine Graben, the Lower Rhine Valley, and the Rhine Delta. Using detailed palaeogeographic reconstructions of the area, the cores were carefully selected in order to (i) to obtain the longest possible record (preferably up to 5000 years), and (ii) to have a continuous sedimentation record as much as possible. Cores are taken from residual channels, and distal flood basin and plains, although very distal sites were avoided to minimise the amount of peat or soil formation. Individual age-depth models are derived from radiocarbon dates taken in the cores, correlation of the regional deposits with a known age, and by using groundwater models (in the delta). Grain size characteristics of the siliciclastic sediment fraction were analysed every 2-5 cm, which yielded a record of grain size variations of the floodplains depositions in time. Using the end-member modelling algorithm EMMA it was possible to distinguish different groups of sediment

  15. Detection of active faults using EMR-Technique and Cerescope at Landau area in central Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Wael; Obermeyer, Hennes

    2016-01-01

    Two conjugate sets of active faults oriented NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE have been detected at Landau area in SW Germany. These faults follow the old trends of the rift-related structures predominating in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which originated during Late Eocene-Miocene time. Linear and horizontal measurements were performed by using the Cerescope device and interpreted, applying the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Technique. Linear EMR-profiles were helpful for mapping active faults, while the main horizontal stress (σH, N to NNE) was easily identified with EMR-horizontal measurements. Reactivation of rift-related structures of the Upper Rhine Graben at Landau area produces a new system of active shallow fractures following old trends, and has been detected through the present study by Cerescope applying the EMR-Technique. The present results imply that the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) to the south of Landau has a great impact on reactivation of the pre-existing rift-related faults by mechanical hydro-fracturing occurring within the reservoir rocks underneath the area.

  16. Modelling nutrient fluxes from source to river load : a macroscopic analysis applied to the Rhine and Elbe basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.

    2000-01-01

    In many European rivers, including the major streams of the Rhine and Elbe basins, the nutrient load (N and P) still exceeds target levels. In this paper, a model is presented that describes the river nutrient load as a function of nutrient sources, runoff and lithology in the upstream basin. The mo

  17. 2D simulation of transport and degradation in the River Rhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, L; Reuschenbach, P; Müller, B; Horn, H

    2002-01-01

    A simple 2D model has been developed for the simulation of mass transport and degradation of substances in the river Rhine. The model describes mass transport in the flow direction with a convective and a dispersive term. Transversal transport is described by segmenting the river and formulating a transversal exchange coefficient between the segments. Degradation can be formulated with any kinetics from first order to complex enzyme kinetics. The model was verified with monitoring data from the river Rhine. The hydrodynamic parameters such as dispersion coefficients and exchange coefficients were fitted to the conductivity, which was assumed to be non-degradable. The degradation term was fitted to ammonia values. The model was used to simulate measured concentrations of a readily (Aniline) and a poorly biodegradable substance (1,4-Dioxan) 10 m from the left river bank. It was the objective of this research program to develop a model which allows a realistic estimation of the locally and regionally predicted environmental concentration of chemical substances in the EU risk assessment scheme.

  18. Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Stefanie M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Conclusions Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one’s own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

  19. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  20. Towards sustainable flood risk management in the Rhine and Meuse river basins: synopsis of the findings of IRMA-SPONGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, A.; Klijn, F.; Pedroli, G.B.M.; Os, van A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Recent flood events in western Europe have shown the need for improved flood risk management along the Rhine and Meuse rivers. In response, the IRMA-SPONGE research programme was established, consisting of 13 research projects, in which over 30 organizations from six countries co-operated. The aim o

  1. The status of limnophilic fish and the need for conservation in floodplains along the lower Rhine, a large regulated river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, R.E.; Buijse, A.D.; Van Geest, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Recovery of the fish community of the river Rhine focussed mainly on the return of migratory species, in particular the Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, and to a lesser extent on rheophilic fish species. Several limnophilic species that characterize remote parts of the floodplains are, however, also en

  2. Comparing complementary NWP model performance for hydrologic forecasting for the river Rhine in an operational setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Femke; den Toom, Matthijs

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the performance of complementary NWP models for hydrologic forecasting for the river Rhine, a large river catchment in Central Europe. An operational forecasting system, RWsOS-Rivieren, produces daily forecasts of discharges and water levels at the Water Management Centre Netherlands. A combination of HBV (rainfall-runoff) and SOBEK (hydrodynamic routing) models is used to produce simulations and forecasts for the catchment. Data assimilation is applied both to the model state of SOBEK and to model outputs. The primary function of the operational forecasting system is to provide reliable and accurate forecasts during periods of high water. The secondary main function is producing daily predictions for water management and water transport in The Netherlands. In addition, predicting water levels during drought periods is becoming increasingly important as well. At this moment several complementary deterministic and ensemble NWP models are used to provide the forecasters with predictions with varied initial conditions, such as ICON, ICON-EU Nest, ECMWF-DET, ECMWF-EPS, HiRLAM, COSMO-LEPS and GLAMEPS. ICON and ICON-EU have recently replaced DWD-GME and DWD COSMO-EU. These models provide weather forecasts with different lengths of lead times and also different periods of operational usage. A direct and quantitative comparison is therefore challenging. Nevertheless, it is important to investigate the suitability of the different NWP models for certain lead times and certain weather situations to help support the hydrological forecasters make an informed forecast during an operational crisis. A hindcast study will investigate the performance of these models in the operational system for different lead times and focusing on periods of both high and low water for Lobith, the location of entry of the river Rhine into The Netherlands.

  3. HIV prevalence and route of transmission in Turkish immigrants living in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülter, Eugen; Oette, Mark; Balduin, Melanie; Reuter, Stefan; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Esser, Stefan; Lengauer, Thomas; Agacfidan, Ali; Pfister, Herbert; Kaiser, Rolf; Akgül, Baki

    2011-11-01

    The high number of Turkish immigrants in the German state North-Rhine Westphalia (NRW) compelled us to look for HIV-infected patients with Turkish nationality. In the AREVIR database, we found 127 (107 men, 20 women) Turkish HIV patients living in NRW. In order to investigate transmission clusters and their correlation to gender, nationality and self-reported transmission mode, a phylogenetic analysis including pol gene sequences was performed. Subtype distribution and the number of HIV drug resistance mutations in the Turkish patient group were found to be similar to the proportion in the non-Turkish patients. Great differences were observed in self-reported mode of transmission in the heterosexual Turkish male subgroup. Neighbour-joining tree of pol gene sequences gave indication that 59% of these reported heterosexual transmissions cluster with those of men having sex with men in the database. This is the first study analysing HIV type distribution, drug resistance mutations and transmission mode in a Turkish immigrant population.

  4. SAR Interferometry and Precise Leveling for the Determination of Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (geothermal energy) inducing larger surface displacements. To assess the geohazards in the URG area, we aim to provide a map of the current 3D surface displacements with high precision and high spatial resolution. The InSAR and leveling data, and the location of permanent GNSS sites primarily analyzed for the horizontal velocity field, are displayed in Fig. 1. Precise levelings have been carried out by the surveying authorities of Germany, France and Switzerland over the last 100 years building a network of leveling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the leveling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates with accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/a. The biggest disadvantage of the leveling database is the sparse spatial distribution of the measurement points. Therefore, PS-InSAR is used to significantly increase the number of points within the leveling loops. To obtain a high accuracy for line of sight displacement rates, ERS-1/2 and Envisat data from ascending and descending orbits covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed using StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in the PS-InSAR processing chain. Besides the tectonic signal, man-induced surface displacements

  5. Assessing the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting for the River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B.; Meissner, D.; Gerl, N.; Hemri, S.; Gneiting, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Reliable seasonal streamflow forecasts could be a valuable tool for the medium-term to long-term planning of many users of the water sector. Especially for the optimization of hydropower generation and the water-related logistic transportation chain the knowledge about the possible future evolution of streamflows within the next 1 to 6 months would be an important additional information in the decision process. Although there is a strong need for seasonal forecast products there is no operational forecasting system available for the large rivers in Germany. One of the main reasons is that the long-term meteorological predictability, especially for precipitation, is quite limited over Central Europe. Potential gain of predictability in the hydrological system that makes us believe that skillful seasonal streamflow forecasts in Central Europe are not out of reach is the hydrological memory and the delayed and damped system response of river basins. Natural (like snow pack, groundwater, soil moisture) as well as man-made reservoirs and dams have a large influence on the future runoff. In hydrological forecasting this memory is represented by the initial conditions of the hydrological model. In addition the streamflow at a gauge is an integrated system response with the meteorological variables as system input. If there is at least some valuable information in the numeric seasonal weather forecasts about the future evolution of precipitation and temperature as the main drivers of the hydrological processes, it could be possibly assessed through spatial (considering larger catchments) and temporal aggregation (e.g. monthly mean runoff values instead of daily values). In this contribution the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting is evaluated for River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin (up to the gauge Vienna). Different spatial and temporal scales are considered as well as different meteorological forcings. Two different hydrological models are applied in

  6. Dispersal behavior of adult snow melt mosquitoes in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Storch, V; Kaiser, A; Beck, M; Becker, N

    1997-06-01

    The dispersal behavior of female snow melt mosquitoes was studied in two forests in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, from April to August 1993. Both CDC-light-traps and human bait collections were used to collect mosquitoes. Sampling sites were chosen along a west-east and a north-south transect in treated and untreated parts of a forest with a village in its center. Around this settlement, breeding sites within a radius of 1.5 to 2.5 km were treated. It could be shown that this buffer zone is sufficient to prevent a nuisance caused by snow melt mosquitoes in the village. The results lead to the conclusion that snow melt mosquitoes do not regularly migrate over large distances but stay near their breeding sites. In a detailed study of the behavior of Aedes rusticus, it could be observed that these mosquitoes were resting in the interior of the forest during daytime and leaving it with increasing dusk up to 50 m from the forest edge. A comparison of landing rate counts near a row of trees and in the open field showed higher activity near the row of trees indicating visual orientation of the mosquitoes. Although the Ae. rusticus females left the forest regularly, no nuisance occurred in nearby villages. The treatment of breeding sites near settlements appeared to be sufficient to prevent a nuisance caused by the snow melt mosquitoes.

  7. Uncertainty quantification for a hydro-morphodynamic model of river Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu Mai, Trung; Nowak, Wolfgang; Kopmann, Rebekka; Oladyshkin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    analysis better than with FOSM-type methods. All methods have been applied to a laboratory experiment in steady state and in transient state to verify the performance of FOSM method. The uncertainty analysis is carried out on a hydro-morphodynamic model of river Rhine to define confidence intervals of river bed evolution during an artificial flood event and to detect the most sensitive parameters which contribute most to the change of the river bed. The study presents the benefit of uncertainty analysis with suitable methods to enhance the reliability of sediment transport models in river engineering practice.

  8. Thermal maturity and petroleum kitchen areas of Liassic Black Shales (Lower Jurassic) in the central Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    In the central Upper Rhine Graben (URG), several major oil fields have been sourced by Liassic Black Shales. In particular, the Posidonia Shale (Lias ɛ, Lower Toarcian) acts as excellent and most prominent source rock in the central URG. This study is the first comprehensive synthesis of Liassic maturity data in the URG area and SW Germany. The thermal maturity of the Liassic Black Shales has been analysed by vitrinite reflectance (VRr) measurements, which have been verified with T max and spore coloration index (SCI) data. In outcrops and shallow wells (<600 m), the Liassic Black Shales reached maturities equivalent to the very early or early oil window (ca. 0.50-0.60 % VRr). This maturity is found in Liassic outcrops and shallow wells in the entire URG area and surrounding Swabian Jura Mountains. Maximum temperatures of the Posidonia Shale before graben formation are in the order of 80-90 °C. These values were likely reached during Late Cretaceous times due to significant Upper Jurassic and minor Cretaceous deposition and influenced by higher heat flows of the beginning rift event at about 70 Ma. In this regard, the consistent regional maturity data (VRr, T max, SCI) of 0.5-0.6 % VRr for the Posidonia Shale close to surface suggest a major burial-controlled maturation before graben formation. These consistent maturity data for Liassic outcrops and shallow wells imply no significant oil generation and expulsion from the Posidonia Shale before formation of the URG. A detailed VRr map has been created using VRr values of 31 wells and outcrops with a structure map of the Posidonia Shale as reference map for a depth-dependent gridding operation. Highest maturity levels occur in the area of the Rastatt Trough (ca. 1.5 % VRr) and along the graben axis with partly very high VRr gradients (e.g. well Scheibenhardt 2). In these deep graben areas, the maximum temperatures which were reached during upper Oligocene to Miocene times greatly exceed those during the Cretaceous.

  9. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  10. Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river; Renouvellement de la concession de la chute hydro-electrique de Kembs sur le Rhin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, P.; Defoug, H.; Petit, D

    2000-07-15

    In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

  11. The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazhdankin A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

  12. The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazhdankin Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

  13. Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the river Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and we

  14. Solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in floodplain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse : Field sampling and geochemical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the solid-solution partitioning of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and As in floodplain soils of the Dutch part of the rivers Rhine and Meuse is assessed by combining extensive field sampling with advanced geochemical modelling. The aim of this study was threefold: to develop tools to study th

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: The Fish Fauna of the Doubs River Prior to Completion of the Rhine-Rhone Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruget; Centofanti

    1998-01-01

    / The part of the Doubs River between Montbeliard and Dole (France), i.e., downstream from the confluence with the Allan River, will be affected by the Rhine- Rhone connection project. In order to improve the understanding of the Doubs ichthyofauna, aquatic environments of the Doubs were sampled by electrofishing. Fish diversity and the presence of some rheophilic species demonstrated the good ecological quality of some stretches of the Doubs. This quality was due to alternating areas with very diversified aquatic environments (riffles, islands and side-arms, backwaters) and a considerable range of flow velocities. The differences in the structure of the fish communities of the different types of aquatic environments were more qualitative (fish species) than quantitative (number of species and number of fish). However, the mean number of fish was statistically lower in the canals (Freycinet canal and channelized part of the Allan River) than in the main course and in the backwaters. The natural parts of the Doubs (unnavigable reaches) showed the most diversified environmental structure and had the most rheophilic fish communities. Thus, the rheophilic species were well represented, but they proved also the most vulnerable to river regulation. However, the most abundant fishes throughout the Doubs River were generalists with no special requirements for food sources or spawning substrate.KEY WORDS: Fish communities; Regulation; Restoration; Floodplain; Large ship canal; Doubs River

  16. Is telemonitoring an option against shortage of physicians in rural regions? attitude towards telemedical devices in the North Rhine-Westphalian health survey, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terschüren Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GP in rural areas of Germany are struggling to find successors for their private practices. Telemonitoring at home offers an option to support remaining GPs and specialists in ambulatory care. Methods We assessed the knowledge and attitude towards telemedicine in the population of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, Germany, in a population-based telephone survey. Results Out of 2,006 participants, 734 (36.6% reported an awareness of telemedical devices. Only 37 participants (1.8% have experience in using them. The majority of participants were in favour of using them in case of illness (72.2%. However, this approval declined with age. These findings were similar in rural and urban areas. Participants who were in favour of telemedicine (n = 1,480 strongly agreed that they would have to see their doctor less often, and that the doctor would recognize earlier relevant changes in their vital status. Participants who disliked to be monitored by telemedical devices preferred to receive immediate feedback from their physician. Especially, the elderly fear the loss of personal contact with their physician. They need the direct patient-physician communication. Conclusions The fear of being left alone with the technique needs to be compensated for today's elderly patients to enhance acceptance of home telemonitoring as support for remaining doctors either in the rural areas or cities.

  17. Thresholds in small rivers? Hypotheses developed from fluvial morphological research in western Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnischmacher, Stefan

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was the formulation of fluvial morphological regularities for small rivers with a wide range of morphological and geological characteristics in North-Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) based on a statistical research methodology. Such empirical quantitative information on reference conditions is required for the restoration of small rivers in the former highly industrialised Ruhr-Area. Following the approach of some classic empirical works in fluvial morphology of the last century, several natural reference rivers in the entire research area have been observed in order to provide a statistical correlation between independent and dependent morphological variables. Regressions between valley-floor slope, bankfull discharge and stream power on the one hand and several variables describing the longitudinal profile and river planform on the other hand have shown some significant results. The regularities found are a quantitative contribution to the establishment of reference conditions as well as a useful tool for the restoration of small rivers, if the specific properties and values of the underlying random sampling are taken into account. In addition, the relation between stream power and sinuosity shows the likely existence of a threshold: Exceeding a stream power of 100 W/m, the sinuosity decreases after an increase for lower stream power values. Comparable thresholds were found for the relation between stream power and pool depth as well as stream power and step steepness. The thresholds could be explained by a change in the type of energy dissipation, due to different physio-geographical settings in highland rivers within forested v-shaped valleys. Here, large-woody debris seems to increase the channel roughness and possibly replaces the significance of coarse-grained bed material, pool depth and step steepness as contributors to energy dissipation.

  18. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  19. Elevated bladder cancer risk due to colorants--a statewide case-control study in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Heitmann, Peter; Gieseler, Frank; Hodzic, Jasmin; Masche, Nicolas; Bolt, Hermann M; Geller, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Occupational exposure to aromatic amines is a known bladder cancer risk factor, whereas the impact of exposure to azo dyes, which may release aromatic amines in humans, is at present controversial. Therefore, the impact of occupational exposures to colorants was investigated in 156 bladder cancer cases and 336 controls in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. All bladder cancer cases and controls (diagnosed with prostate cancer) requested after-care treatment. The subjects were investigated using a questionnaire for all occupations ever performed for more than 6 mo and for exposures to several possible occupational and nonoccupational bladder carcinogens. The relative bladder cancer risk was adjusted for age and smoking. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for bladder cancer was elevated in 7 painters (OR 1.98, 95% CI 0.64-6.11), 4 hairdressers (OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.85-28.39), and 16 cases who reported a wood processing occupation (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.58-2.41). Ten of these 16 cases reported chronic exposure to colorants (OR 1.84, 95% CI 0.68-4.95). The results of this epidemiological study confirm the hypothesis that individuals exposed to colorants show an elevated bladder cancer risk.

  20. Aspects of clinical features, diagnosis, notification and tracing back referring to Trichinella outbreaks in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeckler K.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available 52 cases of human trichinellosis were notified from 11 towns in North Rhine-Westphalia from November 1998 to March 1999. After non-typical symptoms in the enteral phase, fever, muscular ache, headache, oedema, disorder of vision and rash occurred in the parenteral phase. Trichinellosis was serologically confirmed by ELISA, IFAT or western blot. Raw sausage and minced meat produced from raw pork could be determined as probable source of infection with 44 and eight notified cases, respectively. Whereas questionable raw sausage was not available for examination, frozen minced meat from the second outbreak could be secured in households of infected people. Larvae were isolated from minced meat and were identified by PCR as Trichinella spiralis. Tracing back to the source of infection was difficult because of the long time between clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis and notification as well as complex trade routes for pork and its products. Trichinella cases emphasize the necessity to meet the prescribed slaughter inspection and to guarantee a reliable prove of origin for meat products especially in view of specific consumer habits, i.e. the consumption of raw meat.

  1. Integrated water resources management in the Ruhr River Basin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, H; Evers, P; Albrecht, D R

    2003-01-01

    The Ruhr, with an average flow of 80.5 m3/s at its mouth, is a comparatively small tributary to the Rhine River that has to perform an important task: to secure the water supply of more than 5 million people and of the industry in the densely populated region north of the river. The complex water management system and network applied by the Ruhrverband in the natural Ruhr River Basin has been developed step by step, over decades since 1913. And from the beginning, its major goal has been to achieve optimal conditions for the people living in the region. For this purpose, a functional water supply and wastewater disposal infrastructure has been built up. The development of these structures required and still requires multi-dimensional planning and performance. Since the river serves as receiving water and at the same time as a source of drinking water, the above-standard efforts of Ruhrverband for cleaner water also help to conserve nature and wildlife. Ruhrverband has summed up its environmental awareness in the slogan: "For the people and for the environment". This basic water philosophy, successfully applied to the Ruhr for more than 80 years, will be continued in accordance with the new European Water Framework Directive, enacted in 2000, which demands integrated water resources management in natural river basins, by including the good ecological status of surface waterbodies as an additional goal.

  2. Comparison of Farm Structures, Success Factors, Obstacles, Clients’ Expectations and Policy Wishes of Urban Farming’s Main Business Models in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Pölling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost specialization, differentiation, and diversification are common business models of urban farms in developed countries. Similarities and differences between them as well as detailed insights into specific farm characteristics are widely absent in scientific discourses. This paper compares farm structures, success factors, obstacles, clients’ expectations, and policy wishes between specialized, differentiated, and diversified farms as well as diversifiers into agriculture. A standardized questionnaire was used for 21 personal in-depth farm interviews located in metropolitan areas of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Being located in a metropolitan area is the most often named Unique Selling Proposition (USP. This is also mentioned as most important success factor followed by sociability and personal contact to clients, which both underpin the importance of direct producer-consumer linkages in urban settings. Additionally, it is assumed that a single food criterion is not sufficient to be successful, but several have to be merged to meet clients’ expectations. In terms of marketing, differentiated and diversified farmers prefer a multi-channel approach, while specialized farmers and diversifiers into agriculture focus mainly on one specific channel. While both specialized farmers and diversifiers into agriculture cultivate smaller areas of farmland, the latter one offers the greatest number of jobs including those outside agricultural production. The findings obtained are expected to support farms and agricultural advisory services in individual decision making of future business development strategies and increase knowledge of urban farming’s main business models.

  3. Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization--the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Rainer; Mekel, Odile; Lacombe, Martin; Wolf, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic) is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

  4. Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.nl; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.

  5. Comparative genotoxicity testing of Rhine river sediment extracts using the comet assay with permanent fish cell lines (RTG-2 and RTL-W1) and the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmehl, T.; Braunbeck, T.; Hollert, H. [Dept. of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Krebs, F.; Manz, W. [German Federal Inst. of Hydrology, Koblenz (Germany); Erdinger, L. [Dept. for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Inst. for Hygiene, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Whilst at least in Germany assessment strategies on the basis of chemical analysis and acute toxicity data dominated the last decades, the development of more specific biological endpoints and biomarkers in ecotoxicology is required in order to arrive at a good ecological potential and good chemical status of surface waters in the European river basins until the year 2015, as required by the European Water Framework Directive. Since sediments have for long been known to function both as a sink and as a source of pollutants in aquatic systems, and since part of the particle-associated substances have frequently been demonstrated to cause mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in aquatic organisms, particularly in fish, there is, among other requirements, an urgent need to develop, standardize and implement integrated vertebrate-based test systems addressing genotoxicity into recent sediment investigation strategies. Thus, the present study was designed to compare the suitability of two commonly used test systems, the comet assay and the Ames test, for the evaluation of the ecotoxicological burden of surface and core sediment samples from the river Rhine. Methods (or main features). In order to determine the importance of inherent enzymatic activities, two permanent fish cell lines with different biotransformation capacities, RTL-W1 and RTG-2, were compared with respect to their capability of detecting genotoxic effects in 18 surface and core sediment samples from 9 locations along the river Rhine in the comet assay with and without exogenous bioactivation. For further comparison, as a prokaryotic mutagenicity assay, the Salmonella plate incorporation assay (Ames test) with the test strains TA98 and TA100 with and without exogenous metabolic activation was used. Results and discussion. Whereas all sediment extracts induced genotoxic effects in the comet assay with RTL-W1 cells, only 12 out of 18 sediment extracts revealed significant genotoxicity in the tests with the

  6. ORRION: A specific information sharing tool to (rebuild a “flood risk culture” in the Rhine Graben (France - Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When is led a prevention initiative concerning flood risk, the recall of old events allows just as much to act as pedagogy to legitimize the initiative. So as it is written in the information leaflet on the “Plan de Prévention des Risques d’Inondation” (PPRI:«Alsace did not know any more exceptional floods since 1910. In almost a century, the flood risk thus naturally faded of our memory”. A paradoxical assertion because the floods of 1910 are not taken into account for risk mapping. Only the recent floods (1983, 1990 are used as benchmarks. We were able to show [1] that, although legitimate as reference events, the floods of 1910 and many others had become manifestly underestimated for multiple reasons connected to the history of Alsace, or due to disorganization of the archives. Worse, these riks unawareness is shared by all the actors, causing problems of acceptance of the risk and their management, and an additional vulnerability in terms of population behavior before, during and after the crises. This is the reason why an online participative database (ORRION has been created. the objective of this database is to inform and to share the information about floods history, in the particular context of a cross-border territory (France, Germany, Switzerland. This tool has been immediately involved into risks prevention actions (PAPI, PPRI.

  7. Fuzzifying historical peak water levels: case study of the river Rhine at Basel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Kiss, Andrea; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    ., Weingartner, R., Luterbacher, J., Reist, T., & Trösch, J. (2011) The largest floods in the High Rhine basin since 1268 assessed from documentary and instrumental evidence. Hydrol. Sci. J. 56(5), 733-758.

  8. Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the river Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations. Discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows are analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch–German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows are estimated, namely seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and weighted

  9. Use of Aerial high resolution visible imagery to produce large river bathymetry: a multi temporal and spatial study over the by-passed Upper Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béal, D.; Piégay, H.; Arnaud, F.; Rollet, A.; Schmitt, L.

    2011-12-01

    Aerial high resolution visible imagery allows producing large river bathymetry assuming that water depth is related to water colour (Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law). In this paper we aim at monitoring Rhine River geometry changes for a diachronic study as well as sediment transport after an artificial injection (25.000 m3 restoration operation). For that a consequent data base of ground measurements of river depth is used, built on 3 different sources: (i) differential GPS acquisitions, (ii) sounder data and (iii) lateral profiles realized by experts. Water depth is estimated using a multi linear regression over neo channels built on a principal component analysis over red, green and blue bands and previously cited depth data. The study site is a 12 km long reach of the by-passed section of the Rhine River that draws French and German border. This section has been heavily impacted by engineering works during the last two centuries: channelization since 1842 for navigation purposes and the construction of a 45 km long lateral canal and 4 consecutive hydroelectric power plants of since 1932. Several bathymetric models are produced based on 3 different spatial resolutions (6, 13 and 20 cm) and 5 acquisitions (January, March, April, August and October) since 2008. Objectives are to find the optimal spatial resolution and to characterize seasonal effects. Best performances according to the 13 cm resolution show a 18 cm accuracy when suspended matters impacted less water transparency. Discussions are oriented to the monitoring of the artificial reload after 2 flood events during winter 2010-2011. Bathymetric models produced are also useful to build 2D hydraulic model's mesh.

  10. Modelling seasonal N and P loads in three contrasting large river basins using global datasets - Mississippi, Mekong and Rhine River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, S.; Middelkoop, H.; Perk, M. van der; Beek, L.P.H. van

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients are important components of the global biochemical cycle, and are key controls of the quality of inland and coastal waters. Quantification of the nutrient fluxes from large river basins to the oceans still relies on long-term yearly-load estimates; existing models are essentially empirical

  11. The "WFD-effect" on upstream-downstream relations in international river basins – insights from the Rhine and the Elbe basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moellenkamp

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The upstream-downstream relationship in international river basins is a traditional challenge in water management. Water use in upstream countries often has a negative impact on water use in downstream countries. This is most evident in the classical example of industrial pollution in upstream countries hindering drinking water production downstream. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD gives new impetus to the river basin approach and to international co-operation in European catchments. It aims at transforming a mainly water quality oriented management into a more integrated approach of ecosystem management. After discussing the traditional upstream-downstream relationship, this article shows that the WFD has a balancing effect on upstream-downstream problems and that it enhances river basin solidarity in international basins. While it lifts the downstream countries to the same level as the upstream countries, it also leads to new duties for the downstream states. Following the ecosystem approach, measures taken by downstream countries become increasingly more important. For example, downstream countries need to take measures to allow for migrating fish species to reach upstream stretches of river systems. With the WFD, fish populations receive increased attention, as they are an important indicator for the ecological status. The European Commission acquires a new role of inspection and control in river basin management, which finally also leads to enhanced cooperation and solidarity among the states in a basin. In order to achieve better water quality and to mitigate upstream-downstream problems, also economic instruments can be applied and the WFD does not exclude the possibility of making use of financial compensations, if at the same time the polluter pays principle is taken into account. The results presented in this article originate from a broader study on integrated water resources management conducted at Bonn University and

  12. Long-term development and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures: an analysis for the German part of the river Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, P.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Flood mitigation measures implemented by private households have become an important component of contemporary integrated flood risk management in Germany and many other countries. Despite the growing responsibility of private households to contribute to flood damage reduction by means of private flood mitigation measures, knowledge on the long-term development of such measures, which indicates changes in vulnerability over time, and their effectiveness, is still scarce. To gain further insights into the long-term development, current implementation level and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures, empirical data from 752 flood-prone households along the German part of the Rhine are presented. It is found that four types of flood mitigation measures developed gradually over time among flood-prone households, with severe floods being important triggers for an accelerated implementation. At present, still a large share of respondents has not implemented a single flood mitigation measure, despite the high exposure of the surveyed households to floods. The records of household's flood damage to contents and structure during two consecutive flood events with similar hazard characteristics in 1993 and 1995 show that an improved preparedness of the population led to substantially reduced damage during the latter event. Regarding the efficiency of contemporary integrated flood risk management, it is concluded that additional policies are required in order to further increase the level of preparedness of the flood-prone population. This especially concerns households in areas that are less frequently affected by flood events.

  13. Bioassay responses and effects on benthos after pilot remediations in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Besten, Pieter J; van den Brink, Paul J

    2005-07-01

    Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a new silty sediment top layer was formed exhibiting a lower toxicity in five sediment/sediment pore water bioassays. Compared to the unremediated sites, lower metal and PAH concentrations were found at the remediated sites, but in one location at the same time elevated HCH, PCB and HCB levels were recorded. One year after the remediation, the differences became smaller, although effects-based classification showed that the remediated site showed a higher quality up to the last year. In both remediated sites a rapid recolonization of nematodes, oligochaetes and chironomids was observed, while the recolonization by bivalves was slower. A few years after the remediation the differences decrease.

  14. The case of the Upper Rhine: unravelling the past, wrapping up the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenzinger, P.; Bölscher, J.; de Jong, C.

    2003-04-01

    The southern Upper Rhine was once the most prominent braided river system in Germany. However it lost its character during the last 200 years and is now a trained river used for electricity and carrying ships to Basel(CH). The river sector between Basel and Strasburg(F) was always different to the Hochrhein (Lake Constance Basel) and to the lower Upper Rhine (Strasburg Bingen(D)). This ancient braided river system changed downstream according to the transition of grain sizes from cobbles to gravel and sand. Between Strasburg and Lauterburg(F) the braids were replaced by meanders and this geomorphological change induced many other changes. At thesed times the ecology, including the use of water and land, riparian forests, the development of flood defence and navigation were different. In addition there was a further problem for people living in the time of enlightment: how should the boundary of a state be defined within a braided river? In the German language braided rivers were and are still called “verwildert” and this means the river is going wild. As such, somebody who was able to improve this situation would gain merits. This happened to Johann Gottfried Tulla. He became the responsible engineer for river construction in the Great Duchy Baden. In 1812 he created a memorandum with recommodations for the future development of the river Rhine. Only 5 years later he succeeded with the first cutoff of a meander next to Karlsruhe. After his death a treaty between France and Baden regulated the elimination of the braided system between Basel and Lauterburg. The construction took place between 1840 and 1875. This development was opposed locally and by the Prussian and Dutch authorities who claimed - after the huge flood of 1824 - that the abnormal flood peak was a result of the meander cutoffs created in Baden. Nevertheless the results of training the braided system were technically convincing: a deeper river channel, less floods, a well defined border and finally

  15. The geothermal conditions in the Rhine Graben - a summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybach, L.

    2007-07-15

    This article takes a look at the situation in the upper Rhine valley with respect to its geothermal potential. The Rhine Graben, being part of the European Mid-Continental Rift System is characterised by thinned crust and therefore higher heat flow rates. According to the author, the Rhine Graben presents generally favourable conditions for geothermal energy development and utilisation. This illustrated article presents information on the geological structures to be found and figures obtained from the geothermal exploration project at Soulz-sous-Forets, France, and a number of other geothermal investigation and production projects in Germany.

  16. Eggs of the common tern as indicator for the present pollution of the rivers Rhine, Weser and Elbe; Eier der Flussseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo) als Indikator fuer die aktuelle Belastung von Rhein, Weser und Elbe mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cifuentes, J. [Institut fuer Vogelforschung `Vogelwarte Helgoland``, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)]|[Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia; Becker, P.H. [Institut fuer Vogelforschung `Vogelwarte Helgoland``, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    In 1995, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs from the big German rivers, the Rhine, Weser and Elbe were collected to study the contamination with organochlorines and mercury. We found distinct differences between the rivers: Common tern eggs from the Rhine had higher concentrations of PCBs and HCHs, while eggs from the Elbe had higher residues of DDT, HCB and mercury. Also toxic PCB congeners had higher residue levels in the Rhine. Considering all organochlorines, samples from the Rhine also had the highest concentrations, while those from the Elbe were the lowest. With 5.7 anti {mu}gxg{sup -1} fresh weight, the {Sigma}PCBs had a level endangering breeding success. Fish eating birds should be used as indicators of the contamination of the rivers with environmental chemicals and should be included in monitoring programmes. (orig.) [Deutsch] 1995 wurden Eier der Flussseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo) an Rhein, Weser und Elbe entnommen und auf Organohalogene und Quecksilber untersucht. Es gab deutliche Unterschiede zwischen den Fluessen: Die Eier der Flussseeschwalben waren am Rhein hoeher mit PCB und HCH kontaminiert, an der Elbe hoeher mit DDT, HCB und Quecksilber belastet. Auch die Konzentrationen toxischer PCB-Kongenere (Non-, Mono- und Di-ortho) waren am hoechsten in den Eiern vom Rhein. Bei Betrachtungen aller untersuchten Organohalogene enthielten Eier vom Rhein die meisten, von der Elbe die wenigsten Rueckstaende. Mit 5,7 anti {mu}g {Sigma}PCBxg{sup -1} Frischmasse erreichten die Eikonzentrationen am Rhein fuer den Bruterfolg kritische Werte. Eier fischfressender Voegel erweisen sich als geeignete Indikatoren der Belastung von Fluessen mit Umweltchemikalien und sollten in Monitoringprogramme aufgenommen werden. (orig.)

  17. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiati

  18. The climate protection legislation in Germany. The example North Rhine-Westphalia; Das Klimaschutzrecht in Deutschland. Das Beispiel Nordrhein-Westfalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaskuehler, Christina [Europa Univ. Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oeffentliches Recht, Verwaltungs-, Europa-, Umwelt-, Agrar- und Ernaehrungswirtschaftsrecht

    2014-07-01

    The contribution on the climate protection legislation in Germany deals with the example Nordrhein-Westfalen. The covered topics include the legislative competence, climate protection targets, the climate protection plan, climate protection concepts and the climate commission and monitoring. The climate protection law is discusses in the view of sustainability and in respect with the consequences for the rural region in Nordrhein-Westfalen.

  19. Differential subsidence within a coastal prism : late-Glacial - Holocene tectonics In The Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Rhine-Meuse river system has been studied extensively over the past few decades. The Netherlands' coastal prism formed in response to Holocene sea level rise and buried the Weichselian (OIS-2) Rhine-Meuse valley. Although the geological-geomorphological evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system since

  20. Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonon, Ivo; Klok, Chris

    2007-01-01

    River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbers. Populations recover from cocoons that survive floods. If the period between two floods is too short such that cocoons cannot develop into reproductive adults, populations cannot sustain themselves. Both climate change and floodplain rehabilitation change the flooding frequency affecting earthworm populations. The present paper estimates the influence of climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on the viability of earthworm populations in a Dutch floodplain; the Afferdensche and Deestsche Waarden along the River Waal. This floodplain will be part of major river rehabilitation plans of the Dutch government. In those plans, the floodplain will experience the construction of a secondary channel and the removal of part of its minor embankment. To estimate the impact of these plans and climate change, we used a dataset of daily discharges for 1900-2003 for the River Rhine at the Dutch-German border. We perturbed this dataset to obtain two new datasets under climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2100. From the original and two projected datasets we derived the frequency distributions for the annual periods without inundations for the studied floodplain. We subsequently compared the duration of these inundation-free (dry) periods with the maturation age distribution for L. rubellus as derived from a Dynamic Energy Budget model. This comparison yielded in which parts of our study area and under which climate conditions the populations would still be viable, be able to adapt or become extinct. The results show that climate change has almost no adverse effect on earthworm viability. This is because climate change reduces the flooding frequency during the earthworms growing

  1. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver; Tuttenuj, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Part I: Dr. Oliver Wetter. (Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) Part II: PhD student Daniel Tuttenuj (Oeschger Centre of Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet

  2. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttenuj, Daniel; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers in Switzerland. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet systematically analysed the period from 1446-1542 and could prove a large number of pre-instrumental flood events of river Rhine, Birs, Birsig and Wiese in Basel. All in all the weekly led account books

  3. Palaeoflood extremes of the Lower Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, W. H. J.; de Molenaar, M. M.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-04-01

    Assessment of the magnitude of design discharges (floods with an expected recurrence of 1/1250-yr) requires knowledge on the frequency and magnitude of extreme events. The current estimate of the size of the design flood for the Lower Rhine is based on the discharge record of the last 100 years, but it is improbable that its extrapolation is optimal for prediction of the magnitude of extreme events, as larger floods than those in the observational records have not been measured. Reconstructing palaeoflood magnitudes and frequencies from sedimentary records may provide insight in the potential maximum magnitude of extreme Rhine discharges. This helps to improve the determination of the design discharge with a reduced uncertainty, especially for extreme values. We reconstructed the magnitude of a Middle-Holocene flood in the Lower Rhine valley (Germany) based on the highest slackwater deposits on elevated terrace levels and in a palaeochannel fill in a section across the valley. A Chézy-based hydraulic model was used to calculate the palaeoflood discharge out of carefully evaluated geological data; e.g., palaeochannel dimensions, Middle-Holocene natural floodplain landscape, surface roughness, and palaeostage indicators. To account for the uncertainty in the reconstructed input variables, we considered an ensemble of 10 sets of input variables. These represent a realistic range of model inputs and results. From this set we determined a 'best guess' estimate for the minimum magnitude of floods that left the highest registered slackwater deposits in the cross section. The calculated discharge is 13,250 m3s-1 with an estimated recurrence time of 1,250 to 2,500-yr. The recurrence time is based on AMS dating and palynological analysis of the organic palaeochannel fill, which occasionally contains flood event layers. The use of the calculated discharge in flood frequency analysis for the present-day situation is not straightforward, as the Middle-Holocene flood was

  4. Osmium isotope compositions of detrital Os-rich alloys from the Rhine River provide evidence for a global late Mesoproterozoic mantle depletion event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arjan H.; Dale, Christopher W.; Oberthür, Thomas; Nowell, Geoffrey M.; Graham Pearson, D.

    2016-10-01

    We report osmium isotopic compositions for 297 mantle-derived detrital Ru-Os-Ir alloy grains found in gold and platinum-group mineral bearing placers of the Rhine River. These alloys were likely formed as a result of high degree melting in the convective mantle and derived from residual Paleozoic mantle peridotites in the Alps of Central Europe that were accreted as part of a collage of Gondwana-derived 'Armorican' terranes before the Variscan Orogeny. The 187Os/188Os isotope ratios of the Os-rich alloys show a wide distribution, with two modes at 0.1244 and 0.1205. These two modes correspond to rhenium depletion ages, interpreted to correspond with episodes of high-degree mantle melting, at ∼0.5 and ∼1.1 Ga. The data confirm the ability of the oceanic mantle to preserve evidence of ancient melting events. Our new data, in combination with published data on Os-rich alloys from the Urals and Tasmania and with data for abyssal peridotites, indicate a geographically widespread record of a major global Late Mesoproterozoic (1.0-1.2 Ga) high-degree melting event in Paleozoic oceanic mantle rocks. This model age peak is essentially absent from the crustal record of Central-Western Europe, but does coincide with the apparent peak in global continental crust zircon ages at this time. Thus, high-degree mantle melting peaking in the 1.0-1.2 Ga interval may have affected a large part of Earth's mantle. This interval occurred during a period of relative super-continental stability, which may have been accompanied in the oceanic realm by rapid seafloor spreading and extensive subduction, and by unusually high activity of mantle plumes forming two active mantle superswells.

  5. The health status of European silver eels, Anguilla anguilla, in the Dutch River Rhine Watershed and lake IJsselmeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, O.L.M.; Lehmann, J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Stürenberg, F.J.; Roozenburg, I.; Kerkhoff, S.; Klein Breteler, J.G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide decline of the eel population is thought to be caused by several factors, among which eel diseases. To investigate diseases of European silver eels Anguilla anguilla in the Netherlands, in Nov–Dec 2004 12 silver eels, and in Aug–Dec 2005 80 eels were caught in downstream parts (rivers)

  6. The impact of bioturbation by small mammals on heavy metal redistribution in an embanked floodplain of the river Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, S.; Thonon, I.; Velde, G. van der; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Zorn, M.; Eijsackers, H.; Smits, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Floodplains along large European rivers are diffusely polluted with heavy metals due to emissions in the past. Because of lowmobility of heavy metals in floodplain soils and improvements of water quality, these pollutants will remain in place, and can gradually become covered with less contaminated

  7. The impact of bioturbation by small mammals on heavy metal redistribution in an embanked floodplain of the River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, S.; Thonon, I.; Velde, G.D.; Leuven, R.; Zorn, M.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Smits, T.

    2006-01-01

    Floodplains along large European rivers are diffusely polluted with heavy metals due to emissions in the past. Because of low mobility of heavy metals in floodplain soils and improvements of water quality, these pollutants will remain in place, and can gradually become covered with less contaminated

  8. THF Rhine Ballet Traupe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ON June 2,1997,"The Cultural Express Train" from France came to us as swiftly sa wind and the Chinese audience had the honor to apreciate the splendid performance of France’s Rhine Ballet Troupe in the elegant Beijing Exhibition Hall Theater. From a historica view of ballet internationally, France’s Rhine Ballet Troupe,established just 25 years ago,is apromising new arrival on the performing arts scene.As far as full-length ballets are concerned,only large troupes with considerable strength have the ability

  9. Rol' reki Rejn v formirovanii prostranstvennoj struktury jekonomiki stran Evropy (I vek do nashej jery — XIX vek [The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazhdankin Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

  10. Interdisciplinary and transboundary approach of geohistorical reconstruction of the floods in the Rhine Graben (1400 - 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brice; Ansel, Romain; Guerrouah, Ouarda; With, Lauriane; -Chenel, Karine Dietrich; Vitoux, Marie-Claire; Glaser, Rudiger; Drescher, Axel; Himmelsbach, Iso

    2010-05-01

    Because of its turbulent history, Alsace is one of French regions where the historic floods are the most underestimated. The damages connected to the wars (on 1870, 1914 - 1918, 1939 - 1945), the particular classification of archives and, especially, their writing in German during several periods of the recent history, is rebuffing numerous specialists Located in the same geographical area (the Rhine Graben), but by the other side of the the border constituted by the Rhine, the land of Bade is, him too, confronted with the problem of the misunderstanding of the historic floods, because of the destructions of the war also, but especially because of the harmful absence, for archives production, of a strong centralized state until the German unification after 1870. Hence the idea to set up a interdisciplinary French - German research program, to establish compared floods chronologies over several centuries in the Rhine Graben, both in France and in Germany, by associating historians, geographers, anthropologists and specialists of the languages from the universities of Mulhouse (France) and Freiburg in Breisgau (Germany). This program (called "TRANSRISK" 2008 - 2010), financed by the « Agence Nationale de la Recherche » and the « Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft , has multiple objectives: - filling the gaps in the knowledge of the floods in France and in Germany - building a common geohistory of the floods - optimizing the prevention and the information about the floods, thanks to the classification, the reconstruction and the mapping of the extreme phenomena - understanding the role of rivers developments responsible for an different floods evolution on both sides of the Rhine - contributing to the implementation of flood risk observatories on a French - German basis - contributing to define a common interdisciplinary vocabulary on risks (and a french - german - english glossary ). These works join the logic of the "European Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment

  11. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in the aquatic environment: A case study of the Elbe River, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolschke, Hendrik; Sühring, Roxana; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    This study reports the occurrence and distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (OPEs) in the Elbe and Rhine rivers. A special focus of this investigation concerns the potential impacts of a major flood event in 2013 on the OPE patterns and levels in the Elbe River. In this river, 6 of 13 OPEs were detected, with tris-ethyl-phosphate (TEP, 168 ± 44 ng/L), tris-1,3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate (TDCPP, 155 ± 14 ng/L) and tris-1-chloro-2-propyl phosphate (TCPP, 126 ± 14 ng/L) identified as the dominant compounds. Relative to previous studies, an increase in the concentrations and relative contributions of TDCPP to the total level of OPEs was observed, which was likely caused by its increased use as a replacement for the technical pentaBDE formulation. During the flood event, the concentrations of OPEs were similar to the normal situation, but the mass fluxes increased by a factor of approximately ten (∼16 kg/d normal versus ∼160 kg/d flood peak). No input hotspots were identified along the transects of the Elbe and Rhine rivers, and the mass flux of OPEs appeared to be driven by water discharge.

  12. A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche K.F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Gobiid fish species have recently increased their ranges along the Danube/Rhine river corridor. Studies to date, however, have tended to be local, site specific and reactive, examining just one or few species. As such, overall range has tended to be assumed based on a summary of patchy, and sometimes contradictory, data. This study provides an up-to-date literature review of first records of occurrence for all five species along their expansion route. In addition, available shipping data are examined to identify possible proximal causes of introduction. Three main discontinuous population centres were identified; all at or near important container ports: Vienna, Duisburg and Rotterdam. Shipping is confirmed as an important factor in the rapid national and international expansion of Ponto-Caspian Gobiids, with downstream drift, rip-rap and heavy boat traffic contributing to rapid spread on the Rhine. Geopolitical factors, however, such as the fall of communism and the Balkan conflict, have been key in influencing where, when, and by which route gobies first appear. Rapid expansion of Gobiids in the Rhine raises the possibility of establishment throughout mainland Europe via two new potential invasion corridors across Germany/Poland and France.

  13. The Rhine delta—a record of sediment trapping over time scales from millennia to decades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, H.; Perk, M. van der; Erkens, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose At the land–ocean interface, large river deltas are major sinks of sediments and associated matter. Over the past decennia, many studies have been conducted on the palaeogeographic development of the Rhine delta and overbank deposition on the Rhine floodplains. This paper aims to synthesise

  14. Historical floods in the Dutch Rhine Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Glaser

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical records provide direct information about the climatic impact on society. Especially great natural disasters such as river floods have been for long attracting the attention of humankind. Time series for flood development on the Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn/Lek and IJssel in the Dutch Rhine Delta are presented in this paper. In the case of the Waal it is even possible to compare historical flood frequencies based on documentary data with the recent development reconstructed from standardized instrumental measurements. In brief, we will also discuss various parameters concerning the structure of the flood series and the "human dimension" of natural disaster, i.e. the vulnerability of society when facing natural disasters.

  15. Elbe river flood peaks and postwar agricultural land use in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, R R; Schweigert, P

    2001-12-01

    Collectivization of farmland since the 1950s has changed the agricultural land use in former East Germany. Single fields on the collective farms became increasingly large and were cultivated with increasingly heavy farm equipment. This led to large-scale physical degradation of arable soils, enhancing the formation of surface runoff in periods with prolonged and excessive precipitation. The extent to which this development may have affected the discharge behavior of the main East German river, the Elbe, has so far not been studied. We analyzed the flood peaks of the Elbe during the past century (1900-2000). The flood discharge behavior of the Elbe has apparently changed significantly since the 1950s. Although climate changes may be involved, we conclude that the Elbe flood peaks, recorded since 1950, are related to the changes in postwar agricultural land use in former East Germany. To restore the degraded farmland soils, a change in agricultural land use may be necessary.

  16. Desk-study on habitat quality for the European Sturgeon in the Dutch Rhine and southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Teal, L.R.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Griffioen, A.B.; Houben, B.; Breve, N.W.P.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most endangered fish species worldwide is the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. The River Rhine was home to an important sturgeon population that went locally extinct in the first half of the 20th century. In recent decades, many improvements of the ecological quality of the Rhine have

  17. Validation of a social vulnerability index in context to river-floods in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fekete

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Social vulnerability indices are a means for generating information about people potentially affected by disasters that are e.g. triggered by river-floods. The purpose behind such an index is in this study the development and the validation of a social vulnerability map of population characteristics towards river-floods covering all counties in Germany. This map is based on a composite index of three main indicators for social vulnerability in Germany – fragility, socio-economic conditions and region. These indicators have been identified by a factor analysis of selected demographic variables obtained from federal statistical offices. Therefore, these indicators can be updated annually based on a reliable data source. The vulnerability patterns detected by the factor analysis are verified by using an independent second data set. The interpretation of the second data set shows that vulnerability is revealed by a real extreme flood event and demonstrates that the patterns of the presumed vulnerability match the observations of a real event. It comprises a survey of flood-affected households in three federal states. By using logistic regression, it is demonstrated that the theoretically presumed indications of vulnerability are correct and that the indicators are valid. It is shown that indeed certain social groups like the elderly, the financially weak or the urban residents are higher risk groups.

  18. Quantitative target and systematic non-target analysis of polar organic micro-pollutants along the river Rhine using high-resolution mass-spectrometry--Identification of unknown sources and compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Matthias; Mueller, Miriam S; Loos, Martin; Singer, Heinz P

    2015-12-15

    In this study, the contamination by polar organic pollutants was investigated along the Rhine River, an important source of drinking water for 22 million people in central Europe. Following the flow of the river, a traveling water mass was sampled using weekly flow-proportional composite samples at ten different downstream sites, including main tributaries. Using a broad analytical method based on solid phase extraction and high-resolution mass spectrometry, the water was analyzed for more than 300 target substances. While the water in Lake Constance contained only 83 substances in often low concentrations, the number of detects found in the water phase increased to 143 substances and a weekly load of more than 7 tons at the last sampling site, the Dutch-German border. Mostly present were chemicals originating from wastewater treatment plants, especially the artificial sweetener Acesulfam and two pharmaceuticals, Metformin and Gabapentin, which dominate the weekly load up to 58%. Although the sample campaign was performed in a dry period in early spring, a large variety of pesticides and biocides were detected. Several industrial point sources were identified along the waterway's 900 km journey, resulting in high concentrations in the tributaries and loads of up to 160 kg. Additionally, an unbiased non-target analysis was performed following two different strategies for the prioritization of hundreds of potentially relevant unknown masses. While for the first prioritization strategy, only chlorinated compounds were extracted from the mass spectrometer datasets, the second prioritization strategy was performed using a systematic reduction approach between the different sampling sites. Among others, two substances that never had been detected before in this river, namely, the muscle relaxant Tizanidine and the solvent 1,3-Dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI), were identified and confirmed, and their loads were roughly estimated along the river.

  19. Future discharge of the French tributaries of the Rhine: a semi-distributed multi-model approach using CMIP5 projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; de Lavenne, Alban; Wagner, Jean-Pierre; Perrin, Charles; Gerlinger, Kai; Drogue, Gilles; Renard, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Several projects studied the impact of climate change on the Rhine basin during the past years, using the CMIP3 projections (see Explore2070, FLOW MS, RheinBlick2050 or VULNAR), either on the French or German sides. These studies showed the likely decrease of low flows and a high uncertainty regarding the evolution of high flows. This may have tremendous impacts on several aspects related to discharge, including pollution, flood protection, irrigation, rivers ecosystems and drinking water. While focusing on the same basin (or part of it), many differences including the climate scenarios and models, the hydrological models and the study periods used for these projects make the outcomes of these projects difficult to compare rigorously. Therefore the MOSARH21 (stands for MOselle-SArre-RHine discharge in the 21st century) was built to update and homogenise discharge projections for the French tributaries of the Rhine basin. Two types of models were used: the physically-oriented LARSIM model, which is widely used in Germany and was used in one of the previous projects (FLOW MS), and the semi-distributed conceptual GRSD model tested on French catchments for various objectives. Through the use of these two hydrological models and multiple sets of parameters obtained by various calibrations runs, the structural and parametric uncertainties in the hydrological projections were quantified, as they tend to be neglected in climate change impact studies. The focus of the impact analysis is put on low flows, high flows and regime. Although this study considers only French tributaries of the Rhine, it will foster further cooperation on transboundary basins across Europe, and should contribute to propose better bases for the future definition of adaptation strategies between riverine countries.

  20. Modeling of the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals and arsenic in embanked flood plain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, T.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Vink, J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in river flood plain soils. We compared mechanistic geochemical modeling with a statistical approach. To characterize the heavy metal contamination of embanked river flood plain soils in The Netherlands, we collected

  1. Extraction of geoid heights from shipborne GNSS measurements along the Weser River in northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, D.; Even-Tzur, G.; Reinking, J.

    2015-11-01

    In-land geoid models rely on several measuring techniques. The quality of those models is directly related to the spatial resolution of the measurement data. Occasionally, a local geoid model does not cover the coastal area at all and a local marine geoid simply does not exist. ShipborneGNSS measurementsmay provide away of overcoming this problem in coastal areas. However, several corrections to the raw measurements must be applied in order to account for systematic effects induced by ship dynamics and other static and dynamic impacts from tides, atmospheric pressure or wind stress. This paper presents the theoretical background for the method and the results of a case study in the estuary of the Weser River in Germany. A series of GNSS measurements were carried out aboard a ship and the approximate geoid height along the river was derived. For accuracy assessments of this method, the resultswere compared to the German Combined QuasiGeoid 2011 (GCG2011). The results are very promising and indicate the ability to extract geoid heights from shipborne GNSS measurements.

  2. Plasma biomarkers in fish provide evidence for endocrine modulation in the Elbe River, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Tyler, Charles R; Hoffmann, Mervée; Maddix, Sue; Karbe, Ludwig

    2002-06-01

    Blood plasma samples were collected from wild bream (Abramis brama L.) in the Elbe River, Germany, and analyzed for the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG), a biomarker for estrogen exposure, and the sex steroids 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), testosterone (T), and 17beta-estradiol (E2) to investigate for evidence of endocrine modulation. In addition, the gonadal status and the prominence of spawning tubercles were investigated. Nine riverine sites were investigated on the Elbe that were influenced by different sources of endocrine-active substances. Bream were collected from a lake that received no domestic or industrial discharges as a control. Plasma VTG concentrations were significantly higher in male bream from the Czech border to the middle Elbe, with the highest concentrations in fish sampled at the locations near Magdeburg and downstream of Dresden (between 20 and 100 times higher than in the controls), regions that are characterized by high levels of effluent discharges into the river. Following the Elbe from this site to the sea, the concentrations of plasma VTG in males were lower than at Meissen but were still elevated above the controls. 11KT and E2 titers showed suppressions in their normal concentrations at some locations (those receiving the greatest industrial discharges). There were reciprocal relationships between inhibitory effects on gonadal growth, maturation, and plasma sex steroids and exposure to pollutants, such as organotins, pesticides, or metals. However, there was no single chemical that alone could explain the observed inhibitory effects on sexual development. The results indicate that the endocrine system in wild bream is disrupted in stretches of the Elbe River.

  3. Fish and fisheries in the Lower Rhine 1550–1950: A historical-ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, H.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation and intensive use of most of the world's large rivers, has led to dramatic decline and even to extinction of riverine fish populations like salmon and sturgeon in the river Rhine. In general this decline is considered an unwelcome side-effect of the Industrial Revolution and large-scale r

  4. Numerical modelling of chloride propagation in the quaternary aquifer of the southern Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, U.; Gudera, T.; Elsass, P.; Wirsing, G.

    2005-09-01

    The deep groundwater in the quaternary gravel sequence of the southern Upper Rhine Graben locally contains high chloride concentrations near the river Rhine between Fessenheim (France) in the South and Breisach (Germany) in the North. This historical pollution is mainly due to past infiltration from the former brine storage basins of the French potash mines on the “Fessenheim Island” and—to a lesser extent—from the leaching of the salt dumps of the German potash mines in Buggingen and Heitersheim. The spreading of the salt plume was investigated by means of a groundwater model. The aim of the model was to understand the brine movement, the present distribution of chloride as defined by recent hydrochemical investigations, and to select locations for new reconnaissance boreholes. The geological structure was reproduced by a three layer model, which was calibrated for steady state flow conditions. The hydraulic conductivity of the first layer was determined by comparing measured and calculated heads in the model area. The vertical resolution was refined to simulate the density-dependent salt transport processes. The transport of the salt plumes was simulated over a 40-year period, starting at the beginning of brine storage in the 1950s. The relevant transport parameters have been estimated in a sensitivity analysis, where the simulated breakthrough curves of chloride concentration have been compared with the measured data. The results of the groundwater model indicate that brines containing approximately 1 million tons of chloride are still present at the bottom of the aquifer. These highly concentrated salt brines mix with fresh water from the upper part of the aquifer. This dispersive process leads to the formation of a plume of chloride-rich water extending downstream, where pumping wells for several local water supplies are located.

  5. Suppression of aromatase activity in populations of bream (Abramis brama) from the river Elbe, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Sanderson, J Thomas; Karbe, Ludwig

    2007-01-01

    Aromatase activity was determined in brain and gonads of wild bream collected along the river Elbe, Germany, and correlated with other endocrine and reproductive endpoints such as plasma sex steroid concentrations, secondary sex characteristics (STI), plasma vitellogenin, gonad size (GSI), and maturation stages of germ cells (MS) that were reported for the same fish in a previous study. Furthermore, regional patterns of aromatase activity were correlated to a number of environmental factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants and parasitism. While aromatase activity was not detectable in the gonads of male and female fish with the assay used, fish of both genders revealed relatively great brain enzyme activities. As for most of the endocrine and reproductive parameters, with the exception of plasma testosterone (T), aromatase activities were significantly less in fish from a river stretch characterized by elevated exposures to organic contaminants and metals. Brain aromatase activity was positively and significantly correlated with plasma estradiol (E2) and MS in females, and showed a similar trend with plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and STI in males. No comparable trend occurred for T. This decrease of the reproductively relevant hormones 11KT and E2 may be indicative of a disruption of the last step in sex hormone synthesis, a hypothesis that was supported for E2 by the strong (R2=0.78, p<0.05) linear regression between aromatase activity and E2 in female bream. It is also hypothesized that the effects on brain aromatase activity were likely to be related to the disruption of other reproductive parameters including sexual maturity and expression of secondary sex characteristics. Although a number of factors such as exposure to pollutants and prevalence of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis correlated with the suppression of aromatase activity, the exact causes for the regional decrease in brain aromatase activity remain unclear due to inconsistencies

  6. Opposite hysteresis of sand and gravel transport upstream and downstream of a bifurcation during a flood in the River Rhine, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Wilbers, A.W.E.; Brinke, W.B.M. ten

    2007-01-01

    At river bifurcations water and sediment is divided among the downstream branches. Prediction of the sediment transport rate and divisionthereof at bifurcations is of utmost importance for understanding the evolution of the bifurcates for short-term management purposes and forlong-term fluvial plain

  7. Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, I.; Klok, C.

    2007-01-01

    River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbe

  8. Fish and fisheries in the Lower Rhine 1550-1950: A historical-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, H J Rob

    2016-09-09

    Regulation and intensive use of most of the world's large rivers, has led to dramatic decline and even to extinction of riverine fish populations like salmon and sturgeon in the river Rhine. In general this decline is considered an unwelcome side-effect of the Industrial Revolution and large-scale river regulation (c. 1800), but the deterioration of stocks of some species may have started well before the 19th century. For the river Rhine, data on fish landings as proxies of abundance in the period 1550-1950 can be derived from historical market prices, fisheries taxation and fishery and fish auctions statistics, especially for commercially interesting species like Atlantic salmon, sturgeon, Allis shad and Twaite shad. Most data from which abundance of these species can be derived, however, appear to be missing in historical sources until decline of the investigated species sets in and the species become economically scarce goods. Atlantic salmon in the Rhine catchment appears to be already in decline during Early Modern Times (post 1500 AD) after which time river regulation, pollution and intensified fisheries finished off the remaining stocks in the 20th century. Salmon decline caused a cascade in the River Rhine ecosystem as fisheries shifted to, especially, Allis shad and Twaite shad, followed by (near-)extinction of these species. Dropping yields of salmon fishery did not lead to increased sturgeon fishery, although numbers of sturgeon also dwindled to extinction in the river Rhine. The onset of sturgeon decline appears to coincide with the period of the first large regulation works. It is shown that historical-ecological data on fish abundance can quantitatively underpin detrimental long-term processes in river ecosystems.

  9. Non-Destructive Monitoring of Rice by Hyperspectral In-Field Spectrometry and Uav-Based Remote Sensing: Case Study of Field-Grown Rice in North Rhine-Westphalia Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkomm, M.; Bolten, A.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    In the context of an increasing world population, the demand for agricultural crops is continuously rising. Especially rice plays a key role in food security, not only in Asia. To increase crop production of rice, either productivity of plants has to be improved or new cultivation areas have to be found. In this context, our study investigated crop growth of paddy rice (Oryza Sativa J.) in Germany. An experimental field in the vegetation period of 2014 with two nitrogen treatments was conducted using remote sensing methods. The research project focussed on two main aspects: (1) the potential of UAV-based and hyperspectral remote sensing methods to monitor selected growth parameters at different phenological stages; (2) the potential of paddy rice cultivation under the present climate condition in western Germany. We applied a low-cost UAV-system (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) to generate high resolution Crop Surface Models (CSM). These were compared with hyperspectral in-field measurements and directly measured agronomic parameters (fresh and dry aboveground biomass (AGB), leaf-area-index (LAI) and plant nitrogen concentration (PNC)). For all acquisition dates we could determine single in-field structures in the CSM (e.g. distribution of hills) and different growth characteristics between the nitrogen treatments. Especially in the second half of the growing season, the plants with higher nitrogen availability were about 25 - 30 % larger. The plant height in the CSM correlates particularly with fresh AGB and the LAI (R2 > 0.8). Thus, the conducted methods for plant growth monitoring can be a contribution for precision agriculture approaches.

  10. Understanding and managing the morphology of Rhine Delta branches incising into sand-clay deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Van Spijk, A.; Stouthamer, E.; Sieben, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Rhine-Meuse delta in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the morphology of the river branches is highly dependent on the erodibility of the subsoil. Erosion processes that were initiated after closure of the Haringvliet estuary branch by a dam (in 1970), caused a strong incision of sev

  11. The Rhine Delta - a record of sediment trapping over time scales from millennia to decades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, Hans; Erkens, Gilles; van der Perk, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    At the land-ocean interface, large river deltas are major sinks of sediments and associated matter. Over the past decennia, many studies have been conducted on the palaeogeographic, historic and sub-recent overbank deposition on the Rhine floodplains. In this study these research results are synthes

  12. Modeling the fate of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration (Berlin, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzler, Aline F; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are frequently detected in urban surface water and the adjacent groundwater and are therefore an increasing problem for potable water quality. River bank filtration (RBF) is a beneficial pretreatment step to improve surface water quality for potable use. Removal is mainly caused by microbial degradation of micropollutants, while sorption retards the transport. The quantification of biodegradation and adsorption parameters for EOCs at field scale is still scarce. In this study, the fate and behavior of a range of organic compounds during RBF were investigated using a two dimensional numerical flow- and transport model. The data base used emanated from a project conducted in Berlin, Germany (NASRI: Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). Oxygen isotope signatures and hydraulic head data were used for model calibration. Afterwards, twelve organic micropollutants were simulated with a reactive transport model. Three compounds (primidone, EDTA, and AMDOPH) showed conservative behavior (no biodegradation or sorption). For the nine remaining compounds (1.5 NDSA, AOX, AOI, MTBE, carbamazepine, clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole), degradation and/or sorption was observed. 1.5 NDSA and AOX were not sorbed, but slightly degraded with model results for λ=2.25e(-3) 1/d and 2.4e(-3) 1/d. For AOI a λ=0.0106 1/d and R=1 were identified. MTBE could be characterized well assuming R=1 and a low 1st order degradation rate constant (λ=0.0085 1/d). Carbamazepine degraded with a half life time of about 66 days after a threshold value of 0.2-0.3 μg/L was exceeded and retarded slightly (R=1.7). Breakthrough curves of clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole could be fitted less well, probably due to the dependency of degradation on temperature and redox conditions, which are highly transient at the RBF site. Conditions range from oxic to anoxic (up to iron-reducing), with the oxic and

  13. A Lower Rhine flood chronology based on the sedimentary record of an abandoned channel fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, W. H. J.; Winkels, T. G.; Prins, M. A.; de Groot, L. V.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Cohen, K. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bienener Altrhein is an abandoned channel of the Lower Rhine (Germany). Following a late 16th century abandonment event, the channel was disconnected from the main stream and the oxbow lake gradually filled with 8 meters of flood deposits. This process still continues today. During annual floods, a limited proportion of overbank discharge is routed across the oxbow lake. Large floods produce individual flood layers, which are visually recognized in the sedimentary sequence. Based on the sedimentary characteristics of these event layers, we created a ~450-year flood chronology for the Lower Rhine. Laser-diffraction grain size measurements were used to assess relative flood magnitudes for individual flood event layers. Continuous sampling at a ~2 cm interval provided a high-resolution record, resolving the record at an annual scale. Standard descriptive techniques (e.g., mean grain size, 95th percentile, % sand) and the more advanced 'end member modelling' were applied to zoom in on the coarse particle bins in the grain size distributions, which are indicative of higher flow velocities. The most recent part of the record was equated to modern discharge measurements. This allows to establish relations between deposited grain size characteristics in the abandoned channel and flood magnitudes in the main river. This relation can also be applied on flood event layers from previous centuries, for which only water level measurements and historical descriptions exist. This makes this method relevant to expand data series used in flood frequency analysis from 100 years to more than 400 years. To date event-layers in the rapidly accumulated sequence, we created an age-depth model that uses organic content variations to tune sedimentation rates between the known basal and top ages. No suitable identifiable organic material for radiocarbon dating was found in the cores. Instead, palynological results (introduction of agricultural species) and palaeomagnetic secular

  14. Migratory behaviour of ide: a comparison between the lowland rivers Elbe, Germany, and Vecht, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Frederich, F.

    2003-01-01

    Individual movement patterns of adult ide Leuciscus idus, a Eurasian riverdwelling cyprinid, in two lowland rivers were measured all yearround during 1997-2000 to assess migratory behaviour and variation between and within these populations. In the River Elbe, a 1091 km long lowland river with a fre

  15. Long-term developments in ecological rehabilitation of the main distributaries in the Rhine delta : fish and macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaate, B. bij de; Breukel, R.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Significant anthropogenic pressure in the Dutch part of the River Rhine is present from the 12th century. River engineering and water pollution were the main stress factors for flora and fauna. From the middle of the 20th century measures were taken to reduce water pollution. Recently, from 1987 onw

  16. Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Müller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.

  17. Fuel cell and hydrogen network North Rhine-Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziolek, A.; Koch, F. [Energy Agency NRW, Dusseldorf (Germany). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Network

    2007-07-01

    The Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Network North-Rhine-Westphalia (FCHN NRW) is a non-profit regional technology platform whose mandate is to commercialize fuel cell technologies and establish a sustainable hydrogen economy. The FCHN NRW aims to position the North Rhine-Westphalia region as international centre for fuel cell and hydrogen technology. The network consists of more 300 members from research institutes, government agencies, and private businesses who are encouraged to adapt their products to the special needs of fuel cell systems. The FCHN NRW also aids in the procurement of project partners and provides advice on funding. The region currently has a 240 km hydrogen pipeline connecting several chemical plants and producers and consumers of hydrogen. Approximately 1250 GWh of hydrogen are produced in the region, the majority of which is consumed. The network is also involved in a European-wide project to deploy fuel cell vehicles and create a hydrogen infrastructure. Other projects in the past have included the development of 10 kW fuel cell midi buses; fuel cell cargo-bikes; mobile filling stations; and outdoor terminals. The network is now involved in a national 10 year program in Germany which aims to prepare the country for a hydrogen economy. 7 figs.

  18. Measured and predicted environmental concentrations of carbamazepine, diclofenac, and metoprolol in small and medium rivers in northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wibke; Reich, Margrit; Beier, Silvio; Behrendt, Joachim; Gulyas, Holger; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the impact of secondary municipal effluent discharge on carbamazepine, diclofenac, and metoprolol concentrations in small and medium rivers in northern Germany and compared the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) to the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) calculated with four well-established models. During a 1-year sampling period, secondary effluent grab samples were collected at four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) together with grab samples from the receiving waters upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge points. The carbamazepine, diclofenac, and metoprolol concentrations were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS-MS) after solid phase extraction. In the secondary effluents, 84-790 ng/L carbamazepine, 395-2100 ng/L diclofenac, and 745-5000 ng/L metoprolol were detected. The carbamazepine, diclofenac, and metoprolol concentrations analyzed in the rivers downstream from the secondary effluent discharge sites ranged from <5 to 68, 370, and 520 ng/L, respectively. Most of the downstream pharmaceutical concentrations were markedly higher than the corresponding upstream concentrations. The impact of wastewater discharge on the MECs in rivers downstream from the WWTPs was clearly demonstrated, but the correlations of the MECs with dilution factors were poor. The smallest rivers exhibited the largest maximum MECs and the widest ranges of MECs downstream from the wastewater discharge point. Three of the four tested models were conservative, as they showed higher PECs than the MECs in the rivers downstream from the WWTPs. However, the most detailed model underestimated the diclofenac concentrations.

  19. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for a NPP in the Upper Rhine Graben, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Christophe; Chartier, Thomas; Jomard, Hervé; Baize, Stéphane; Scotti, Oona; Cushing, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) straddling the border between eastern France and western Germany, presents a relatively important seismic activity for an intraplate area. A magnitude 5 or greater shakes the URG every 25 years and in 1356 a magnitude greater than 6.5 struck the city of Basel. Several potentially active faults have been identified in the area and documented in the French Active Fault Database (web site in construction). These faults are located along the Graben boundaries and also inside the Graben itself, beneath heavily populated areas and critical facilities (including the Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant). These faults are prone to produce earthquakes with magnitude 6 and above. Published regional models and preliminary geomorphological investigations provided provisional assessment of slip rates for the individual faults (0.1-0.001 mm/a) resulting in recurrence time of 10 000 years or greater for magnitude 6+ earthquakes. Using a fault model, ground motion response spectra are calculated for annual frequencies of exceedance (AFE) ranging from 10-4 to 10-8 per year, typical for design basis and probabilistic safety analyses of NPPs. A logic tree is implemented to evaluate uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment. The choice of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and range of slip rate uncertainty are the main sources of seismic hazard variability at the NPP site. In fact, the hazard for AFE lower than 10-4 is mostly controlled by the potentially active nearby Rhine River fault. Compared with areal source zone models, a fault model localizes the hazard around the active faults and changes the shape of the Uniform Hazard Spectrum at the site. Seismic hazard deaggregations are performed to identify the earthquake scenarios (including magnitude, distance and the number of standard deviations from the median ground motion as predicted by GMPEs) that contribute to the exceedance of spectral acceleration for the different AFE

  20. Climate and base-level controlled fluvial system change and incision during the last glacial–interglacial transition, Roer river, the Netherlands – western Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasse, C.; Balen, Van R.T.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Wallinga, J.; Vreugdenhil, M.

    2016-01-01

    The fluvial development of the Roer river in the southeastern Netherlands and western Germany is presented for the Late Pleniglacial, Late-glacial and Early Holocene periods. Reconstruction of fluvial-style changes is based on geomorphological and sedimentological analysis. Time control comes from c

  1. Larval trematodes in freshwater molluscs from the Elbe to Danube rivers (Southeast Germany): before and today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltýnková, Anna; Haas, Wilfried

    2006-10-01

    Studies on life cycles of trematodes have a long tradition in Germany; (Odening 1978) listed a total of 177 trematodes, which can potentially complete their life cycles in German inland waters. However, almost no recent data on the occurrence of larval stages in molluscs are available. Therefore, a survey of trematodes in Southeast Germany was carried out in 2004. A total of 31 species of ten families (29 species of cercariae, seven species of metacercariae, and five species found of both) were found in 311 (4.9%) molluscs of 15 species. The dominant cercariae were Plagiorchis elegans, Echinoparyphium aconiatum, Opisthioglyphe ranae, and Diplostomum pseudospathaceum. Echinoparyphium pseudorecurvatum is reported, for the first time, under its valid scientific name from Germany. In previous studies from the same region, 88 species of cercariae of 16 families were found in 19 species of molluscs (52 cercariae with valid names and 36 not identified to species level). It is proposed that there is still a very similar spectrum of the most common species of cercariae typical for Central Europe as found 20, but also 100-150 years ago.

  2. Reconstruction of flood events based on documentary data and transnational flood risk analysis of the Upper Rhine and its French and German tributaries since AD 1480

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, I.; Glaser, R.; Schoenbein, J.; Riemann, D.; Martin, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the long-term analysis of flood occurrence along the southern part of the Upper Rhine River system and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period starting from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations of flood events and their underlying meteorological causes over time. Examples are presented of how long-term information about flood events and knowledge about the historical aspect of flood protection in a given area can help to improve the understanding of risk analysis and therefor transnational risk management. Within this context, special focus is given to flood vulnerability while comparing selected historical and modern extreme events, establishing a common evaluation scheme. The transnational aspect becomes especially evident analyzing the tributaries: on this scale, flood protection developed impressively different on the French and German sides. We argue that comparing high technological standards of flood protection, which were initiated by the dukes of Baden on the German side starting in the early 19th century, misled people to the common belief that the mechanical means of flood protection like dams and barrages can guarantee the security from floods and their impacts. This lead to widespread settlements and the establishment of infrastructure as well as modern industries in potentially unsafe areas until today. The legal status in Alsace on the French side of the Rhine did not allow for continuous flood protection measurements, leading to a constant - and probably at last annoying - reminder that the floodplains are a potentially unsafe place to be. From a modern perspective of flood risk management, this leads to a significant lower aggregation of value in the floodplains of the small rivers in Alsace compared to those on the Baden side - an interesting fact - especially if the modern European Flood directive is taken into account.

  3. Monitoring, assessment and modelling using water quality data in the Saale River Basin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongartz, Klaus; Steele, Timothy D; Baborowski, Martina; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2007-12-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the overall driver for this environmental study and currently requires the identification of patterns and sources of pollution (monitoring) to support objective ecological sound decision making and specific measures to enhance river water quality (modelling). The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate in a case study the interrelationship between (1) hydrologic and water quality monitoring data for river basin characterization and (2) modelling applications to assess resources management alternatives. The study deals with monitoring assessment and modelling of river water quality data of the main stem Saale River and its principal tributaries. For a period of 6 years the data, which was sampled by Environmental Agencies of the German states of Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, was investigated to assess sources and indicators of pollution. In addition to the assessment a modelling exercise of the routing of different pollutants was carried out in the lower part of the test basin. The modelling is a tool to facilitate the evaluation of alternative measures to reduce contaminant loadings and improve ecological status of a water body as required by WFD. The transport of suspended solids, salts and heavy metals was modelled along a selected Saale reach under strong anthropogenic influence in terms of contaminants and river morphology between the city of Halle and the confluence with the Elbe River. The simulations were carried out with the model WASP5 which is a dynamic flood-routing and water quality model package developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  4. Laboratory shake flask batch tests can predict field biodegradation of aniline in the Rhine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toräng, Lars; Reuschenbach, P.; Müller, B.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare degradation rates of aniline in laboratory shake flask simulation tests with field rates in the river Rhine. The combined events of a low flow situation in the Rhine and residual aniline concentrations in the effluent from the BASF treatment plant...... in Ludwigshafen temporarily higher than normal, made it possible to monitor aniline at trace concentrations in the river water downstream the wastewater outlet by means of a sensitive GC headspace analytical method. Aniline was analyzed along a downstream gradient and the dilution along the gradient...... was calculated from measurements of conductivity, sulfate and a non-readily biodegradable substance, 1,4-dioxane. Compensating dilution, field first-order degradation rate constants downstream the discharge of BASF were estimated at 1.8 day(-1) for two different dates with water temperatures of 21.9 and 14...

  5. Distribution of phytoplankton in a lowland river, Germany, in relation to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Naicheng; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In comparison to lentic systems, the species composition and community structure of phytoplankton in lotic habitats are still poorly understood. We investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of phytoplankton community in a German lowland river- the Kielstau catchment, and the relationships with environmental variables. Among the 125 taxa observed, Desmodesmus communis, Pediastrum duplex and Discostella steligera were dominant species at lentic sites while Tabellaria fl...

  6. Morphodynamic processes of the Elbe River estuary, Germany: the Coriolis effect, tidal asymmetry and human dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maotian; Ge, Jianzhong; Kappenberg, Jens; Much, Dagmar; Nino, Ohle; Chen, Zhongyuan

    2014-06-01

    The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the historical sea-charts and on-site hydrological records were used to examine the morphological change of the Elbe River estuary. The results show that siltation predominated in the tidal flat in the northern estuary, with a net siltation rate of 1.8 cm·a-1 during 1927-2006. In contrast, a continuous erosion prevailed in the main river channel, south of the estuary, with a net erosion rate of 2.5 cm·a-1 in the same time. In addition, a seaward shift of the estuarine island has happened with the old island coalescing to the northern tidal flat and new one emerging through siltation process. The tidal asymmetry via ebbing flow (maximum at 140 cm·s-1, and average at 76 cm·s-1) prevailed in the tidal flat, meaning continuous aggradation northwestward, while flooding flow (maximum at 100 cm ·s-1, and average at 67 cm·s-1) dominated in the main river channel with deepening thaweg at south, showing a landward sedimentation via the tidal pumping processes. This dextral extension of the estuarine morphology is due to the Coriolis force, leading to the inconsistent directions of in-out flows, which enables to facilitate the estuarine siltation. Human dredging prevailing in the estuary has dramatically altered the nature of the silted river channel to erosional since the last century. This is characterized by a net erosion rate of 3.2 cm·a-1 derived from the DEMs mapping, but only partially accounting for the dredging amount of 1994-2006, when the total dredging volume was 67 × 106 m3, equal to 5.9 cm·a-1.

  7. From Sandoz to Salmon: Conceptualizing resource and institutional dynamics in the Rhine watershed through the SES framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villamayor-Tomas, Sergio; Fleischman, Forrest; Perez Ibarra, Irene; Thiel, Andreas; van Laerhoven, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR) Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abate

  8. Understanding and managing the morphology of branches incising into sand-clay deposits in the Dutch Rhine Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; van Spijk, A.; Stouthamer, E.; Sieben, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the Rhine-Meuse delta in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the morphology of the river branches is highly dependent on the erodibility of the subsoil. Erosion processes that were initiated after closure of the Haringvliet estuary branch by a dam (in 1970), caused a strong incision of sev

  9. Polyfluorinated compounds in waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters along the River Elbe, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Felizeter, Sebastian; Sturm, Renate; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2009-09-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of the River Elbe from samples collected in 2007. Concentrations of various PFCs, including C(4)-C(8) perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), C(6) and C(8) perfluorinated sulfinates, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate, C(5)-C(13) perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C(4) and C(8) perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides and 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomercarboxylic acids were quantified. Sum PFC concentrations of the river water ranged from 7.6 to 26.4ngL(-1), whereas sum PFC concentrations of WWTP effluents were approximately 5-10 times higher (30.5-266.3ngL(-1)), indicating that WWTPs are potential sources of PFCs in the marine environment. PFC patterns of different WWTP effluents varied depending on the origin of the waste water, whereas the profile of PFC composition in the river water was relatively constant. In both kinds of water samples, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the major PFC, whereas perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant PFSA.

  10. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael

    2015-11-15

    High-technology metals - such as the rare earth elements (REE) - have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further.

  11. Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overesch, M. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: moveresch@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Rinklebe, J. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: joerg.rinklebe@ufz.de; Broll, G. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: gbroll@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Neue, H.-U. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: heinz-ulrich.neue@ufz.de

    2007-02-15

    Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species.

  12. Small scale variability of chlorinated POPs in the river Elbe floodplain soils (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersch, Kristian; Jandl, Gerald; Meissner, Ralph; Leinweber, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The long-time use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) led to a world-wide contamination of environmental compartments. Although, bans of numerous POPs reduced the POP input to rivers. Floodplain soils are still highly contaminated, because they are sinks for these compounds, which restrict their agricultural use. Hence, the intention of this study was the determination of 29 relevant POPs in two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) of a field experiment to get a survey on the small-scale spatial variability of the experimental site and to establish a baseline for phytoremediation experiments. The POP concentrations ranged from 0.1 microg kg(-1) to 160 microg kg(-1) and showed an increase of dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, heptachlor, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE and methoxychlor concentrations on average in the river Elbe floodplains between the years 1998 and 2007. However, there was a pronounced small-scale spatial variability of POP concentrations in vertical and horizontal direction. The latter was estimated by comparing the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the POP concentrations in sample sets located at sites of increasing distance from 10000 m.

  13. Transport of Algal Cells in Hyporheic Sediments of the River Elbe (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, Frank; Röske, Isolde

    2004-01-01

    The advective transport of algal cells into the interstices of the hyporheic zone of the River Elbe was spatially and temporally heterogenous. Even deep sediment layers were reached by large phytoplankton species. Therefore, it is suggested that (i) the advective interstitial transport patterns vary between different algal sizes and morphotypes and (ii) sediment characteristics, expressed by the permeability coefficient kf of porous media, affect retention and retardation of surface water algae during subsurface transport. The transport behaviour of different green algae (Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus acuminatus, Desmodesmus communis, and Pediastrum duplex) and algal sized microspheres was tested in flow-through column experiments with hyporheic sediments. The algal cell transport was directly related to the permeability of the column sediments. (

  14. Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overesch, M; Rinklebe, J; Broll, G; Neue, H-U

    2007-02-01

    Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH4NO3-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing.

  15. Laboratory shake flask batch tests can predict field biodegradation of aniline in the Rhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toräng, Lars; Reuschenbach, Peter; Müller, Britta; Nyholm, Niels

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare degradation rates of aniline in laboratory shake flask simulation tests with field rates in the river Rhine. The combined events of a low flow situation in the Rhine and residual aniline concentrations in the effluent from the BASF treatment plant in Ludwigshafen temporarily higher than normal, made it possible to monitor aniline at trace concentrations in the river water downstream the wastewater outlet by means of a sensitive GC headspace analytical method. Aniline was analyzed along a downstream gradient and the dilution along the gradient was calculated from measurements of conductivity, sulfate and a non-readily biodegradable substance, 1,4-dioxane. Compensating dilution, field first-order degradation rate constants downstream the discharge of BASF were estimated at 1.8 day(-1) for two different dates with water temperatures of 21.9 and 14.7 degrees C, respectively. This field rate estimate was compared with results from 38 laboratory shake flask batch tests with Rhine water which averaged 1.5 day(-1) at 15 degrees C and 2.0 day(-1) at 20 degrees C. These results indicate that laboratory shake flask batch tests with low concentrations of test substance can be good predictors of degradation rates in natural water bodies--at least as ascertained here for short duration tests with readily degradable compounds among which aniline is a commonly used reference.

  16. Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely

  17. CrossWater - Modelling micropollutant loads from different sources in the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Andreas; Bader, Hans-Peter; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Scheidegger, Ruth; Stamm, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The pressure on rivers from micropollutants (MPs) originating from various sources is a growing environmental issue and requiring political regulations. The challenges for the water management are numerous, particularly for international water basins. Spatial knowledge of MP sources and the water quality are prerequisites for an effective water quality policy. In this study we analyze the sources of MPs in the international Rhine basin in Europe, and model their transport to the streams. The spatial patterns of MP loads and concentrations from different use classes are investigated with a mass flow analysis and compared to the territorial jurisdictions that shape the spatial arrangement of water management. The source area of MPs depends on the specific use of a compound. Here, we focus on i) herbicides from agricultural land use, ii) biocides from material protection on buildings and iii) human pharmaceuticals from households. The total mass of MPs available for release to the stream network is estimated from statistical application and consumption data. The available mass of MPs is spatially distributed to the catchments areas based on GIS data of agricultural land use, vector data of buildings and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) locations, respectively. The actual release of MPs to the stream network is calculated with empirical loss rates related to river discharge for agricultural herbicides and to precipitation for biocides. For the pharmaceuticals the release is coupled to the human metabolism rates and elimination rates in WWTP. The released loads from the catchments are propagated downstream with hydraulic routing. Water flow, transport and fate of the substances are simulated within linked river reaches. Time series of herbicide concentrations and loads are simulated for the main rivers in the Rhine basin. Accordingly the loads from the primary catchments are aggregated and constitute lateral or upstream input to the simulated river reaches. Pronounced

  18. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merschel, Gila, E-mail: g.merschel@jacobs-university.de; Bau, Michael

    2015-11-15

    High-technology metals — such as the rare earth elements (REE) — have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further. - Highlights: • Corbicula fluminea shells are bioarchives of dissolved geogenic REE in

  19. Democracy Related Units in Social Studies Curriculums Based on Self-Regulation Strategies: A Comparison of Turkey and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Cevat; Incirci, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the units related to democracy concept of Social Studies Curriculums applied in Federal Republic of Germany and Republic of Turkey. The goals of the study indicated in Democracy related unit in Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey is examined comparatively with North Rhine-Westphalia State of Germany based on the…

  20. Smart specialisation strategies and cross-border integration of regional innovation systems: Policy dynamics and challenges for the Upper Rhine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Emmanuel; Zenker, Andrea; Hufnagl, Miriam;

    2017-01-01

    by illustrating its practical implementation in the Upper Rhine area (i.e. Alsace in France and Baden-Württemberg in Germany). The first section revisits not only the smart specialisation concept in itself but also discusses it vis-à-vis the thematic of cross-border regional innovation systems and outlines some......The aim of this paper is to provide insights into the implications of the European Commission’s smart specialisation agenda in a specific, cross-border context. The paper critically reflects on some of the RIS3 (research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation) agenda’s premises...... implications that it may have for the choice of innovation policy instruments. The second section introduces the specific framework of the Upper Rhine area and outlines possible options for the co-ordination of innovation policies on the basis of a yet to be developed, theoretically possible joint RIS3...

  1. Exploring the Prospects for Cross-Border Climate Change Adaptation between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein C.J. Van Eerd

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will have various effects on river basins: precipitation levels and water temperature may change, floods and also droughts may occur more frequently. These effects do not respect man-made borders, so climate adaptation in itself is a transnational challenge. Adaptation can reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change effects. Within the Rhine river basin, North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands are dealing with climate adaptation governance, both on the national and on the transboundary level. The aim of this paper is to get a better understanding of factors that stimulate or constrain transboundary governance of climate change adaptation. Our presumption is that the level of congruence between policy arrangements on both sides of the border has an impact on the prospects for cooperation. By applying the Policy Arrangement Approach we found similarities and differences between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands. The two arrangements are similar in their involvement of multiple actors on multiple levels, the degree of decentralization of policy making, a relatively strong feeling of urgency (though framed differently and the availability of knowledge resources. However, in the Netherlands adaptation is primarily water related and sector based, while in North Rhine-Westphalia the focus is more integrated, aiming at a balancing of different values and interests. Other differences are related to the amount and division of financial resources available and to actors’ responsibilities. The latter is geared towards a public responsibility in the Netherlands, while in North Rhine-Westphalia dealing with flood risks is also a responsibility of civilians and other private parties. We conclude that the degree of congruence between the two states is fairly high and will present argument as to why this offers good opportunities for further cooperation.

  2. Human impacts on tides overwhelm the effect of sea level rise on extreme water levels in the Rhine-Meuse delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, N. E.; Hoitink, A. J F; van der Vegt, M.; Zhang, W.; Hoekstra, P.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to link tidal and subtidal water level changes to human interventions, 70. years of water level data for the Rhine-Meuse tidal river network is analysed using a variety of statistical methods. Using a novel parameterization of probability density functions, mean high and low water level

  3. Fluvial evolution of the Rhine during the last interglacial-glacial cycle in the southern North Sea basin: A review and look forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F.S.; Stouthamer, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the evolution and depositional history of the River Rhine in the southern part of the North Sea basin during the upper Middle and Late Pleistocene, and its response to climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostasy. The study focuses o

  4. The winter distribution of nutrients in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (1961-1978) and in the estuaries of the scheldt and the rhine/meuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bennekom, A. J.; Wetsteijn, F. J.

    In many years the winter distribution of nutrients in the eastern part of the Southern Bight is influenced by phytoplankton growth, always in February, sometimes in January but not in January 1961 and 1978, months with a relatively low insolation and high wind strength. The Scheldt river has higher nutrient concentrations than the rivers Rhine and Seine. The waters of the Scheldt river plume are distinguished from those of the Seine and the Rhine/Meuse with dissolved silica as a tracer. The extension of the Scheldt river plume is related to wind direction. The increase of inorganic nutrients from January 1961 to January 1978 in the northern part of the Southern Bight is related to the increase in the river Rhine. The increase in the Strait of Dover is related to discharges from the river Seine and the English coast. Only data outside the Scheldt river plume were selected for the comparison. An increase of nutrient concentrations is measurable over the entire salinity range and is largest for phosphate (up to 3 times at low salinities), less for nitrate (about 1.5 times for all salinities) and hardly noticeable for silicic acid. Nitrate extrapolation to low salinity agrees with upstream river values, but phosphate extrapolation gives higher concentrations, probably due to discharges of phosphogypsum in estuaries.

  5. The Rhine delta. A record of sediment trapping over time scales from millennia to decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middelkoop, Hans; Perk, Marcel van der [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical Geography; Erkens, Gilles [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical Geography; Deltares, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    At the land-ocean interface, large river deltas are major sinks of sediments and associated matter. Over the past decennia, many studies have been conducted on the palaeogeographic development of the Rhine delta and overbank deposition on the Rhine floodplains. This paper aims to synthesise these research results with special focus on the amounts and changes of overbank fines trapped in the Rhine delta and their controls at different time scales in the past, present and future. Sediment trapping in the Rhine delta throughout the Holocene was quantified using a detailed database of the Holocene delta architecture. Additional historic data allowed the reconstruction of the development of the river's floodplain during the period of direct human modification of the river. Using heavy metals as tracers, overbank deposition rates over the past century were determined. Measurements of overbank deposition and channel bed sediment transport in recent years, together with modelling studies of sediment transport and deposition have provided detailed insight in the present-day sediment deposition on the floodplains, as well as their controls. Estimated annual suspended sediment deposition rates were about 1.4 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1} between 6,000 and 3,000 years BP and increased to about 2.1 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1} between 3,000 and 1,000 years BP. After the rivers were embanked by artificial levees between 1100 and 1300 AD, the amount of sediment trapped in the floodplains reduced to about 1.16 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1}. However, when accounting for re-entrainment of previously deposited sediment, the actual sediment trapping of the embanked floodplains was about 1.86 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1}. Downstream of the lower Waal branch an inland delta developed that trapped another 0.4 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1} of overbank fines. Since the width of channel was artificially reduced and the banks were fixed by a regular array of groynes around 1850, the average

  6. Impact of wastewater on fish health: a case study at the Neckar River (Southern Germany) using biomarkers in caged brown trout as assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Krisztina; Scheil, Volker; Kuch, Bertram; Köhler, Heinz R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes a field survey aiming at assessing the impact of a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on fish health by means of biomarkers. Indigenous fish were absent downstream of the STP. To elucidate the reason behind this, brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) were exposed in floating steel cages up- and downstream of a STP located at the Neckar River near Tübingen (Southern Germany), for 10 and 30 days. A combination of biomarker methods (histopathological investigations, analysis of the stress protein Hsp70, micronucleus test, B-esterase assays) offered the possibility to investigate endocrine, geno-, proteo- and neurotoxic effects in fish organs. Biological results were complemented with chemical analyses on 20 accumulative substances in fish tissue. Even after short-term exposure, biomarkers revealed clear evidence of water contamination at both Neckar River sites; however, physiological responses of caged brown trout were more severe downstream of the STP. According to this, similar bioaccumulation levels (low μg/kg range) of DDE and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at both sampling sites, while up to fourfold higher concentrations of four PAHs, methyl-triclosan and two synthetic musks occurred in the tissues of downstream-exposed fish. The results obtained in this study suggest a constitutive background pollution at both sites investigated at the Neckar River and provided evidence for the additional negative impact of the STP Tübingen on water quality and the health condition of fish.

  7. Contribution of priority PAHs and POPs to Ah receptor-mediated activities in sediment samples from the River Elbe Estuary, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C; Keiter, Steffen; Faßbender, Christopher; Higley, Eric B; Rocha, Paula Suares; Brinkmann, Markus; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Manz, Werner; Wetzel, Markus A; Braunbeck, Thomas; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner

    2013-01-01

    The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany) is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM). One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularly the intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuary by use of an effect-directed analysis that combines chemical and biological analyses in with specific fractionation techniques. Sediments were collected from sites along the Elbe Estuary and a site from a small harbor basin of the Elbe Estuary that is known to be polluted. The sixteen priority EPA-PAHs were quantified in organic extracts of sediments. In addition, dioxin equivalents of sediments were investigated by use of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay with RTL-W1 cells and the Ah receptor-mediated luciferase transactivation assay with H4IIE-luc cells. Quantification of the 16 priority PAHs revealed that sediments were moderately contaminated at all of the sites in the Elbe River Estuary (Elbe River into its estuary. Successful identification of a significant portion of dioxin-like activity to priority PAHs in complex environmental samples such as sediments has rarely been reported.

  8. Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronimus, Alexander; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2007-05-01

    Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern.

  9. High-resolution grids of hourly meteorological variables for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenmann, S.; Walter, A.; Brienen, S.; Imbery, F.; Matzarakis, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a 1-km2 gridded German dataset of hourly surface climate variables covering the period 1995 to 2012. The dataset comprises 12 variables including temperature, dew point, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, global and direct shortwave radiation, down- and up-welling longwave radiation, sea level pressure, relative humidity and vapour pressure. This dataset was constructed statistically from station data, satellite observations and model data. It is outstanding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and in the number of climate variables. For each variable, we employed the most suitable gridding method and combined the best of several information sources, including station records, satellite-derived data and data from a regional climate model. A module to estimate urban heat island intensity was integrated for air and dew point temperature. Owing to the low density of available synop stations, the gridded dataset does not capture all variations that may occur at a resolution of 1 km2. This applies to areas of complex terrain (all the variables), and in particular to wind speed and the radiation parameters. To achieve maximum precision, we used all observational information when it was available. This, however, leads to inhomogeneities in station network density and affects the long-term consistency of the dataset. A first climate analysis for Germany was conducted. The Rhine River Valley, for example, exhibited more than 100 summer days in 2003, whereas in 1996, the number was low everywhere in Germany. The dataset is useful for applications in various climate-related studies, hazard management and for solar or wind energy applications and it is available via doi: 10.5676/DWD_CDC/TRY_Basis_v001.

  10. [Nematode infections of the respiratory tract in dogs in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutzki, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the risk of lungworm infection may have increased in dogs in Germany in recent years. Analysis of the fecal examination of dogs has shown that Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus are endemic in Germany. Infections with A. vasorum were diagnosed in 223 of the examined dogs. A total of 102 A. vasorum-positive dogs were located in Baden-Wuerttemberg, 65 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 27 in Saarland, 15 in Bavaria, 7 in Rhineland-Palatinate, 5 in Hessen and 2 in Brandenburg. A total of 170 dogs were infected with C. vulpis, 54 of which came from North Rhine-Westphalia, 40 from Baden-Wuerttemberg, 30 from Bavaria, 17 from Rhineland-Palatinate, 17 from Saarland, 9 from Hessen and 1 each from Lower Saxony, Berlin and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Infections with E. aerophilus were detected in 83 dogs, of which 23 lived in Baden-Wuerttemberg, 20 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 17 in Bavaria, 11 in Rhineland-Palatinate, 7 in Hessen, 4 in Saarland and 1 in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Lungworm infections in dogs appear to be well established in Germany. The aim of the study presented was to assess the main facts, occurrence, geographical distribution, clinical signs, diagnosis and therapy of lungworm infections in dogs.

  11. Accurate dating of fluvial deposits in the Lateglacial Niers Valley system (Germany) using a multiple dating strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, W. Z.; Kasse, C.; Peeters, J.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-04-01

    The River Rhine occupied the Niers Valley (Germany) from the Saalian Glaciation (MIS 6) until the Early Holocene (Kasse et al., Journal of Quaternary Science 2005). The fluvial landscape of the time of abandonment has been exceptionally well preserved, leaving a series of cut-off meanders and residual channels. This unique preservation provides the possibility to investigate Late Weichselian fluvial dynamics of the River Rhine. We combined several dating techniques to accurately determine the age of the deposits. We developed a sampling strategy based on detailed field survey and cross sectioning. 1) The geomorphological relationships of the cut-off meanders gave a relative age for the successive stages of meandering. 2) The occurrence of Laacher See Pumice in the point bar deposits gave a maximum age for these deposits. 3) Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL)-dating on sandy point bar and channel-fill deposits yielded absolute ages for active meandering and channel abandonment. 4) AMS-14C dates on terrestrial macrofossils from the basal fills of the residual channels yielded minimum ages for abandonment. 5) Biostratigraphy of the organic channel fills using palynology gave a relative chronology, which could be linked to the well-dated regional biostratigraphy of the nearby Netherlands and is cross-checked by additional AMS-14C dates. By combining these dating techniques we obtained a firm chronological framework that allows linkage to climate records and above the cross-validation of the different dating techniques. All techniques gave consistent ages that confirm the Lateglacial age and Early Holocene abandonment of the Niers Valley by the River Rhine. Palynology and 14C-dating on the channels fills supported the relative chronology indicated by the cross-cut relationships. The presence of the Laacher See Pumice in the point bar deposits, which has an unambiguous age of 12.9 ka cal. BP concurs with the organic channel fill ages. Because OSL signals in some

  12. Societal Drivers of European Water Governance: A Comparison of Urban River Restoration Practices in France and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Zingraff-Hamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The European water governance took a decisive turn with the formulation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, which demands the restoration of all water bodies that did not achieve sufficient ecological status. Urban rivers are particularly impaired by human activities and their restorations are motivated by multiple ecological and societal drivers, such as requirements of laws and legislation, and citizen needs for a better quality of life. In this study we investigated the relative influence of socio-political and socio-cultural drivers on urban river restorations by comparing projects of different policy contexts and cultural norms to cross-fertilize knowledge. A database of 75 projects in French and German major cities was compiled to apply (a a comparative statistical analysis of main project features, i.e., motivation, goals, measures, morphological status, and project date; and (b a qualitative textual analysis on project descriptions and titles. The results showed that despite a powerful European directive, urban river restoration projects still keep national specificities. The WFD drives with more intensity German, rather than French, urban river restoration. This study showed the limits of macro-level governance and the influence of microlevel governance driven by societal aspects such as nature perception and relationships between humans and rivers.

  13. From a dump to a energy park and recycling park. The Rhine-Main dump park in Floersheim-Wicker; Von der Muellkippe zum Energie- und Recyclingpark. Der Rhein-Main-Deponiepark in Floersheim-Wicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehler, Gerd [Rhein-Main Deponie GmbH, Floersheim am Main (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    If dumps are shut down, aftercare measures are necessary for a time period of several decades. The question arises whether the infrastructure, operating equipment and operating personnel of dumps can be used in the aftercare phase for subsequent utilisations. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the Rhine-Main dump park in Floersheim-Wicker (Federal Republic of Germany). Subsequently to the introduction according to the subsequent utilisation of dump locations, the author reports on the concept of the Rhine Main dump park, on the power generation in the Rhine-Main dump park, on the processing of wastes to fuels for the power production and on the dump as recycling park.

  14. The effectiveness of polder systems on peak discharge capping of floods along the middle reaches of the Elbe River in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In flood modelling, many one-dimensional (1-D hydrodynamic models are too restricted in capturing the spatial differentiation of processes within a polder or system of polders and two-dimensional (2-D models are very demanding in data requirements and computational resources. The latter is an important consideration when uncertainty analyses using the Monte Carlo techniques are to complement the modelling exercises. This paper describes the development of a quasi-2-D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1-D but the discretisation of the computational units is in 2-D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in polders and avoiding large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. The model DYNHYD (1-D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations and extended to incorporate the quasi-2-D approach. A local sensitive analysis shows the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions on the filling volume of polders and capping of the peak discharge in the main river system. Two flood events on the Elbe River, Germany were used to calibrate and test the model. The results show a good capping effect on the flood peak by the proposed systems. The effect of capping reduces as the flood wave propagates downstream from the polders (up to 0.5 cm of capping is lost for each additional kilometer from the polders.

  15. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in water and suspended particulate matter in the river Elbe and North Sea, Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutz AHRENS; Merle PLASSMANN; Zhiyong XIE; Ralf EBINGHAUS

    2009-01-01

    The distribution ofpolyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in the dissolved and particulate phase and their discharge from the river Elbe into the North Sea were studied. The PFCs quantified included C4-C8 perfluori hated sulfonates (PFSAs), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6: 2FTS), C6 and C8 perfluorinated sulfinates (PFSiAs), C4-C12 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoro3,7-dimethyl-octanoic acid (3,7m2-PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and n-ethyl perfluroctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE). PFCs were mostly distributed in the dissolved phase, where perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated with 2.9-12.5 ng/L. In the suspended particulate matter FOSA and perftuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) showed the highest concentrations (4.0 ng/L and 2.3 ng/L, respectively). The total flux of ∑PFCs from the river Elbe was estimated to be 802kg/year for the dissolved phase and 152kg/year for the particulate phase. This indicates that the river Elbe acts as a source of PFCs into the North Sea. However, the concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) in the North Sea were higher than that in the river Elbe, thus an alternative source must exist for these compounds.

  16. Influence of a Storm Surge Barrier’s Operation on the Flood Frequency in the Rhine Delta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rhine River Delta is crucial to the Dutch economy. The Maeslant barrier was built in 1997 to protect the Rhine estuary, with the city and port of Rotterdam, from storm surges. This research takes a simple approach to quantify the influence of the Maeslant storm surge barrier on design water levels behind the barrier. The dikes in the area are supposed to be able to withstand these levels. Equal Level Curves approach is used to calculate the Rotterdam water levels by using Rhine discharges and sea water levels as input. Their joint probability function generates the occurrence frequency of a certain combination that will lead to a certain high water level in Rotterdam. The results show that the flood frequency in Rotterdam is reduced effectively with the controlled barrier in current and in future scenarios influenced by climate change. In addition, an investigation of the sensitivity of the operational parameters suggests that there is a negligible influence on the high water level frequency when the decision closing water level for the barrier is set higher due to the benefits of navigation (but not exceeding the design safety level 4 m MSL.

  17. Simultaneous measurements of tidal straining and advection at two parallel transects far downstream in the Rhine ROFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnsburger, Sabine; van der Hout, Carola M.; van Tongeren, Onno; de Boer, Gerben J.; van Prooijen, Bram C.; Borst, Wil G.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies and unravels the processes that lead to stratification and destratification in the far field of a Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI). We present measurements that are novel for two reasons: (1) measurements were carried out with two vessels that sailed simultaneously over two cross-shore transects; (2) the measurements were carried out in the far field of the Rhine ROFI, 80 km downstream from the river mouth. This unique four dimensional dataset allows the application of the 3D potential energy anomaly equation for one of the first times on field data. With this equation, the relative importance of the depth mean advection, straining and nonlinear processes over one tidal cycle is assessed. The data shows that the Rhine ROFI extends 80 km downstream and periodic stratification is observed. The analysis not only shows the important role of cross-shore tidal straining but also the significance of along-shore straining and depth mean advection. In addition, the nonlinear terms seem to be small. The presence of all the terms influences the timing of maximum stratification. The analysis also shows that the importance of each term varies in the cross-shore direction. One of the most interesting findings is that the data are not inline with several hypotheses on the functioning of straining and advection in ROFIs. This highlights the dynamic behaviour of the Rhine ROFI, which is valuable for understanding the distribution of fine sediments, contaminants and the protection of coasts.

  18. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...

  19. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  20. Multivariate analysis of microbial communities in the River Elbe (Germany) on different phylogenetic and spatial levels of resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, Frank; Manz, Werner; Röske, Isolde

    2006-04-01

    The microbial communities of three different habitat types and from two sediment depths in the River Elbe were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization at various levels of complexity. Differences in the microbial community composition of free-flowing river water, water within the hyporheic interstitial and sediment-associated bacteria were quantitatively analyzed using domain- and group-specific oligonucleotide probes. Qualitative data on the presence/absence of specific bacterial taxa were gathered using genus- and species-specific probes. The complete data set was statistically processed by univariate statistical approaches, and two-dimensional ordinations of nonmetric multidimensional scaling. The analysis showed: (1) that the resolution of microbial community structures at microenvironments, habitats and locations can be regulated by targeted application of oligonucleotides on phylogenetic levels ranging from domains to species, and (2) that an extensive qualitative presence/absence analysis of multiparallel hybridization assays enables a fine-scale apportionment of spatial differences in microbial community structures that is robust against apparent limitations of fluorescence in situ hybridization such as false positive hybridization signals or inaccessibility of in situ oligonucleotide probes. A general model for the correlation of the phylogenetic depth of focus and the relative spatial resolution of microbial communities by fluorescence in situ hybridization is presented.

  1. Human presence in the central Netherlands during early MIS 6 (∼170-190 Ka): Evidence from early Middle Palaeolithic artefacts in ice-pushed Rhine-Meuse sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, R.T. van; Busschers, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    Part of the gravelly deposits of a combined Rhine-Meuse river of Middle Pleistocene age in the central Netherlands contains early Middle Palaeolithic artefacts. Although not in their original position, a significant part of these artefacts is hardly abraded, indicating limited fluvial transport. The

  2. Analysis of possible impacts of climate change on the hydrological regimes of different regions in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bormann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of climate change scenarios on the hydrological regimes of five different regions in Germany is investigated. These regions (Northwest Germany, Northeast Germany and East German basins, upper and lower Rhine, pre-Alps differ with respect to present climate and projected climate change. The physically based SVAT-model SIMULAT is applied to theoretical soil columns based on combinations of land use, soil texture and groundwater depth to quantify climate change effects on the hydrological regime. Observed climate, measured at climate stations of the German Weather Service (1991–2007, is used for comparison with climate projections (2071–2100 generated by the regional scale climate model WETTREG.

    While all climate scenarios implicate an increase in precipitation in winter, a decrease in precipitation in summer and an increase in temperature, the simulated impacts on the hydrological regime are regionally different. In the Rhine region and in Northwest Germany, an increase in the annual runoff and groundwater recharge is simulated despite the increase in temperature and potential evapotranspiration. In the Eastern part of Germany and the pre-Alps, annual runoff and groundwater recharge will decrease. Due to dry conditions in summer, the soil moisture deficit will increase (in Northeast Germany and the East German basins in particular or remain constant (Rhine region. In all regions the seasonal variability in runoff and soil moisture status will increase. Despite regional warming actual evapotranspiration will decrease in most regions except in areas with shallow groundwater tables and the lower Rhine. Although the study is limited by the fact that only one climate model was used to drive one hydrologic model, the study shows that the hydrological regime will be affected by climate change. The direction of the expected changes seems to be obvious as well as the necessity of the adaptation of future water

  3. Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronimus, Alexander [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: kronimus@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, Jan [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de

    2007-05-15

    Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile.

  4. Backscatter Analysis Using Multi-Temporal and Multi-Frequency SAR Data in the Context of Flood Mapping at River Saale, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Martinis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analysis of multi-temporal and multi-frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar data is performed to investigate the backscatter behavior of various semantic classes in the context of flood mapping in central Europe. The focus is mainly on partially submerged vegetation such as forests and agricultural fields. The test area is located at River Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, which is covered by a time series of 39 TerraSAR-X data acquired within the time interval December 2009 to June 2013. The data set is supplemented by ALOS PALSAR L-band and RADARSAT-2 C-band data. The time series covers two inundations in January 2011 and June 2013 which allows evaluating backscatter variations between flood periods and normal water level conditions using different radar wavelengths. According to the results, there is potential in detecting flooding beneath vegetation in all microwave wavelengths, even in X-band for sparse vegetation or leaf-off forests.

  5. Temporal variability of organic micropollutants in suspended particulate matter of the River Elbe at Hamburg and the River Mulde at Dessau, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemken, O P; Stachel, B; Theobald, N; Wenclawiak, B W

    2000-01-01

    The compound classes of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and a number of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) in the River Elbe and its tributary Mulde were investigated on the basis of monthly mixed samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Covering the period from September 1994 to August 1995, samples from the River Elbe were taken at Hamburg, those from the River Mulde at Dessau. The samples were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Analysis of all substance groups were performed by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC), followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MSD). As a statistical approach for the interpretation of data, hierarchical cluster analysis of the individual compound classes were performed to determine differences or similarities between the sampling sites Hamburg and Dessau to find spatial and seasonal concentration patterns. These analysis showed that, with a high significance, the concentration patterns of n-alkanes, PAHs, and CHs were sampling site-specific in both the Elbe and Mulde throughout the entire sampling period. In all cases, clustering of mostly consecutive months indicated continuous, slow changes of input, which moreover showed a constancy with respect to annual cycles. Correlation analysis of pollutant loads with different hydrographic parameters showed a number of linear dependencies of the contaminants with temperature, SPM content, and water discharge. Annual fluxes of particle-bound pollutants were calculated for each sampling site, taking into account the average monthly SPM levels and the water discharge. The particle-bound pollutant loads for the River Elbe at Hamburg were estimated to 13.4 t/a n-alkanes, 4.1 t/a PAHs, and 175. 8 kg/a CHs. The pollutant loads for the River Mulde at Dessau amounted 0.55 t/a n-alkanes, 0.14 t/a PAHs, and 15.5 kg/a CHs during the monitoring period. The input of n-alkanes originated from different sources. The n-alkane pattern

  6. Contribution of priority PAHs and POPs to Ah receptor-mediated activities in sediment samples from the River Elbe Estuary, Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Otte

    Full Text Available The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM. One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularly the intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuary by use of an effect-directed analysis that combines chemical and biological analyses in with specific fractionation techniques. Sediments were collected from sites along the Elbe Estuary and a site from a small harbor basin of the Elbe Estuary that is known to be polluted. The sixteen priority EPA-PAHs were quantified in organic extracts of sediments. In addition, dioxin equivalents of sediments were investigated by use of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay with RTL-W1 cells and the Ah receptor-mediated luciferase transactivation assay with H4IIE-luc cells. Quantification of the 16 priority PAHs revealed that sediments were moderately contaminated at all of the sites in the Elbe River Estuary (<0.02-0.906 µg/g dw. Sediments contained relatively small concentrations of dioxin equivalents (Bio-TEQ with concentrations ranging from 15.5 to 322 pg/g dw, which were significantly correlated with dioxin equivalents calculated based on toxicity reference values and concentrations of PAH. The concentration of Bio-TEQ at the reference site exceeded 200,000 pg/g dw. In a potency balance the 16 PAHs explained between 47 and 118% of the Bio-TEQ in the luciferase assay, which can be explained by the constant input of PAHs bound to SPM from the upper course of the Elbe River into its estuary. Successful identification of a significant portion of dioxin-like activity to priority PAHs in complex environmental samples such as sediments has rarely been reported.

  7. Contribution of Priority PAHs and POPs to Ah Receptor-Mediated Activities in Sediment Samples from the River Elbe Estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C.; Keiter, Steffen; Faßbender, Christopher; Higley, Eric B.; Rocha, Paula Suares; Brinkmann, Markus; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Manz, Werner; Wetzel, Markus A.; Braunbeck, Thomas; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner

    2013-01-01

    The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany) is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM). One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularly the intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuary by use of an effect-directed analysis that combines chemical and biological analyses in with specific fractionation techniques. Sediments were collected from sites along the Elbe Estuary and a site from a small harbor basin of the Elbe Estuary that is known to be polluted. The sixteen priority EPA-PAHs were quantified in organic extracts of sediments. In addition, dioxin equivalents of sediments were investigated by use of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay with RTL-W1 cells and the Ah receptor-mediated luciferase transactivation assay with H4IIE-luc cells. Quantification of the 16 priority PAHs revealed that sediments were moderately contaminated at all of the sites in the Elbe River Estuary (<0.02–0.906 µg/g dw). Sediments contained relatively small concentrations of dioxin equivalents (Bio-TEQ) with concentrations ranging from 15.5 to 322 pg/g dw, which were significantly correlated with dioxin equivalents calculated based on toxicity reference values and concentrations of PAH. The concentration of Bio-TEQ at the reference site exceeded 200,000 pg/g dw. In a potency balance the 16 PAHs explained between 47 and 118% of the Bio-TEQ in the luciferase assay, which can be explained by the constant input of PAHs bound to SPM from the upper course of the Elbe River into its estuary. Successful identification of a significant portion of dioxin-like activity to priority PAHs in complex environmental samples such as sediments has rarely been reported. PMID:24146763

  8. Identification and quantitation of dinaphthylsulfones in particulate matter of the Elbe river, Germany. Part VI of organic compounds as contaminants of the Elbe river and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, Jan; Franke, Stephan

    2003-06-01

    Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis of particulate matter of the Elbe river and its tributaries Havel, Spree and Mulde revealed a group of three dinaphthylsulfone isomers as sedimentary and suspended particulate matter (SPM) contaminants. The mass spectra of dinaphthylsulfones are characterized by the molecular ion (m/z 318), and the naphthyl fragment ion m/z 127. Losses of HSO(2) and C(10)H(7)O from the molecular ion lead to different mass spectra for each isomer. The gas phase infrared spectra exhibit isomer specific bands in the spectral region between 900 and 700 wave numbers. A synthetic mixture of dinaphthylsulfones was used for isomer identification and the assignment of the gas chromatographic retention behaviour of the dinaphthylsulfone isomers. Quantitative GC/MS analysis of dinaphthylsulfones in 44 sediment and SPM samples provided comprehensive information on the overall distribution and distinct sources of dinaphthylsulfones in the Elbe river drainage system. The results indicate emissions of these compounds over prolonged times and their environmental stability in anaerobic sediments.

  9. Determination of moderately polar arsenolipids and mercury speciation in freshwater fish of the River Elbe (Saxony, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Mothes, Sibylle; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Piechotta, Christian; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are frequent contaminants in the environment and care must be taken to limit their entrance into the food chain. The toxicity of both elements strongly depends upon their speciation. Total amounts of As and Hg as well as their species were analyzed in muscle and liver of 26 fishes of seven freshwater fish species caught in the River Elbe. The median concentrations of As were 162 μg kg(-1) w.w. in liver and 92 μg kg(-1) w.w. in muscle. The median concentrations of total Hg were 241 μg kg(-1) w.w. in liver and 256 μg kg(-1) w.w. in muscle. While this level of Hg contamination of the freshwater fish in the River Elbe is significantly lower than 20 years ago, it exceeds the recommended environmental quality standard of 20 μg Hg kg(-1) w.w. by a factor of 5-50. However, the European maximum level of 500 μg Hg kg(-1) for fish for human consumption is rarely exceeded. Arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons were determined and partially identified in methanolic extracts of the fish by HPLC coupled in parallel to ICP-MS (element specific detection) and ESI-Q-TOF-MS (molecular structure detection). While arsenobetaine was the dominant As species in the fish, six arsenolipids were detected and identified in the extracts of liver tissue in common bream (Abramis brama), ide (Leuciscus idus), asp (Aspius aspius) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Four arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA) and two arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC) are reported in freshwater fish for the first time. With respect to mercury the more toxic MeHg(+) was the major species in muscle tissue (>90% of total Hg) while in liver Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) were of equal importance. The results show the high relevance of element speciation in addition to the determination of total element concentrations to correctly assess the burden of these two elements in fish.

  10. Characterization of flood and precipitation events in Southwestern Germany and stochastic simulation of extreme precipitation (Project FLORIS-SV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Ehmele; Michael, Kunz

    2016-04-01

    Several major flood events occurred in Germany in the past 15-20 years especially in the eastern parts along the rivers Elbe and Danube. Examples include the major floods of 2002 and 2013 with an estimated loss of about 2 billion Euros each. The last major flood events in the State of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany occurred in the years 1978 and 1993/1994 along the rivers Rhine and Neckar with an estimated total loss of about 150 million Euros (converted) each. Flood hazard originates from a combination of different meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic processes. Currently there is no defined methodology available for evaluating and quantifying the flood hazard and related risk for larger areas or whole river catchments instead of single gauges. In order to estimate the probable maximum loss for higher return periods (e.g. 200 years, PML200), a stochastic model approach is designed since observational data are limited in time and space. In our approach, precipitation is linearly composed of three elements: background precipitation, orographically-induces precipitation, and a convectively-driven part. We use linear theory of orographic precipitation formation for the stochastic precipitation model (SPM), which is based on fundamental statistics of relevant atmospheric variables. For an adequate number of historic flood events, the corresponding atmospheric conditions and parameters are determined in order to calculate a probability density function (pdf) for each variable. This method involves all theoretically possible scenarios which may not have happened, yet. This work is part of the FLORIS-SV (FLOod RISk Sparkassen Versicherung) project and establishes the first step of a complete modelling chain of the flood risk. On the basis of the generated stochastic precipitation event set, hydrological and hydraulic simulations will be performed to estimate discharge and water level. The resulting stochastic flood event set will be used to quantify the

  11. Calculation of emissions into rivers in Germany using the MONERIS model. Nutrients, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Berechnung von Stoffeintraegen in die Fliessgewaesser Deutschlands mit dem Modell MONERIS. Naehrstoffe, Schwermetalle und Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Stephan; Scherer, Ulrike; Wander, Ramona [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser und Gewaesserentwicklung; Behrendt, Horst; Venohr, Markus; Optiz, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V., Berlin (Germany); Hillenbrand, Thomas; Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank; Goetz, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of both projects was a methodological development of the MONERIS model to quantify emissions from point and diffuse sources into Germany's surface waters. Both projects are based on consistent sub-basins and the according basic data as well as homogenous calculation algorithms that are adapted to the specifications of each substance group. The research encompasses Germany's large river basins as well as their catchment areas outside Germany and in total covers an area of 650,000 km{sup 2}. This was divided into 3456 analytical units (2759 of those in Germany), the average catchment areas being 190 km{sup 2} (135 km{sup 2} in Germany). All input data was collected and preprocessed with the highest spatial and temporal resolution possible based on the detailed topology. The modelling was performed in individual annual steps for the period between 1983-2005. For the evaluation of the temporal trends the data was aggregated for the periods 1983-1987 (''1985''), 1993-1997 (''1995''), 1998-2002 (''2000'') and 2003-2005 (''2005'') to soften the impact of hydrological influences. The basic data and model results for all sub-basins, years and substance groups of both projects were merged into one database. Additionally, a web-based graphical user interface was developed to visualise the emissions for any area aggregation can be visualised. The completion of both projects delivered for the first time ever homogenous instruments that can identify the most important sources and contamination hotspots for different relevant substance groups in larger river basins which can then serve as a basis for further analyses to achieve efficient measures to reduce pollution. (orig.)

  12. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in different fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, B; Christoph, E-H; Götz, R; Herrmann, T; Krüger, F; Kühn, T; Lay, J; Löffler, J; Päpke, O; Reincke, H; Schröter-Kermani, C; Schwartz, R; Steeg, E; Stehr, D; Uhlig, S; Umlauf, G

    2007-09-05

    In a long-term program polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissue of eels (Anguilla anguilla), bream (Abramis brama), European chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and ide (Leuciscus idus) from the river Elbe and its tributaries Mulde and Saale. The variation of the PCDD/F and DL-PCB concentrations in all fish samples is very large, whereby the DL-PCBs predominate in comparison to the PCDD/Fs. In the eels, the concentrations (pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) for the PCDD/Fs lie in the range of 0.48-22 and for the DL-PCBs between 8.5 and 59. In the whitefish, the concentration range is 0.48-12 for the PCDD/Fs and 1.2-14 for the DL-PCBs. Statistical analysis using relative congener patterns for PCDD/Fs allow spatial correlations to be examined for sub-populations of eels and whitefish. The results are compared to the maximum levels laid down in the European Commission Regulation (EC) No. 466/2001 and the action levels of the European Commission Recommendation 2006/88/EC. Eels caught directly after the major flood in August 2002 as well as eels near Hamburg (years 1996 and 1998) show high concentration peaks. Compared to the eels whitefish is less contaminated with PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs.

  13. Biogas in EEG 2012. Regional structural effects and income effects in North Rhine-Westphalia. Financial Report ''Impact analysis of legislative modifications within renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia''; Biogas im EEG 2012. Regionale Struktur- und Einkommenswirkungen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Abschlussbericht ''Wirkungsanalyse gesetzlicher Aenderungen im Bereich erneuerbarer Energien aus Sicht von Landwirtschaft und laendlichen Raeumen in Nordrhein-Westfalen''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Juergen; Lorleberg, Wolf; Stauss, Wolfgang

    2012-07-01

    The promotion of renewable energies is a main topic of the energy economic policy. The EEG (Renewable Energy Law) should be the main instrument at this point. The contribution of the renewable energy could be increased significantly in the last decade. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an impact analysis of legislative modifications in the area of renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany).

  14. From Sandoz to Salmon: Conceptualizing resource and institutional dynamics in the Rhine watershed through the SES framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Villamayor-Tomas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abatement to a set of explanatory variables proposed by CPR theory. Causal inference is established through process tracing and a series of within-case comparison across actor groups (i.e. riparian nations, industry, and agriculture, resource types (i.e. point source, and non-point source pollutants, and time periods (1976–1986, when treaties provided a limited basis for collective action and pollution abatement, and 1987–2001, when the Rhine Action Plan proved more successful. According to our analysis, a number of CPR variables can help understanding cooperation for pollution abatement in the Rhine case. These include physical attributes such as clear hydrological boundaries; governance factors such as the articulation of monitoring and decision-making at different governance levels and the proportional allocation of costs and benefits of abating pollution; and actor factors like the small size, trust and homogeneity of some actor groups and leadership. Other variables proposed by CPR theory proved to be irrelevant or in need of qualification. These include the right to self-organize and to participate in decision-making, communication and resource-dependence. Finally, two variables, not emphasized by CPR theory, proved relevant: the occurrence of external disturbances and the role of interest groups. We conclude that CPR theory is valuable for explaining pollution management in large trans-boundary river basins, but requires qualification and extension.

  15. Handling sediments in Dutch river management: The planning stage of the Maaswerken river widening project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Rijnveld, M.; Gerrits, L.M.; Joziasse, J.; Heijst, M.W.I.M. van; Gruijters, S.H.L.L.

    2006-01-01

    Goals, Scope and Background. Faced with higher peak discharges in the foreseeable future, the Dutch government has decided to increase the discharge capacities of the Dutch Rhine and Meuse rivers. Instead of raising the dikes, river widening measures are to be undertaken, in and along the riverbed.

  16. An analysis of seismic hazard in the Upper Rhine Graben enlightened by the example of the New Madrid seismic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubre, Cécile; Masson, Frédéric; Mazzotti, Stéphane; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard in the "stable" continental regions and low-level deformation zones is one of the most difficult issues to address in Earth sciences. In these zones, instrumental and historical seismicity are not well known (sparse seismic networks, seismic cycle too long to be covered by the human history, episodic seismic activity) and many active structures remain poorly characterized or unknown. This is the case of the Upper Rhine Graben, the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100 km. Even if this region has already experienced some destructive earthquakes, its present-day seismicity is moderate and the deformation observed by geodesy is very small (below the current measurement accuracy). The strain rate does not exceed 10-10 and paleoseismic studies indicate an average return period of 2.5 to 3 103 ka for large earthquakes. The largest earthquake known for this zone is the 1356 Basel earthquake, with a magnitude generally estimated about 6.5 (Meghraoui et al., 2001) but recently re-evaluated between 6.7 and 7.1 (Fäh et al et al., 2009). A comparison of the Upper Rhine Graben with equivalent regions around the world could help improve our evaluation of seismic hazard of this region. This is the case of the New Madrid seismic zone, one of the best studied intraplate system in central USA, which experienced an M 7.0 - 7.5 earthquake in 1811-1812 and shares several characteristics with the Upper Rhine Graben, i.e. the general framework of inherited geological structures (reactivation of a failed rift / graben), seismicity patterns (spatial variability of small and large earthquakes), the null or low rate of deformation, and the location in a "stable" continental interior. Looking at the Upper Rhine Graben as an analogue of the New Madrid seismic zone, we can re-evaluate its seismic hazard and consider the

  17. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  18. Towards a Risk Governance Culture in Flood Policy—Findings from the Implementation of the “Floods Directive” in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Wagner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks is likely to cause changes to flood policy in Germany and other member states. With its risk governance approach, it introduces a holistic and catchment-oriented flood risk management and tries to overcome shortcomings of the past, such as the event-driven construction of mainly structural measures. However, there is leeway for interpretation in implementing the directive. The present paper gives an overview on the implementation of the floods directive in Germany and is divided into two qualitative empirical case studies. Case Study I investigates the level of acceptance of the floods directive among decision-makers in the German part of the Rhine river basin. Findings show that the federal states respond differently to the impulse given by the floods directive. Whereas some decision-makers opt for a pro-forma implementation, others take it as a starting point to systematically improve their flood policy. Case Study II presents recommendations for a successful implementation of flood risk management plans that have been developed within a project for the water authority in Bavaria and might be interesting for other federal/member states. For a participation of the interested parties on the level of shared decision-making, the planning process has to work on sub-management-plan level (15–20 communities. The water resources authority has to adopt a multi-faceted role (expert, responsible or interested party depending on the discussed topics.

  19. School Assistance in Special Schools in North Rhine-Westphalia: Initial Position, Study Design, and First Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Kißgen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available School assistance, where it is practiced in Germany, appears to be a permanent personnel resource in the daily routine of special schools, as the first initial surveys in the counties ofBavaria and Thuringia show. To clarify the situation in special schools in the counry of North Rhine-Westphalia, a study was designed to examine the topic from the perspective of the school management, class teachers, and school assistants using a questionnaire-based survey. In this article, in addition to the study design, the results of the survey from the school management questionnaire are presented. Among other things, it shows that the utilization of school assistants has increased more than thirtyfold between the school years 2000/2001 and 2010/2011. The consequences of this development are discussed in terms of inclusive education in general schools.

  20. CrossWater - Modelling micropollutant loads from different sources in the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Andreas; Bader, Hans-Peter; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Scheidegger, Ruth; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The contamination of fresh surface waters with micropollutants originating from various sources is a growing environmental issue. The challenges for an effective political regulation are numerous, particularly for international water basins. One prerequisite for effective management is the knowledge of water quality across different parts of a basin. In this study within the Rhine basin, the spatial patterns of micropollutant loads and concentrations from different use classes are investigated with a mass flow analysis and compared to the established territorial jurisdictions on micropollutants and water quality. The source area of micropollutants depends on the specific use of a compound. The focus of this study is on i) herbicides from agricultural landuse, ii) biocides from material protection on buildings and iii) human pharmaceuticals from households. The total mass of micropollutants available for release to the stream network is estimated based on statistical application and consumption data. Based on GIS data of agricultural landuse, vector data of buildings, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) locations, respectively, the available mass of micropollutants is spatially distributed to the catchment areas. The actual release of micropollutants to the stream network is calculated with empirical loss rates related to river discharge for agricultural herbicides and to precipitation for biocides. For the pharmaceuticals the release is coupled to the metabolism rates and elimination rates in WWTP. For a first approximation national sales are downscaled to the catchment level to specify the available mass for selected model compounds (agricultural herbicides: Isoproturon, biocides: Carbendazim, human pharmaceuticals: Carbamazepine and Diclofenac). The available mass of herbicides and biocides is multiplied with empirical loss rates independent from discharge or precipitation to calculate the loads. The release of the pharmaceuticals was calculated by multiplying

  1. The deep thermal field of the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Stiller, Manfred; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben has a significant socioeconomic relevance as it provides a great potential for geothermal energy production. The key for the utilisation of this energy resource is to understand the controlling factors of the thermal field in this area. We have therefore built a data-based lithospheric-scale 3D structural model of the Upper Rhine Graben and its adjacent areas. In addition, 3D gravity modelling was performed to constrain the internal structure of the crystalline crust consistent with seismic information. Based on this lithosphere scale 3D structural model the present-day conductive thermal field was calculated and compared to measured temperatures. Our results show that the regional thermal field is mainly controlled by the configuration of the upper crust, which has different thermal properties characteristic for the Variscan and Alpine domains. Temperature maxima are predicted for the Upper Rhine Graben where thick insulating Cenozoic sediments cause a thermal blanketing effect and where the underlying crustal units are characterised by high radiogenic heat production. The comparison of calculated and measured temperatures overall shows a reasonable fit, while locally occuring model deviations indicate where a larger influence of groundwater flow may be expected.

  2. Quaternay geological landscape evolution across borders: linking the Scheldt to Rhine-Thames Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kim M.; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Hijma, Marc P.; Gibbard, Phill L.; Busschers, Freek S.; Vandenberghe, Dimitri

    2013-04-01

    This poster presents paleogeographical scenario maps for the southwestern North Sea Basin, where onshore and offshore territories of Belgium, The Netherlands, France and England meet. Originally prepared and published as a backdrop for paleolithical geoarcheological research (Hijma et al. 2012; JQS), we are now expanding this with fieldwork in NW Belgium. NW Belgium is a key area to resolve current debates on the timing and rates of erosion and landscape change in this area over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. With the Thames Estuary, it shares a history of drastic river valley network reconfigurations between successive glacials in the youngest 500,000 years. With the SW Netherlands it shares the sea level rise history in Eemian and Holocene. With NW France and SE England, it shares the river incision history that accelerates and changes in position with the opening of the Strait of Dover in the last 500,000 years. What are regionally separated issues in surrounding countries, comes together and superimposes in the Belgian Quaternary record. Our fieldwork aims at logging and sampling for a long-term landscape erosion studies, progressively over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles, and for generic regional quaternary geological mapping and dating. Reference: Hijma, M.P, K.M. Cohen, W. Roebroeks, W.E. Westerhoff, F.S. Busschers. 2012. Pleistocene Rhine-Thames landscapes: geological background for hominin occupation of the southern North Sea region. Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol 27, 17-32. DOI: 10.1002/jqs.1549

  3. FLOOD ACTION PLAN OF THE RIVER RHINE——DEVELOPMENT AND REALIZATION(IN BRIEF)%莱茵河流域防洪规划——发展及其实施(论文摘编)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KARL-Heinz Rother

    2006-01-01

    @@ The River Rhine situated in the middle of central Europe is a striking example for the diverging concerns of natural wetland schemes and human uses. The River Rhine basin covers an area of 190 000 km2and is settled by 50 million people, living in nine different countries. Only in the 19th century the natural moving water courses of the River Rhine were fixed in a singular riverbed allowing the human utilization of the flood prone areas by agriculture, settlement and infrastructure.

  4. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    developed toward an open access order; open access was not, however, sustainable and collapsed in 1930–31. This case of a failed open access order suggests refining the framework of limited and open access orders in further work. It shows that the political process of “creative destruction” might result...... in dissolution of open access and that the political system needs the capacity of efficiently creating legitimacy in order to sustain openness. The failure of Weimar Germany also indicates that the international political system might work as a destabilizing factor of open access and that the nation...

  5. 100 years of mapping the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain: combining research and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoek, W. Z.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-04-01

    The history of modern soil, geomorphological and shallow geological mapping in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain goes back about 100 years. The delta plain is of very heterogeneous build up, with clayey and peaty flood basins, dissected by sandy fluvial distributary channel belts with fine textured levees grading into tidal-influenced rivers and estuaries. Several generations of precursor rivers occur as alluvial ridges and buried ribbon sands. They form an intricate network originating from repeated avulsions, back to 8000 years ago. Present rivers have been embanked since ca. 1250 AD and the delta plain (~ 3000 km2) has been reclaimed for agriculture. Soils are young and subject to oxidation and compaction. The first detailed field map of channel belts and floodbasins was made in 1926 by Vink, a geography teacher from Amsterdam. Soil mapping and Holocene geology gained interest after WW-II, with Wageningen soil scientists Edelman, Hoeksema and Pons taking lead. Utrecht University started teaching and research on the subject in 1959, launching an undergraduate mapping field course based on hand augering and field observation. An archive of borehole logs and local maps started to build up. Initially focused on soil mapping, from 1973 the course shifted to a geomorphological-geological focus. Berendsen took over supervision, introduced standard description protocols and legends and increased coring depth. This resulted in 1982 in his influential PhD thesis on the Rhine delta's genesis. New coring and sampling methods came and extensive 14C dating campaigns began. With steadily increasing numbers of students, accumulation of data speeded up, and increasingly larger parts of the delta were mapped. The academic mapping ran in parallel with soil survey and geological survey mapping campaigns. The computer was introduced in the field course and digital data archiving began in 1989. A series of PhD studies on thematic aspects of delta evolution and an increasing number

  6. Established and recent policy arrangements for river management in The Netherlands: an analysis of discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, I.

    2005-01-01

    After water levels in The Netherlands reached a near-critical level in 1995, a new discourse for managing the lower Rhine basin was introduced into debates about river management. This discourse, called `Room for the river¿, introduces a new management strategy in which the river is given more room

  7. Illumination on Farmland Utilization in Taiwan from Flood Control Plan of Germany%德国防洪计划对台湾农地利用的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健哲

    2012-01-01

    近年来,台湾经济的飞速发展多以牺牲环境为代价,难以维系台湾之永续发展。通过分析德国防洪计划之经验,借鉴莱茵河、Liner河之防洪计划,学习德国在自然保育与景观维护上所取得的成效,为台湾农地重划、生产导向之方式转变,满足整体性农村发展之需求寻求借鉴依据。%In recent years, Taiwan's economic developed rapidly at the expense of environment, and could not keep sustainable development. This paper analyzed the experiences of flood control plan of Germany such as Rhine Flood Control Plan, Liner River Flood Control Plan, and summarized the effect on the natural conservation and landscape maintenance in Germany. Then the farmland replanning and the changing of production orientation to promote rural development in Taiwan were put forward.

  8. Heavy-metal contamination of rivers by mining gallery waters during the flood in 2002 in Saxony/Germany and low-cost rapid analysis of contaminated river sediments by XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucke, D.; Kumann, R.; Mucke, S.

    2012-04-01

    Dieter Mucke, Rolf Kumann, Susanne Mucke GEOMONTAN Gesellschaft für Geologie und Bergbau mbH&Co.KG, Muldentalstrasse 56, 09603 Rothenfurth, Saxony/Germany The Ore Mountains between Bohemia and Saxony are effected by age-long mining for silver mining and winning of other ores. A lot of galleries were driven to keep water away from the mines. Today they still drain off water into the rivers which are used as receiving streams. Sulphide- and sulpharsenide-minerals are unstable. The decomposition of these minerals is caused by the influence of oxygenated drainage water. As a result of this process free cations of iron, copper, lead, zinc, cadmium and residuals of acid (sulphuric acid, acid sulphur, arsenous acid). Already during the transport in the gallery water transformations and precipitations proceed: iron precipitates as sol of iron-(III)-hydroxide-flocks and carries manganese and arsenic, as well as a part of zinc and copper along, on the other hand a bigger part of cadmium keeps in dissolution. From 1844 until 1877 in the silver mining area of Freiberg/Brand-Erbisdorf/Halsbrücke the gallery "Rothschönberger Stolln" was driven with a length of 50 km. In 1995/1996 we determined during four measuring cycles the loads of selected contaminants of five different measuring points in a gallery segment, which takes 29 km. As the annual input into the stream system Triebisch/Elbe with the mudflat of the North Sea as receiving stream we determined: • 19.000 t solid matter (hereof 10.400 t gypsum) • 820 kg cadmium • 420 kg arsenic • 1450 kg lead • 1140 kg copper • 111 t zinc During the flood in August 2002 occurred: • a total sinking of the Münzbach • a partial sinking of the Freiberger Mulde into the Rothschönberger Stolln. Thereby its flow increased from 600 l/sec in average to 10 m3/sec. Over three days during the flood in 2002 water samples were taken and analysed and the discharge was detected. So it was possible to calculate the loads. There was

  9. Net employment effects of an extension of renewable-energy systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegelmann, Arko; Mohr, Markus; Unger, Hermann [Ruhr-University Bochum, Dept. for Nuclear and New Energy Systems, Bochum (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    Renewable-energy potential exists in the Federal Republic of Germany to a great extent, but is barely used as yet. A change in the power-supply structure seems to be too risky with regard to finance and the sensitive labour market. Nevertheless, an extension of renewable energy systems in the German state North-Rhine Westphalia would lead to improved employment prospects. (Author)

  10. [How are Pediatric Hospitals in North-Rhine Westfalia Prepared to Overcome Language Barriers? A Pilot Study Exploring The Structural Quality of Inpatient Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, T; Zapf, T; Wirth, S; Meyer, B; Wiegand, A; Timmen, H; Gupta, S J; Schuster, S; Geraedts, M

    2016-05-04

    Background: In Germany, 35% of all children are considered to have a "migration background", and in the state of North-Rhine-Westfalia 43%. Frequently, one or both parents of a patient with a migration background have limited German language proficiency. Communication barriers due to a language difference can have a negative impact on quality of care, patient safety and costs of care. In this study, we investigate how children's hospitals are prepared to meet the challenges associated with language barriers. Methods: We surveyed all children's hospitals in the state of North-Rhine-Westfalia, Germany. The questionnaire was based on the "Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health and Health Care (CLAS)" and was adapted to circumstances in Germany. Results: Thirty-eight hospitals participated (51%) in this survey. Language barriers occurred frequently (75% of respondents mentioned language difficulties in more than 10% of the patient population). 82% of respondents rated their hospital to be "less than well prepared" to overcome language barriers. In the majority of hospitals (62%), the need for an interpreter was determined on a case-to-case basis and not according to any set protocol. In most cases bilingual staff was used for interpreting. However, only 38% of respondents found a list of available bilingual staff to be a sufficient resource. 42% of respondents did not know the monthly costs for professional interpreting services. In the remaining cases, costs were less than € 500/month. Conclusion: To overcome language barriers, hospitals rely on local resources. The majority of respondents did not find them to be appropriate and sufficient. The development of quality standards and the provision of financial resources are necessary to mobilize this potential for improvement. Therefore, other disciplines and sectors of healthcare need to be analyzed in order to provide the evidence for a constructive discussion with decision

  11. Roman and early-medieval occupation of a delta: settlement dynamics in the Rhine-Meuse delta (The Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierik, Harm Jan; van Lanen, Rowin

    2016-04-01

    River landscapes are, since they are cultivated and inhabited by humans, among the most densely populated areas in the world. These landscapes provide fertile substrates, natural resources (e.g. food, raw materials), and abundant water routes for long-distance transport. However, these wet and dynamic landscapes often pose challenges to the people. In the past this sometimes even led to the relocation of production areas and settlements to more suitable areas. In the fluvial dominated part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, the late-Roman and early-medieval periods (AD 270 - 1050) are characterized by both cultural changes (e.g. in demography, settlement location) and environmental changes (river avulsions, changes in flooding frequency). In the delta plain, the relatively high and dry natural levees were most favourable for habitation. The extension and relative elevation of these important landscape units has recently been mapped in high detail, exploring the distribution of settlements on these landscape units and the changing patterns of settlements through time is the next step. To perform this, we need to integrate the geomorphological reconstructions with archaeological datasets. We have applied a multidisciplinary approach by integrating new high-resolution palaeoenvironmental reconstructions with archaeological datasets. Our aims were to: 1) determine the spatial distribution of settlements on geomorphological landscape units, and 2) explore changes in human-environment interactions from the late Roman period to the Early Middle Ages. In this contribution, we present the first results of these analyses. Integrating these datasets is an important step towards further understanding of the relative contribution of (and the interaction between) environmental and cultural factors in determining settlement distribution in the Rhine-Meuse delta.

  12. Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den

  13. Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kutschera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882 began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881. Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae and the role of these annelids as global “ecosystem reworkers” (concept of bioturbation. In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Biogeographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10 000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

  14. River bed classification using multi-beam echo-sounder backscatter data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinneging, N.; Snellen, M.; Eleftherakis, D.; Simons, D.G.; Mosselman, E.; Siben, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Netherlands form the delta for some of the major river systems of Europe, comprising the Rhine, the Meuse, the Scheldt and the Eems. These rivers are valuable parts of national and international ecological networks and are of high economic importance. A minimum depth should be guaranteed to keep

  15. HABITAT USE OF AGE - 0 TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX LACÉPÈDE, 1803 IN THE TIDAL FRESHWATER REGION OF THE ELBE RIVER, GERMANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERKENS M.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Between April and August 1997 the distribution of twaite shad larvae in the lower Elbe River downstream the city of Hamburg was examined by ring net, lift net and pop net sampling. During each haul six environmental parameters - water depth, water temperature, conductivity, oxygen concentration, distance from shore line and distance from river channel - were estimated. Twaite shad larvae were found from 26 May to 10 July. Yolk sac larvae were present from 26 May to 25 June. High abundances of twaite shad larvae were found in the side channels and main channels. A canonical correspondence analysis was calculated to evaluate the importance of measured environmental parameters for the distribution of age - 0 fishes. Water depth, distance from shore line and distance from river channel were identified as main parameters for the distribution of species. Twaite shad larvae preferred maximum water depth and distance from shore line and short distances to the river channel. An upstream displacement of the spawning grounds of twaite shad was observed, following a trend first noticed in the early 90th. Nowadays, the location of spawning grounds corresponds to the situation at the beginning of the 19th century. Reduced water pollution is believed to be the main reason for this phenomenon.

  16. On the identity of the fossil hydrophilid beetles from the Tertiary localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fikácek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the beetles from the Oligocene localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Brunstatt: France, Alsace; and Kleinkems: Germany, Baden-Württemberg assigned to the family Hydrophilidae by previous authors. The identity of Escheria convexa Förster, 1891 is fixed by the designation of its neotype, the species is redescribed, illustrated and transferred from the hydrophilid genus Hydrobius Leach, 1815 to the genus Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Dytiscidae and compared with other fossil representatives of Copelatus. The identity of the remaining three species is briefly evaluated on the basis of the original descriptions and illustrations only, because their types were lost or destroyed during World War II; all three species are removed from the fossil record of the Hydrophiloidea and placed into Polyphaga incertae sedis. The geology and stratigraphy of both fossil outcrops is discussed briefly.

  17. Toxic Effects of Pollutants on Methane Production of River Sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlaardingen PLA; van Beelen P

    1992-01-01

    The effects of five compounds on the endogenous methane production of sediment samples of the river Rhine were examined. The concentrations of a toxicant that inhibited the methane production for 10% and 50% are called EC10 and EC50. Benzene, 1,2- dichloroethane, pentachlorophenol and chloroform h

  18. Behaviour of suspended particulate matter (SPM and selected trace metals during the 2002 summer flood in the River Elbe (Germany at Magdeburg monitoring station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baborowski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In August 2002, in the worst flooding in more than 100 years, the River Elbe destroyed built-up areas and caused widespread erosion and the relocation of soils and river sediments. To assess the pollutants entering the water, surveys of dissolved constituents and suspended particulate matter (SPM were carried out daily during the flood at a monitoring station near Magdeburg. The sampling point is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The results were compared with those of previous flood studies which used the same sampling strategy. Unlike past floods, the 2002 flood was characterised by the transport of relatively fine suspended material with a low mass concentration. Owing to different input sources, the maxima of dry weight and of particle number concentration occurred at different times. Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr showed a maximum concentration concurrent with the dry weight of the SPM, whereas the maximum concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd coincided with the particle number concentration peak. The concentration of particulate matter decreased rapidly, unlike the concentrations of dissolved substances such as DOC and trace metals, as well as the values of UV extinction, all of which remained high for a longer period. Comparing the results of the 2002 flood with the winter floods in 1995, 1999 and 2000, revealed increased values of As and Pb as well as higher concentrations of dissolved compounds. Keywords: river, flood, transport, suspended particulate matter, trace metals, dissolved compounds, Elbe

  19. An experimental study on the mixing behavior of Ti, Zr, V and Mo in the Elbe, Rhine and Weser estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alexandre B.; Koschinsky, Andrea; Kiprotich, Joseph; Poehle, Sandra; do Nascimento, Paulo C.

    2016-03-01

    Estuaries are important interfaces between land and ocean, in which the input of trace metals into the ocean via the rivers is often significantly modified along the mixing gradient between freshwater and seawater. In the present study we have carried out mixing experiments using river water from the Rhine, the Elbe and the Weser and seawater from the North Sea with the aim of gaining more insights into the behavior of titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), vanadium (V) and molybdenum (Mo) and their distribution between dissolved and particulate forms during mixing in the estuaries. Little is known about the modification of their concentrations in estuaries and these metals increasingly enter the rivers and the ocean due to their application as so-called high-tech metals in industrial activities. Such laboratory experiments at controlled conditions allow the systematic investigation of chemical changes related to the mixing ratios, independent of further influence factors occurring in natural systems. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry was used for the analytical determination of the four metals. Although our data largely confirmed a strong particle-reactive behavior of Ti and Zr and a mostly conservative behavior of Mo, our mixing experiments revealed partial deviation from this behavior. Vanadium mostly does not follow a strict conservative mixing trend but shows both small ad- and desorption effects along the salinity transect. Also Mo shows some deviations from conservative mixing at mid-salinities. The enrichment of dissolved Ti and Zr at about 50:50 river: seawater mixtures agrees with recently published data of similar field studies and appears to be a systematic effect possibly related to charge transitions on particle surfaces or change of the dissolved metal speciation. The observed effects partly differed in experiments with filtered and non-filtered river water samples, especially for Ti and Zr, highlighting the role of riverine particulate matter for the

  20. Fluvial ecosystem services in the Rhine delta distributaries between 1995 and 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Mapping of ecosystem services (ES) and documenting their change over time provides important information for the societal debate and decision making on river management. Large and Gilvear (2014) showed how to score fluvial ES using imagery and tools available through Google Earth, linking observable features, or landcover to ES through inferred fluvial processes, and natural ecosystem functions. While the use of Google Earth enables application anywhere on the globe, their method is labor intensive, and involves subjective judgement as not all parameters are easily observable in spectral data, e.g. the location of embankments. In addition, the method does not take advantage of readily available spatial databases, and existing hydrodynamic model parameterizations, nor can it be used in scenario studies of future fluvial landscapes. Therefore, we aimed at the development of a generic GIS routine to extract the ecosystem services from existing spatial and hydrodynamic model data, and its application to historic and future fluvial landscapes in the Rhine delta. Here, we consider the Rhine distributaries, sized 400 km2, where river restoration measures were carried out between 1995 and 2015 to reduce flood risk reduction and simultaneously improve the ecological status. We computed ES scores for provisioning ES (fisheries, agriculture, timber, water supply), regulating ES (flood mitigation, carbon sequestration, water quality), and supporting ES (biodiversity). Historic ES were derived for the years 1997, 2005, and 2012, based on ecotope maps for these respective years, combined with a water levels and flow velocities derived from a calibrated 2D hydrodynamic model (WAQUA). Ecotopes are defined as 'spatial landscape units that are homogeneous as to vegetation structure, succession stage, and the main abiotic factors that are relevant to plant growth'. ES for 2035 were based on scenarios of landscaping measures. Suitable locations for the measures were determined

  1. Using the reference framework for good measles management in practice--a case study from North Rhine-Westphalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Matthias; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Brand, Helmut

    2009-12-01

    In 2005, WHO Europe reconfirmed the objective of eradicating measles and fixed a strategy plan for the years 2005 up to 2010. While a downward trend of measles infections in Germany between 2001 and 2004 could be observed, as many as 780 cases of measles were reported in 2005 and in 2006 even 2.281 cases. These high figures in 2006 were almost exclusively caused by an outbreak in the German region of North Rhine-Westphalia. This case study describes how a reference framework for good health management of measles prevention was applied for this region. As a result, various recommendations for action could be given, among them the recommendation to implement individual vaccination reminder systems for parents and bonus systems for parents. Based on these results, a comprehensive policy concept has been drawn up and has become the subject of a political agreement process in this region. Thus this case study shows a paradigm how reference frameworks for good health management can be utilised in practice.

  2. Moveable flood barriers in the Rhine-Meuse estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, T.; Kok, M.

    2011-01-01

    It is possible to reduce flood risk in estuaries without having to drastically modify the river banks by levees or to block shipping routes and ecological flows by dams. ‘Storm surge barriers’ close off a river mouth at times of high sea water levels, but keep the river open during calmer times. ‘Mo

  3. Digital mapping of loess in Northwest Germany based on satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bianca

    2010-05-01

    Loess maps of various scales are important input data for advanced investigations of spatial loess properties such as variation in grain size, thickness and facies or study of loess provenance. Many representations of loess distribution in Northwest Germany are based on geological maps. Mostly these maps were created at the beginning of the last century. During this time especially thin loess covers were not incorporated in favour of underlying hard rocks or other Quaternary deposits. Due to the change in mapping policy at the end of the last century much more of the unconsolidated rocks, particularly with regard to loess, were displayed on the revised or updated maps. In this study the analysis of optical remote sensing data, ranging from visible light to the infrared, was tested to create a more realistic map of the loess distribution in Northwest Germany. The investigation area includes the loess along the northern loess boundary between Helmstedt and Minden and extends to Kassel and Goettingen in the South. Here, in southern Lower Saxony, northern Hesse and eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, loess and loess derivates are widely distributed apart from river beds, valley flanks, steep slopes and higher mountain ranges. The thickness of the loess cover, that is of Weichselian, sporadic of Saalian or Elsterian age, varies between few centimetres and about 20 m. The hard rocks of the study area were influenced by tectonic and halokinetic processes resulting in a complex and small-scale pattern of folds, depressions, horsts and grabens. Satellite images of the Landsat TM and ETM+ sensors, recorded between 1985 and 2008, were used for this study. After radiometric calibration and atmospheric and geometric correction of every dataset, coniferous forest, water and areas of high urbanization were masked. Then a synthetic file was made up of all remaining pixels, preferring the pixel, displaying the purest soil or bare rock. Various digital mapping techniques e.g. band

  4. Operational monitoring of turbidity in rivers: how satellites can contribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucke, Dorothee; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Kranz, Susanne; Baschek, Björn

    2016-10-01

    The applications of remote sensing in hydrology are diverse and offer significant benefits for water monitoring. Up to now, operational river monitoring and sediment management in Germany mainly rely on in-situ measurements and on results obtained from numerical modelling. Remote sensing by satellites has a great potential to supplement existing data with two-dimensional information on near-surface turbidity distributions at greater spatial scales than in-situ measurements can offer. Within the project WasMon-CT (WaterMonitoring-Chlorophyll/Turbidity), the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) aims at the implementation of an operational monitoring of turbidity distributions based on satellite images (esp. Sentinel-2, Landsat7 and 8). Initially, selected federal inland and estuarine waterways will be addressed: Rhine, Elbe, Ems, Weser. WasMon-CT is funded within the German Copernicus activities. Within the project, a database of atmospherically corrected, geo-referenced turbidity data will be assembled. The collected corresponding meta-data will include aspects of satellite data as well as hydrological data, e.g. cloud cover and river run-off. Based on this catalogue of spatially linked meta-data, the satellite data will be selected by e.g. cloud cover or run-off. The permanently updated database will include past as well as recent satellite images. It is designed with a long-term perspective to optimize the existing in-situ measurement network, which will serve partly for calibration and partly as validation data set. The aim is to extend, but not to substitute, the existing frequent point measurements with spatially extensive, satellite-derived data from the near surface part of the water column. Here, turbidity is used as proxy for corresponding suspended sediment concentrations. For this, the relationship between turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations will be investigated. Products as e.g. longitudinal profiles or virtual measurement stations will be

  5. Radiometric fingerprinting of fluvial sediments in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands – a feasibility test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebinck, K.; Middelkoop, H.; Diepen, N. van; Graaf, E.R. van der; Meijer, R.J. de

    2007-01-01

    The deposits of the Rhine and the Meuse in the Netherlands alternate in their delta in a complex way. This paper discusses a method todistinguish the deposits of the Rhine and the Meuse based on the differences in natural radioactivity of 40K, 238U and 232Th, and the effect ofthe age of the deposits

  6. Radiometric fingerprinting of fluvial sediments in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands – a feasibility test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebinck, K.; Middelkoop, H.; van Diepen, N.M; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The deposits of the Rhine and the Meuse in the Netherlands alternate in their delta in a complex way. This paper discusses a method to distinguish the deposits of the Rhine and the Meuse based on the differences in natural radioactivity of (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th, and the effect of the age of the

  7. S-wave velocity measurements applied to the seismic microzonation of Basel, Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Fäh, Donat; Polom, Ulrich; Roullé, Agathe

    2007-07-01

    An extensive S-wave velocity survey had been carried out in the frame of a recent seismic microzonation study of Basel and the border areas between Switzerland, France and Germany. The aim was to better constrain the seismic amplification potential of the surface layers. The survey included single station (H/V spectral ratios) and ambient vibration array measurements carried out by the Swiss team, as well as active S-wave velocity measurements performed by the German and French partners. This paper is focused on the application of the array technique, which consists in recording ambient vibrations with a number of seismological stations. Several practical aspects related to the field measurements are outlined. The signal processing aims to determine the dispersion curves of surface waves contained in the ambient vibrations. The inversion of the dispersion curve provides a 1-D S-wave velocity model for the investigated site down to a depth related to the size of the array. Since the size of arrays is theoretically not limited, arrays are known to be well adapted for investigations in deep sediment basins, such as the Upper Rhine Graben including the area of the city of Basel. In this region, 27 array measurements with varying station configurations have been carried out to determine the S-wave velocity properties of the geological layers down to a depth of 100-250 m. For eight sites, the outputs of the array measurements have been compared with the results of the other investigations using active sources, the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) and S-wave reflection seismics. Borehole information available for a few sites could be used to calibrate the geophysical measurements. By this comparison, the advantages and disadvantages of the array method and the other techniques are outlined with regard to the effectiveness of the methods and the required investigation depth. The dispersion curves measured with the arrays and the SASW technique were also combined

  8. 3D structure and conductive thermal field of the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Stiller, Manfred; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) was formed as part of the European Cenozoic Rift System in a complex extensional setting. At present-day, it has a large socioeconomic relevance as it provides a great potential for geothermal energy production in Germany and France. For the utilisation of this energy resource it is crucial to understand the structure and the observed temperature anomalies in the rift basin. In the framework of the EU-funded "IMAGE" project (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration), we apply a data-driven numerical modelling approach to quantify the processes and properties controlling the spatial distribution of subsurface temperatures. Typically, reservoir-scale numerical models are developed for predictions on the subsurface hydrothermal conditions and for reducing the risk of drilling non-productive geothermal wells. One major problem related to such models is setting appropriate boundary conditions that define, for instance, how much heat enters the reservoir from greater depths. Therefore, we first build a regional lithospheric-scale 3D structural model, which covers not only the entire URG but also adjacent geological features like the Black Forest and the Vosges Mountains. In particular, we use a multidisciplinary dataset (e.g. well data, seismic reflection data, existing structural models, gravity) to construct the geometries of the sediments, the crust and the lithospheric mantle that control the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production and hence temperatures. By applying a data-based and lithology-dependent parameterisation of this lithospheric-scale 3D structural model and a 3D finite element method, we calculate the steady-state conductive thermal field for the entire region. Available measured temperatures (down to depths of up to 5 km) are considered to validate the 3D thermal model. We present major characteristics of the lithospheric-scale 3D structural model and results of the 3D

  9. Ecological impact and risks of present and future coal mining activities at the outskirts of the densely populated areas on the Lippe and Lower Rhine. Oekologische Folgen und Risiken der derzeitigen und kuenftigen Steinkohlengewinnung in der Ballungsrandzone an der Lippe und am Niederrhein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herforth, A. (Landesanstalt fuer Oekologie, Landschaftsentwicklung und Forstplanung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Recklinghausen (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    The still continuing intensive economic exploitation of coal mining at the outskirts of densely populated areas at the rivers Emscher and Lippe has caused tremendous ecological effects and damages of the landscape and quality of life of its inhabitants. The still unsolved problems of recultivating of the no longer exploited coal mining districts have increased the pressure on how to use the regions at the rivers Lippe and Lower Rhine which have not been exploited so far. In addition, the planned exploitation of coal in the southern areas of Muensterland and Lower Rhine, the so called 'migrating to the north of the mining industry', contains in itself enormous risks for these ecologically valuable, richly structured landscapes. (orig.).

  10. The city and the river A reconstruction of the strategical position of early 9th century Dorestad, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosian, Menne; Weerts, Henk; Steur, Roeland; Abrahamse, Jaap-Evert

    2013-04-01

    Why was the Early-medieval trade-port of Dorestad located at a relatively inland position in the Rhine delta and not at the coast, as one would expect? We combined palaeogeographical, environmental-archaeological, geomorphological/geological and laser-altimetry data to propose an answer to this question. Local Dorestad data had to be combined with a regional paleogeographical reconstruction of active river branches in the 9th-century Rhine delta to come to a satisfactory answer. The location of Dorestad on a high natural levee along a relatively stable navigable branch of the Rhine in the central Rhine delta was perfect for trade. The high levee gave protection from the annual river floods. Although this branch of the Rhine was fairly stable in the heydays of Dorestad, the meanders near Dorestad slowly migrated. Excavations at Dorestad show that the harbour works of Dorestad were constantly adapted to this migration, thereby following the meander on which they were located. Ships could reach the port from the sea through at least three navigable Rhine branches: the Lek, the Old Rhine and the Vecht rivers. Dorestad was thus easily accessible and yet far enough from the coast to be safe from storm floods - but was it located at its specific location for these reasons alone? We combined existing geomorphological and geological maps with recent nation-wide laser-altimetry (AHN, General Elevation model of the Netherlands') for a regional palaeogeographical reconstruction of 9th-century active Rhine branches in a GIS. This reconstruction revealed that river connections with the Flemish, French and German hinterland were perfect. Other delta branches ensured safe connections to the Zeeland delta and the open Flemish coast, all the way to Dover Straight to the south and to the open Frisian coast all the way to present Southern Denmark in the North. The dangerously closed coast of Holland without any safe shelter places for storms could thus be avoided by ships coming in

  11. Ground Motion Relations for the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbini, V.; Granet, M.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake in Europe are primarily located within the Euro-Mediterranean domain. However, the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) region regularly suffers earthquakes which are felt physically by inhabitants and cause damage to private property and the industrial infrastructure. In 1356, a major earthquake (I0 = X) destroyed part of the city of Basel. Recently, several events having M > 5 have shaken this area. In the framework of an INTERREG III project funded by the European community, a microzonation study has been achieved across the "three borders" area including the cities of Basel and Mulhouse. In particular, the ground motion was studied. The URG, which belongs to the ECRIS (European Cenozoic Rift System), is characterized by rift-related sedimentary basins with several hundreds meters of tertiary sediments overlaying the basement. Such a subsurface geology leads to strong site effects. Predictive attenuation laws and their related uncertainties are evaluated considering strong motions records and velocimetric records from small to moderate local events (Magnitude ranging 3

  12. Geological characterization of deep reservoir and barrier horizons in Germany. Storage Catalogue of Germany; Geologische Charakterisierung tiefliegender Speicher- und Barrierehorizonte in Deutschland. Speicher-Kataster Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christian [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Berlin (Germany); Reinhold, Klaus (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within the series of publication under consideration of the German Society for Geosciences e.V. (Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions are presented: (1) Storage potential of the deeper subsurface - Overview and results from the project Storage Catalogue of Germany (K. Reinhold); (2) Information system on geological reservoir and barrier rock units (Storage Catalogue of Germany) (C. Riesenberg); (3) Distribution and properties of Mesozoic sandstones and barrier rocks in Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg- Basic information on possible energetic utilisation of the deeper subsurface (H. Kaufhold); (4) Geological characterization of potential reservoir and barrier rock units in Mecklenburg - Western Pomerania (J. Brandes); (5)Reservoir and barrier rocks in the deep underground of Brandenburg and Berlin (A. Bebiolka); (6) Deep aquifers in Saxony-Anhalt and their potential for the underground storage (K. Reinhold); (7) Distribution and characterization of deep reservoir and barrier horizons in Lower Saxony and Bremen (S. Knopf); (8) Geological characterization of reservoir and barrier rocks in North Rhine-Westphalia (M. Doelling); (9) CO{sub 2} storage potential in deep saline aquifers in the state of Hesse, Germany (A. Koett); (10) Geological characterization of reservoir and barrier rocks in the deeper subsurface of the Free State of Thuringia (Germany) (H. Huckriede); (11) Storage potential in the deeper subsurface of Saarland and Rhineland-Palatina (J. Haneke); (12) Storage potential in the deeper subsurface of Saarland and Baden-Wuerttemberg (C. Fehn); (13) Deep reservoir and barrier rock units in Bavaria - an overview (G.W. Diepolder).

  13. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  14. The influence of environmental factors and dredging on chironomid larval diversity in urban drainage systems in polders strongly influenced by seepage from large rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Jacobsen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    , in urban waters strongly influenced by seepage of large rivers. Chironomid assemblages were studied in urban surface-water systems (man-made drainage ditches) in polder areas along lowland reaches of the rivers Rhine-Meuse in The Netherlands. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the key environmental...

  15. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; Słowiński, Michał; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly

  16. 100 years of mapping the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain: combining research and teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoek, W. Z.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-01-01

    The history of modern soil, geomorphological and shallow geological mapping in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain goes back about 100 years. The delta plain is of very heterogeneous build up, with clayey and peaty flood basins, dissected by sandy fluvial distributary channel belts with fine textur

  17. Socio-political embedding of onshore wind power in the Netherlands and North Rhine-Westphalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Agterbosch; S. Breukers

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the historical socio-political innovation journeys of onshore wind power in North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands, concentrating on the implementation (realisation) of wind energy projects and the market of project development. Attention is drawn to the level of implementati

  18. Response of the Rhine-Meuse fluvial system to Saalian ice-sheet dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, F.S.; Balen, R.T. van; Cohen, K.M.; Kasse, C.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Wallinga, J.; Bunnik, F.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new reconstruction of the interaction between the Saalian Drente glaciation ice margin and the Rhine-Meuse fluvial system is presented based on a sedimentary analysis of continuous core material, archived data and a section in an ice-pushed ridge. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) was applie

  19. History of geological mapping of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, H.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the history of geological mapping of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. The first accurate map of the delta, based on field observations, was made by Vink (1926). The geological map of the Netherlands, scale 1 : 50,000, made by the ‘Geologische Stichting’ (1927 - 1938) unde

  20. Land use projections for the Rhine Basin under possible future climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneklaas, F.R.; Slothouwer, D.

    1995-01-01

    Possible future land use in the Rhine Basin is presented, both as a result of technical, economic, political and demographic developments and in view of changing climatic conditions caused by the greenhouse effect. For the decade 2040-2049 land use projections were made under both unchanged and chan

  1. Managing austerity: comparing municipal austerity plans in the Netherlands and North Rhine-Westphalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmans, Tom; Timm-Arnold, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to clarify the relationships between the politico-administrative system and responses to austerity by comparing municipal austerity plans in the Netherlands and North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW). Although austerity is a major topic in both states, the approaches differ. In our sampl

  2. Spatial and temporal spread of flood mitigation measures implemented by private households along the Rhine and their effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, P.; Kreibich, H.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2012-04-01

    Floods in Europe caused substantial economic damage in recent decades. In the future, flood risk is projected to increase in many places due to the effects of climate change and on-going socio-economic development in flood-prone areas. To reduce the economic impact of current and future floods, damage mitigation measures implemented by private households are increasingly considered as an important component of integrated flood risk management approaches. However, knowledge about the temporal and spatial spread of flood mitigation measures such as water barriers or adapted building use are often lacking. Moreover, estimates of the effectiveness of these measures are still scarce. To gain further insights into these aspects, we will present empirical data from a computer-aided telephone survey among 752 private households along the German part of the River Rhine. It will be discussed to what extent various types of flood mitigation measures have been implemented by private households in flood-prone areas over time. Currently, we find that several measures, e.g. flood-adapted building use are regularly employed by the population at risk (34 per cent). We will examine to what extent the deployment of these measures effectively contributes to damage reduction.

  3. Toxic effects of pollutants on the Mineralization of 4-chlorophenol and Benzoate in methanogenic river sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beelen P; van Vlaardingen PLA

    1993-01-01

    The toxic effects of pollutants on the mineralization of 2 mug/l [U-14C] 4-chlorophenol and benzoate were studied in microcosms with methanogenic sediment from the Rhine river. In contrast with studies using a high substrate concentration no lag time was observed and the half-lives for 4-chlorophen

  4. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Sutanudjaja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

  5. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  6. Nationalism, racism and propaganda in early Weimar Germany: contradictions in the campaign against the "black horror on the Rhine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Julia

    2012-01-01

    During the early 1920s, an average of 25,000 colonial soldiers from North Africa, Senegal and Madagascar formed part of the French army of occupation in the Rhineland. The campaign against these troops, which used the racist epithet ‘black horror on the Rhine’ (schwarze Schmach am Rhein), was one of the most important propaganda efforts of the Weimar period. In black horror propaganda, images of alleged sexual violence against Rhenish women and children by African French soldiers served as metaphors for Germany’s ‘victimization’ through the Versailles Treaty. Because the campaign initially gained broad popular and official support, historians have tended to consider the black horror a successful nationalist movement bridging political divides and strengthening the German nation state. In contrast, this essay points to some of the contradictions within the campaign, which often crystallized around conflicts over the nature of effective propaganda. Extreme racist claims about the Rhineland’s alleged ‘mulattoization’ (Mulattisierung) increasingly alienated Rhinelanders and threatened to exacerbate traditional tensions between the predominantly Catholic Rhineland and the central state at a time when Germany’s western borders seemed rather precarious in the light of recent territorial losses and separatist agitation. There was a growing concern that radical strands within the black horror movement were detrimental to the cohesion of the German nation state and to Germany’s positive image abroad, and this was a major reason behind the campaign’s decline after 1921/22. The conflicts within the campaign also point to some hitherto neglected affinities between the black horror and subsequent Nazi propaganda.

  7. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  8. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  9. Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

    1995-12-31

    In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

  10. [Determining guidelines for metals in children's playgrounds in North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, L; Kramer, M; Eikmann, T; König, W; Bertges, W D; Gableske, R; Krieger, T; Michels, S; Exner, M; Weber, H

    1990-01-01

    In 1990, the State of North-Rhine-Westphalia established an ordinance on the quality of playground soil and sand. This ordinance includes guideline values for toxic metals (arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium) in playground soil not covered by vegetation and quality standards for sand to be applied on playgrounds. Additionally guideline values were set for mercury, nickel and thallium. The guideline values include two categories: guideline value I represents the upper limits (95-percentiles) of the background levels of toxic metals generally found in upper soil layers in the State of North-Rhine-Westphalia. Guideline values II ("action levels") were selected on the basis of toxicological considerations. In cases where concentrations of metals above these guideline values are detected, immediate actions (urgent redevelopment measures) are required. Quality standards for playground sand were established to ensure that only noncontaminated sand is applied for playgrounds.

  11. Bias correction of temperature and precipitation data for regional climate model application to the Rhine basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Terink

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In many climate impact studies hydrological models are forced with meteorological forcing data without an attempt to assess the quality of these forcing data. The objective of this study is to compare downscaled ERA15 (ECMWF-reanalysis data precipitation and temperature with observed precipitation and temperature and apply a bias correction to these forcing variables. The bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data will be used in another study as input for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC model. Observations were available for 134 sub-basins throughout the Rhine basin at a temporal resolution of one day from the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR. Precipitation is corrected by fitting the mean and coefficient of variation (CV of the observations. Temperature is corrected by fitting the mean and standard deviation of the observations. It seems that the uncorrected ERA15 is too warm and too wet for most of the Rhine basin. The bias correction leads to satisfactory results, precipitation and temperature differences decreased significantly. Corrections were largest during summer for both precipitation and temperature, and for September and October for precipitation only. Besides the statistics the correction method was intended to correct for, it is also found to improve the correlations for the fraction of wet days and lag-1 autocorrelations between ERA15 and the observations.

  12. [Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794)--distribution, biology and vector for Babesia canis in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heile, Cornelia; Heydorn, Alfred-Otto; Schein, Eberhard

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with occurrence, distribution as well as biology and vectorial capacity of the ornate dog tick (Dermacentor (D.) reticulatus). Until 30 years ago this tick has only been described in a few natural foci in southern Germany. Its distribution has however expanded in the course of the last years. With the exception of northern Germany it is now covering large areas of Germany. This is particularly the case in the Upper Rhine Valley, Saarland and the Mark Brandenburg. However, it is endemic in many other areas of Germany as well. The transformation of agricultural land into fallow land, an increase in host reservoirs and climatic changes are discussed as main contributors to this change. Little is known about the role of this species as a vector for virus, rickettsia, bacteria and protozoa as well as its medical and veterinary importance. D. reticulatus is a vector for Babesia canis canis. It is reported here about a case of autochthonous babesiosis in a dog from Berlin/Brandenburg.

  13. Differences in sensitivity of native and exotic fish species to changes in river temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.S.E.W. LEUVEN; A.J. HENDRIKS; M.A.J. HULJBREGTS; H.J.R. LENDERS; J. MATTHEWS; G. VAN DER VELDE

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the effects that temperature changes in the Rhine river distributaries have on native and exotic fish diversity.Site-specific potentially affected fractions (PAFs) of the regional fish species pool were derived using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for water temperature.The number of fish species in the river distributaries has changed remarkably over the last century.The number of native rheophilous species declined up until 1980 due to anthropogenic disturbances such as commercial fishing,river regulation,migration barriers,habitat deterioration and water pollution.In spite of progress in river rehabilitation,the native rheophilous fish fauna has only partially recovered thus far.The total number of species has strongly increased due to the appearance of more exotic species.After the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway in 1992,many fish species originating from the Ponto-Caspian area colonized the Rhine basin.The yearly minimum and maximum river temperatures at Lobith have increased by circa 4 ℃ over the period 1908-2010.Exotic species show lower PAFs than native species at both ends of the temperature range.The interspecific variation in the temperature tolerance of exotic fish species was found to be large.Using temporal trends in river temperature allowed past predictions of PAFs to demonstrate that the increase in maximum river temperature negatively affected a higher percentage of native fish species than exotic species.Our results support the hypothesis that alterations of the river Rhine's temperature regime caused by thermal pollution and global warming limit the full recovery of native fish fauna and facilitate the establishment of exotic species which thereby increases competition between native and exotic species.Thermal refuges are important for the survival of native fish species under extreme summer or winter temperature conditions [Current Zoology 57 (6):852-862,2011].

  14. The implementation of the new EU water directives on different scales - two examples from the region of Trier (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellweiler, I.; Meyer, B.

    2009-04-01

    The EU water directives in Germany are being implemented and are at the moment in the process of being transformed into concrete measures. These measures mainly concern land use management and, if necessary, actions on site. For the implementation of on-site measures as well as for land use management, the field of observation and its scale lead to various challenges. The number of stakeholders and the im-pact of the EU water directives depend on the size of the catchment. The scale of the impact range from single inhabitants to local or federal planning communities and can even impact cultural heritage management. The conflict potential increases as more interests are included in the decision making process, therefore different adaptation strategies are necessary. Issues, especially those involving the divergence between individual and public interests, nature con-servation, flood prevention and economic concerns demand creative solutions. The two examples located in the region of Trier (Germany) show conflicts during the imple-mentation of the EU water directives on different scales. The Mosel, a first order river, passes through three countries on the way to the Rhine. The river gives a natural boundary to the settlement areas and forms the shape of the city of Trier. Regarding the EU Flood Water Di-rective, flood hazard and risk maps should be developed for all catchments. This can lead to conflicts between settlement developments and flood protection, as well as to loss of the eco-nomic value of private estates. A case study in Trier will be presented, where a building site as shown on the land development plan is an area prone to flooding. Up till now this area is still zoned for building and not as a flood area. Accordingly, local and spatial planning need to go hand in hand with water management. The Olewiger Bach is a small creek (3rd order), which is strongly affected by urban rain water discharge. Primarily, the removal of fixed elements within the brook

  15. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river Rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; Haftka, J.; Stuyfzand, P.J.; de Voogt, P.

    2010-01-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemic

  16. Uncertainty assessment via Bayesian revision of ensemble streamflow predictions in the operational river Rhine forecasting system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reggiani, P.; Renner, M.; Weerts, A.H.; Van Gelder, P.A.H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble streamflow forecasts obtained by using hydrological models with ensemble weather products are becoming more frequent in operational flow forecasting. The uncertainty of the ensemble forecast needs to be assessed for these products to become useful in forecasting operations. A comprehensive

  17. The freshwater fish fauna history between Rhine and Ebro: general considerations and comments from on-going developments in fish taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Persat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of its position between Central Europe and the Iberian Peninsula, French territory is an obligatory expansion route for their respective continental faunas, freshwater ones included. The twin Rhine-Rhone river drainage basins make an obvious link between both Central and Northern Europe and the South-Western Europe. But how fish might have dispersed along the series of rivers of the Western side of France (Seine, Loire, Charente, Garonne and Adour is less evident, as the ice ages have had a large impact on the pre-existing faunas, before human intervention blurred phylogeographic patterns, either indirectly with trans-watershed canals, or directly with purposeful translocations. What might have survived during the last glacial times is a key question in terms of management and conservation of the local fish biodiversity. Unfortunately, this diversity had been neglected or underappreciated in France until modern phylogeographic and population genetic research provided new and enlightening insights into interspecific and intraspecific variation. Thus, after one century of scientific starvation, French territory recently "gained" a series of novel species in various genera, such as Gobio, Cottus, Squalius, Leuciscus, Phoxinus, and Esox, waiting for more on going "acquisitions" in a near future. These novelties trace a quite different biogeographic landscape of what was formerly supposed to be uniform. Each major river basin retains traces of a more or less recent evolutionary history to put back into the succession of hydrographic and climatic events since the first major invasion, the entrance of cyprinids in Europe during the Oligocene era initiated by the coalescence of what was formerly only an archipelago. The timing of dispersion and on-site speciation will be discussed from the examples provided by the presently investigated genera according to evidence or hypotheses on river connections, sea-level fluctuations and climatic events.

  18. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany.

  19. Germany at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  20. Health care transition in Germany – standardization of procedures and improvement actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieper C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Pieper, Izabela KolankowskaInstitute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, GermanyAbstract: Previous studies have assessed an increase in the number of people in need and emphasized the advantages of structured discharge management and health care transition. Therefore, our study evaluated the status quo of transition in a major German city after standardization of procedures and implementation of standard forms. Satisfaction with handling of standard forms and improvement of procedures was evaluated. Additionally, patients who had recently been hospitalized were asked about the hospital discharge process. The results show that the recent efforts of standardization helped to improve interface management for health care workers and patients and showed further improvement options.Keywords: hospital discharge process, standard forms, long-term care, aftercare

  1. Geomorphic response to neotectonic activity in the Jura Mountains and in the southern Upper Rhine Graben

    OpenAIRE

    Fraefel, Marielle

    2008-01-01

    Present-day tectonic activity at the southern end of the Upper Rhine Graben in central Western Europe is evidenced by significant seismicity, which has been documented over hundreds of years. The hazard that is posed by this activity was violently demonstrated in 1356, when an earthquake with an estimated magnitude of ML≈6.5 caused extensive damage to the area of Basel in north-western Switzerland. A sound understanding of the regional tectonic deformation field is a prerequisite for the accu...

  2. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations

  3. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD.

  4. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  5. Reconstructing Quaternary Rhine-Meuse dynamics in the southern North Sea: Architecture, seismo-lithofacies associations and malacological biozonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, K.F.; Kroon, I.C.; Meijer, T.; Passchier, S.; Dijk, T.A.G.P. van; Bunnik, F.P.M.; Janse, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mapping the Middle to Upper Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse sequence in the southern North Sea based on new core and seismic data has allowed a detailed palaeoenvironmental re-assessment. An integrated seismo-lithostratigraphic and malacological biostratigraphic framework is correlated with the optically st

  6. A review of the past and present status of anadromous fish species in the Netherlands: is restocking the Rhine feasible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the past, present and future of eight anadromous fish species inhabiting the Lower Rhine (The Netherlands), viz. -sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), whitefish and houting (Coregonus lavaretus, C. oxyrinchus), smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), allis and twaite shad (Alosa alosa, A. fallax), sea

  7. Could the local population of the Lower Rhine delta supply the Roman army? Part 1: The archaeological and historical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.I. Kooistra; M. van Dinter; M.K. Dütting; P. van Rijn; C. Cavallo

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, historical sources and the marginal landscape have led to the assumption that the Roman army in the Rhine delta was mainly supplied with products transported over medium and long distances. In a diptych of articles, we will investigate whether this assumption is tenable for wood and

  8. Reactive versus anticipative adaptive management of Deltas: The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Rhine-Meuse Delta compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, T.J.; Zandvoort, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper Californian Adaptive Management (AM) and Dutch Adaptive Delta Management (ADM) are compared. The concepts are introduced in a policy context to deal with prevailing types of uncertainty in water management in the Californian Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Dutch Rhine-Meuse Delta

  9. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  10. On the Modeling of Bank Storage in a Groundwater Model: The April, 1983, Flood Event in the Neuwieder Becken (Middle Rhine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard P. J. Becker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For predictive numerical simulations of subsurface floods (groundwater head rise due to high water in a contiguous river, it is important to know how to represent the bank storage process in a numerical groundwater model. Whilst leakage approaches are frequently used for modeling bank storage, another option is the application of a head boundary condition. In order to get a better understanding of the bank storage process, we analyze the bank storage event in the Neuwieder Becken (Middle Rhine in April 1983, which has been reported by Ubell (1987. We found the leakage function to be nonlinear and hysteretic. The evaluation of different model variants for Ubell’s bank storage event shows that both a head boundary condition and a leakage boundary condition are appropriate modeling approaches. For practical reasons, the leakage boundary condition is preferred. A linear leakage function represents the bank storage process for the analyzed event sufficiently. A hysteretic course of the leakage function can be achieved in a three-dimensional groundwater model by layering the hydraulic soil properties in the vicinity of the bank.

  11. Molecular confirmation of the occurrence in Germany of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronefeld Mandy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles daciae, a newly described member of the Maculipennis group, was recently reported from western, southern and eastern Europe. Before its recognition, it had commonly been listed under the name of An. messeae, due to its extreme morphological and genetic similarities. As the sibling species of the Maculipennis group are known to differ in their vector competences for malaria parasites and other pathogens, the occurrence of An. daciae in a given region might have an impact on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito collections from different localities in Germany were therefore screened for An. daciae. Methods Adult and immature Maculipennis group mosquitoes were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 at 23 different sites in eight federal states of Germany. A standard PCR assay was used to differentiate the previously known sibling species while the ITS2 rDNA of specimens preliminarily identified as An. messeae/daciae was sequenced and analysed for species-specific nucleotide differences. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles specimens were successively identified to Maculipennis group level by morphology and to species level by DNA-based methods. Four species of the Maculipennis group were registered: An. messeae (n = 384, An. maculipennis (n = 82, An. daciae (n = 10 and An. atroparvus (n = 1. Anopheles daciae occurred at four sites in three federal states of Germany, three of the sites being located in north-eastern Germany (federal states of Brandenburg and Saxony while one collection site was situated in the northern Upper Rhine Valley in the federal state of Hesse, south-western Germany. Conclusions The detection of An. daciae represents the first recognition of this species in Germany where it was found to occur in sympatry with An. messeae and An. maculipennis. As the collection sites were in both north-eastern and south-western parts of Germany, the species is

  12. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  13. [Smoking cessation therapies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, C; Gradl, S

    2010-02-01

    Reducing the consumption of tobacco products in Germany is a health objective that is achievable with smoking cessation treatments for smokers. This objective turns out to be more successful when using different interventions for smoking cessation than with self-initiated smoking cessation methods. This survey describes the range of smoking cessation treatments in Germany and evaluates them on the basis of international guidelines.

  14. The Late Variscan control on the location and asymmetry of the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, J. C.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Eisbacher, G. H.; Fielitz, W.

    2016-05-01

    The NNE-trending Upper Rhine Graben (URG) of the European Cenozoic Rift System developed from c. 47 Ma onwards in response to changing lithospheric stresses in the northwestern foreland of the Alps. The composite graben structure consists of three segments, each c. 100 km long and 30-40 km wide, but flares to c. 60 km near its southern and to c. 80 km near its northern termination. Normal faulting induced a total extension of 5-8 km of the 1-2 km thick Mesozoic sedimentary Franconian platform and underlying Variscan basement rocks. However, distribution of an up to 3.5 km thick sedimentary graben fill and cumulative displacements near Eastern and Western Main Border fault systems suggest that subsidence of the graben floor and shoulder uplift created strong cross-sectional asymmetries. Cumulative W-down displacements >3 km along strongly segmented transfer faults in the east contrast with E-down displacements mapped abundance of high-grade metamorphic basement rocks on the eastern graben shoulder in contrast to the predominantly low-grade metamorphic to unmetamorphosed sedimentary-volcanic rocks exposed on the western shoulder. Although between c. 310 and 270 Ma NE-trending Permocarboniferous volcanic-sedimentary basins of the URG area subsided along upper crustal faults that mimic the trend of Variscan faults, initial broad lithospheric cooling from c. 270-200 Ma led to subsidence of a distinctly NNE- to SSW-oriented embayment that was probably underlain by thinner Palaeozoic crust in the area of the NNE-trending East Rhine Detachment. After re-emergence of the platform above sea level in late Mesozoic times, the deep-reaching W-dipping "extensional defects" of the East Rhine Detachment exerted a primary lithospheric scale control on both location and cross-sectional asymmetry of the Cenozoic graben structure. NE- and NW-striking, strongly altered and more shallow rooted Permocarboniferous or Mesozoic faults exerted secondary upper crustal controls on transfer

  15. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  16. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  17. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  18. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  19. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  20. Measurement of intrinsic and scattering attenuation of shear waves in two sedimentary basins and comparison to crystalline sites in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulenfeld, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We developed an improved method for the separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation of seismic shear waves by envelope inversion called Qopen. The method optimizes the fit between Green's functions for the acoustic, isotropic radiative transfer theory and observed energy densities of earthquakes. The inversion allows the determination of scattering and intrinsic attenuation, site corrections and spectral source energies for the investigated frequency bands. Source displacement spectrum and the seismic moment of the analysed events can be estimated from the obtained spectral source energies. We report intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients of shear waves near three geothermal reservoirs in Germany for frequencies between 1 and 70 Hz. The geothermal reservoirs are located in Insheim, Landau (both Upper Rhine Graben) and Unterhaching (Molasse basin). We compare these three sedimentary sites to two sites located in crystalline rock with respect to scattering and intrinsic attenuation. The inverse quality factor for intrinsic attenuation is constant in sediments for frequencies smaller than 10 Hz and decreasing for higher frequencies. For crystalline rock, it is on a lower level and strictly monotonic decreasing with frequency. Intrinsic attenuation dominates scattering except for the Upper Rhine Graben, where scattering is dominant for frequencies below 10 Hz. Observed source displacement spectra show a high-frequency fall-off greater than or equal to 3.

  1. Development of perspective-based water management strategies for the Rhine and Meuse basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, W P A; Middelkoop, H

    2005-01-01

    Water management is surrounded by uncertainties. Water management thus has to answer the question: given the uncertainties, what is the best management strategy? This paper describes the application of the perspectives method on water management in the Rhine and Meuse basins. In the perspectives method, a structured framework to analyse water management strategies under uncertainty is provided. Various strategies are clustered in perspectives according to their underlying assumptions. This framework allows for an analysis of current water management strategies, but also allows for evaluation of the robustness of proposed future water strategies. It becomes clear that no water management strategy is superior to the others, but that inherent choices on risk acceptance and costs make a real political dilemma which will not be solved by further optimisation.

  2. Temperature-derived potential for the establishment of phlebotomine sandflies and visceral leishmaniasis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie M; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2010-11-01

    Climate change is expected to manifest in the shift of organisms to regions where they were not present in the past, potentially entailing previously unseen biological risks. However, studies evaluating these future trends are scarce. Here, an important group of vectors (sandflies) and the pathogen transmitted (Leishmania infantum complex) causing the infectious disease visceral leishmaniasis is investigated, focussing on potential establishment in Germany during the 21st century. As the most important habitat factor, temperature requirements of pathogen and vector were derived from the literature and compared with recent climate records - provided by worldclim - and climate change scenarios. Climate data from the Regional Climate Model REMO were obtained and averaged over the time periods 2011- 2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. Projected temperature changes (based on the A1B and A2 scenarios) were correlated with the constraints of vector and pathogen. Simulated potentially suitable habitat areas for vector and pathogen were merged to generate a temperature-derived risk map of visceral leishmaniasis. Temperature conditions seem to become suitable for the vector across large swaths of Germany. Nevertheless, temperature constraints for the pathogen may defer the establishment of the parasitic disease, particularly during the first half of the 21st century. Long-lasting epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis are therefore not expected in Germany during the next few decades, although during extremely warm years an increase in autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis may occur. The southwest (Upper Rhine Valley) and west (Cologne Bight) of Germany are identified as risk areas. The time of potential establishment and corresponding rise in biological risk varies between scenarios, due to differences in the predicted rate of temperature increase.

  3. Temperature-derived potential for the establishment of phlebotomine sandflies and visceral leishmaniasis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Fischer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to manifest in the shift of organisms to regions where they were not present in the past, potentially entailing previously unseen biological risks. However, studies evaluating these future trends are scarce. Here, an important group of vectors (sandflies and the pathogen transmitted (Leishmania infantum complex causing the infectious disease visceral leishmaniasis is investigated, focussing on potential establishment in Germany during the 21st century. As the most important habitat factor, temperature requirements of pathogen and vector were derived from the literature and compared with recent climate records - provided by worldclim - and climate change scenarios. Climate data from the Regional Climate Model REMO were obtained and averaged over the time periods 2011- 2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. Projected temperature changes (based on the A1B and A2 scenarios were correlated with the constraints of vector and pathogen. Simulated potentially suitable habitat areas for vector and pathogen were merged to generate a temperature-derived risk map of visceral leishmaniasis. Temperature conditions seem to become suitable for the vector across large swaths of Germany. Nevertheless, temperature constraints for the pathogen may defer the establishment of the parasitic disease, particularly during the first half of the 21st century. Long-lasting epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis are therefore not expected in Germany during the next few decades, although during extremely warm years an increase in autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis may occur. The southwest (Upper Rhine Valley and west (Cologne Bight of Germany are identified as risk areas. The time of potential establishment and corresponding rise in biological risk varies between scenarios, due to differences in the predicted rate of temperature increase.

  4. A vast medieval dam-lake cascade in northern central Europe: review and new data on late Holocene water-level dynamics of the Havel River, Berlin-Brandenburg area (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Knut; Keller, Nora; Brande, Arthur; Dalitz, Stefan; Hensel, Nicola; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Kappler, Christoph; Michas, Uwe; Müller, Joachim; Schwalbe, Grit; Weiße, Roland; Bens, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study was carried out in order to trace the human transformation of the medium-scale Havel River in northeastern central Europe during the last c. 2000 years. This research was driven by the hypothesis that the present-day riverscape is widely a legacy of medieval and modern human transformation of the drainage system initiated essentially by damming for the operation of water mills. Recent opportunities to investigate the extent of this human impact arose during the course of archaeological rescue excavations and palaeoecologic studies, which significantly enhanced the amount of respective high-quality data. Along the middle course of the Havel, sedimentary sequences were analysed in order to explore the potential for reconstructing regional water-level dynamics. The river, draining the Berlin metropolitan area, forms a chain of dammed lakes and meandering river sections which were strongly modified by hydraulic engineering in the past. We have not only recorded new sections but also re-evaluated older ones, forming a total of sixteen sedimentary sequences along the river. Chronological control is provided by a multitude of palynological, dendrochronological, archaeological, and radiocarbon data. The sections upriver from the Brandenburg/H. and Spandau weirs, representing sites with historic water mills, reveal substantial water-level changes during the late Holocene. Generally, lower water levels before and higher levels parallel to the medieval German colonisation of that area (c. 1180/1250 AD) can be inferred. This water-level increase, which is attributed to be caused by medieval mill stowage, took place rapidly and amounted to a relative height of c. 1.5 m. It has caused the widening of river sections and the enlargement of existing lakes or its secondary formation when already aggraded, and thus a flooding of large portions of land. The rising water level has even influenced the settlement topography to a large degree. Several medieval

  5. Status and prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany; Stand und Aussichten der Tiefengeothermie in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, R. [GGA-Inst., Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The article summarizes the geothermal potential, the status and the prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany and arrives at the following conclusions: Even in a country like Germany with no active vulcanism the resources for geothermal power production and direct use are very high and exceed those of conventional energy sources by far. Geothermal use in Germany however is still in its initial stage. The installed capacity in 2005 amounted to 135 MW{sub th} for direct use and to only 230 kW{sub el} for power production. The uprating of the allowance for geothermal power from 0.09 Euro/kWh to 0.15 Euro/kWh in 2004 and the R and D-programme for renewable energy of the Ministry of Environment has initiated a great number of new projects especially in the Upper Rhine Valley and in the Fore Alp Region near Munich. The success of these projects will be critical for the development of geothermal power production in Germany in the near future. Geothermal energy use in Germany is so far restricted to deep seated hot water aquifers. One of the major barriers for a wider application of this resource is our poor knowledge about the hydraulic properties of these aquifers leading to a great and in many cases unacceptable risk for potential investors. For this reason a geothermal information system is under development at the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics in Hannover which will help to supply investors with the best information available and to quantify the risk for insurance companies and geothermal funds. Though hot water aquifers suitable for geothermal power production are rare in Germany the size of this resource is comparable to the German oil and gas resources. Nevertheless their contribution to the national power production will remain small and will hardly exceed a few hundred MW{sub el}. Their potential for direct use is much higher. But since heat has to be produced very close to the consumer to prevent excessive costs for transportation this huge

  6. Natural infections of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in dogs in Germany (2007-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

    2009-08-01

    In order to assess the occurrence and regional geographical distribution of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in Germany, faecal samples of 810 dogs with clinical symptoms of respiratory and circulatory disease, bleeding disorder and/or neurological signs were collected from September 2007 to March 2009. The zinc chloride/sodium chloride flotation and Baermann funnel technique were used to examine the samples for presence of lungworm larvae. Infections with lungworms were diagnosed in 105 (13.0%) of the examined dogs. A. vasorum and C. vulpis were found in 60 (7.4%) and 49 (6.0%) faecal samples, respectively. 33 A. vasorum- and 12 C. vulpis-positive dogs were located in Baden-Württemberg, 13 and 12 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 3 and 4 in Bavaria, 1 and 7 in Rhineland-Palatinate, 7 and 4 in Saarland, 1 and 2 in Saxony, respectively. In Brandenburg only 2 dogs with A. vasorum and in Hesse a total of 5 dogs with C. vulpis were detected. In Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Lower Saxony and Thuringia only 1 dog with C. vulpis was detected at a time. 4 dogs were coinfected with A. vasorum and C. vulpis. These surprisingly high prevalence rates indicate that both parasites are endemic in Germany.

  7. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  8. Vertical profile of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, other PCBs, PAHs, chlorobenzenes, DDX, HCHs, organotin compounds and chlorinated ethers in dated sediment/soil cores from flood-plains of the river Elbe, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Rainer; Bauer, Otto-Heinrich; Friesel, Peter; Herrmann, Thomas; Jantzen, Eckard; Kutzke, Manfred; Lauer, Raimund; Paepke, Olaf; Roch, Klaus; Rohweder, Udo; Schwartz, René; Sievers, Susanne; Stachel, Burkhard

    2007-03-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and other organic micropollutants were determined in dated sediment/soil cores collected from the flood-plain of the river Elbe near Pevestorf (PT), approximately 125 km upstream of Hamburg, and Heuckenlock (HL) in southeast of Hamburg. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs peaked sharply at PT in the 1950s and at HL at the end of the 1940s. Cluster analyses provide evidence that the region of Bitterfeld-Wolfen (about 350-400 km upstream of Hamburg) could be the source of the PCDD/F contamination existing in the cores PT and HL since the 1940s. Obviously it is caused by sediments of the river Elbe of a similar composition. Whereas the PCDD/Fs, HCHs (hexacyclohexane isomers), DDX (DDT, DDD, DDE), and tetrachlorinated ethers in PT and HL presumably originated predominantly from the Bitterfeld-Wolfen region, organotin compounds in HL and dichlorinated haloethers in HL during the 1940s and 1950s can probably largely be attributed to emissions from the Hamburg region. Although they are separated by a large distance, in both sediment cores PT and HL concentrations and composition patterns of most organic micropollutants analyzed widely match. Inductively it can be concluded that similar contaminations will be found in many of the river bank soils between the Bitterfeld-Wolfen region and Hamburg. Excavation of top soils may uncover highly contaminated materials. Since the dated sediment cores show the variation in contaminants in the Elbe sediments over a defined time period, it is possible to make an approximate assessment of the actual degree of contamination to be expected in areas where in previous decades contaminated dredged sediments from the Elbe and from the Port of Hamburg have been deposited on land and used for building plots or for agricultural purposes.

  9. The effects of management and environmental variation on population stage structure in three river-corridor violets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, R. Lutz; Danihelka, Jiří; Hölzel, Norbert; Otte, Annette

    2004-03-01

    Population stage structure of plants, i.e., the density and frequency of individuals in different stages of the life cycle, is a crucial aspect of population viability that depends on a variety of factors. In this paper, we evaluated the effects of (i) management and year, (ii) location (population) and time (year) and (iii) of local habitat quality and population factors on population stage structure of three morphologically similar, closely related violets from floodplains, Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina. We hypothesised that owing to similar life cycles there should be no significant differences in population stage structure among species. We analysed population stage structure in managed vs. abandoned populations to test whether a proposed effect of management acts through the creation of regeneration niches. We further tried to identify which habitat factors are responsible for possible management effects. We established permanent plots (0.25 m 2) in 27 populations of the species in two different regions (Rhine floodplains, Germany; Dyje River floodplains, Czech Republic) and recorded frequency and density of seedlings, small and large vegetative plants and small and large flowering plants during 2 years. There were significant differences among species, indicating that the species have different life histories. Furthermore, there was a significant effect of management on population stage structure in two of the species. Management significantly increased the proportion of seedlings, over and above possible differences between regions. In our data set, the effects of spatial variation among populations were generally larger than the effects of temporal variation. The only factor that affected the density of life-cycle stages was the cover of bryophytes, while the cover of higher plants, litter or soil (local habitat quality), or isolation and population size (population factors) had no effects.

  10. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  11. Flooding on Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Moellenkamp

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

  13. [Dealing with AIDS in a North Rhine Westphalia large city: Bottrop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, S; Erkrath, K D

    1989-11-01

    The various Public Health offices in North Rhine Westphalia are making a substantial contribution towards AIDS prevention means of their relevant concepts. Regional and political individualities as well as local structures can exercise a positive or a negative effect on concrete AIDS prevention work. Cities like Düsseldorf, Köln, Essen etc., enjoy material and personal advantages. Smaller communities (like Bottrop) must rely entirely on creative working concepts. The AIDS prevention concept of Bottrop (a city situated in the northern Ruhr area with a population of 120,000), consisting of sexual education and paedagogical approaches, is presented. The information aims at specific groups, but has no ideological strings attached. The report refers to five main points of working: 1. AIDS prevention with special attention to adolescents in school and out-of-school contexts. 2. Medical advice by institutions. 3. Daily AIDS consulting hours in the Public Health office. 4. Planning and realisation of an action day 'Health Day'. 5. Working with drug addicts. In addition, there is an epidemiological approach. The overall aims are the prevention or infection and a human psychosocial spectrum of advice without excluding anyone.

  14. Attaining New Heights With Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The launch of inter-governmental consultation ushers in a new era for Sino-German relations During his recent visit to Germany,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao,together with German Chancellor Angela Merkel,inaugurated an inter-governmental cons ultation mechanism to enhance cooperation between the two countries.The two cochaired the first round of consultation in Berlin on June 28.This is a milestone in Sino-German relations since Germany is the first country to establish this kind of mecha-

  15. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang;

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...... reunification. Implications for marketing management are drawn by proposing nine bipolar constructs....

  16. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large...

  17. Schooling in Germany : Structural Deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiiver, H.

    2010-01-01

    The German educational system is battling with a range of challenges exposed by the PISA studies and other publications such as the OECD's "Education at a glance". This dissertation discusses four distinct topics, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Data. In Germany, the socio-economic b

  18. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  19. Formation and geochronology of Last Interglacial to Lower Weichselian loess/palaeosol sequences – case studies from the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hilgers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anhand zweier Profile aus dem Niederrheingebiet wird die Komplexität der Genese und Chronologie letztinterglazialer bis früh-weichselzeitlicher Löss-Paläoboden-Sequenzen diskutiert. Die untersuchten Profile wurden in den Braunkohletagebauen Inden und Garzweiler aufgenommen und sind mit mittelpaläolithischen Fundkomplexen verknüpft. Erstmalig werden dabei Multi-Element-Analysen neben Lumineszenz-Datierungen an Quarzen (ITL, OSL aus niederrheinischen Lössprofilen vorgestellt und diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse offenbaren große Unsicherheiten hinsichtlich einer stratigraphischen und paläoklimatischen Interpretation von polygenetisch uüberprägten Sediment- und Paläobodensequenzen. Eine bedeutende Rolle nimmt dabei auch die Reliefposition in Verbindung mit der Morphogenese des Paläoreliefs ein, die in höherem Maße als bisher berücksichtigt werden sollte.

  20. Comparison of Farm Structures, Success Factors, Obstacles, Clients’ Expectations and Policy Wishes of Urban Farming’s Main Business Models in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Pölling

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost specialization, differentiation, and diversification are common business models of urban farms in developed countries. Similarities and differences between them as well as detailed insights into specific farm characteristics are widely absent in scientific discourses. This paper compares farm structures, success factors, obstacles, clients’ expectations, and policy wishes between specialized, differentiated, and diversified farms as well as diversifiers into agriculture. A standardiz...

  1. Yield and quality of white wine cultivars Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian and Zupljanka in the vine district of Rasina

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of different pruning ways and bud load, as well as their influence on growth, yield and quality of Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian, and Zupljanka vine cultivars in the conditions of the Rasina vine district, during the period 2000 - 2001, is given in this paper. This research results have shown that grape yield and quality varied, and the greatest grape yield was observed in the variant with the greatest bud load. The Rhine Riesling B-21 demonstrated the best results...

  2. Yield and quality of white wine cultivars Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian and Zupljanka in the vine district of Rasina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Bratislav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of different pruning ways and bud load, as well as their influence on growth, yield and quality of Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian, and Zupljanka vine cultivars in the conditions of the Rasina vine district, during the period 2000 - 2001, is given in this paper. This research results have shown that grape yield and quality varied, and the greatest grape yield was observed in the variant with the greatest bud load. The Rhine Riesling B-21 demonstrated the best results. It should be pointed out that bud load per vine had a much greater influence on the studied traits than the applied way of pruning. .

  3. Spatial variations of earthquake occurrence and coseismic deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Wenzel, F.

    2015-05-01

    Seismic activity in the densely populated Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is an aspect in the public, political, and industrial decision making process. The spatial analysis of magnitude-frequency distributions provides valuable information about local seismicity patterns and regional seismic hazard assessment and can be used also as a proxy for coseismic deformation to explore the seismo-tectonic setting of the URG. We combine five instrumental and one historic earthquake bulletins to obtain for the first time a consistent database for events with local magnitudes ML ≥ 2.0 in the whole URG and use it for the determination of magnitude frequencies. The data processing results in a dataset with 274 Poisson distributed instrumentally recorded earthquakes within the URG between 01/1971 and 02/2012 and 34 historic events since the year 1250. Our analysis reveals significant b-value variations along the URG that allow us to differentiate four distinct sections (I-IV) with significant differences in earthquake magnitude distributions: I: Basel region in the Swiss-France-German border region (b = 0.83), II: region between Mulhouse and Freiburg in the southern URG (b = 1.42), III: central URG (b = 0.93), and IV: northern URG (b = 1.06). High b-values and thus a relatively low amount of high magnitude events in the Freiburg section are possibly a consequence of strongly segmented, small-scale structures that are not able to accumulate high stresses. We use the obtained magnitude-frequency distributions and representative source mechanisms for each section to determine coseismic displacement rates. A maximum horizontal displacement rate of 41 μm/a around Basel is found whereas only 8 μm/a are derived for the central and northern URG. A comparison with geodetic and geological constraints implies that the coseismic displacement rates cover less than 10% of the overall displacement rates, suggesting a high amount of aseismic deformation in the URG.

  4. The 2014-2015 earthquake series in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homuth, B.; Rümpker, G.

    2017-01-01

    Since March 2014, an unusually large amount of earthquakes occur southeast of the city of Darmstadt in the northern Upper Rhine Graben. During the period, until April 2015, we have recorded 356 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from ML = -0.6 to 4.2. We identified two source clusters separated laterally by about 5 km. The hypocentres within these clusters are aligned vertically extending over a depth range from 1 to 8 km with a lateral extent of about 1 to 2 km. Focal mechanisms show left-lateral strike-slip movements; b values are changing with time between b = 0.6 and b = 0.9. This is the first time in almost 150 years that such high earthquake rates have been observed in the region. Historical accounts dating back to the nineteenth century report of over 2000 felt earthquakes over a time span from 1869 to 1871. From these, maximum intensities of VII have been estimated. Other seismic activities in the region were reported in the 1970s. The observations of the 2014-2015 earthquake series do not completely match a typical main shock-aftershock sequence or a typical earthquake swarm. Especially the activity at the beginning of the earthquake series may be considered as a mixture of a main shock-aftershock sequence and a short-lasting swarm event. Whether or not the time gap between the current seismic activity, which actually takes place at the same locations as parts of the seismic swarm in 1869-1871, and the seismic activity in the nineteenth century or the seismic activity in the 1970s can be interpreted as a seismic cycle remains unclear.

  5. Prescriptions for adaptive comanagement: the case of flood management in the German Rhine basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Becker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Centrally administered bureaucracies are ill suited to managing the environmental resources of complex social-ecological systems. Therefore management approaches are required that can better deal with its complexity and uncertainty, which are further exacerbated by developments such as climate change. Adaptive comanagement (ACM has emerged as a relatively novel governance approach and potential solution to the challenges arising. Adaptive comanagement hinges on certain institutional prescriptions intended to enhance the adaptability of management by improving the comprehension of and response to the complex context and surprises of social-ecological systems. The ACM literature describes that for enhanced adaptability, institutional arrangements should be polycentric, aligned with the scale of ecosystems (the bioregional approach, feature open and participatory governance, and involve much experimentation. The case of flood management in the German part of the Rhine basin is used to provide an assessment of these ideas. We analyze whether and to what degree the prescriptions have been implemented and whether or not certain fundamental changes seen in German flood management can be traced back to the application of the prescriptions. Our study demonstrates a transition from the traditional engineering and "flood control" approach to a more holistic management concept based on a risk perspective. In this process, the four ACM prescriptions have made an important contribution in preparing or facilitating policy changes. The findings suggest that the application of the prescriptions requires the right supporting context before they can be applied to the fullest extent possible, such as a high problem pressure, new discourses, or leading actors. A major constraint arises in the misalignment of political power and of the different interests of the actors, which contribute to reactive management and inadequate interplay. To address this, we recommend

  6. The 2014-2015 earthquake series in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homuth, B.; Rümpker, G.

    2016-05-01

    Since March 2014, an unusually large amount of earthquakes occur southeast of the city of Darmstadt in the northern Upper Rhine Graben. During the period, until April 2015, we have recorded 356 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from ML = -0.6 to 4.2. We identified two source clusters separated laterally by about 5 km. The hypocentres within these clusters are aligned vertically extending over a depth range from 1 to 8 km with a lateral extent of about 1 to 2 km. Focal mechanisms show left-lateral strike-slip movements; b values are changing with time between b = 0.6 and b = 0.9. This is the first time in almost 150 years that such high earthquake rates have been observed in the region. Historical accounts dating back to the nineteenth century report of over 2000 felt earthquakes over a time span from 1869 to 1871. From these, maximum intensities of VII have been estimated. Other seismic activities in the region were reported in the 1970s. The observations of the 2014-2015 earthquake series do not completely match a typical main shock-aftershock sequence or a typical earthquake swarm. Especially the activity at the beginning of the earthquake series may be considered as a mixture of a main shock-aftershock sequence and a short-lasting swarm event. Whether or not the time gap between the current seismic activity, which actually takes place at the same locations as parts of the seismic swarm in 1869-1871, and the seismic activity in the nineteenth century or the seismic activity in the 1970s can be interpreted as a seismic cycle remains unclear.

  7. Valley evolution of the Lower Rhine in LGM, Lateglacial and Early Holocene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Hoek, W.Z.; Stouthamer, E.; Geurts, A.H.; Janssens, M.; Kasse, C.; Busschers, F.S.; Hijma, M.P.; Erkens, G.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of transient climate change, for example at glacial-interglacial transitions, on the alluvial valley of the lower reaches of larger river systems has become a classic topic of fluvial geomorphology and quaternary geological study. The process of contraction of Holocene river activity into

  8. Processes affecting the distribution and speciation of heavy metals in the Rhine/Meuse estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalman, M.A.A.

    1997-01-01

    When rivers drain areas with a high population density the sediments are often contaminated with heavy metals, such as chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead. The extent and seriousness of sediment contamination is most pronounced in the lower reaches of rivers, where rive

  9. Tolerance of native and non-native fish species to chemical stress: a case study for the River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Fedorenkova; J.A. Vonk; A.M. Breure; A.J. Hendriks; R.S.E.W. Leuven

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems can be impacted by invasive species. Non-native species can become invasive due to their high tolerance to environmental stressors (e.g., pollution and habitat modifications). Yet, tolerance of native and non-native fish species exposed simultaneously to multiple chemical stres

  10. Resolving the velocity and strain fields in the Upper Rhine Graben Area from a Combination of Levelling, GNSS and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhaus, Malte; Fuhrmann, Thomas; Mayer, Michael; Zippelt, Karl; Heck, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG), located in the tri-national region between Germany, France and Switzerland is the most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system. In recent times, the URG area is characterised by small tectonic movements (less than 1 mm/a) and moderate seismicity up to M=5. Historically, earthquake magnitudes exceeding M=6 have been reported showing that the seismic hazard is quite high. The contemporary tectonic surface deformations are superimposed by displacements caused by anthropogenic activities in various locations in the area, such as coal and potash mining, groundwater usage, oil extraction, geothermal energy and CO2 storage. We use data sets from levelling campaigns, InSAR and permanent GNSS sites to raise an inventory of the current 3D surface displacements and strain rates in the URG with high precision and high spatial resolution. Precise levellings carried out by the surveying authorities of Germany, France and Switzerland since the end of the 19th century have been combined to form a network of levelling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the levelling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates at the levelling benchmarks. InSAR is used to fill gaps in the interior of the levelling loops and to significantly increase the number of points. All the available ERS-1/2 and Envisat scenes from two acquisition geometries covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed according to the Persistent-Scatterer approach. In addition, coordinate time series of 76 permanent sites of the GNSS URG Network are used to support the derivation of the horizontal velocity field of the region. Daily GPS-solutions obtained in differential mode are available since 2004. In a first step, estimates of the surface displacement rates are derived from each technique starting from the raw data. Subsequently, the single-technique deformation estimates are mathematically combined to a 3D

  11. Parasite fauna of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) in an urban region of Germany: reservoir host of zoonotic metazoan parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Förster, Maike; Schmahl, Günter

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, 29 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) were studied for their endo- and ectoparasite fauna. The rodents were trapped in Dormagen, a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. A total of ten different parasite species were identified: four endoparasite (four Nematoda) and six ectoparasite (three Insecta, three Arachnida) species. The predominant endoparasite was the nematode Aonchotheca murissylvatici, followed by the nematode Heligmosomum costellatum, while the flea Ctenophthalmus agyrtes was the dominant ectoparasite. C. glareolus usually carried one to five different parasite species (mean 2.2). The bank voles were infected only by Nematoda, while Digenea or Cestoda species were not detected. The present findings are in clear contrast to the results obtained in other geographical regions of Germany and Europe, where eight different Cestoda species constituted the main part of the helminth parasites in C. glareolus. In the area investigated, the bank voles harbored no zoonotic parasites, and therefore, they play not a role as potential reservoir host for these parasite species.

  12. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kowalik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said

  13. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  14. Exemplary subsurface geothermal projects in the western part of Germany; Beispiele zur Nutzung oberflaechennaher Geothermie im Westen Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B.; Mands, E. [UbeG GbR, Wetzlar (Germany); Kohlsch, O. [EWS Erdwaerme-Systemtechnik GmbH, Delbrueck (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    During the past few years, several projects involving ground source heat pumps were carried out in western Germany, especially in the Rhine-Main and Rhine-Ruhr-Sieg region including the cities of Frankfurt and Cologne. Some of the project partners are big names in industry, e.g. an office building of PhilipsSparte APD at Wetzlar and the museum building of chocolate producer Ritter Sport. Other projects are sited in rural regions, from the Black Forest to the Weserbergland hills. The contribution presents several interesting projects, e.g. the police headquarters building at Bonn (right bank, groundwater use) and the office building of the Federal Office of Environmental protection, also at Bonn (left bank, geothermal probles), and three school buildings in the Frankfurt/Main region at Glashuetten, Bad Homburg-Oberstedten and Usingen-Eschbach. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren wurden im Westen Deutschlands eine ganze Reihe groesserer Projekte mit erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen verwirklicht, besonders im Rhein-Main-Gebiet und im Rhein-Ruhr-Sieg-Gebiet einschliesslich der Grossstaedte Frankfurt und Koeln. Zu den Bauherren zaehlen inzwischen auch bekannte Namen der deutschen Industrie. So wird in Wetzlar ein Buerogbaeude der PhilipsSparte APD mit Erdwaermesonden ausgeruestet, und das Museum des Schokoladenherstellers Ritter Sport wird auf Energiepfaehlen stehen. Abe auch im laendlichen Raum sind interessante Anlagen entstanden, vom Schwarzwald bis ins Weserbergland. Im Folgenden werden einige interessante Beispiele vorgestellt. Dabei sind Projekte in der Ausfuehrungsphase wie z.B. das Polizeipraesidium in Bonn (rechts des Rheins mit Grundwassernutzung), oder das Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz in Bonn, diesmal auf der linken Rheinseite und mit Erdwaermesonden. In Ausfuehrungn bzw. fertiggestellt sind auch Erdwaermesonden fuer 3 Schulen im Raum Frankfurt:/Main, in Glashuetten, Bad Homburg-Oberstedten und Usingen-Eschbach. (orig.)

  15. Cancer profile of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany: incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Volker; Ott, Jördis J; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Becher, Heiko

    2009-12-01

    This study compares cancer mortality and incidence of ethnic German migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany. Data were obtained from two migrant cohorts residing in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) (n = 34,393) and Saarland (n = 18,619). Vital status of the NRW cohort was ascertained through local population registries. Causes of death were obtained from the NRW statistical office or from local health offices. Cancer incidence of the Saarland cohort was derived from the Saarland cancer registry using record linkage. From 1990 to 2005, we observed 708 cancer deaths and 586 incident cancer cases. In males, both cancer incidence and cancer mortality were similar to the German population. Female cancer incidence and mortality were lower, the latter significantly. Site-specific standardized mortality and incidence ratios showed great variation in comparison to Germans and were remarkably similar to each other for most sites. Lung cancer was elevated among males, but lower among females. Stomach cancer was higher contrasting with lower ratios for prostate cancer, male colorectal cancer, and female breast cancer. Results confirm that FSU-migrants suffer from cancers, which may be prevented by prevention programs. Furthermore, we cannot conclude a different health-seeking behavior compared to Germans.

  16. XIXth century earthquakes in Belgium, the Netherlands and western Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuts, Elisabeth; Dost, Bernard; Alexandre, Pierre; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Since the last quarter of the XXth century, the rules of the historic criticism are applied in the study of the past earthquakes thanks to the collaboration between seismologists and historians. Various monographs have already been published on the historic seismicity of Belgium, Netherlands and nearby regions but few about the XIXth century. The list of the shocks arisen in those regions is not clearly established. For the major earthquakes, we can find useful monographs that where published at the time of the events. However there is a lack of information about smaller earthquakes that are mentioned in the Belgian, Dutch, French and German catalogs. For those smaller events it is often not possible to determine the zone of perceptibility. Sometimes we cannot even take for sure that the reported event is a real one. The aim of our study is to overcome this gap. Taking into account the rules of historical criticism, we read all the available bibliography, undertook researches in the archives and made an analysis of the press in order to establish a reliable list of earthquakes. Several categories of sources were used: narrative and administrative sources, contemporaneous studies, letters sent to the scientific institutions and press. We could confirm that 84 earthquakes are real and determine a list of fake earthquakes that are unfortunately present in the traditional catalogs. In the list of fake earthquakes, we highlighted several events that we consider doubtful and that require additional researches, especially several earthquakes in mining zone. We compiled our results as a four-column table providing the date of the earthquake, the supposed epicenter, the number of founded sources and the number of macroseismic datapoints. Based on the macroseismic datapoints, we estimated the intensities for every great phenomenon according to EMS-98 scale. The map of the epicenters indicates that the most active zone in the area during the XIXth century is the Lower Rhine

  17. Temporal clustering of floods in Germany: Do flood-rich and flood-poor periods exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2016-10-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe may be organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This hypothesis is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence (peak-over-threshold) time series for 68 catchments across Germany for the period 1932-2005. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion, which quantifies the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process, is investigated. Further, the time-variation of the flood occurrence rate is derived by non-parametric kernel implementation and the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and non-parametric tests. Although the methods give consistent overall results, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, we recommend applying different methods when investigating flood clustering. For flood estimation and risk management, it is of relevance to understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale. To this end, clustering is assessed for different thresholds and time scales. It is found that the majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5% significance level for low thresholds and time scales of one to a few years. However, clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. We hypothesize that flood clustering in Germany is mainly caused by catchment memory effects along with intra- to inter-annual climate variability, and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role.

  18. Influence of climate variables on the concentration of Escherichia coli in the Rhine, Meuse, and Drentse Aa during 1985–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, L.C.; Hofstra, N.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the climate variables temperature and precipitation and the concentration of Escherichia coli bacteria in the Rhine, Meuse, and Drentse Aa for the period 1985–2010. Data from 4,679 E. coli concentration measurements spread over a total of 13 locations in

  19. Could the local population of the Lower Rhine delta supply the Roman army? Part 2: Modelling the carrying capacity using archaeological, palaeo-ecological and geomorphological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dinter; L.I. Kooistra; M.K. Dütting; P. van Rijn; C. Cavallo

    2014-01-01

    In this part two of a diptych of articles, we modelled and quantified the carrying capacity of the landscape and the demand and supply of the Roman army in the western Lower Rhine delta with wood and food in the period A.D. 40 - 140. The absolute volumes of the wood and food were calculated (in m³ a

  20. Late Pleistocene evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system in the southern North Sea basin: imprints of climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, F.S.; Kasse, C.; Balen, R.T. van; Berghe, J. van den; Cohen, K.M.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Wallinga, J.; Johns, C.; Cleveringa, P.; Bunnik, F.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution continuous core material, geophysical measurements, and hundreds of archived core descriptions enabled to identify 13 Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse sedimentary units in the infill of the southern part of the North Sea basin (the Netherlands, northwestern Europe). This sediment record

  1. Distal delta-plain successions : architecture and lithofacies of organics and lake fills in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to analyze and explain the architecture, facies distribution, age and origin of coarse-grained overbank deposits, with special attention for organic-clastic lake fills, and organics in the distal Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain. In order to depict the influence of la

  2. Late Pleistocene evolution of the Rhine in the southern North-Sea Basin: imprints of climate change, sea-level oscillations and glacio-isostacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, F.S.; Kasse, C.; van Balen, R.T.; Vandenberghe, J.; Cohen, K.M.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Wallinga, J.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution continuous core material, geophysical measurements, and hundreds of archived core descriptions enabled to identify 13 Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse sedimentary units in the infill of the southern part of the North Sea basin (the Netherlands, northwestern Europe). This sediment record

  3. Estimation of small surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben area from a combined analysis of PS-InSAR, levelling and GNSS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Knöpfler, A.; Leijen, F.J. van; Mayer, M.; Westerhaus, M.; Hanssen, R.F.; Heck, B.

    2015-01-01

    The intra-plate deformation of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) located in Central Europe is investigated using geodetic measurement techniques. We present a new approach to calculate a combined velocity field from InSAR, levelling and GNSS measurements. As the expected tectonic movements in the URG are

  4. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill : A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H A; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P M; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a

  5. Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits – fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, F.S.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Wallinga, J.; Cleveringa, P.; Kasse, C.; Wolf, H. de; Cohen, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and do

  6. Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, F.S.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Wallinga, J.; Kasse, C.; Cleveringa, P.; de Wolf, H.; Cohen, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and do

  7. Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits - Fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, F.S.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Wallinga, J.; Cleveringa, P.; Kasse, C.; Wolf, H.de; Cohen, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and do

  8. Rifts never die: Structure of the Upper Rhine Graben, and bearing on young and recent tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is a 300 km long, NNE trending, low-strain, small-displacement continental rift of mid-Tertiary age. Its structure can be adequately retrodeformed in 3D if sinistrally transtensive strain and displacement paths along the major faults and associated contact deformation in the wall rocks are restored. The overall structure of the URG is characterised by low listric curvature of the principal faults and large (16-20 km) depth to a basal detachment zone. This deformation geometry and kinematics inhibits block rotation, minimises displacement on individual faults, and apparently leads to strain dissipation into intricate fault networks and/or "en masse" fracturing of large rock volumes, and propagation of dominantly brittle deformation deep into the continental crust. A net result of such deformation may be permanent reduction of tensional and shear strength on a crustal scale, making oblique rifts like the URG particularly prone to tectonic reactivation. Continued Quaternary and recent tectonic activity of the URG is documented by the following phenomena: (1) strong local differential subsidence and sedimentary basin filling, especially in the northern and southern parts of the rift. (2) Formation of morphological scarps at the locations of some major faults and offset of Quaternary stata at depth, especially in the southern (Freiburg-Basel) segment (3) Changes in relative elevation of reference points along precise levelling traverses. (4) Considerable microearthquake activity (> 50 events since 1995 in the Freiburg area), concentrated in the middle and upper crust on or in the vicinity of depth projections of faults. One possible conclusion to be drawn from the URG data and observations is that rifts can remain in a near-critical mechanical state very long after formation, even if plate-scale principal stresses have changed orientations and/or differential magnitudes. Rates of movement and seismicity are up to one order of magnitude lower

  9. Near fault broadband ground motion simulation with empirical Green's functions: the Upper Rhine Graben case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gaudio, Sergio; Hok, Sébastian; Causse, Mathieu; Festa, Gaetano; Lancieri, Maria

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental stage in seismic hazard assessment is the prediction of realistic ground motion for potential future earthquakes. To do so, one of the steps is to make an estimation of the expected ground motion level and this is commonly done by the use of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Nevertheless GMPEs do not represent the whole variety of source processes and this can lead to incorrect estimates for some specific case studies, such as in the near-fault range because of the lack of records of large earthquakes at short distances. In such cases, ground motion simulations can be a valid tool to complement prediction equations for scenario studies, provided that both source and propagation are accurately described and uncertainties properly addressed. Such simulations, usually referred to as "blind", require the generation of a population of ground motion records that represent the natural variability of the source process for the target earthquake scenario. In this study we performed simulations using the empirical Green's function technique, which consists in using records of small earthquakes as the medium transfer function provided the availability of small earthquakes located close to the target fault and recorded at the target site. The main advantage of this technique is that it does not require a detailed knowledge of the propagation medium, which is not always possible, but requires availability of high quality records of small earthquakes in the target area. We couple this empirical approach with a k-2 kinematic source model, which naturally let us to introduce high frequency in the source description. Here we present an application of our technique to the Upper Rhine Graben. This is an active seismic region with a moderate rate of seismicity and for which it is interesting to provide ground motion estimation in the vicinity of the faults to be compared with estimations traditionally provided by GMPEs in a seismic hazard evaluation study. We

  10. Bias correction of temperature and precipitation data for regional climate model application to the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terink, W.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Warmerdam, P. M. M.

    2009-04-01

    The Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management group of Wageningen University is involved in the EU research project NeWater. The objective of this project is to develop tools which provide medium range hydrological predictions by coupling catchment-scale water balance models and ensembles from mesoscale climate models. The catchment-scale distributed hydrological model used in this study is the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. This hydrological model in combination with an ensemble from the climate model ECHAM5 (developed by Max Plank Institute für Meteorologie (MPI-M), Hamburg) is being used to evaluate the effects of climate change on the hydrological regime of the Rhine basin and to assess the uncertainties involved in the ensembles from the climate model used in this study. Three future scenarios (2001-2100) are used in this study, which are downscaled ECHAM5 runs which were forced by the IPCC carbon emission scenarios B1, A1B and A2. A downscaled ECHAM5 "Climate of the 20th Century" run (1951-2000) is used as the reference climate. Downscaled ERA15 data is used to calibrate the VIC model. Downscaling of both the ECHAM5 and ERA15 model was carried out with the regional climate model REMO at MPI-M to a resolution of 0.088 degrees. The assessment of uncertainties involved in the climate model ensembles is performed by comparing the model (ECHAM5-REMO and ERA15-REMO) ensemble precipitation and temperature data with observations. This resulted in the detection of a bias in both the downscaled reference climate data and downscaled ERA15 data. A bias-correction has been applied to both the downscaled ERA15 data and the reference climate data. This bias-correction corrects for the mean and coefficient of variation for precipitation and the mean and standard deviation for temperature. The results of the applied bias-correction are analyzed spatially and temporally. Despite the fact that the bias-correction only uses two parameters, the coefficient of

  11. Towards a Fault-based SHA in the Southern Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, Stéphane; Reicherter, Klaus; Thomas, Jessica; Chartier, Thomas; Cushing, Edward Marc

    2016-04-01

    A brief overview at a seismic map of the Upper Rhine Graben area (say between Strasbourg and Basel) reveals that the region is seismically active. The area has been hit recently by shallow and moderate quakes but, historically, strong quakes damaged and devastated populated zones. Several authors previously suggested, through preliminary geomorphological and geophysical studies, that active faults could be traced along the eastern margin of the graben. Thus, fault-based PSHA (probabilistic seismic hazard assessment) studies should be developed. Nevertheless, most of the input data in fault-based PSHA models are highly uncertain, based upon sparse or hypothetical data. Geophysical and geological data document the presence of post-Tertiary westward dipping faults in the area. However, our first investigations suggest that the available surface fault map do not provide a reliable document of Quaternary fault traces. Slip rate values that can be currently used in fault-PSHA models are based on regional stratigraphic data, but these include neither detailed datings nor clear base surface contours. Several hints on fault activity do exist and we have now relevant tools and techniques to figure out the activity of the faults of concern. Our preliminary analyses suggest that the LiDAR topography can adequately image the fault segments and, thanks to detailed geomorphological analysis, these data allow tracking cumulative fault offsets. Because the fault models can therefore be considered highly uncertain, our coming project for the next 3 years is to acquire and analyze these accurate topographical data, to trace the active faults and to determine slip rates through relevant features dating. Eventually, we plan to find a key site to perform a paleoseismological trench because this approach has been proved to be worth in the Graben, both to the North (Wörms and Strasbourg) and to the South (Basel). This would be done in order to definitely prove whether the faults ruptured

  12. Evolution of the lithosphere in the area of the Rhine Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, P. A.; Dèzes, P.

    2005-09-01

    The Rhine Rift System (RRS) forms part of the European Cenozoic Rift System (ECRIS) and transects the Variscan Orogen, Permo-Carboniferous troughs and Late Permian to Mesozoic thermal sag basins. Crustal and lithospheric thicknesses range in the RRS area between 24 36 km and 50 120 km, respectively. We discuss processes controlling the transformation of the orogenically destabilised Variscan lithosphere into an end-Mesozoic stabilised cratonic lithosphere, as well as its renewed destabilisation during the Cenozoic development of ECRIS. By end-Westphalian times, the major sutures of the Variscan Orogen were associated with 45 60 km deep crustal roots. During the Stephanian-Early Permian, regional exhumation of the Variscides was controlled by their wrench deformation, detachment of subducted lithospheric slabs, asthenospheric upwelling and thermal thinning of the mantle-lithosphere. By late Early Permian times, when asthenospheric temperatures returned to ambient levels, lithospheric thicknesses ranged between 40 km and 80 km, whilst the thickness of the crust was reduced to 28 35 km in response to its regional erosional and local tectonic unroofing and the interaction of mantle-derived melts with its basal parts. Re-equilibration of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system governed the subsidence of Late Permian-Mesozoic thermal sag basins that covered much of the RRS area. By end-Cretaceous times, lithospheric thicknesses had increased to 100 120 km. Paleocene mantle plumes caused renewed thermal weakening of the lithosphere. Starting in the late Eocene, ECRIS evolved in the Pyrenean and Alpine foreland by passive rifting under a collision-related north-directed compressional stress field. Following end-Oligocene consolidation of the Pyrenees, west- and northwest-directed stresses originating in the Alps controlled further development of ECRIS. The RRS remained active until the Present, whilst the southern branch of ECRIS aborted in the early Miocene. Extensional

  13. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  14. Reworked planktonic Foraminifera from the Late Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben and their palaeogeographic and biostratigraphic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkenseer, C.; Spezzaferri, S.; Berger, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    During the Late Rupelian the widespread second transgression (corresponding to international Ru2-3 transgressions; BERGER et al. 2005) affected the whole Upper Rhine Graben basin and led to the deposition of the several hundred meters thick marine "Série grise". An abrupt transition (erosion surface) between the uppermost "Série grise" and Niederroedern Formation indicates the change to fluviatile and lacustrine conditions throughout the basin close to the Late Rupelian / Early Chattian boundary. Abundant reworked Middle to Late Cretaceous (e.g., Marginotruncana pseudolinneiana) and Late Paleocene to Late Eocene (e.g., Acarinina bullbrooki, Morozovella subbotinae, Turborotalia cocoaensis) ranging planktonic Foraminifera occur in the "Série Grise" and equivalent lithological units of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin (e.g., FISCHER 1965, PIRKENSEER 2007, SCHÄFER & KUHN 2004). At least Late Cretaceous, Ypresian, Lutetian and Priabonian ages of source sediments are indicated by the overlapping biostratigraphic ranges of the reworked specimens. Abundant reworked material first appears in the lower "Couches à Mélettes" and reaches its acme in the increasingly "Marnes à Cyrènes" (terminal "Série grise"). Only sparse records are documented from the subsequent terrestrial Niederroedern Formation. These reworking events are linked to intervals of increased clastic input throughout the "Série grise". The planktonic Foraminifera are proposed to be reworked from related alpine deposits (later Helvetikum?) via a northwards trending fluviatile system, as no autochthonous Cretaceous and Early to Middle Eocene marine sediments were deposited within the graben basin. Furthermore other possible source areas (e.g., Paris Basin) were either not connected to the Upper Rhine Graben or were not subject to erosion in the Late Rupelian. This accords with the proposition (ROUSSÉ 2006) of a vast northwards prograding delta-system that was located close to the southern

  15. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  16. Perspectives for Germany's Energy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann

    2006-01-01

    For various reasons, the policies governing the energy sector have a central role to play in Germany. Thus, for example, competition on the electricity and gas markets will have to be increased considerably in the course of the market's liberalization. At the same time, a secure supply of energy must also be ensured, in other words, the matters of preventing short-term power outages while ensuring the long-term availability of energy resources must be dealt with. Last but not least, the envir...

  17. WAT Office building, Karlsruhe, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, the WAT (Wasser-und Abfalltechnik GmbH) office building, with various energy-saving features, was erected in Karlsruhe, Germany. The office building, net area 1,500 m{sup 2}, incorporates: facade-integrated solar air collectors preheating the ventilation air; exhaust air extraction through a solar chimney; heat recovery from ventilation air; concrete floors with integrated air ducts and no suspended ceilings. During the design phase, TRNSYS was used to determine the performance of the building and the solar system. (author)

  18. [Drug advertising--users want information. Report of telephone survey conducted by North-Rhine Westphalia Public Health Service on the topic of drug advertising and drug information for users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puteanus, U

    2000-10-01

    In Germany, drug advertising of non-prescription drugs is a controversial subject. On the one hand, consumer organisations plead for placing a ban on advertising or at least to offer a detailed description of medical risks in respect of protection. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry is keen on liberalizing the specific advertising law for drugs. A representative telephone survey among the population of North Rhine-Westphalia was conducted in April and May 1999. It showed consumer interest in advertising, the value of information on risks, the institution with maximum credibility in drug information for consumers, the importance of the now obligatory sentence after every advertisement: Regarding risks and side effects read the leaflet in the package and ask your physician or pharmacist, and to what extend the consumer would take advice from independent experts over the telephone about drugs. It was found that, in particular women, about 30% are occasionally interested in advertising, younger people are more open-minded about advertising than older people; and that doctors and pharmacists have the most credibility and are consulted for further information. It was also found that more than 80% of the population demanded precise information on the side effects of drugs. One-third of the consumers declared that the obligatory sentence (see above) led to greater demand for information from doctors or to read attentively the instruction leaflet. Nevertheless, there is a need for more information from more than half of the consumers, who would take advantage of an independent advice centre if this should exist.

  19. Venereal Diseases in Germany and Austria,

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUSTRIA, *GERMANY(EAST AND WEST), *VENEREAL DISEASES, SENSITIVITY, DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), MEDICAL RESEARCH, SERODIAGNOSIS, CHEMOTHERAPY, ANTIBIOTICS, PENICILLINS, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, TREPONEMA PALLIDUM .

  20. Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Vinuesa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE, the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 μg m-3 as 1 hourly average. New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100% using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted

  1. Germany Readies For Chinese IPOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TARA; TAO

    2007-01-01

    Even the freezing cold of a Beijing winter could not stop Duke Alexander’s China visit last December. As the IPo divisional director of Deutsche Boerse AG, Alexander visited China five times in six months, with the aim of helping the first Chinese enter-prises in history to launch their IPOs on Deutsche Boerse AG. He revealed that “in the first quarter of 2007, the first Chinese enterprise will trade on the Deutsche Boerse AG.”Deutsche Boerse AG’s IPO seminar, held in Beijing, attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs looking into listing their companies in Germany. The vice president of a Beijing investment company said that his company was considering an IPO through either the London AIM or Deutsche Boerse AG. “Deutsche Boerse AG’ sfee for launching an IPO is 20 percent lower than that of AIM, but also involves addressing the requirement that the company must be estab-lished in Germany,” he said. The businessman said he was still undecided on the final destination of his company’s IPO launch. Why have there been no Chinese IPOs on the Deutsche Boerse AG in the past?Why would a Chinese enterprise want to list on the Deutsche Boerse AG? What strategies has Deutsche Boerse AG implemented to compete with other prestigious global stock exchanges? We explored these questions in an exclusive interview with Alexander.

  2. Late Pleistocene evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system in the southern North Sea basin: imprints of climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschers, F. S.; Kasse, C.; van Balen, R. T.; Vandenberghe, J.; Cohen, K. M.; Weerts, H. J. T.; Wallinga, J.; Johns, C.; Cleveringa, P.; Bunnik, F. P. M.

    2007-12-01

    High-resolution continuous core material, geophysical measurements, and hundreds of archived core descriptions enabled to identify 13 Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse sedimentary units in the infill of the southern part of the North Sea basin (the Netherlands, northwestern Europe). This sediment record and a large set of Optical Stimulated Luminescence dates, 14C dates and biostratigraphical data, allowed to establish detailed relationships between climate change, sea-level oscillation, glaciation history and the sedimentary development of the Rhine fluvial system during the last glacial cycle (Marine Isotope Stages 5e-2, Eemian-Weichselian). A well-preserved Eemian sediment record was encountered as the infill of a Late Saalian (MIS6) subglacial basin. Part of this record reflects groundwater rise controlled (fine-grained) sedimentation as a result of postglacial (early) Eemian sea-level rise. It shows strong analogy to developments known from the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. Outside of the glacial depressions near coastal deposits are only fragmentarily preserved. The Early Glacial Rhine sediment record is dominated by organic debris and peat layers, marking landscape stability and low fluvial activity. Part of this record may have been formed under near coastal conditions. Significant amounts of reworked marine biomarkers in the lag-deposits of Early Pleniglacial (MIS4) fluvial systems indicate that this period is characterized by extensive reworking of older (MIS5) near-coastal sediments. Despite the marked Early Pleniglacial climatic cooling, input of new sediment from the drainage basin was relatively low, a feature that is related to the presence of regolith protective relic soil complexes in the basin. During the early Middle Pleniglacial, a major Rhine avulsion indicates the system was in an aggrading mode and that sediment supply into the lower reaches of the Rhine had strongly increased. This increase in sediment supply coincided with the timing of major

  3. [Patients with schizophrenia in forensic-psychiatric hospitals (section 63 German Penal Code) in North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, S; Schiffer, B; Seifert, D

    2009-02-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the development of the number of patients with schizophrenia in detention (section 63 German Penal Code) in North Rhine-Westphalia and the characterization of these patients. Patients with schizophrenia are examined, by using a standardized questionnaire answered by the attending psychiatrist or psychologist (n = 531). During the last 12 years the number of patients with schizophrenia in forensic-psychiatric hospitals has increased three times, whereas the number of patients with other diagnoses heightened only twofold. The patients with schizophrenia showed high rates of psychiatric comorbidities (substance disorders 73.9 %, personality disorders 17.2 %), previous inpatient treatments (78.3 % with a mean of 7.5 stays) and previous convictions (63.4 %). Almost half of these convictions (46.6 %) were violent offences (e. g. assault, homicide). Possible explanations for this development are discussed.

  4. An overview on source rocks and the petroleum system of the central Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf; Forster, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    The petroleum system of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) comprises multiple reservoir rocks and four major oil families, which are represented by four distinct source rock intervals. Based on geochemical analyses of new oil samples and as a review of chemical parameter of former oil fields, numerous new oil-source rock correlations were obtained. The asymmetric graben resulted in complex migration pathways with several mixed oils as well as migration from source rocks into significantly older stratigraphic units. Oldest oils originated from Liassic black shales with the Posidonia Shale as main source rock (oil family C). Bituminous shales of the Arietenkalk-Fm. (Lias α) show also significant source rock potential representing the second major source rock interval of the Liassic sequence. Within the Tertiary sequence several source rock intervals occur. Early Tertiary coaly shales generated high wax oils that accumulated in several Tertiary as well as Mesozoic reservoirs (oil family B). The Rupelian Fish Shale acted as important source rock, especially in the northern URG (oil family D). Furthermore, early mature oils from the evaporitic-salinar Corbicula- and Lower Hydrobienschichten occur especially in the area of the Heidelberg-Mannheim-Graben (oil family A). An overview on potential source rocks in the URG is presented including the first detailed geochemical source rock characterization of Middle Eocene sediments (equivalents to the Bouxwiller-Fm.). At the base of this formation a partly very prominent sapropelic coal layer or coaly shale occurs. TOC values of 20-32 % (cuttings) and Hydrogen Index (HI) values up to 640-760 mg HC/g TOC indicate an extraordinary high source rock potential, but a highly variable lateral distribution in terms of thickness and source rock facies is also supposed. First bulk kinetic data of the sapropelic Middle Eocene coal and a coaly layer of the `Lymnäenmergel' are presented and indicate oil-prone organic matter characterized by low

  5. CPAFFC Agricultural Delegation Visits Germany and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Germany-China Friendship Association-Stuttgart (GCFA-Stuttgart) and the Austrian-Chinese Friendship Association (ACFA),a delegation for studying agriculture composed of members from localities organized and sent by the CPAFFC paid a visit to Germany and Austria from June 11 to 23. The delegation visited farms and

  6. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  7. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Harry (comp.)

    2015-10-16

    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  8. Crossopriza lyoni new to Germany (Araneae: Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867 from Germany is presented. The species seems to be established at two localities in Stuttgart, Germany. Some information about the biology of the populations is given. The cosmopolitan distribution pattern and a possible route of introduction are discussed.

  9. Induced seismicity caused by hydraulic fracturing in deep geothermal wells in Germany and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenefisch, Thomas; Brückner, Lisa; Ceranna, Lars; Gestermann, Nicolai; Houben, Georg; Tischner, Torsten; Wegler, Ulrich; Wellbrink, Matthias; Bönnemann, Christian; Bertram, Andreas; Kirschbaum, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the BGR has worked out a study on the potential environmental impact caused by hydraulic fracturing or chemical stimulations in deep geothermal reservoirs in Germany and adjacent areas. The investigations and analyses are based on existing studies and information provided by operators. The two environmental impacts being essentially considered in the report are induced seismicity and possible contamination of the groundwater reservoirs which serve for drinking water supply. Altogether, in this study, information on 30 hydraulic frac operations and 26 chemical stimulations including information from neighboring countries were compiled and analyzed. Out of the hydraulic stimulations two thirds were carried out as waterfracs and one third as fracturing with proppants. Parameters used in the study to characterize the induced seismicity are maximum magnitude, number of seismic events, size of the seismically active volume, and the relation of this volume to fault zones and the cap rock, as well as, finally, the impacts at the Earth's surface. The response of the subsurface to hydraulic fracturing is variable: There are some activities, which cause perceptible seismic events, others, where no perceptible but instrumentally detected events occurred, and moreover activities without even any instrumentally detected events. A classification of seismic hazard with respect to tectonic region, geology, or depth of the layer is still difficult, since the number of hydraulic fracturing measures in deep geothermal wells is small making a statistically sound analysis impossible. However, there are some indications, that hydraulic fracturing in granite in tectonically active regions like the Upper Rhine Graben results in comparatively stronger, perceptible seismicity compared to hydraulic fracturing in the sedimentary rocks of the North German basin. The maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes caused by hydraulic fracturing of deep geothermal wells in Germany are

  10. Performance evaluation of on-site oral fluid drug screening devices in normal police procedure in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Hokamp, Eva Große; Bott, Ulrich; Madea, Burkhard

    2014-05-01

    There is a need for quick and reliable methods for rapid screening of drug-influenced drivers on the roadside by police. Because the window of detection in oral fluid is more similar to blood than to urine, this matrix should therefore be appropriate for screening procedures. The performance of the Rapid STAT(®) (Mavand Solution GmbH, Mössingen, Germany), DrugWipe5/5+(®) (Securetec Detektions-Systeme AG, Brunnthal, Germany) and Dräger DrugTest(®) 5000 (Draeger Safety AG & Co. KGaA, Luebeck, Germany) on-site oral fluid devices was evaluated with random oral fluid specimens from car drivers in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Additionally, some drivers were checked using an on-site urine device (DrugScreen(®), NAL von Minden, Regensburg, Germany). During a 11-month period, 1.212 drivers were tested. Both OF and urine on-site tests were compared to serum results. The following sensitivities were obtained by the oral fluid devices: THC 71% (DrugWipe(®)), 87% (Dräger), 91% (RapidSTAT); opiates 95% (Dräger), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); amphetamine 84% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 90% (RapidSTAT(®)), 100% (DrugTest(®) 5000); methamphetamine 50% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (RapidSTAT(®)); cocaine 76% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); methadone 33-63%, and benzodiazepines 0-33% (both with a low number of positives). THC specificity was especially low (29% [DrugWipe(®)] and 47% [DrugTest(®) 5000]) due to low cut-off concentrations. These data were similar to those obtained from the literature (e.g., DRUID project). The urine screening device showed a good sensitivity (THC 93%, opiate 94%, amphetamine 94%, methamphetamine 75% (low number of positives), cocaine 100%) and also an acceptable specificity (39%, 86%, 63%, 77%, 47%, respectively). Although oral fluid may be a useful matrix for on-site testing of drugged drivers, it is evident that oral fluid devices still show a lack of sensitivity (methamphetamine, benzodiazepines) and

  11. Latent resonance in tidal rivers, with applications to River Elbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Jan O.

    2015-11-01

    We describe a systematic investigation of resonance in tidal rivers, and of river oscillations influenced by resonance. That is, we explore the grey-zone between absent and fully developed resonance. Data from this study are the results of a one-dimensional numerical channel model applied to a four-dimensional parameter space comprising geometry, i.e. length and depths of rivers, and varying dissipation and forcing. Similarity of real rivers and channels from parameter space is obtained with the help of a 'run-time depth'. We present a model-channel, which reproduces tidal oscillations of River Elbe in Hamburg, Germany with accuracy of a few centimetres. The parameter space contains resonant regions and regions with 'latent resonance'. The latter defines tidal oscillations that are elevated yet not in full but juvenile resonance. Dissipation reduces amplitudes of resonance while creating latent resonance. That is, energy of resonance radiates into areas in parameter space where periods of Eigen-oscillations are well separated from the period of the forcing tide. Increased forcing enhances the re-distribution of resonance in parameter space. The River Elbe is diagnosed as being in a state of anthropogenic latent resonance as a consequence of ongoing deepening by dredging. Deepening the river, in conjunction with the expected sea level rise, will inevitably cause increasing tidal ranges. As a rule of thumb, we found that 1 m deepening would cause 0.5 m increase in tidal range.

  12. Argillaceous rock as host rock for final storage of radioactive waste in Germany; Tongesteine als Wirtsgesteine fuer die Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuer, V.; Hoth, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials (BGR) in a study described argillaceous rock formations as potential host rock for repositories in some areas of Germany, and evaluated them. The study was based on available and usable data derived from maps, archives, and approx. 25,000 drillings. No additional field tests or laboratory examinations were conducted. The study was published in April 2007 under the title of 'Untersuchung und Bewertung von Tongesteinsformationen' (www.bgr.bund.de). The exclusion criteria and minimum requirements recommended by the Working Group on Repository Sites (AkEnd) in 2002 served as a basis for defining the subareas eligible for further study. In addition, internationally acknowledged selection criteria as well as weighting criteria to be taken into account especially under German conditions were applied. The result of the study is not a representation of repository sites. However, the investigations show that argillaceous rock meeting host rock requirements occurs in the Lower Cretacious as well as in rock formations of the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Northern Germany. In Southern Germany, rock of the Middle Jurassic was found to be worthy of examination. The clay formations of the Tertiary are not considered in the study because of their relatively adverse mechanical properties in Germany. The areas highlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also im Bavaria, Brandenburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. Other regional restrictions are mentioned in the study. Any further assessment of the argillaceous rock in the study would require an extensive program of investigations with a view to selecting sites for the final storage of high-level radioactive waste. (orig.)

  13. Spatial and temporal variations of river nitrogen exports from major basins in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaopu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2013-09-01

    Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario.

  14. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  15. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L. Mill. population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annik Schnitzler

    Full Text Available The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L. Mill. However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  16. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  17. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill: A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H. A.; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented

  18. Impact of river-tide dynamics on the residual water level slope and residual sediment transport in the Pearl River channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huayang; Zhang, Zihao; Yang, Qingshu; Ou, Suying

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale delta systems, such as the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Mississippi River delta, the Mekong delta, the Yangtze delta and the Pearl River delta etc., usually feature a typical channel networks, where individual channels are interrelated through a networks system, resulting in both longitudinal and transverse variations of residual water level slope (averaged over a lunar day) caused by the river-tide interplay. Enhancing our insight of river-tide dynamics in these channel networks has vital importance for the protection and management of estuarine environment since river-tide interplay is closely related to sediment transport, water quality, water utilization and estuarine ecosystem. In this study, we investigate the impact of river-tide dynamics on the temporal-spatial changes of flow and suspended sediment load in terms of residual water level slope and residual sediment transport in the Pearl River channel networks, which is one of the complex channel networks in the world. Making use of a nonstationary harmonic analysis (NS_TIDE), the continuous time series observations of velocity covering a spring-neap cycle in 1999 (representing flood season) and 2001 (representing dry season) collected from around 60 stations in the Pearl River channel networks have been used to extract the temporal-spatial changes in residual velocity and tidal properties (including amplitudes and phases) as a function of variable river flow debouching into the delta. On the basis of harmonic analysis, the tidally averaged friction is decomposed into contributions made by riverine forcing alone, river-tide interaction and tidal asymmetry using Chebyshev polynomials approach. It is shown that river flow enhances friction via river-tide interaction, which increases the residual water level slope that influences the distribution of suspended sediment load in the Pearl River channel networks.

  19. Development of an internet based geothermal information system for Germany - region Baden-Wuerttemberg; Aufbau eines geothermischen Informationssystems fuer Deutschland - Landesteil Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodocy, M.; Stober, I. [Regierungspraesidium Freiburg (RPF), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Renewable energies as a part of the total energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany are to be extended in the next years. In terms of geothermal resources the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports the project ''Development of an Internet Based Geothermal System for Germany'' (GeotIS). The total duration of the project is three years. Lead-managed by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA-Institute) it is realized in a country wide joint venture project with different partners. Initially the geothermal information system will contain data only about hydrogeothermal resources. The object of the project is to improve quality in the planning stage of geothermal plants and to minimize explorations risks. Key parameters are production rate and temperature. The District Authority (Regierungspraesidium) Freiburg has been assigned to attend to the areas of the Upper Rhine Graben and the North Alpine Foreland Basin (Molasse Basin) both situated in Baden-Wuerttemberg. First intermediate results are presented. (orig.)

  20. Management of plasmapheresis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N

    1996-05-01

    In Germany, plasmapheresis is carried out for many years in a "mixed" system by private and non-profit organisation. Most of the institutions and blood transfusion service, active in the field of plasmapheresis are members of the "Association for the Establishment, Co-ordination and Working Methods of the Plasmapheresis Centres". All centres are authorized by governmental bodies for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products with regulatory controls regarding licensing and accreditation of blood collection establishment. All parties concerned agree that self-sufficiency of plasma has to be achieved. For this purpose there is a shortage of about 400,000 1 of plasma. In 1994, about 240,000 1 of plasma were collected by plasmapheresis, 91% for fractionation and 8.7% for direct clinical uses. In addition about 970,000 1 of plasma were derived from whole blood donations. The dualism of non-profit making and commercial organisations should be regarded as a chance for diversification in the collection and processing of plasma. A long term increase in plasmapheresis plasma can be achieved by initiating plasmapheresis programmes and co-operation using the existing infrastructures and supports the aim for self-sufficiency.

  1. RiverCare: towards self-sustaining multifunctional rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustijn, Denie; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2014-05-01

    Rivers are inherently dynamic water systems involving complex interactions among hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. In many deltas around the world lowland rivers are intensively managed to meet objectives like safety, navigation, hydropower and water supply. With the increasing pressure of growing population and climate change it will become even more challenging to reach or maintain these objectives and probably also more demanding from a management point of view. In the meantime there is a growing awareness that rivers are natural systems and that, rather than further regulation works, the dynamic natural processes should be better utilized (or restored) to reach the multifunctional objectives. Currently many integrated river management projects are initiated all over the world, in large rivers as well as streams. Examples of large scale projects in the Netherlands are 'Room for the River' (Rhine), the 'Maaswerken' (Meuse), the Deltaprogramme and projects originating from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). These projects include innovative measures executed never before on this scale and include for example longitudinal training dams, side channels, removal of bank protection, remeandering of streams, dredging/nourishment and floodplain rehabilitation. Although estimates have been made on the effects of these measures for many of the individual projects, the overall effects on the various management objectives remains uncertain, especially if all projects are considered in connection. For all stakeholders with vested interests in the river system it is important to know how that system evolves at intermediate and longer time scales (10 to 100 years) and what the consequences will be for the various river functions. If the total, integrated response of the system can be predicted, the system may be managed in a more effective way, making optimum use of natural processes. In this way, maintenance costs may be reduced, the system remains more natural

  2. A juvenile Early Carboniferous (Viséan coelacanth from Rösenbeck (Rhenish Mountains, Germany with derived postcranial characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Witzmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A small coelacanth specimen of Viséan age from a newly described locality near Rösenbeck at the northern margin of the Rhenish Mountains (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany is described. The head and pectoral girdle are not preserved, however, the specimen can be distinguished from all other known Carboniferous coelacanths by derived characters of the articulated postcranial skeleton. Derived characters include: (1 The slender first and second dorsal fins that carry only seven to eight and six fin rays, respectively. (2 Both the pelvic and anal fin have a broad base and are unusually weakly lobed. (3 The fin rays of the second dorsal fin are much more robust than those of the first dorsal fin. (4 The second dorsal and anal fins are longer than the first dorsal and pelvic fins. The Rösenbeck coelacanth is interpreted as a juvenile specimen, since the basal plates that support the fins are not ossified. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000004

  3. An exploration and modeling of the crustal conductivity aberration through Hesse and Thuringia in Central Germany with Geomagnetic Depth Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, N. A.; Bahr, D.

    2011-12-01

    With geomagnetic depth sounding we analyze geomagnetic field variations within the earth and detect electrical conductivity contrasts. Using this method Peter (1994) and Hippmann (2010) found an strongly increased By-component around Göttingen in Central Germany, and this electrical conductivity anomaly was expanded to the middle of Hesse through an additional survey by Reich in 2010. Now we can set the boundaries in a new way. In spring and summer 2011 we installed 13 new magnetometer stations in Hesse, Thuringia and Lower Saxony to specify the anomaly boundaries. Our result shows that the "Göttingen By anomaly" is spreading further into the North than expected and far into the South-West. In addition the boundaries to the West and East could be confirmed. The result suggests that the anomaly spreads over the conurbation around Frankfurt and connects to the Rhine rift valley which is part of the European Cenozoic rift system. Therefor the "Göttingen By anomaly" goes over in a central German conductivity anomaly which exact North and South border is yet to be specified. Besides the data for geomagnetic depth sounding we also collected magnetotelluric data which help constraining the conductivity contrasts. Preliminary models of the conduction mechanism suggest that fluids alone are insufficient to explain the conductance of this structure.

  4. Germany's Population: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future

    OpenAIRE

    Heilig, G.K.; Büttner, T; W. Lutz

    1990-01-01

    When the two Germanies were reunited in 1990, 16 million East Germans were added to the West German population, giving it a 20 million person advantage over Italy, France and the United Kingdom. This report traces the history of German population growth from the 1870s through World War II and up to the present. The authors examine the demographic trends of the new Germany and the prospects for future growth. Until 1990, marriage, fertility, and mortality followed different paths in the...

  5. The Immigrant Wage Gap in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan L. Thomsen; Gernandt, Johannes; Aldashev, Alisher

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants consist of foreigners and citizens with migration background. We analyze the wage gap between natives and these two groups in Germany. The estimates show a substantial gap for both groups with respect to natives. Discarding immigrants who completed education abroad reduces much of the immigrants' wage gap. This implies educational attainment in Germany is an important component of economic integration and degrees obtained abroad are valued less.

  6. Extreme drought events in Germany during the last 60 yrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts are among the most costly natural disasters because they heavily impact on the economy of a region as well as on its social and cultural activities. Droughts do not only occur in arid or semiarid regions but also in humid ones. The year 2007, for example, was the sunniest, hottest and driest in Germany in the last two centuries. In this case, it was too dry too early. As a result, the harvest was cut by half leading to enormous losses in the primary sector. Consumer prices of some agricultural products went up 26 percent. The purpose of this study is to identify the major agricultural and hydrological droughts in Germany since 1950 based on their severity, duration and areal extend. To achieve this goal, a 60-yr retrospective hydrological simulation of the land surface water budget over Germany was carried out with the process-based distributed hydrological model mHM. The model was forced with grided daily precipitation and temperature data at 4x4 km, and the model simulations were carried out at same spatial resolutions. Point measurement data from more than 5600 raingauges and about 1120 meteorological stations (DWD) were interpolated with EDK. Land cover change was also considered during this period. Drought indices were derived as monthly quantiles of the simulated fluxes which include root zone soil moisture and total runoff. A Gaussian kernel smoother was used to estimate these quantiles at each grid cell. A spatio-temporal cluster algorithm was used to consolidate all significant drought events. Main statistics such as magnitude, areal extend, duration, and severity were estimated only on those selected clusters. The mHM model was calibrated in major river basins giving Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies for daily discharge simulations greater than 0.8 in the evaluation period. Plausibility tests between the simulated mHM soil moisture and land surface temperature from MODIS and regional climate model reanalysis data compared well. Results indicated that

  7. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germanys European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Staeck

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  8. [Utilization of Physical Therapy Services in Germany from 2004 until 2014: Analysis of Statutory Health Insurance Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopkow, C; Lange, T; Schmitt, J; Petzold, T

    2016-11-17

    Background: Both at the national and international levels, direct access for patients to physical therapy services is currently under debate. Direct access for patients seeking physical therapy care might reduce waiting time and costs, and thus be of benefit for patients and health insurance companies. To critically evaluate this situation, reliable and valid data are needed, but currently lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the health care situation for physical therapy services included in the catalogue of remedies from 2004 up to 2014 in Germany. Methods: To obtain information regarding physical therapy services included in the catalogue of remedies, the freely available "Heilmittel-Informations-System (GKV-HIS)" was used. Data from the regional Associations of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians as well as data from federal reports were extracted for the years from 2004 up to 2014. Results: Prescription of physical therapy increased continuously from 2004 and 2014. In 2004, 155 677 860 and in 2014, 254 695 514 physical therapies were prescribed (increase of 61%). The highest number of physical therapies was prescribed in Saxony for all years, whereas in North Rhine-Westphalia and Hessen the lowest number per 1 000 GKV insured persons. Gross sales from physical therapy services differed between federal states and were the highest in Saxony (2004: 59.8; 2009: 54.6, 2014: 76.7) and Baden-Wuerttemberg (2004: 60.0; 2009: 57.6; 2014: 68.0). Discussion: The results of this study show utilization of physical therapy services as defined in the catalogue of remedies in Germany to be heterogeneous. However, causal relationship cannot be identified on the basis of the analyzed data highlighting the need for further research. Criteria for structural-, process- and outcome-quality are needed to be able to evaluate the quality of physical therapy services. To ensure the quality of physical therapy services, interprofessional and patient relevant research

  9. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  10. Real time monitoring of induced seismicity in the Insheim and Landau deep geothermal reservoirs, Upper Rhine Graben, using the new SeisComP3 cross-correlation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasterling, Margarete; Wegler, Ulrich; Bruestle, Andrea; Becker, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Real time information on the locations and magnitudes of induced earthquakes is essential for response plans based on the magnitude frequency distribution. We developed and tested a real time cross-correlation detector focusing on induced microseismicity in deep geothermal reservoirs. The incoming seismological data are cross-correlated in real time with a set of known master events. We use the envelopes of the seismograms rather than the seismograms themselves to account for small changes in the source locations or in the focal mechanisms. Two different detection conditions are implemented: After first passing a single trace correlation condition, secondly a network correlation is calculated taking the amplitude information of the seismic network into account. The magnitude is estimated by using the respective ratio of the maximum amplitudes of the master event and the detected event. The detector is implemented as a real time tool and put into practice as a SeisComp3 module, an established open source software for seismological real time data handling and analysis. We validated the reliability and robustness of the detector by an offline playback test using four month of data from monitoring the power plant in Insheim (Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany). Subsequently, in October 2013 the detector was installed as real time monitoring system within the project "MAGS2 - Microseismic Activity of Geothermal Systems". Master events from the two neighboring geothermal power plants in Insheim and Landau and two nearby quarries are defined. After detection, manual phase determination and event location are performed at the local seismological survey of the Geological Survey and Mining Authority of Rhineland-Palatinate. Until November 2015 the detector identified 454 events out of which 95% were assigned correctly to the respective source. 5% were misdetections caused by local tectonic events. To evaluate the completeness of the automatically obtained catalogue, it is

  11. [Cases from the expert commission of the North Rhine medical council: expert commissions and arbitration boards by medical councils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannappel, J; Weber, B; Smentkowski, U

    2012-11-01

    Following a description of the structure and function of the expert commission for medical malpractice of the North Rhine medical council, important legal technical terms and the consequences, such as the definition of accusable medical malpractice and severe (in legal terms gross) negligence will be presented. The article reports on the legal consequences of the lack of informed consent, on the significance of insufficient informed consent and under which conditions a transfer of liability becomes valid. From the statistical information in the archives of the expert commission it can be seen that in processes against urologists approximately 31% of urologists in private practice were affected compared to 69% of hospital urologists. Approximately 20% involved accusations of false diagnosis and 80% involved accusations of false treatment. Of the processes involving urological diagnostic errors prostate cancer was at the forefront, followed by processes involving delayed or falsely diagnosed bladder cancer. For processes due to operative treatment errors prostate cancer also occupied first place, followed by accusations of treatment errors involving penile and urethral operations. A differentiated presentation of processes involving non-operative treatment errors revealed an accumulation of accusations for mistakes in the treatment of urolithiasis, in medicinal treatment and also in tumor therapy. Following a description of typical individual cases, indications for avoidance of legal proceedings will be given.

  12. Future changes in extreme precipitation in the Rhine basin based on global and regional climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. van Pelt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probability estimates of the future change of extreme precipitation events are usually based on a limited number of available global climate model (GCM or regional climate model (RCM simulations. Since floods are related to heavy precipitation events, this restricts the assessment of flood risks. In this study a relatively simple method has been developed to get a better description of the range of changes in extreme precipitation events. Five bias-corrected RCM simulations of the 1961–2100 climate for a single greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B SRES were available for the Rhine basin. To increase the size of this five-member RCM ensemble, 13 additional GCM simulations were analysed. The climate responses of the GCMs are used to modify an observed (1961–1995 precipitation time series with an advanced delta change approach. Changes in the temporal means and variability are taken into account. It is found that the range of future change of extreme precipitation across the five-member RCM ensemble is similar to results from the 13-member GCM ensemble. For the RCM ensemble, the time series modification procedure also results in a similar climate response compared to the signal deduced from the direct model simulations. The changes from the individual RCM simulations, however, systematically differ from those of the driving GCMs, especially for long return periods.

  13. The environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia. Annual report 1995; Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen. Jahresbericht `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The annual reports of the environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia periodically inform on topics, developments and events. In its choice of technical topics, the agency was guided by the following aspects: topicality, significance for workers in this technical field and, especially, general technical interest. Consequently, this volume is not a report of activities but provides insight into the work of the agency, stimulates cooperation and helps to establish and intensify connections. The short papers fall into the subject categories water, soil, atmosphere, technical systems and information systems, permitting rapid survey. The subjects of the longer contributions were chosen right across the entire range of activities of the environmental agency. Aspects relating to several media of course had an influence on this choice. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Jahresberichte des Landesumweltamtes NRW geben periodisch eine Uebersicht ueber Themen, Entwicklungen und Ereignisse. Bei der Auswahl der Fachthemen laesst sich das Landesumweltamt von der Aktualitaet, der Bedeutung fuer die Fachwelt und auch von dem allgemeinen Fachinteresse leiten. Dieser Jahresbericht `95 ist somit kein Rechenschaftsbericht, sondern gibt Einblick in die Arbeit, soll zur Zusammenarbeit anregen, vielfaeltige fachliche Verbindungen knuepfen und festigen. Zur besseren Uebersichtlichkeit sind die Kurzbeitraege gegliedert in: Wasser, Boden, Luft, Technik und Informationssysteme. Die Hauptbeitraege setzen Schwerpunkte `quer durch das Landesumweltamt`, bei denen natuerlich medienuebergreifende Gesichtspunkte eine Rolle gespielt haben. (orig./SR)

  14. Evaluation of a bias correction method applied to downscaled precipitation and temperature reanalysis data for the Rhine basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Terink

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In many climate impact studies hydrological models are forced with meteorological data without an attempt to assess the quality of these data. The objective of this study is to compare downscaled ERA15 (ECMWF-reanalysis data precipitation and temperature with observed precipitation and temperature and apply a bias correction to these forcing variables. Precipitation is corrected by fitting the mean and coefficient of variation (CV of the observations. Temperature is corrected by fitting the mean and standard deviation of the observations. It appears that the uncorrected ERA15 is too warm and too wet for most of the Rhine basin. The bias correction leads to satisfactory results, precipitation and temperature differences decreased significantly, although there are a few years for which the correction of precipitation is less satisfying. Corrections were largest during summer for both precipitation and temperature, and for September and October for precipitation only. Besides the statistics the correction method was intended to correct for, it is also found to improve the correlations for the fraction of wet days and lag-1 autocorrelations between ERA15 and the observations. For the validation period temperature is corrected very well, but for precipitation the RMSE of the daily difference between modeled and observed precipitation has increased for the corrected situation. When taking random years for calibration, and the remaining years for validation, the spread in the mean bias error (MBE becomes larger for the corrected precipitation during validation, but the overal average MBE has decreased.

  15. Governing Through Resilience? Exploring Flood Protection in Dresden, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Hutter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues for a governmentality perspective on risk-management politics and resilience-related governance. This perspective pays ample attention to conflicts and discursive ‘battles’ in which different truths and normative assessments, including specific rationalities, subjectivities and technologies of governing compete against. Up to now, the literature on governmentality and resilience has mainly been based on empirical research in the UK. This research highlights the growing importance of neoliberal forms of governing, including a shift in governing strategies towards activating and responsibilizing the public. This is to some extent in contrast to observations about dealing with flood risk on the river Weisseritz in Dresden. The paper reflects on possible avenues for further conceptual and empirical research on ‘governing through resilience’ in the context of flood protection in Germany. It is based on a brief conceptualization of ‘governmentality’ as introduced by Michel Foucault, a literature review, and selected observations from a case study on flood protection for the river Weisseritz in Dresden.

  16. Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Germany, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartelt Katrin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. Methods Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. In addition, they were asked to supply a serum sample for laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis. A confirmed case patient was defined as a clinical case (i.e. fever and at least one additional symptom suggestive for leptospirosis with at least two of the following tests positive: ELISA IgM, latex agglutination testing, or microscopic agglutination testing. Rainfall and temperature records were obtained. Results A total of 142 of 507 triathletes were contacted; among these, five confirmed leptospirosis cases were found. Open wounds were identified as the only significant risk factor for illness (p = 0.02. Heavy rains that preceded the swimming event likely increased leptospiral contamination of the Neckar River. Discussion This is the first outbreak of leptospirosis related to a competitive sports event in Germany. Among people with contact to freshwater, the risk of contracting leptospirosis should be considered by health care providers also in temperate countries, particularly in the summer after heavy rains.

  17. Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous samples from Germany and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Umer; Schulze, Stefanie; Slawik, Christian; Böhme, Alexander; Paschke, Albrecht; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-06-22

    Continuous monitoring of chemicals in the environment is important to control their fate and to protect human health, flora, and fauna. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected frequently in different environmental compartments during the last 15 years and have drawn much attention because of their environmental persistence, omnipresence, and bioaccumulation potential. Water is an important source of their transport. In the present study, distributions of PFAAs in river water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and tap water from eastern part of Germany and western part of Kenya were investigated. Eleven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and five perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Sum of mean concentrations of eight PFAAs detected in drinking tap water from Leipzig was 11.5 ng L(-1), dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 6.2 ng L(-1)). Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs detected in Pleiße/White Elster, Saale, and Elbe (Germany) were 24.8, 54.3, and 26.8 ng L(-1), respectively. Annual flux of PFAAs from River Saale was estimated to be 164 ± 23 kg a(-1). The effluent of WWTP in Halle was found to contain four times higher levels of PFAAs than river water and was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) with 32 times higher concentration than the riverine level. It advocates that WWTPs are the point source of contaminating water bodies with PFAAs, and short-chain PFAAs are substituting long-chain homologues. Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs in Sosiani (Kenya) in samples from sparsely populated and densely populated areas were 58.8 and 109.4 ng L(-1), respectively, indicating that population directly affected the emissions of PFAAs to surface waters. The discussion includes thorough review and comparison of recently published literature reporting occurrence of PFAAs in aqueous matrices. Graphical abstract Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous

  18. Towards a radar- and observation-based hail climatology for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Junghänel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change hail is identified as one of the major subjects of concern regarding transport infrastructure. Moreover hailstorms are a major threat to e.g. agriculture and the automobile industry causing significant economical damages and losses. Despite these significant hail-related meteorological risks no comprehensive observation-based hail climatology for Germany exists. In this study we present a new approach to this task, combining radar data with different kinds of hail reports, such as ground observation and agricultural insurance data. Preprocessing ensures the applicability of the radar data for the presented climatological analysis. In this sense a number of detection methods are applied to filter artefacts, especially clutter pixels and spokes that disrupt radar measurements. To construct a reliable hail climatology for Germany we process all information into a 10‑year based annual average number of hail days on a 1km×1km$1\\,\\text{km}\\times1\\,\\text{km}$ grid using a two-path hail criterion. While the first path combines a threshold of 50 dBZ with a hail report, the second path is based on a 55 dBZ threshold only. By adding radar data we increase the spatial representativity of the ground based hail reports and gain additional information in regions which lack observational data. Overall, the results are mainly determined by events derived from the first path (68 %. A validation of our dataset at 65 stations of Deutscher Wetterdienst shows that the method slightly underestimates the number of hail days, especially for mountainous regions. This results in a better adaption of the hail criterion to lowlands. The resulting hail frequency map shows an increase in the average number of hail days per year from north to south. In particular, hailstorms occur less frequently in the Central North German Plain and the Mecklenburg Coastal Lowland, whereas the highest number of hail days

  19. Floods of the Past, Design of Tomorrow - Project Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Schielen, R.; van der Meulen, B.; Bomers, Anouk; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    A joint research project (two PhD’s, 2016-2020) has been granted to Utrecht University and the University of Twente, on the topic of detailed hydraulic modelling of selected largest-known historic river floods affecting the Lower Rhine valley and delta (The Netherlands and adjacent Germany). Besides

  20. Riverine input of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the coastal pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Everaarts, J.M.

    of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. It deals with an in-depth analysis of pollution of the coastal ecosystem around the Netherlands, U.K. and Germany due to inputs of contaminants from the rivers namely, Elbe, Weser, Ems Ijssel, Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Thames...

  1. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  2. A Stochastic Model Approach for Optimisation of Lowland River Restoration Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saskia van Vuren; Huib de Vriend; Hermjan Barneveld

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Over the course of centuries, river systems have been heavily trained for the purpose of safe discharge of water, sediment and ice, and improves navigation. Traditionally, dikes are used to be reinforced and heightened to protect countries from ever higher flood levels. Other types of solutions than technical engineering solutions, such as measures to increase the flood conveyance capacity (e.g., lowering of groynes and floodplains, setting back dikes) become more popular. These solutions may however increase the river bed dynamics and thus impact negatively navigation, maintenance dredging and flood safety. A variety of numerical models are available to predict the impact of river restoration works on river processes. Often little attention is paid to the assessment of uncertainties. In this paper, we show how we can make uncertainty explicit using a stochastic approach. This approach helps identi-fying uncertainty sources and assessing their contribution to the overall uncertainty in river processes. The approach gives engineers a better understanding of system behaviour and enables them to inter-vene with the river system, so as to avoid undesired situations. We illustrate the merits of this stochastic approach for optimising lowland river restoration works in the Rhine in the Netherlands.

  3. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Air pollution in the Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area: Numerical simulations with a multi-scale regional chemistry-transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmesheimer, M.; Jakobs, H. J.; Wurzler, S.; Friese, E.; Piekorz, G.; Ebel, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Rhine-Ruhr area is a strongly industrialized region with about 10 Million inhabitants. It is one of the regions in Europe, which has the characteristics of a megacity with respect to population density, traffic, industry and environmental issues. The main centre of European steel production and the biggest inland port of the world is located in Duisburg, one of the major cities in the Rhine-Ruhr area. Together with the nearby urban agglomerations in the Benelux area including Brussels, Amsterdam and in particular Rotterdam as one of the most important sea-harbours of the world together with Singapore and Shanghai, it forms one of the regions in Europe heavily loaded with air pollutants as ozone, NO2 and particulate matter. Ammonia emissions outside the urban agglomerations but within the domain are also on a quite high level due to intense agricultural usage in Benelux, North-Rhine-Westphalia and lower Saxony. Therefore this area acts also as an important source region for gaseous precursors contributing to the formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere. The Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area therefore has been selected within the framework of the recently established FP7 research project CityZen as one hot spot for detailed investigations of the past and current status of air pollution and its future development on different spatial and temporal scales. Some examples from numerical simulations with the regional multi-scale chemistry transport model EURAD for Central Europe and the Rhine-Ruhr area will be presented. The model calculates the transport, chemical transformations and deposition of trace constituents in the troposphere from the surface up to about 16 km using MM5 as meteorological driver, the RACM-MIM gas-phase chemistry and MADE-SORGAM for the treatment of particulate matter. Horizontal grid sizes are in the range of 100 km down to 1 km for heavily polluted urbanized areas within Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr. The planetary boundary layer is resolved by 15

  5. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  6. Modeling nitrogen fluxes in Germany - where does the nitrogen go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    According to the latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive, 26.3% of German groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. Additionally, the EU initiated infringement proceedings against Germany for not meeting the quality standards of the EU Nitrate Directive. Agriculture has been determined as the main source of nitrate pollution due to over-fertilization and regionally high density of livestock farming. The nitrogen balance surplus is commonly used as an indicator characterizing the potential of nitrate leaching into groundwater bodies and thus also serves as a foundation to introduce legislative restrictions or to monitor the success of mitigation measures. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion which measures are suitable for reducing the risk of nitrate leaching and also to what extent. However, there is still uncertainty about just how much the nitrogen surplus has to be reduced to meet the groundwater quality standards nationwide. Therefore, the aims of our study were firstly to determine the level of the nitrogen surplus that would be acceptable at the utmost and secondly whether the currently discussed target value of 30 kg N per hectare agricultural land for the soil surface nitrogen balance would be sufficient. The models MONERIS (Modeling Nutrient Emissions in River System) and MoRE (Modelling of Regionalized Emissions), the latter based on the first, are commonly used for estimating nitrogen loads into the river system in Germany at the mesoscale, as well as the effect of mitigation measures in the context of the EU directive 2008/105/EC (Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water). We used MoRE to calculate nitrate concentration for 2759 analytical units in Germany. Main factors are the surplus of the soil surface nitrogen balance, the percolation rate and an exponent representing the denitrification in the vadose zone. The modeled groundwater nitrate concentrations did not correspond to the regional

  7. Risk management of the mining authority of North Rhine-Westphalia for left daily openings of the mining; Risikomanagement der Bergbehoerde NRW fuer verlassene Tagesoeffnungen des Bergbaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Heinz Roland [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dortmund (Germany). Abt. Bergbau und Energie in NRW

    2010-02-15

    A perpetual danger proceeds from the unsecured daily openings of the mining industry. Many pits only are filled with bulk materials. Regarding to the use of budgetary means at preventive investigation measures and protection measures, the mining industry authority North-Rhine Westphalia operates a risk management for abandoned daily openings for which no mine companies or mine owner are at hand. For this, daily openings are classified and evaluated according to certain factors. From this, a list of priority results for preventive investigation measures and safety measurements being processed by the mining industry authority in the next years.

  8. Fine sediment transport by tidal asymmetry in the high-concentrated Ems River: indications for a regime shift in response to channel deepening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterwerp, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the observed up-river transport of fine sediments in the Ems River, Germany/Netherlands, using a 1DV POINT MODEL, accounting for turbulence-induced flocculation and sediment-induced buoyancy destruction. From this analysis, it is inferred that the net up-river tra

  9. Evaluation of bioassays versus contaminant concentrations in explaining the macroinvertebrate community structure in the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, E T; Dewitte, A; Koelmans, A A; van der Velden, J A; den Besten, P J

    2001-12-01

    It is often assumed that bioassays are better descriptors of sediment toxicity than toxicant concentrations and that ecological factors are more important than toxicants in structuring macroinvertebrate communities. In the period 1992 to 1995, data were collected in the enclosed Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, on macroinvertebrates, sediment toxicity, sediment contaminant concentrations, and ecological factors. The effect of various groups of pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trace metals, oil, polychlorinated biphenyls) and of ecological variables on the structure of the macroinvertebrate community were quantified. Ecological factors explained 17.3% of the macroinvertebrate variation, while contaminants explained 13.8%. Another 14.7% was explained by the covariation between ecological variables and contaminants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons explained a larger part of the variation than trace metals. The contributions of oil and polychlorinated biphenyls were small but significant. Elevated contaminant concentrations were significantly associated with differences in the macroinvertebrate food web structure. The response in bioassays (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Chironomus riparius) was susceptible to certain contaminants but also to certain ecological factors. There was a weak correlation between in situ species composition and bioassays; 1.9% of in situ macroinvertebrate variation was explained by the bioassay responses. This seems to contradict the validity of using bioassays for a system-oriented risk assessment. Possible reasons for this discrepancy might be the manipulations of the sediment before the test and a higher pollutant tolerance of the in situ macroinvertebrates. Thus, macroinvertebrate field surveys and laboratory bioassays yield different types of information on ecotoxicological effects, and both are recommended in sediment risk assessment procedures.

  10. Future changes in extreme precipitation in the Rhine basin based on global and regional climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. van Pelt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Probability estimates of the future change of extreme precipitation events are usually based on a limited number of available Global Climate Model (GCM or Regional Climate Model (RCM simulations. Since floods are related to heavy precipitation events, this restricts the assessment of flood risks. In this study a relatively simple method has been developed to get a better picture of the range of changes in extreme precipitation events. Five bias corrected RCM simulations of the 1971–2100 climate for a single greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B SRES were available for the Rhine basin. To increase the size of this five-member RCM ensemble, 13 additional GCM simulations were analysed. The climate responses of the GCMs are used to modify an observed (1961–1995 precipitation/temperature time series with an advanced delta change approach. Changes in the temporal means and variability are taken into account. Time series resampling was applied to extend 35-yr GCM and RCM time-slices to 3000-yr series to estimate extreme precipitation with return periods up to 1000 yr. It is found that the range of future change of extreme precipitation across the five-member RCM ensemble is similar to results from the 13-member GCM ensemble. For the RCM ensemble, the time series modification procedure also resulted in a similar climate response compared to the signal deduced from the direct model simulations. The changes from the individual RCM simulations, however, systematically differ from those of the driving GCMs, especially for long return periods.

  11. Passive solar systems performance in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habenicht, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the two main climatic features (solar radiation and temperature) on the performance of passive solar systems in West Germany. Evaluations were made for the four climatic zones - German Lowlands, German Highlands, Alp Foreland, Alps. These zones differ in solar radiation, temperature and diurnal temperature swings. To evaluate different passive solar systems (direct gain, Trombe wall, water wall) a prototypical dwelling was designed which responded to the environmental conditions. The calculations of the ''Solar Savings Fraction'' (SSF) of each systems were made with a program based on the 'LCR-method'. The paper concludes that although the heating requirements decrease with decreasing latitude and altitude, the SSF is nearly the same for all parts of Germany. They are in a range of +- 5%. This is due to the fact that two main climatic features solar radiation and temperature balance each other. In northern Germany the man solar radiation level is low and so is the number of heating degree days. The conditions in southern Germany are reverse.

  12. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  13. The IMEMME 1992 travelling scholarship to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, J.A. (British Coal Corporation (United Kingdom). Littleton Colliery)

    1993-04-01

    The author describes a visit to Germany funded by the Institution of Mining Electrical and Mining Mechanical Engineers' 1992 Travelling Scholarship. Details are given of visits to the Walsum, Niederberg and Lohberg collieries, Rheinberg shaft. Borth salt mine, Mulheim an der Ruhr Stadtbahn, Emscher Aufbereitung coal pulverization plant and various mining equipment manufacturers. 8 figs.

  14. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  15. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing the

  16. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...... of informal carers (relatives), balanced view on assistive technology, destigmatisation and support of autonomy....

  17. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are addressed in the…

  18. Perspectives of Financing Higher Education in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1991-01-01

    The general structure of higher education finance in Germany and current and possible future developments in German higher education financing are analyzed. A shift from input budgeting to a more output-oriented steering of higher education is identified. Methods of dealing with the problems introduced by new mechanisms of decision making and fund…

  19. Poverty and health in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between poverty and several health-related characteristics in West Germany was investigated. Data were derived from the National and Regional Health Surveys conducted in West Germany from 1984 to 1992. 25,544 males and 25,719 females with German nationality aged 25-69 years were examined. Poverty was defined as a household income of 50% less than the mean for West Germany. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between poverty and four health variables: individual health behavior, subjective assessment of health status, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported prevalence of lifetime chronic diseases. 10.2% of males and 12.8% of females were classified as being below the poverty line. For most but not all health parameters, less favourable results were found for the segment of the population with a household income below the poverty line. The most striking poverty-related differences were observed for lack of regular sport activities, subjective health satisfaction, obesity and myocardial infarction/stroke. Significantly lower prevalence rates for study subjects below the poverty line were observed for hypercholesterolemia in females only. Allergic disorders were the only chronic diseases reported significantly less often in males and females below the poverty line. Poverty has strong effects on individual health status and the prevalence of chronic diseases. Due to the rising unemployment rates in Germany in the last years it is very likely that the strong negative consequences of poverty for health are increasing.

  20. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  1. Earnings Inequality in Germany and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GIACOMO; CORNEO

    2015-01-01

    The current paper discusses the evolution of earnings inequality in Germany with an eye to its potential lessons for China. Inequality is assessed from two different perspectives: the distribution of annual earnings, and the distribution of lifetime earnings. This paper proposes to implement closer monitoring of lifetime earnings and take a proactive stance in the formation of the wage-bargaining regime.

  2. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  3. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.

  4. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  5. Notes from Visit to Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuanXiumin; ChangJiuqing

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of Norway Moral Rearmament (MRA) and German Friedrich-Ebert Foundation (FES), CAFIU delegation headed by Mr. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU visited Norway and Germany in the middle of May. As a member ofthe delegation,

  6. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  7. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  8. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  9. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  10. Flood frequency analysis and discussion of non-stationarity of the Lower Rhine flooding regime (AD 1350-2011): Using discharge data, water level measurements, and historical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, W. H. J.

    2015-09-01

    Accurate estimates of the recurrence time of extreme floods are essential to assess flood safety in flood-prone regions, such as the Lower Rhine in The Netherlands. Measured discharge records have a limited length and are, in general, poorly representing extremes, which results in considerable uncertainties when used for flood frequency analysis. In this paper, it is shown how alternative discharge monitoring stations along the Rhine, measurements of water levels, and historical records can be used to increase data availability. Although pre-processing and the conversion of data types into discharge estimates introduces extra uncertainty, the added value of this data in flood frequency analysis is considerable, because extending record length by including slightly less-precise data results in much better constrained estimates for the discharges and recurrence intervals of extreme events. Based on results obtained with the Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, it was concluded that large floods of the last century are presumably rarer than previously considered using shorter data series. Moreover, the combined effect of climatic and anthropogenic-induced non-stationarities of the flooding regime is more easily recognised in extended records. It is shown that non-stationarities have a significant effect on the outcomes of flood frequency analysis using both short and long input data series. Effects on outcomes of dominant multi-decadal variability are, however, largely subdued in the longer 240-year series.

  11. Emission scenarios for air quality management and applications at local and regional scales including the effects of the future European emission regulation (2015 for the upper Rhine valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Ponche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Air quality modeling associated with emission scenarios has become an important tool for air quality management. The set-up of realistic emission scenarios requires accurate emission inventories including the whole methodology used to calculate the emissions. This means a good description of the source characteristics including a detailed composition of the emitted fluxes. Two main approaches are used. The so-called bottom-up approach that relies on the modification of the characteristics of the sources and the top-down approach whose goal is generally to reach standard pollutant concentration levels. This paper is aimed at providing a general methodology for the elaboration of such emission scenarios and giving examples of applications at local and regional scales for air quality management. The first example concerns the impact of the installation of the urban tramway in place of the road traffic in the old centre of Strasbourg. The second example deals with the use of oxygenated and reformulated car fuels on local (Strasbourg urban area and regional (upper Rhine valley scales. Finally, we analyze in detail the impacts of the incoming European emission regulation for 2015 on the air quality of the upper Rhine valley.

  12. Emission scenarios for air quality management and applications at local and regional scales including the effects of the future European emission regulation (2015 for the upper Rhine valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Ponche

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air quality modeling associated with emission scenarios has become an important tool for air quality management. The set-up of realistic emission scenarios requires accurate emission inventories including the whole methodology used to calculate the emissions. This means a good description of the source characteristics including a detailed composition of the emitted fluxes. Two main approaches are used. The so-called bottom-up approach that relies on the modification of the characteristics of the sources and the top-down approach whose goal is generally to reach standard pollutant concentration levels. This paper is aimed at providing a general methodology for the elaboration of such emission scenarios and giving examples of applications at local and regional scales for air quality management. The first example concerns the impact of the installation of the urban tramway in place of the road traffic in the old centre of Strasbourg. The second example deals with the use of oxygenated and reformulated car fuels on local (Strasbourg urban area and regional (upper Rhine valley scales. Finally, we analyze in detail the impacts of the incoming European emission regulation for 2015 on the air quality of the upper Rhine valley.

  13. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  14. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  15. Deep Geothermal Energy for Lower Saxony (North Germany) - Combined Investigations of Geothermal Reservoir Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Barbara; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, successful deep geothermal projects are mainly situated in Southern Germany in the Molassebecken, furthermore in the Upper Rhine Graben and, to a minor extend, in the North German Basin. Mostly they are hydrothermal projects with the aim of heat production. In a few cases, they are also constructed for the generation of electricity. In the North German Basin temperature gradients are moderate. Therefore, deep drilling of several thousand meters is necessary to reach temperatures high enough for electricity production. However, the porosity of the sedimentary rocks is not sufficient for hydrothermal projects, so that natural fracture zones have to be used or the rocks must be hydraulically stimulated. In order to make deep geothermal projects in Lower Saxony (Northern Germany) economically more attractive, the interdisciplinary research program "Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling" (gebo) was initiated in 2009. It comprises four focus areas: Geosystem, Drilling Technology, Materials and Technical System and aims at improving exploration of the geothermal reservoir, reducing costs of drilling and optimizing exploitation. Here we want to give an overview of results of the focus area "Geosystem" which investigates geological, geophysical, geochemical and modeling aspects of the geothermal reservoir. Geological and rock mechanical investigations in quarrys and core samples give a comprehensive overview on rock properties and fracture zone characteristics in sandstones and carbonates. We also show that it is possible to transfer results of rock property measurements from quarry samples to core samples or to in situ conditions by use of empirical relations. Geophysical prospecting methods were tested near the surface in a North German Graben system. We aim at transferring the results to the prospection of deep situated fracture zones. The comparison of P- and S-wave measurements shows that we can get hints on a possible fluid content of the

  16. Prevention among immigrants: the example of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Jacob

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large and increasing part of the European population has a history of migration. Germany, for example, is home to about 15 million people with migrant background, which amounts to 19% of its population. Migrants may have differences in their lifestyle, health beliefs and risk factors compared to the autochthonous populations. Discussion As for example studies on children's participation in routine prevention activities have shown, these differences can have a relevant impact on the access of migrants to the health care system and are likely to lower their participation in prevention programs compared to the autochthonous population. To increase the uptake of prevention programs, barriers to access must be identified and approaches to reduce them must be developed. Summary Taking the example of Germany, a need exists for prevention programs that include (migrant sensitive and specifically address (migrant specific migrants. These should be of sufficient scale, evidence-based, sustainable and evaluated at regular intervals.

  17. Boom in Germany; Boom in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzing, Bernward

    2013-02-15

    In the year 2012, the expansion of the wind energy in Germany has newly gained a rise: 1,008 wind power plants with a total performance of 2,439 megawatt. The average performance of new wind turbines increases further. The average rotor diameter amounts 88.5 metres, while the average hub height amounts 109.8 metres. Above all, the southern Federal States of the Federal Republic of Germany jeopardise on large hub heights: With a hub height of 133.9 metres, Bavaria is in the vanguard of all Federal States followed by Baden-Wuerttemberg with a hub height of 129.9 metres. The wind power plants in Schleswig-Holstein have the lowest average hub height of 81.7 metres. Meanwhile, the repowering occurs in Schleswig-Holstein and Niedersachsen because there are the oldest wind power plants.

  18. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio- Economic Panel (GSOEP).To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  19. Micro modeling of retirement : decisions in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Börsch-Supan, Axel; Kohnz, Simone; Schnabel, Reinhold

    2002-01-01

    Early retirement in Germany is very costly and amplifies the burden which the German public pension system has to carry due to population aging. This paper shows that the German pension system provides strong incentives to retire early. The paper provides relatively robust econometric evidence for the strength of incentive effects on old age labor supply, using several specifications of incentive variables. The econometric estimates are used to simulate the individual responses to policy chan...

  20. Turkish Slang and Rap in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    GENÇ, Safiye

    2015-01-01

    The main concern of this study is to analyze the emergence of Turkish Slang amongst the young turkish immigrants and its importance. Rap music is where Turkish Slang is mostly used. Since the midst of the 80s, Rap Music has become a medium of expression for the young immigrants who live in Germany. The correlation between Turkish Slang and Rap Music will be discussed in that sense.Keywords: Turkish slang, Turkish migrants, Hip hop – culture, Rap music, Migrant workers

  1. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Agemar; Josef Weber; Rüdiger Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in souther...

  2. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  3. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  4. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.……

  5. Experience with the SE in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Reichert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A rather significant proportion of the Societas Europaeas (the European Company, or SE formed to date have had German roots. German corporate law has been enriched by an interesting alternative which meanwhile seems to have gained momentum. This contribution focuses on SEs incorporated by German entrepreneurs and provides an interesting account concerning the use of SEs in Germany in practice, such as Allianz, Fresenius, BASF and Porsche. Has the SE been used to circumvent rigid company law provisions or is it a more flexible and effective tool, perhaps, for company mobility? The practical motives behind setting up this company form are also reflected upon. These include: the facilitation of cross-border mergers; transfer of the registered office; the ‘European’ image; a more flexible form of co-determination in large companies (reduction of the number of supervisory board members; avoidance and freezing of co-determination for medium-sized enterprises; the appeal of the one-tier system and its endangerment by German co-determination; and flat and uniform structures for company groups. The author also briefly discusses some of the problems arising from the formation of SEs in Germany. He ultimately concludes that practice has shown that it is possible to work with the legal regime of the SE in Germany, which adds a new company form to those available in that Member State.

  6. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  7. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  8. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dathe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  9. MACROSCOPIC RIVERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, IP

    1991-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the

  10. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Interwies

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

  11. Energy R and D in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  12. Evaluation of ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Germany from 1990 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertmann, Regina; Tesseraux, Irene; Schümann, Michael; Neus, Hermann

    2002-03-01

    All available polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration data in ambient air obtained over the past 10 years in Germany were evaluated to clarify whether it is justified to use benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker compound for the total PAH exposure. The data basis comprises annual mean concentrations from 1990 to 1998 supplied by the emission protection authorities of the federal states with additional information on the region, year and site of measurement. The data are very heterogeneous with respect to sample size, the number of individual PAHs analyzed, place of origin and year. Nine of 25 individual compounds with sufficient sample size (74German reunion and time characterize the distributive patterns, e.g., from 1991 to 1997, a significant decrease in BaP could be determined based on the data from North Rhine-Westphalia (1991, N=51, median 1.6 ng/m(3); 1997, N=45, median 0.7 ng/m(3); P

  13. Statistically Based Inference of Physical Rock Properties of Main Rock Types in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Jorand, R.; Clauser, C.

    2009-12-01

    A major obstacle for an increased use of geothermal energy often lies in the high success risk for the development of geothermal reservoirs due to the unknown rock properties. In general, the ranges of thermal and hydraulic properties (thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity, porosity, permeability) in existing compilations of rock properties are too large to be useful to constrain properties for specific sites. Usually, conservative assumptions are made about these properties, resulting in greater drilling depth and increased exploration cost. In this study, data from direct measurements on more than 600 core samples from different borehole locations and depths enable to derive statistical moments of the desired properties for selected main rock types in the German subsurface. Using modern core scanning technology allowed measuring rapidly thermal conductivity, sonic velocity, and gamma density with high resolution on a large number of samples. In addition, we measured porosity, bulk density, and matrix density based on Archimedes’ principle and pycnometer analysis. Tests on a smaller collection of samples also include specific heat capacity, hydraulic permeability, and radiogenic heat production rate. In addition, we complemented the petrophysical measurements by quantitative mineralogical analysis. The results reveal that even for the same main rock type the results differ significantly depending on geologic age, origin, compaction, and mineralogical composition. For example, water saturated thermal conductivity of tight Palaeozoic sandstones from the Lower Rhine Embayment and the Ruhr Area is 4.0±0.7 W m-1 K-1 and 4.6±0.6 W m-1 K-1, respectively, which is nearly identical to values for the Lower Triassic Bunter sandstone in Southwest-Germany (high in quartz showing an average value of 4.3±0.4 W m-1 K-1). In contrast, saturated thermal conductivity of Upper Triassic sandstone in the same area is considerably lower at 2.5±0.1 W m-1 K-1 (Schilf

  14. Solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710 between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich. For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a gender, region and age-matched (± 1 year of birth population control was drawn from the population registers. In a structured personal interview, we elicited a complete occupational history, including every occupational period that lasted at least one year. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary questionnaires, a trained occupational physician assessed the exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack years and alcohol consumption. To increase the statistical power, patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results We observed a statistically significant association between high exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and malignant lymphoma (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.3. In the analysis of lymphoma subentities, a pronounced risk elevation was found for follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. When specific substances were considered, the association between trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma was of borderline statistical significance. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly associated with the lymphoma diagnosis

  15. The restructuring of Germany`s hard coal industry - political and corporate challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K.F. [RAG Group (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    With the termination of the so-called `Century Contract` in 1995, the steam coal market in German is liberalised with competition from imported coal being the driving force. German coal is still subsidised, according to the Artikelgesetz. The deregulation of the electricity market may lead to a more fierce competition in fuels for power generation. A recent survey by the Progress Research Institute showed however that the total use of coal in Germany will remain fairly constant until 2020. The article discusses the strategy adopted particularly by the RAG group which holds 80% of all German hard coal mining activities, to increase market attractivity of German coal now and in the future. There is a move afoot to integrate RAG with Saarbergwerke, Germany`s second largest hard coal producer. RAG already has developed many non-mining divisions - energy (STEAG), Chemicals (Ruetgers), trade and services (Ruhrkohle Handel) environment, and real estate and mining technology (DBT). 6 figs.

  16. Multi-model climate impact assessment and intercomparison for three large-scale river basins on three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Huang, S.; Aich, V.; Yang, T.; Wang, X.; Krysanova, V.; Hattermann, F.

    2014-07-01

    Climate change impacts on hydrological processes should be simulated for river basins using validated models and multiple climate scenarios in order to provide reliable results for stakeholders. In the last 10-15 years climate impact assessment was performed for many river basins worldwide using different climate scenarios and models. Nevertheless, the results are hardly comparable and do not allow to create a full picture of impacts and uncertainties. Therefore, a systematic intercomparison of impacts is suggested, which should be done for representative regions using state-of-the-art models. Our study is intended as a step in this direction. The impact assessment presented here was performed for three river basins on three continents: Rhine in Europe, Upper Niger in Africa and Upper Yellow in Asia. For that, climate scenarios from five GCMs and three hydrological models: HBV, SWIM and VIC, were used. Four "Representative Concentration Pathways" (RCPs) covering a range of emissions and land-use change projections were included. The objectives were to analyze and compare climate impacts on future trends considering three runoff quantiles: Q90, Q50 and Q10 and on seasonal water discharge, and to evaluate uncertainties from different sources. The results allow drawing some robust conclusions, but uncertainties are large and shared differently between sources in the studied basins. The robust results in terms of trend direction and slope and changes in seasonal dynamics could be found for the Rhine basin regardless which hydrological model or forcing GCM is used. For the Niger River scenarios from climate models are the largest uncertainty source, providing large discrepancies in precipitation, and therefore clear projections are difficult to do. For the Upper Yellow basin, both the hydrological models and climate models contribute to uncertainty in the impacts, though an increase in high flows in future is a robust outcome assured by all three hydrological models.

  17. Multi-model climate impact assessment and intercomparison for three large-scale river basins on three continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vetter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on hydrological processes should be simulated for river basins using validated models and multiple climate scenarios in order to provide reliable results for stakeholders. In the last 10–15 years climate impact assessment was performed for many river basins worldwide using different climate scenarios and models. Nevertheless, the results are hardly comparable and do not allow to create a full picture of impacts and uncertainties. Therefore, a systematic intercomparison of impacts is suggested, which should be done for representative regions using state-of-the-art models. Our study is intended as a step in this direction. The impact assessment presented here was performed for three river basins on three continents: Rhine in Europe, Upper Niger in Africa and Upper Yellow in Asia. For that, climate scenarios from five GCMs and three hydrological models: HBV, SWIM and VIC, were used. Four "Representative Concentration Pathways" (RCPs covering a range of emissions and land-use change projections were included. The objectives were to analyze and compare climate impacts on future trends considering three runoff quantiles: Q90, Q50 and Q10 and on seasonal water discharge, and to evaluate uncertainties from different sources. The results allow drawing some robust conclusions, but uncertainties are large and shared differently between sources in the studied basins. The robust results in terms of trend direction and slope and changes in seasonal dynamics could be found for the Rhine basin regardless which hydrological model or forcing GCM is used. For the Niger River scenarios from climate models are the largest uncertainty source, providing large discrepancies in precipitation, and therefore clear projections are difficult to do. For the Upper Yellow basin, both the hydrological models and climate models contribute to uncertainty in the impacts, though an increase in high flows in future is a robust outcome assured by all three

  18. "I'm always entirely happy when I'm here!" Urban blue enhancing human health and well-being in Cologne and Düsseldorf, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Water is one of the most important landscape elements. In settled areas, planners rediscovered urban blue in the form of rivers as a soft location factor in post-industrial times. Although the recognition of the need for recreational or 'healthy' places like urban green or urban blue in cities is increasing, current urban planning is mostly conducted without taking beneficial health issues into account. In this paper an extended concept of therapeutic landscapes is used to analyse two promenades on the river Rhine in the centres of two German cities (Cologne and Düsseldorf). A complex of qualitative and quantitative methods from diverse disciplines is applied to obtain a multi-dimensional image of salutogenic health processes. The results show that the promenades are favourite places to spend leisure time and to engage in recreational activities, in addition to providing restoration from everyday stresses. Water is a strong predictor of preference and positive perceptive experiences in urban environments. Users of the promenades also report strong emotional attachments to the place. Urban blue space may be interpreted as a therapeutic landscape in various ways. The study forms a contribution to planning issues, particularly considering benefits for human health, and enhances current research concerning therapeutic landscapes.

  19. Natural hybridization between Populus nigra L. and P. x canadensis Moench. Hybrid offspring competes for niches along the Rhine river in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Beringen, R.; Volosyanchuk, R.; Vanden Broeck, A.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.F.P.; Vosman, B.

    2008-01-01

    Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a major species for European riparian forests but its abundance has decreased over the decades due to human influences. For restoration of floodplain woodlands, the remaining black poplar stands may act as source population. A potential problem is that P. nigra and

  20. [The conflict between work and private life and its relationship with burnout - results of a physician survey in breast cancer centers in North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, A; Driller, E; Kowalski, C; Ansmann, L; Pfaff, H

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the conflict between work and private life (work-life conflict and life-work conflict) and its relationship with burnout among physicians in breast cancer centers in North Rhine-Westphalia (n=378). With regard to the construct burnout, we differentiated between the 3 subscales emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment of the Maslach burnout inventory. In a structural equation model it was seen that above all the work-life conflict is positively associated with emotional exhaustion whereas the life-work conflict has a stronger positive correlation with depersonalisation and a negative relationship with personal accomplishment. Altogether, the results emphasise the importance of a successful interaction between professional work and private life ("work-life balance") for the health of medical personnel.

  1. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  2. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  3. Exploring the Prospects for Cross-Border Climate Change Adaptation between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerd, M.C.J. van; Wiering, M.A.; Dieperink, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will have various effects on river basins: precipitation levels and water temperature may change, floods and also droughts may occur more frequently. These effects do not respect man-made borders, so climate adaptation in itself is a transnational challenge. Adaptation can reduce the

  4. Federal Republic of Germany, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    policy in order to aid its steel industry. Motor Vehicles In mid-May 1981 in Puebla , Mexico, Volkswagen produced its 20 millionth car, thereby surpassing...Unlike France’s policy in the 1960s under President Charles de Gaulle, however, West Germany has rejected the vision of a Europe independent of the...Woman or man, however, the West German left-wing terrorist has not articulated a clear-cut vision of what the future should be like; they seem to

  5. Measurements of organic acids over central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. R.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    During three flights over central western Germany, air samples were taken for determination of organic acids. In air masses rapidly adverting from the west, between 0.15 and 3 km altitude mixing ratios of 0.17±0.06 ppbv formic acid and 0.72±0.08 ppbv acetic acid were found. In a local high pressure system mixing ratios increased up to 2.76 ppbv for formic acid and 2.20 ppbv for acetic acid.

  6. Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Henning Kappel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany. After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium. Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing

  7. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent...... of digested sludge, because many polar compounds do not sorb to sludge and lipophilic compounds are not mobile in the soil-aquifer. Most of the selected PPCPs were never detected in any of the lysimeter or groundwater samples, although they were present in the treated wastewater irrigated onto the fields...

  8. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  9. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.

    1998-03-01

    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  10. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany).

  11. The Influence of a solar eclipse on temperature and wind in the Upper-Rhine Valley - A numerical case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Vogel

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects on temperature and wind caused by the solar eclipse of August 11, 1999 in the south western part of Germany were simulated. While during the real event clouds and precipitation were present in most of the model domain cloud free conditions are assumed for the simulation. A temperature decrease of up to 7K was simulated during the eclipse event close to the surface. Thermal stability changes from unstable to stable conditions and the temperature gradient reaches values which are comparable to those normally found after sunset. Temperature keeps about 1K lower after the eclipse event during the rest of the day. Boundary layer height shortly after the eclipse event differs by several hundred meters. The effects on wind speed are rather small with the exception of the slopes of the mountains and in the vicinity of Lake Constance.

  12. [Multi-family group therapy in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Multi-family therapy, common group therapy with several families per one index patient, has been gaining popularity recently. This has occasioned an exploratory study of the status of implementation and common factors in all multi-family therapy programs in Germany. In a survey conducted across Germany, all providers of multi-family therapy interventions were requested to give a detailed description of their intervention. Quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and verbal data were summarized categorically with qualitative content analysis. Of the 25 intervention programs examined 21 are directed at emotionally disturbed children and young people and their families; mainly with disturbances in social behavior. Over 4,000 families per year are treated in multi-family therapy, and five programs were systematically evaluated. MFT is characterized by systematically oriented group therapy methods. Those surveyed traced the effect of this form of intervention back to activating problems in the group, activating resources, changing perspective, learning models, experiencing self-efficacy, and the therapeutic relationship. Systematic studies of multi-family therapy in evaluations and in random controlled study designs are recommended.

  13. Status of wind energy in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Applying different spatial distribution and modelling concepts in three nested mesoscale catchments of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongartz, K.

    Distributed, physically based river basin models are receiving increasing importance in integrated water resources management (IWRM) in Germany and in Europe, especially after the release of the new European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Applications in mesoscale catchments require an appropriate approach to represent the spatial distribution of related catchment properties such as land use, soil physics and topography by utilizing techniques of remote sensing and GIS analyses. The challenge is to delineate scale independent homogeneous modelling entities which, on the one hand may represent the dynamics of the dominant hydrological processes and, on the other hand can be derived from spatially distributed physiographical catchment properties. This scaling problem is tackled in this regional modelling study by applying the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs). In a nested catchment approach three different modelling conceptualisations are used to describe the runoff processes: (i) the topographic stream-segment-based HRU delineation proposed by Leavesley et al. [Precipitation-Runoff-Modelling-System, User’s Manual, Water Resource Investigations Report 83-4238, US Geological Survey, 1983]; (ii) the process based physiographic HRU-concept introduced by Flügel [Hydrol. Process. 9 (1995) 423] and (iii) an advanced HRU-concept adapted from (ii), which included the topographic topology of HRU-areas and the river network developed by Staudenraush [Eco Regio 8 (2000) 121]. The influence of different boundary conditions associated with changing the landuse classes, the temporal data resolution and the landuse scenarios were investigated. The mesoscale catchment of the river Ilm ( A∼895 km 2) in Thuringia, Germany, and the Precipitation-Runoff-Modelling-System (PRMS) were selected for this study. Simulations show that the physiographic based concept is a reliable method for modelling basin dynamics in catchments up to 200 km 2 whereas in larger catchments

  15. COMMERCIAL FISH HARVEST IN INLAND WATER BODIES OF GERMANY (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector. Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha. Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc. dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans

  16. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating...... of freshwater-based samples requires knowing the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect and its degree of variability. Measurements on modern riverine materials may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they show the order of magnitude and variability...

  17. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fishbones, shells, human bones or food crusts on pottery from sites next to rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in rivers containing considerable amounts of dissolved 14C-free carbonates can be up to several thousand...... years and may be highly variable. For accurate radiocarbon dating of freshwater-based samples, the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect as well as the degree of variability has to be known. The initial problem in this case was the accurate dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites...

  18. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  19. FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT IN LARGE RIVER SYSTEMS——GERMAN EXPERIENCES(IN BRIEF)%大河系统洪水风险管理——德国的经验(论文摘编)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WERNER Buck

    2006-01-01

    @@ Problems with extreme floods have been aggravated in Germany mainly due to loss of flood retaining areas caused by river regulation measures in former centuries, and by intensified use of the former natural flood plains.

  20. The influence of topographic structures on night-time surface temperatures: Evaluation of a satellite thermal image of the upper Rhine plain and the surrounding highlands. [Germany and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossmann, H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite data supplied the same information as aerial IR registrations with corresponding averaging for all studies requiring a survey of the thermal pattern within an area measuring 10 km x 10 km ore more, provided that sufficiently precise control points could be established for the purpose of geometric rectification in the surroundings of the area observed. Satellite thermal data are more comprehensive than aircraft data for studies on a regional, rather than a local scale, since airborne images often obscure the basic correlation in thermal patterns because of a variety of irrelevant topographical detail. The satellite data demonstrate the dependence of surface temperature on relief more clearly than comparable airborne imagery.

  1. Mobile measurements of particle composition in the Rhine Valley and Zurich. Winter 2007/2008; Mobile Messungen der Partikelzusammensetzung im Rheintal und in der Stadt Zuerich. Winter 2007/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, C.; Weimer, S.; Good, C.; Richter, R.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2009-07-15

    This report issued by the General Energy Research Department and its Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results obtained from the measurement of fine-dust quantities and composition in the cantons of eastern Switzerland and the upper Rhine valley during the winter. The PSI analysed the samples on behalf of the Swiss cantons, Vorarlberg (Austria) and the Principality of Liechtenstein. The mobile equipment used and the measurements made in the Rhine Valley between Lake Constance and Chur as well as in the City of Zurich are presented and discussed. The results of the measurements are presented in graphical form and the chemical composition of the pollutants at the different locations are discussed. Details of the instruments used and the routes taken are noted in an appendix.

  2. Muslim-Turkish Children in Germany: Sociocultural Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Zehra

    1996-01-01

    The sociocultural problems of Turkish children living in Germany are explored. Turkish immigrant children in Germany must be socialized in two societies, the traditional Turkish culture of their parents and that of German society. Religion and the Islamic-value system are often at odds with German values. (SLD)

  3. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  4. The Changing Family in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Charlotte; Luscher, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the family in West Germany. Examines family demographics; provides an overview of the main institutional forces, laws, and family policy; and refers to the organizational aspects of demography. Describes trend in Germany of shrinking household size and increasing share of one-person households. Describes statistics…

  5. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  6. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  7. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  8. Could the local population of the Lower Rhine delta supply the Roman army? Part 2: Modelling the carrying capacity of the delta using archaeological, palaeo-ecological and geomorphological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.I.; van Dinter, M.; Dütting, M.K.; van Rijn, P.; Cavallo, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this part two of a diptych of articles, we modelled and quantified the carrying capacity of the landscape and the demand and supply of the Roman army in the western Lower Rhine delta with wood and food in the period A.D.  – . The absolute volumes of the wood and food were calculated (in m a

  9. Endocrine disruptors in freshwater streams of Hesse, Germany: Changes in concentration levels in the time span from 2003 to 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quednow, Kristin [J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Strasse 14, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany)], E-mail: quednow@kristall.uni-frankfurt.de; Puettmann, Wilhelm [J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Strasse 14, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Four small freshwater streams in the region known as Hessisches Ried in Germany were investigated with respect to the temporal and spatial concentration variations of the endocrine disruptors bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP), and the technical isomer mixture of 4-nonylphenol (tech.-4-NP). Measured concentrations of the target compounds in the river water samples ranged from <20 ng/l to 1927 ng/l, <10 ng/l to 770 ng/l, and <10 ng/l to 420 ng/l for BPA, 4-tert-OP and tech.-4-NP, respectively. BPA levels were, with the exception of two samples, below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for water organisms. Tech.-4-NP concentrations showed a significant tendency of decreasing concentrations during the sampling period. This is mainly attributed to the implementation of the European Directive 2003/53/EG, which restricts both the marketing and use of nonylphenols. Results from the analysis of additionally collected water samples from sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents indicate that the STPs cannot be the only sources for tech.-4-NP found in the river water. - Concentrations of 4-nonylphenols in rivers of Hessisches Ried in Germany decreased in the sampling period from September 2003 to September 2005.

  10. Germany at CERN, from 13 to 15 November 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF, during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 02: Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committe, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 04: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF; Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committee; Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva (background); Dr Horst Wenninger, CERN and Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, visiting the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN.

  11. 76 FR 42137 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings AGENCY: United States...-1127 concerning certain lightweight thermal paper (``LWTP'') from Germany. For further information... certain lightweight thermal paper from Germany that the Department of Commerce found were sold at...

  12. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    of these consumers' lives, and are essential for achieving such basic values as self-fulfilment, recognition, social togetherness and security. This gives rise to an interested-cr shopping behaviour, which is characterized by a strong interest in product information, price, and such major quality aspects...... aspects of food, with the possible exception of price and the social aspect. Their food-related lifestyle is characterized by the fact that they hardly food to achieve basic values at all. Whatever it is these consumers want to achieve in their lives, they achieve it through other channels than food. 4......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...

  13. Estimating the prevalence of nonpaternity in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Musch, Jochen; Enczmann, Juergen; Fischer, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.

  14. Career situation of female astronomers in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Fohlmeister, J; 10.1002/asna.201211656

    2012-01-01

    We survey the job situation of women in astronomy in Germany and of German women abroad and review indicators for their career development. Our sample includes women astronomers from all academic levels from doctoral students to professors, as well as female astronomers who have left the field. We find that networking and human support are among the most important factors for success. Experience shows that students should carefully choose their supervisor and collect practical knowledge abroad. We reflect the private situation of female German astronomers and find that prejudices are abundant, and are perceived as discriminating.We identify reasons why women are more likely than men to quit astronomy after they obtain their PhD degree. We give recommendations to young students on what to pay attention to in order to be on the successful path in astronomy.

  15. Curriculum Development in Political Education: A Report on the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmuth, Hans

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Hessian General Guidelines for Social Education and the Guidelines for Political Education of North Rhine-Westphalia which have led to curricular innovations since the mid-1970s. Also discusses advantages and limitations of integration of history, politics, and geography or history, politics, and social sciences. (KC)

  16. Effects of climate, land use and changes in these on water availability and high water events in Europe. Projects: Effects of climate change on water availability and high water events in Germany and Europe: An integrated analysis. - Water availability and high water discharge (Elbe and Oder rivers) as a function of climate and land use and changes in these. - Modelling of discharge in the upper section of the Oder river in case of extreme high water events.. Joint final report; Auswirkungen des Klimas und der Landnutzung sowie ihrer Aenderungen auf die Wasserverfuegbarkeit und auf Hochwasserereignisse in Europa. Einzelprojekte: Einfluss des Klimawandels auf Wasserverfuegbarkeit und Hochwasser in Deutschland und Europa: eine integrierte Analyse. - Wasserverfuegbarkeit und Hochwasserabfluss (Elbe- und Odergebiet) in Abhaengigkeit von Klima und Landnutzung und deren Aenderungen. - Modellierung des Abflusses im Oberlauf der Oder fuer Extremereignisse. Gemeinsamer Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcamo, J.; Doell, P.; Lehner, B.; Becker, A.; Beckmann, T.; Mengelkamp, H.T.; Sutmoeller, J.

    2001-07-01

    The integrated global water model WaterGAP (macroscale; time step: 1 month) was used for large-scale simulation of the effects of climate change and global change on water availability, high water and low water events and the hydroelectric potential of Germany and Europe, in consideration of long-term scenarios of change. The polygon-based hydrological modelling system ARC/EGMO, with high spatial resolution (mesoscale; time step: 1 day) is used for investigations with high spatial and temporal differentiation of the effects of changes in climate and land use on discharge in river catchment areas of different sizes, i.e. with different degrees of complexity of modelling. The investigations focused on the Elbe and Oder region. The development of high water events as in July 1997 on the upper section of the Oder river is investigated in detail using the complex, high-resolution model system GESIMA/SEWAB/TOPMODEL (mesoscale; time step: 1 hour) [German] Das integrierte globale Wassermodell WaterGAP (makroskalig, Zeitschritt: 1 Monaten) wird zur grossskaligen Simulation der Auswirkungen von Klimaaenderungen und Globalem Wandel auf die Wasserverfuegbarkeit (Wasserdargebot und Wassernutzung), auf die Hoch- und Niedrigwasserhaeufigkeiten und auf das Wasserkraftpotential in Deutschland und Europa unter Verwendung langfristiger Aenderungszenarien eingesetzt. Das raeumlich hochaufloesende, polygonbasiert arbeitende hydrologische Modellierungssystem ARC/EGMO (mesoskalig, Zeitschritt: 1 Tag) wird zur raeumlich und zeitlich differenzierten Untersuchung der Auswirkungen von Klima- und Landnutzungsaenderungen auf das Abflussverhalten in Flussgebieten unterschiedlicher Groesse eingesetzt, wobei der Modellierungsaufwand entsprechend hoeher ist. Im Rahmen des Projektverbunds erfolgt die Anwendung im Elbe- oder Odergebiet. Mithilfe des komplexen, hochaufloesenden Modellsystems GESIMA/SEWAB/TOPMODEL (mesoskalig, Zeitschritt: 1 Stunde und kleiner) wird die Entstehung von Hochwasser

  17. River Basin Management Plans - Institutional framework and planning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pia; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth;

    2011-01-01

    The report it a deliverable to the Waterpraxis project, based on research carried out in WP3. It is based on country reports from analyses of water planning in one river basin district in each of the countries Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany and Denmark, and it compares...... the institutional set-up, the public participation and the potentials and barriers for implementing the water plans....

  18. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  19. Groundwater Abstraction for Irrigation and Its Impacts on Low Flows in a Watershed in Northwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Wittenberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Low flows of the Ilmenau River (1434 km2 in northwest Germany have decreased by about 25% over the last 50 years. In the same period, moderate climate changes have taken place and annual groundwater abstractions for sprinkler irrigation have increased by up to 50 hm3 (million m3, with a strong variation due to the respective prevailing weather conditions. Time-series analyses with multiple regression analysis allow detecting and quantifying different influences on low flows. It is also shown that farmers allocate irrigation water volumes carefully according to seasonal precipitation and temperatures. Decline of groundwater levels in summer and the low flow situation are aggravated by the cumulative effect of higher irrigation in drier years. Groundwater recharge and recovery of the water table have been observed subsequently during the winter season.

  20. Precipitation- and soil moisture variability in Germany: Fully coupled WRF-Hydro vs. standard WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Rummler, Thomas; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a crucial role in land-atmosphere interactions. Land-atmosphere feedbacks are expected to be strongest in transition zones between wet and dry land surfaces. It is therefore questionable whether a physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in a numerical model would improve the realism of the simulated atmosphere. This question is investigated here for a two-year period in Germany, including a one-year spinup time, using the hydrologically enhanced version of the Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model, namely WRF-Hydro. The simulated domain covers Germany and neighboring areas. Atmospheric processes are resolved on a 4km resolution grid with explicit convection, whereas hydrological processes, namely overland flow, subsurface lateral flow and river flow, are resolved on a subgrid at 400 m resolution. This WRF-Hydro setup is run for several values of the surface infiltration parameter, in order to evaluate model result uncertainty originating from uncertainty in the description of terrestrial hydrological processes. Soil moisture variability deduced from this WRF-Hydro ensemble is compared with that deduced from a WRF-standalone ensemble. WRF and WRF-Hydro results are validated with daily gridded E-OBS datasets of precipitation and temperature from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset, and daily discharge data from the Global Runoff Data Center GRDC. The impact of the physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in WRF-Hydro is finally investigated with the concept of soil moisture memory.

  1. Interspecific Relationships in Benthic Assemblages of a Large Lowland River : Co-existence or Competition as a Result of Habitat Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, M.; Usseglio-Polatera, P.

    2005-05-01

    Macrobenthic assemblages of the lower, regulated and canalized Marne River (France) are dominated by several "exotic", recently introduced species. Arrival, installation and spread of such alien species were certainly promoted by (1) the close connection between French and other European river systems (Rhine, Danube), (2) the modification of natural river flow and benthic habitats. Both habitat characteristics (e.g. granulometric composition, organic content) and corresponding benthic assemblage structure were analysed to identify the substrate affinity of major taxa in the lower Marne River. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the possible biotic interactions (i.e. competition for food and/or space) among dominant taxa as function of habitat features and to predict the future development of newly established species, already known as potential invaders: Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia), Hypania invalida (Polychaeta), Chelicorophium curvispinum (Amphipoda), etc. Most of the newly established species, coming from the same biogeographical area ("invasional meltdown" hypothesis?), are eurytopic, with high fecundity and large food spectrum. First results demonstrated the co-existence of such species in the Marne River. But the future ecological importance of these organisms in benthic assemblages of the river depends on their present population size, population dynamics, and ability to colonize bottom substrates.

  2. Tracer-/Heat transfer decoupling in a heterogenous, fault zone based hydrothermal reservoir in the Upper Rhine Basin; Tracer-/Waermetrnasportentkopplung in einem heterogenen, stoerungszonengepraegten Hydrothermalreservoir im Oberrheingraben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghergut, I.; Licha, T.; Maier, F.; Nottebohm, M.; Sauter, M. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Geologie; Meixner, J.; Rettenmaier, D. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany). Abt. Hydrogeologie

    2012-10-16

    Heat transport processes and tracer transport processes probe the boundaries of a tracer based prognosis of the thermal lifetime for a geothermal borehole doublet in a heterogeneous hydrothermal reservoir in the Upper Rhine Basin whose behaviour is characterized by two or three large-scale not bored fault zones. A hydro-geologic structure model of the reservoir is the fundament for the identification of decisive fluid transport processes. The thermal breakdown is a rather abstract threatening with a large time distance for the geothermal borehole doublet. Nearby dangers of hydro-geochemical and hydro-mechanical nature require tracer tests for their quantification. Long dwell times are expected in a circulation test, while interpretation difficulties are expected in early tracer signals. Heat-push-shut-in tests or tracer-push-flowback tests at the geothermal re-injection drilling can supply information on transport effective aquifer parameters in an even more appropriate time. A fluid transport based characterization of the fault zones is only imaginable by means of long-term circulation tests with conservative and thermo-sensitive tracers.

  3. Basic approach to estimate subsidence and effective palaeo-heat flow of sediment basins using maturity data. Evaluation of selected regions of the Rhine Valley Graben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiller, E.; Berner, U. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Jurassic sediments of the Rhine Valley Graben (RVG) are recognised by Ladage and Berner (2012) as potential shale gas targets. The geological and tectonic development of the region is complicated, which also holds true for the past and present-day heat flow systems, which have a major imprint on the hydrocarbon generation of the region. We focus on the evaluation of the palaeo-heat flow of the RVG using thermal maturities of organic matter applying the method of Stiller and Berner (2012) which facilitates basin modeling through easy to generate pre-modeling information. Palaeo-subsurface temperatures and related heat flows of selected boreholes at the flanks and the center of the RVG have been restored. However, the reconstruction of a maximum burial is a challenge, because high temperatures within the RVG affected the physical properties of the sediments. Restored palaeo-temperatures and heat flows indicate high temperatures in the graben center and lower values at the graben flanks, however they appear to be lower then present-day temperature conditions in certain regions. The temperature distribution of the RVG has been and is still affected by circulating hot fluids and cold meteoric waters. Present-day thermal effects were not quantified by our method and complicate the reconstruction of the palaeo-temperature conditions. The results of our approach are validated using basin modeling.

  4. CHP expansion strategy in North Rhine-Westphalia. A blueprint for other regions; KWK-Ausbaustrategie in NRW. Eine Blaupause fuer andere Regionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Dominik [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schneider, Sabine [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    The North Rhine-Westphalian state government intends to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) generation to at least 25 % by 2020. Since 2013, the campaign ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'' (''KWK.NRW - Strom trifft Waerme'') of the EnergyAgency.NRW, is has been running on behalf of the NRW Climate Protection Ministry, to publicise this technology and to promote its expansion. The campaign accompanies the State Government's CHP Stimulus Programme. The EnergyAgency.NRW has organised companies and research institutions, associations and interest groups under the umbrella of ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'', aiming at co-ordinated and intensified activities in the field of combined heat and power generation. The target of the initial-project ''roadmap/CHP.NRW'' of the ''Virtual Institute / CHP.NRW'' is to develop a guideline for the application and optimisation of CHP-systems.

  5. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  6. Early retirement and mortality in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2012-02-01

    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age.

  7. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  8. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term.

  9. Training and Recruitment of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Training of German judges is part of general legal education which is the same for all regulated legal professions (judges, prosecutors, practising lawyers, lawyers in administration and private employment. This uniform qualification is acquired by passing two exams administered by the state, i.e. the Länder (not the Federation, the first exam after university studies and the second exam after state-organized practical training. The paper gives an overview of this system of legal education. Germany, as a rule, has career judges. Courts of first and second instance are administered by the Länder, therefore the Länder judicial administrations are also responsible for recruitment of young career judges. General criteria for appointment to any public office are laid down in the German constitution (Grundgesetz. Apart from this, selection proceedings differ in detail, although elaborate lists of criteria (employee profiles, competence profiles are widely used. Professional competence is judged with emphasis on exam results; personal competence and social competence are assessed in interviews with appointment commissions or staff managers of ministries of justice. The paper provides details of these proceedings and also gives the author’s personal experience with recruitment proceedings in the Court of Appeal district of Cologne.

  10. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  11. Additional challenges for uncertainty analysis in river engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Koen; Warmink, Jord; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    The management of rivers for improving safety, shipping and environment requires conscious effort on the part of river managers. River engineers design hydraulic works to tackle various challenges, from increasing flow conveyance to ensuring minimal water depths for environmental flow and inland shipping. Last year saw the completion of such large scale river engineering in the 'Room for the River' programme for the Dutch Rhine River system, in which several dozen of human interventions were built to increase flood safety. Engineering works in rivers are not completed in isolation from society. Rather, their benefits - increased safety, landscaping beauty - and their disadvantages - expropriation, hindrance - directly affect inhabitants. Therefore river managers are required to carefully defend their plans. The effect of engineering works on river dynamics is being evaluated using hydraulic river models. Two-dimensional numerical models based on the shallow water equations provide the predictions necessary to make decisions on designs and future plans. However, like all environmental models, these predictions are subject to uncertainty. In recent years progress has been made in the identification of the main sources of uncertainty for hydraulic river models. Two of the most important sources are boundary conditions and hydraulic roughness (Warmink et al. 2013). The result of these sources of uncertainty is that the identification of single, deterministic prediction model is a non-trivial task. This is this is a well-understood problem in other fields as well - most notably hydrology - and known as equifinality. However, the particular case of human intervention modelling with hydraulic river models compounds the equifinality case. The model that provides the reference baseline situation is usually identified through calibration and afterwards modified for the engineering intervention. This results in two distinct models, the evaluation of which yields the effect of

  12. Duesseldorf :An Attractive City for Investments in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ At the 3rd Chinese Enterprises Outbound Investment Conference,a seminar was sponsored by Duesseldorf municipal government,a city of 600,000 inhabitants in Germany,in hopes of attracting Chinese investments.

  13. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  14. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heong Quah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  15. EMI in Germany - Qualitative Differentiation in a Tracked Education System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  16. The Economic Performance of Germany's East European Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Germany has experienced a substantial influx of German immigrants from Eastern Europe after World War II and expects several million more as a consequence of the demise of socialism. This paper analyses the economic performance of ethnic German migrants to West Germany in comparison with native born West Germans. Ethnic German immigrants from Eastern Europe display lower levels of education, lower rates of self-employment and higher unemployment rates than natives and immigrants from East Ger...

  17. Social Deprivation and Exclusion of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence on social exclusion of immigrants in Germany. We demonstrate that when using a conventional definition of the social inclusion index typically applied in the literature, immigrants appear to experience a significant degree of social deprivation and exclusion, confirming much of the economic literature examining the economic assimilation of immigrants in Germany. We propose a weighting scheme that weights components of social inclusion by their s...

  18. Study on the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ruqiong; LI Bing; ZHENG Lina

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure for spatial information is an important part of our national information construction that is the subject of essentials on the social of spatial information. As an EU member, Germany has an obligation for the European spatial information infrastructure to provide its spatial data. The relevant experience of the Germany in the organization, design and implementation of spatial information infrastructure wil be a good reference to build our geospatial framework construction.

  19. VDMA: Germany Already European Champion at ITMA ASIA + CITME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Frankfurt/Main, Shanghai, 12th June 2012 - Occupying 6,402 square meters of booked space,Germany already won the European Championship at ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012, leaving all other competitors from Europe behind. The German exhibition area increased by 18 % compared with the 2010 edition of the show. Measured by square meters, Germany is the biggest foreign exhibiting nation at the major fair for the Asian market,

  20. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies.

  1. Impression of the NGOs in Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoSumei; YanMoufeng

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the “Moral Re-armament” Norwegian Foundation and the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation of Germany, the delegation of the Chinese Association for International Understanding(CAFIU), headed by Vice-President, Mr. Zhu Dacheng,paid a visit to Norway and Germany from May 17 to 27. During the visit, we did some research on the state of NGOs in the two countries.

  2. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  3. Regionalisation of statistical model outputs creating gridded data sets for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höpp, Simona Andrea; Rauthe, Monika; Deutschländer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the German research program ReKliEs-De (regional climate projection ensembles for Germany, http://.reklies.hlug.de) is to distribute robust information about the range and the extremes of future climate for Germany and its neighbouring river catchment areas. This joint research project is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and was initiated by the German Federal States. The Project results are meant to support the development of adaptation strategies to mitigate the impacts of future climate change. The aim of our part of the project is to adapt and transfer the regionalisation methods of the gridded hydrological data set (HYRAS) from daily station data to the station based statistical regional climate model output of WETTREG (regionalisation method based on weather patterns). The WETTREG model output covers the period of 1951 to 2100 with a daily temporal resolution. For this, we generate a gridded data set of the WETTREG output for precipitation, air temperature and relative humidity with a spatial resolution of 12.5 km x 12.5 km, which is common for regional climate models. Thus, this regionalisation allows comparing statistical to dynamical climate model outputs. The HYRAS data set was developed by the German Meteorological Service within the German research program KLIWAS (www.kliwas.de) and consists of daily gridded data for Germany and its neighbouring river catchment areas. It has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km for the entire domain for the hydro-meteorological elements precipitation, air temperature and relative humidity and covers the period of 1951 to 2006. After conservative remapping the HYRAS data set is also convenient for the validation of climate models. The presentation will consist of two parts to present the actual state of the adaptation of the HYRAS regionalisation methods to the statistical regional climate model WETTREG: First, an overview of the HYRAS data set and the regionalisation

  4. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  5. Remarkable Urban Uplift in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany: Observations from TerraSAR-X InSAR and Leveling from 2008 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Kaufmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As geothermal energy is of increasing importance as a renewable energy source, there is a high demand for comprehensive studies to prevent failure during implementation, as is the case in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany. The drilling of seven wells for the geothermal heating of the city hall in 2007 is thought to have disturbed the existing hydro-geological system in the complex structured transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif. This event has led to uplift, related to the transformation of anhydrite to gypsum, which affects the infrastructure of the city centre via the generation of large cracks. This study focuses on the application of the InSAR Small Baseline Subset (SBAS approach using 50 X-band radar images from the German TerraSAR-X satellite (TSX to map the spatial and temporal patterns of the deformation field in detail. X-band InSAR time series analysis for the three-year time period from July 2008 through May 2011 indicates maximum velocities of ~12 cm/yr in the line of sight (LOS direction, from the ground to the satellite, approximately 50 m northeast of the drilling field. In comparison with leveling data for the same time period, TSX data analysis better delineates the border of the deformation area, and it is able to map the amount of deformation associated with different parts of the city. Moreover, this comparison indicates contributions of horizontal motion, as is expected for uplift patterns.

  6. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germany’s European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Knodt

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  7. [Model calculation to explain the BSE-incidence in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Radulf C

    2004-01-01

    The future development of BSE-incidence in Germany is investigated using a simple epidemiological model calculation. Starting point is the development of the incidence of confirmed suspect BSE-cases in Great Britain since 1988, the hitherto known mechanisms of transmission and the measures taken to decrease the risk of transmission as well as the development of the BSE-incidence in Germany obtained from active post mortem laboratory testing of all cattle older then 24 months. The risk of transmission is characterized by the reproduction ratio of the disease. There is a shift in time between the risk of BSE transmission and the BSE incidence caused by the incubation time of more than 4 years. The observed decrease of the incidence in Germany from 2001 to 2003 is not a consequence of the measures taken at the end of 2000 to contain the disease. It can rather be explained by an import of BSE contaminated products from countries with a high BSE incidence in the years 1995/96 being used in calf feeding in Germany. From the future course of the BSE-incidence in Germany after 2003 a quantification of the recycling rate of BSE-infected material within Germany before the end of 2000 will be possible by use of the proposed model if the active surveillance is continued.

  8. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  9. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Dike Safety and Flood Risk in the Vidaa River System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Larsen, J.;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the flood risk and dike safety in the Vidaa River system, a cross-border catchment located in the southern part of Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany, is analysed. The river discharges to the Wadden Sea through a tidal sluice, and extreme water level conditions......, and increases in storm surge levels of up to 0.8 m in 2100 are estimated. The changes in extreme catchment run-off and sea water level have a significant effect on the flood risk in the river system. While most parts today have a low risk of dike overtopping with annual exceedance probabilities of 0.1 % or less...

  10. Reprint of: "I'm always entirely happy when I'm here!" Urban blue enhancing human health and well-being in Cologne and Düsseldorf, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Water is one of the most important landscape elements. In settled areas, planners rediscovered urban blue in the form of rivers as a soft location factor in post-industrial times. Although the recognition of the need for recreational or 'healthy' places like urban green or urban blue in cities is increasing, current urban planning is mostly conducted without taking beneficial health issues into account. In this paper an extended concept of therapeutic landscapes is used to analyse two promenades on the river Rhine in the centres of two German cities (Cologne and Düsseldorf). A complex of qualitative and quantitative methods from diverse disciplines is applied to obtain a multi-dimensional image of salutogenic health processes. The results show that the promenades are favourite places to spend leisure time and to engage in recreational activities, in addition to providing restoration from everyday stresses. Water is a strong predictor of preference and positive perceptive experiences in urban environments. Users of the promenades also report strong emotional attachments to the place. Urban blue space may be interpreted as a therapeutic landscape in various ways. The study forms a contribution to planning issues, particularly considering benefits for human health, and enhances current research concerning therapeutic landscapes.

  11. GreenTech made in Germany 3.0. Environmental Technology Atlas for Germany; GreenTech made in Germany 3.0. Umwelttechnologie-Atlas fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, Ralph; Henzelmann, Torsten; Wiedemann, Andrea [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The environmental engineering and resource efficiency has been developed into a driver of growth globally as well as in Germany. Companies operate in a highly dynamic environment being characterized by a technical progress and changes in the political and social conditions. Innovative products, processes and services which focus on environmental sustainability and efficiency are sought after on the international markets as never before.

  12. Exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in Germany in 2012; Exploration und Produktion von Erdoel und Erdgas in Deutschland 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, Michael [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    This article presents an overview of oil and gas exploration and production in Germany in 2012. The report is based on data gathered on a regular basis by the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) from the oil and gas companies and the other state mining offices. Due to the granting of new licences in the last years, a significant increase of geophysical prospecting of the subsurface for oil and gas deposits was observed. Six 3D seismic surveys were conducted. Five surveys were located in the Upper Rhine Valley and one in the lowlands of Northwest Germany. 2D seismic data were acquired in Lusatia (Brandenburg) and at the coast of the Baltic Sea. The number of exploration wells decreased once again. In 2012 nine exploration wells were drilled, compared to ten in the previous year. In addition to that number, another seven exploration wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. None of the ten new field wildcats were completed by result. Three exploration wells (appraisal wells) were completed successfully. Two of these wells confirmed the presence of gas and one the presence of oil. The number of development wells decreased significantly. In 2012 31 wells were drilled, compared to 46 in the prominent year 2011. Another 13 wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. 31 wells were completed successfully. 30 of these wells encountered oil or gas pay zones. In 2011 drilling meterage has reached its highest value since 1998. In contrast the total drilling meterage decreased slightly by less than 2000 m to 71,424 min 2012. The natural gas production continued its downward trend. Due to the depletion of gas fields, the annual natural gas production dropped by 9.1% compared to the previous year and amounted to 11.7 billion m{sup 3} (field quality). After the increase in 2011, the annual crude oil production decreased by 2.1% to 2.6 million

  13. Introduction and enlightenment of KLIWAS research program in Germany%德国KLIWAS研究项目剖析与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡健波; 朱建华; 刘长兵; 林宇; 熊红霞

    2015-01-01

    In the trend of global climate change, in 2008 the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (BMVBS) conducted a five⁃year research program abbreviated as KLIWAS, to research on the impacts of climate change on waterways and navigation of Rhine, Elbe and Danube in Germany. The catalyst for the Ministry′s research activities was the need to obtain robust scientific evidence of the impacts of climate change on the water systems in Germany and thus on the waterborne mode so as to be able to take precautions in a timely manner that will ensure the reliability of this mode of transport. In this paper, the background, tasks, methods and main results of KLIWAS, state features in KLIWAS were introduced, and enlightenment of KLIWAS was investigat⁃ed to research on the impacts of climate change on waterways and navigation in China.%在全球气候变化的大趋势下,2008年德国联邦交通、建筑与城市发展部BMVBS启动了为期5 a的KLIWAS项目,研究气候变化对德国境内的莱茵河、易北河、多瑙河这3个主要通航河流的航道与航运的影响,以期在强有力的科学证据支持下,能够采取及时的预防措施,确保德国水路运输可持续发展。文章通过介绍德国KLIWAS项目的立项背景、研究内容、研究方法以及主要的研究成果,剖析了KLIWAS项目的特点,并探讨了该项目对我国航道与航运应对未来气候变化研究的启示。

  14. The European Experience of Ensuring the Development of River Shipping Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoshchuk Olena M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the features of the inland waterway transport development in the European countries to define the main ways of development of the shipping European Union countries and the use of their experience for inland navigation in Ukraine. The paper analyzes the volume of cargo turn-over, length of inland waterways in the European countries, nomenclature of the main goods of this transportation means in Europe. There have been identified the main shipping corridors: Rhine – the main corridor linking the port cluster of Northern Europe with Hinterland; North – South, which consists of the channels in the Netherlands, Belgium and France; eastern corridor, which inland waterways cover the territory of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic; south-eastern corridor, which includes the Danube, the Main and the channels Main – Danube, Danube – Black Sea. The main elements of the program for developing the inland waterway transport in Europe «NAIADES» – Navigation and Inland Waterway Action and Development in Europe – have been analyzed.

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  16. Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kussmaul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for transposition, we are faced with a translation problem. In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for

  17. Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 is not evenly distributed in Hesse, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Mardjan; Bettge-Weller, Gudrun

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile-isolates associated with CDI in different healthcare facilities in Hesse were analysed. The most common ribotypes were 001 (31.1%) and 027 (27.0%). The proportion of ribotype 027 among regional C. difficile-isolates was 10.8% in North Hesse, 17.2% in Middle Hesse, and 33.5% in the Rhine-Main Metropolitan Area. In the latter region, ribotype 027 was the most prevalent ribotype.

  18. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. This development especially experienced an enormous upswing in the last two years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, FRG).

  19. The use of IMRT in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas [Ambulanzzentrum des UKE GmbH, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Bereich Strahlentherapie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently used, but there are no data about current frequency regarding specific tumor sites and equipment used for quality assurance (QA). An online survey about IMRT was executed from April to October 2014 by the collaborative IMRT working group (AK IMRT) of the German Association of Medical Physicists (DGMP). A total of 23 German institutions took part in the survey. Most reports came from users working with Elekta, Varian, and Siemens treatment machines, but also from TomoTherapy and BrainLab. Most frequent IMRT technology was volumetric modulated arc therapy (58.37 %: VMAT/''rapid arc''), followed by step-and-shoot IMRT (14.66 %), dynamic MLC (dMLC: 14.53 %), TomoTherapy (9.25 %), and 3.2 % other techniques. Different commercial hard- and software solutions are available for QA, whereas many institutes still develop their own phantoms. Data of 26,779 patients were included in the survey; 44 % were treated using IMRT techniques. IMRT was most frequently used for anal cancer, (whole) craniospinal irradiation, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, other tumors in the pelvic region, gynecological tumors (except for breast cancer), and brain tumors. An estimated 10 % of all patients treated in 2014 with radiation in Germany were included in the survey. It is representative for the members of the AK IMRT. IMRT may be on the way to replace other treatment techniques. However, many scientific questions are still open. In particular, it is unclear when the IMRT technique should not be used. (orig.) [German] Intensitaetsmodulierte Bestrahlungstechniken (IMRT) werden oft eingesetzt. Es gibt jedoch keine Daten ueber deren Haeufigkeit in Abhaengigkeit von den Tumorentitaeten und welche Geraete fuer die Qualitaetssicherung (QA) zum Einsatz kommen. Der Arbeitskreis IMRT (AK IMRT) der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik (DGMP) hat von April bis Oktober 2014 eine Online-Umfrage zu diesem Themenbereich

  20. Explaining differences in remuneration rates of nursing homes in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennicken, Roman; Augurzky, Boris; Rothgang, Heinz; Wasem, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Remuneration rates of German nursing homes are prospectively negotiated between long-term care insurance (LTCI) and social assistance on the one side and nursing homes on the other. They differ considerably across regions while there is no evidence for substantial differences in care provision. This article explains the differences in the remuneration rates by observable characteristics of the nursing home, its residents and its region with a special focus on the largest federal state of North Rhine Westphalia, in which the most expensive nursing homes are located. We use data from the German Federal Statistical Office for 2005 on all nursing homes that offer full-time residential care for the elderly. We find that differences in remuneration rates can partly be explained by exogenous factors. Controls for residents, nursing homes and district characteristics explain roughly 30 % of the price difference; 40 % can be ascribed to a regionally different kind of negotiation between nursing homes and LTCI. Thirty percent of the raw price difference remains unexplained by observable characteristics.