Sample records for river navigation channel

  1. Long-Term Structural Solution for the Mouth of Colorado River Navigation Channel, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraus, Nicholas C; Lin, Lihwa; Smith, Ernest R; Heilman, Daniel J; Thomas, Robert C


    ... in support of a reliable shallow-draft channel at the Mouth of the Colorado River (MCR), Texas. The site has experienced excessive sediment shoaling that has denied full project features to navigation channel users...

  2. USACE Navigation Channels 2012 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  3. Potential effects of deepening the St. Johns River navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Spechler, Rick M.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has proposed dredging a 13-mile reach of the St. Johns River navigation channel in Jacksonville, Florida, deepening it to depths between 50 and 54 feet below North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The dredging operation will remove about 10 feet of sediments from the surficial aquifer system, including limestone in some locations. The limestone unit, which is in the lowermost part of the surficial aquifer system, supplies water to domestic wells in the Jacksonville area. Because of density-driven hydrodynamics of the St. Johns River, saline water from the Atlantic Ocean travels upstream as a saltwater “wedge” along the bottom of the channel, where the limestone is most likely to be exposed by the proposed dredging. A study was conducted to determine the potential effects of navigation channel deepening in the St. Johns River on salinity in the adjacent surficial aquifer system. Simulations were performed with each of four cross-sectional, variable-density groundwater-flow models, developed using SEAWAT, to simulate hypothetical changes in salinity in the surficial aquifer system as a result of dredging. The cross-sectional models were designed to incorporate a range of hydrogeologic conceptualizations to estimate the effect of uncertainty in hydrogeologic properties. The cross-sectional models developed in this study do not necessarily simulate actual projected conditions; instead, the models were used to examine the potential effects of deepening the navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system under a range of plausible hypothetical conditions. Simulated results for modeled conditions indicate that dredging will have little to no effect on salinity variations in areas upstream of currently proposed dredging activities. Results also indicate little to no effect in any part of the surficial aquifer system along the cross section near River Mile 11 or in the water-table unit along the cross

  4. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W Hondorp

    Full Text Available Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove

  5. Investigation of sediment movement in the North Navigation Channel Area of the estuary of the Yangtze river using natural radiotracers and INAA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunhui; Li Guiqun; Zhang Qixing, Sun Maoyi


    This is a preliminary investigation of sediment in the North Navigation Channel Area of the estuary of the Yangtze river, which has been made by determining the natural radioisotopes and the INAA of 30 natural sand samples. Multivariate statistical method was used to process and analyze the data obtained. It can be seen that there are tow sediment movement routes in the investigation area. The orientation of the main sediment movement is from northwest to southeast in accordance with the results obtained from the field submarine drag-monitorings after the radiotracer injection. Besides, there is also another sand movement route existed. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  6. 33 CFR 117.751 - Shark River (South Channel). (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shark River (South Channel). 117.751 Section 117.751 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.751 Shark River (South...

  7. The River Danube: An Examination of Navigation on the River (United States)

    Cooper, R. W.

    One of the definitions of Navigation that gets little attention in this Institute is (Oxford English Dictionary), and which our French friends call La Navigation. I have always found this subject fascinating, and have previously navigated the Rivers Mekong, Irrawaddy, Hooghly, Indus, Shatt-al-Arab, Savannah and RhMainKanal (RMDK) and the River Danube, a distance of approximately 4000 km. This voyage has only recently become possible with the opening of the connecting RMDK at the end of 1992, but has been made little use of because of the civil war in the former Yugoslavia.

  8. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.


    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  9. Changing Course: navigating the future of the Lower Mississippi River (United States)

    Cochran, S.


    Changing Course is a design competition to reimagine a more sustainable Lower Mississippi River Delta, bringing teams together from around the world to create innovative visions for one of America's greatest natural resources. Building off of Louisiana's Coastal Master Plan, and answering a key question from that plan, three winning teams (Baird & Associates, Moffatt & Nichol and Studio Misi-Ziibi) have generated designs for how the Mississippi River's water and sediment can be used to maximize rebuilding of delta wetlands while also continuing to meet the needs of navigation, flood protection, and coastal industries and communities. While each of the winning teams offered a different vision, all three identified the same key requirements as critical to sustaining the Mississippi River Delta today and into the future: Reconnecting the Mississippi River to its wetlands to help restore southeast Louisiana's first line of defense against powerful storms and rising sea levels. Planning for a more sustainable delta, including a gradual shift in population to create more protected and resilient communities. Protecting and maximizing the region's port and maritime activities, including a deeper more sustainable navigation channel upriver from Southwest Pass. Increasing economic opportunities in a future smaller delta through expanding shipping capacity, coastal restoration infrastructure, outdoor recreation and tourism and commercial fishing. This session will give a high level overview of the design competition process, results and common themes, similarities and differences in their designs, and how the ideas generated will inform coastal stakeholders and official government processes.

  10. Sorting out river channel patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.


    Rivers self-organize their pattern/planform through feedbacks between bars, channels, floodplain and vegetation, which emerge as a result of the basic spatial sorting process of wash load sediment and bed sediment. The balance between floodplain formation and destruction determines the width and

  11. Sand Waves That Impede Navigation of Coastal Inlet Navigation Channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitmeyer, Shelley J; FitzGerald, Duncan M


    .... Mary's Entrance, FL; Merrimack River, MA, and Kennebec River, ME. This technical note discusses the characteristics of the bed forms found in those areas and conditions responsible for their development.

  12. 76 FR 58105 - Regulated Navigation Area; Saugus River, Lynn, MA (United States)


    ... final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable... INFORMATION: Regulatory Information The Coast Guard is issuing this temporary rule without prior notice and... Pipeline bridge poses to the navigational channel necessitates that all mariners comply with this RNA...

  13. Navigation Study, Colorado Locks, Colorado River, Matagorda, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCollum, Randy


    A 1:70 physical navigation model was built to replicate the Matagorda Locks, approximately one mile of the GIWW east of the locks, approximately one-half mile of the Colorado River north of the GIWW...

  14. Optimizing Dredge-and-Dump Activities for River Navigability Using a Hydro-Morphodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries J. Paarlberg


    Full Text Available Worldwide, significant dredging activities of riverbed sediment are employed to ensure that freight transportation on rivers can continue year-round. Imbalances of sediment budget may produce relevant impacts regarding river morphology and related environmental services. This study shows that hydro-morphodynamic modeling tools can be used to optimize dredge-and-dump activities and, at the same time, mitigate problems deriving from these activities in rivers. As a case study, we focused on dredging activities on the Lower Parana River, Argentina. Navigation on this river is of crucial importance to the economies of the bordering countries, hence, each year significant dredging activities are employed. To estimate dredging loads under different strategies, a 25 km river reach of the Parana River was modeled using the Delft3D-modelling suite by Deltares. The Netherlands, to simulate flow-sediment interactions in a quasi-steady and uncoupled approach. Impacts of dredging activities were explicitly included. Different dredge-and-dump strategies included variations in dredging over-depth (clearance and variations in dumping locations. Our results indicate that dredge-and-dump strategies can be targeted to stimulate natural processes that improve the depth and stability of the navigation channel and to counteract unwanted bed level responses in the long-medium term. A ~40% reduction in dredging effort could be achieved by moving the dredged material to distant locations in the secondary channel rather than dumping to the side of the waterway in the main channel.

  15. The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.


    Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through such channels. A similar percentage of the 37 ORWB located between Baton Rouge and Memphis on the lower Mississippi River at one time were linked to the river by tie or batture (as they are locally known) channels. Levee construction and other alterations aimed at flood control or navigation on the Mississippi have left only a handful of lakes connected to the river, of these, most are heavily altered by dredging or other modifications. Tie channels were also once common along major tributaries to the Mississippi, such as the Red River. In the much less disturbed Alaskan environment, tie channels are still common, especially along Birch Creek and the Koyukuk and Black rivers. Our studies on the Mississippi River, in Alaska and in Papua New Guinea indicate that tie channels possess a common channel form that is stable and self-maintaining for hundreds to possibly a thousand years. Tie channels exhibit narrow width to depth ratios (~ 5.5) and consistently scale in cross-sectional dimensions to the size of the lake into which they flow. Variations in river and lake stage drive flow bi-directionally through tie channels. A local high or sill in the bed of tie channels controls the degree and duration of connection between the river and ORWB, with many lakes becoming isolated during periods of low stage. The life-span of a tie channel depends on the rate of sediment loading to the ORWB. Our research indicates that this rate directly corresponds to the sediment loading in the main stem river. Along the Fly River, for example, a 5 to 7 fold increase in the river sediment load has resulted increases of 6 to 17

  16. 77 FR 47331 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl... (United States)


    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl... navigable waters of New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current RNA pertains only to the..., Quinnipiac River, and Mill River RNA. The proposed amendment would give the Captain of the Port Sector Long...

  17. 77 FR 67563 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl... (United States)


    ... 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT... Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current RNA pertains only to the operation of tugs...) entitled Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

  18. 75 FR 76943 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY (United States)


    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy Locks. This... within the waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when ice is a threat to navigation. DATES...

  19. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; Dijk, W.M. van; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.


    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to

  20. Ohio River Navigation: Past-Present-Future (United States)


    navigation structures had been built: the auxillary 56- by 360-foot lock at dam 41 (Louisville), 1930; Montgomery Locks and Dam, 1936; and Gallipolis...Mile 974.2. This project was approved in 1963, but substantial ’ delay is anticipated ina decision concerning its execu- tion. For this reason a

  1. 33 CFR 207.50 - Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.50 Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation. (a...) [Reserved] (n) Trespass on U.S. property. Trespass on U.S. property, or willful injury to the banks, masonry...

  2. Improving navigability on the Kromme River Estuary: A choice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Navigation of estuaries is a vitally important aspect of boating recreation in South Africa and elsewhere. This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate recreation values of the Kromme River Estuary, a popular estuary along South Africa's east coast. This valuation methodology allows for the identification of preferred ...

  3. 33 CFR 162.225 - Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and navigation. (United States)


    ... the river as appropriate such temporary speed regulations as he may deem necessary to protect the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia and Willamette Rivers... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.225 Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Washington and Oregon; administration and...

  4. 75 FR 8486 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York (United States)


    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... area on the navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. This regulated navigation... Hudson River south of the Troy locks when ice conditions are 8 inches or greater unless authorized by the...

  5. 76 FR 8654 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY (United States)


    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy Locks. This action is necessary to... Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when ice is a threat to navigation. DATES: This rule is effective in...

  6. 78 FR 59237 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and... (United States)


    ... regulatory action because this RNA will only be enforced when construction operations require such. Thus... establishing a temporary regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable waters of Weymouth Fore River in the...: Table of Acronyms COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register RNA...

  7. 33 CFR 162.260 - Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration, and navigation. 162.260 Section 162.260 Navigation and Navigable... WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.260 Channel leading to San Juan Harbor, P.R.; use, administration...

  8. Groundwater controls on river channel pattern (United States)

    Bätz, Nico; Colombini, Pauline; Cherubini, Paolo; Lane, Stuart N.


    Braided rivers are characterized by high rates of morphological change. However, despite the potential for frequent disturbance, vegetated patches may develop within this system and influence long-term channel dynamics and channel patterns through the "engineering effects" of vegetation. The stabilizing effect of developing vegetation on morphological change has been widely shown by flume experiments and (historic) aerial pictures analysis. Thus, there is a balance between disturbance and stabilization, mediated through vegetation, that may determine the long-term geomorphic and biogeomorphic evolution of the river. It follows that with a change in disturbance frequency relative to the rate of vegetation establishment, a systematic geomorphological shift could occur. Research has addressed how changes in disturbance frequency affect river channel pattern, but has rarely addressed the way in which the stabilizing effects of biogeomorphic succession interact with disturbance frequency to maintain a river in a more dynamic or a less dynamic state. Here, we quantify how the interplay between groundwater access, disturbance frequency and vegetation succession, drive changes in channel pattern. We studied this complex interplay on a transitional gravel-bed river system (braided, wandering, meandering) close to Geneva (Switzerland) - the Allondon River. Dendroecological analysis demonstrate that vegetation growth is driven by groundwater access. Groundwater access conditions the rate of vegetation stabilization at the sub-reach scale and, due to a reduction in flood-related disturbance frequency over the last 50 years, drives a change in channel pattern. Where groundwater is shallower, vegetation encroachment rates were high and as flood-related disturbance decreased, the river has shifted towards a meandering state. Where groundwater was deeper, vegetation growth was limited by water-access and thus vegetation encroachment rates were low. Even though there was a

  9. The human role in changing river channels (United States)

    Gregory, K. J.


    Direct consequences of the human role, where human activity affects river channels through engineering works including channelization, dam construction, diversion and culverting, have been long recognised [Marsh, G.P., 1864. Man and Nature or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. Charles Scribner, New York; Thomas Jr., W.L., (ed.) 1956. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.]. The less obvious indirect effects of point and reach changes occurring downstream and throughout the basin, however, are much more recently appreciated, dating from key contributions by Strahler [Strahler, A.N., 1956. The nature of induced erosion and aggradation. In W. L. Thomas (Ed.), Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 621-638.], Wolman [Wolman, M.G., 1967. A cycle of sedimentation and erosion in urban river channels. Geografiska Annaler 49A, 385-95.], Schumm [Schumm, S.A., 1969. River metamorphosis. Proceedings American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal Hydraulics Division 95, 255-73.], and Graf [Graf, W.L., 1977. The rate law in fluvial geomorphology. American Journal of Science, 277, 178-191.]. These are complemented by effects of alterations of land use, such as deforestation, intensive agriculture and incidence of fire, with the most extreme effects produced by building activity and urbanisation. Changing river channels are most evident in the channel cross-section where changes of size, shape and composition are now well-established, with up to tenfold increases or decreases illustrated by results from more than 200 world studies. In addition the overall channel planform, the network and the ecology have changed. Specific terms have become associated with changing river channels including enlargement, shrinkage and metamorphosis. Although the scope of adjustment has been established, it has not always been possible to predict what will happen in a particular location

  10. Application of γ ray to field investigation of float mud in ocean outfalls and navigation channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Ruiji; Ding Yuanguo; Cheng Hesen


    The γ ray gauge is used to investigate the density and distribution of float mud in navigation channel area on site. The results provide important prototype information for effectively using navigable depth and studying rules of back silting. (authors)

  11. Effects of Drawdown and Structures on Bed-Load Transport in Pool 8 Navigation Channel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abraham, David; Hendrickson, Jon


    ... of a pool drawdown and structures on bed-load transport in the Pool 8 navigation channel. Work was conducted as part of the Monitoring of Completed Navigation Projects (MCNP) program. BACKGROUND...

  12. Landuse Types within Channel Corridor and River Channel Morphology of River Ona, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olutoyin Fashae


    Full Text Available The importance of river a corridor warrants a well thought out and balanced management approach because it helps in improving or maintaining water quality, protecting wetlands, etc. Hence, this study seeks to identify major landuse types within the River Ona Corridor; examine the impact of these landuse types within the River Ona corridor on its channel morphology and understand the risk being posed by these landuse types. The study is designed by selecting two reaches of six times the average width from each of the four major landuse types that exist along the river corridor. This study revealed that along the downstream section of Eleyele Dam of River Ona, natural forest stabilizes river channel banks, thereby presenting a narrow and shallow width and depth respectively but the widest of all is found at the agricultural zones.

  13. Tamarisk and river-channel management (United States)

    Graf, William L.


    Tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis, Lour.) an artificially introduced tree, has become a most common species in many riparian vegetation communities along the rivers of the western United States. On the Salt and Gila rivers of central Arizona, the plant first appeared in the early 1890s, and by 1940 it grew in dense thickets that posed serious flood-control problems by substantially reducing the capacities of major channels. Since 1940 its distribution and density in central Arizona have fluctuated in response to combined natural processes and human management. Groundwater levels, channel waters, floods, irrigation return waters, sewage effluent, and sedimentation behind retention and diversion works are major control mechanisms on the growth of tamarisk; on a regional scale of analysis, groundwater levels are the most significant under present conditions.

  14. Numerical modelling of channel processes and analysis of possible channel improvement measures on the Lena River near city Yakutsk (United States)

    Krylenko, Inna; Belikov, Vitaly; Zavadskii, Aleksander; Borisova, Natalya; Golovlyov, Pavel; Rumyantsev, Alexey


    City Yakutsk (administrative, culture and industrial center of the North East of Russia) situated on the left bank of large Russian river Lena last decades has faced with many problems, concerning intensive channel processes. Most dramatic among them are sediment accumulation near main water intake structure, supplying city Yakutsk by the drinking water, and deterioration in conditions of the navigation roots to the main city ports. Hydrodynamic modelling has been chosen as the main tool for analyses of the modern tendencies in channel processes and for the evaluation of possible channel improvement measures efficiency. STREAM_2D program complex (authors V. Belikov et al.), which is based on the numerical solution of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on a hybrid curvilinear quadrangular and rectangular mesh and take into account sediment transport, was used for the simulations. Detailed field data about water regime of the Lena river, bathymetry of the channels and topography of the floodplains was collected for model developing. Model area has covered 75 km of the Lena river valley including branched channels and wide floodplain from Tabaga to Kangalassy gauge cites. Data of these stations were used for model boundary conditions assigning. Data of gauge station city Yakutsk as well as measured during field campaign water levels and flow velocities was taken into account for model calibration and validation. Results of modelling has demonstrated close correspondence with observed water levels and discharges distribution between channel branches for different hydrological situations. Different combinations of hydrographs of 1, 10, 50% exceedance probability was used as input for modelling of channel deformations. Simulation results has shown that in future 10 years aligning of water discharges distribution between main Lena river branches near Yakutsk is possible, that is a positive tendency from the point of view of water supply of the city. More than 15

  15. Channel Planform Dynamics Monitoring and Channel Stability Assessment in Two Sediment-Rich Rivers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Kuo


    Full Text Available Recurrent flood events induced by typhoons are powerful agents to modify channel morphology in Taiwan’s rivers. Frequent channel migrations reflect highly sensitive valley floors and increase the risk to infrastructure and residents along rivers. Therefore, monitoring channel planforms is essential for analyzing channel stability as well as improving river management. This study analyzed annual channel changes along two sediment-rich rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Gaoping River, from 2008 to 2015 based on satellite images of FORMOSAT-2. Channel areas were digitized from mid-catchment to river mouth (~90 km. Channel stability for reaches was assessed through analyzing the changes of river indices including braid index, active channel width, and channel activity. In general, the valley width plays a key role in braided degree, active channel width, and channel activity. These indices increase as the valley width expands whereas the braid index decreases slightly close to the river mouth due to the change of river types. This downstream pattern in the Zhuoshui River was interrupted by hydraulic construction which resulted in limited changes downstream from the weir, due to the lack of water and sediment supply. A 200-year flood, Typhoon Morakot in 2009, induced significant changes in the two rivers. The highly active landscape in Taiwan results in very sensitive channels compared to other regions. An integrated Sensitivity Index was proposed for identifying unstable reaches, which could be a useful reference for river authorities when making priorities in river regulation strategy. This study shows that satellite image monitoring coupled with river indices analysis could be an effective tool to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in channel stability in highly dynamic river systems.

  16. The Legal Implications for the Navigation Development of Bystroye Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache Bocaniala


    Full Text Available On May 11, 2004, Ukraine began the construction of the Danube - Black Sea Channel (Chilia and Bystroe river branch in the Danube Delta. The project, which had economic, political and even military interests, has been questioned since the formation of national and international environmental organizations (of both countries, which are likely to cause significant negative transboundary impact on the Danube Delta ecosystem. We conclude that, in defiance of the bilateralagreements with the Romanian and the international ones, Ukraine continued its works to complete the project, applying the policy of the complete fact. In this document we intend to highlight anumber of legal implications of the problem and the current international context as well, favorable for directing the demarche to a correct resolution.

  17. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  18. 78 FR 29648 - Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, Between Prospect and... (United States)


    ... 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, Between Prospect... River between Prospect and Verona, ME, under and surrounding the Waldo- Hancock Bridge in order to... Prospect and Verona, ME. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA): All...

  19. Channel belt architecture formed by a meandering river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Dijk, W.M. van; Kleinhans, M.G.


    Stratification in channel belts is the key to reconstructing formative channel dimensions and palaeoflow conditions; this requires an understanding of the relation between river morphodynamics and set thickness. So far, theories for reconstruction of the original morphology from preserved

  20. Fusion of navigational data in River Information Services (United States)

    Kazimierski, W.


    . Their main advantage over AIS is total independence from tracked target's facilities. For example, wrong indications of ship's GPS would affect AIS accuracy, but wouldn't have any impact on values estimated by radar. In addition to this in many times update rate for AIS data is longer than for radar. Thus, it can be noticed, that efficient tracking system introduced in RIS shall use both AIS receivers (based on satellite derived positions), and independent radar and camera sensors. This will however cause determining at least two different set of information about positions and movement parameters of targets. Doubled or multiplied vectors for single target are unacceptable, due to safety of navigation and traffic management. Hence the need of data fusion in RIS is obvious. The main goal is to develop unambiguous, clear and reliable information about ships' position and movement for all users in the system. Data fusion itself is not a new problem in maritime navigation. There are systems of Integrated Bridge on sea-going ships, which use information coming out from different sources. However the possibilities of integration of navigational information in the aspect of inland navigation, especially in River Information Services, still needs to be thoroughly surveyed. It is quite useful for simplifying the deduction, to introduce two data fusion levels. First of them is being done on board of the vessel. Its aim is to integrate all information coming from different sensors in the so called Integrated Navigational System. The other task of this fusion is to estimate reliable information about other objects based on AIS and radar. The second level is the integration of AIS, radar and closed-circuit television (CCTV) carried out in coastal station in order to determine Tactical and Strategic Traffic Image. The navigational information in RIS itself can be divided into two main groups. The first one is called static data and contains al basic information related to ship itself

  1. Ohio River navigation investment model: Requirements and model design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronzini, M.S.; Curlee, T.R.; Leiby, P.N.; Southworth, F.; Summers, M.S.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is assisting the US Army Corps of Engineers in improving its economic analysis procedures for evaluation of inland waterway investment projects along the Ohio River System. This paper describes the context and design of an integrated approach to calculating the system-wide benefits from alternative combinations of lock and channel improvements, providing an ability to project the cost savings from proposed waterway improvements in capacity and reliability for up to fifty years into the future. The design contains an in-depth treatment of the levels of risk and uncertainty associated with different multi-year lock and channel improvement plans, including the uncertainty that results from a high degree of interaction between the many different waterway system components.

  2. Incorporation of formal safety assessment and Bayesian network in navigational risk estimation of the Yangtze River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Yan, X.P.; Yang, Z.L.; Wall, A.; Wang, J.


    Formal safety assessment (FSA), as a structured and systematic risk evaluation methodology, has been increasingly and broadly used in the shipping industry around the world. Concerns have been raised as to navigational safety of the Yangtze River, China's largest and the world's busiest inland waterway. Over the last few decades, the throughput of ships in the Yangtze River has increased rapidly due to the national development of the Middle and Western parts of China. Accidents such as collisions, groundings, contacts, oil-spills and fires occur repeatedly, often causing serious consequences. In order to improve the navigational safety in the Yangtze River, this paper estimates the navigational risk of the Yangtze River using the FSA concept and a Bayesian network (BN) technique. The navigational risk model is established by considering both probability and consequences of accidents with respect to a risk matrix method, followed by a scenario analysis to demonstrate the application of the proposed model

  3. Navigation Study of Lower Lock Approach, John Day Lock and Dam, Columbia River, Oregon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Donald


    Representatives of the Columbia River Towing Association reported recent structural and/or operational changes at John Day Lock and Dam have created difficult navigation conditions for tows entering...

  4. 78 FR 34255 - Regulated Navigation Area; Vessel Traffic in Vicinity of Marseilles Dam; Illinois River (United States)


    ... of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Regulatory History... Navigation Area (RNA) on the Illinois River. This Temporary Final Rule stipulates operational requirements... Mile Marker 240.0 to Mile Marker 271.4. This RNA is necessary to protect the general public, vessels...

  5. River channel morphology and hydraulics properties due to introduction of plant basket hydraulic structures for river channel management (United States)

    Kałuża, Tomasz; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Plesiński, Karol; Walczak, Natalia; Szoszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Radecki-Pawlik, Bartosz


    In the present time integrated water management is directly connected with management and direct works in river channels themselves which are taking into account morphological processes in rivers and improve flow conditions. Our work focused on the hydraulic and hydrodynamic consequences upon the introduction of the concept of the improvement of the hydromorphological conditions of the Flinta River in a given reach following river channel management concept. Based on a comprehensive study of the hydromorphological state of the river, four sections were selected where restoration measures can efficiently improve river habitat conditions in the river. For each section a set of technical and biological measures were proposed and implemented in practice. One of the proposed solutions was to construct plant basket hydraulic structures (PBHS) within the river channel, which are essentially plant barriers working as sediment traps, changing river channel morphology and are in line with concepts of Water Framework Directive. These relatively small structures work as crested weirs and unquestionably change the channel morphology. Along our work we show the results of three-year long (2013-2015) systematic measurements that provided information on the morphological consequences of introducing such structures into a river channel. Our main conclusions are as follows: 1. Plant basket hydraulic structures cause changes in hydrodynamic conditions and result in sediment accumulation and the formation of river backwaters upstream and downstream the obstacle; 2. The introduced plant basket hydraulic structures cause plant debris accumulation which influences the hydrodynamic flow conditions; 3. The installation of plant basket hydraulic structures on the river bed changes flow pattern as well as flow hydrodynamic conditions causing river braiding process; 4. The erosion rate below the plant basket hydraulic structures is due to the hydraulic work conditions of the PBHS and its

  6. Improvement of fish habitat in a Norwegian river channelization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, J.E.; Brabrand, A.; Saltveit, S.J.; Heggenes, J.


    Techniques for reducing adverse effects of river and lake regulation are being developed and tested within the framework of the Norwegian Biotope Adjustment Programme. The programme is illustrated by studies of a river flowing through the wetland area, Lesjaleirene, which has been drained and channelized to provide additional agricultural land. The channelized river has a homogeneous sand substrate. Experimental placement of rocks and stones increased brown trout densities, especially in areas in contact with the river banks. The new areas of rocks and stones provide cover for fish as well as a greater variation in depth and flow conditions. (Author)

  7. A self-regulating model of bedrock river channel geometry (United States)

    Stark, C. P.


    The evolution of many mountain landscapes is controlled by the incision of bedrock river channels. While the rate of incision is set by channel shape through its mediation of flow, the channel shape is itself set by the history of bedrock erosion. This feedback between channel geometry and incision determines the speed of landscape response to tectonic or climatic forcing. Here, a model for the dynamics of bedrock channel shape is derived from geometric arguments, a normal flow approximation for channel flow, and a threshold bed shear stress assumption for bedrock abrasion. The model dynamics describe the competing effects of channel widening, tilting, bending, and variable flow depth. Transient solutions suggest that channels may take ~1-10 ky to adapt to changes in discharge, implying that channel disequilibrium is commonplace. If so, landscape evolution models will need to include bedrock channel dynamics if they are to probe the effects of climate change.

  8. Channel Bank Cohesion and the Maintenance of Suspension Rivers (United States)

    Dunne, K. B. J.; Jerolmack, D. J.


    Gravel-bedded rivers organize their channel geometry and grain size such that transport is close to the threshold of motion at bankfull. Sand-bedded rivers, however, typically maintain bankfull fluid shear (or Shields) stresses far in excess of threshold; there is no widely accepted explanation for these "suspension rivers". We propose that all alluvial rivers are at the threshold of motion for their erosion-limiting material, i.e., the structural component of the river cross-section that is most difficult to mobilize. The entrainment threshold of gravel is large enough that bank cohesion has little influence on gravel-bed rivers. Sand, however, is the most easily entrained material; silt and clay can raise the entrainment threshold of sand by orders of magnitude. We examine a global dataset of river channel geometry and show that the shear stress range for sand-bedded channels is entirely within the range of entrainment thresholds for sand-mud mixtures - suggesting that rivers that suspend their sandy bed material are still threshold rivers in terms of bank material. We then present new findings from a New Jersey coastal-plain river examining if and how river-bank toe composition controls hydraulic geometry. We consider the toe because it is the foundation of the river bank, and its erosion leads to channel widening. Along a 20-km profile of the river we measure cross-section geometry, bed slope, and bed and bank composition, and we explore multiple methods of measuring the threshold shear stress of the the river-bank toe in-situ. As the composition of the river bed transitions from gravel to sand, we see preliminary evidence of a shift from bed-threshold to bank-threshold control on hydraulic geometry. We also observe that sub-bankfull flows are insufficient to erode (cohesive) bank materials, even though transport of sand is active at nearly all flows. Our findings highlight the importance of focusing on river-bank toe material, which in the studied stream is

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix H: Navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Navigation Technical Appendix presents the analysis of the various SOR alternatives in terms of their potential affects on the congressionally authorized navigation system within the Columbia and Snake river waterways. The focus of the study, impacts to the authorized navigation, improvements/developments, reflects on one of the continuing historical missions of the US Army Corps of Engineers: to promote safe commercial navigation of the nation's waterways benefiting the development of commerce within the US. The study and evaluation process involved Scoping, Screening and Full Scale Evaluation. During screening two models were developed; one was used to evaluate the effects of the various alternatives on navigation through the Snake River Projects and the other the effects on the Dworshak Pool. Full Scale Analysis was expanded to included a study of effects throughout the system

  10. Analysis of Sedimentation Rates in the Densu River Channel: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment is important in determining the morphology of river systems. The Densu basin has come under intense anthropogenic activities such as farming, sand winning, bushfires, among others, which are impacting on the fluvial processes, forms and channel morphology of the river. The study investigated sedimentation of ...

  11. Particle size distribution of main-channel-bed sediments along the upper Mississippi River, USA (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan; Heine, Ruben A.; Ickes, Brian


    In this study, we compared pre-lock-and-dam (ca. 1925) with a modern longitudinal survey of main-channel-bed sediments along a 740-km segment of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) between Davenport, IA, and Cairo, IL. This comparison was undertaken to gain a better understanding of how bed sediments are distributed longitudinally and to assess change since the completion of the UMR lock and dam navigation system and Missouri River dams (i.e., mid-twentieth century). The comparison of the historic and modern longitudinal bed sediment surveys showed similar bed sediment sizes and distributions along the study segment with the majority (> 90%) of bed sediment samples having a median diameter (D50) of fine to coarse sand. The fine tail (≤ D10) of the sediment size distributions was very fine to medium sand, and the coarse tail (≥ D90) of sediment-size distribution was coarse sand to gravel. Coarsest sediments in both surveys were found within or immediately downstream of bedrock-floored reaches. Statistical analysis revealed that the particle-size distributions between the survey samples were statistically identical, suggesting no overall difference in main-channel-bed sediment-size distribution between 1925 and present. This was a surprising result given the magnitude of river engineering undertaken along the study segment over the past ~ 90 years. The absence of substantial differences in main-channel-bed-sediment size suggests that flow competencies within the highly engineered navigation channel today are similar to conditions within the less-engineered historic channel.

  12. Seismic stochastic inversion identify river channel sand body (United States)

    He, Z.


    The technology of seismic inversion is regarded as one of the most important part of geophysics. By using the technology of seismic inversion and the theory of stochastic simulation, the concept of seismic stochastic inversion is proposed.Seismic stochastic inversion can play an significant role in the identifying river channel sand body. Accurate sand body description is a crucial parameter to measure oilfield development and oilfield stimulation during the middle and later periods. Besides, rational well spacing density is an essential condition for efficient production. Based on the geological knowledge of a certain oilfield, in line with the use of seismic stochastic inversion, the river channel sand body in the work area is identified. In this paper, firstly, the single river channel body from the composite river channel body is subdivided. Secondly, the distribution of river channel body is ascertained in order to ascertain the direction of rivers. Morever, the superimposed relationship among the sand body is analyzed, especially among the inter-well sand body. The last but not at the least, via the analysis of inversion results of first vacuating the wells and continuous infilling later, it is meeted the most needs well spacing density that can obtain the optimal inversion result. It would serve effective guidance for oilfield stimulation.

  13. Navigation Signal Disturbances by Multipath Propagation - Scaled Measurements with a Universal Channel Sounder Architecture (United States)

    Geise, Robert; Neubauer, Bjoern; Zimmer, Georg


    The performance of navigation systems is always reduced by unwanted multipath propagation. This is especially of practical importance for airborne navigation systems like the instrument landing system (ILS) or the VHF omni directional radio range (VOR). Nevertheless, the quantitative analysis of corresponding, potentially harmful multipath propagation disturbances is very difficult due to the large parameter space. Experimentally difficulties arise due to very expensive, real scale measurement campaigns and numerical simulation techniques still have shortcomings which are briefly discussed. In this contribution a new universal approach is introduced on how to measure very flexibly multipath propagation effects for arbitrary navigation systems using a channel sounder architecture in a scaled measurement environment. Two relevant scenarios of multipath propagation and the impact on navigation signals are presented. The first describes disturbances of the ILS due to large taxiing aircraft. The other example shows the influence of rotating wind turbines on the VOR.

  14. Channel Restoration Design for Meandering Rivers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soar, Philip


    .... A geomorphic engineering approach is presented, which recognizes that the river is ultimately the best restorer of its natural morphology and should be allowed to participate in its own recovery...

  15. Transient river response, captured by channel steepness and its concavity (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Govers, Gerard; Molina, Armando; Campforts, Benjamin; Kubik, Peter W.


    Mountain rivers draining tropical regions are known to be great conveyor belts carrying efficiently more than half of the global sediment flux to the oceans. Many tropical mountain areas are located in tectonically active belts where the hillslope and stream channel morphology are rapidly evolving in response to changes in base level. Here, we report basin-wide denudation rates for an east-west transect through the tropical Andes. Hillslope and channel morphology vary systematically from east to west, reflecting the transition from high relief, strongly dissected topography in the escarpment zones into relatively low relief topography in the inter-Andean valley. The spatial pattern of differential denudation rates reflects the transient adjustment of the landscape to rapid river incision following tectonic uplift and river diversion. In the inter-Andean valley, upstream of the wave of incision, slopes and river channels display a relatively smooth, concave-up morphology and denudation rates (time scale of 104-105 a) are consistently low (3 to 200 mm/ka). In contrast, slopes and river channels of rejuvenated basins draining the eastern cordillera are steep to very steep; and the studied drainage basins show a wide range of denudation rate values (60 to 400 mm/ka) that increase systematically with increasing basin mean slope gradient, channel steepness, and channel convexity. Drainage basins that are characterised by strong convexities in their river longitudinal profiles systematically have higher denudation rates. As such, this is one of the first studies that provides field-based evidence of a correlation between channel concavity and basin mean denudation rates, consistent with process-based fluvial incision models.

  16. Predictive techniques for river channel evolution and maintenance (United States)

    Nelson, J.M.


    Predicting changes in alluvial channel morphology associated with anthropogenic and natural changes in flow and/or sediment supply is a critical part of the management of riverine systems. Over the past few years, advances in the understanding of the physics of sediment transport in conjunction with rapidly increasing capabilities in computational fluid dynamics have yielded now approaches to problems in river mechanics. Techniques appropriate for length scales ranging from reaches to bars and bedforms are described here. Examples of the use of these computational approaches are discussed for three cases: (1) the design of diversion scenarios that maintain channel morphology in steep cobble-bedded channels in Colorado, (2) determination of channel maintenance flows for the preservation of channel islands in the Snake River in Idaho, and (3) prediction of the temporal evolution of deposits in lateral separation zones for future assessment of the impacts of various dam release scenarios on lateral separation deposits in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. With continued development of their scientific and technical components, the methodologies described here can provide powerful tools for the management of river environments in the future.

  17. The Pleistocene rivers of the English Channel region (United States)

    Antoine, Pierre; Coutard, Jean-Pierre; Gibbard, Philip; Hallegouet, Bernard; Lautridou, Jean-Pierre; Ozouf, Jean-Claude


    The Pleistocene history of river systems that enter the English Channel from northern France and southern England is reviewed. During periods of low sea-level (cold stages) these streams were tributaries of the Channel River. In southern England the largest, the River Solent, is an axial stream that has drained the Hampshire Basin from the Early Pleistocene or late Pliocene. Other streams of southern England may be of similar antiquity but their records are generally short and their sedimentary history have been destroyed, as in northern Brittany, by coastal erosion and valley deepening as a consequence of tectonic uplift. In northern France, the Seine and Somme rivers have very well developed terrace systems recording incision that began at around 1 Ma. The uplift rate, deduced from the study of these terrace systems, is of 55 to 60 m myr-1 since the end of the Early Pleistocene. Generally the facies and sedimentary structures indicate that the bulk of the deposits in these rivers accumulated in braided river environments under periglacial climates in all the area around the Channel. Evolution of the rivers reflects their responses to climatic change, local geological structure and long-term tectonic activity. In this context the Middle Somme valley is characterised by a regular pattern in which incision occurs at the beginning of each glacial period within a general background of uplift. Nevertheless the response of the different rivers to climatic variations, uplift and sea-level changes is complex and variable according to the different parts of the river courses.

  18. 33 CFR 207.610 - St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor and U.S. breakwater. 207.610 Section 207... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.610 St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  19. Environmental and Navigation Improvement Study of Wolf Island, Mississippi River, Miles 936.5 to 929

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davinroy, Robert


    .... Army Corps of Engineers. The study was initiated in order to evaluate sedimentation trends in a major side channel of the Mississippi River and to access various structural design alternative impacts...

  20. 76 FR 31895 - Regulated Navigation Area; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD (United States)


    ... navigation area (RNA) in certain waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland, on July 23, 2011. This RNA is necessary to provide for the safety of life, property and the environment. This RNA... number is 202-366-9329. To avoid duplication, please use only one of these four methods. See the ``Public...

  1. 77 FR 73916 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge Rehabilitation Project, Mystic River, MA (United States)


    ... against hazardous conditions created by repair work on the S99 Alford Street Bridge across the Mystic... navigation area that was promulgated to protect the public against hazardous conditions created by repair... restaurants), and vessels who intend to transit in the Mystic River beneath the S99 Alford Street Bridge...

  2. 75 FR 39839 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of NY/NJ (United States)


    ... navigation area (RNA) from Port Coeymans, New York on the Hudson River to Jersey City, New Jersey on Upper... replacement span. DATES: This rule is effective from July 13, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The RNA will be... time and place announced by a later notice in the Federal Register. [[Page 39840

  3. 77 FR 41717 - Regulated Navigation Area; Original Waldo-Hancock Bridge Removal, Penobscot River, Bucksport, ME (United States)


    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Original Waldo-Hancock Bridge Removal, Penobscot River, Bucksport, ME..., ME, under and surrounding the original Waldo-Hancock Bridge in order to facilitate the removal of the... Coast Guard informed MEDOT that the deconstruction of the original Waldo- Hancock Bridge would require...

  4. Missouri River 1943 Compact Line (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Flood Control, Bank Stabilization and development of a navigational channel on the Missouri River had a great impact on the river and adjacent lands. The new...

  5. The Planform Mobility of Large River Channel Confluences (United States)

    Sambrook Smith, Greg; Dixon, Simon; Nicholas, Andrew; Bull, Jon; Vardy, Mark; Best, James; Goodbred, Steven; Sarker, Maminul


    Large river confluences are widely acknowledged as exerting a controlling influence upon both upstream and downstream morphology and thus channel planform evolution. Despite their importance, little is known concerning their longer-term evolution and planform morphodynamics, with much of the literature focusing on confluences as representing fixed, nodal points in the fluvial network. In contrast, some studies of large sand bed rivers in India and Bangladesh have shown large river confluences can be highly mobile, although the extent to which this is representative of large confluences around the world is unknown. Confluences have also been shown to generate substantial bed scours, and if the confluence location is mobile these scours could 'comb' across wide areas. This paper presents field data of large confluences morphologies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basin, illustrating the spatial extent of large river bed scours and showing scour depth can extend below base level, enhancing long term preservation potential. Based on a global review of the planform of large river confluences using Landsat imagery from 1972 to 2014 this study demonstrates such scour features can be highly mobile and there is an array of confluence morphodynamic types: from freely migrating confluences, through confluences migrating on decadal timescales to fixed confluences. Based on this analysis, a conceptual model of large river confluence types is proposed, which shows large river confluences can be sites of extensive bank erosion and avulsion, creating substantial management challenges. We quantify the abundance of mobile confluence types by classifying all large confluences in both the Amazon and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basins, showing these two large rivers have contrasting confluence morphodynamics. We show large river confluences have multiple scales of planform adjustment with important implications for river management, infrastructure and interpretation of the rock

  6. Channel changes following headwater reforestation: The Ganaraska river, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttle, J.M.


    Reforestation of headwater slopes of the Ganaraska River basin in southern Ontario following World War II has resulted in decreased peak flows and has likely reduced sediment yields. Changes in channel morphology produced by these modifications to the hydrologic regime were examined for a 6.7 km section of river in the context of Schumm's (1977) qualitative model of channel response to reforestation. Flood channel width (measured from air photographs) has decreased since 1928, while cross-sectional measurements during stream gauging in the study section revealed a decrease in the channel's width/depth ratio between 1960 and 1975. Both of these trends agree with Schumm's model. Changes in channel planform were dominated by downstream translation of meander bends and by meander cutoffs. The model predicted an increase in channel sinuosity in response to decreased peak flows and bed-material yield from the basin. However, sinuosity for the entire river section decreased significantly between 1928 and 1988, and only one reach experienced an increase in sinuosity following reforestation. A possible explanation for the model's failure to describe temporal changes in the Ganaraska's sinuosity involves a negative feedback whereby the increased sinuosity produced by decreased flow and sediment yield enhances potential for ice jams and meander cutoffs, which in turn reduce sinuosity. This limited test of Schumm's model suggests that caution be used when applying the model and its variants to reconstructions of basin palaeohydrology, and predictions of channel response to anthropogenic and natural changes to the hydrologic regime. 31 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  7. Capacity of the inflow river channels of the Krpelany and Hricov reservoirs with respect to flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capekova, Z.


    In this presentation author deals with the capacity of the inflow river channels of the Krpelany and Hricov reservoirs with respect to flood control (Vah River, Orava River, Kysuce River and Rajcianka River, Slovakia)

  8. The Mystery of Historical Channel Shoaling at Houston-Galveston Navigation Channel, TX (United States)


    channel traverses through Galveston Inlet, also called Bolivar Roads, which is bordered by Bolivar Island to the north and Galveston Island to 573 HVJ Associates, Inc. (2003). “Evaluation of Atkinson and Bolivar exhibits.” Turner Collie & Braden, Inc., and

  9. 1986 Flood Control and Navigation Maps of the Mississippi River (United States)


    Leatherman Point, La. 42 294.3 Lower Limits, Ark. 22 605.0 21 622.0 Ledbetter Ldg., Miss. 20 Upper Limits, Ark. 19 655.3 S7 10 5 Lee Towhead. Mo...8217 """■"■■ CHARTS 5 CORPS OF ENGINEERS MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER mmmmmammm LEE ISLAND ^ SIARUNuC ÜANSNFR FLEETING AREA y^— AMES TOWHEAD . Morrison...ROCK LANDING Cambria Hollow ESlABLISHlJfeWWl White Sand Creek STRINGTOWN - FORT CHARTRES , 3^’ AND IVY LANDING FOfft CHARTRES BEND LT ^ Doymark

  10. Effects of slope smoothing in river channel modeling (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Liu, Frank; Hodges, Ben R.


    In extending dynamic river modeling with the 1D Saint-Venant equations from a single reach to a large watershed there are critical questions as to how much bathymetric knowledge is necessary and how it should be represented parsimoniously. The ideal model will include the detail necessary to provide realism, but not include extraneous detail that should not exert a control on a 1D (cross-section averaged) solution. In a Saint-Venant model, the overall complexity of the river channel morphometry is typically abstracted into metrics for the channel slope, cross-sectional area, hydraulic radius, and roughness. In stream segments where cross-section surveys are closely spaced, it is not uncommon to have sharp changes in slope or even negative values (where a positive slope is the downstream direction). However, solving river flow with the Saint-Venant equations requires a degree of smoothness in the equation parameters or the equation set with the directly measured channel slopes may not be Lipschitz continuous. The results of non-smoothness are typically extended computational time to converge solutions (or complete failure to converge) and/or numerical instabilities under transient conditions. We have investigated using cubic splines to smooth the bottom slope and ensure always positive reference slopes within a 1D model. This method has been implemented in the Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) and is compared to the standard HEC-RAS river solver. It is shown that the reformulation of the reference slope is both in keeping with the underlying derivation of the Saint-Venant equations and provides practical numerical stability without altering the realism of the simulation. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  11. Effects of Increased Commercial Navigation Traffic on Freshwater Mussels in the Upper Mississippi River: Ten-Year Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Andrew


    ... traffic at five historically prominent mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River (UMR). The purpose was to assess effects of increased navigation traffic caused by the newly completed Melvin Price Locks and Dam at Alton, IL...

  12. Syntectonic Mississippi River Channel Response: Integrating River Morphology and Seismic Imaging to Detect Active Faults (United States)

    Magnani, M. B.


    Alluvial rivers, even great rivers such as the Mississippi, respond to hydrologic and geologic controls. Temporal variations of valley gradient can significantly alter channel morphology, as the river responds syntectonically to attain equilibrium. The river will alter its sinuosity, in an attempt to maintain a constant gradient on a surface that changes slope through time. Therefore, changes of river pattern can be the first clue that active tectonics is affecting an area of pattern change. Here I present geomorphological and seismic imaging evidence of a previously unknown fault crossing the Mississippi river south of the New Madrid seismic zone, between Caruthersville, Missouri and Osceola, Arkansas, and show that both datasets support Holocene fault movement, with the latest slip occurring in the last 200 years. High resolution marine seismic reflection data acquired along the Mississippi river imaged a NW-SE striking north-dipping fault displacing the base of the Quaternary alluvium by 15 m with reverse sense of movement. The fault consistently deforms the Tertiary, Cretaceous and Paleozoic formations. Historical river channel planforms dating back to 1765 reveal that the section of the river channel across the fault has been characterized by high sinuosity and steep projected-channel slope compared to adjacent river reaches. In particular, the reach across the fault experienced a cutoff in 1821, resulting in a temporary lowering of sinuosity followed by an increase between the survey of 1880 and 1915. Under the assumption that the change in sinuosity reflects river response to a valley slope change to maintain constant gradient, I use sinuosity through time to calculate the change in valley slope since 1880 and therefore to estimate the vertical displacement of the imaged fault in the past 200 years. Based on calculations so performed, the vertical offset of the fault is estimated to be 0.4 m, accrued since at least 1880. If the base of the river alluvium

  13. Cyclic Sediment Trading Between Channel and River Bed Sediments (United States)

    Haddadchi, A.


    Much of the previous work on sediment tracing has focused on determining either the initial sources of the sediment (soils derive from a particular rock type) or the erosion processes generating the sediment. However, alluvial stores can be both a source and sink for sediment transported by streams. Here geochemical and fallout radionuclide tracing of river-bed and alluvial sediments are used to determine the role of secondary sources, sediment stores, as potential sources of sediment leaving Emu Creek catchment, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Activity concentrations of 137Cs on the river sediments are consistent with channel erosion being the dominant source at all sites sampled along the river. To characterise the deposition and remobilisation cycles in the catchment, a novel geochemical tracing approach was used. Successive pockets of alluvium were treated as discrete sink terms within geochemical mixing models and their source contributions compared with those of river bed sediments collected adjacent to each alluvial pocket. Three different size fractions were examined; silts and clays (banks indicates a high degree of 'trading' between the fluvial space and the alluvial space. Hence, management works aimed at primarily reducing the supply of sediments to the outlet of Emu Creek should focus on rehabilitation of channel banks in the lower catchment.

  14. Field intercomparison of channel master ADCP with RiverSonde Radar for measuring river discharge (United States)

    Spain, P.; Marsden, R.; Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Ruhl, C.


    The RiverSonde radar makes non-contact measurement of a horizontal swath of surface velocity across a river section. This radar, which has worked successfully at several rivers in the Western USA, has shown encouraging correlation with simultaneous measurements of average currents at one level recorded by an acoustic travel-time system. This work reports a field study intercomparing data sets from a 600 kHz Channel Master ADCP with the RiverSonde radar. The primary goal was to begin to explore the robustness of the radar data as a reliable index of discharge. This site Is at Three Mile Slough in Northern California, USA. The larger intent of the work is to examine variability in space and time of the radar's surface currents compared with subsurface flows across the river section. Here we examine data from a couple of periods with strong winds. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  15. River banks and channel axis curvature: Effects on the longitudinal dispersion in alluvial rivers (United States)

    Lanzoni, Stefano; Ferdousi, Amena; Tambroni, Nicoletta


    The fate and transport of soluble contaminants released in natural streams are strongly dependent on the spatial variations of the flow field and of the bed topography. These variations are essentially related to the presence of the channel banks and to the planform configuration of the channel. Large velocity gradients arise near to the channel banks, where the flow depth decreases to zero. Moreover, single thread alluvial rivers are seldom straight, and usually exhibit meandering planforms and a bed topography that deviates from the plane configuration. Channel axis curvature and movable bed deformations drive secondary helical currents which enhance both cross sectional velocity gradients and transverse mixing, thus crucially influencing longitudinal dispersion. The present contribution sets up a rational framework which, assuming mild sloping banks and taking advantage of the weakly meandering character often exhibited by natural streams, leads to an analytical estimate of the contribution to longitudinal dispersion associated with spatial non-uniformities of the flow field. The resulting relationship stems from a physics-based modeling of the flow in natural rivers, and expresses the bend averaged longitudinal dispersion coefficient as a function of the relevant hydraulic and morphologic parameters. The treatment of the problem is river specific, since it relies on an explicit spatial description, although linearized, of the flow field that establishes in the investigated river. Comparison with field data available from tracer tests supports the robustness of the proposed framework, given also the complexity of the processes that affect dispersion dynamics in real streams.

  16. Effects of river restoration on riparian biodiversity in secondary channels of the Pite River, Sweden. (United States)

    Helfield, James M; Engström, Johanna; Michel, James T; Nilsson, Christer; Jansson, Roland


    Between 1850 and 1970, rivers throughout Sweden were channelized to facilitate timber floating. Floatway structures were installed to streamline banks and disconnect flow to secondary channels, resulting in simplified channel morphologies and more homogenous flow regimes. In recent years, local authorities have begun to restore channelized rivers. In this study, we examined the effects of restoration on riparian plant communities at previously disconnected secondary channels of the Pite River. We detected no increase in riparian diversity at restored sites relative to unrestored (i.e., disconnected) sites, but we did observe significant differences in species composition of both vascular plant and bryophyte communities. Disconnected sites featured greater zonation, with mesic-hydric floodplain species represented in plots closest to the stream and mesic-xeric upland species represented in plots farthest from the stream. In contrast, restored sites were most strongly represented by upland species at all distances relative to the stream. These patterns likely result from the increased water levels in reconnected channels where, prior to restoration, upland plants had expanded toward the stream. Nonetheless, the restored fluvial regime has not brought about the development of characteristic flood-adapted plant communities, probably due to the short time interval (ca. 5 years) since restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated relatively quick responses to similar restoration in single-channel tributaries, but secondary channels may respond differently due to the more buffered hydrologic regimes typically seen in anabranching systems. These findings illustrate how restoration outcomes can vary according to hydrologic, climatic and ecological factors, reinforcing the need for site-specific restoration strategies.

  17. 76 FR 11679 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South Channel), Belmar, NJ (United States)


    ... Operation Regulation; Shark River (South Channel), Belmar, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the S71 Bridge across Shark River (South... Bridge, a bascule lift drawbridge, across Shark River (South Channel), at mile 0.8, in Belmar, NJ, has a...

  18. Predicting Bed Mobility in a Simple River Channel (United States)

    Wydzga, M. A.; Legleiter, C.; Dunne, T.


    Prediction of the frequency and spatial pattern of bed mobility in gravel bed rivers is central to a wide range of theoretical and applied interests ranging from sediment transport to the impacts of natural or managed floods on aquatic organisms. Although bed mobility has been investigated in numerous flume and field studies, accurate predictions of grain entrainment and transport in gravel bed rivers remain elusive. Alluvial rivers typically encompass a much wider range of hydraulic and sedimentological conditions than those that have been recreated in laboratory flume studies upon which many grain entrainment and transport models are based. These flume studies are limited to the examination of processes occurring over the short term, commonly with the absence of slower processes such as fine-grain infilling. On the other hand, in field studies key variables can not be controlled and the spatial complexity of processes and conditions complicate data collection and analysis. A unique opportunity currently exists to help bridge this gap between laboratory and field studies: a 3.2 km long, recently constructed, single thread, alternate bar, gravel bed river channel of the Merced River. This channel, constructed for ecosystem restoration purposes, is slowly developing greater complexity, but is still currently defined by a simple plan form and cross-sectional channel geometry compared to most natural gravel bed river channels. This channel can thus be considered a full-scale flume. In the six years since the channel was constructed, a wider range of sedimentological bed conditions have evolved than have been created in a laboratory flume. We are characterizing the bed grain sizes, flow field, grain entrainment, and the sedimentological or bed state conditions in this simple channel. The flow field is modeled using a calibrated, 2D hydrodynamic flow model, MD_SWMS. Grain entrainment is measured with both metal tags inserted into the bed, and painted rock tracers

  19. Channel Bottom Morphology in the Deltaic Reach of the Song Hau (mekong) River Channel in Vietnam (United States)

    Allison, M. A.; Weathers, H. D., III; Meselhe, E. A.


    Boat-based, channel bathymetry and bankline elevation studies were conducted in the tidal and estuarine Mekong River channel using multibeam bathymetry and LIDAR corrected for elevation by RTK satellite positioning. Two mapping campaigns, one at high discharge in October 2014 and one at low discharge in March 2015, were conducted in the lower 100 km reach of the Song Hau distributary channel to (1) examine bottom morphology and its relationship to sediment transport, and (2) to provide information to setup the grid for a multi-dimensional and reduced complexity models of channel hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics. Sand fields were identified in multibeam data by the presence of dunes that were as large as 2-4 m high and 40-80 m wavelength and by clean sands in bottom grabs. Extensive areas of sand at the head and toe of mid-channel islands displayed 10-25 m diameter circular pits that could be correlated with bucket dredge, sand mining activities observed at some of the sites. Large areas of the channel floor were relict (containing little or no modern sediment) in the high discharge campaign, identifiable by the presence of along channel erosional furrows and terraced outcrops along the channel floor and margins. Laterally extensive flat areas were also observed in the channel thalweg. Both these and the relict areas were sampled by bottom grab as stiff silty clays. Complex cross-channel combinations of these morphologies were observed in some transects, suggesting strong bottom steering of tidal and riverine currents. Relative to high discharge, transects above and below the salt penetration limit showed evidence of shallowing in the thalweg and adjacent sloping areas at low discharge in March 2015. This shallowing, combined with the reduced extent of sand fields and furrowed areas, and soft muds in grabs, suggests seasonal trapping of fine grained sediment is occurring by estuarine and tidal circulation.

  20. Long-term morphological developments of river channels separated by a longitudinal training wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T.B.; Crosato, A.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.


    Rivers have been trained for centuries by channel narrowing and straightening. This caused important damages to their ecosystems, particularly around the bank areas. We analyse here the possibility to train rivers in a new way by subdividing their channel in main and ecological channel with a

  1. Remote-Sensing Hydraulic Characterization of Channel Habitat Units in a Tropical Montane River: Bladen River, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Praskievicz


    Full Text Available The physical characteristics of river systems exert significant control on the habitat for aquatic species, including the distribution of in-stream channel habitat units. Most previous studies on channel habitat units have focused on midlatitude rivers, which differ in several substantive ways from tropical rivers. Field delineation of channel habitat units is especially challenging in tropical rivers, many of which are remote and difficult to access. Here, we developed an approach for delineating channel habitat units based on a combination of field measurements, remote sensing, and hydraulic modeling, and applied it to a 4.1-km segment of the Bladen River in southern Belize. We found that the most prevalent channel habitat unit on the study segment was runs, followed by pools and riffles. Average spacing of channel habitat units was up to twice as high on the study segment than the typical values reported for midlatitude rivers, possibly because of high erosion rates in the tropical environment. The approach developed here can be applied to other rivers to build understanding of the controls on and spatial distribution of channel habitat units on tropical rivers and to support river management and conservation goals.

  2. Data from an instrumented navigational light tower off the Savanah River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; Dicks, A.S.; Blanton, J.O.


    An oceanographic and meteorological instrumentation system operating on the Savannah Navigational Light Tower is providing synoptic information on ocean temperatures, currents, tides, and meteorological conditions. The Savannah Navigational Light Tower, an unmanned U.S. Coast Guard tower, is located about nine miles off Savannah Beach, Georgia, in about 16 m of water. The tower is currently instrumented to measure and record water temperatures from six depths, water velocities at two depts, tides, air temperature, barometric pressure, and wind speed and velocity at two heights. The outputs are currently being recorded every 10 minutes. These data aid in the interpretation of the processes governing pollutant transport in the Savannah River marine region and support other DOE funded programs in the southeastern United States. This past year, computer programs were written and are being tested for processing the raw data from the tower and for performing correlative analysis of the data

  3. Late Quaternary river channel migrations of the Kura River in Transcaucasia - tectonic versus climatic causes (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Gärtner, Andreas; Hoth, Silvan; Umlauft, Josefine; Godoladze, Tea; Faust, Dominik


    Large-scale river channel migrations either in the form of avulsions or combing, i.e. progressive lateral migrations, are global phenomena during the Late Quaternary. Such channel migrations were triggered by tectonics, climate change, human activity or a combination of those factors. River channel migrations have the potential to cause significant human and economic losses. Thus, a more thorough knowledge about underlying causes and process rates is essential. Furthermore, such studies will elucidate the sensitivity or robustness of rivers to different external and internal forcing-agents, i.e. they help to identify the dominant drivers of regional landscape evolution. The Caucasus region is part of the active collision zone between the Africa-Arabian and the Eurasian plates, and is characterized by high current tectonic activity. Furthermore, significant environmental changes took place during the Late Quaternary, i.e. the shrinking or even disappearance of glaciers in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus or fundamental changes of the vegetation cover varying between woodland and grassland-dominated vegetation. The Kura River is the main gaining stream of the Transcaucasian Depression located between the Greater Caucasus Mountains in the north and the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south, and receives several tributaries from both mountain ranges. This study focusses on the middle course of the Kura River in eastern Georgia, SE of the city of Tbilisi. Integration of fluvial geomorphology, geochronology, heavy mineral analyses and seismo-tectonic analyses demonstrates that this part of the Kura River underwent large-scale channel migrations up to >10 km during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. It is interpreted that these movements followed both tectonic and climatic triggers: Whereas SW-ward migrations were caused by tectonic uplift in and SW-directed advance of the Kura fold and thrust belt as part of the Greater Caucasus, NE-ward migrations occurred during cold

  4. River sedimentation and channel bed characteristics in northern Ethiopia (United States)

    Demissie, Biadgilgn; Billi, Paolo; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan


    Excessive sedimentation and flood hazard are common in ephemeral streams which are characterized by flashy floods. The purposes of this study was to investigate the temporal variability of bio-climatic factors in controlling sediment supply to downstream channel reaches and the effect of bridges on local hydro-geomorphic conditions in causing the excess sedimentation and flood hazard in ephemeral rivers of the Raya graben (northern Ethiopia). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was analyzed for the study area using Landsat imageries of 1972, 1986, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2012). Middle term, 1993-2011, daily rainfall data of three meteorological stations, namely, Alamata, Korem and Maychew, were considered to analyse the temporal trends and to calculate the return time intervals of rainfall intensity in 24 hours for 2, 5, 10 and 20 years using the log-normal and the Gumbel extreme events method. Streambed gradient and bed material grain size were measured in 22 river reaches (at bridges and upstream). In the study catchments, the maximum NDVI values were recorded in the time interval from 2000 to 2010, i.e. the decade during which the study bridges experienced the most severe excess sedimentation problems. The time series analysis for a few rainfall parameters do not show any evidence of rainfall pattern accountable for an increase in sediment delivery from the headwaters nor for the generation of higher floods with larger bedload transport capacities. Stream bed gradient and bed material grain size data were measured in order to investigate the effect of the marked decrease in width from the wide upstream channels to the narrow recently constructed bridges. The study found the narrowing of the channels due to the bridges as the main cause of the thick sedimentation that has been clogging the study bridges and increasing the frequency of overbank flows during the last 15 years. Key terms: sedimentation, ephemeral streams, sediment size, bridge clogging

  5. Hydrodynamics and Connectivity of Channelized Floodplains: Insights from the Meandering East Fork White River, Indiana, USA (United States)

    Czuba, J. A.; David, S. R.; Edmonds, D. A.


    High resolution topography reveals that meandering river floodplains in Indiana commonly have networks of channels. These floodplain channel networks are most prevalent in agricultural, low-gradient, wide floodplains. It appears that these networks are formed when floodplain channels connect oxbows to each other and the main river channel. Collectively, the channels in the floodplain create an interconnected network of pathways that convey water beginning at flows less than bankfull, and as stage increases, more of the floodplain becomes dissected by floodplain channels. In this work, we quantify the hydrodynamics and connectivity of the flow on the floodplain and in the main channel of the East Fork White River near Seymour, Indiana, USA. We constructed a two-dimensional numerical model using HECRAS of the river-floodplain system from LiDAR data and from main-channel river bathymetry to elucidate the behaviour of these floodplain channels across a range of flows. Model calibration and verification data included stage from a USGS gage, high-water marks at a high and medium flow, and an aerial photograph of inundation in the floodplain channels. The numerical model simulated flow depth and velocity, which was used to quantify connectivity of the floodplain channels, exchange between the main channel and floodplain channels, and residence time of water on the floodplain. Model simulations suggest that the floodplain channels convey roughly 50% of the total flow at what is typically considered "bankfull" flow. Overall, we present a process-based approach for analyzing complex floodplain-river systems where an individual floodplain-river system can be distilled down to a set of characteristic curves. Notably, we map the East Fork White River system to exchange-residence time space and argue that this characterization forms the basis for thinking about morphologic evolution (e.g., sediment deposition and erosion) and biogeochemistry (e.g., nitrate removal) in floodplain-river

  6. Architecture of channel-belt deposits in an aggrading shallow sandbed braided river: the lower Niobrara River, northeast Nebraska (United States)

    Skelly, Raymond L.; Bristow, Charlie S.; Ethridge, Frank G.


    Architecture of recent channel-belt deposits of the Niobrara River, northeast Nebraska, USA, records the response of a sandy braided river to rapid base-level rise. Up to 3 m of aggradation has occurred within the lower 14 km of the Niobrara River since the mid-1950s as a result of base-level rise at the confluence of the Niobrara and Missouri Rivers. Aerial photographs and channel surveys indicate that the lower Niobrara has evolved from a relatively deep, stable channel with large, bank-attached braid bars to a relatively shallow, aggrading channel with braid bars and smaller secondary channels. Architecture of channel-belt deposits associated with the recent aggradation has been defined using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and vibracores. The channel-belt deposits exhibit a series of amalgamated channel fills and braid bar complexes (i.e., macroforms). Radar facies identified in the GPR data represent architectural elements of the braid bar complexes, large and small bedforms [two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) dunes], and channels. Individual braid bars appear to consist of basal high-flow and upper low-flow components. Preservation of the complete, high-flow bar geometry is generally incomplete due to frequent migration of smaller scale, secondary channels within the channel belt (i.e., braided channel network) at low discharges. The large-scale stratification of the braid bar deposits is dominated by cross-channel and upstream accretion. Elements of downstream accretion are also recognized. These accretion geometries have not been documented previously in similar sandy braided rivers. Braid bar deposits with low-flow modification (e.g., incision by secondary channels) are recognized in the deeper portions of the deposits imaged by GPR. Preservation of braid bars, with both high- and low-flow components, is a result of the rapid base-level rise and channel-bed aggradation experienced by the Niobrara River over the past 45 years. Recent avulsion

  7. Patterns and controls on historical channel change in the Willamette River, Oregon, USA (United States)

    Jennifer Rose Wallick; Gordon E. Grant; Stephen T. Lancaster; John P. Bolte; Roger P. Denlinger


    Distinguishing human impacts on channel morphology from the natural behaviour of fluvial systems is problematic for large river basins. Large river basins, by virtue of their size, typically encompass wide ranges of geology and landforms resulting in diverse controls on channel form. They also inevitably incorporate long and complex histories of overlapping human and...

  8. Dynamic aspects of large woody debris in river channels (United States)

    Vergaro, Alexandra; Caporali, Enrica; Becchi, Ignazio


    Large Woody Debris (LWD) are an integral component of the fluvial environment. They represent an environmental resource, but without doubt they represent also a risk factor for the amplification that could give to the destructive power of a flood event. While countless intervention in river channels have reintroduced wood in rivers with restoration and banks protection aims, during several flash flood events LWD have had a great part in catastrophic consequences, pointing out the urgency of an adequate risk assessment procedure. At present wood dynamics in rivers is not systematically considered within the procedures for the elaboration of hazard maps resulting in loss of prediction accuracy and underestimation of hazard impacts. The assessment inconsistency comes from the complexity of the question: several aspects in wood processes are not yet well known and the superposition of different physical phenomena results in great difficulty to predict critical scenarios. The presented research activity has been aimed to improve management skills for the assessment of the hydrologic risk associated to the presence of large woody debris in rivers, improving knowledge about LWD dynamic processes and proposing effective tools for monitoring and mapping river catchments vulnerability. Utilizing critical review of the published works, field surveys and experimental investigations LWD damaging potential has been analysed to support the identification of the exposed sites and the redaction of hazard maps, taking into account that a comprehensive procedure has to involve: a) Identification of the critical cross sections; b) Evaluation of wood availability in the river catchment; c) Prediction of hazard scenarios through the estimation of water discharge, wood recruitment and entrainment, wood transport and destination. Particularly, a survey sheets form for direct measurements has been implemented and tested in field to provide an investigation instruments for wood and river

  9. Bar and channel evolution in meandering and braiding rivers using physics-based modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, F.


    Rivers are among the most dynamic earth surface systems. Some rivers meander, forming bends that migrate, reshape and have inner-bend bars. Other rivers form a complicated braided pattern of branches, islands and mid-channel bars. Thorough understanding of their morphodynamics is important for

  10. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary


    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki


    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. ...

  11. Effects of Water Diversion from Yangtze River to Lake Taihu on the Phytoplankton Habitat of the Wangyu River Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyu Dai


    Full Text Available To reveal the effects of water diversion from the Yangtze River to Lake Taihu on the phytoplankton habitat of the main water transfer channel of the Wangyu River, we investigated the water’s physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton communities during the water diversion and non-diversion periods over the winters between 2014–2016, respectively. During the water diversion periods in the winter of 2014 and 2015, the nutrients and organic pollutant contents of the Wangyu River channel were significantly lower than those during the non-diversion period in 2016. Moreover, the phytoplankton diversities and relative proportions of Bacillariophyta during the diversion periods evidently increased during the water diversion periods in winter. The increase in the water turbidity content, the decrease in the contents of the permanganate index, and the total phosphorus explained only 21.4% of the variations in the phytoplankton communities between the diversion and non-diversion periods in winter, which revealed significant contributions of the allochthonous species from the Yangtze River and tributaries of the Wangyu River to phytoplankton communities in the Wangyu River. The increasing gradient in the contents of nutrients and organic pollutants from the Yangtze River to Lake Taihu indicated the potential allochthonous pollutant inputs along with the Wangyu River. Further controlling the pollutants from the tributaries of the Wangyu River is critical in order to improve the phytoplankton habitats in river channels and Lake Taihu.

  12. Assessment of long-term channel changes in the Mekong River using remote sensing and a channel-evolution model (United States)

    Miyazawa, N.


    River-channel changes are a key factor affecting physical, ecological and management issues in the fluvial environment. In this study, long-term channel changes in the Mekong River were assessed using remote sensing and a channel-evolution model. A channel-evolution model for calculating long-term channel changes of a measndering river was developed using a previous fluid-dynamic model [Zolezzi and Seminara, 2001], and was applied in order to quantify channel changes of two meandering reaches in the Mekong River. Quite few attempts have been made so far to combine remote sensing observation of meandering planform change with the application of channel evolution models within relatively small-scale gravel-bed systems in humid temperate regions. The novel point of the present work is to link state-of-art meandering planform evolution model with observed morphological changes within large-scale sand-bed rivers with higher bank height in tropical monsoonal climate regions, which are the highly dynamic system, and assess the performance. Unstable extents of the reaches could be historically identified using remote-sensing technique. The instability caused i) bank erosion and accretion of meander bends and ii) movement or development of bars and changes in the flow around the bars. The remote sensing measurements indicate that maximum erosion occurred downstream of the maximum curvature of the river-center line in both reaches. The model simulations indicates that under the mean annual peak discharge the maximum of excess longitudinal velocity near the banks occurs downstream of the maximum curvature in both reaches. The channel migration coefficients of the reaches were calibrated by comparing remote-sensing measurements and model simulations. The diffrence in the migration coefficients between both reaches depends on the diffrence in bank height rather than the geotechnical properties of floodplain sediments. Possible eroded floodplain areas and accreted floodplain

  13. Application of ELJ to create and maintain side channels in a dynamic gravel bed river (United States)

    Crabbe, E.; Crowe Curran, J.; Ockelford, A.


    Braided and anastomosing rivers create and maintain a large amount of side channel habitat. Unfortunately, many rivers that were once multi-channel rivers have been constrained to single thread channels as a consequence of land use changes that occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries or earlier. An increasingly common management goal today is the re-creation of self-maintaining side and tributary habitat through as natural means as possible. This work examines the geomorphic history of one such channel and the success of recent rehabilitation efforts. Our case study comes from the South Fork Nooksack River in the Cascades Range in Washington State. The Nooksack River is a gravel and sand bed channel with a snowmelt dominated hydrograph. Engineered log jams (ELJ) have been employed to direct flow into side and chute channels with the larger goals of increasing overall channel complexity and salmon spawning opportunities. ELJs have been constructed on the channel since the 2000s, and the ELJs in the study reaches range in age up to 10 years. The size and design of individual jams within the reach vary, enabling a comparison between jam types. ELJs are evaluated for their ability to maintain gravel bar locations and open tributary channels through the snowmelt season over the reach scale. Additional goals of trapping wood onto the jams and existing bars, stabilizing channel banks, and allowing for the growth of bar vegetation are also examined.

  14. Navigation Lights - USACE IENC (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu...

  16. Dynamics of 30 large channel bars in the Lower Mississippi River in response to river engineering from 1985 to 2015 (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Y. Jun


    Channel bars are a major depositional feature in alluvial rivers and their morphodynamics has been investigated intensively in the past several decades. However, relatively less is known about how channel bars in alluvial rivers respond to river engineering and regulations. In this study, we assessed 30-yr morphologic changes of 30 large emerged bars located in a 223 km reach of the highly regulated Lower Mississippi River from Vicksburg, Mississippi, to the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River diversion. Landsat imagery and river stage data between 1985 and 2015 were utilized to characterize bar morphologic features and quantify decadal changes. Based on bar surface areas estimated with the satellite images at different river stages, a rating curve was developed for each of the 30 bars to determine their volumes. Results from this study show that the highly regulated river reach favored the growth of mid-channel and attached bars, while more than half of the point bars showed degradation. Currently, the mid-channel and attached bars accounted for 38% and 34% of the total volume of the 30 bars. The average volume of a single mid-channel bar is over two times that of an attached bar and over four times that of a point bar. Overall, in the past three decades, the total volume of the studied 30 bars increased by 110,118,000 m3 (41%). Total dike length in a dike field was found mostly contributing to the bar volume increase. Currently, the emerged volume of the 30 bars was estimated approximately 378,183,000 m3. The total bar volume is equivalent to 530 million metric tons of coarse sand, based on an average measured bulk density of 1.4 t/m3 for the bar sediment. The findings show that these bars are large sediment reservoirs.

  17. Real-Time River Channel-Bed Monitoring at the Chariton and Mississippi Rivers in Missouri, 2007-09 (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.


    Scour and depositional responses to hydrologic events have been important to the scientific community studying sediment transport as well as potential effects on bridges and other hydraulic structures within riverine systems. A river channel-bed monitor composed of a single-beam transducer was installed on a bridge crossing the Chariton River near Prairie Hill, Missouri (structure L-344) as a pilot study to evaluate channel-bed change in response to the hydrologic condition disseminated from an existing streamgage. Initial results at this location led to additional installations in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation at an upstream Chariton River streamgage location at Novinger, Missouri (structure L-534) and a Mississippi River streamgage location near Mehlville, Missouri (structures A-1850 and A-4936). In addition to stage, channel-bed elevation was collected at all locations every 15 minutes and transmitted hourly to a U.S. Geological Survey database. Bed elevation data for the Chariton River location at Novinger and the Mississippi River location near Mehlville were provided to the World Wide Web for real-time monitoring. Channel-bed data from the three locations indicated responses to hydrologic events depicted in the stage record; however, notable bedforms apparent during inter-event flows also may have affected the relation of scour and deposition to known hydrologic events. Throughout data collection periods, Chariton River locations near Prairie Hill and Novinger reflected bed changes as much as 13 feet and 5 feet. Nearly all of the bed changes correlated well with the hydrographic record at these locations. The location at the Mississippi River near Mehlville indicated a much more stable channel bed throughout the data collection period. Despite missing data resulting from damage to one of the river channel-bed monitors from ice accumulation at the upstream nose of the bridge pier early in the record, the record from the downstream

  18. Mineral compositions and sources of the riverbed sediment in the desert channel of Yellow River. (United States)

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing


    The Yellow River flows through an extensive, aeolian desert area and extends from Xiaheyan, Ningxia Province, to Toudaoguai, Inner Mongolia Province, with a total length of 1,000 km. Due to the construction and operation of large reservoirs in the upstream of the Yellow River, most water and sediment from upstream were stored in these reservoirs, which leads to the declining flow in the desert channel that has no capability to scour large amount of input of desert sands from the desert regions. By analyzing and comparing the spatial distribution of weight percent of mineral compositions between sediment sources and riverbed sediment of the main tributaries and the desert channel of the Yellow River, we concluded that the coarse sediment deposited in the desert channel of the Yellow River were mostly controlled by the local sediment sources. The analyzed results of the Quartz-Feldspar-Mica (QFM) triangular diagram and the R-factor models of the coarse sediment in the Gansu reach and the desert channel of the Yellow River further confirm that the Ningxia Hedong desert and the Inner Mongolian Wulanbuhe and Kubuqi deserts are the main provenances of the coarse sediment in the desert channel of the Yellow River. Due to the higher fluidity of the fine sediment, they are mainly contributed by the local sediment sources and the tributaries that originated from the loess area of the upper reach of the Yellow River.

  19. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France (United States)

    Piégay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.


    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a−1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill.


    The extent of aquatic off-channel habitats such as secondary and side channels, sloughs, and alcoves, have been reduced more than 50% since the 1850s along the upper main stem of the Willamette River, Oregon, USA. Concurrently, the hydrogeomorphic potential, and associated flood...

  1. 77 FR 39630 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD (United States)


    ... by persons and vessels operating in close proximity to swimmers crossing navigation channels make... water activities includes but is not limited to sail boat regattas, boat parades, power boat racing, swimming events, crew racing, canoe and sail board racing. This rule is categorically excluded from further...

  2. Navigator channel adaptation to reconstruct three dimensional heart volumes from two dimensional radiotherapy planning data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Angela; Nguyen, Thao-Nguyen; Moseley, Joanne L; Hodgson, David C; Sharpe, Michael B; Brock, Kristy K


    Biologically-based models that utilize 3D radiation dosimetry data to estimate the risk of late cardiac effects could have significant utility for planning radiotherapy in young patients. A major challenge arises from having only 2D treatment planning data for patients with long-term follow-up. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of an advanced deformable image registration (DIR) and navigator channels (NC) adaptation technique to reconstruct 3D heart volumes from 2D radiotherapy planning images for Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) patients. Planning CT images were obtained for 50 HL patients who underwent mediastinal radiotherapy. Twelve image sets (6 male, 6 female) were used to construct a male and a female population heart model, which was registered to 23 HL 'Reference' patients' CT images using a DIR algorithm, MORFEUS. This generated a series of population-to-Reference patient specific 3D deformation maps. The technique was independently tested on 15 additional 'Test' patients by reconstructing their 3D heart volumes using 2D digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR). The technique involved: 1) identifying a matching Reference patient for each Test patient using thorax measurements, 2) placement of six NCs on matching Reference and Test patients' DRRs to capture differences in significant heart curvatures, 3) adapting the population-to-Reference patient-specific deformation maps to generate population-to-Test patient-specific deformation maps using linear and bilinear interpolation methods, 4) applying population-to-Test patient specific deformation to the population model to reconstruct Test-patient specific 3D heart models. The percentage volume overlap between the NC-adapted reconstruction and actual Test patient's true heart volume was calculated using the Dice coefficient. The average Dice coefficient expressed as a percentage between the NC-adapted and actual Test model was 89.4 ± 2.8%. The modified NC adaptation

  3. Genesis and sedimentary record of blind channel and islands of the anabranching river: An evolution model (United States)

    Leli, Isabel T.; Stevaux, José C.; Assine, Mário L.


    Blind channel (BC) is a fluvial feature formed by attachment of a lateral sand bar to an island or riverbank. It consists of a 10- to 20-m wide and hundreds to thousands meters long channel, parallel to the island or bank, closed at its upstream end by accretion to the island. It is an important feature in anabranching rivers that plays an important role in both the island formation and river ecology. This paper discusses the formation processes, functioning, evolution, and the sedimentary record of a blind channel, related landforms, and its context on island development in the Upper Paraná River. The evolution of this morphologic feature involves (1) formation of a lateral or attachment bar beside an island with the development of a channel in between; (2) vertical accretion of mud deposits during the flood and vegetal development on the bar; (3) the upstream channel closure that generates the blind channel; and (4) annexation of the blind channel to the island. A blind channel is semilotic to lentic, that is not totally integrated to the dynamics of the main active channel and that acts as a nursery for fingerlings and macrophytes. The sedimentary facies succession of BCs are relatively simple and characterized by cross-stratified sand covered by organic muddy sediments. Based on facies analysis of 12 cores, we identified a succession of environments that contribute to the formation of islands: channel bar, blind channel, pond, and swamp. Blind channel formation and its related bar-island attachment are relevant processes associated with the growing of large island evolution in some anabranching rivers.

  4. Quantifying River Channel Stability at the Basin Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Soar


    Full Text Available This paper examines the feasibility of a basin‐scale scheme for characterising and quantifying river reaches in terms of their geomorphological stability status and potential for morphological adjustment based on auditing stream energy. A River Energy Audit Scheme (REAS is explored, which involves integrating stream power with flow duration to investigate the downstream distribution of Annual Geomorphic Energy (AGE. This measure represents the average annual energy available with which to perform geomorphological work in reshaping the channel boundary. Changes in AGE between successive reaches might indicate whether adjustments are likely to be led by erosion or deposition at the channel perimeter. A case study of the River Kent in Cumbria, UK, demonstrates that basin‐wide application is achievable without excessive field work and data processing. However, in addressing the basin scale, the research found that this is inevitably at the cost of a number of assumptions and limitations, which are discussed herein. Technological advances in remotely sensed data capture, developments in image processing and emerging GIS tools provide the near‐term prospect of fully quantifying river channel stability at the basin scale, although as yet not fully realized. Potential applications of this type of approach include system‐wide assessment of river channel stability and sensitivity to land‐use or climate change, and informing strategic planning for river channel and flood risk management.

  5. Causes and effects of morphological changes of the regulated channel of the river Toplica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đeković Vojislav


    Full Text Available The regulation of small torrential watercourses outside the urbanized areas is often based on the so-called field type of regulation. In the selection of this concept, after the regulation works, the new channel is left to the natural process of the morphological formation of the water cross-section taking care not to disturb the general stability of the regulated channel. We present the process of morphological development of the regulated channel of the river Toplica, tributary of the river Kolubara, in the period 1982-2004 i.e. from immediately after the regulation works to the present day.

  6. Statistical Characterization of River and Channel Network Formation in Intermittently Flowing Vortex Systems. (United States)

    Olson, C. J.; Reichhardt, C.; Nori, F.


    Vortices moving in dirty superconductors can form intricate flow patterns, resembling fluid rivers, as they interact with the pinning landscape (F. Nori, Science 271), 1373 (1996).. Weaker pinning produces relatively straight nori>vortex channels, while stronger pinning results in the formation of one or more winding channels that carry all flow. This corresponds to a crossover from elastic flow to plastic flow as the pinning strength is increased. For several pinning parameters, we find the fractal dimension of the channels that form, the vortex trail density, the distance travelled by vortices as they pass through the sample, the branching ratio, the sinuosity, and the size distribution of the rivers, and we compare our rivers with physical rivers that follow Horton's laws.

  7. 75 FR 18755 - Security Zone; Calcasieu River and Ship Channel, LA (United States)


    ...The Coast Guard is disestablishing the permanent safety zone at Trunkline LNG in Lake Charles, LA and replacing it with a security zone with new boundaries. The Coast Guard is also establishing two additional permanent security zones on the waters of the Calcasieu River for the mooring basins at Cameron LNG in Hackberry, LA and PPG Industries in Lake Charles, LA. The Coast Guard is also disestablishing the Calcasieu River ship channel moving safety zone and replacing it with a moving security zone. The revised moving security zone extends channel edge to channel edge on the Calcasieu Channel and shoreline to shoreline on the Calcasieu River, 2 miles ahead and 1 mile astern of certain designated vessels while in transit on the Calcasieu Channel or Calcasieu River. Meeting, crossing or overtaking situations are not permitted within the security zone unless specifically authorized by the Captain of the Port. The moving security zone may commence at any point while certain vessels are transiting the Calcasieu Channel or Calcasieu River on U.S. territorial waters (12 nautical miles) in the Captain of the Port (COTP) Port Arthur zone. These security zones are needed to protect vessels, waterfront facilities, the public, and other surrounding areas from destruction, loss, or injury caused by sabotage, subversive acts, accidents, or other actions of a similar nature. Unless exempted under this rule, entry into or movement within these security zones is prohibited without permission from the Captain of the Port or a designated representative.

  8. 33 CFR 165.731 - Safety/Security Zone: Cumberland Sound, Georgia and St. Marys River Entrance Channel. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: Cumberland... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED... Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.731 Safety/Security Zone: Cumberland Sound, Georgia and St. Marys River...

  9. Modeling the Effects of Connecting Side Channels to the Long Tom River, Oregon (United States)

    Appleby, C.; McDowell, P. F.


    The lower Long Tom River is a heavily managed, highly modified stream in the southwestern Willamette Valley with many opportunities for habitat improvements and river restoration. In the 1940s and 1950s, the US Army Corps of Engineers dramatically altered this river system by constructing the Fern Ridge Dam and three, large drop structures, converting the River from a highly sinuous channel to a straight, channelized stream that is interrupted by these grade control structures, and removed the majority of the riparian vegetation. As a result, juvenile spring Chinook salmon are no longer found in the Watershed and the local population of coastal cutthroat trout face limited aquatic habitat. When the river was channelized, long sections of the historical channel were left abandoned on the floodplain. Reconnecting these historical channels as side channels may improve the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat and could allow fish passage around current barriers. However, such construction may also lead to undesirable threats to infrastructure and farmland. This study uses multiple HEC-RAS models to determine the impact of reconnecting two historical channels to the lower Long Tom River by quantifying the change in area of flood inundation and identifying infrastructure in jeapordy given current and post-restoration conditions for 1.5, 5, 10, and 25-year flood discharges. Bathymetric data from ADCP and RTK-GPS surveys has been combined with LiDAR-derived topographic data to create continuous elevation models. Several types of side channel connections are modeled in order to determine which type of connection will result in both the greatest quantity of accessible habitat and the fewest threats to public and private property. In the future, this study will also consider the change in the quantity of physical salmonid habitat and map the areas prone to sedimentation and erosion using CEASAR and PHABSIM tools.

  10. Wildlife use of back channels associated with islands on the Ohio River (United States)

    Zadnik, A.K.; Anderson, James T.; Wood, P.B.; Bledsoe, K.


    The back channels of islands on the Ohio River are assumed to provide habitat critical for several wildlife species. However, quantitative information on the wildlife value of back channels is needed by natural resource managers for the conservation of these forested islands and embayments in the face of increasing shoreline development and recreational boating. We compared the relative abundance of waterbirds, turtles, anurans, and riparian furbearing mammals during 2001 and 2002 in back and main channels of the Ohio River in West Virginia. Wood ducks (Aix sponsa), snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), beavers (Castor canadensis), and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were more abundant in back than main channels. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and American toads (Bufo americanus) occurred more frequently on back than main channels. These results provide quantitative evidence that back channels are important for several wildlife species. The narrowness of the back channels, the protection they provide from the main current of the river, and their ability to support vegetated shorelines and woody debris, are characteristics that appear to benefit these species. As a conservation measure for important riparian wildlife habitat, we suggest limiting building of piers and development of the shoreline in back channel areas. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  11. Channel morphology and its impact on flood passage, the Tianjiazhen reach of the middle Yangtze River (United States)

    Shi, Yafeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Zhongyuan; Jiang, Tong; Wu, Jinglu


    The Tianjiazhen reach of the middle Yangtze is about 8 km long, and characterized by a narrow river width of 650 m and local water depth of > 90 m in deep inner troughs, of which about 60 m is below the mean sea level. The troughs in the channel of such a large river are associated with regional tectonics and local lithology. The channel configuration plays a critical role in modifying the height and duration of river floods and erosion of the riverbed. The formation of the troughs in the bed of the Yangtze is considered to be controlled by sets of NW-SE-oriented neotectonic fault zones, in which some segments consist of highly folded thick Triassic limestone crossed by the Yangtze River. Several limestone hills, currently located next to the river channel, serve as nodes that create large vortices in the river, thereby accelerating downcutting on the riverbed composed of limestone highly susceptible to physical corrosion and chemical dissolution. Hydrological records indicate that the nodal hills and channel configuration at Tianjiazhen do not impact on normal flow discharges but discharges > 50,000 m 3s - 1 are slowed down for 2-3 days. Catastrophic floods are held up for even longer periods. These inevitably result in elevated flood stages upstream of prolonged duration, affecting large cities such as Wuhan and a very large number of people.

  12. Channel Evolution Following Avulsion: an Example from the Yellow River Delta (United States)

    Zheng, S.


    Long-term field observation of morphological adjustments of rivers following avulsions is lacked when studying the evolution of avulsive channel on deltas. Avulsion at the Yellow River Delta (YRD) is frequent with average lifespan of channels of only about a decade. The Qing-shui-gou channel, the recent lobe on the YRD, provides a rare opportunity for investigating channel evolution following artificial avulsion. The reasons for its longer lifespan also needs investigation of the channel evolution. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the geomorphic adjustment of the channel based on filed survey data during 1976-2014. The evolution of the channel was impacted by anthropogenic activities, including artificial avulsion at the downstream channel reaches in 1996, alteration of runoff and sediment load through Water and Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS), construction of levees and dikes. Analysis on channel geometry showed that avulsions in 1976 and in 1996 both caused short-term (1 2 years) erosion at the upstream channel reaches. Following the avulsion in 1976, massive aggradation occurred at the channel reaches at the downstream of the avulsion point. A single-thread channel gradually formed, widened and enlarged as channel bed under-cut on the deposition material. As delta extended seaward and the longitudinal slope decreased with time, aggradation occurred and an alluvial ridge formed. The ratio of lateral slope to the longitudinal slope (i.e. gradient advantage) and the relative super-elevation of the channel were calculated to estimate the possibility of avulsion at the channel in the late 1990. Results showed that the slope ratio was greater than 20 locally and super-elevation near its critical value for avulsion. The fact, that natural avulsion did not occurred despite of high values of gradient advantage and super elevation, may indicate that they are not sufficient conditions for avulsion at highly human-controlled rivers, where channel boundaries are

  13. 75 FR 61096 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA (United States)


    ... not a significant regulatory action for the following reasons: The RNA will be of limited duration, it.... ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA... control the speed of all vessels transiting within the RNA. The RNA is necessary to protect participants...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt... (United States)


    ... Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— COTP means the... person in charge of a vessel to which this notice applies shall obtain permission to cross within four... place during daylight hours, the vessel has only a single tow or no tow, the visibility at the bar is...

  15. Effectiveness of maritime safety control in different navigation zones using a spatial sequential DEA model: Yangtze River case. (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jinfen; Savan, Emanuel Emil; Yan, Xinping


    This paper aims to analyze the effectiveness of maritime safety control from the perspective of safety level along the Yangtze River with special considerations for navigational environments. The influencing variables of maritime safety are reviewed, including ship condition, maritime regulatory system, human reliability and navigational environment. Because the former three variables are generally assumed to be of the same level of safety, this paper focuses on studying the impact of navigational environments on the level of safety in different waterways. An improved data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is proposed by treating the navigational environment factors as inputs and ship accident data as outputs. Moreover, because the traditional DEA model cannot provide an overall ranking of different decision making units (DMUs), the spatial sequential frontiers and grey relational analysis are incorporated into the DEA model to facilitate a refined assessment. Based on the empirical study results, the proposed model is able to solve the problem of information missing in the prior models and evaluate the level of safety with a better accuracy. The results of the proposed DEA model are further compared with an evidential reasoning (ER) method, which has been widely used for level of safety evaluations. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to better understand the relationship between the variation of navigational environments and level of safety. The sensitivity analysis shows that the level of safety varies in terms of traffic flow. It indicates that appropriate traffic control measures should be adopted for different waterways to improve their safety. This paper presents a practical method of conducting maritime level of safety assessments under dynamic navigational environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of large floods on channel width: recent insights from Italian rivers (United States)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Righini, Margherita; Amponsah, William; Crema, Stefano; Ciccarese, Giuseppe; Nardi, Laura; Zoccatelli, Davide; Borga, Marco; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco; Corsini, Alessandro; Marchi, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Massimo; Surian, Nicola


    Variations of channel morphology occurring during large flood events (recurrence interval > 50-100 years.) are very often the cause of damages to buildings and infrastructures, as well as of casualties. However, our knowledge of such processes remains poor, as is our capability to predict them. Post-event campaigns documenting channel changes and linking them to hydrological and morphological factors thus bear an enormous value for both the scientific community and river management agencies. We present the results of an analysis on the geomorphic response associated to 4 large floods that occurred between October 2011 and September 2015, affecting several catchments in Northern Italy (Magra-Vara, Trebbia, Nure rivers) and Sardinia (Posada and Mannu di Bitti rivers), characterized by different climatic, lithological and geomorphological settings. The analysis considered more than 400 channel reaches characterized by a drainage area ranging from 39 to 1,100 km2 and featuring a wide range of lateral confinement, mostly within the partly- and unconfined conditions. The approach to flood analysis encompassed: (i) hydrological and hydraulic analysis; (ii) analysis of sediment delivery by landslides to the channel network; (iii) GIS-based and field assessment of morphological channel modifications. For the Nure River flood event (September 2015) a quantitative assessment on average bed level variations was also carried out. Return period for maximum hourly rainfall intensities and peak water discharges exceeded in all basins 100 yr, in some cases even 300 yr. Very high unit peak discharges were estimated, reaching 8.8 m3 s-1km-2 in the Nure River (205 km2) and up to 30 m3 s-1km-2in few Magra River tributaries (5-10 km2). Notable channel widening (post-flood width / pre-flood width > 1.1) occurred in 83% of studied reaches, and it was found more relevant in the channels with narrower initial width, i.e. along the relatively steep tributaries. For these tributaries, the

  17. The similarity of river evolution at the initial stage of channel erosion (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Chuan


    The study deals with a comparison study of two types of rocks at the initial stage of channel erosion in Taiwan. It is interesting that channel erosion at different types of rocks shows some similarity. There are two types of rocks: sandstone at Ta-an River, central Taiwan where river channel erosion from the nick point because of earthquake uplifting and mud rock at Tainan, southern Taiwan where rill erosion on a flat surface after artificial engineering. These two situations are both at the beginning stage of channel erosion, there are some similar landform appeared on channels. However the rate of erosion and magnitude of erosion are different. According to the using of photogrammetry method to reconstruct archive imageries and field surveying by total station and 3D scanner at different stages. The incision rate is high both at the Ta-an River and the bank erosion and it is even more obvious at mud rock area because of erodibility of mud rock. The results show that bank erosion and incision both are obvious processes. Bank erosion made channel into meander. The bank erosion cause slope in a asymmetric channel profile. The incision process will start at the site where land is relatively uplifted. This paper demonstrates such similarity and landform characters.

  18. Variability of morphological conditions of the Vistula river channel in the section Czerwińsk-Kępa Polska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popek Zbigniew


    Full Text Available Variability of morphological conditions of the Vistula river channel in the section Czerwińsk-Kępa Polska. The paper presents an assessment of morphological changes that occurred in the Vistula river channel in selected section of about 33 km long, located in the middle of the Vistula river course between Czerwińsk and Kępa Polska (km 576–609. Based on the analysis of archival material from 1972–2009, a characteristics of river channel changes, taking primarily into account the horizontal layout (shape in the plan, was obtained. An attempt was made to estimate the trends and rate of transformation of the following parameters in the river channel: width, length, and position of the riverbanks, abundance and size of islands and fluvial deposits, as well as their percentage in the total area of the main river channel and the floodplain area between levees.

  19. Evaluation of Restoration and Flow Interactions on River Structure and Function: Channel Widening of the Thur River, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Martín


    Full Text Available Removal of lateral constraints to restore rivers has become increasingly common in river resource management, but little is known how the interaction of de-channelization with flow influences ecosystem structure and function. We evaluated the ecosystem effects of river widening to improve sediment relations in the Thur River, Switzerland, 12 years after implementation. We tested if restored and non-restored reaches differed in water physico-chemistry, hyporheic function, primary production, and macroinvertebrate density and composition in relation to the flow regime. Our results showed that (i spatio-temporal variation in sediment respiration and macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness were driven by interactions between restoration and flow; (ii riverbed conditions including substrate size, organic matter content, and groundwater–surface water exchange changed due to restoration, but (iii physico-chemistry, hydraulic conditions, and primary production were not altered by restoration. Importantly, our study revealed that abiotic conditions, except channel morphology, changed only marginally, whereas other ecosystem attributes responded markedly to changes in flow-restoration interactions. These results highlight integrating a more holistic ecosystem perspective in the design and monitoring of restoration projects such as river widening in resource management, preferably in relation to flow-sediment regimes and interactions with the biotic components of the ecosystem.

  20. Geomorphic changes resulting from floods in reconfigured gravel-bed river channels in Colorado, USA (United States)

    Elliott, J.G.; Capesius, J.P.


    Geomorphic changes in reconfi gured reaches of three Colorado rivers in response to floods in 2005 provide a benchmark for "restoration" assessment. Sedimententrainment potential is expressed as the ratio of the shear stress from the 2 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, and 2005 floods to the critical shear stress for sediment. Some observed response was explained by the excess of flood shear stress relative to the resisting force of the sediment. Bed-load entrainment in the Uncompahgre River and the North Fork Gunnison River, during 4 and 6 yr floods respectively, resulted in streambed scour, streambed deposition, lateral-bar accretion, and channel migration at various locations. Some constructed boulder and log structures failed because of high rates of bank erosion or bed-material deposition. The Lake Fork showed little or no net change after the 2005 flood; however, this channel had not conveyed floods greater than the 2.5 yr flood since reconfi guration. Channel slope and the 2 yr flood, a surrogate for bankfull discharge, from all three reconfi gured reaches plotted above the Leopold and Wolman channel-pattern threshold in the "braided channel" region, indicating that braiding, rather than a single-thread meandering channel, and midchannel bar formation may be the natural tendency of these gravel-bed reaches. When plotted against a total stream-power and median-sediment-size threshold for the 2 yr flood, however, the Lake Fork plotted in the "single-thread channel" region, the North Fork Gunnison plotted in the " multiplethread" region, and the Uncompahgre River plotted on the threshold. All three rivers plotted in the multiple-thread region for floods of 5 yr recurrence or greater. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  1. 77 FR 67566 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT (United States)


    ... rule is necessary to provide for the safety of life on the navigable waters during the replacement of... circumstances change. This rule is necessary to provide for the safety of life on the navigable waters during... contractor has done their due diligence to prevent a need to close the waterway. The Captain of the Port...

  2. 33 CFR 165.810 - Mississippi River, LA-regulated navigation area. (United States)


    ... the foot of Ocean Avenue, Gretna, approximately 96.6 miles above Head of Passes. Governor Nicholls... proceed. Absence of lights shall be considered a danger signal and no attempt shall be made to navigate... considered by the master or pilot as being underpowered or a poor handler shall not navigate around Algiers...

  3. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: river channel and floodplain geomorphic change (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Pess, George R.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Logan, Joshua; Randle, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Minear, Justin T.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Liermann, Martin C.; McHenry, Michael L.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.


    A substantial increase in fluvial sediment supply relative to transport capacity causes complex, large-magnitude changes in river and floodplain morphology downstream. Although sedimentary and geomorphic responses to sediment pulses are a fundamental part of landscape evolution, few opportunities exist to quantify those processes over field scales. We investigated the downstream effects of sediment released during the largest dam removal in history, on the Elwha River, Washington, USA, by measuring changes in riverbed elevation and topography, bed sediment grain size, and channel planform as two dams were removed in stages over two years.

  4. River-corridor habitat dynamics, Lower Missouri River (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.


    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies.Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets.While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  5. Perennial-streamflow characteristics related to channel geometry and sediment in Missouri River basin (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Hedman, E.R.


    Geometry, channel-sediment, and discharge data were collected and compiled from 252 streamflow-gaging stations in the Missouri River basin. The sites represent the complete ranges of hydrologic and geologic conditions found in the basin. The data were analyzed by computer to yield equations relating various discharge characteristics to variables of channel geometry and bed and bank material. The equations provide discharge as the dependent variable for the purpose of making estimates of discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Results show that channel width is best related to variables of discharge, but that reduction of standard errors can be achieved by considering channel-sediment properties, channel gradient, and discharge variability. The channel-material variables do not exert uniform effects on width-discharge relations and, therefore, are considered as sediment-data groups, or stream types, rather than as terms in multiple power-function equations. Relative to streamflow, narrowest channels occur when streams of steady discharge transport sufficient silt and clay to form stable, cohesive banks but have a small tractive load of sand and coarser sizes. Stable channels also are associated with high channel gradients, which cause high channel roughness and bed and bank armouring by coarse particle sizes. The widest, most unstable channels are found with streams that apparently transport of large tractive load of sand sizes. The downstream rates of change of width with discharge reflect these trends, suggesting that a given bed-material load necessitates a minimum width over which the tractive material can be moved. (USGS)

  6. Restricted Navigation Areas - USACE IENC (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  7. Widespread infilling of tidal channels and navigable waterways in human-modified tidal deltaplain of southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Wilson


    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, ~5000 km2 of tidal deltaplain in southwest Bangladesh has been embanked and converted to densely inhabited, agricultural islands (i.e., polders. This landscape is juxtaposed to the adjacent Sundarbans, a pristine mangrove forest, both well connected by a dense network of tidal channels that effectively convey water and sediment throughout the region. The extensive embanking in poldered areas, however, has greatly reduced the tidal prism (i.e., volume of water transported through local channels. We reveal that >600 km of these major waterways have infilled in recent decades, converting to land through enhanced sedimentation and the direct blocking of waterways by embankments and sluice gates. Nearly all of the observed closures (~98% have occurred along the embanked polder systems, with no comparable changes occurring in channels of the Sundarbans (<2% change. We attribute most of the channel infilling to the local reduction of tidal prism in poldered areas and the associated decline in current velocities. The infilled channels account for ~90 km2 of new land in the last 40–50 years, the rate of which, ~2 km2/yr, offsets the 4 km2/yr that is eroded at the coast, and is equivalent to ~20% of the new land produced naturally at the Ganges-Brahmaputra tidal rivermouth. Most of this new land, called ‘khas’ in Bengali, has been reclaimed for agriculture or aquaculture, contributing to the local economy. However, benefits are tempered by the loss of navigable waterways for commerce, transportation, and fishing, as well as the forced rerouting of tidal waters and sediments necessary to sustain this low-lying landscape against rising sea level. A more sustainable delta will require detailed knowledge of the consequences of these hydrodynamic changes to support more scientifically-grounded management of water, sediment, and tidal energy distribution.

  8. Socio-Hydrology of Channel Flows in Complex River Basins: Rivers, Canals, and Distributaries in Punjab, Pakistan (United States)

    Wescoat, James L.; Siddiqi, Afreen; Muhammad, Abubakr


    This paper presents a socio-hydrologic analysis of channel flows in Punjab province of the Indus River basin in Pakistan. The Indus has undergone profound transformations, from large-scale canal irrigation in the mid-nineteenth century to partition and development of the international river basin in the mid-twentieth century, systems modeling in the late-twentieth century, and new technologies for discharge measurement and data analytics in the early twenty-first century. We address these processes through a socio-hydrologic framework that couples historical geographic and analytical methods at three levels of flow in the Punjab. The first level assesses Indus River inflows analysis from its origins in 1922 to the present. The second level shows how river inflows translate into 10-daily canal command deliveries that vary widely in their conformity with canal entitlements. The third level of analysis shows how new flow measurement technologies raise questions about the performance of established methods of water scheduling (warabandi) on local distributaries. We show how near real-time measurement sheds light on the efficiency and transparency of surface water management. These local socio-hydrologic changes have implications in turn for the larger scales of canal and river inflow management in complex river basins.

  9. A philosophy of rivers: Equilibrium states, channel evolution, teleomatic change and least action principle (United States)

    Nanson, Gerald C.; Huang, He Qing


    Until recently no universal agreement as to a philosophical or scientific methodological framework has been proposed to guide the study of fluvial geomorphology. An understanding of river form and process requires an understanding of the principles that govern the behaviour and evolution of alluvial rivers at the most fundamental level. To date, the investigations of such principles have followed four approaches: develop qualitative unifying theories that are usually untested; collect and examine data visually and statistically to define semi-quantitative relationships among variables; apply Newtonian theoretical and empirical mechanics in a reductionist manner; resolve the primary flow equations theoretically by assuming maximum or minimum outputs. Here we recommend not a fifth but an overarching philosophy to embrace all four: clarifying and formalising an understanding of the evolution of river channels and iterative directional changes in the context of least action principle (LAP), the theoretical basis of variational mechanics. LAP is exemplified in rivers in the form of maximum flow efficiency (MFE). A sophisticated understanding of evolution in its broadest sense is essential to understand how rivers adjust towards an optimum state rather than towards some other. Because rivers, as dynamic contemporary systems, flow in valleys that are commonly historical landforms and often tectonically determined, we propose that most of the world's alluvial rivers are over-powered for the work they must do. To remain stable they commonly evolve to expend surplus energy via a variety of dynamic equilibrium forms that will further adjust, where possible, to maximise their stability as much less common MFE forms in stationary equilibrium. This paper: 1. Shows that the theory of evolution is derived from, and applicable to, both the physical and biological sciences; 2. Focusses the development of theory in geomorphology on the development of equilibrium theory; 3. Proposes

  10. 77 FR 13971 - Regulated Navigation Area; MBTA Saugus River Railroad Drawbridge Rehabilitation Project, Saugus... (United States)


    ... waterside restaurants), and vessels who intend to transit in the Saugus River beneath the MBTA Saugus River... standards are technical standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation...

  11. Formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: Observations from three diverse river systems (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.; Parker, G.


    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology; yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. Here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in the following three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River (Papua New Guinea), the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed, single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V-shaped cross section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bidirectional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  12. The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS


    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  13. Avulsions, channel evolution and floodplain sedimentation rates of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.


    Ages of channels of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada, were investigated in a cross-valley transect by C-14 dating of subsurface floodplain organic material from beneath levees. The avulsion history within the transect was deduced from these data, and

  14. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary (United States)

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki


    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. The formation of a salt plug in response to changes in river discharge was investigated using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) recorder during spring and neap tides in the dry and wet seasons in 2014. An exportation of saline water from the Shibsa River Estuary (SRE) to the PRE through the Chunkhuri Channel occurred during the dry season, and a salt plug was created and persisted from December to June near Chalna in the PRE. A discharge-induced, relatively high water level in the PRE during the wet season exerted hydrostatic pressure towards the SRE from the PRE and thereby prevented the intrusion of salt water from the SRE to the PRE. PMID:27255892

  15. Man-made secondary channels along the river Rhine (The Netherlands); results of post-project monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.H.E.J.; Bakker, C.; Schropp, M.H.I.; Jans, L.H.; Kok, F.R.; Grift, R.E.


    Owing to river regulation in the past and intensive farming, the ecological value of the floodplains of the River Rhine in The Netherlands has decreased dramatically. One way to restore riverine biotopes is to create permanently flowing channels in the floodplain. Along the River Waal, the main

  16. Engineered channel controls limiting spawning habitat rehabilitation success on regulated gravel-bed rivers (United States)

    Brown, Rocko A.; Pasternack, Gregory B.


    In efforts to rehabilitate regulated rivers for ecological benefits, the flow regime has been one of the primary focal points of management strategies. However, channel engineering can impact channel geometry such that hydraulic and geomorphic responses to flow reregulation do not yield the sought for benefits. To illustrate and assess the impacts of structural channel controls and flow reregulation on channel processes and fish habitat quality in multiple life stages, a highly detailed digital elevation model was collected and analyzed for a river reach right below a dam using a suite of hydrologic, hydraulic, geomorphic, and ecological methods. Results showed that, despite flow reregulation to produce a scaled-down natural hydrograph, anthropogenic boundary controls have severely altered geomorphic processes associated with geomorphic self-sustainability and instream habitat availability in the case study. Given the similarity of this stream to many others, we concluded that the potential utility of natural flow regime reinstatement in regulated gravel-bed rivers is conditional on concomitant channel rehabilitation.

  17. Applying fluvial geomorphology to river channel management: Background for progress towards a palaeohydrology protocol (United States)

    Gregory, K. J.; Benito, G.; Downs, P. W.


    Significant developments have been achieved in applicable and applied fluvial geomorphology as shown in publications of the last three decades, analyzed as the basis for using results of studies of environmental change as a basis for management. The range of types of publications and of activities are more pertinent to river channel management as a result of concern with sustainability, global climate change, environmental ethics, ecosystem health concepts and public participation. Possible applications, with particular reference to river channel changes, include those concerned with form and process, assessment of channel change, urbanization, channelization, extractive industries, impact of engineering works, historical changes in land use, and restoration with specific examples illustrated in Table 1. In order to achieve general significance for fluvial geomorphology, more theory and extension by modelling methods is needed, and examples related to morphology and process characteristics, integrated approaches, and changes of the fluvial system are collected in Table 2. The ways in which potential applications are communicated to decision-makers range from applicable outputs including publications ranging from review papers, book chapters, and books, to applied outputs which include interdisciplinary problem solving, educational outreach, and direct involvement, with examples summarized in Table 3. On the basis of results gained from investigations covering periods longer than continuous records, a protocol embracing palaeohydrological inputs for application to river channel management is illustrated and developed as a synopsis version (Table 4), demonstrating how conclusions from geomorphological research can be expressed in a format which can be considered by managers.

  18. Channel-morphology data for the Tongue River and selected tributaries, southeastern Montana, 2001-02 (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.


    Coal-bed methane exploration and production have begun within the Tongue River watershed in southeastern Montana. The development of coal-bed methane requires production of large volumes of ground water, some of which may be discharged to streams, potentially increasing stream discharge and sediment load. Changes in stream discharge or sediment load may result in changes to channel morphology through changes in erosion and vegetation. These changes might be subtle and difficult to detect without baseline data that indicate stream-channel conditions before extensive coal-bed methane development began. In order to provide this baseline channel-morphology data, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, collected channel-morphology data in 2001-02 to document baseline conditions for several reaches along the Tongue River and selected tributaries. This report presents channel-morphology data for five sites on the mainstem Tongue River and four sites on its tributaries. Bankfull, water-surface, and thalweg elevations, channel sections, and streambed-particle sizes were measured along reaches near streamflow-gaging stations. At each site, the channel was classified using methods described by Rosgen. For six sites, bankfull discharge was determined from the stage- discharge relation at the gage for the stage corresponding to the bankfull elevation. For three sites, the step-backwater computer model HEC-RAS was used to estimate bankfull discharge. Recurrence intervals for the bankfull discharge also were estimated for eight of the nine sites. Channel-morphology data for each site are presented in maps, tables, graphs, and photographs.

  19. Plan form changes of Gumara River channel over 50 years (Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia) (United States)

    Abate, Mengiste; Nyssen, Jan; Mehari, Michael


    Channel plan form changes were investigated along the 65 km long Gumara River in Lake Tana basin (Ethiopia) by overlaying information from aerial photographs and SPOT imagery. Two sets of aerial photographs (1957 and 1980) were scanned, and then orthorectified in ENVI 4.2 environment. Recent channel plan form information was extracted from SPOT images of 2006. ERDAS 2010 and ArcGIS 10.1 tools were used for the data preparation and analysis. The information on river plan form changes spans from 1957 to 2006 (49 years), during which time the Gumara catchment has been subjected to changes in land use/cover and increasing water abstraction, which may have affected its hydrogeomorphology. The results indicated that the lower reach of Gumara at its mouth has undergone major plan form changes. A delta of 1.12 km² was created between 1957 and 1980 and additional 1.00 km² land has been created between 1980 and 2006. The sinuosity of the plan form changed only slightly through the study period: 1.78 in 1957, 1.76 in 1980, and 1.81 in 2006. Comparison of cross sections at the hydrological gauging station showed that the river bed aggraded in the order of 1.5 m to 2.5 m for the period 1963-2009. The trend analysis of stream flow of Gumara River versus rainfall in the catchment also indicated that the bed level of the Gumara river at its gauging station has risen. From field observations, the impact of direct human interventions was identified. The building of artificial levees along the river banks has contributed to huge deposition in the river bed. At locations where intensive irrigation takes place in the floodplain, seepage water through the banks created river bank failure and modifications in plan form. The unstable segments of the river reach were identified and will be further analysed.

  20. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (United States)


    .... Dredging work within the RNA will be conducted in five distinct areas: Ocean Bar II, Horseshoe Shoal.... (e) Description of work areas in the RNA—(1) Ocean Bar II, mouth of Cape Fear. The work area includes..., ensure that they have sufficient propulsion and directional control to safely navigate the RNA under the...

  1. A Non-Equilibrium Sediment Transport Model for Coastal Inlets and Navigation Channels (United States)


    combined, and therefore, there is one less partial differential equation to be solved. The short-term channel infilling and migration in two laboratory...oscillatory sheet flow: Experiments and bed load modeling. Coastal Engineering, 46(1), 61-87. Exner, F. M. 1925. Uber die Wechselwirkung zwischen

  2. Pike Esox Lucius Distribution and Feeding Comparisons in Natural and Historically Channelized River Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovs Kaspars


    Full Text Available During the last century a large portion of small and medium-sized rivers in Latvia were channelized, hydroelectric power stations were also built, which led to changes in the hydrodynamic conditions, geomorphological structure, as well as a change in the fish fauna. Fish are an integral part of any community in natural or man-made bodies of water. They actively participate in maintaining the system, balancing/equilibrium, energy, substance transformation and biomass production. They are able to influence other organisms in the ecosystem in which they live. The aim of the paper “Pike distribution and feeding comparisons in natural and historically channelized river sections” is to find out what pike feed on in different environments in Latvian rivers, such as natural and straightened river sections, as well as what main factors determine the composition of their food. Several points were assessed during the course of the study: the impact of environmental conditions on the feeding habits and the distribution of pike; the general feeding habits of predators in Latvian rivers; the feeding differences of predators in natural and straightened river sections; and lastly, rhithral and pothamal habitats were compared. The study was based on data from 2014 and 2015 on fish fauna monitoring. During the study, 347 pike were collected from 136 plots using electrofishing method.

  3. Pike Esox Lucius Distribution and Feeding Comparisons in Natural and Historically Channelized River Sections (United States)

    Ivanovs, Kaspars


    During the last century a large portion of small and medium-sized rivers in Latvia were channelized, hydroelectric power stations were also built, which led to changes in the hydrodynamic conditions, geomorphological structure, as well as a change in the fish fauna. Fish are an integral part of any community in natural or man-made bodies of water. They actively participate in maintaining the system, balancing/equilibrium, energy, substance transformation and biomass production. They are able to influence other organisms in the ecosystem in which they live. The aim of the paper "Pike distribution and feeding comparisons in natural and historically channelized river sections" is to find out what pike feed on in different environments in Latvian rivers, such as natural and straightened river sections, as well as what main factors determine the composition of their food. Several points were assessed during the course of the study: the impact of environmental conditions on the feeding habits and the distribution of pike; the general feeding habits of predators in Latvian rivers; the feeding differences of predators in natural and straightened river sections; and lastly, rhithral and pothamal habitats were compared. The study was based on data from 2014 and 2015 on fish fauna monitoring. During the study, 347 pike were collected from 136 plots using electrofishing method.

  4. Operation and Maintenance, 9-Foot Navigation Channel, Upper Mississippi River, Head of Navigation to Guttenberg, Iowa. Volume 2. Exhibits. (United States)


    Walleye and Sauger 18,000 19,000 R c. Northern Pike 3,000 6,000 p d. Other 27000 25.000 S TOTAL (Fish) 196,000 134 ,OO0 0 F Catch Rates (Fish Caught per...0 0 0 R 00000000 𔃺 0,~. 1.IpC 0 o t 0 Fi. C Z C Z 2 4 .tt 04 ’ 𔃻. IsO 00 cC cO ~~It N Ea Et OPRTO AND0MAINTENANCE OFC NINElOOTl NAIATO

  5. Operation and Maintenance. 9-Foot Navigation Channel, Upper Mississippi River, Head of Navigation to Guttenberg, Iowa. Volume 1. Narrative. (United States)


    families in the group of nine are the Gramineae, Ranunculaceae , Rosaceae, Umbelliferae, and Caprifoliaceae (Exhibit 79). 2.160 The valley forests are...included in nine families . The family Compositae comprise 10 percent of the total species in the dry mesic stands, and ferns are dominant. flora reveal that the same seven families include 50 percent of the total species. The main change in family representation as compared to the

  6. Investigating historical changes in morphodynamic processes associated with channelization of a large Alpine river: the Etsch/Adige River, NE Italy (United States)

    Zen, Simone; Scorpio, Vittoria; Mastronunzio, Marco; Proto, Matteo; Zolezzi, Guido; Bertoldi, Walter; Comiti, Francesco; Surian, Nicola; Prà, Elena Dai


    River channel management within the last centuries has largely modified fluvial processes and morphodynamic evolution of most large European rivers. Several river systems experienced extensive channelization early in the 19th century, thus strongly challenging our present ability to detect their morphodynamic functioning with contemporary photogrammetry or cartographical sources. This consequently leaves open questions about their potential future response, especially to management strategies that "give more room" to the river, aiming at partially rehabilitating their natural functioning. The Adige River (Etsch in German), the second longest Italian river, is an exemplary case where channelization occurred more than 150 years ago, and is the focus of the present work. This work aims (i) to explore changes in fundamental morphodynamic processes associated with massive channelization of the Adige River and (ii) to quantify the alteration in river bars characteristics, by using morphodynamic models of bars and meandering. To fulfil our aims we combine the analysis of historical data with morphodynamic mathematical modelling. Historical sources (recovered in a number of European archives), such as hydrotopographical maps, airborne photogrammetry and hydrological datasets were collected to investigate channel morphology before and after the channelization. Information extracted from this analysis was combined with morphodynamic linear models of free migrating and forced steady bars, to investigate river bars and bend stability properties under different hydromorphological scenarios. Moreover, a morphodynamic model for meandering channel was applied to investigate the influence of river channel planform on the evolution of the fluvial bars. Results from the application of morphodynamic models allowed to predict the type, position and geometry of bars characterizing the channelized configuration of the river, and to explain the presently observed relative paucity of bars

  7. Channel change and bed-material transport in the Umpqua River basin, Oregon (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Anderson, Scott; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Cannon, Charles; Risley, John C.


    The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers of western Oregon; with headwaters in the Cascade Range, the river flows through portions of the Klamath Mountains and Oregon Coast Range before entering the Pacific Ocean. Above the head of tide, the Umpqua River, along with its major tributaries, the North and South Umpqua Rivers, flows on a mixed bedrock and alluvium bed, alternating between bedrock rapids and intermittent, shallow gravel bars composed of gravel to cobble-sized clasts. These bars have been a source of commercial aggregate since the mid-twentieth century. Below the head of tide, the Umpqua River contains large bars composed of mud and sand. Motivated by ongoing permitting and aquatic habitat concerns related to in-stream gravel mining on the fluvial reaches, this study evaluated spatial and temporal trends in channel change and bed-material transport for 350 kilometers of river channel along the Umpqua, North Umpqua, and South Umpqua Rivers. The assessment produced (1) detailed mapping of the active channel, using aerial photographs and repeat surveys, and (2) a quantitative estimation of bed-material flux that drew upon detailed measurements of particle size and lithology, equations of transport capacity, and a sediment yield analysis. Bed-material transport capacity estimates at 45 sites throughout the South Umpqua and main stem Umpqua Rivers for the period 1951-2008 result in wide-ranging transport capacity estimates, reflecting the difficulty of applying equations of bed-material transport to a supply-limited river. Median transport capacity values calculated from surface-based equations of bedload transport for each of the study reaches provide indications of maximum possible transport rates and range from 8,000 to 27,000 metric tons per year (tons/yr) for the South Umpqua River and 20,000 to 82,000 metric tons/yr for the main stem Umpqua River upstream of the head of tide; the North Umpqua River probably contributes little bed material. A

  8. Subglacial drainage patterns of Devon Island, Canada: detailed comparison of rivers and subglacial meltwater channels (United States)

    Grau Galofre, Anna; Jellinek, A. Mark; Osinski, Gordon R.; Zanetti, Michael; Kukko, Antero


    Subglacial meltwater channels (N-channels) are attributed to erosion by meltwater in subglacial conduits. They exert a major control on meltwater accumulation at the base of ice sheets, serving as drainage pathways and modifying ice flow rates. The study of exposed relict subglacial channels offers a unique opportunity to characterize the geomorphologic fingerprint of subglacial erosion as well as study the structure and characteristics of ice sheet drainage systems. In this study we present detailed field and remote sensing observations of exposed subglacial meltwater channels in excellent preservation state on Devon Island (Canadian Arctic Archipelago). We characterize channel cross section, longitudinal profiles, and network morphologies and establish the spatial extent and distinctive characteristics of subglacial drainage systems. We use field-based GPS measurements of subglacial channel longitudinal profiles, along with stereo imagery-derived digital surface models (DSMs), and novel kinematic portable lidar data to establish a detailed characterization of subglacial channels in our field study area, including their distinction from rivers and other meltwater drainage systems. Subglacial channels typically cluster in groups of ˜ 10 channels and are oriented perpendicular to active or former ice margins. Although their overall direction generally follows topographic gradients, channels can be oblique to topographic gradients and have undulating longitudinal profiles. We also observe that the width of first-order tributaries is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude larger than in Devon Island river systems and approximately constant. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with theoretical expectations drawn from analyses of flow driven by gradients in effective water pressure related to variations in ice thickness. Our field and remote sensing observations represent the first high-resolution study of the subglacial geomorphology of the high Arctic, and provide

  9. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate (United States)

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.


    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  10. The usefulness of low-altitude aerial photography for the assessment of channel morphodynamics of a lowland river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowski Piotr


    Full Text Available The paper presents examples of using low-altitude aerial images of a modern river channel, acquired from an ultralight aircraft. The images have been taken for two sections of the Vistula river: in the Małopolska Gorge and near Dęblin and Gołąb. Alongside with research flights, there were also terrestrial investigations, such as echo sounding of the riverbed and geological mapping, carried out in the river channel zone. A comparison of the results of aerial and terrestrial research revealed high clarity of the images, allowing for precise identification of the evidence that indicates the specific course of river channel processes. Aerial images taken from ultralight aircrafts can significantly increase the accuracy of geological surveys of river channel zones in the Polish Lowlands due to low logistic requirements.

  11. From channelization to restoration: Sociohydrologic modeling with changing community preferences in the Kissimmee River Basin, Florida (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Dingbao; Tian, Fuqiang; Sivapalan, Murugesu


    The Kissimmee River Basin (Florida, USA) underwent river channelization in the 1960s and subsequent restoration in the 1990s, revealing a shift in management emphasis from flood protection to wetland health. In this paper, this shift is hypothesized to result from changing human values and preferences, and a power differential between the more numerous and affluent upstream urban residents (who prioritize wetland restoration) and downstream rural residents (who prioritize flood protection). We develop a conceptual sociohydrologic model to simulate the interactions between community interests and hydrology. The modeling results show that flood intensity decreased after channelization, which reduced concern about flooding. However, channelization also led to a decrease in wetland storage, which caused an increase of wetland concern, especially among the urban residents. Eventually, the community sensitivity switched from favoring flood protection to favoring wetlands, and subsequent management strategies switched from channelization to restoration. Using the model, we project that the wetlands will be recovering for the next 20 years and community sensitivity will slowly go back to a neutral state. However, possible rainfall intensification in the future could return the community sensitivity to favoring flood protection again. The preferential increase of upstream population growth will raise the community's concern about wetlands and the preferential increase of downstream population growth will magnify concern about flooding. This study provides insight into the driving forces behind human-water interactions in the Kissimmee River Basin while simultaneously demonstrating the potential of sociohydrologic modeling to describe complex human-water coupled systems with simple concepts and equations.

  12. Integrating channel form and processes in the Gangetic plains rivers: Implications for geomorphic diversity (United States)

    Roy, N. G.; Sinha, R.


    Geomorphic diversity at a variety of spatial and temporal scales has been studied in the western Ganga plains (WGP), India, to isolate the dominating factors at each scale that have the potential to cause major geomorphic change. The Ganga River and its major tributaries draining the WGP have been investigated in terms of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and planform morphology to assess the influence of potential controls such as climate, geology, topography, land use, hydrology, and sediment transport. These data were then compared with those from the rivers draining the eastern Ganga plains (EGP) to understand the geomorphic diversity across the Ganga plains and the causal factors. Our investigations suggest that in-channel geomorphic diversity over decadal scale in rivers with low width-to-depth (W/D) ratio is caused by periodic incision/aggradation, but it is driven by channel avulsion in rivers characterized by high W/D ratio. Similarly, planform (reach-scale) parameters such as sinuosity and braid-channel-ratio are influenced by intrinsic factors such as changes in hydrological conditions and morphodynamics (cutoffs, small-scale avulsion) that are in turn impacted by natural and human-induced factors. Finally, we have isolated the climatic and hydrologic effects on the longitudinal profile concavity of alluvial trunk channels in tectonically stable and unstable landscapes. We demonstrate that the rivers flowing through a tectonically stable landscape are graded in nature where higher discharge tends to create more concave longitudinal profiles compared to those in tectonically unstable landscape at 103-year scale.

  13. The Topographic Design of River Channels for Form-Process Linkages. (United States)

    Brown, Rocko A; Pasternack, Gregory B; Lin, Tin


    Scientists and engineers design river topography for a wide variety of uses, such as experimentation, site remediation, dam mitigation, flood management, and river restoration. A recent advancement has been the notion of topographical design to yield specific fluvial mechanisms in conjunction with natural or environmental flow releases. For example, the flow convergence routing mechanism, whereby shear stress and spatially convergent flow migrate or jump from the topographic high (riffle) to the low point (pool) from low to high discharge, is thought to be a key process able to maintain undular relief in gravel bedded rivers. This paper develops an approach to creating riffle-pool topography with a form-process linkage to the flow convergence routing mechanism using an adjustable, quasi equilibrium synthetic channel model. The link from form to process is made through conceptualizing form-process relationships for riffle-pool couplets into geomorphic covariance structures (GCSs) that are then quantitatively embedded in a synthetic channel model. Herein, GCSs were used to parameterize a geometric model to create five straight, synthetic river channels with varying combinations of bed and width undulations. Shear stress and flow direction predictions from 2D hydrodynamic modeling were used to determine if scenarios recreated aspects of the flow convergence routing mechanism. Results show that the creation of riffle-pool couplets that experience flow convergence in straight channels requires GCSs with covarying bed and width undulations in their topography as supported in the literature. This shows that GCSs are a useful way to translate conceptualizations of form-process linkages into quantitative models of channel form.

  14. IBRD sonar scour monitoring project : real-time river channel-bed monitoring at the Chariton and Mississippi Rivers in Missouri, 2007-09, final report, January 2010. (United States)


    Scour and depositional responses to hydrologic events have been important to the scientific community studying sediment transport as well as potential effects on bridges and other hydraulic structures within riverine systems. A river channel-bed moni...

  15. Characteristics of the navigational conditions and hydrotechnical infrastructure of the Upper Notec River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Nadolny


    Full Text Available The Upper Notec River is an important part of the waterway which is connecting Warta River and Bydgoszcz Canal. Tourist attractions are main reason for tourists visiting of the "Wielkopolska Loops". The article characterized hydrotechnical infrastructure, hydrological and depth conditions of the waterway which have an impact on the development of tourism and inland load shipping.

  16. Navigation Conditions at Gray's Landing Locks and Dam, Monongahela River; Hydraulic Model Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wooley, Ronald


    .... The river drains an area of 7,386 square miles and drops a total of 147 ft in its 128.7-mile length. Gray's Landing Lock and Dam is a proposed replacement structure for existing Lock and Dam 7 on the Monongahela River...

  17. Channel Width Change as a Potential Sediment Source, Minnesota River Basin (United States)

    Lauer, J. W.; Echterling, C.; Lenhart, C. F.; Rausch, R.; Belmont, P.


    Turbidity and suspended sediment are important management considerations along the Minnesota River. The system has experience large and relatively consistent increases in both discharge and channel width over the past century. Here we consider the potential role of channel cross section enlargement as a sediment source. Reach-average channel width was digitized from aerial images dated between 1937 and 2015 along multiple sub-reaches of the Minnesota River and its major tributaries. Many of the sub-reaches include several actively migrating bends. The analysis shows relatively consistent increases in width over time, with average increase rates of 0.4 percent per year. Extrapolation to the river network using a regional relationship for cross-sectional area vs. drainage area indicates that large tributaries and main-stem reaches account for most of the bankfull cross-sectional volume in the basin. Larger tributaries and the main stem thus appear more important for widening related sediment production than small tributaries. On a basin-wide basis, widening could be responsible for a gross supply of more sediment than has been gaged at several main-stem sites, indicating that there may be important sinks for both sand and silt/clay size material distributed throughout the system. Sediment storage is probably largest along the lowest-slope reaches of the main stem. While channel width appears to have adjusted relatively quickly in response to discharge and other hydraulic modifications, net storage of sediment in floodplains probably occurs sufficiently slowly that depth adjustment will lag width adjustment significantly. Detailed analysis of the lower Minnesota River using a river segmenting approach allows for a more detailed assessment of reach-scale processes. Away from channel cutoffs, elongation of the channel at eroding bends is consistent with rates observed on other actively migrating rivers. However, the sinuosity increase has been more than compensated by

  18. Channel mapping river miles 29–62 of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, May 2009 (United States)

    Kaplinski, Matt; Hazel, Joseph E.; Grams, Paul E.; Kohl, Keith; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Tusso, Robert B.


    Bathymetric, topographic, and grain-size data were collected in May 2009 along a 33-mi reach of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The study reach is located from river miles 29 to 62 at the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers. Channel bathymetry was mapped using multibeam and singlebeam echosounders, subaerial topography was mapped using ground-based total-stations, and bed-sediment grain-size data were collected using an underwater digital microscope system. These data were combined to produce digital elevation models, spatially variable estimates of digital elevation model uncertainty, georeferenced grain-size data, and bed-sediment distribution maps. This project is a component of a larger effort to monitor the status and trends of sand storage along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. This report documents the survey methods and post-processing procedures, digital elevation model production and uncertainty assessment, and procedures for bed-sediment classification, and presents the datasets resulting from this study.

  19. Patchogue River, Westbrook, Connecticut. Small Navigation Project, Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment. (United States)


    Westbrook, especially if channel modifications are undertaken. Currently, local entrepreneurs are planning to construct new power- boat facilities...result. Value of Delay Time Existing S14,400 W/Plan B 7,200 PLAN B: Annual Benefit = S 7,200 PLAN C Plan C would increse the width of the existing channel

  20. Rapid channel incision of the lower Pearl River (China since the 1990s as a consequence of sediment depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. X. Lu


    Full Text Available This paper reported a dramatic channel incision (>10 m in the deepest cut during the past 10 y or so in the lower Pearl River, the second largest river in terms of water discharge in China. The channel incision had caused changes both in the channel geometry as well as in the river hydraulics. Also, the water exchange between the two major tributaries of the Pearl River, the Xijiang and Beijiang, had been significantly changed due to the channel incision. The rapid channel incision was principally the result of extensive sand mining in the lower Pearl River and the delta region due to the booming economy in the Pearl Delta region. Slight increase of water discharge and significant decrease of sediment load since the early 1990s in both the Xijiang and Beijiang also likely contributed to the observed dramatic river bed downcutting to some extent. This has important implications for river management, as the large Chinese rivers have seen a dramatic depletion of sediment fluxes due to the combined effects of declining rainfall, dam constructions, water diversion, reforestation and afforestation, and sediment mining over the recent decades.

  1. Reduced channel conveyance on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, 1900-2009 (United States)

    Winters, Karl; Baldys, Stanley; Schreiber, Russell


    Recent floods on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, have reached higher stages compared to historical floods of similar magnitude discharges. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated streamflow-gaging station 07312500 Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Tex., since 1938 and flood measurements near the location of the present gage were first made in 1900. Floods recorded in 2007 and 2008 at this gaging station, including the record flood of June 30, 2007, reached higher stages compared to historical floods before 1972 of similar peak discharges. For flood measurements made at stages of more than 18 feet, peak stages were about 1 to 3 feet higher compared to peak stages of similar peak discharges measured before 1972. Flood measurements made at stages of more than 18 feet also indicate a decrease in the measured mean velocity from about 3.5 to about 2.0 feet per second from 1941 to 2008. The increase in stage and decrease in streamflow velocity for similar magnitude floods indicates channel conveyance has decreased over time. A study to investigate the causes of reduced channel conveyance in the Wichita River reach from Loop 11 downstream to River Road in Wichita Falls was done by the USGS in cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls. Historical photographs indicate substantial growth of riparian vegetation downstream from Loop 11 between 1950 and 2009. Aerial photographs taken between 1950 and 2008 also indicate an increase in riparian vegetation. Twenty-five channel cross sections were surveyed by the USGS in this reach in 2009. These cross sections were located at bridge crossings or collocated with channel cross sections previously surveyed in 1986 for use in a floodplain mapping study by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Four channel cross sections 3,400 to 11,900 feet downstream from Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard indicate narrowing of the channel. The remaining channel cross sections surveyed in 2009 by the USGS compared favorably with

  2. 77 FR 19544 - Regulated Navigation Area, Zidell Waterfront Property, Willamette River, OR (United States)


    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or email BM1 Silvestre Suga III, Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard Sector Columbia River, telephone 503-240-9319, email Silvestre[email protected

  3. Elevation - Mobile LiDAR - Mississippi River Navigation Feature Data Acquisition (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — There are three tasks associated with this delivery order: Task 1: Elevations of the Low Steel for bridge superstructures on the following rivers: St. Croix between...

  4. Maintenance Dredging of the Federal Navigation Channels in the Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay, Michigan. (United States)


    contact is Dr. Martha Bigelow, Director, Michigan History Division, Depar=int of State, Lansing, Michigan 48918. Te National Recister shoeuld also be...other low growth. Methylation - Change from an inorganic to an organic form usually as a result of bacterial action. For * example, the metal mercury

  5. Modelling the flooding capacity of a Polish Carpathian river: A comparison of constrained and free channel conditions (United States)

    Czech, Wiktoria; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Hajdukiewicz, Hanna


    The gravel-bed Biała River, Polish Carpathians, was heavily affected by channelization and channel incision in the twentieth century. Not only were these impacts detrimental to the ecological state of the river, but they also adversely modified the conditions of floodwater retention and flood wave passage. Therefore, a few years ago an erodible corridor was delimited in two sections of the Biała to enable restoration of the river. In these sections, short, channelized reaches located in the vicinity of bridges alternate with longer, unmanaged channel reaches, which either avoided channelization or in which the channel has widened after the channelization scheme ceased to be maintained. Effects of these alternating channel morphologies on the conditions for flood flows were investigated in a study of 10 pairs of neighbouring river cross sections with constrained and freely developed morphology. Discharges of particular recurrence intervals were determined for each cross section using an empirical formula. The morphology of the cross sections together with data about channel slope and roughness of particular parts of the cross sections were used as input data to the hydraulic modelling performed with the one-dimensional steady-flow HEC-RAS software. The results indicated that freely developed cross sections, usually with multithread morphology, are typified by significantly lower water depth but larger width and cross-sectional flow area at particular discharges than single-thread, channelized cross sections. They also exhibit significantly lower average flow velocity, unit stream power, and bed shear stress. The pattern of differences in the hydraulic parameters of flood flows apparent between the two types of river cross sections varies with the discharges of different frequency, and the contrasts in hydraulic parameters between unmanaged and channelized cross sections are most pronounced at low-frequency, high-magnitude floods. However, because of the deep

  6. Channel and island change in the lower Platte River, Eastern Nebraska, USA: 1855 2005 (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Henebry, G. M.


    The lower Platte River has undergone considerable change in channel and bar characteristics since the mid-1850s in four 20-25 km-long study stretches. The same net effect of historical channel shrinkage that was detected upstream from Grand Island, Nebraska, can also be detected in the lower river but differences in the behaviors of study stretches upstream and downstream from major tributaries are striking. The least relative decrease occurred downstream from the Loup River confluence, and the stretch downstream from the Elkhorn River confluence actually showed an increase in channel area during the 1940s. Bank erosion was also greater downstream of the tributaries between ca. 1860 and 1938/1941, particularly in stretch RG, which showed more lateral migration. The cumulative island area and the ratio of island area to channel area relative to the 1938/1941 baseline data showed comparatively great fluctuations in median island size in both downstream stretches. The erratic behavior of island size distributions over time indicates that large islands were accreted to the banks at different times, and that some small, newly-stabilized islands were episodically "flushed" out of the system. In the upstream stretches the stabilization of mobile bars to create new, small islands had a more consistent impact over time. Channel decrease by the abandonment of large, long-lived anabranches and by the in-place narrowing resulting from island accretion were more prominent in these upstream stretches. Across all of the study area, channel area appears to be stabilizing gradually as the rate of decrease lessens. This trend began earliest in stretch RG in the late 1950s and was accompanied by shifts in the size distributions of stabilized islands in that stretch into the 1960s. Elsewhere, even in the easternmost study stretch, stabilizing was occurring by the late 1960s, the same time frame documented by investigations of the Platte system upstream of the study area. Comprehensive

  7. Beyond the threshold for motion: river channel geometry and grain size reflect sediment supply (United States)

    Pfeiffer, A.; Finnegan, N. J.; Willenbring, J. K.


    In many gravel-bedded rivers, floods that fill the ch­­annel banks create just enough shear stress to move the median-sized gravel particles on the bed surface (D50). Because this observation is common and is supported by theory, the coincidence of bankfull flow and the incipient motion of D50 has become a­­ commonly employed assumption. However, not all natural gravel channels actually conform to this simple relationship; some channels maintain bankfull stresses far in excess of the critical stress required to initiate sediment transport. We use a database of >300 gravel-bedded rivers and >600 10Be-derived erosion rates from across North America to explore the hypothesis that sediment supply drives the magnitude of bankfull shear stress relative to the critical stress required to mobilize the median bed surface grain size. We find that the ratio of bankfull to critical stress is significantly higher in West Coast river reaches (2.47, n= 84) than in river reaches in the rest of the continent (1.03, n = 245). This pattern parallels trends in erosion rates (and hence sediment supplies). Supporting our hypothesis, we find a significant correlation between upstream erosion rate and local τ*bf/τ*c at sites where this comparison is possible. Our analysis reveals a decrease in bed surface armoring with increasing τ*bf/τ*c, suggesting that channels accommodate changes in sediment supply through adjustments in bed surface grain size, as predicted through numerical modeling. Our findings demonstrate that sediment supply is encoded in the bankfull hydraulic geometry of gravel-bedded channels through its control on bed surface grain size.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zenkin


    Full Text Available The article highlights the method of calculating the optimum curvature of the river channels using the kinematic model of the flow structure based on the concept of discrete nature of the channel process. It offers the analytic form of the equation of motion of river flow, which can be used simulation modeling for searching dynamically stable form of the river channel, and which can control water level in rivers. The source data for the illustrations of given in the article modeling methods have been served the images received from MODIS on the Terra satellite, for the lower reaches of the river Kur, which merges with the river Urmi, forming the Tunguska river – the left tributary of the Amur.The modified geometric method can be used to calculate obliquity of tangent to the curve and normal in those situations when observed on satellite imagery points are located on the coordinate of the network irregularly and when three points lying on the curve of the riverbed do not form isosceles triangle.The model assembles tangential and radial components of the forces acting on the water flow (centrifugal, friction and gravity. Curvature radius is explicitly expressed in the model through the parameter  – gradient angle relative to the axis X. As solution for the value of the angle  is searched, when the correlation function reaches its maximum. It is assumed that the riverbed shape “wrong” and could be modified so that the resulting curve better correlated with calculated curve. Morphometric dependences for macroforms allow creating series of morphological methods for the calculation of deformations and displacement of the shore in any section of meander scroll.The proposed technique has been tested also on satellite imagery of high resolution. The presented methods of calculation are used as the basis for hydrological projects of geoinformation systems oriented at prediction of morphodynamic processes and morphological evolution of river

  9. Sediment Transport Capacity and Channel Processes in a Humid Tropical Montane River - Rio Pacuare, Costa Rica (United States)

    Lind, P.; McDowell, P. F.


    Investigating sediment transport capacity as well as the spatial and temporal variations of sediment flux are critical component of river research, especially for applications in resource management and conservation, hazards assessment and planning, and riverine ecology. The bedload fraction of sediment transported through montane rivers often defines channel and bed form processes. It is understood that humid tropical montane rivers are capable of producing some of the largest quantities of sediment per unit drainage area. Bedload flux reported on a few Southeast Asian humid tropical montane rivers show that bedload constituted 16-75% of the total sediment load - this is notably higher than the generally accepted 10% of a channel's sediment load. However, to date almost all of the research done on sediment transport in humid tropical systems has focused on suspended load. This study presents annual bedload transport rate estimates for six field sites distributed within 45 river kilometers (Rkm) of the montane portion of the Rio Pacuare, located in the Talamanca Mountains of Costa Rica. This research reveals that flows capable of mobilizing the D84 occur on average at least once but often multiple times a year in this river system. The Rio Pacuare has a sufficient supply of sediment to meet its high transport capacity needs. As a result, large active bars composed of imbricated boulders define channel form at moderate and low flows throughout the study area. Differences in the magnitude, as well as the spatial and temporal variations of sediment flux at each field site are discussed in relation to stream power, and annual/inter-annual precipitation patterns. A unique mix of field and remote sensing techniques were applied to address these questions and to overcome some of the challenges of tropical river research. For example, due to the large grain size and high stream energy, grain mobilization and validation of modeled shear stress requirements for transport

  10. Historical Channel Adjustment and Estimates of Selected Hydraulic Values in the Lower Sabine River and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, evaluated historical channel adjustment and estimated selected hydraulic values at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Sabine River Basin in Texas and Louisiana and lower Brazos River Basin in Texas to support geomorphic assessments of the Texas Instream Flow Program. Channel attributes including cross-section geometry, slope, and planform change were evaluated to learn how each river's morphology changed over the years in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Historical and contemporary cross-sectional channel geometries at several gaging stations on each river were compared, planform changes were assessed, and hydraulic values were estimated including mean flow velocity, bed shear stress, Froude numbers, and hydraulic depth. The primary sources of historical channel morphology information were U.S. Geological Survey hard-copy discharge-measurement field notes. Additional analyses were done using computations of selected flow hydraulics, comparisons of historical and contemporary aerial photographs, comparisons of historical and contemporary ground photographs, evaluations of how frequently stage-discharge rating curves were updated, reviews of stage-discharge relations for field measurements, and considerations of bridge and reservoir construction activities. Based on historical cross sections at three gaging stations downstream from Toledo Bend Reservoir, the lower Sabine River is relatively stable, but is subject to substantial temporary scour-and-fill processes during floods. Exceptions to this characterization of relative stability include an episode of channel aggradation at the Sabine River near Bon Wier, Texas, during the 1930s, and about 2 to 3 feet of channel incision at the Sabine River near Burkeville, Texas, since the late 1950s. The Brazos River, at gaging stations downstream from Waco, Texas, has adjusted to a combination of

  11. Experimental investigation of channel avulsion frequency on river deltas under rising sea levels (United States)

    Silvestre, J.; Chadwick, A. J.; Steele, S.; Lamb, M. P.


    River deltas are low-relief landscapes that are socioeconomically important; they are home to over half a billion people worldwide. Many deltas are built by cycles of lobe growth punctuated by abrupt channel shifts, or avulsions, which often reoccur at a similar location and with a regular frequency. Previous experimental work has investigated the effect of hydrodynamic backwater in controlling channel avulsion location and timing on deltas under constant sea level conditions, but it is unclear how sea-level rise impacts avulsion dynamics. We present results from a flume experiment designed to isolate the role of relative sea-level rise on the evolution of a backwater-influenced delta. The experiment was conducted in the river-ocean facility at Caltech, where a 7m long, 14cm wide alluvial river drains into a 6m by 3m "ocean" basin. The experimental delta grew under subcritical flow, a persistent backwater zone, and a range of sea level rise rates. Without sea level rise, lobe progradation produced in-channel aggradation and periodic avulsions every 3.6 ± 0.9 hours, which corresponded to when channels aggraded to approximately one-half of their flow depth. With a modest rate of sea-level rise (0.25 mm/hr), we observed enhanced aggradation in the backwater zone, causing channels to aggrade more quickly and avulse more frequently (every 2.1 ± 0.6 hours). In future work, we expect further increases in the rate of relative sea-level rise to cause avulsion frequency to decrease as the delta drowns and the backwater zone retreats upstream. Experimental results can serve as tests of numerical models that are needed for hazard mitigation and coastal sustainability efforts on drowning deltas.

  12. Mechanisms of Sediment Transport to an Abandoned Distributary Channel on the Huanghe (Yellow River) Delta, China (United States)

    Kumpf, L. L.; Kineke, G. C.; Carlson, B.; Mullane, M.


    Avulsions on the fine-grained Huanghe delta have left it scarred with traces of abandoned distributary channels that become intertidal systems, open to water and sediment exchange with the sea. In 1996, an engineered avulsion of the Huanghe left a 30 km long abandoned channel to the south of the modern active river channel. Though all fluvial input was cut off, present-day sedimentation on the new tidal flats has been observed at rates around 2 cm/yr. The source must be suspended-sediment from the Bohai Sea conveyed by the tidal channel network, but the mechanisms promoting sediment import are unknown. Possible mechanisms include (A) import sourced from the sediment-rich buoyant coastal plume, (B) wave resuspension on the shallow shelf, (C) reverse-estuarine residual circulation in the tidal channel, and (D) tidal asymmetry in the channel. Over three summers, in situ measurements of current velocity, suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), and wave climate were made on the delta front, and measurements of velocity, SSC, and salinity were made within the tidal channel. Results suggest that the buoyant plume from the active Huanghe channel can transport sediment south toward the tidal channel mouth (A). Additionally, wave resuspension (B) takes place on the subaqueous topset beds when the significant wave height exceeds 1 m, providing potential sources of suspended-sediment to the tidal channel. Within the abandoned channel, the tidal channel can become hypersaline and exhibit reverse-estuarine circulation (C), which would promote import of turbid coastal water near the surface. Time-series of velocity in the tidal channel indicate that ebb currents are consistently higher than flood currents through the spring-neap cycle (D), with maximum velocities exceeding 1 m/s and corresponding maximum SSC reaching 2 g/L during spring tide. While ebb dominance would typically tend to flush the system of its sediment over time, sediment supplied to the tidal flats may not be

  13. Tracing the contribution of debris flow-dominated channels to gravel-bed torrential river channel: implementing pit-tags in the upper Guil River (French Alps) (United States)

    Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Bétard, François; Carlier, Benoit; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charnay, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier


    In the upper, wider reaches of Alpine valleys, shaping of active channels is usually subject to rapid change. It mostly depends upon hydro-climatic variability, runoff concentration and sediment supply, and may result in alternating sequences of fluvial and debris-flow pulses, as recorded in alluvial fans and terraces. Our study, carried in the frame of SAMCO (ANR) project, focuses on the upper Guil River Valley (Queyras, Southern French Alps) cut into the slaty shale "schistes lustrés". Steep, lower order drains carry a contrasted solid discharge, including predominantly sandy-loam particles mixed with gravels and boulders (sandstone schists, ophiolites). Abundant sediment supply by frost shattering, snow avalanche and landslides is then reworked during snowmelt or summer storm runoff events, and may result in catastrophic, very destructive floods along the main channel, as shown by historical records. Following the RI-30 year 2000 flood, our investigations included sediment budgets, i.e. balance of erosion and deposition, and the mapping of the source, transport and storage of various sediments (talus, colluvium, torrential fans, terraces). To better assess sediment fluxes and sediment delivery into the main channel network, we implemented tracers (pit-tags) in selected sub-catchments, significantly contributing to the sediment yield of the valley bottoms during the floods and/or avalanches: Maloqueste, Combe Morel, Bouchouse and Peyronnelle catchments. The first three are direct tributaries of the Guil River whereas the Peyronnelle is a left bank tributary of the Peynin River, which joins the Guil River via an alluvial cone with high human and material stakes. The Maloqueste and the Combe Morel are two tributaries facing each other in the Guil valley, representing a double lateral constraint for the road during flood events of the Guil River. After pit-tag initialisation in laboratory, we set them up along the four tributaries: Maloqueste (20 pit-tags), Combe

  14. The role of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and water velocity in determining river temperature dynamics (United States)

    Garner, Grace; Malcolm, Iain A.; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Hannah, David M.


    A simulation experiment was used to understand the importance of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and flow velocity for stream energy budgets and river temperature dynamics. Water temperature and meteorological observations were obtained in addition to hemispherical photographs along a ∼1 km reach of the Girnock Burn, a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland. Data from nine hemispherical images (representing different uniform canopy density scenarios) were used to parameterise a deterministic net radiation model and simulate radiative fluxes. For each vegetation scenario, the effects of eight channel orientations were investigated by changing the position of north at 45° intervals in each hemispheric image. Simulated radiative fluxes and observed turbulent fluxes drove a high-resolution water temperature model of the reach. Simulations were performed under low and high water velocity scenarios. Both velocity scenarios yielded decreases in mean (≥1.6 °C) and maximum (≥3.0 °C) temperature as canopy density increased. Slow-flowing water resided longer within the reach, which enhanced heat accumulation and dissipation, and drove higher maximum and lower minimum temperatures. Intermediate levels of shade produced highly variable energy flux and water temperature dynamics depending on the channel orientation and thus the time of day when the channel was shaded. We demonstrate that in many reaches relatively sparse but strategically located vegetation could produce substantial reductions in maximum temperature and suggest that these criteria are used to inform future river management.

  15. River restoration strategies in channelized, low-gradient landscapes of West Tennessee, USA (United States)

    Smith, D.P.; Diehl, T.H.; Turrini-Smith, L. A.; Maas-Baldwin, J.; Croyle, Z.


    West Tennessee has a complex history of watershed disturbance, including agricultural erosion, channelization, accelerated valley sedimentation, and the removal and reestablishment of beaver. Watershed management has evolved from fl oodplain drainage via pervasive channelization to include local drainage canal maintenance and local river restoration. Many unmaintained canals are undergoing excessive aggradation and complex channel evolution driven by upland erosion and low valley gradient. The locus of aggradation in fully occluded canals (valley plugs) moves up-valley as sediment continues to accumulate in the backwater behind the plug. Valley plugs that cause canal avulsion can lead to redevelopment of meandering channels in less disturbed areas of the fl oodplain, in a process of passive self-restoration. Some valley plugs have brought restored fl oodplain function, reoccupation of extant historic river channels, and formation of a "sediment shadow" that protects downstream reaches from excess sedimentation. Despite the presence of numerous opportunities, there is presently no mechanism for including valley plugs in mitigation projects. In 1997 a survey of 14 reference reach cross sections documented relations between drainage area and bankfull geometry of relatively unmodified streams in West Tennessee. Reassessment of seven of those sites in 2007 showed that one had been dammed by beaver and that two sites could not be analyzed further because of signifi cant vertical or lateral instability. In contrast to other regions of North America, the results suggest that stream channels in this region fl ood more frequently than once each year, and can remain out of banks for several weeks each year. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  16. River channel and bar patterns explained and predicted by an empirical and a physics-based method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Berg, J.H. van den


    Our objective is to understand general causes of different river channel patterns. In this paper we compare an empirical stream power-based classification and a physics-based bar pattern predictor. We present a careful selection of data from the literature that contains rivers with discharge and

  17. Evaluating the impact of a wide range of vegetation densities on river channel pattern (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Roucou, Ron


    Braided rivers are very dynamic systems which have complex controls over their planform and flow dynamics. Vegetation is one variable which influences channel geometry and pattern, through its effect on local flow hydraulics and the process continuum of sediment erosion-transport-deposition. Furthermore, where in the braided floodplain stable vegetation develops depends on the temporal sequencing of the river discharge i.e. floods. Understanding the effect of vegetation in these highly dynamic systems has multiple consequences for human activity and floodplain management. This paper focusses on the specific role of vegetation density in controlling braided river form and processes. Previous research in this field has been contradictory; with Gran and Paola (2001) finding that increasing vegetation density decreased the number of active channels. In contrast, Coulthard (2005] observed that as vegetation become denser there was an increase in the number of channels. This was hypothesized to be caused by flow separation around vegetation and the development of bars immediately downstream of the plant. This paper reports the results from a set of experiments in a 4m by 1m flume, where discharge, slope and sediment size were kept constant. Artificial grass was used to represent vegetation with a density ranging from 50 plants/m2 to 400 plants/m2. Digital photographs, using a GoPro camera with a fish eye lens, were taken from ~1m above the flume at an interval of 30 seconds during the 3 hour experiment. The experiments showed that as the vegetation density increased from 50 to 150 plants/m2, the number of channel bars developing doubled from 12 to 24. At vegetation densities greater than 150 plants/m2 there was a decline in the number of bars created to a minimum of 8 bars for a density of 400 plants/m2. We attribute these patterns to the effect that the vegetation has on flow hydraulics, sediment transport processes and the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. We

  18. 75 FR 71145 - San Joaquin River Restoration Program: Reach 4B, Eastside Bypass, and Mariposa Bypass Channel and... (United States)


    ..., Eastside Bypass, and Mariposa Bypass Channel and Structural Improvements Project, Merced County, CA AGENCY... on the effects of the proposed Reach 4B, Eastside Bypass, and Mariposa Bypass Channel and Structural... Mariposa Bypass with the San Joaquin River (generally referred to as Reach 4B1). The improvements will...

  19. Mapping Prehistoric, Historic, and Channel Sediment Distribution, South Fork Noyo River: A Tool For Understanding Sources, Storage, and Transport (United States)

    Rich D. Koehler; Keith I. Kelson; Graham Matthews; K.H. Kang; Andrew D. Barron


    The South Fork Noyo River (SFNR) watershed in coastal northern California contains large volumes of historic sediment that were delivered to channels in response to past logging operations. This sediment presently is stored beneath historic terraces and in present-day channels. We conducted geomorphic mapping on the SFNR valley floor to assess the volume and location...

  20. Sediment Trapping by Emerged Channel Bars in the Lowermost Mississippi River during a Major Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang


    Full Text Available The formation of channel bars has been recognized as the most significant sediment response to the highly trained Mississippi River (MR. However, no quantitative study exists on the dynamics of emerged channel bars and associated sediment accumulation in the last 500-kilometer reach of the MR from the Gulf of Mexico outlet, also known as the lowermost Mississippi River. Such knowledge is especially critical for riverine sediment management to impede coastal land loss in the Mississippi River Delta. In this study, we utilized a series of satellite images taken from August 2010 to January 2012 to assess the changes in surface area and volume of three large emerged channel bars in the lowermost MR following an unprecedented spring flood in 2011. River stage data were collected to develop a rating curve of surface areas detected by satellite images with flow conditions for each of the three bars. A uniform geometry associated with the areal change was assumed to estimate the bar volume changes. Our study reveals that the 2011 spring flood increased the surface area of the bars by 3.5% to 11.1%, resulting in a total surface increase of 7.3%, or 424,000 m2. Based on the surface area change, we estimated a total bar volume increase of 4.4%, or 1,219,900 m3. This volume increase would be equivalent to a sediment trapping of approximately 1.0 million metric tons, assuming a sediment bulk density of 1.2 metric tons per cubic meter. This large quantity of sediment is likely an underestimation because of the neglect of subaqueous bar area change and the assumption of a uniform geometry in volume estimation. Nonetheless, the results imply that channel bars in the lowermost MR are capable of capturing a substantial amount of sediment during floods, and that a thorough assessment of their long-term change can provide important insights into sediment trapping in the lowermost MR as well as the feasibility of proposed river sediment diversions.

  1. Evaluating the influence of feedbacks between erosion rate and weathering on the distribution of erodibility in bedrock river channels


    Shobe, Charles; Hancock, Gregory; Eppes, Martha; Small, Eric


    This is a poster presented on November 3rd, 2015 at the Geological Society of America annual meeting in Baltimore, MD, USA. The poster presents rock strength and roughness data from tributaries to the Potomac River in Virginia. Our data support the idea that bedrock channel erodibility is greater on the channel margins than at the thalweg, which we hypothesize to be the result of weathering damage preferentially accumulated on the channel banks. This work was published in Shobe et al (2017; E...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk I.


    Full Text Available The article describes main methodological principles of geoecological assessment of riverbed-floodplain complex condition of one of the small rivers in Ukrainian Carpathians. According to our long-term field, cartographic, laboratory and remote sensing research, division of riverbed into homogeneous geoecological segments was made, as well as their standardization in accordance to the trends of unfavorable processes. Main reasons for deterioration of quality characteristics of channel-floodplain river complex were outlined; the role of natural and anthropogenic factors in deterioration of geoecological condition of the river and its floodplain complex was analyzed. Based on the assessment results it is possible to state that the condition of study segments of the Berezhnytsya river flood-plain and stream-way complex was marked as “excellent”, “good” and “satisfactory”. “Unsatisfactory” and “catastrophic” river and flood-plain condition has not been detected yet, although within Dashava urban settlement the river area condition is close to the “satisfactory” grade. The best situation is at the river head as human impact is minimized here and natural vegetation is preserved. Downstream we trace the tendency of condition worsening as anthropogenic load on the basin system and flood-plain and stream-way complex increases. Its negative impact is balanced by large forests, thus in segments limited by Banya Lysovytska village and Lotatnyky village the river and flood-plain condition is rated as “good”. So, downstream from the named village the value of such an important natural barrier as forest is reducing and anthropogenic load on the river significantly increases. The latter manifests in an intensive agricultural reclamation and housing development of flood-plains. Since degradation processes are rapidly developing over a considerable part of the Berezhnytsya river, negative changes are visible and only the study area

  3. Channel morphodynamics in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River, 2006-07 (United States)

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.


    Channel morphodynamics in response to flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam are examined in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River. Measures include changes in channel morphology and indicators of sediment transport in four 6 kilometer long reaches located downstream from Gavins Point Dam, near Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri. Each of the four reaches was divided into 300 transects with a 20-meter spacing and surveyed during the summer in 2006 and 2007. A subset of 30 transects was randomly selected and surveyed 7-10 times in 2006-07 over a wide range of discharges including managed and natural flow events. Hydroacoustic mapping used a survey-grade echosounder and a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System to evaluate channel change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to evaluate bed-sediment velocity. Results indicate varying amounts of deposition, erosion, net change, and sediment transport in the four Lower Missouri River reaches. The Yankton reach was the most stable over monthly and annual time-frames. The Kenslers Bend and Little Sioux reaches exhibited substantial amounts of deposition and erosion, although net change was generally low in both reaches. Total, or gross geomorphic change was greatest in the Kenslers Bend reach. The Miami reach exhibited varying rates of deposition and erosion, and low net change. The Yankton, Kenslers Bend, and Miami reaches experienced net erosion during the time period that bracketed the managed May 2006 spring rise event from Gavins Point Dam.

  4. Channel and Floodplain Change Analysis over a 100-Year Period: Lower Yuba River, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Aalto


    Full Text Available Hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, California (1853–1884 displaced ~1.1 billion m3 of sediment from upland placer gravels that were deposited along piedmont rivers below dams where floods can remobilize them. This study uses topographic and planimetric data from detailed 1906 topographic maps, 1999 photogrammetric data, and pre- and post-flood aerial photographs to document historic sediment erosion and deposition along the lower Yuba River due to individual floods at the reach scale. Differencing of 3 × 3-m topographic data indicates substantial changes in channel morphology and documents 12.6 × 106 m3 of erosion and 5.8 × 106 m3 of deposition in these reaches since 1906. Planimetric and volumetric measurements document spatial and temporal variations of channel enlargement and lateral migration. Over the last century, channels incised up to ~13 m into mining sediments, which dramatically decreased local flood frequencies and increased flood conveyance. These adjustments were punctuated by event-scale geomorphic changes that redistributed sediment and associated contaminants to downstream lowlands.

  5. Channel-Island Connectivity Affects Water Exposure Time Distributions in a Coastal River Delta (United States)

    Hiatt, Matthew; Castañeda-Moya, Edward; Twilley, Robert; Hodges, Ben R.; Passalacqua, Paola


    The exposure time is a water transport time scale defined as the cumulative amount of time a water parcel spends in the domain of interest regardless of the number of excursions from the domain. Transport time scales are often used to characterize the nutrient removal potential of aquatic systems, but exposure time distribution estimates are scarce for deltaic systems. Here we analyze the controls on exposure time distributions using a hydrodynamic model in two domains: the Wax Lake delta in Louisiana, USA, and an idealized channel-island complex. In particular, we study the effects of river discharge, vegetation, network geometry, and tides and use a simple model for the fractional removal of nitrate. In both domains, we find that channel-island hydrological connectivity significantly affects exposure time distributions and nitrate removal. The relative contributions of the island and channel portions of the delta to the overall exposure time distribution are controlled by island vegetation roughness and network geometry. Tides have a limited effect on the system's exposure time distribution but can introduce significant spatial variability in local exposure times. The median exposure time for the WLD model is 10 h under the conditions tested and water transport within the islands contributes to 37-50% of the network-scale exposure time distribution and 52-73% of the modeled nitrate removal, indicating that islands may account for the majority of nitrate removal in river deltas.

  6. Quantifying downstream impacts of impoundment on flow regime and channel planform, lower Trinity River, Texas (United States)

    Wellmeyer, Jessica L.; Slattery, Michael C.; Phillips, Jonathan D.


    As human population worldwide has grown, so has interest in harnessing and manipulating the flow of water for the benefit of humans. The Trinity River of eastern Texas is one such watershed greatly impacted by engineering and urbanization. Draining the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, just under 30 reservoirs are in operation in the basin, regulating flow while containing public supplies, supporting recreation, and providing flood control. Lake Livingston is the lowest, as well as largest, reservoir in the basin, a mere 95 km above the Trinity's outlet near Galveston Bay. This study seeks to describe and quantify channel activity and flow regime, identifying effects of the 1968 closure of Livingston dam. Using historic daily and peak discharge data from USGS gauging stations, flow duration curves are constructed, identifying pre- and post-dam flow conditions. A digital historic photo archive was also constructed using six sets of aerial photographs spanning from 1938 to 1995, and three measures of channel activity applied using a GIS. Results show no changes in high flow conditions following impoundment, while low flows are elevated. However, the entire post-dam period is characterized by significantly higher rainfall, which may be obscuring the full impact of flow regulation. Channel activity rates do not indicate a more stabilized planform following dam closure; rather they suggest that the Trinity River is adjusting itself to the stress of Livingston dam in a slow, gradual process that may not be apparent in a modern time scale.

  7. Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Lower Ohio River Navigation Area, Illinois and Kentucky (United States)


    Pulaski Counties, Illinois. O.L. Baskins and Company, Historical Publishers: Chicago, IL. Robbins , Chandles S., Bertel Brunn, and Herbert S. Zim 196b...woodpecker (Campephllus principalis) ( Robbins et^ al . 1966). Faunal resources available from the Ohio River, the levee flank lakes, and the backwater...the area, occasional raids occurred (Müller and Davy 1977:31). These Indian raids were often bloody and cruel ( Baskin 1883:536-537) as rage and

  8. Refurbishment and upgrading of Iron Gates I Hydroelectric and Navigation System on the Danube River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scvortov, F.; Vasiliu, A.; Rosca, N.


    This work shows the problems of the refurbishing the hydroelectric units of the Iron Gates 1 Hydroelectric and Navigation System, operating since 1970. Their long and intensive utilization leads to the necessity of their refurbishment. One is demonstrated by detailed studies that it is sensible and efficient to perform both rehabilitation of the existent hydroelectric units and their power increasing from 175 MW to 190 MW, and prior to all these, as a first step, to install an additional hydroelectric unit (G7) for each system with a capacity of 190 MW. Complex technical and energetic-economical problems appear in realizing this objective due to the necessity of analysing a great volume of data in view of taking a correct decision. (author). 7 figs

  9. Channel dynamics and geomorphic resilience in an ephemeral Mediterranean river affected by gravel mining (United States)

    Calle, Mikel; Alho, Petteri; Benito, Gerardo


    Gravel mining has been a widespread activity in ephemeral rivers worldwide whose long-lasting hydrogeomorphological impacts preclude effective implementation of water and environmental policies. This paper presents a GIS-based method for temporal assessment of morphosedimentary changes in relation to in-channel gravel mining in a typical ephemeral Mediterranean stream, namely the Rambla de la Viuda (eastern Spain). The aims of this work were to identify morphosedimentary changes and responses to human activities and floods, quantify river degradations and analyze factors favoring fluvial recovery for further applications in other rivers. Aerial photographs and LiDAR topography data were studied to analyze geomorphic evolution over the past 70 years along a 7.5-km reach of an ephemeral gravel stream that has been mined intensively since the 1970s. To evaluate changes in the riverbed, we mapped comparable units applying morphological, hydraulic, and stability (based on vegetation density and elevation) criteria to 13 sets of aerial photographs taken from 1946 to 2012. A detailed spatiotemporal analysis of comparable units revealed a 50% reduction in the active section and a 20% increase in stable areas, compared to the conditions observed prior to gravel mining. Instream mining was first observed in 1976 aerial photograph covering already up to 50% of the 1956 riverbed area. River degradation since then was quantified by means of a LiDAR DTM and RTK-GPS measurements, which revealed a 3.5-m incision that had started simultaneously with gravel mining. Climate and land use changes were present but the effects were completely masked by changes produced by instream gravel mining. Therefore, river incision/degradation was triggered by scarcity of sediment and lack of longitudinal sedimentary connection, creating an unbalanced river system that is still adjusting to the present hydrosedimentary conditions.

  10. Navigation System of Marks Areas - USACE IENC (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  11. Channel change and bed-material transport in the Lower Chetco River, Oregon (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; Anderson, Scott W.; Cannon, Charles; O'Connor, Jim E.


    The lower Chetco River is a wandering gravel-bed river flanked by abundant and large gravel bars formed of coarse bed-material sediment. Since the early twentieth century, the large gravel bars have been a source of commercial aggregate for which ongoing permitting and aquatic habitat concerns have motivated this assessment of historical channel change and sediment transport rates. Analysis of historical channel change and bed-material transport rates for the lower 18 kilometers shows that the upper reaches of the study area are primarily transport zones, with bar positions fixed by valley geometry and active bars mainly providing transient storage of bed material. Downstream reaches, especially near the confluence of the North Fork Chetco River, are zones of active sedimentation and channel migration.Multiple analyses, supported by direct measurements of bedload during winter 2008–09, indicate that since 1970 the mean annual flux of bed material into the study reach has been about 40,000–100,000 cubic meters per year. Downstream tributary input of bed-material sediment, probably averaging 5–30 percent of the influx coming into the study reach from upstream, is approximately balanced by bed-material attrition by abrasion. Probably little bed material leaves the lower river under natural conditions, with most net influx historically accumulating in wider and more dynamic reaches, especially near the North Fork Chetco River confluence, 8 kilometers upstream from the Pacific Ocean.The year-to-year flux, however, varies tremendously. Some years may have less than 3,000 cubic meters of bed material entering the study area; by contrast, some high-flow years, such as 1982 and 1997, likely have more than 150,000 cubic meters entering the reach. For comparison, the estimated annual volume of gravel extracted from the lower Chetco River for commercial aggregate during 2000–2008 has ranged from 32,000 to 90,000 cubic meters and averaged about 59,000 cubic meters per

  12. Changes in the channel-bed level of the western Carpathian rivers over the last 40years (United States)

    Kijowska-Strugała, Małgorzata; Bucała-Hrabia, Anna


    Channel-bed level is constantly changing in time and space, and the process is dependent on both natural and anthropogenic factors. In mountain areas this is one of the more visible morphological processes. The main aim of the research was to analyze the dynamics of the position of river channel beds. Three rivers located within the western part of Polish Carpathians were chosen for the analysis: the Ropa river, the Kamienica Nawojowska river and the Ochotnica river. They are typical rivers for the Beskidy Mountains, medium Flysch mountains. To assess changes in the position of channel bed long-term series of data of minimum water stages in the river were used. The Ropa river is the biggest left tributary of the Wisłoka river (basin a of the upper Vistula River). The total length of the river amounts to 80 km, its gradient equals 58.9‰ and the water basin area amounts to 974 km2. The Kamienica Nawojowska river, with a length of 32.2 km is a right tributary of Dunajec river. The average decrease for the entire watercourse is 18.1‰. The catchment area is 238 km2. The Ochotnica river is 22.7 km long and it is a left tributary of the Dunajec river. The average slope for the entire watercourse is 36.1‰. The Ochotnica river characterized by deep valleys (catchment area 107.6 km2). Analysis of trends in minimum annual water stages in the alluvial Ropa river channel throughout the multi-year period of 1995-2014 shows an increasing trend amounting to 0.8 cm/year. In the Kamienica Nawojowska river the tendency of incision was observed starting from the 1960 to 2014. Average annual rate of increase of the minimum stages was between 0.4 to 1.2 cm/year. On the basis of the analysis of the minimum water levels in the years 1972-2011 two periods can be seen with different tendencies to change the position of the Ochotnica channel bottom. The first covers the years 1972-1996, where aggradation (3.9 cm/year) was the predominant process while in the period 1997-2011 incision

  13. Little River Inlet Navigation Project, Brunswick County, North Carolina and Horry County, South Carolina. Revision. (United States)


    to gr(ater physiological stress than the Adjacent waterways. In addition to the nine stations in I1,, inner channel, eight others were occupied in...rmn’, u t I,,’ i on. U. S. G, t. Print in Offic , Washington, D.C. 3 . . Cumin rc Nat i una I i i c i\\ tiospher i c Adri ii st , r , . ) 0 . Tidt d , i

  14. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Tillamook Bay tributaries and Nehalem River basin, northwestern Oregon (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose


    valley confinement. * Natural and human-caused disturbances such as mass movements, logging, fire, channel modifications for navigation and flood control, and gravel mining also have varying effects on channel condition, bed-material transport, and distribution and area of bars throughout the study areas and over time. * Existing datasets include at least 16 and 18 sets of aerial and orthophotographs that were taken of the study areas in the Tillamook Bay tributary basins and Nehalem River basin, respectively, from 1939 to 2011. These photographs are available for future assessments of long-term changes in channel condition, bar area, and vegetation establishment patterns. High resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveys acquired in 2007-2009 could support future quantitative analyses of channel morphology and bed-material transport in all study areas. * A review of deposited and mined gravel volumes reported for instream gravel mining sites shows that bed-material deposition tends to rebuild mined bar surfaces in most years. Mean annual deposition volumes on individual bars exceeded 3,000 cubic meters (m3) on Donaldson Bar on the Wilson River, Dill Bar on the Kilchis River, and Plant and Winslow Bars on the Nehalem River. Cumulative reported volumes of bed-material deposition were greatest at Donaldson and Dill Bars, totaling over 25,000 m3 per site from 2004 to 2011. Within this period, reported cumulative mined volumes were greatest for the Donaldson, Plant, and Winslow Bars, ranging from 24,470 to 33,940 m3. * Analysis of historical stage-streamflow data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Wilson River near Tillamook (14301500) and Nehalem River near Foss (14301000) shows that these rivers have episodically aggraded and incised, mostly following high flow events, but they do not exhibit systematic, long-term trends in bed elevation. * Multiple cross sections show that channels near bridge crossings in all six study areas are dynamic with many

  15. Sedimentation in Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, upper Mississippi River, since impoundment (United States)

    Korschgen, C.E.; Jackson, G.A.; Muessig, L.F.; Southworth, D.C.


    Sediment accumulation was evaluated in Lake Onalaska, a 2800-ha backwater impoundment on the Upper Mississippi River. Computer programs were used to process fathometric charts and generate an extensive data set on water depth for the lake. Comparison of 1983 survey data with pre-impoundment (before 1937) data showed that Lake Onalaska had lost less than 10 percent of its original mean depth in the 46 years since impoundment. Previous estimates of sedimentation rates based on Cesium-137 sediment core analysis appear to have been too high. (DBO)

  16. Multidimensional models for contaminants dispersion in rivers and channels: hybrid solutions via integral transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Felipe Pereira Jorge de


    The aims of the present work were to use the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) to solve steady state multidimensional models for contaminants dispersion in rivers and channels, as well as to analyze the reduction of computational costs associated with convection-diffusion models that contains more than one space variable. The main focus of this work is the development of models that include variable coefficients such as variable velocity fields along and across the channel. The mathematical formulations also allow the use of different inlet conditions such as point sources, linear sources and plane sources. Several test cases were simulated and the models were validated numerically and with experimental data taken from the literature. The models were implemented in the symbolic computation platform, Mathematica 4.2. (author)

  17. Historical perspectives on channel pattern in the Clark Fork River, Montana and implications for post-dam removal restoration (United States)

    Woelfle-Erskine, C. A.; Wilcox, A. C.


    Active restoration approaches such as channel reconstruction have moved beyond the realm of small streams and are being applied to larger rivers. Uncertainties arising from limited knowledge, fluvial and ecosystem variability, and contaminants are especially significant in restoration of large rivers, where project costs and the social, infrastructural, and ecological costs of failure are high. We use the case of Milltown Dam removal on the Clark Fork River, Montana and subsequent channel reconstruction in the former reservoir to examine the use of historical research and uncertainty analysis in river restoration. At a cost of approximately $120 million, the Milltown Dam removal involves the mechanical removal of approximately 2 million cubic meters of sediments contaminated by upstream mining, followed by restoration of the former reservoir reach in which a single-thread meandering channel is being constructed. Historical maps, surveys, photographs, and accounts suggest a conceptual model of a multi-thread, anastomosing river in the reach targeted for channel reconstruction, upstream of the confluence of the Clark Fork and Blackfoot Rivers. We supplemented historical research with analysis of aerial photographs, topographic data, and USGS stage-discharge measurements in a lotic but reservoir-influenced reach of the Clark Fork River within our study area to estimate avulsion frequency (0.8 avulsions/year over a 70-year period) and average rates of lateral migration and aggradation. These were used to calculate the mobility number, a dimensionless relationship between channel filling and lateral migration timescales that can be used to predict whether a river’s planform is single or multi-threaded. The mobility number within our study reach ranged from 0.6 (multi-thread channel) to 1.7 (transitional channel). We predict that, in the absence of active channel reconstruction, the post-dam channel pattern would evolve to one that alternates between single and multi

  18. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.


    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  19. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Rogue River basin, southwestern Oregon (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose


    This report summarizes a preliminary assessment of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Rogue River basin, which encompasses 13,390 square kilometers (km2) along the southwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that: * The Rogue River in its lowermost 178.5 kilometers (km) alternates between confined and unconfined segments, and is predominately alluvial along its lowermost 44 km. The study area on the mainstem Rogue River can be divided into five reaches based on topography, hydrology, and tidal influence. The largely confined, active channel flows over bedrock and coarse bed material composed chiefly of boulders and cobbles in the Grants Pass (river kilometers [RKM] 178.5-152.8), Merlin (RKM 152.8-132.7), and Galice Reaches (RKM 132.7-43.9). Within these confined reaches, the channel contains few bars and has stable planforms except for locally wider segments such as the Brushy Chutes area in the Merlin Reach. Conversely, the active channel flows over predominately alluvial material and contains nearly continuous gravel bars in the Lobster Creek Reach (RKM 43.9-6.7). The channel in the Tidal Reach (RKM 6.7-0) is also alluvial, but tidally affected and unconfined until RKM 2. The Lobster Creek and Tidal Reaches contain some of the most extensive bar deposits within the Rogue River study area. * For the 56.6-km-long segment of the Applegate River included in this study, the river was divided into two reaches based on topography. In the Upper Applegate River Reach (RKM 56.6-41.6), the confined, active channel flows over alluvium and bedrock and has few bars. In the Lower Applegate River Reach (RKM 41.6-0), the active channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments, flows predominantly over alluvium, shifts laterally in unconfined sections, and contains more numerous and larger bars. * The 6.5-km segment of the lower

  20. Dynamic channel adjustments in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River (United States)

    Xia, Junqiang; Deng, Shanshan; Lu, Jinyou; Xu, Quanxi; Zong, Quanli; Tan, Guangming


    Significant channel adjustments have occurred in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River, because of the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP). The Jingjiang Reach is selected as the study area, covering the Upper Jingjiang Reach (UJR) and Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR). The reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions in the study reach were calculated annually from 2002 to 2013 by means of a reach-averaged approach and surveyed post-flood profiles at 171 sections. We find from the calculated results that: the reach-scale bankfull widths changed slightly in the UJR and LJR, with the corresponding depths increasing by 1.6 m and 1.0 m the channel adjustments occurred mainly with respect to bankfull depth because of the construction of large-scale bank revetment works, although there were significant bank erosion processes in local regions without the bank protection engineering. The reach-scale bankfull dimensions in the UJR and LJR generally responded to the previous five-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons, with higher correlations being obtained for the depth and cross-sectional area. It is concluded that these dynamic adjustments of the channel geometry are a direct result of recent human activities such as the TGP operation.

  1. Sound velocity profiles in the St. Clair and St. Mary's Rivers in the Great Lakes area by the National Ocean Service's Navigation Response Team 4, May 2006 (NODC Accession 0006777) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sound velocity profile data were collected using sound velocimeter in the St. Clair and St. Mary rivers in the Great Lakes area by the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 4...

  2. Long-term Sediment Accumulation in Mid-channel Bars of the Upper Reach of the Lower Mississippi River. (United States)

    Wang, B.; Xu, Y. J.


    A recent study reported that about 44% of the total Mississippi River suspended load reaching the Old River Control Structure (ORCS) was trapped upstream of the Gulf of Mexico by overbank storage and channel bed aggradation. Considering an average annual sediment load of 120 million metric tons passing ORCS to the Mississippi River main channel, the trapped sediment load would be equivalent to annually rebuilding 44-km2 coastal land of 1 meter in depth, assuming a sedimentation bulk density of 1.2 tons m-3. No study has yet demonstrated such a high sediment accumulation rate within the confined river channel or on a floodplain area that surrounds the only unleeved stretch ( 30-km long) of the Lower Mississippi River downstream of ORCS. In this study, we utilized satellite images taken from 1983 to 2013 and analyzed changes in surface area of nine major mid-channel and point bars over a 130-km river reach from ORCS to Baton Rouge. Using river stage records and the estimated surface areas, we developed a stage - surface area rating curve for each of the bars and estimated changes in bar volume over time. We found that more than half of the bars have grown, while the others have shrunken in the past three decades. As a whole, there was a substantial net gain of surface area and volume accretion. Sediment trapping was most prevalent during the spring floods, especially during the period from 2007 to 2011 when two large floods occurred. This paper presents the channel morphological change and sediment accumulation rates under different flow conditions, and discusses their implications for the current understanding and practices of the Mississippi River sediment diversion.

  3. Spectrally based bathymetric mapping of a dynamic, sand‐bedded channel: Niobrara River, Nebraska, USA (United States)

    Dilbone, Elizabeth; Legleiter, Carl; Alexander, Jason S.; McElroy, Brandon


    Methods for spectrally based mapping of river bathymetry have been developed and tested in clear‐flowing, gravel‐bed channels, with limited application to turbid, sand‐bed rivers. This study used hyperspectral images and field surveys from the dynamic, sandy Niobrara River to evaluate three depth retrieval methods. The first regression‐based approach, optimal band ratio analysis (OBRA), paired in situ depth measurements with image pixel values to estimate depth. The second approach used ground‐based field spectra to calibrate an OBRA relationship. The third technique, image‐to‐depth quantile transformation (IDQT), estimated depth by linking the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of depth to the CDF of an image‐derived variable. OBRA yielded the lowest depth retrieval mean error (0.005 m) and highest observed versus predicted R2 (0.817). Although misalignment between field and image data did not compromise the performance of OBRA in this study, poor georeferencing could limit regression‐based approaches such as OBRA in dynamic, sand‐bedded rivers. Field spectroscopy‐based depth maps exhibited a mean error with a slight shallow bias (0.068 m) but provided reliable estimates for most of the study reach. IDQT had a strong deep bias but provided informative relative depth maps. Overprediction of depth by IDQT highlights the need for an unbiased sampling strategy to define the depth CDF. Although each of the techniques we tested demonstrated potential to provide accurate depth estimates in sand‐bed rivers, each method also was subject to certain constraints and limitations.

  4. Use of glacier river-fed estuary channels by juvenile coho salmon: transitional or rearing habitats? (United States)

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.


    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide important rearing environments for a variety of fish species. Though generally considered important transitional habitats for smolting salmon, little is known about the role that estuaries serve for rearing and the environmental conditions important for salmon. We illustrate how juvenile coho salmonOncorhynchus kisutch use a glacial river-fed estuary based on examination of spatial and seasonal variability in patterns of abundance, fish size, age structure, condition, and local habitat use. Fish abundance was greater in deeper channels with cooler and less variable temperatures, and these habitats were consistently occupied throughout the season. Variability in channel depth and water temperature was negatively associated with fish abundance. Fish size was negatively related to site distance from the upper extent of the tidal influence, while fish condition did not relate to channel location within the estuary ecotone. Our work demonstrates the potential this glacially-fed estuary serves as both transitional and rearing habitat for juvenile coho salmon during smolt emigration to the ocean, and patterns of fish distribution within the estuary correspond to environmental conditions.

  5. Inland Electronic Navigational Charts (IENC) (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — These Inland Electronic Navigational Charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  6. Decadal changes in channel morphology of a freely meandering river—Powder River, Montana, 1975–2016 (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Meade, Robert H.


    Few studies exist on the long-term geomorphic effects of floods. However, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was able to begin such a study after a 50-year recurrence interval flood in 1978 because 20 channel cross sections along a 100-kilometer reach of river were established in 1975 and 1977 as part of a study for a proposed dam on Powder River in southeastern Montana. These cross-section measurements (data for each channel cross section are available at the USGS ScienceBase website) have been repeated about 30 times during four decades (1975–2016) and provide a unique dataset for understanding long-term changes in channel morphology caused by an extreme flood and a spectrum of annual floods.Changes in channel morphology of a 100-kilometer reach of Powder River are documented in a series of narratives for each channel cross section that include a time series of photographs as a record of these changes. The primary change during the first decade (1975–85) was the rapid vertical growth of a new inset flood plain within the flood-widened channel. Changes during the second decade (1985–95) were characterized by slower growth of the flood plain, and the effects of ice-jam floods typical of a northward-flowing river. Changes during the third decade (1995–2005) showed little vertical growth of the inset flood plain, which had reached a height that limited overbank deposition. And changes during the final decade (2005–16) covered in this report showed that, because the new inset flood plain had reached a limiting height, the effects of the large annual flood of 2008 (largest flood since 1978) were relatively small compared to smaller floods in previous decades. Throughout these four decades, the riparian vegetation, which interacts with the river, has undergone a gradual but substantial change that may have lasting effects on the channel morphology.

  7. Characterizing and modelling river channel migration rates at a regional scale: Case study of south-east France. (United States)

    Alber, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé


    An increased awareness by river managers of the importance of river channel migration to sediment dynamics, habitat complexity and other ecosystem functions has led to an advance in the science and practice of identifying, protecting or restoring specific erodible corridors across which rivers are free to migrate. One current challenge is the application of these watershed-specific goals at the regional planning scales (e.g., the European Water Framework Directive). This study provides a GIS-based spatial analysis of the channel migration rates at the regional-scale. As a case study, 99 reaches were sampled in the French part of the Rhône Basin and nearby tributaries of the Mediterranean Sea (111,300 km 2 ). We explored the spatial correlation between the channel migration rate and a set of simple variables (e.g., watershed area, channel slope, stream power, active channel width). We found that the spatial variability of the channel migration rates was primary explained by the gross stream power (R 2  = 0.48) and more surprisingly by the active channel width scaled by the watershed area. The relationship between the absolute migration rate and the gross stream power is generally consistent with the published empirical models for freely meandering rivers, whereas it is less significant for the multi-thread reaches. The discussion focused on methodological constraints for a regional-scale modelling of the migration rates, and the interpretation of the empirical models. We hypothesize that the active channel width scaled by the watershed area is a surrogate for the sediment supply which may be a more critical factor than the bank resistance for explaining the regional-scale variability of the migration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Real-time Risk Assessment for Aids to Navigation Using Fuzzy-FSA on Three-Dimensional Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Chen


    Full Text Available The risk level of the Aids to Navigation (AtoNs can reflect the ship navigation safety level in the channel to some extent. In order to appreciate the risk level of the aids to navigation (AtoNs in a navigation channel and to provide some decision-making suggestions for the AtoNs Maintenance and Management Department, the risk assessment index system of the AtoNs was built considering the advanced experience of IALA. Under the Formal Safety Assessment frame, taking the advantages of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the fuzzy-FSA model of risk assessment for aids to navigation was established. The model was implemented for the assessment of aids to navigation in Shanghai area based on the aids to navigation three-dimensional simulation system. The real-time data were extracted from the existing information system of aids to navigation, and the real-time risk assessment for aids to navigation of the chosen channel was performed on platform of the three-dimensional simulation system, with the risk assessment software. Specifically, the deep-water channel of the Yangtze River estuary was taken as an example to illustrate the general assessment procedure. The method proposed presents practical significance and application prospect on the maintenance and management of the aids to navigation.

  9. Effects of streamflows on stream-channel morphology in the eastern Niobrara National Scenic River, Nebraska, 1988–2010 (United States)

    Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Alexander, Jason S.; Folz-Donahue, Kiernan


    The Niobrara River is an important and valuable economic and ecological resource in northern Nebraska that supports ecotourism, recreational boating, wildlife, fisheries, agriculture, and hydroelectric power. Because of its uniquely rich resources, a 122-kilometer reach of the Niobrara River was designated as a National Scenic River in 1991, which has been jointly managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Park Service. To assess how the remarkable qualities of the National Scenic River may change if consumptive uses of water are increased above current levels, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, initiated an investigation of how stream-channel morphology might be affected by potential decreases in summer streamflows. The study included a 65-kilometer segment in the wide, braided eastern stretch of the Niobrara National Scenic River that provides important nesting habitat for migratory bird species of concern to the Nation.

  10. Estimating changes in riparian and channel features along the Trinity River downstream of Lewiston Dam, California, 1980 to 2011 (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer A.


    Dam construction, flow diversion, and legacy landuse effects reduced the transport capacity, sediment supply, channel complexity and floodplain-connectivity along the Trinity River, CA below Lewiston Dam. This study documents the geomorphic evolution of the Trinity River Restoration Program’s intensively managed 65-km long restoration reach from 1980 to 2011. The nature and extent of riparian and channel changes were assessed using a series of geomorphic feature maps constructed from ortho-rectified photography acquired at low flow conditions in 1980, 1997, 2001, 2006, 2009, and 2011. Since 1980 there has been a general conversion of riparian to channel features and expansion of the active channel area. The primary mechanism for expansion of the active channel was bank erosion from 1980 to 1997 and channel widening was well distributed longitudinally throughout the study reach. Subsequent net bar accretion from 1997 to 2001, followed by slightly higher net bar scour from 2001 to 2006, occurred primarily in the central and lower reaches of the study area. In comparison, post-2006 bank and bar changes were spatially-limited to reaches with sufficient local transport capacity or sediment supply supported by gravel augmentation, mechanical channel rehabilitation, and tributary contributions to flow and sediment supply. A series of tributary floods in 1997, 1998 and 2006 were the primary factors leading to documented increases in channel complexity and floodplain connectivity. During the post-2006 period managed flow releases, in the absence of large magnitude tributary flooding, combined with gravel augmentation and mechanical restoration caused localized increases in sediment supply and transport capacity leading to smaller but measurable increases in channel complexity and floodplain connectivity primarily in the upper river below Lewiston Dam.

  11. Do rivers really obey power-laws? Using continuous high resolution measurements to define bankfull channel and evaluate downstream hydraulic-scaling over large changes in drainage area (United States)

    Scher, C.; Tennant, C.; Larsen, L.; Bellugi, D. G.


    Advances in remote-sensing technology allow for cost-effective, accurate, high-resolution mapping of river-channel topography and shallow aquatic bathymetry over large spatial scales. A combination of near-infrared and green spectra airborne laser swath mapping was used to map river channel bathymetry and watershed geometry over 90+ river-kilometers (75-1175 km2) of the Greys River in Wyoming. The day of flight wetted channel was identified from green LiDAR returns, and more than 1800 valley-bottom cross-sections were extracted at regular 50-m intervals. The bankfull channel geometry was identified using a "watershed-based" algorithm that incrementally filled local minima to a "spill" point, thereby constraining areas of local convergence and delineating all the potential channels along the cross-section for each distinct "spill stage." Multiple potential channels in alluvial floodplains and lack of clearly defined channel banks in bedrock reaches challenge identification of the bankfull channel based on topology alone. Here we combine a variety of topological measures, geometrical considerations, and stage levels to define a stage-dependent bankfull channel geometry, and compare the results with day of flight wetted channel data. Initial results suggest that channel hydraulic geometry and basin hydrology power-law scaling may not accurately capture downstream channel adjustments for rivers draining complex mountain topography.

  12. Characterization of sands and mineral clays in channel and floodplain deposits of Portuguesa river, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando José González Clemente


    Full Text Available In the main channel and floodplain of Portuguesa River were studied the mineralogical characteristics of sand and clay minerals respectively. The methodology consisted of X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, for both mineral fractions. The results indicated the presence of mainly of quartz sands with minor amounts of chlorite, muscovite, calcite and feldspar which are considered quartz sand mature. Its origin is related to the source area and rework of soils and sediments of the floodplain. The clay fraction is characterized by the presence of 13 mineral crystalline phases consisting mainly of quartz, muscovite and chlorite, and clay minerals such as kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite and nontronita. Its detrital origin may be due to mineral neoformation and inheritance. Therefore both mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and kaolinite, which are essential components of the source area as well as the Quaternary alluvial deposits and the soils that make up the region.

  13. Disentangling multiple pressures on fish assemblages in large rivers. (United States)

    Zajicek, Petr; Radinger, Johannes; Wolter, Christian


    European large rivers are exposed to multiple human pressures and maintained as waterways for inland navigation. However, little is known on the dominance and interactions of multiple pressures in large rivers and in particular inland navigation has been ignored in multi-pressure analyzes so far. We determined the response of ten fish population metrics (FPM, related to densities of diagnostic guilds and biodiversity) to 11 prevailing pressures including navigation intensity at 76 sites in eight European large rivers. Thereby, we aimed to derive indicative FPM for the most influential pressures that can serve for fish-based assessments. Pressures' influences, impacts and interactions were determined for each FPM using bootstrapped regression tree models. Increased flow velocity, navigation intensity and the loss of floodplains had the highest influences on guild densities and biodiversity. Interactions between navigation intensity and loss of floodplains and between navigation intensity and increased flow velocity were most frequent, each affecting 80% of the FPM. Further, increased sedimentation, channelization, organic siltation, the presence of artificial embankments and the presence of barriers had strong influences on at least one FPM. Thereby, each FPM was influenced by up to five pressures. However, some diagnostic FPM could be derived: Species richness, Shannon and Simpson Indices, the Fish Region Index and lithophilic and psammophilic guilds specifically indicate rhithralisation of the potamal region of large rivers. Lithophilic, phytophilic and psammophilic guilds indicate disturbance of shoreline habitats through both (i) wave action induced by passing vessels and (ii) hydromorphological degradation of the river channel that comes along with inland navigation. In European large rivers, inland navigation constitutes a highly influential pressure that adds on top of the prevailing hydromorphological degradation. Therefore, river management has to consider

  14. Mechanisms of vegetation-induced channel narrowing of an unregulated canyon river: Results from a natural field-scale experiment (United States)

    Manners, Rebecca B.; Schmidt, John C.; Scott, Michael L.


    The lower Yampa River in Yampa Canyon, western Colorado serves as a natural, field-scale experiment, initiated when the invasive riparian plant, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), colonized an unregulated river. In response to tamarisk's rapid invasion, the channel narrowed by 6% in the widest reaches since 1961. Taking advantage of this unique setting, we reconstructed the geomorphic and vegetation history in order to identify the key mechanisms for which, in the absence of other environmental perturbations, vegetation alters fluvial processes that result in a narrower channel. From our reconstruction, we identified a distinct similarity in the timing and magnitude of tamarisk encroachment and channel change, albeit with a lag in the channel response, thus suggesting tamarisk as the driving force. Within a decade of establishment, tamarisk effectively trapped sediment and, as a result, increased floodplain construction rates. Increasing tamarisk coverage over time also reduced the occurrence of floodplain stripping. Tamarisk recruitment was driven by both hydrologic and hydraulic variables, and the majority of tamarisk plants (84%) established below the stage of the 2-year flood. Thus, upon establishment nearly all plants regularly interact with the flow and sediment transport field. Our analyses were predicated on the hypothesis that the flow regime of the Yampa River was stationary, and that only the riparian vegetation community had changed. While not heavily impacted by water development, we determined that some aspects of the flow regime have shifted. However, this shift, which involved the clustering in time of extremely wet and dry years, did not influence fluvial processes directly. Instead these changes directly impacted riparian vegetation and changes in vegetation cover, in turn, altered fluvial processes. Today, the rate of channel change and new tamarisk recruitment is small. We believe that the rapid expansion of tamarisk and related floodplain construction

  15. Co-evolution of Riparian Vegetation and Channel Dynamics in an Aggrading Braided River System, Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (United States)

    Gran, K. B.; Michal, T.


    Increased bank stability by riparian vegetation in braided rivers can decrease bed reworking rates and focus the flow. The magnitude of influence and resulting channel morphology are functions of vegetation strength vs. channel dynamics, a concept encapsulated in a dimensionless ratio between timescales for vegetation growth and channel reworking known as T*. We investigate this relationship in an aggrading braided river at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, and compare results to numerical and physical models. Gradual reductions in post-eruption sediment loads have reduced bed reworking rates, allowing vegetation to persist year-round and impact channel dynamics on the Pasig-Potrero and Sacobia Rivers. From 2009-2011, we collected data detailing vegetation extent, type, density, and root strength. Incorporating these data into RipRoot and BSTEM models shows cohesion due to roots increased from zero in unvegetated conditions to >10.2 kPa in densely-growing grasses. Field-based parameters were incorporated into a cellular model comparing vegetation growth and sediment mobility effects on braided channel dynamics. The model shows that both low sediment mobility and high vegetation strength lead to less active systems, reflecting trends observed in the field. An estimated T* between 0.8 - 2.3 for the Pasig-Potrero River suggests channels were mobile enough to maintain the braidplain width clear of vegetation and even experience slight gains in area through annual removal of existing vegetation. However, persistent vegetation focused flow and thus aggradation over the unvegetated fraction of braidplain, leading to an aggradational imbalance and transition to a more avulsive state. While physical models predict continued narrowing of the active braidplain as T* declines, the future trajectory of channel-vegetation interactions at Pinatubo as sedimentation rates decline appears more complicated due to strong seasonal variability in precipitation and sediment loads. By 2011

  16. A Hot Knife Through Ice-Cream: Earthflow Response to Channel Incision (Or Channel Response to Earthflows?), Eel River Canyon, California (United States)

    Mackey, B. H.; Roering, J. J.; McKean, J. A.


    Abundant glacier-like earthflow features are recognized as a primary erosional process in the highly erodable Franciscan Melange of the Eel River Basin, CA. Despite their prominence in this "melting ice-cream" topography, many questions regarding their effects on the long term sediment flux from this rapidly eroding basin remain unresolved. For example, does an earthflow's basal shear zone propagate vertically downwards with vertical river incision? What controls the upslope and lateral extent of individual earthflows? How does the erosive power of a river influence the rate of earthflow movement, or conversely do earthflow toe deposits regulate the rate of river incision? Here we present preliminary findings derived from study of 200km2 of lidar data (1m resolution) covering hillslopes adjacent to 30km of the Eel River. Lidar allows detailed analysis of the interaction between earthflows and the drainage network, and we document how inferred changes in local base level are propagated throughout adjacent hillslopes via earthflow movement. The most active earthflows (determined by field surveying and analysis of aerial photos rectified using lidar- generated digital topography) coincide with locally steep sections of channel, while downstream of the most active flows we frequently observe less-active or dormant earthflows. This observation supports the idea that the locations of the most active earthflows coincide with headward propagating knickpoints in the channel. The rate of earthflow movement appears to slow when an earthflow exhausts the upslope area of easily mobilized sediment. Earthflow toes can protrude directly into the channel, causing the channel to narrow and steepen, and even undercut the opposite bank. Large resistant boulders (>2m diameter) transported by the earthflow accumulate in the streambed and appear to both act as a check on further channel incision and earthflow movement. In contrast, areas adjacent to active earthflows exhibit smooth

  17. Stream channel cross sections for a reach of the Boise River in Ada County, Idaho (United States)

    Hortness, Jon E.; Werner, Douglas C.


    The Federal Emergency Management Agency produces maps of areas that are likely to be inundated during major floods, usually the 100-year, or 1-percent probability, flood. The maps, called Flood Insurance Rate Maps, are used to determine flood insurance rates for homes, businesses, or other structures located in flood-prone areas. State and local governments also use these maps for help with, among other things, development planning and disaster mitigation. During the period October 1997 through December 1998, the initial phase of a hydraulic analysis project of the Boise River from Barber Dam to the Ada/Canyon County boundary, the U.S. Geological Survey collected stream channel cross-section data at 238 locations along the river and documented 108 elevation reference marks established for horizontal and vertical control. In the final phase of the project, the Survey will use these data to determine water-surface elevations for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods and to define floodway limits. The Federal Emergency Management Agency will use the results of this hydraulic analysis to update the 100- and 500-year flood boundaries and the floodway limits on their Flood Insurance Rate Maps.

  18. Spatial prediction of water quality variables along a main river channel, in presence of pollution hotspots. (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L D; Pardo-Igúzquiza, E; Andreo, B


    In order to treat and evaluate the available data of water quality and fully exploit monitoring results (e.g. characterize regional patterns, optimize monitoring networks, infer conditions at unmonitored locations, etc.), it is crucial to develop improved and efficient methodologies. Accordingly, estimation of water quality along fluvial ecosystems is a frequent task in environment studies. In this work, a particular case of this problem is examined, namely, the estimation of water quality along a main stem of a large basin (where most anthropic activity takes place), from observational data measured along this river channel. We adapted topological kriging to this case, where each watershed contains all the watersheds of the upstream observed data ("nested support effect"). Data analysis was additionally extended by taking into account the upstream distance to the closest contamination hotspot as an external drift. We propose choosing the best estimation method by cross-validation. The methodological approach in spatial variability modeling may be used for optimizing the water quality monitoring of a given watercourse. The methodology presented is applied to 28 water quality variables measured along the Santiago River in Western Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 78 FR 25572 - Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI..., during, and immediately after the Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta. This special local regulation will establish... to read as follows: Sec. 100.T09-0287 Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Wyandotte, MI...


    Over the last 150 years the main channel of the Willamette River has been drastically altered by human activity. It has changed from a generally meandering and anastamosing river with extensive reaches of broad, active and connected flood plain features to a river with 13 major ...

  1. Abiotic controls of emergent macrophyte density in a bedrock channel - The Cahaba River, AL (USA) (United States)

    Vaughn, Ryan S.; Davis, Lisa


    Research examining bedrock channels is growing. Despite this, biotic-abiotic interactions remain a topic mostly addressed in alluvial systems. This research identified hydrogeomorphic factors operating at the patch-scale (100-102 m) in bedrock shoals of the Cahaba River (AL) that help determine the distribution of the emergent aquatic macrophyte, Justicia americana. Macrophyte patch density (number of stems/m2) and percent bedrock void surface area (rock surface area/m2 occupied by joints, fractures, and potholes) were measured (n = 24 within two bedrock shoals) using stem counts and underwater photography, respectively. One-dimensional hydrologic modeling (HEC-RAS 4.1.0) was completed for a section within a shoal to examine velocity and channel depth as controlling variables for macrophyte patch density. Results from binary logistic regression analysis identified depth and velocity as good predictors of the presence or absence of Justicia americana within shoal structures (depth p = 0.001, velocity p = 0.007), which is a similar finding to previous research conducted in alluvial systems. Correlation analysis between bedrock surface void area and stem density demonstrated a statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.665, p = 0.01), elucidating a link between abiotic-biotic processes that may well be unique to bedrock channels. These results suggest that the amount of void space present in bedrock surfaces, in addition to localized depth and velocity, helps control macrophyte patch density in bedrock shoal complexes. The utility of geomorphology in explaining patch-scale habitat heterogeneity in this study highlights geomorphology's potential to help understand macrophyte habitat heterogeneity at the reach scale, while also demonstrating its promise for mapping and understanding habitat heterogeneity at the system scale.

  2. River Gauges - USACE IENC (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  3. River Lines - USACE IENC (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  4. River Areas - USACE IENC (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  5. Wandering gravel-bed rivers and high-constructive stable channel sandy fluvial systems in the Ross River area, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrel G.F. Long


    Gravel-dominated strata, inter-bedded with, and overlying coal-bearing units, are interpreted as deposits of wandering gravel-bed rivers, with sinuosity approaching 1.4. In most exposures they appear to be dominated by massive and thin planar-bedded granule to small pebble conglomerates, which would traditionally be interpreted as sheet-flood or longitudinal bar deposits of a high-gradient braided stream or alluvial fan. Architectural analysis of exposures in an open-pit shows that the predominance of flat bedding is an artefact of the geometry of the roadside exposures. In the pit the conglomerates are dominated by large scale cross stratification on a scale of 1–5.5 m. These appear to have developed as downstream and lateral accretion elements on side-bars and on in-channel bars in water depths of 2–12 m. Stacking of strata on domed 3rd order surfaces suggests development of longitudinal in-channel bar complexes similar to those observed in parts of the modern Rhône River system. Mudstone preserved in some of the channels reflects intervals of channel abandonment or avulsion. Minimum channel width is from 70 to 450 m.

  6. The Morphodynamic Signature of Rivers in the Ucamara Depression: A Habitat for Formative Rivers and the Scavenger Meandering Channels they Feed (United States)

    Abad, J. D.; Escobar, C.; Shan, J.


    The Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, located in Loreto, Peru, is a region of incomparable biodiversity resulting from the consistent annual climate patterns (little seasonal variability), and more importantly, the dynamics of the freshwater rivers that surround and traverse it. The Ucamara Depression, where the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve is located, presently has a myriad of active and abandoned fluvial landforms. The exploration of the geologic and tectonic history that fabricated this exceptional fluvial system is the foundation for researching and understanding further phenomena of the region. The interpretation of the history of the geologic events that occurred to form this region and the inspection of the river belts, or areas of active river migration, of these fluvial landforms, facilitate the understanding of 1) how the Ucayali and Maranon rivers interact with one another and with the streams and bodies of water in the Ucamara Depression, 2) the role of wetlands, hydrodynamics, and sediment transport mechanisms in the movement of rivers and the extent of mixing before the rivers reach their confluence, and 3) how the water chemistry, flooding, and sediment transport processes of rivers create an environment capable of fostering an unimaginable array of life and how changes in these processes affect the flora and fauna that inhabit the region. This study will discuss field measurements (hydrodynamic and bed morphodynamic) and remote sensing analysis of scavenger meandering channels (Pacaya and Samiria) and discuss confluence dynamics of the two tributaries that form the Amazon River. Morphometric parameters show that these meandering rivers do not achieve typical planform-based conditions.

  7. Changes in Channel Geometry through the Holocene in the Le Sueur River, South-Central Minnesota, USA (United States)

    Targos, Courtney Ann

    Paleochannels preserved on terraces via meander cutoffs during an incisional period record the channel geometry and thus discharge at distinct points in time throughout a river's history. We measured paleochannel geometry on terraces throughout the Le Sueur River in south-central Minnesota, to track how channel geometry has changed over the last 13,400 years. A rapid drop in base level 13,400 yr B.P. triggered knickpoint migration and valley incision that is ongoing today. Since the 1800's, the area has developed rapidly with an increase in agriculture and associated drainage, directly impacting river discharge by increasing water input to the river. Five paleochannels were identified on terraces along the Le Sueur River from 1m-resolution lidar data. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used to obtain a subsurface image across paleomeanders to estimate the geometry of paleochannels. Paleochannel geometry and estimated discharge were then compared to modern conditions to assess how much change has occurred. Three lines were run across each paleochannel perpendicular to the historic water flow. Each of the 15 lines were processed using the EKKO Project 2 software supplied by Sensors and Software to sharpen the images, making it easier to identify the paleochannel geometry. Paleodischarge was determined using the Law of the Wall and Manning's Equation, using modern slope and roughness conditions. OSL samples were collected from overbank deposits on terraces to determine the time of channel abandonment, and supplemented with terrace ages obtained from a numerical model of valley incision. Paleodischarge coupled with depositional ages provide a history of flow conditions on the Le Sueur River. Results show an increase in channel widths from the time paleochannels were occupied to modern channel dimensions from an average of 20 meters to 35 meters. The change was not constant through time, as all paleochannels analyzed on terraces had similar-sized channels. The best way

  8. @iMaersk navigator@@ oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  9. Maersk navigator oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  10. The challenges in using UAV and plane imagery to quantify channel change in sandy braided rivers (United States)

    Strick, Robert; Ashworth, Philip; Best, James; Lane, Stuart; Nicholas, Andrew; Parsons, Daniel; Sambrook Smith, Gregory; Simpson, Christopher; Unsworth, Christopher


    The development of numerical models of river morpho-dynamics is hampered by the lack of high-resolution data at multiple time and space scales for model validation. Such data are especially challenging to obtain for sand-bed braided rivers that typically have multiple channels of varying depth and contain rapidly migrating low-relief bar-lobes and dunes. This paper reports on the efforts to meet these challenges using repeat UAV surveys and plane sorties to quantify morphological change and bedform migration rates along the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. The South Saskatchewan River, near Outlook (SK Province) is 600 m wide with very well sorted medium sand (D50 = 0.3 mm) and negligible clay. The Gardiner Dam, 20 km upstream of the study reach, traps much of the very fine sediment so that the waters are clear at low flow and therefore the river bed is entirely visible. Fieldwork campaigns in 2015 and 2016 captured: (i) 1:5000 aerial colour photographs over a 17.5 km reach; (ii) high temporal frequency repeat imagery, obtained using quadcopter and fixed-wing UAV platforms for multiple 100 x 500 m sub-reaches. Plane images were processed via Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques using Pix4D and supporting ArcGIS and Global Mapper analysis. The resulting point cloud was corrected for tilt and filtered in MATLAB at multiple spatial scales to remove noise. Elevations in sub-aqueous zones were obtained using a statistical model, relating image brightness to water depth, developed using single beam echo-sounder data collected near to the flight time. The final DSM for the plane imagery combines these two methods and has a 0.5 m spatial resolution with vertical accuracy of 6 cm. UAV imagery is also processed using Pix4D with application of a diffraction water depth correction, required due to the lower flight height, and gives a resulting vertical accuracy of 2 cm. Initial results highlight the following issues: (i) there are a series of technical

  11. Contrasts between channels and backwaters in a large, floodplain river: Testing our understanding of nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, and suspended solids dynamics (United States)

    Houser, Jeff N.


    In floodplain rivers, variability in hydraulic connectivity interacts with biogeochemistry to determine the distribution of suspended and dissolved substances. Nutrient, chlorophyll a, and suspended solids data spanning longitudinal (5 study reaches across 1300 river km), lateral (main channel and backwaters), and temporal (1994–2011) gradients in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) were used to examine the extent to which observed differences between the main channel and backwaters were consistent with expectations based on current understanding of biogeochemical processes in large rivers. For N and P, the results largely conformed to expectations. N concentrations were greater in the main channel than in the backwaters in 82 to 96% of the observations across river reaches. Maximum TP concentrations generally occurred in backwaters during summer, when backwater TP often exceeded that of the main channel. Flux of P from sediments may be a substantial source of water-column P in UMR backwaters in summer. The data for suspended solids and chlorophyll a suggest that some refinements are needed of our understanding of ecosystem processes in large rivers. During low-discharge conditions, concentrations of inorganic suspended solids often were greater in backwaters than in the main channel, suggesting the importance of sediment resuspension. Chlorophyll a concentrations were usually greater in backwaters than in the main channel, but exceptions indicate that phytoplankton abundance in the main channel of the UMR can sometimes be greater than is typically expected for large rivers.

  12. Sediment records of Yellow River channel migration and Holocene environmental evolution of the Hetao Plain, northern China (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhong; Wu, Jinglu; Pan, Baotian; Jia, Hongjuan; Li, Xiao; Wei, Hao


    The origin and evolution of lakes in the Hetao Plain, northern China, were influenced by climate variation, channel migration, and human activity. We analyzed a suite of sediment cores from the region to investigate Yellow River channel migration and environmental change in this region over the Holocene. Short sediment cores show that environmental indicators changed markedly around CE 1850, a time that corresponds to flood events, when large amounts of river water accumulated in the western part of the Hetao Plain, giving rise to abundant small lakes. Multiple sediment variables (environmental proxies) from two long cores collected in the Tushenze Paleolake area show that sediments deposited between 12.0 and 9.0 cal ka BP were yellow clay, indicative of fluvial deposition and channel migration. From 9.0 to 7.5 cal ka BP, sand was deposited, reflecting a desert environment. From 7.5 to 2.2 cal ka BP, however, the sediments were blue-gray clay that represents lacustrine facies of Lake Tushenze, which owes its origin to an increase in strength of the East Asian monsoon. At about 2.2 cal ka BP, the north branch of the Yellow River was flooded, and the Tushenze Paleolake developed further. Around 2.0 cal ka BP, the paleolake shrank and eolian sedimentation was recorded. The analyzed sediment records are consistent with the written history from the region, which documents channel migration and environmental changes in the Hetao Plain over the Holocene.

  13. Modeling and measuring the relationships between sediment transport processes, alluvial bedforms and channel-scale morphodynamics in sandy braided rivers. (United States)

    Nicholas, A. P.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.; Lane, S. N.; Parsons, D. R.; Sambrook Smith, G.; Simpson, C.; Strick, R. J. P.; Unsworth, C. A.


    Recent years have seen significant advances in the development and application of morphodynamic models to simulate river evolution. Despite this progress, significant challenges remain to be overcome before such models can provide realistic simulations of river response to environmental change, or be used to determine the controls on alluvial channel patterns and deposits with confidence. This impasse reflects a wide range of factors, not least the fact that many of the processes that control river behaviour operate at spatial scales that cannot be resolved by such models. For example, sand-bed rivers are characterised by multiple scales of topography (e.g., dunes, bars, channels), the finest of which must often by parameterized, rather than represented explicitly in morphodynamic models. We examine these issues using a combination of numerical modeling and field observations. High-resolution aerial imagery and Digital Elevation Models obtained for the sandy braided South Saskatchewan River in Canada are used to quantify dune, bar and channel morphology and their response to changing flow discharge. Numerical simulations are carried out using an existing morphodynamic model based on the 2D shallow water equations, coupled with new parameterisations of the evolution and influence of alluvial bedforms. We quantify the spatial patterns of sediment flux using repeat images of dune migration and bar evolution. These data are used to evaluate model predictions of sediment transport and morphological change, and to assess the degree to which model performance is controlled by the parametrization of roughness and sediment transport phenomena linked to subgrid-scale bedforms (dunes). The capacity of such models to replicate the characteristic multi-scale morphology of bars in sand-bed rivers, and the contrasting morphodynamic signatures of braiding during low and high flow conditions, is also assessed.

  14. A multi-scalar approach for modelling river channel change in the Anthropocene (United States)

    Downs, Peter; Piégay, Hervé; Piffady, Jeremy; Valette, Laurent; Vaudor, Lise


    Adjustments in river channel morphology during the 'Anthropocene' arise as a cumulative impact from the influence of numerous natural and human stressors operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, the research requirement for data on impacts at multiple scales, and at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution to determine reach-level effect, largely prevented such studies until recent improvements in digital technologies and data availability. A meta-analysis of recent cumulative impact studies indicates that the analytical component is still overwhelmingly interpretative, with cause-and-effect reasoning based largely on temporal synchronicity and spatial proximity, whereas our conceptual understanding of adjustment processes is far more nuanced. We propose, instead, that studies of cumulative impact should be underpinned by an analytical model of cause and effect, partly to test and enhance our predictive capabilities and allow scenario setting, but also to learn about the relative sensitivities involved in different parts of the model and thus to prioritize future research endeavours. Our requirements are that the model should be inherently designed to detect reach-level changes over Anthropocene timescales, be capable of integrating co-existing and hierarchical human and natural pressures on fluvial systems, be able to accommodate time-lagged effects and upstream-downstream connectivity, and be based on an explicit conceptual model that can be refined as our process understanding improves. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) offer some potential in this regard and are becoming an increasingly popular option for dealing with complex, multi-scalar relationships in ecology and other environmental sciences. BBNs consist of a conceptual model of nodes and edges (i.e., graph theory) that qualitatively describe the structure of causal relationships between chains of variables, and a quantitative expression of the relative strength of the

  15. Effect of the barrage and embankments on flooding and channel avulsion case study Koshi River, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devkota, L.; Crosato, A.; Giri, S.


    Humans have utilized water resources for millennia by modifying natural river courses and such interventions have greatly influenced not only river flows and sediment fluxes, but also the overall river morphology. Situated in the Nepal's eastern Ganges region, the braided Koshi River is unique among

  16. Water Resources Improvement Study, Buttermilk Bay Channel, Bourne, Massachusetts; Small Navigation Project, Detailed Project Report, and Environmental Assessment. (United States)


    samples are surface grabs and were found to be non- radioactive . Table 6 SEDIMENT SAHPLES - Hi’YSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Saiaple Depth Description G,,-2a...soiuices of polution ; ind d. That the discharge wall not occur in a component of the NotionlWl n cncRvrSse ri opnn faSaewl and scenic river system. nlWl n

  17. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River). (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1 through...

  18. Impact on a fish assemblage of the maintenance dredging of a navigation channel in a tropical coastal ecosystem


    Demarques Ribeiro da Silva Junior; Sérgio Ricardo Santos; Marcelo Travassos; Marcelo Vianna


    Dredging and dredge-spoil disposal are among the major problems in coastal management. Many of the scientific contributions concerning the impacts of this practice are based on the study of sessile organisms and subtropical environments. We evaluated changes in the composition and abundance of a fish assemblage resulting from dredging and sediment disposal at the mouth and in the adjacent waters of the Caravelas River on the north-eastern coast of Brazil. Samples were collected in two directl...

  19. 33 CFR 162.205 - Suisun Bay, San Joaquin River, Sacramento River, and connecting waters, CA. (United States)


    ... Commander or his authorized representative. (5) Wrecks. In no case following accidents of fire or collision...); a wharf or other structure; work under construction; plant engaged in river and harbor improvement... navigable channels, when within a reasonable distance therefrom and not in any case over a mile, shall...

  20. Do river channels decrease in width downstream on Distributive Fluvial Systems? An evaluation of modern mega-fans (United States)

    Espinoza, T. N.; Scuderi, L. A.; Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.


    Recent studies on aggradational continental sedimentary basins globally show that fluvial deposits in most modern sedimentary basins are dominated Distributive Fluvial Systems (DFS). DFS's are identified by: (1) pattern of channels and floodplain deposits that radiate outward from an apex located where the river enters the sedimentary basin, (2) deposition where an alluvial system becomes unconfined upon entering the sedimentary basin, (3) broadly fan shaped deposit that is convex upward across the DFS and concave upward down-fan, and (4) if the DFS is incised, an intersection point above which the alluvial system is held in an incised valley and below which it distributes sediment across an active depositional lobe. Several papers about DFS hypothesized that rivers on DFS decrease in size down-fan. We are testing this hypothesis through evaluation of LANDSAT and STRM data from large DFS described by Hartley et al (2010). We use ArcGIS to: (1) open the images and merge them together if there are more than one image corresponding to the DFS being studied, (2) use a Maximum Likelihood Analysis in six classes to segment different features on the DFS (e.g. exposed sands, water, vegetation, and other fan environments), (3) isolate the classes that correspond to the active channel belt (e.g., exposed sand bars and water), (4) divide the active channel belt into 1000 m long sections, (5) determine the area of active channel belt in each section, and (6) calculate the average width of the river in each section (e.g., W = area/1000m). We present our result for each DFS river on a graph that shows the change in width downstream. Our final product will be a dataset that contains width versus distance down-fan from the apex for as many of the large DFS from Hartley et al (2010) as possible. If the hypothesis is supported, the decrease in width could have a substantial predictive significance on sandstone geometry in fluvial successions.

  1. Connectivity of Multi-Channel Fluvial Systems: A Comparison of Topology Metrics for Braided Rivers and Delta Networks (United States)

    Tejedor, A.; Marra, W. A.; Addink, E. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Kleinhans, M. G.


    Advancing quantitative understanding of the structure and dynamics of complex networks has transformed research in many fields as diverse as protein interactions in a cell to page connectivity in the World Wide Web and relationships in human societies. However, Geosciences have not benefited much from this new conceptual framework, although connectivity is at the center of many processes in hydro-geomorphology. One of the first efforts in this direction was the seminal work of Smart and Moruzzi (1971), proposing the use of graph theory for studying the intricate structure of delta channel networks. In recent years, this preliminary work has precipitated in a body of research that examines the connectivity of multiple-channel fluvial systems, such as delta networks and braided rivers. In this work, we compare two approaches recently introduced in the literature: (1) Marra et al. (2014) utilized network centrality measures to identify important channels in a braided section of the Jamuna River, and used the changes of bifurcations within the network over time to explain the overall river evolution; and (2) Tejedor et al. (2015a,b) developed a set of metrics to characterize the complexity of deltaic channel networks, as well as defined a vulnerability index that quantifies the relative change of sediment and water delivery to the shoreline outlets in response to upstream perturbations. Here we present a comparative analysis of metrics of centrality and vulnerability applied to both braided and deltaic channel networks to depict critical channels in those systems, i.e., channels where a change would contribute more substantially to overall system changes, and to understand what attributes of interest in a channel network are most succinctly depicted in what metrics. Marra, W. A., Kleinhans, M. G., & Addink, E. A. (2014). Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, doi:10.1002/esp.3482Smart, J. S., and V. L. Moruzzi (1971), Quantitative properties of delta channel networks

  2. Natural cavity characteristics and cavity bird abundance on West Virginia forested islands of the Ohio River (United States)

    James T. Anderson; Karen A. Riesz


    Wildlife habitats connected with forested islands and their back channels (areas where commercial traffic is prohibited) on the Ohio River are valuable to diverse species. However, quantitative data on the importance of these areas to cavity-nesting birds are lacking. We compared cavity-nesting bird use and habitat between back and navigational channel sides of islands...

  3. Age, distribution, and significance within a sediment budget, of in-channel depositional surfaces in the Normanby River, Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Pietsch, T. J.; Brooks, A. P.; Spencer, J.; Olley, J. M.; Borombovits, D.


    We present the results of investigations into alluvial deposition in the catchment of the Normanby River, which flows into Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our focus is on the fine fraction (bank attached bars or inset or inner floodplains, these more or less flat-lying surfaces within the macro-channel have hitherto received little attention in sediment budgeting models. We use high resolution LiDAR based mapping combined with optical dating of exposures cut into these in-channel deposits to compare their aggradation rates with those found in other depositional zones in the catchment, namely the floodplain and coastal plain. In total 59 single grain OSL dates were produced across 21 stratigraphic profiles at 14 sites distributed though the 24 226 km2 catchment. In-channel storage in these inset features is a significant component of the contemporary fine sediment budget (i.e. recent decades/last century), annually equivalent to more than 50% of the volume entering the channel network from hillslopes and subsoil sources. Therefore, at the very least, in-channel storage of fine material needs to be incorporated into sediment budgeting exercises. Furthermore, deposition within the channel has occurred in multiple locations coincident in time with accelerated sediment production following European settlement. Generally, this has occurred on a subset of the features we have examined here, namely linear bench features low in the channel. This suggests that accelerated aggradation on in-channel depositional surfaces has been in part a response to accelerated erosion within the catchment. The entire contribution of ~ 370 kilotonnes per annum of fine sediment estimated to have been produced by alluvial gully erosion over the last ~ 100 years can be accounted for by that stored as in-channel alluvium. These features therefore can play an important role in mitigating the impact on the receiving water of accelerated erosion.

  4. Sediment budget analysis from Landslide debris and river channel change during the extreme event - example of Typhoon Morakot at Laonong river, Taiwan (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Huang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Mei-Jen; Chiang, Yi-Lin; Yeh, En-Chao; Chao, Yu-Jui


    Taiwan, due to the high seismicity and high annual rainfall, numerous landslides triggered every year and severe impacts affect the island. Typhoon Morakot brought extreme and long-time rainfall for Taiwan in August 2009. It further caused huge loss of life and property in central and southern Taiwan. Laonong River is the largest tributary of Gaoping River. It's length is 137 km, and the basin area is 1373 km2. More than 2000mm rainfall brought and maximum rainfall exceeded 100mm/hr in the region by Typhoon Morakot in Aug, 2009. Its heavy rains made many landslides and debris flew into the river and further brought out accumulation and erosion on river banks of different areas. It caused severe disasters within the Laonong River drainage. In the past, the study of sediment blockage of river channel usually relies on field investigation, but due to inconvenient transportation, topographical barriers, or located in remote areas, etc. the survey is hardly to be completed sometimes. In recent years, the rapid development of remote sensing technology improves image resolution and quality significantly. Remote sensing technology can provide a wide range of image data, and provide essential and precious information. Furthermore, although the amount of sediment transportation can be estimated by using data such as rainfall, river flux, and suspended loads, the situation of large debris migration cannot be studied via those data. However, landslides, debris flow and river sediment transportation model in catchment area can be evaluated easily through analyzing the digital terrain model (DTM) . The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of river migration and to evaluate the amount of migration along Laonong River by analyzing the DEM before and after the typhoon Morakot. The DEMs are built by using the aerial images taken by digital mapping camera (DMC) and by airborne digital scanner 40 (ADS 40) before and after typhoon event. The results show that lateral

  5. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K


    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  6. Thinking outside the channel: modeling nitrogen cycling in networked river ecosystems (United States)

    Ashley M. Helton; Geoffrey C. Poole; Judy L. Meyer; Wilfred M. Wollheim; Bruce J. Peterson; Patrick J. Mulholland; Emily S. Bernhardt; Jack A. Stanford; Clay Arango; Linda R. Ashkenas; Lee W. Cooper; Walter K. Dodds; Stanley V. Gregory; Robert O. Hall; Stephen K. Hamilton; Sherri L. Johnson; William H. McDowell; Jody D. Potter; Jennifer L. Tank; Suzanne M. Thomas; H. Maurice Valett; Jackson R. Webster; Lydia Zeglin


    Agricultural and urban development alters nitrogen and other biogeochemical cycles in rivers worldwide. Because such biogeochemical processes cannot be measured empirically across whole river networks, simulation models are critical tools for understanding river-network biogeochemistry. However, limitations inherent in current models restrict our ability to simulate...

  7. Imaging and locating paleo-channels using geophysical data from meandering system of the Mun River, Khorat Plateau, Northeastern Thailand (United States)

    Nimnate, P.; Thitimakorn, T.; Choowong, M.; Hisada, K.


    The Khorat Plateau from northeast Thailand, the upstream part of the Mun River flows through clastic sedimentary rocks. A massive amount of sand was transported. We aimed to understand the evolution of fluvial system and to discuss the advantages of two shallow geophysical methods for describing subsurface morphology of modern and paleo-channels. We applied Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to characterize the lateral, vertical morphological and sedimentary structures of paleo-channels, floodplain and recent point bars. Both methods were interpreted together with on-sites boreholes to describe the physical properties of subsurface sediments. As a result, we concluded that four radar reflection patterns including reflection free, shingled, inclined and hummocky reflections were appropriated to apply as criteria to characterize lateral accretion, the meandering rivers with channel-filled sequence and floodplain were detected from ERT profiles. The changes in resistivity correspond well with differences in particle size and show relationship with ERT lithological classes. Clay, silt, sand, loam and bedrock were classified by the resistivity data. Geometry of paleo-channel embayment and lithological differences can be detected by ERT, whereas GPR provides detail subsurface facies for describing point bar sand deposit better than ERT.

  8. Imaging and locating paleo-channels using geophysical data from meandering system of the Mun River, Khorat Plateau, Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimnate P.


    Full Text Available The Khorat Plateau from northeast Thailand, the upstream part of the Mun River flows through clastic sedimentary rocks. A massive amount of sand was transported. We aimed to understand the evolution of fluvial system and to discuss the advantages of two shallow geophysical methods for describing subsurface morphology of modern and paleo-channels. We applied Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR to characterize the lateral, vertical morphological and sedimentary structures of paleo-channels, floodplain and recent point bars. Both methods were interpreted together with on-sites boreholes to describe the physical properties of subsurface sediments. As a result, we concluded that four radar reflection patterns including reflection free, shingled, inclined and hummocky reflections were appropriated to apply as criteria to characterize lateral accretion, the meandering rivers with channel-filled sequence and floodplain were detected from ERT profiles. The changes in resistivity correspond well with differences in particle size and show relationship with ERT lithological classes. Clay, silt, sand, loam and bedrock were classified by the resistivity data. Geometry of paleo-channel embayment and lithological differences can be detected by ERT, whereas GPR provides detail subsurface facies for describing point bar sand deposit better than ERT.

  9. Sedimentation rates measurements in former channels of the upper Rhone river using Chernobyl 137Cs and 134Cs as tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostan, J.C.; Juget, J.; Brun, A.M.


    Former river channels are aquatic ecosystems with a different geomorphology generated by fluvial dynamics more or less linked to the main channel. They present different ecological successions to become terrestrial ecosystems and are thus supposed to have different sedimentation rates. The aim of this paper is to assess this sedimentation rate using radioactive tracer methodology commonly used in lake studies. Chernobyl impacts, expressed in 137 Cs concentration and 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio, were determined in sediment cores. Sites (21) were sampled in the alluvial plain of the Upper Rhone River from 1989 to 1994. The contamination presented a high spatial heterogeneity. The maximum values encountered by site ranged between 34 and 541 Bq/kg of dry matter. The method generally gave good core profiles. Sedimentation rate ranged between 0.14 and 0.70 cm/year for the former meanders and between 0.14 and 2.86 cm/year for the braided channels. The sediment accumulation rates ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 g/cm 2 per year and 0.03 to 2.26 g/cm 2 per year, respectively. These values are similar to those found for Lake Geneva. The importance of the former channels in relation to the main channel is enhanced by the higher contamination and radionuclides retention. The sediment accumulation rate is related to the organic carbon content in the sediment. A comparison between two former channels with different productivity showed that the the allogeneous driven system presents a high organic sediment accumulation rate with a low organic content in the sediment and inversely, a low organic sediment accumulation rate with a high organic carbon content was found for the autogeneous driven system

  10. Channelization and floodplain forests: impacts of accelerated sedimentation and valley plug formation on floodplain forests of the Middle Fork Forked Deer River, Tennessee, USA (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Sammy L. King


    We evaluated the severe degradation of floodplain habitats resulting from channelization and concomitant excessive coarse sedimentation on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River in west Tennessee from 2000 to 2003. Land use practices have resulted in excessive sediment in the tributaries and river system eventually resulting in sand deposition on the floodplain, increased...

  11. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of...

  12. Assessment of channel changes, model of historical floods, and effects of backwater on flood stage, and flood mitigation alternatives for the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas (United States)

    Winters, Karl E.; Baldys, Stanley


    In cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel changes on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, and modeled historical floods to investigate possible causes and potential mitigation alternatives to higher flood stages in recent (2007 and 2008) floods. Extreme flooding occurred on the Wichita River on June 30, 2007, inundating 167 homes in Wichita Falls. Although a record flood stage was reached in June 2007, the peak discharge was much less than some historical floods at Wichita Falls. Streamflow and stage data from two gages on the Wichita River and one on Holliday Creek were used to assess the interaction of the two streams. Changes in the Wichita River channel were evaluated using historical aerial and ground photography, comparison of recent and historical cross sections, and comparison of channel roughness coefficients with those from earlier studies. The floods of 2007 and 2008 were modeled using a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibrated channel roughness was larger for the 2007 flood compared to the 2008 flood, and the 2007 flood peaked about 4 feet higher than the 2008 flood. Calibration of the 1941 flood yielded a channel roughness coefficient (Manning's n) of 0.030, which represents a fairly clean natural channel. The step-backwater model was also used to evaluate the following potential mitigation alternatives: (1) increasing the capacity of the bypass channel near River Road in Wichita Falls, Texas; (2) removal of obstructions near the Scott Avenue and Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard bridges in Wichita Falls, Texas; (3) widening of aggraded channel banks in the reach between Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard and River Road; and (4) reducing channel bank and overbank roughness. Reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.1 foot to as much as 3.0 feet for the different mitigation alternatives. The effects of implementing a combination of different flood-mitigation alternatives were

  13. Interim Feasibility Report and Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Grays Harbor, Chehalis and Hoquiam Rivers, Washington, Channel Improvements for Navigation. (United States)


    community depends on the continued descent of organic materials from the overlying waters for nourishment. The Dungeness crab ( Cancer magister) is an...immediately north and south of Grays Harbor. EIS-34 o Crabs. Dungeness crabs ( Cancer magister) are abundant in Grays Harbor, though most are smaller...Cooper Cultural Resources Mama Seattle District, Evaluation Corps of Engineers Endangered Species Brunner Seattle District, Evaluation Corps of Engineers

  14. 33 CFR 207.718 - Navigation locks and approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. (United States)


    ... comments and will evaluate the expected energy situation, water supply, and recreation use of the lock to.... The regulations in this section shall not relieve owners and/or operators of vessels from liability..., shall not enter the lock unless provided with suitable buffers and fenders. Vessels having chains, lines...

  15. Evaluation of the Use of a Bedleveler to Improve Navigability of Atchafalaya River Bar Channel Fluid Mud (United States)


    dredged (new work), clay , and even small pieces of rock but are used much less often in sand. The number of passes required depends entirely on the...the vibrating fork sensor decreases as the density of the fluid mud increases, and the amplitude of vibrations decrease with increasing viscosity ...density and viscosity . In general, the tuning-fork method of measuring density and viscosity is restricted to Newtonian fluids, which continue to flow

  16. Post-dam Channel and Floodplain Adjustment along the Lower Volga River, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, Hans; Alabyan, Andrei M; Babich, Dmitry B; Ivanov, Vadim V


    The Volga River in the Russian Federation has been regulated by a cascade of reservoir dams since the 1950–1960s. This chapter presents an overview of the main hydrological and morphological responses of the Volga River downstream of the Volgograd reservoir dam. Regulation caused a decrease in

  17. Turbidity and plant growth in large slow-flowing lowland rivers: progress report March 1989


    Marker, A.F.H.


    The River Great Ouse is a highly managed large lowland river in eastern England. It drains rich arable land in the Midlands and Eastern England and over the years nutrient concentrations have increased and there is a general perception that the clarity of the water has decreased. The main river channels have been dredged a number of times partly for flood control reasons but also for recreational boating and navigation activities. The period covered by this first report has been used to devel...

  18. Using Remote Sensing and High-Resolution Digital Elevation Models to Identify Potential Erosional Hotspots Along River Channels During High Discharge Storm Events (United States)

    Orland, E. D.; Amidon, W. H.


    As global warming intensifies, large precipitation events and associated floods are becoming increasingly common. Channel adjustments during floods can occur by both erosion and deposition of sediment, often damaging infrastructure in the process. There is thus a need for predictive models that can help managers identify river reaches that are most prone to adjustment during storms. Because rivers in post-glacial landscapes often flow over a mixture of bedrock and alluvial substrates, the identification of bedrock vs. alluvial channel reaches is an important first step in predicting vulnerability to channel adjustment during flood events, especially because bedrock channels are unlikely to adjust significantly, even during floods. This study develops a semi-automated approach to predicting channel substrate using a high-resolution LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM). The study area is the Middlebury River in Middlebury, VT-a well-studied watershed with a wide variety of channel substrates, including reaches with documented channel adjustments during recent flooding events. Multiple metrics were considered for reference—such as channel width and drainage area—but the study utilized channel slope as a key parameter for identifying morphological variations within the Middlebury River. Using data extracted from the DEM, a power law was fit to selected slope and drainage area values for each branch in order to model idealized slope-drainage area relationships, which were then compared with measured slope-drainage area relationships. Differences in measured slope minus predicted slope (called delta-slope) are shown to help predict river channel substrate. Compared with field observations, higher delta-slope values correlate with more stable, boulder rich channels or bedrock gorges; conversely the lowest delta-slope values correlate with flat, sediment rich alluvial channels. The delta-slope metric thus serves as a reliable first-order predictor of channel

  19. 76 FR 63841 - Security Zone; Potomac River, Georgetown Channel, Washington, DC (United States)


    ... effect from 6 a.m. until 6 p.m. on October 16, 2011. The security zone will include all navigable waters... security zone at the time it is in effect are to depart the zone immediately. To seek permission to transit... can better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking process. Small businesses...

  20. Side Channels of the Impounded and Middle Mississippi River: Opportunities and Challenges to Maximize Restoration Potential (United States)


    considered. That is, it may be necessary to renew side channels according to a schedule to prevent them from filling with sediment and becoming terrestrial...maintain side channels as a restoration feature or to control their succession (i.e., prevent their loss through sedimentation ) have not been developed...features for maximum benefit? • How could advantage be taken of the existing sediment transport regime and flow pattern to maintain side channels or

  1. Impact on a fish assemblage of the maintenance dredging of a navigation channel in a tropical coastal ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demarques Ribeiro da Silva Junior


    Full Text Available Dredging and dredge-spoil disposal are among the major problems in coastal management. Many of the scientific contributions concerning the impacts of this practice are based on the study of sessile organisms and subtropical environments. We evaluated changes in the composition and abundance of a fish assemblage resulting from dredging and sediment disposal at the mouth and in the adjacent waters of the Caravelas River on the north-eastern coast of Brazil. Samples were collected in two directly impacted and three adjacent areas. Differences among stations were not significant, but the dredged site had the least diverse station, as expected. The stations farthest from the directly impacted areas apparently were not influenced by the coastal work, thus suggesting localised effects. The contribution of the present study is particularly important because of the study area's proximity to others that have high conservation value such as mangrove forests and coral reefs, and the relevance of the subject given the continuing dredging activity.A dragagem e descarte de sedimento se destacam como atividades que geram grandes distúrbios aos ecossistemas marinhos e, consequentemente tornam-se um desafio ao manejo e ordenamento costeiro. Grande parte dos estudos que abordam seus impactos é baseada em pesquisas com organismos sésseis e em ambientes temperados, criando uma lacuna no entendimento de seus efeitos sobre a ictiofauna, principalmente nas regiões tropicais. No presente estudo foram avaliadas as alterações na composição e abundância da comunidade de peixes sob influência da dragagem e descarte de sedimento na foz do Rio Caravelas, costa da região Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram obtidas em duas estações diretamente afetadas e em três outras áreas adjacentes. Não houve diferença significativa na diversidade média obtida para cada estação, porém a estação correspondente à área dragada apresentou o menor valor dentre as

  2. Measuring the Erosion of River Channel Widths Impacted by Watershed Urbanization Using Historic Aerial Photographs and Modern Surveys (United States)

    Galster, J. C.; Pazzaglia, F. J.; Germanoski, D.


    Land use in a watershed exerts a strong influence on trunk channel form and process. Land use changes act over human time scales which is short enough to measure their effects directly using historic aerial photographs. We show that high-resolution topographic surveys comparing channel form for paired watersheds in the Lehigh Valley, PA are indistinguishable, but have channel widths that have changed dramatically in the past five decades. The two watersheds, Little Lehigh Creek and Sacony Creek, are similar in all respects except they have different amount of urban land use. Aerial photographs of the urbanized Little Lehigh Creek show that a majority of the measured widths (67 of 85) were statistically wider in 1999 than in 1947. In contrast, the measured widths from the agricultural Sacony Creek are more evenly distributed among those that widened (18), narrowed (28), and those that were statistically unchanged (6) from 1946 to 1999. From 1946 to 1999 the only section of Sacony creek that widened was that reach downstream of the only sizable urban area in the watershed. The current land use in Sacony Creek watershed resembles that of 1946, while the Little Lehigh Creek watershed has more than tripled its urban area. These data suggest that the increase in urban areas that subsequently increases peak discharges is the mechanism behind the widening that occurred in the Little Lehigh Creek. These wider channels can affect water quality, aquatic habitat, suspended sediment loads, and river aesthetics.

  3. Evolution of a meander in a constricted reach of a dryland alluvial channel: Little Colorado River, Arizona (United States)

    Block, D.


    Lateral migration of river meander systems is complex, particularly in drylands where fluvial processes are discontinuous. Analysis of aerial photography and GPS tracking of cutbank erosion can further empirical knowledge of meander development. Moreover, discharge records link landscape response to hydroclimatic variability. In the semiarid Little Colorado River valley, extreme erosive episodes typically result from snowmelt flow, or lately, rain-on-snow events. The 90-km reach of the Little Colorado River (LCR), from Winslow to Leupp, Arizona, meanders within a 5-km-wide valley. Near Winslow, however, the LCR is disconnected from its floodplain by a 12-km-long levee. The levee restricts the floodplain to only 450 m wide in one location. In this severely constricted river stretch, a flood event in January 2008 relocated a meander bend. Bend development followed a common sequence of migration phases long noted in the literature, but at a very rapid pace. During the flood event one meander limb migrated ~200 m, following the general northwesterly flow direction of the river. Movement vectors of meander inflection points, apex, and apical line characterize changes in bend morphology. Before the 2008 flood event the apical line of the meander bend had azimuth 50°; after the 2008 flood event the apical line of the meander bend had azimuth 345°. Since that event, the meander bend has migrated an additional ~200 m through a combination of translation, extension, and rotation. The data provide information on geomorphic response to bimodal precipitation patterns in a human-perturbed channel reach.

  4. Predicted channel types - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  5. Application of the SAM Computer Program for Truckee River Stable Channel Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Stephen H


    The purpose of this Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is to demonstrate the utility of the SAM computer programs for evaluating the stability of a stream restoration design on the Truckee River...

  6. Channel-planform evolution in four rivers of Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A.: The roles of physical drivers and trophic cascades (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Sankey, Joel B.; Randle, Timothy J.


    Identifying the relative contributions of physical and ecological processes to channel evolution remains a substantial challenge in fluvial geomorphology. We use a 74-year aerial photographic record of the Hoh, Queets, Quinault, and Elwha Rivers, Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A., to investigate whether physical or trophic-cascade-driven ecological factors—excessive elk impacts after wolves were extirpated a century ago—are the dominant controls on channel planform of these gravel-bed rivers. We find that channel width and braiding show strong relationships with recent flood history. All four rivers have widened significantly in recent decades, consistent with increased flood activity since the 1970s. Channel planform also reflects sediment-supply changes, evident from landslide response on the Elwha River. We surmise that the Hoh River, which shows a multi-decadal trend toward greater braiding, is adjusting to increased sediment supply associated with rapid glacial retreat. In this sediment-routing system with high connectivity, such climate-driven signals appear to propagate downstream without being buffered substantially by sediment storage. Legacy effects of anthropogenic modification likely also affect the Quinault River planform. We infer no correspondence between channel geomorphic evolution and elk abundance, suggesting that trophic-cascade effects in this setting are subsidiary to physical controls on channel morphology. Our findings differ from previous interpretations of Olympic National Park fluvial dynamics and contrast with the classic example of Yellowstone National Park, where legacy effects of elk overuse are apparent in channel morphology; we attribute these differences to hydrologic regime and large-wood availability.

  7. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Thomas

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.

  8. Sediment Dynamics Affecting the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker in the Highly-modified Santa Ana River and Inset Channel, Southern California, USA (United States)

    Minear, J. T.; Wright, S. A.


    In this study, we investigate the sediment dynamics of the low-flow channel of the Santa Ana River that is formed by wastewater discharges and contains some of the last remaining habitat of the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae). The Santa Ana River is a highly-modified river draining the San Bernardino Mountains and Inland Empire metropolitan area east of Los Angeles. Home to over 4 million people, the watershed provides habitat for the federally-threatened Santa Ana Sucker, which presently reside within the mainstem Santa Ana River in a reach supported by year-round constant discharges from water treatment plants. The nearly constant low-flow wastewater discharges and infrequent runoff events create a small, approximately 8 m wide, inset channel within the approximately 300 m wide mainstem channel that is typically dry except for large flood flows. The sediment dynamics within the inset channel are characterized by constantly evolving bed substrate and sediment transport rates, and occasional channel avulsions. The sediment dynamics have large influence on the Sucker, which rely on coarse-substrate (gravel and cobble) for their food production. In WY 2013 through the present, we investigated the sediment dynamics of the inset channel using repeat bathymetric and substrate surveys, bedload sampling, and discharge measurements. We found two distinct phases of the inset channel behavior: 1. 'Reset' flows, where sediment-laden mainstem discharges from upstream runoff events result in sand deposition in the inset channel or avulse the inset channel onto previously dry riverbed; and 2. 'Winnowing' flows, whereby the sand within the inset channel is removed by clear-water low flows from the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Thus, in contrast to many regulated rivers where high flows are required to flush fine sediments from the bed (for example, downstream from dams), in the Santa Ana River the low flows from wastewater treatment plants serve as the flushing

  9. Spatial discontinuity and temporal evolution of channel morphology along a mixed bedrock-alluvial river, upper Drôme River, southeast France: Contingent responses to external and internal controls (United States)

    Toone, J.; Rice, S. P.; Piégay, H.


    The rehabilitation of degraded river channels is often guided by assumptions of continuity, yet in response to spatial and temporal variations in controlling conditions rivers typically display discontinuous response in space and time. This study examines the development of a 5 km reach of the Drôme River, S.E. France, characterised by alternating alluvial and bedrock zones that are separated by abrupt downstream transitions. This reach is representative of the Drôme River as a whole, and other rivers in the European Alps where braided channel planforms have been replaced by more complex, discontinuous morphologies. The primary aims are to understand how this spatial complexity has developed on the Drôme; evaluate how temporal channel changes have been affected by local factors, particularly bedrock exposures, and by long-term, catchment-scale changes in sediment supply and the flood activity; and consider the implications of this discontinuous geomorphology for reach management. The development of geomorphological zonation is examined by documenting sequential changes in channel planform between seven periods, using aerial photography (1948-2006) and by analysing change in bed elevation from profiles surveyed in 1928, 2003 and 2005. Between 1948 and 2001 bedrock exposed in the channel bed and along the floodplain margins defined discontinuities in sediment connectivity that were largely responsible for the configuration of channel zones. The impact of floods on this system was not proportional to flood magnitude. A modest flood in 1978 was an important event that, by incision and avulsion at key locations, defined a pattern of zonation that persisted until the end of the study in 2006. During the final 5 years of the study, alluvial zones that previously responded to large floods by widening underwent narrowing, despite the occurrence of a large flood, and led to an overall reduction in width variance. This resulted from progressive incision beneath and

  10. Impacts of channel morphology on residues and ecological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls in water and sediment in Chahe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-hua Zhao


    Full Text Available The impacts of channel morphology on the residues and ecological risks of 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners in water and sediment were investigated in summer (July and autumn (September in the Chahe River, in Nanjing, China. The residual concentrations of tri-chlorobiphenyls (tri-CBs, PCB 18 and tetra-CBs (PCB 52 in water were significantly higher than those of penta-CBs to deca-CBs, and the average residual concentration of ∑PCBs (sum of 14 PCB congeners in summer was about six times higher than in autumn. However, the residues in sediment did not change significantly. Redundancy analysis (RDA indicated that channel morphology and the corresponding environmental indices had significant impacts on PCB residues and their composition profiles in water and sediment. The overflow weir and lake-type watercourse may remarkably reduce the residual concentration and ecological risks of PCBs in water. The highest reduction percentages of the residual concentration and ecological risks of ∑PCBs induced by an overflow weir were 78% and 67%, respectively, and those induced by a lake-type watercourse were 36% and 70%, respectively. The watercourses with different channel morphologies were ranked by residual ∑PCBs concentrations in the following descending order: the natural ecological watercourse, vertical concrete watercourse, and vegetation-type riprap watercourse. However, they were ranked by residual ∑PCBs concentrations in sediment in the following descending order: the vertical concrete watercourse, vegetation-type riprap watercourse, and natural ecological watercourse.

  11. Complex Channel Avulsion in the Meghna River Foodplain During the Mid to Late Holocene: The Potential Effect of Tectonic and Co-Seismic Uplift (United States)

    Dunham, A.; Grall, C.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Rajapara, H.; Kumar, B.; Philibosian, B.; Akhter, S. H.; Singhvi, A. K.


    Channel migrations and river avulsions in deltaic river systems are mainly driven by differential changes of surface topography, such as the superelevation of channels due to sedimentation. In addition to such autocyclic processes, tectonic events, such as earthquakes, may also lead to avulsions from sudden uplift. The eastern part of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD) is underlain by the blind megathrust of the IndoBurma subduction zone. In this region we investigate a 100 km long sinuous abandoned channel of the Meghna River. Immediately south of the channel, it has been previously shown that the topography is slightly higher than on the rest of the Delta and there is an oxidized Holocene exposure surface. Part of the Titas River flows northward from this area into the abandoned channel belt, opposite of the southward flowing rivers of the delta. We provide results from a detailed investigation of this abandoned channel of the Meghna River using stratigraphic logs of hand-drilled wells, resistivity profiles, sediment analyses and OSL and C14 dating, The OSL ages to be presented constrain the possible date of the event. We employ numerical modeling to evaluate the hypothesis that the co-seismic uplift associated to an earthquake can trigger the channel migration. Our modeling approach aims to estimate the co-seismic uplift associated with potential seismic events using an elastic Coulomb's dislocation model. The geometry fault in our model is estimated using geologic and GPS constraints with standard elastic parameters (Young's modulus = 80 GPa; Poisson's ratio = 0.3). We explored different potential earthquakes geometries that involve the megathrust, a splay fault, or the megathrust terminating in the splay. The magnitude and distribution of co-seismic slip are also varied between a rupture length of 112.5km and 180km along a 225km long fault. We show that any class of models can produce the amount of uplift (1-2 m) necessary for triggering the river

  12. Changes in river channel pattern as a result of the construction, operation and decommissioning of watermills – the case of the middle reach of the River Liswarta near Krzepice, Poland


    Fajer Maria


    Changes in river channel pattern in the middle reach of the River Liswarta and in the lower reaches of its tributaries near Krzepice were analysed, and were related to the construction, operation and decommissioning of watermills. For this purpose, old maps which covered the period from the beginning of the 18th century until the 20th century were used alongside written historical sources. Maps from the first half of the 19th century provided valuable source material. Traces of old mill water...

  13. 33 CFR 209.170 - Violations of laws protecting navigable waters. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Violations of laws protecting navigable waters. 209.170 Section 209.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF... navigable waters. (a) [Reserved] (b) Injuries to Government works. Section 14 of the River and Harbor Act of...

  14. Denitrification capacity and greenhouse gas emissions of soils in channelized and restored reaches along an Alpine river corridor (United States)

    Shrestha, Juna; Niklaus, Pascal; Samaritani, Emanuela; Frossard, Emmanuel; Tockner, Klement; Luster, Jörg


    In order to assess the effects of river restoration on water and air quality, the biogeochemical functions of channelized and restored river reaches have to be quantified. The objective of this study was to compare denitrification potential and greenhouse gas emissions of functional processing zones (FPZ) in a channelized and a recently restored reach of the alpine river Thur in north-eastern Switzerland. The study was part of the project cluster RECORD of the ETH domain, Switzerland, which was initiated to increase the mechanistic understanding of coupled hydrological and ecological processes in river corridors. The denitrification potential represents an important aspect of the soil filter function related to water quality. Besides, it also contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases. Extensively used pasture growing on a sandy loam is the characteristic FPZ of the channelized section. The restored section encompasses five FPZ: (i) bare gravel bars sparsely colonized by plants, (ii) gravel bars densely colonized by grass (mainly canary reed grass with up to 80 cm sandy deposits), (iii) mixed forest dominated by ash and maple, (iv) riparian forest dominated by willow (Salix alba), (v) older overbank sediments stabilized during restoration with young willows separating the forests from the river-gravel bar system (willow bush). The FPZ were sampled in January, April, August and October 2009. In addition, in June and July 2009 two flood events were monitored in the restored section with more frequent samplings. At each date, topsoil samples were collected in each FPZ (four replicates per samples) and analyzed for denitrifier enzyme activity (DEA). In addition, gas samples were taken in-situ using the closed chamber technique to measure soil respiration as well as N2O and CH4 fluxes. In all FPZ, the denitrification potential was mainly governed by soil moisture. It was highest in the willow forest exhibiting low spatial variability. The DEA in pasture, grass zone

  15. Spatial distribution of impacts to channel bed mobility due to flow regulation, Kootenai River, USA (United States)

    Michael Burke; Klaus Jorde; John M. Buffington; Jeffrey H. Braatne; Rohan Benjakar


    The regulated hydrograph of the Kootenai River between Libby Dam and Kootenay Lake has altered the natural flow regime, resulting in a significant decrease in maximum flows (60% net reduction in median 1-day annual maximum, and 77%-84% net reductions in median monthly flows for the historic peak flow months of May and June, respectively). Other key hydrologic...

  16. Application of a methodological advance to calculate 3D flow fields in river channel junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moradi, Gelare; Vermeulen, Bart; Rennie, Colin; Cardot, Romain; Lane, Stuart


    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) vessel-mounted flow measurements are now commonly used to quantify discharge and velocity in shallow water fluvial environments. Here, we consider the benefits of improving secondary circulation estimates in river confluences through the manner in which

  17. Channel Utilization in South Louisiana Using AIS Data, 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Kaiser


    Full Text Available South Louisiana is undergoing rapid land loss and the construction and utilization of navigation channels by the offshore oil and gas industry, the commercial fishing industry, the oil refining industry, and freight shippers is one cause. A network of natural and man-made navigation channels support commerce and industry throughout the region, but no quantitative information is available on the users of the channels and their contribution to land loss. The purpose of this note is to characterize utilization across eight channels in South Louisiana using data from the Automatic Identification System. Approximately 125,000 vessels used the channels over a two year period between 2011-2012. The Mississippi River was the most heavily utilized channel with an average of 345 vessels per week across the report zone, followed by Bayou Lafourche and Sabine Pass with about 195 vessels per week. The oil refining industry was the primary user of the Calcasieu and Sabine Pass channels while the freight industry was the primary user of the Mississippi River. The offshore oil and gas industry were the primary users of Bayou Lafourche, the Houma Navigation Canal, the Atchafalaya River and Freshwater Bayou.

  18. Channel Control Structures for Souris River, Minot, North Dakota. Hydraulic Model Investigation. (United States)


    in good agreement with other broad - and sharp - crested weirs . 19. Early testing of the typical type I structure indicated that the size of the riprap...III structure (Figure 4) will consist of a concrete weir with a crest lo- cated 10.0 ft above the channel bottom with a 1-ft-high end sill at the the channel, was effective in preventing significant head differ- ential and damage to the strucLure with overbank flow conditions. The weir crest

  19. Channel Morphology and Bed Sediment Characteristics Before and After Habitat Enhancement Activities in the Uridil Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Years 2005-2008 (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.


    Fluvial geomorphic data were collected by the United States Geological Survey from July 2005 to June 2008 (a time period within water years 2005 to 2008) to monitor the effects of habitat enhancement activities conducted in the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust's Uridil Property, located along the Platte River, Nebraska. The activities involved the removal of vegetation and sand from the tops of high permanent islands and the placement of the sand into the active river channel. This strategy was intended to enhance habitat for migratory water birds by lowering the elevations of the high islands, thereby eliminating a visual obstruction for roosting birds. It was also thought that the bare sand on the lowered island surfaces could serve as potential habitat for nesting water birds. Lastly, the project supplied a local source of sediment to the river to test the hypothesis that this material could contribute to the formation of lower sandbars and potential nesting sites downstream. Topographic surveys on the islands and along river transects were used to quantify the volume of removed sand and track the storage and movement of the introduced sand downstream. Sediment samples were also collected to map the spatial distribution of river bed sediment sizes before and after the management activities. While the project lowered the elevation of high islands, observations of the sand addition indicated the relatively fine-grained sand that was placed in the active river channel was rapidly transported by the flowing water. Topographic measurements made 3 months after the sand addition along transects in the area of sediment addition showed net aggradation over measurements made in 2005. In the year following the sand addition, 2007, elevated river flows from local rain events generally were accompanied by net degradation along transects within the area of sediment addition. In the spring of 2008, a large magnitude flow event of approximately 360 cubic meters per

  20. Large wood mobility processes in low-order Chilean river channels (United States)

    Iroumé, Andrés; Mao, Luca; Andreoli, Andrea; Ulloa, Héctor; Ardiles, María Paz


    Large wood (LW) mobility was studied over several time periods in channel segments of four low-order mountain streams, southern Chile. All wood pieces found within the bankfull channels and on the streambanks extending into the channel with dimensions more than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length were measured and their position was referenced. Thirty six percent of measured wood pieces were tagged to investigate log mobility. All segments were first surveyed in summer and then after consecutive rainy winter periods. Annual LW mobility ranged between 0 and 28%. Eighty-four percent of the moved LW had diameters ≤ 40 cm and 92% had lengths ≤ 7 m. Large wood mobility was higher in periods when maximum water level (Hmax) exceeded channel bankfull depth (HBk) than in periods with flows less than HBk, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dimensions of moved LW showed no significant differences between periods with flows exceeding and with flows less than bankfull stage. Statistically significant relationships were found between annual LW mobility (%) and unit stream power (for Hmax) and Hmax/HBk. The mean diameter of transported wood pieces per period was significantly correlated with unit stream power for H15% and H50% (the level above which the flow remains for 15 and 50% of the time, respectively). These results contribute to an understanding of the complexity of LW mobilization processes in mountain streams and can be used to assess and prevent potential damage caused by LW mobilization during floods.

  1. Lazy river on Mars: Ring-shaped fluvial channel discovered north of Capri Chasma (United States)

    Thomson, B. J.


    Many features on Mars are strange, but some are stranger than others. Fluvial features on Mars come in several basic flavors: branching valley networks, massive outflow channels, and possibly presently active recurring slope lineae. Here, we identify a small, valley network-like channel segment whose planform appearance traces out a nearly complete circle. One of the key tenants of hydrogeology and plumbing is that "stuff flows downhill." A seemingly circular loop implies a gross violation of the downhill flow rule, akin to a visual claim of perpetual motion. This M.C. Escher-inspired landform is located at 6.45°S, 39.70°W inside Innsbruck crater, a 59-km diameter impact structure that is just north of Capri Chasma. A close inspection reveals that the loop is not 100% continuous; there is a slight break on the western side of the loop. The pair of channels on either side of this gap terminate abruptly. These appear to be points of origin rather than termini, although admittedly the direction(s) of flow within the channel segments are difficult to constrain uniquely. The overall morphology of this near-circular channel system implies a local source limited both in duration and volume. Assuming that the fluid involved was water, the volume of water was sufficient for incipient erosion of the terrain, but not sufficient to have ponded or continued to flow. Here, the combined infiltration and evaporation rates must have been sufficiently large such that a breakout flow did not occur.

  2. The sedimentological changes caused by human impact at the artificial channel of Medjerda-River (Coastal zone of Medjerda, Tunisia) (United States)

    Benmoussa, Thouraya; Amrouni, Oula; Dezileau, Laurent; Mahé, Gil; Abdeljaouad, Saâdi


    Recent sedimentary and morphological changes at the new mouth of Medjerda-River (Gulf of Tunis) are investigated using a multiproxy approach of sediment cores complited by 210Pbex and 137Cs method dating. The subject of the study is to focus on surveying the sedimentary evolution of Medjerda-Raoued Delta caused by the human intervention in the management of the main tributaries of the Medjerda-River (artificial channel of Henchir Tobias). Sediment cores (CEM-1 and CEM-3) were subjected to both multiproxy approaches (Grain size, geochemical analysis and dating radiometric 210Pbex and 137Cs). The sedimentological analysis of the new deltaic deposits shows a progradation sequence with the silt and clay deposits on the historic sandy substratum. The mean grain size evolution on the old beach profile shows a decreasing trend from backshore (CEM-3) to nearshore (CEM-1). The geochemical results show varying concentrations of chemical elements such as Fe, K, Rb, Nb, Cr, Ti, Ba, Ca, Sr, Zr, V, and potentially toxic metal trace elements such as Pb, Zn and the As. The Principal component Analysis (PCA) applied in the geochemical elements evolution confirms the marine origin of the sand deposits in the basic layers of the two cores. The chronological method (210Pbex and 137Cs) affirms that the first fluvial deposits were set up only after 1950. The sedimentological and geochemical result confirm the actual unless of coarser fluvial supplies under the human activities leading the negative coastal sediment balance and the shoreline retreat as well.

  3. Development of a channel classification to evaluate potential for cottonwood restoration, lower segments of the Middle Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Huhmann, Brittany L.


    This report documents development of a spatially explicit river and flood-plain classification to evaluate potential for cottonwood restoration along the Sharpe and Fort Randall segments of the Middle Missouri River. This project involved evaluating existing topographic, water-surface elevation, and soils data to determine if they were sufficient to create a classification similar to the Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI) developed by Jacobson and others (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5256) and developing a geomorphically based classification to apply to evaluating restoration potential.Existing topographic, water-surface elevation, and soils data for the Middle Missouri River were not sufficient to replicate the LCPI. The 1/3-arc-second National Elevation Dataset delineated most of the topographic complexity and produced cumulative frequency distributions similar to a high-resolution 5-meter topographic dataset developed for the Lower Missouri River. However, lack of bathymetry in the National Elevation Dataset produces a potentially critical bias in evaluation of frequently flooded surfaces close to the river. High-resolution soils data alone were insufficient to replace the information content of the LCPI. In test reaches in the Lower Missouri River, soil drainage classes from the Soil Survey Geographic Database database correctly classified 0.8–98.9 percent of the flood-plain area at or below the 5-year return interval flood stage depending on state of channel incision; on average for river miles 423–811, soil drainage class correctly classified only 30.2 percent of the flood-plain area at or below the 5-year return interval flood stage. Lack of congruence between soil characteristics and present-day hydrology results from relatively rapid incision and aggradation of segments of the Missouri River resulting from impoundments and engineering. The most sparsely available data in the Middle Missouri River were water

  4. Air-photo based change in channel width in the Minnesota River basin: Modes of adjustment and implications for sediment budget (United States)

    Wesley Lauer, J.; Echterling, Caitlyn; Lenhart, Christian; Belmont, Patrick; Rausch, Rachel


    The Minnesota River and major tributaries have experienced large increases in discharge over the past century. Aerial photograph-based measurements of channel width were made for the 1938-2015 period at 16 multibend subreaches by digitizing the area between vegetation lines and dividing by centerline length. Results show considerable increases in width for the main stem (0.62 ± 0.10%/y) and major tributaries (0.31 ± 0.08%/y) but are inconclusive for smaller channels (width Digital elevation model analysis and regional hydraulic geometry show that the main stem and larger tributaries account for the vast majority ( 85%) of bankfull channel volume. High-order channels are thus disproportionately responsible for sediment production through cross section enlargement, although floodplains or off-channel water bodies adjacent to these channels likely represent important sediment sinks. Because channel enlargement can play an important role in sediment production, it should be considered in sediment reduction strategies in the Minnesota River basin and carefully evaluated in other watersheds undergoing long-term increases in discharge.

  5. Knickpoint retreat and transient bedrock channel morphology triggered by base-level fall in small bedrock river catchments: The case of the Isle of Jura, Scotland (United States)

    Castillo, Miguel; Bishop, Paul; Jansen, John D.


    A sudden drop in river base-level can trigger a knickpoint that propagates throughout the fluvial network causing a transient state in the landscape. Knickpoint retreat has been confirmed in large fluvial settings (drainage areas > 100 km2) and field data suggest that the same applies to the case of small bedrock river catchments (drainage areas UK), where rivers incise into dipping quartzite. The mapping of raised beach deposits and strath terraces, and the analysis of stream long profiles, were used to identify knickpoints that had been triggered by base-level fall. Our results indicate that the distance of knickpoint retreat scales to the drainage area in a power law function irrespective of structural setting. On the other hand, local channel slope and basin size influence the vertical distribution of knickpoints. As well, at low drainage areas (~ 4 km2) rivers are unable to absorb the full amount of base-level fall and channel reach morphology downstream of the knickpoint tends towards convexity. The results obtained here confirm that knickpoint retreat is mostly controlled by stream discharge, as has been observed for other transient landscapes. Local controls, reflecting basin size and channel slope, have an effect on the vertical distribution of knickpoints; such controls are also related to the ability of rivers to absorb the base-level fall.

  6. 78 FR 24063 - Special Local Regulation; Hebda Cup Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI (United States)


    ... proximity to the boat race pose extra and unusual hazards to public safety and property. Thus, the Captain... point on land at position 42[deg]10'58'' N, 083[deg]9'23'' W; following the Trenton Channel north to..., Michigan, starting at a point on land at position 42[deg]10'58'' N, 083[deg]9'23'' W; following the Trenton...

  7. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.


    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (< 1.5-year return periods) that mobilize channel-bed material and less frequent events that determine bankfull channel (1.5- to 3-year return periods) and macrochannel (10- to 40-year return periods) dimensions; (v) macrochannels with high f values (most ≤ 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess

  8. Nearshore circulation and water-column properties in the Skagit River Delta, northern Puget Sound, Washington: juvenile Chinook Salmon habitat availability in the Swinomish Channel (United States)

    Grossman, Eric E.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Curran, Christopher


    Time-series and spatial measurements of nearshore hydrodynamic processes and water properties were made in the Swinomish Channel to quantify the net direction and rates of surface water transport that influence habitat for juvenile Chinook salmon along their primary migratory corridor between the Skagit River and Padilla Bay in northern Puget Sound, Washington. During the spring outmigration of Skagit River Chinook between March and June 2007, currents measured with fixed acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP) at the south and north end of the Swinomish Channel and with roving ADCP revealed that the currents are highly asymmetric with a dominant flow to the north (toward Padilla Bay). Maximum surface current velocities reached 1.5 m/s and were generally uniform across the channel near McGlinn Island Causeway. Transport times for surface water to travel the 11 km from the southern end of Swinomish Channel at McGlinn Island to Padilla Bay ranged from 2.1 hours to 5.5 days. The mean travel time was ~1 day, while 17 percent of the time, transport of water and passive particles occurred within 3.75 hours. Surface water in the Swinomish Channel during this time was generally very saline 20-27 psu, except south of the Rainbow Bridge in the town of La Conner where it ranged 0-15 psu depending on tide and Skagit River discharge. This salinity regime restricts suitable low salinity (

  9. Automatic Monitoring System Design and Failure Probability Analysis for River Dikes on Steep Channel (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Lung; Lin, Yi-Jun; Tung, Yeou-Koung


    The purposes of this study includes: (1) design an automatic monitoring system for river dike; and (2) develop a framework which enables the determination of dike failure probabilities for various failure modes during a rainstorm. The historical dike failure data collected in this study indicate that most dikes in Taiwan collapsed under the 20-years return period discharge, which means the probability of dike failure is much higher than that of overtopping. We installed the dike monitoring system on the Chiu-She Dike which located on the middle stream of Dajia River, Taiwan. The system includes: (1) vertical distributed pore water pressure sensors in front of and behind the dike; (2) Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) to measure the displacement of dike; (3) wireless floating device to measure the scouring depth at the toe of dike; and (4) water level gauge. The monitoring system recorded the variation of pore pressure inside the Chiu-She Dike and the scouring depth during Typhoon Megi. The recorded data showed that the highest groundwater level insides the dike occurred 15 hours after the peak discharge. We developed a framework which accounts for the uncertainties from return period discharge, Manning's n, scouring depth, soil cohesion, and friction angle and enables the determination of dike failure probabilities for various failure modes such as overtopping, surface erosion, mass failure, toe sliding and overturning. The framework was applied to Chiu-She, Feng-Chou, and Ke-Chuang Dikes on Dajia River. The results indicate that the toe sliding or overturning has the highest probability than other failure modes. Furthermore, the overall failure probability (integrate different failure modes) reaches 50% under 10-years return period flood which agrees with the historical failure data for the study reaches.

  10. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.


    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (high f values (most ≤ 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess of 200 watts per square meter (W/m2); and (vi) downstream convergence of hydraulic geometry exponents for bankfull and macrochannels, explained by co-increases of flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively

  11. 33 CFR 117.1087 - Fox River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fox River. 117.1087 Section 117.1087 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1087 Fox River. (a) The draws of the Canadian...

  12. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12 bridge...

  13. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers (SR...

  14. 33 CFR 117.457 - Houston River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houston River. 117.457 Section 117.457 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.457 Houston River. The draw of the...

  15. 33 CFR 117.925 - Cooper River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.925 Section 117.925 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.925 Cooper River. The draw of the Seaboard...

  16. 33 CFR 117.713 - Cooper River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.713 Section 117.713 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.713 Cooper River. (a) The drawspans for the...

  17. 33 CFR 117.1095 - Root River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Root River. 117.1095 Section 117.1095 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1095 Root River. (a) The draw of the Main Street...

  18. Philosophy of river problems: local to regional, static to mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, L.


    According to the statistics, thirteen of the twenty-five major river basins in Europe are basins of transboundary rivers. The Danube river basin is largest transboundary river basin in Europe. Almost in each case the local and regional problems arise, like division of fishing rights (or rights on river beds), right to claim tolls on navigation, how to adjust boundaries if the channel moves, or rights to claim duty on crossing the river, or to build bridges, weirs, etc. All the above problems on a larger scale include also rights of non-contiguous lands (i.e. not fronting on the river) to use the river for navigation, for passage of migrating fish, to exploit river (e.g. bed sediments) without damage by one country or society to another below. Similarly, pollution and large-scale removal of water, are problems on regional or national levels. Disputes usually arise from the above, more or less exacerbated by their superimposition or other non-river problems, e.g. religion, politics, historical issues, recent aggression, relative prosperity, expanding economy vs. contrasting economy. May be cause or consequence of many of these. And somewhere here is likely the case of Gabcikovo on Danube between Slovakia and Hungary, as well. (author)

  19. Interplay between spatially explicit sediment sourcing, hierarchical river-network structure, and in-channel bed material sediment transport and storage dynamics (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Gran, Karen B.; Belmont, Patrick; Wilcock, Peter R.


    Understanding how sediment moves along source to sink pathways through watersheds—from hillslopes to channels and in and out of floodplains—is a fundamental problem in geomorphology. We contribute to advancing this understanding by modeling the transport and in-channel storage dynamics of bed material sediment on a river network over a 600 year time period. Specifically, we present spatiotemporal changes in bed sediment thickness along an entire river network to elucidate how river networks organize and process sediment supply. We apply our model to sand transport in the agricultural Greater Blue Earth River Basin in Minnesota. By casting the arrival of sediment to links of the network as a Poisson process, we derive analytically (under supply-limited conditions) the time-averaged probability distribution function of bed sediment thickness for each link of the river network for any spatial distribution of inputs. Under transport-limited conditions, the analytical assumptions of the Poisson arrival process are violated (due to in-channel storage dynamics) where we find large fluctuations and periodicity in the time series of bed sediment thickness. The time series of bed sediment thickness is the result of dynamics on a network in propagating, altering, and amalgamating sediment inputs in sometimes unexpected ways. One key insight gleaned from the model is that there can be a small fraction of reaches with relatively low-transport capacity within a nonequilibrium river network acting as "bottlenecks" that control sediment to downstream reaches, whereby fluctuations in bed elevation can dissociate from signals in sediment supply.

  20. Turbulent flow structure at a discordant river confluence: Asymmetric jet dynamics with implications for channel morphology (United States)

    Sukhodolov, Alexander N.; Krick, Julian; Sukhodolova, Tatiana A.; Cheng, Zhengyang; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Constantinescu, George S.


    Only a handful of field studies have examined turbulent flow structure at discordant confluences; the dynamics of flow at such confluences have mainly been examined in the laboratory. This paper reports results of a field-based investigation of turbulent flow structure at a discordant river confluence. These results support the hypothesis that flow at a discordant alluvial confluence with a velocity ratio greater than 2 exhibits jet-like characteristics. Scaling analysis shows that the dynamics of the jet core are quite similar to those of free jets but that the complex structure of flow at the confluence imposes strong effects that can locally suppress or enhance the spreading rate of the jet. This jet-like behavior of the flow has important implications for morphodynamic processes at these types of confluences. The highly energetic core of the jet at this discordant confluence is displaced away from the riverbed, thereby inhibiting scour; however, helical motion develops adjacent to the jet, particularly at high flows, which may promote scour. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the presence or absence of a depositional wedge at the mouth of the tributary can strongly influence detachment of the jet from the bed and the angle of the jet within the confluence.

  1. Channel planform change and detachment of tributary: A study on the Haora and Katakhal Rivers, Tripura, India (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Shreya; Saha, Sushmita; Ghosh, Kapil; Kumar De, Sunil


    The main objective of the paper is to find the probable causes behind the shifting course of the Haora River, one of the major rivers of West Tripura and detachment of one of its major tributaries, the Katakhal River. From a recent satellite image, we observed that the River Haora has changed its course drastically near the confluence. Earlier, it used to take a sharp northward bend to meet with the River Titas immediately after crossing the Indo-Bangladesh border; but presently it is flowing westward to do so. Moreover, the Katakhal River, a right bank tributary of the River Haora, that used to flow through the northern side of the city of Agartala and meet with the River Haora at Bangladesh, is no longer a tributary of the Haora River. Now it is completely detached from the Haora River and meets with the River Titas separately. Spatiotemporal maps have been used to detect the changes. Field investigation, with the help of GPS, has been done in order to find the link between the Haora River and the Katakhal River within the Indian territory. Changing patterns of the Haora and Katakhal River confluences are also analysed, and earlier courses are identified. The shifting trends of both of these two rivers are found along the flanks of the interfluvial area because of microscale tectonic activity, i.e., upliftment of the interfluvial zone.

  2. Comparative effects of oil palm and selective logging on erosion, river channels and water chemistry in Malaysian steeplands (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Nainar, Anand; Nurhidayu, Siti; Higton, Sam; Annammala, Kogilavani; Wall, Katy; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Darling, Isabella


    Oil palm land-use has expanded greatly in recent decades in SE Asia and other parts of the wet tropics, including to steepland areas, where bench-terraced landscaping is involved. Retaining (and sometimes restoring) riparian forest strips and rainforest fragments on the steepest slopes have been adopted as elements of strategies designed to reduce adverse effects on runoff generation, erosion, downstream sedimentation, flooding and pollutional problems - as well as biodiversity and emissions. Results of catchment monitoring, soil erosion and sediment fingerprinting research in oil palm and selectively logged steeplands of eastern Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia are presented. The evidence indicates the greater scale and temporal persistence of effects that oil palm land-use (compared with selective logging) has had on suspended sediment dynamics, soil erosion, downstream sedimentation, channel geometry and dynamics and river pollution. The importance of (1) high densities of roads and tracks and (2) relatively impermeable bench-terraced terrain in enhancing runoff, sediment and nutrient outputs in storm events is stressed. Influences of oil palm management practices including riparian forest strips in increasing or reducing these effects are critically reviewed and ways of increasing the effectiveness of riparian forest strips are proposed. The design and rationale of current projects exploring and testing consequences of existing and proposed improved land management practices are briefly described. The key importance of involvement of people from the oil palm industry (including multinational companies, smallholders and their organizations) and Government bodies that are responsible for land-use policies and land management practices is stressed.

  3. Influence of Partial Dam Removal on Change of Channel Morphology and Physical Habitats: A Case Study of Yu-Sheng River (United States)

    Hao Weng, Chung; Yeh, Chao Hsien


    The rivers in Taiwan have the characteristic of large slope gradient and fast flow velocity caused by rugged terrain. And Taiwan often aces many typhoons which will bring large rainfall in the summer. In early Taiwan, river management was more focus on flood control, flood protection and disaster reduction. In recent years, the rise of ecological conservation awareness for the precious fish species brings spotlight on the Taiwan salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus) which lives in the river section of this study. In order to make sure ecological corridor continuing, dam removal is the frequently discussed measure in recent years and its impact on environmental is also highly concerned. Since the dam removal may causes severe changes to the river channel, the action of dam removal needs careful evaluation. As one of the endangered species, Taiwan salmon is considered a national treasure of Taiwan and it was originally an offshore migration of the Pacific salmon. After the ice age and geographical isolation, it becomes as an unique subspecies of Taiwan and evolved into landlocked salmon. Now the Taiwan salmon habitats only exists in few upstream creeks and the total number of wild Taiwan salmon in 2015 was about 4,300. In order to expand the connectivity of the fish habitats in Chi-Jia-Wan creek basin, several dam removal projects had completed with good results. Therefore, this paper focuses on the dam removal of Yu-Sheng creek dam. In this paper, a digital elevation model (DEM) of about 1 kilometer channel of the Yu-Sheng creek dam is obtained by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Using CCHE2D model, the simulation of dam removal will reveal the impact on channel morphology. After model parameter identification and verification, this study simulated the scenarios of three historical typhoon events with recurrence interval of two years, fifteen years, and three decades under four different patterns of dam removal to identify the the head erosion, flow pattern, and

  4. Ecodesign Navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, M; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    The Ecodesign Navigator is the product of a three-year research project called DEEDS - DEsign for Environment Decision Support. The initial partners were Manchester Metropolitan University, Cranfield University, Engineering 6 Physical Sciences Resaech Council, Electrolux, ICL, and the Industry...

  5. Bi-objective analysis of water-sediment regulation for channel scouring and delta maintenance: A study of the lower Yellow River (United States)

    Kong, D.; Miao, C.; Duan, Q.


    Long-term hydrological data and remotely-sensed satellite images were used to analyze the effects of the water-sediment regulation scheme (WSRS) implemented in the lower Yellow River (LYR), China, between 1983 and 2013. The WSRS aimed to control channel scouring in the LYR and maintain the Yellow River Delta (YRD). Channel erosion in the LYR has primarily depended on the incoming sediment concentration at Xiaolangdi, where the concentration must be lower than approximately 9.17 × 10-3 t m-3 to avoid rising of the riverbed. In 1996, an artificial diversion altered the evolution of the YRD. To maintain delta equilibrium, an average sediment load of about 441 × 106 t year-1 was required before 1996, after which this value decreased to 167 × 106 t year-1. We provide a preliminary estimate of the incoming water and sediment conditions required at the Xiaolangdi station to guarantee both LYR channel scouring and maintenance of the YRD. Our results show that it is feasible to transport sediment originally deposited in the LYR to the river mouth to maintain the delta, which is of great significance for the future management and environmental protection of the LYR.

  6. U.S. Navigated Waterway Mile Marker Locations from USCOE source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [river_mile_markers_USACE_1994 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset representing 10,044 sequential mile positions of navigable inland waterways and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. These data were developed as...

  7. Today's sediment budget of the Rhine River channel, focusing on the Upper Rhine Graben and Rhenish Massif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, Roy M.; Gehres, Nicole; Promny, Markus; Middelkoop, Hans; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Vollmer, Stefan


    The river bed of the Rhine River is subject to severe erosion and sedimentation. Such high geomorphological process rates are unwanted for economical, ecological, and safety reasons. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the geomorphological development of the Rhine River between 1985

  8. Managing the Mississippi River floodplain: Achieving ecological benefits requires more than hydrological connection to the river: Chapter (United States)

    Schramm, Harold; Richardson, William B.; Knights, Brent C.


    Floodplains are vital to the structure and function of river-floodplain ecosystems. Among the many ecological services provided by floodplains are nutrient cycling and seasonal habitats for fish, including spawning, nursery, foraging and wintering habitats. Connections between the river channel and floodplain habitats are essential to realize these ecological services, but spatial and temporal aspects of the connection and contemporary geomorphology must also be considered in restoration efforts. This chapter synthesizes available information to compare floodplain function and needed management strategies in two extensive reaches (upper impounded and lower free-flowing) of the Mississippi River, USA. The upper impounded reach is the 523-km reach from about Minneapolis, Minnesota to Clinton, Iowa. This reach has been impounded and channelized for navigation. Mean annual water-level fluctuation ranges from 1 to 2 m in the navigation pools in this reach. Floodplain environmental conditions that affect nitrogen cycling and fish production vary seasonally and longitudinally within and among navigation pools. Significant issues affecting ecological services include sedimentation, constrained water level fluctuations, island erosion and seasonal hypoxia. The lower free-flowing reach, the 1570-km reach from the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to the Gulf of Mexico, has no dams and average annual fluctuations of 7 m throughout most of the reach. Despite the substantial flood pulse, floodplain inundation is often brief and may not occur annually. Significant issues affecting floodplain ecological function are the short duration and thermal asynchrony of the flood pulse, sedimentation and loss of connection between the river channel and permanent/semi-permanent floodplain water bodies due to channel incision. Needs and strategies for floodplain enhancement to increase ecological services, particularly nitrogen cycling and fish production, differ along the

  9. Assessment of sediment quality in dredged and undredged areas of the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, Michigan USA, using the sediment quality triad (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Giesy, John P.; Kubitz, Jody A.; Verbrugge, David A.; Coon, Thomas G.; Braselton, W. Emmett


    The “sediment quality triad” approach was used to assess the effects of dredging on the sediment quality of a new marina in the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, and to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel. Samples were collected in November of 1993 (10 months after dredging) and characterized by chemical analysis, sediment bioassays, and assessment of benthic invertebrate communities. The three study components indicated little difference in sediment quality at dredged sites in the marina relative to nearby areas in the Trenton Channel, and little change in sediment quality of Trenton Channel sites relative to conditions reported in the mid-1980s. These results suggest that improvement in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel, due to dredging or natural processes, will depend on elimination of sediment “hot spots” and other upstream contaminant sources. Concentrations of chemical contaminants, especially metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, exceeded concentrations associated with effects on biota and were significantly correlated with results of sediment bioassays and characteristics of benthic communities. Laboratory sediment bioassays with Hyalella azteca andChironomus tentans produced better discrimination among sites with differing degrees of contamination than did characterization of benthic communities, which were dominated by oligochaetes at all sites in the marina and the Trenton Channel.

  10. Methow River Studies, Washington: abundance estimates from Beaver Creek and the Chewuch River screw trap, methodology testing in the Whitefish Island side channel, and survival and detection estimates from hatchery fish releases, 2013 (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Fish, Teresa M.; Watson, Grace A.; Connolly, Patrick J.


    2008, focuses on the evaluation of the M2 reach (rkm 66– 80) of the mainstem Methow River prior to restoration actions planned by Reclamation and Yakama Nation. The M2 study was designed to help understand the inter-relationships between stream habitat and the life history of various fish species to explain potential success or limitations in response to restoration actions. To help document changes derived by restoration, two reference reaches (Upper Methow between rkm 85 and 90, and Chewuch River between rkm 4 and 11) were identified based on relative lack of disturbance, proximity to the restoration reach, and relative unconfined geomorphology. A control reach (Lower Methow between rkm 57 and 64, also referred to as “Silver Reach”) was 2 identified based on its similar disturbance as the reference reach, proximity to the restoration reach, and relatively unconfined geomorphology. Products to date include Barber and others (2011), Bellmore (2011), Tibbits and others (2012), Bellmore and others (2013), Benjamin and others (2013), Romine and others (2013b), Bellmore and other (2014), Martens and others (2014), and Martens and Connolly (2014). The third phase of work has been to help with the development and to provide data for modeling efforts. Most of the planned M2 reach restoration is focused on the creation or improvement of offchannel habitat, especially side channels. The pre-restoration portion of this study has been documented by Martens and Connolly (2014). Side channel restoration actions were initiated in 2012 (Whitefish Island side channel, also referred to as SC3; rkm 76) and are planned to continue over the next several years. The Whitefish Island side channel was modified to maintain hydrological connection with the mainstem throughout the year. In addition, several log structures were installed and pools were deepened to create fish habitat. Prior to restoration, this side channel would lose hydrological connection with the mainstem Methow River

  11. Export of materials along a tidal river channel that links a coastal lagoon to the adjacent sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aldeco Ramírez


    Full Text Available Intratidal variability and flux of salt, chlorophyll-a and suspended materials were evaluated in a shallow tropical tidal channel linking a coastal lagoon to the western Gulf of Mexico. Velocity, temperature and conductivity were used to calculate the fluxes. Data were recorded during three tidal velocity cycles (tvc under extreme river discharge conditions. Chlorophyll-a and suspended materials were determined below the surface. In both seasons (dry and rainy, the flow was ebb-dominated and with longer duration than when in flood. Maximum current velocities were 0.30 m s-1 in May (dry season and 0.60 m s-1 in September (rainy season. In the dry season the mean chlorophyll-a export was of 7.56 Kg over tvc while the import was of 3.32 Kg. In the rainy season mean export (47.3 Kg was 6 times greater than the import (7.93 Kg over tvc. Phytoplankton was dominated by organisms of marine origin. The mean of exported, suspended materials in the rainy season (111.3 Kg was 4.6 times greater (859 Kg than that in the dry season (184.7 Kg over tvc. Tidal velocity asymmetry is an effective mechanism of exportation, introducing relatively warm and saltier water into the river through the tidal channel.A variabilidade intramaré, o fluxo de salinidade, a clorofila-a e material em suspensão foram avaliados em um canal superficial de maré tropical em uma lagoa costeira ao oeste do Golfo do México. Os dados de velocidade, temperatura e condutividade foram usados para cálculo dos fluxos durante três ciclos de velocidades das marés (tvc sob condições extremas de descarga. A Clorofila-a e material em suspensão foram determinados abaixo em subsuperfície. Em ambas as estações (seca e chuvosa, o fluxo dominante foi durante o refluxo e com duração maior durante o fluxo de entrada. A máxima velocidade encontrada foi 0.30 m s-1 em maio (estação seca e 0.60 m s-1 em setembro (estação chuvosa. Durante a época seca foram exportadas 7.56 Kg de clorofila

  12. Sedimentation rates measurements in former channels of the upper Rhône river using Chernobyl 137Cs and 134Cs as tracers. (United States)

    Rostan, J C; Juget, J; Brun, A M


    Former river channels are aquatic ecosystems with a different geomorphology generated by fluvial dynamics more or less linked to the main channel. They present different ecological successions to become terrestrial ecosystems and are thus supposed to have different sedimentation rates. The aim of this paper is to assess this sedimentation rate using radioactive tracer methodology commonly used in lake studies. Chernobyl impacts, expressed in 137Cs concentration and 137Cs/134Cs ratio, were determined in sediment cores. Sites (21) were sampled in the alluvial plain of the Upper Rhône River from 1989 to 1994. The contamination presented a high spatial heterogeneity. The maximum values encountered by site ranged between 34 and 541 Bq/kg of dry matter. The method generally gave good core profiles. Sedimentation rate ranged between 0.14 and 0.70 cm/year for the former meanders and between 0.14 and 2.86 cm/year for the braided channels. The sediment accumulation rates ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 g/cm2 per year and 0.03 to 2.26 g/cm2 per year, respectively. These values are similar to those found for Lake Geneva. The importance of the former channels in relation to the main channel is enhanced by the higher contamination and radionuclides retention. The sediment accumulation rate is related to the organic carbon content in the sediment. A comparison between two former channels with different productivity showed that the the allogenous driven system presents a high organic sediment accumulation rate with a low organic content in the sediment and inversely, a low organic sediment accumulation rate with a high organic carbon content was found for the autogenous drive system.

  13. Effect of climate change on bedforms in the Rhine and consequences for navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitel, Laura; van Os, A.G.; Makaske, B.; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Blom, Astrid


    Navigation on the river Rhine is of great economic importance for the Netherlands. Low river discharges or the presence of river dunes on the bed may restrict the water depth available for navigation. River dunes are bedforms that develop at high discharges, as a result of the interaction between

  14. CHNTRN: a CHaNnel TRaNsport model for simulating sediment and chemical distribution in a stream/river network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.


    This report presents the development of a CHaNnel TRaNsport model for simulating sediment and chemical distribution in a stream/river network. A particular feature of the model is its capability to deal with the network system that may consist of any number of joined and branched streams/rivers of comparable size. The model employs a numerical method - an integrated compartment method (ICM) - which greatly facilitates the setup of the matrix equation for the discrete field approximating the corresponding continuous field. Most of the possible boundary conditions that may be anticipated in real-world problems are considered. These include junctions, prescribed concentration, prescribed dispersive flux, and prescribed total flux. The model is applied to two case studies: (1) a single river and (2) a five-segment river in a watershed. Results indicate that the model can realistically simulate the behavior of the sediment and chemical variations in a stream/river network. 11 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Missouri River Bed Evolution Downstream of Gavins Point Dam (United States)

    Sulaiman, Z. A.; Blum, M. D.; Lephart, G.; Viparelli, E.


    The Missouri River originates in the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and joins the Mississippi River near Saint Louis, Missouri. In the 1900s dam construction and river engineering works, such as river alignment, narrowing and bank protections were performed in the Missouri River basin to control the flood flows, ensure navigation and use the water for agricultural, industrial and municipal needs, for the production of hydroelectric power generation and for recreation. These projects altered the flow and the sediment transport regimes in the river and the exchange of sediment between the river and the adjoining floodplain. Here we focus on the long term effect of dam construction and channel narrowing on the 1200 km long reach of the Missouri River between Gavins Point Dam, Nebraska and South Dakota, and the confluence with the Mississippi River. Field observations show that two downstream migrating waves of channel bed degradation formed in this reach in response to the changes in flow regime, sediment load and channel geometry. We implemented a one dimensional morphodynamic model for large, low slope sand bed rivers, we validated the model at field scale by comparing the numerical results with the available field data and we use the model to 1) predict the magnitude and the migration rate of the waves of degradation at engineering time scales ( 150 years into the future), 2) quantify the changes in the sand load delivered to the Mississippi River, where field observations at Thebes, i.e. downstream of Saint Louis, suggest a decline in the mean annual sand load in the past 50 years, and 3) identify the role of the main tributaries - Little Sioux River, Platte River and Kansas River - on the wave migration speed and the annual sand load in the Missouri River main channel.

  16. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.


    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  17. 33 CFR 165.150 - New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River. (United States)


    ... River, Mill River. 165.150 Section 165.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: The... 303°T to point D at the west bank of the mouth of the Mill River 41°18′05″ N, 72°54′23″ W thence south...

  18. Climatic control of Mississippi River flood hazard amplified by river engineering (United States)

    Munoz, Samuel E.; Giosan, Liviu; Therrell, Matthew D.; Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Shen, Zhixiong; Sullivan, Richard M.; Wiman, Charlotte; O’Donnell, Michelle; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.


    Over the past century, many of the world’s major rivers have been modified for the purposes of flood mitigation, power generation and commercial navigation. Engineering modifications to the Mississippi River system have altered the river’s sediment levels and channel morphology, but the influence of these modifications on flood hazard is debated. Detecting and attributing changes in river discharge is challenging because instrumental streamflow records are often too short to evaluate the range of natural hydrological variability before the establishment of flood mitigation infrastructure. Here we show that multi-decadal trends of flood hazard on the lower Mississippi River are strongly modulated by dynamical modes of climate variability, particularly the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, but that the artificial channelization (confinement to a straightened channel) has greatly amplified flood magnitudes over the past century. Our results, based on a multi-proxy reconstruction of flood frequency and magnitude spanning the past 500 years, reveal that the magnitude of the 100-year flood (a flood with a 1 per cent chance of being exceeded in any year) has increased by 20 per cent over those five centuries, with about 75 per cent of this increase attributed to river engineering. We conclude that the interaction of human alterations to the Mississippi River system with dynamical modes of climate variability has elevated the current flood hazard to levels that are unprecedented within the past five centuries.

  19. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely. Bridges...

  20. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel. The...

  1. Morphodynamics of the Final 500 Kilometers of the Mississippi River (United States)

    Wang, B.; Xu, Y. J.


    Channel dynamics of alluvial rivers in their lower reaches can strongly influence deltaic development. In this study, we analyzed over 6,000 single-beam cross-sectional measurements surveyed in 1992, 2004, and 2013 in the last 500-km reach of the highly engineered Mississippi River, a.k.a. the lowermost Mississippi River (LmMR), starting from the river's Gulf outlet to its avulsion into the Atchafalaya River. We applied Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation to downscale the survey records into 10 x 10 m Digital Elevation Models. We assessed riverbed deformation from bank to bank and quantified georeferenced changes in riverbed sediment volume and mass. We intended to test the hypothesis that the lower reach of a large alluvial river can function as a conduit for sediment transport under the current engineering focus of navigation safety and flood control. Our analysis shows that in the past two decades, nearly 70% of the riverine sand is trapped within the LmMR, and that continuous riverbed aggradation occurred below the Mississippi-Atchafalaya diversion, presenting favorable backwater conditions for avulsion. Backwater effects have mainly controlled riverbed deformation in the LmMR, while flow reduction may have also contributed to channel aggradation in the uppermost and lowermost reaches. The study reveals the considerable complexity of geomorphic responses of a large alluvial river to human interventions, strongly suggesting that future river engineering and management need also to focus on strategies that will improve sediment transport to the downstream river delta.

  2. Feedbacks among Floods, Pioneer Woody Vegetation, and Channel Change in Sand-Bed Rivers: Insights from Field Studies of Controlled Flood Releases and Models (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Shafroth, P. B.; Lightbody, A.; Stella, J. C.; Bywater-Reyes, S.; Kiu, L.; Skorko, K.


    To investigate feedbacks between flow, geomorphic processes, and pioneer riparian vegetation in sand-bed rivers, we are combining field, hydraulic modeling, and laboratory simulations. Field studies have examined the response of woody riparian seedlings and channel morphology to prescribed dam-released floods that have been designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Through monitoring of floods over a 7-year period, we have observed temporal and spatial variations in channel response. Floods have produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach with greater sediment supply. We also have observed that as vegetation grows beyond the seedling stage, its stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increases, such that floods of similar sizes but at different times may produce markedly different downstream responses as a function of vegetation characteristics. We also observed greater mortality among nonnative Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) seedlings than among native Salix gooddingii (Goodding's willow) seedlings, likely as a result of the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. Combining field observations with modeling predictions of local hydraulics for the flood events we have studied is being used to draw linkages between hydraulics, channel change, and plant response at the patch and bar scale. In addition, mechanistic linkages are being examined using a field-scale laboratory stream channel, where seedlings of Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) and Populus fremontii (cottonwood) were planted and subjected to floods with varying sediment feed rate and plant configurations. The floods conveyed by our model channel were generally insufficient to scour the woody seedlings we planted, but changes in bar size and

  3. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan


    Purpose: This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indicatio...

  4. Responsibility navigator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan; Edler, Jakob; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo; Randles, Sally; Walhout, Bart; Walhout, Bart; Gough, Clair; Lindner, Ralf; Lindner, Ralf; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Randles, Sally; Bedsted, Bjorn; Gorgoni, Guido; Griessler, Erich; Loconto, Allison; Mejlgaard, Niels


    Research and innovation activities need to become more responsive to societal challenges and concerns. The Responsibility Navigator, developed in the Res-AGorA project, supports decision-makers to govern such activities towards more conscious responsibility. What is considered “responsible” will

  5. Cislunar navigation (United States)

    Cesarone, R. J.; Burke, J. D.; Hastrup, R. C.; Lo, M. W.


    In the future, navigation and communication in Earth-Moon space and on the Moon will differ from past practice due to evolving technology and new requirements. Here we describe likely requirements, discuss options for meeting them, and advocate steps that can be taken now to begin building the navcom systems needed in coming years for exploring and using the moon.

  6. River-Based Experiential Learning: the Bear River Fellows Program (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Shirley, B.; Roark, M. F.


    The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Outdoor Recreation, and Parks and Recreation programs at Utah State University (USU) have partnered to offer a new, unique river-based experiential learning opportunity for undergraduates called the Bear River Fellows Program. The program allows incoming freshmen Fellows to experience a river first hand during a 5-day/4-night river trip on the nearby Bear River two weeks before the start of their first Fall semester. As part of the program, Fellows will navigate the Bear River in canoes, camp along the banks, interact with local water and environmental managers, collect channel cross section, stream flow, vegetation cover, and topological complexity data, meet other incoming freshmen, interact with faculty and graduate students, develop boating and leadership skills, problem solve, and participate as full members of the trip team. Subsequently, Fellows will get paid as undergraduate researchers during their Fall and Spring Freshman semesters to analyze, synthesize, and present the field data they collect. The program is a collaborative effort between two USU academic units and the (non-academic) division of Student Services and supports a larger National Science Foundation funded environmental modelling and management project for the lower Bear River, Utah watershed. We have advertised the program via Facebook and emails to incoming USU freshmen, received 35 applications (60% women), and accepted 5 Fellows into the program (3 female and 2 male). The river trip departs August 14, 2012. The poster will overview the Bear River Fellows Program and present qualitative and preliminary outcomes emerging from the trip and Fellows' work through the Fall semester with the field data they collect. We will also undertake more rigorous and longer longitudinal quantitative evaluation of Program outcomes (for example, in problem-solving and leadership) both in Spring 2013 and in subsequent 2013 and 2014 offerings of the

  7. The effect of wet-dry weathering on the rate of bedrock river channel erosion by saltating gravel (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Satomi; Nelson, Jonathan M.


    Previous work has shown that the bedrock erosion rate E because of collisions of saltating bedload can be expressed by E = βqb(1-Pc), where qb is the sediment transport rate, Pc is the extent of alluvial cover, and β is the abrasion coefficient. However, the dependence of the abrasion coefficient on the physical characteristics of the bedrock material is poorly known, and in particular, the effects of wet-dry weathering on the saltation-abrasion bedrock incision has not been specifically characterized. Observation suggests that the typical wet-dry cycling of exposed bedrock in river beds gives rise to cracks and voids that are likely to alter the incision rate of the material when subjected to impacts of moving sediment. In this study, flume experiments are performed to develop an understanding of how wet-dry cycling affects the rock tensile strength and the bedrock erosion rate. To represent the physical effects of weathering, boring cores taken from natural bedrock channel are exposed to artificial wet-dry cycles. The experimental results suggest the following: (1) the abrasion coefficient for fresh bedrock is estimated by β = 1.0 × 10− 4σT− 2(d/ksb)0.5, where σT is the tensile strength, d is the diameter of colliding gravel, and ksb is the hydraulic roughness height of bedrock; (2) the tensile strength of the bedrock decreases exponentially as a result of repeated wet-dry cycles, σT/σT0 = exp (-CTNWa0/σT0), where σT0 is the initial tensile strength, Wa0 is the initial normalized rate of water absorption., N is the number of wet-dry cycles, and CT is a constant; (3) the erosion rate of fresh bedrock depends on the inverse of the square of tensile strength, but the erosion rate of weathered bedrock depends on the − 1.5 power of tensile strength.

  8. 75 FR 48564 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 3 and 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0351] RIN 1625-ZA25 Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Columbia River, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule makes non-substantive...

  9. 75 FR 50884 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector... (United States)


    ... 3 and 165 to reflect changes in Coast Guard internal organizational structure. Sector Portland and... 1625-ZA25 Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector... Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Columbia River.'' 2. On page 48564...

  10. 76 FR 27337 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2010-1116] Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety...: The Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee postponed its originally scheduled February... Houston Ship Channel, and various other navigation safety matters in the Galveston Bay area. The meeting...

  11. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw of...

  12. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.


    The 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake caused a massive landslide (Madison Slide) that dammed the Madison River and formed Earthquake Lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers excavated a spillway through the Madison Slide to permit outflow from Earthquake Lake. In June 1970, high streamflows on the Madison River severely eroded the spillway channel and damaged the roadway embankment along U.S. Highway 287 downstream from the Madison Slide. Investigations undertaken following the 1970 flood events concluded that substantial erosion through and downstream from the spillway could be expected for streamflows greater than 3,500 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Accordingly, the owners of Hebgen Dam, upstream from Earthquake Lake, have tried to manage releases from Hebgen Lake to prevent streamflows from exceeding 3,500 ft3/s measured at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station 0638800 Madison River at Kirby Ranch, near Cameron, Montana. Management of flow releases from Hebgen Lake to avoid exceeding the threshold streamflow at USGS gaging station 06038800 is difficult, and has been questioned for two reasons. First, no road damage was reported downstream from the Earthquake Lake outlet in 1993, 1996, and 1997 when streamflows exceeded the 3,500-ft3/s threshold. Second, the 3,500-ft3/s threshold generally precludes releases of higher flows that could be beneficial to the blue-ribbon trout fishery downstream in the Madison River. In response to concerns about minimizing streamflow downstream from Earthquake Lake and the possible armoring of the spillway, the USGS, in cooperation with the Madison River Fisheries Technical Advisory Committee (MADTAC; Bureau of Land Management; Montana Department of Environmental Quality; Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks; PPL-Montana; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service - Gallatin National Forest; and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), conducted a study to determine movement of the Madison River channel downstream from Earthquake Lake

  13. Analysis of in situ water velocity distributions in the lowland river floodplain covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats - a case study of the bypass channel of Warta River (Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laks Ireneusz


    Full Text Available The analysis of in situ measurements of velocity distribution in the floodplain of the lowland river has been carried out. The survey area was located on a bypass channel of the Warta River (West of Poland which is filled with water only in case of flood waves. The floodplain is covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats. The velocity measurements were performed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP in a cross-section with a bed reinforced with concrete slabs. The measured velocities have reflected the differentiated impact of various vegetation types on the loss of water flow energy. The statistical analyses have proven a relationship between the local velocities and the type of plant communities.

  14. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River...

  15. 33 CFR 80.501 - Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 80.501 Section 80.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.501 Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ...

  16. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair River...

  17. A new flooding correlation development and its critical heat flux predictions under low air-water flow conditions in Savannah River Site assembly channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.


    The upper limit to countercurrent flow, namely, flooding, is important to analyze the reactor coolability during an emergency cooling system (ECS) phase as a result of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) such as a double-ended guillotine break in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor system. During normal operation, the reactor coolant system utilizes downward flow through concentric heated tubes with ribs, which subdivided each annular channel into four subchannels. In this paper, a new flooding correlation has been developed based on the analytical models and literature data for adiabatic, steady-state, one-dimensional, air-water flow to predict flooding phenomenon in the SRS reactor assembly channel, which may have a counter-current air-water flow pattern during the ECS phase. In addition, the correlation was benchmarked against the experimental data conducted under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory multislit channel, which is close to the SRS assembly geometry. Furthermore, the correlation has also been used as a constitutive relationship in a new two-component two-phase thermal-hydraulics code FLOWTRAN-TF, which has been developed for a detailed analysis of SRS reactor assembly behavior during LOCA scenarios. Finally, the flooding correlation was applied to the predictions of critical heat flux, and the results were compared with the data taken by the SRS heat transfer laboratory under a single annular channel with ribs and a multiannular prototypic test rig

  18. Legacy sediment, lead, and zinc storage in channel and floodplain deposits of the Big River, Old Lead Belt Mining District, Missouri, USA (United States)

    Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Lecce, Scott A.; Owen, Marc R.; Martin, Derek J.


    The Old Lead Belt of southeastern Missouri was one of the leading producers of Pb ore for more than a century (1869-1972). Large quantities of contaminated mine waste have been, and continue to be, supplied to local streams. This study assessed the magnitude and spatial distribution of mining-contaminated legacy sediment stored in channel and floodplain deposits of the Big River in the Ozark Highlands of southeastern Missouri. Although metal concentrations decline downstream from the mine sources, the channel and floodplain sediments are contaminated above background levels with Pb and Zn along its entire 171-km length below the mine sources. Mean concentrations in floodplain cores > 2000 mg kg- 1 for Pb and > 1000 mg kg- 1 for Zn extend 40-50 km downstream from the mining area in association with the supply of fine tailings particles that were easily dispersed downstream in the suspended load. Mean concentrations in channel bed and bar sediments ranging from 1400 to 1700 mg kg- 1 for Pb extend 30 km below the mines, while Zn concentrations of 1000-3000 mg kg- 1 extend 20 km downstream. Coarse dolomite fragments in the 2-16 mm channel sediment fraction provide significant storage of Pb and Zn, representing 13-20% of the bulk sediment storage mass in the channel and can contain concentrations of > 4000 mg kg- 1 for Pb and > 1000 mg kg- 1 for Zn. These coarse tailings have been transported a maximum distance of only about 30 km from the source over a period of 120 years for an average of about 250 m/y. About 37% of the Pb and 9% of the Zn that was originally released to the watershed in tailings wastes is still stored in the Big River. A total of 157 million Mg of contaminated sediment is stored along the Big River, with 92% of it located in floodplain deposits that are typically contaminated to depths of 1.5-3.5 m. These contaminated sediments store a total of 188,549 Mg of Pb and 34,299 Mg of Zn, of which 98% of the Pb and 95% of the Zn are stored in floodplain

  19. 33 CFR 117.803 - Niagara River. (United States)


    ... Canadian National Railway bridge, mile 33.0 at Buffalo, need not be opened for the passage of vessels. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Niagara River. 117.803 Section 117.803 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES...

  20. 33 CFR 117.423 - Atchafalaya River. (United States)


    ... Kansas City Southern Railway bridge, mile 133.1 (mile 5.0 on N.O.S. Chart) above the mouth of the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atchafalaya River. 117.423 Section 117.423 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES...

  1. 33 CFR 117.825 - Newport River. (United States)


    ... the Atlantic and East Carolina Railway bridge, mile 13.0 at Newport, need not be opened for the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newport River. 117.825 Section 117.825 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES...

  2. 33 CFR 117.923 - Congaree River. (United States)


    ... the Southern Railway bridge, mile 4.3 at Moye's Station, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Congaree River. 117.923 Section 117.923 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES...

  3. Morphodynamics of the Kulsi River Basin in the northern front of Shillong Plateau: Exhibiting episodic inundation and channel migration (United States)

    Imsong, Watinaro; Choudhury, Swapnamita; Phukan, Sarat; Duarah, Bhagawat Pran


    The present study is undertaken in the Kulsi River valley, a tributary of the Brahmaputra River that drains through the tectonically active Shillong Plateau in northeast India. Based on the fluvial geomorphic parameters and Landsat satellite images, it has been observed that the Kulsi River migrated 0.7-2 km westward in its middle course in the past 30 years. Geomorphic parameters such as longitudinal profile analysis, stream length gradient index ( SL), ratio of valley floor width to valley height ( Vf), steepness index (ks) indicate that the upstream segment of the Kulsi River is tectonically more active than the downstream segment which is ascribed to the tectonic activities along the Guwahati Fault. ^{14}C ages obtained from the submerged tree trunks of the Chandubi Lake, which is located in the central part of the Kulsi River catchment suggests inundation (high lake levels) during 160 ± 50 AD, 970 ± 50 AD, 1190 ± 80 AD and 1520 ± 30 AD, respectively. These periods broadly coincide with the late Holocene strengthened Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the early part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). The debris which clogged the course of the river in the vicinity of the Chandubi Lake is attributed to tectonically induced increase in sediment supply during high magnitude flooding events.

  4. Oceanographic data collected from Cathlamet Bay North Channel (USCG day mark green 3) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2000-07-02 to 2016-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0161822) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0161822 contains navigational and physical data collected at Cathlamet Bay North Channel (USCG day mark green 3), a fixed station in the Columbia...

  5. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.


    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  6. Saving Salmon Through Advances in Fluvial Remote Sensing: Applying the Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) for Bathymetric Mapping of Over 250 km of River Channel and Habitat Classification (United States)

    Richardson, R.; Legleiter, C. J.; Harrison, L.


    Salmonids are threatened with extinction across the world from the fragmentation of riverine ecosystems from dams and diversions. In California, efforts to expand the range of spawnable habitat for native salmon by transporting fish around reservoirs is a potentially species saving idea. But, strong scientific evidence of the amount of high quality habitat is required to make these difficult management decisions. Remote sensing has long been used in fluvial settings to identify physical parameters that drive the quality of aquatic habitat; however, the true strength of remote sensing to cover large spatial extents has not been applied with the resolution that is relevant to salmonids. This project utilizes hyperspectral data of over 250 km of the Tuolumne and Merced Rivers to extract depth and bed slope from the wetted channel and NIR LiDAR for the surrounding topography. The Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) has proven as an effective tool to create bathymetric maps of river channels in ideal settings with clear water, high amounts of bottom reflectance, and less than 3 meters deep over short distances. Results from this study show that OBRA can be applied over larger riverscapes at high resolutions (0.5 m). The depth and bed slope estimations are used to classify habitat units that are crucial to quantifying the quality and amount of habitat in these river that once produced large populations of native salmonids. As more managers look to expand habitat for these threatened species the tools developed here will be cost effective over the large extents that salmon migrate to spawn.

  7. 33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco and Burbank is...

  8. Evaluating interception of larval pallid sturgeon on the Lower Missouri River- data acquisition, interpolation, and visualization (United States)

    Bulliner, E. A., IV; Erwin, S. O.; Anderson, B. J.; Wilson, H.; Jacobson, R. B.


    The transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding is an important life-stage transition for many riverine fish larvae. On the Missouri River, U.S., riverine alteration has decreased connectivity between the navigation channel and complex, food-producing and foraging areas on the channel margins, namely shallow side channels and sandbar complexes. A favored hypothesis, the interception hypothesis, for recruitment failure of pallid sturgeon is that drifting larvae are not able to exit the highly engineered navigation channel, and therefore starve. We present work exploring measures of hydraulic connectivity between the navigation channel and channel margins using multiple data-collection protocols with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). As ADCP datasets alone often do not have high enough spatial resolution to characterize interception and connectivity sufficiently at the scale of drifting sturgeon larvae, they are often supplemented with physical and empirical models. Using boat-mounted ADCPs, we collected 3-dimensional current velocities with a variety of driving techniques (specifically, regularly spaced transects, reciprocal transects, and irregular patterns) around areas of potential larval interception. We then used toolkits based in Python to interpolate 3-dimensional velocity fields at spatial scales finer than the original measurements, and visualized resultant velocity vectors and flowlines in the software package Paraview. Using these visualizations, we investigated the necessary resolution of field measurements required to model connectivity with channel margin areas on large, highly engineered river ecosystems such as the Missouri River. We anticipate that results from this work will be used to help inform models of larval interception under current conditions. Furthermore, results from this work will be useful in developing monitoring strategies to evaluate the restoration of channel complexity to support ecological functions.

  9. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.


    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  10. Characterization of channel substrate, and changes in suspended-sediment transport and channel geometry in white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, following the closure of Libby Dam (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.


    Many local, State, and Federal agencies have concerns over the declining population of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River and the possible effects of the closure and subsequent operation of Libby Dam in 1972. In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon was listed as an Endangered Species. A year-long field study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 21.7-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, approximately 111 to 129 kilometers below Libby Dam. During the field study, data were collected in order to map the channel substrate in the white sturgeon spawning reach. These data include seismic subbottom profiles at 18 cross sections of the river and sediment cores taken at or near the seismic cross sections. The effect that Libby Dam has on the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning substrate was analyzed in terms of changes in suspended-sediment transport, aggradation and degradation of channel bed, and changes in the particle size of bed material with depth below the riverbed. The annual suspended-sediment load leaving the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning reach decreased dramatically after the closure of Libby Dam in 1972: mean annual pre-Libby Dam load during 1966–71 was 1,743,900 metric tons, and the dam-era load during 1973–83 was 287,500 metric tons. The amount of sand-size particles in three suspended-sediment samples collected at Copeland, Idaho, 159 kilometers below Libby Dam, during spring and early summer high flows after the closure of Libby Dam is less than in four samples collected during the pre-Libby Dam era. The supply of sand to the spawning reach is currently less due to the reduction of high flows and a loss of 70 percent of the basin after the closure of Libby Dam. The river's reduced capacity to transport sand out of the spawning reach is compensated to an unknown extent by a reduced load of sand entering the

  11. Tracking changes of river morphology in Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar using earth observations and surface water mapping tool (United States)

    Piman, T.; Schellekens, J.; Haag, A.; Donchyts, G.; Apirumanekul, C.; Hlaing, K. T.


    River morphology changes is one of the key issues in Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar which cause impacts on navigation, riverine habitats, agriculture lands, communities and livelihoods near the bank of the river. This study is aimed to track the changes in river morphology in the middle reach of Ayeyarwady River over last 30 years from 1984-2014 to improve understanding of riverbank dynamic, erosion and deposition procress. Earth observations including LandSat-7, LandSat-8, Digital Elevation Model from SRTM Plus and, ASTER-2 GoogleMap and Open Street Map were obtained for the study. GIS and remote sensing tools were used to analyze changes in river morphology while surface water mapping tool was applied to determine how the dynamic behaviour of the surface river and effect of river morphology changes. The tool consists of two components: (1) a Google Earth Engine (GEE) javascript or python application that performs image analysis and (2) a user-friendly site/app using Google's that exposes the application to the users. The results of this study shown that the fluvial morphology in the middle reach of Ayeyarwady River is continuously changing under the influence of high water flows in particularly from extreme flood events and land use change from mining and deforestation. It was observed that some meandering sections of the riverbank were straightened, which results in the movement of sediment downstream and created new sections of meandering riverbank. Several large islands have formed due to the stabilization by vegetation and is enforced by sedimentation while many small bars were formed and migrated dynamically due to changes in water levels and flow velocity in the wet and dry seasons. The main channel was changed to secondary channel in some sections of the river. This results a constant shift of the navigation route. We also found that some villages were facing riverbank erosion which can force villagers to relocate. The study results demonstrated

  12. Effects of Pool Drawdown and Wing Dams (Pool 8), and Closure Damns (Pool 13), on Navigation Channel Sedimentation Processes, Upper Mississippi River

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abraham, David D; Cowan, Mark A; Hendrickson, Jon S; Katzenmeyer, William M; Landwhr, Kevin J; Pratt, Thad C


    ... (upstream of Lock and Dam No. 8) near La Crosse, WI, during the summers of 2001 and 2002. Water levels were allowed to drop below normal minimum values to expose mud flats, promote seed germination, and benefit fish and wildlife...

  13. Drift of ichthyoplankton in two channels of the Paraná River, between Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bialetzki


    Full Text Available Analysis of drift of ichthyoplankton in two channels in the River Paraná, Brazil, were made. Sampling was undertaken from October 1995 to April 1996 during nychthemeral cycles. Water samples were collected to determine several environmental variables. Eggs densities largely differed to layers, times of day and months. In both the channels, highest occurrence of eggs was detected between January and March; greater concentrations at the bottom, during night. With regard to larvae, densities were significantly different in channels, times of days and months. Maximum occurrences were seen in the right channel, in both layers, with largest capture between January and March. Surface of the both channels presented highest density of larvae during night. Water temperature, electrical conductivity and flux velocity were different in the two channels, however, these variables and larvae density didn't showed correlations. This indicates that there was another possible factor, might be influencing the distribution of ichthyoplankton.Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a deriva do ictioplâncton em dois canais com diferentes condições de topografia e velocidade de fluxo, entre os estados do Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul (Brasil. As amostragens foram realizadas no período de outubro de 1995 a abril de 1996, durante ciclos nictemerais. Amostras de água foram coletadas para determinação de algumas variáveis ambientais. A densidade de ovos diferiu significativamente entre os estratos, horários e meses; sendo que em ambos os canais, as maiores ocorrências de ovos foram verificadas entre janeiro e março, com maiores concentrações no fundo durante o período noturno. Com relação as larvas, as densidades diferiram entre os canais, horários e meses. As maiores ocorrências foram observas no canal direito, em ambos estratos, com maior período de captura entre janeiro e março. A superfície dos canais apresentou as maiores densidades de larvas

  14. Hyporheic exchange in mountain rivers II: Effects of channel morphology on mechanics, scales, and rates of exchange (United States)

    John M. Buffington; Daniele Tonina


    We propose that the mechanisms driving hyporheic exchange vary systematically with different channel morphologies and associated fluvial processes that occur in mountain basins, providing a framework for examining physical controls on hyporheic environments and their spatial variation across the landscape. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of hyporheic environments...

  15. Fine sediment transport into the hyperturbid lower Ems River : The role of channel deepening and sediment-induced drag reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Maren, D.S.; Winterwerp, J.C.; Vroom, J.


    Deepening of estuarine tidal channels often leads to tidal amplification and increasing fine sediment import. Increasing fine sediment import, in turn, may lower the hydraulic drag (due to a smoother muddy bed and/or sediment-induced damping of turbulence), and therefore, further strengthen tidal

  16. Reconstruction of the Late Holocene river channel shifts in the North-Eastern part of the Lower Danube Plain based on historical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț-Alexandru CRISTEA


    s floodplain (until the confluence with Buzău it is larger by a couple of kilometers than Danube’s, despite the anastomosed character of the last one. This can indicate a progressive Holocene shift of the Siret’s river course from the Carpathians to the eastern edge of the floodplain or a transformation from a multi-channel to a single channel pattern. The instability was also specific to main tributaries, as is confirmed by the presence of multiple abandoned sinuous courses and relict meander belts in the area. An important shift of the Siret River’s lower course to a more eastern position during medieval times was briefly discussed, for the first time, by Antonovici (1929 based on couple of historical documents. The few questions we will try to answer to in this study are: When was formed the actual configuration of the river network in the study region? What was the impact of the LIA? How relevant can be the analysis of the historical data in the assessment of the river channel shifts?

  17. 33 CFR 117.753 - Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.753 Section 117.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.753 Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the S52 (Ship...

  18. 33 CFR 165.835 - Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. 165.835 Section 165.835 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.835 Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. (a) Definition. As used in...

  19. 33 CFR 110.197 - Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Galveston Harbor, Bolivar Roads Channel, Texas. 110.197 Section 110.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Roads Channel, Texas. (a)(1) Anchorage area (A). The water bounded by a line connecting the following...

  20. Interacting effects of discharge and channel morphology on transport of semibuoyant fish eggs in large, altered river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Worthington

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation and flow regulation are significant factors related to the decline and extinction of freshwater biota. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids require moving water and some length of unfragmented stream to complete their life cycle. However, it is unknown how discharge and habitat features interact at multiple spatial scales to alter the transport of semi-buoyant fish eggs. Our objective was to assess the relationship between downstream drift of semi-buoyant egg surrogates (gellan beads and discharge and habitat complexity. We quantified transport time of a known quantity of beads using 2-3 sampling devices at each of seven locations on the North Canadian and Canadian rivers. Transport time was assessed based on median capture time (time at which 50% of beads were captured and sampling period (time period when 2.5% and 97.5% of beads were captured. Habitat complexity was assessed by calculating width∶depth ratios at each site, and several habitat metrics determined using analyses of aerial photographs. Median time of egg capture was negatively correlated to site discharge. The temporal extent of the sampling period at each site was negatively correlated to both site discharge and habitat-patch dispersion. Our results highlight the role of discharge in driving transport times, but also indicate that higher dispersion of habitat patches relates to increased retention of beads within the river. These results could be used to target restoration activities or prioritize water use to create and maintain habitat complexity within large, fragmented river systems.

  1. Improving Oil Recovery (IOR) with Polymer Flooding in a Heavy-Oil River-Channel Sandstone Reservoir


    Lu, Hongjiang


    Most of the old oil fields in China have reached high water cut stage, in order to meet the booming energy demanding, oil production rate must be kept in the near future with corresponding IOR (Improving Oil Recovery) methods. Z106 oilfield lies in Shengli Oilfields Area at the Yellow River delta. It was put into development in 1988. Since the oil belongs to heavy oil, the oil-water mobility ratio is so unfavourable that water cut increases very quickly. Especially for reservoir Ng21, the san...

  2. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  3. 33 CFR 165.162 - Safety Zone: New York Super Boat Race, Hudson River, New York. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: New York Super Boat Race, Hudson River, New York. 165.162 Section 165.162 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.162 Safety Zone: New York Super Boat Race, Hudson River, New York. (a) Regulated area. The...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1312 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River. 165.1312 Section 165.1312 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1312 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River. (a) Location. The following area...

  5. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  6. 33 CFR 100.102 - Great Connecticut River Raft Race, Middletown, CT. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Connecticut River Raft Race, Middletown, CT. 100.102 Section 100.102 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Raft Race, Middletown, CT. (a) Regulated Area. That section of the Connecticut River between Dart...

  7. 33 CFR 110.179 - Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga. 110.179 Section 110.179 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.179 Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga. (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 110.70a - Northeast River, North East, Md. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast River, North East, Md. 110.70a Section 110.70a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70a Northeast River, North East, Md. The water...

  9. Habits and Habitats of Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River (United States)

    Norwick, R.; Janvrin, J.; Zigler, S.; Kratt, R.


    The Upper Mississippi River consists of 26 navigation pools that provide abundant habitat for a host of natural resources, such as fish, migratory waterfowl, non-game birds, deer, beaver, muskrats, snakes, reptiles, frogs, toads, salamanders, and many others. Of all the many different types of animals that depend on the river, fish are the most diverse with over 140 different species. The sport fishery is very diverse with at least 25 species commonly harvested. Fish species, such as walleyes, largemouth bass, bluegills, and crappies are favorites of sport anglers. Others such as common carp, buffalos, and channel catfish, are harvested by commercial anglers and end up on the tables of families all over the country. Still other fishes are important because they provide food for sport or commercial species. The fishery resources in these waters contribute millions of dollars to the economy annually. Overall, the estimate impact of anglers and other recreational users exceeds $1.2 billion on the Upper Mississippi River. The fisheries in the various reaches of the river of often are adversely affected by pollution, urbanization, non-native fishes, navigation, recreational boating, fishing, dredging, and siltation. However, state and federal agencies expend considerable effort and resources to manage fisheries and restore river habitats. This pamphlet was prepared to help you better understand what fishery resources exist, what the requirements of each pecies are, and how man-induced changes that are roposed or might occur could affect them.

  10. Houston-Galveston Navigation Channel Shoaling Study (United States)


    Roads, which is bordered by Bolivar Peninsula to the northeast and Galveston Island to the southwest (Figure 1). Two jetties approximately 6,900 ft...USACE SWG. In 2008, the USACE SWG, and the Port of Houston tasked a joint venture formed by Turner Collie & Braden, Inc., and Gahagan & Bryant

  11. A survey of benthic sediment contaminants in reaches of the Columbia River Estuary based on channel sedimentation characteristics. (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D; Waite, Ian R; Nilsen, Elena B; Hardiman, Jill M; Elias, Edwin; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Zaugg, Steven D


    While previous studies have documented contaminants in fish, sediments, water, and wildlife, few specifics are known about the spatial distribution of contaminants in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). Our study goal was to characterize sediment contaminant detections and concentrations in reaches of the CRE that were concurrently being sampled to assess contaminants in water, invertebrates, fish, and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs. Our objectives were to develop a survey design based on sedimentation characteristics and then assess whether sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), and contaminant concentrations and detections varied between areas with different sedimentation characteristics. We used a sediment transport model to predict sedimentation characteristics of three 16km river reaches in the CRE. We then compartmentalized the modeled change in bed mass after a two week simulation to define sampling strata with depositional, stable, or erosional conditions. We collected and analyzed bottom sediments to assess whether substrate composition, organic matter composition, and contaminant concentrations and detections varied among strata within and between the reaches. We observed differences in grain size fractions between strata within and between reaches. We found that the fine sediment fraction was positively correlated with TOC. Contaminant concentrations were statistically different between depositional vs. erosional strata for the industrial compounds, personal care products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons class (Indus-PCP-PAH). We also observed significant differences between strata in the number of detections of Indus-PCP-PAH (depositional vs. erosional; stable vs. erosional) and for the flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides class (depositional vs. erosional, depositional vs. stable). When we estimated mean contaminant concentrations by reach, we observed higher contaminant concentrations in the furthest downstream

  12. A survey of benthic sediment contaminants in reaches of the Columbia River Estuary based on channel sedimentation characteristics (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Waite, Ian R.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Elias, Edwin; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Zaugg, Steven D.


    While previous studies have documented contaminants in fish, sediments, water, and wildlife, few specifics are known about the spatial distribution of contaminants in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). Our study goal was to characterize sediment contaminant detections and concentrations in reaches of the CRE that were concurrently being sampled to assess contaminants in water, invertebrates, fish, and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs. Our objectives were to develop a survey design based on sedimentation characteristics and then assess whether sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), and contaminant concentrations and detections varied between areas with different sedimentation characteristics. We used a sediment transport model to predict sedimentation characteristics of three 16 km river reaches in the CRE. We then compartmentalized the modeled change in bed mass after a two week simulation to define sampling strata with depositional, stable, or erosional conditions. We collected and analyzed bottom sediments to assess whether substrate composition, organic matter composition, and contaminant concentrations and detections varied among strata within and between the reaches. We observed differences in grain size fractions between strata within and between reaches. We found that the fine sediment fraction was positively correlated with TOC. Contaminant concentrations were statistically different between depositional vs. erosional strata for the industrial compounds, personal care products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons class (Indus–PCP–PAH). We also observed significant differences between strata in the number of detections of Indus–PCP–PAH (depositional vs. erosional; stable vs. erosional) and for the flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides class (depositional vs. erosional, depositional vs. stable). When we estimated mean contaminant concentrations by reach, we observed higher contaminant concentrations in the furthest

  13. Towards Safe Navigation by Formalizing Navigation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Kreutzmann


    Full Text Available One crucial aspect of safe navigation is to obey all navigation regulations applicable, in particular the collision regulations issued by the International Maritime Organization (IMO Colregs. Therefore, decision support systems for navigation need to respect Colregs and this feature should be verifiably correct. We tackle compliancy of navigation regulations from a perspective of software verification. One common approach is to use formal logic, but it requires to bridge a wide gap between navigation concepts and simple logic. We introduce a novel domain specification language based on a spatio-temporal logic that allows us to overcome this gap. We are able to capture complex navigation concepts in an easily comprehensible representation that can direcly be utilized by various bridge systems and that allows for software verification.

  14. 33 CFR 117.927 - Coosaw River (Whale Branch). (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coosaw River (Whale Branch). 117.927 Section 117.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Whale Branch). The draw of the Seaboard System Railroad bridge, mile 5.3 at Seabrook, and the draw of...

  15. 33 CFR 165.838 - Regulated Navigation Area; New Orleans Area of Responsibility, New Orleans, LA. (United States)


    ... Orleans Area of Responsibility, New Orleans, LA. 165.838 Section 165.838 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.838 Regulated Navigation Area; New Orleans Area of Responsibility, New Orleans, LA... Ponchartrain and to the Mississippi River in New Orleans, LA; (2) The Harvey Canal, between the Lapalco...

  16. 33 CFR 207.440 - St. Marys Falls Canal and Locks, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Marys Falls Canal and Locks... CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.440 St... include all of the natural waters of the St. Marys River on the U.S. side of the International Boundary...

  17. Inland Waters - Navigation Distance Mark - Minnesota River (Non-Navigable) (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A distance mark indicates the distance measured from an origin and consists of a distinct location without special installation, used to serve as a reference along...

  18. Interaction of HPP Regulation Operation and Navigation at Water Structures


    Možiešik, Ľudovít; Cabadaj, Roman; Čepcová, Zuzana


    Significant impact on navigation operation by hydropower plant (HPP) operation is mostly in diversion channels of hydropower plants, when these channels are used for navigation as well. It is caused by sudden changes in flow rate of hydropower plants, which is connected to providing of support services for electric power system. The objective of the research is to determine limits of acceptable hydropower plant operation or propose precautions which enable harmonization of opposing interests ...

  19. Spatial and temporal variation in recruitment and growth of Channel Catfish Alabama bass and Tallapoosa Bass in the Tallapoosa River and associated tributaries (United States)

    Irwin, Elise R.; Goar, Taconya


    Effects of hydrology on growth and hatching success of age-0 black basses and Channel Catfish were examined in regulated and unregulated reaches of the Tallapoosa River, Alabama. Species of the family Centrarchidae, Ictalurus punctatus Channel Catfish and Pylodictis olivaris Flathead Catfish were also collected from multiple tributaries in the basin. Fish were collected from 2010-2014 and were assigned daily ages using otoliths. Hatch dates of individuals of three species (Micropterus henshalli Alabama Bass, M. tallapoosae Tallapoosa Bass and Channel Catfish) were back calculated, and growth histories were estimated every 5 d post hatch from otolith sections using incremental growth analysis. Hatch dates and incremental growth were related to hydrologic and temperature metrics from environmental data collected during the same time periods. Hatch dates at the regulated sites were related to and typically occurred during periods with low and stable flow conditions; however no clear relations between hatch and thermal or flow metrics were evident for the unregulated sites. Some fish hatched during unsuitable thermal conditions at the regulated site suggesting that some fish may recruit from unregulated tributaries. Ages and growth rates of age-0 black basses ranged from 105 to 131 d and 0.53 to 1.33 mm/day at the regulated sites and 44 to 128 d and 0.44 to 0.96 mm/d at the unregulated sites. In general, growth was highest among age-0 fish from the regulated sites, consistent with findings of other studies. Mortality of age-0 to age-1 fish was also variable among years and between sites and with the exception of one year, was lower at regulated sites. Multiple and single regression models of incremental growth versus age, discharge, and temperature metrics were evaluated with Akaike’s Information Criterion (AICc) to assess models that best described growth parameters. Of the models evaluated, the best overall models predicted that daily incremental growth was

  20. 33 CFR 117.591 - Charles River and its tributaries. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charles River and its tributaries... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.591 Charles River and its tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across the Charles River and it's...

  1. Construction of shipping channels in the Detroit River—History and environmental consequences (United States)

    Bennion, David H.; Manny, Bruce A.


    The Detroit River is one of the most biologically diverse areas in the Great Lakes basin. It has been an important international shipping route since the 1820s and is one of the busiest navigation centers in the United States. Historically, it supported one of the most profitable Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) commercial fisheries in the Great Lakes. Since 1874, the lower Detroit River has been systematically and extensively modified, by construction of deepwater channels, to facilitate commercial shipping. Large-scale dredging, disposal of dredge spoils, and construction of water-level compensating works has greatly altered channel morphology and flow dynamics of the river, disrupting ecological function and fishery productivity of the river and influencing Great Lakes water levels. From 1874 to 1968, major construction projects created 96.5 kilometers (60 miles) of shipping channels, removed over 46,200,000 m3 of material, covered 4,050 hectares (40.5 square kilometers) of river bottom with dredge spoils, and built 85 hectares of above-waterline compensating works at a total cost of US$283 million. Interest by industries and government agencies to develop the river further for shipping is high and increasing. Historically, as environmental protection agencies were created, construction impacts on natural resources were increasingly addressed during the planning process and, in some cases, assessments of these impacts greatly altered or halted proposed construction projects. Careful planning of future shipping-channel construction and maintenance projects, including a thorough analysis of the expected environmental impacts, could greatly reduce financial costs and ecological damages as compared to past shipping-channel construction projects.

  2. Evaluating relationships between wild Skeena river sockeye salmon productivity and the abundance of spawning channel enhanced sockeye smolts. (United States)

    Price, Michael H H; Connors, Brendan M


    The enhancement of salmon populations has long been used to increase the abundance of salmon returning to spawn and/or to be captured in fisheries. However, in some instances enhancement can have adverse impacts on adjacent non-enhanced populations. In Canada's Skeena watershed, smolt-to-adult survival of Babine Lake sockeye from 1962-2002 was inversely related to the abundance of sockeye smolts leaving Babine Lake. This relationship has led to the concern that Babine Lake smolt production, which is primarily enhanced by spawning channels, may depress wild Skeena (Babine and non-Babine) sockeye populations as a result of increased competition between wild and enhanced sockeye smolts as they leave their natal lakes and co-migrate to sea. To test this hypothesis we used data on Skeena sockeye populations and oceanographic conditions to statistically examine the relationship between Skeena sockeye productivity (adult salmon produced per spawner) and an index of Babine Lake enhanced smolt abundance while accounting for the potential influence of early marine conditions. While we had relatively high power to detect large effects, we did not find support for the hypothesis that the productivity of wild Skeena sockeye is inversely related to the abundance of enhanced sockeye smolts leaving Babine Lake in a given year. Importantly, life-time productivity of Skeena sockeye is only partially explained by marine survival, and likely is an unreliable measure of the influence of smolt abundance. Limitations to our analyses, which include: (1) the reliance upon adult salmon produced per spawner (rather than per smolt) as an index of marine survival, and (2) incomplete age structure for most of the populations considered, highlight uncertainties that should be addressed if understanding relationships between wild and enhanced sockeye is a priority in the Skeena.

  3. Evaluating relationships between wild Skeena river sockeye salmon productivity and the abundance of spawning channel enhanced sockeye smolts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H H Price

    Full Text Available The enhancement of salmon populations has long been used to increase the abundance of salmon returning to spawn and/or to be captured in fisheries. However, in some instances enhancement can have adverse impacts on adjacent non-enhanced populations. In Canada's Skeena watershed, smolt-to-adult survival of Babine Lake sockeye from 1962-2002 was inversely related to the abundance of sockeye smolts leaving Babine Lake. This relationship has led to the concern that Babine Lake smolt production, which is primarily enhanced by spawning channels, may depress wild Skeena (Babine and non-Babine sockeye populations as a result of increased competition between wild and enhanced sockeye smolts as they leave their natal lakes and co-migrate to sea. To test this hypothesis we used data on Skeena sockeye populations and oceanographic conditions to statistically examine the relationship between Skeena sockeye productivity (adult salmon produced per spawner and an index of Babine Lake enhanced smolt abundance while accounting for the potential influence of early marine conditions. While we had relatively high power to detect large effects, we did not find support for the hypothesis that the productivity of wild Skeena sockeye is inversely related to the abundance of enhanced sockeye smolts leaving Babine Lake in a given year. Importantly, life-time productivity of Skeena sockeye is only partially explained by marine survival, and likely is an unreliable measure of the influence of smolt abundance. Limitations to our analyses, which include: (1 the reliance upon adult salmon produced per spawner (rather than per smolt as an index of marine survival, and (2 incomplete age structure for most of the populations considered, highlight uncertainties that should be addressed if understanding relationships between wild and enhanced sockeye is a priority in the Skeena.

  4. Using a sand wave model for optimal monitoring of navigation depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaapen, Michiel; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Tiessen, Meinard C.H.; van den Berg, J.; Parker, G.; García, M.H.


    In the Euro Channel to Rotterdam Harbor, sand waves reduce the navigable depth to an unacceptable level. To avoid the risk of grounding, the navigation depth is monitored and sand waves that reduce the navigation depth unacceptably are dredged. After the dredging, the sand waves slowly regain their

  5. 33 CFR 165.820 - Security Zone; Ohio River Mile, 34.6 to 35.1, Shippingport, Pennsylvania. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Ohio River Mile, 34.6 to 35.1, Shippingport, Pennsylvania. 165.820 Section 165.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.820 Security Zone; Ohio River Mile, 34.6 to 35.1, Shippingport, Pennsylvania. (a...

  6. Climatic and anthropogenic controls on Mississippi River floods: a multi-proxy palaeoflood approach (United States)

    Munoz, S. E.; Therrell, M. D.; Remo, J. W.; Giosan, L.; Donnelly, J. P.


    Over the last century, many of the world's major rivers have been modified for the purposes of flood mitigation, power generation, and commercial navigation. Engineering modifications to the Mississippi River system have altered the river's sediment budget and channel morphology, but the influence of these modifications on flood risk is debated. Detecting and attributing changes in river discharge is challenging because instrumental streamflow records are often too short to evaluate the range of natural hydrological variability prior to the establishment of flood mitigation infrastructure. Here we show that multi-decadal trends of flood risk on the lower Mississippi River are strongly modulated by dynamical modes of climate variability, particularly the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), but that artificial channelization has greatly amplified flood magnitudes over the last century. Our results, based on a multi-proxy reconstruction of flood frequency and magnitude spanning the last five hundred years that combines sedimentary, tree-ring, and instrumental records, reveal that the magnitude of the 100-year flood has increased by 20% over the period of record, with 75% of this increase attributed to river engineering. We conclude that the interaction of human alterations to the Mississippi River system with dynamical modes of climate variability has elevated the current flood risk to levels that are unprecedented within the last five centuries.

  7. Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities. (United States)

    Fredette, Thomas J; Foran, Christy M; Brasfield, Sandra M; Suedel, Burton C


    Navigation infrastructure such as channels, jetties, river training structures, and lock-and-dam facilities are primary components of a safe and efficient water transportation system. Planning for such infrastructure has until recently involved efforts to minimize impacts on the environment through a standardized environmental assessment process. More recently, consistent with environmental sustainability concepts, planners have begun to consider how such projects can also be constructed with environmental enhancements. This study examined the existing institutional conditions within the US Army Corps of Engineers and cooperating federal agencies relative to incorporating environmental enhancements into navigation infrastructure projects. The study sought to (1) investigate institutional attitudes towards the environmental enhancement of navigation infrastructure (EENI) concept, (2) identify potential impediments to implementation and solutions to such impediments, (3) identify existing navigation projects designed with the express intent of enhancing environmental benefit in addition to the primary project purpose, (4) identify innovative ideas for increasing environmental benefits for navigation projects, (5) identify needs for additional technical information or research, and (6) identify laws, regulations, and policies that both support and hinder such design features. The principal investigation tool was an Internet-based survey with 53 questions. The survey captured a wide range of perspectives on the EENI concept including ideas, concerns, research needs, and relevant laws and policies. Study recommendations included further promotion of the concept of EENI to planners and designers, documentation of existing projects, initiation of pilot studies on some of the innovative ideas provided through the survey, and development of national goals and interagency agreements to facilitate implementation. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  8. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J


    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  9. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana River...

  10. The investigation of sediment processes in rivers by means of the Acoustic Doppler Profiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guerrero


    Full Text Available The measurement of sediment processes at the scale of a river cross-section is desirable for the evaluation of many issues related to river hydro-morphodynamics, such as the calibration and validation of numerical models for predicting the climate change impacts on water resources and efforts of maintenance of the navigation channel and other hydraulic works. Suspended- and bed-load have traditionally been measured by cumbersome techniques that are difficult to apply in large rivers. The acoustics for the investigation of small-scale sedimentological processes gained acceptance in the marine community because of its ability to simultaneously profile sediment concentration and size distribution, non-intrusively, and with high temporal and spatial resolution. The application of these methods in true riverine case studies presents additional difficulties, mainly related to water depths and stream currents that limit sound propagation into water and challenge the instruments deployment, especially during floods. This article introduces the motivations for using the ADCP for sediment processes investigation other than for flow discharge measurement, summarizes the developed methods and indicates future desirable improvements. In addition, an application on the Po River in Italy is presented, focusing on the calibration of the existing software by means of ADCP recordings. The calibrated model will assist in planning the dredging activities to maintain the navigation channel and the intake of a pump station for irrigation that is periodically obstructed with a sandbar.

  11. Acid Volatile Sulfides (avs) and the Bioavailability of Trace Metals in the Channel of the SÃO Francisco River, Sepetiba Bay - de Janeiro-Brazil (United States)

    Monte, Christiane; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Marinho, Matheus; Quaresma, Tássia; Machado, Wilson


    Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro.The San Francisco channel comes from the Guandu River and empties into Sepetiba Bay and is the main contributor of freshwater to the estuarine system. The Guandu River system/channel of San Francisco receives contribution of domestic and industrial effluents, which go largely to Sepetiba Bay. This work aimed to evaluate the .This work aimed to evaluate the ratio SEM/AVS as a way of predicting bioavailability trace metals from industrial sewage, mainly, in the estuarine system of Sepetiba. This model is based on the property of some Divalent metal cations (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), by presenting a low solubility constant, are removed from the soluble fraction by precipitation, forming secondary metal sulfides. Were held four transects, made up of three points each, the coast line to the center of the Bay. The surface sediment was collected with a van Veen sampler type ,packed in glass jars and kept frozen until analysis.The determination of SEM/AVS followed the methodology described by Allen et al. (1991). The variation between sulfide 159.88 ± 0.05 µmol/g on 12 points. The metals that entered the sum of simultaneous extraction were: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn ranging from: 6.47 ± 0.11 µmol/g on sum.The means (± standard deviation) ratio SEM/AVS per transect were: 1.04 ± 1.20 (transect 1); 0.48 ± 0.53 (transect 2); 1.26 ± 1.32 (transect 3) and 0.18 ± 0.14 (transect 4). Only transects 1 and 3 had higher results than 1 , meaning that there are more divalent metal sulfides in the environment. This means that only the sulfides would not be capable of complex and may reflect the potential bioavailability of these in the aquatic environment. There is no statistical

  12. Evolution Of International Governmental Organisations Concerning Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jura


    Full Text Available The international rivers are water courses that separate or cross the territories of several states and which are navigable up to discharging in the sea. The Congress of Vienna (1815 sets forth certain principles of the regime of navigation on European international rivers and the notion of international rivers. The Conference of Berlin (1885 institutes the freedom of navigation on the rivers Congo and Niger. During the Conference of Barcelona (1921 a convention and a by-law were elaborated concerning the regime of navigable ways of international interest.

  13. Anastomosing Rivers are Disequilibrium Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavooi, E.; Haas, de T.; Kleinhans, M.G.; Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.


    Anastomosing rivers have multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins. Various theories have been proposed to explain this pattern, including an increased discharge conveyance and sediment transport capacity of multiple channels, or, alternatively, a tendency to avulse due to upstream

  14. RiverCare: towards self-sustaining multifunctional rivers (United States)

    Augustijn, Denie; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne


    Rivers are inherently dynamic water systems involving complex interactions among hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. In many deltas around the world lowland rivers are intensively managed to meet objectives like safety, navigation, hydropower and water supply. With the increasing pressure of growing population and climate change it will become even more challenging to reach or maintain these objectives and probably also more demanding from a management point of view. In the meantime there is a growing awareness that rivers are natural systems and that, rather than further regulation works, the dynamic natural processes should be better utilized (or restored) to reach the multifunctional objectives. Currently many integrated river management projects are initiated all over the world, in large rivers as well as streams. Examples of large scale projects in the Netherlands are 'Room for the River' (Rhine), the 'Maaswerken' (Meuse), the Deltaprogramme and projects originating from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). These projects include innovative measures executed never before on this scale and include for example longitudinal training dams, side channels, removal of bank protection, remeandering of streams, dredging/nourishment and floodplain rehabilitation. Although estimates have been made on the effects of these measures for many of the individual projects, the overall effects on the various management objectives remains uncertain, especially if all projects are considered in connection. For all stakeholders with vested interests in the river system it is important to know how that system evolves at intermediate and longer time scales (10 to 100 years) and what the consequences will be for the various river functions. If the total, integrated response of the system can be predicted, the system may be managed in a more effective way, making optimum use of natural processes. In this way, maintenance costs may be reduced, the system remains more natural

  15. Stealthy River Navigation in Jungle Combat Conditions (United States)


    along the Brazil -Colombian border or to repel any aggressive international invading forces, in a defensive posture, the military supply system needs...deployment of large formations. On the north shore a tangled morass of large mangrove swamps slowed overland movement. Monsoon rains of eight or ten...Upon graduation, he will be assigned to the Intendance Department, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil . REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form

  16. Indoor wayfinding and navigation

    CERN Document Server


    Due to the widespread use of navigation systems for wayfinding and navigation in the outdoors, researchers have devoted their efforts in recent years to designing navigation systems that can be used indoors. This book is a comprehensive guide to designing and building indoor wayfinding and navigation systems. It covers all types of feasible sensors (for example, Wi-Fi, A-GPS), discussing the level of accuracy, the types of map data needed, the data sources, and the techniques for providing routes and directions within structures.

  17. 33 CFR 167.405 - Off San Francisco: Main ship channel. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Main ship channel. 167.405 Section 167.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas...

  18. Storm-rhine -simulation Tool For River Management (United States)

    Heun, J. C.; Schotanus, T. D.; de Groen, M. M.; Werner, M.

    The Simulation Tool for River Management (STORM), based on the River Rhine case, aims to provide insight into river and floodplain management, by (1) raising aware- ness of river functions, (2) exploring alternative strategies, (3) showing the links be- tween natural processes, spatial planning, engineering interventions, river functions and stakeholder interests, (4) facilitating the debate between different policy makers and stakeholders from across the basin and (5) enhancing co-operation and mutual un- derstanding. The simulation game is built around the new concepts of SRoom for the & cedil;RiverT, Flood Retention Areas, Resurrection of former River Channels and SLiving & cedil;with the FloodsT. The Game focuses on the Lower and Middle Rhine from the Dutch Delta to Maxau in Germany. Influences from outside the area are included as scenarios for boundary conditions. The heart of the tool is the hydraulic module, which calcu- lates representative high- and low water-levels for different hydrological scenarios and influenced by river engineering measures and physical planning in the floodplains. The water levels are translated in flood risks, navigation potential, nature development and land use opportunities in the floodplain. Players of the Game represent the institutions: National, Regional, Municipal Government and Interest Organisations, with interests in flood protection, navigation, agriculture, urban expansion, mining and nature. Play- ers take typical river and floodplain engineering, physical planning and administrative measures to pursue their interests in specific river functions. The players are linked by institutional arrangements and budgetary constraints. The game particularly aims at middle and higher level staff of local and regional government, water boards and members of interest groups from across the basin, who deal with particular stretches or functions of the river but who need (1) to be better aware of the integrated whole, (2) to

  19. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed


    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  20. Bar dynamics and channel junctions in scale-experiments of estuaries (United States)

    Leuven, J.; Braat, L.; van Dijk, W. M.; Haas, T. D.; Kleinhans, M. G.


    The evolution of channels and bars in estuaries has high socio-economic relevance, with strong implications for navigation, dredging and ecology. However, the spatial and temporal evolution of channels and bars in estuaries is poorly understood. Here, we study feedbacks of bar morphodynamics on widening and narrowing of estuaries. Therefore, we conducted an experiment in a 20 m long and 3 m wide tilting flume (the 'Metronome'), in which we monitored the evolution of a self-formed estuary that developed from an intial straight channel into an irregular planform with multiple channels, braided bars and a meandering ebb channel. At locations where the estuary width is confined, major channel junctions occur, while the zones between the junctions are characterised by high braiding indices, periodically migrating channels and a relatively large estuary width. The junction locations were forced by the in- and outflow locations on the sides of the ebb-tidal delta and at the location where the channel pattern transitions from multiple channels into a single channel. In the middle of the estuary, self-confinement occurred by sedimentation on the sides of the estuary, which caused another major junction. The channel orientation at the junctions steers the morphodynamics of channels and bars immediately landward and seaward, because the orientation of inflow from the ebb-tidal delta and landward river perpetually varies. In natural systems major junction locations are mostly forced by inherited geology or human engineering. However, this study concludes that even without external forcing, the estuary planform will not converge to an ideal shape but will self-confine at major junctions and widens in the adjacent zones, resulting in an irregular planform shape.

  1. Dendrogeochronologic and Anatomic Analysis of Excavated Plains Cottonwoods Determine Overbank Sedimentation Rates and Historical Channel Positions Along the Interior of a Migrating Meander Bend, Powder River, Montana (United States)

    Metzger, T. L.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schook, D. M.; Hasse, T. R.; Affinito, R. A.


    Dendrochronological dating of buried trees precisely determines the germination year and identifies the stratigraphic context of germination for the trees. This recently developed application of dendrochronology provides accurate time-averaged sedimentation rates of overbank deposition along floodplains and can be used to identify burial events. Previous studies have demonstrated that tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) and sandbar willow (Salix exigua) develop anatomical changes within the tree rings (increased vessel size and decreased ring widths) on burial, but observations of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera) are lacking. In September 2016 and June 2017, five buried plains cottonwoods were excavated along a single transect of the interior of a meander bend of the Powder River, Montana. Sediment samples were obtained near each tree for 210Pb and 137Cs dating, which will allow for comparison between dendrochronological and isotopic dating methods. The plains cottonwood samples collected exhibit anatomical changes associated with burial events that are observed in other species. All trees germinated at the boundary between thinly bedded fine sand and mud and coarse sand underlain by sand and gravel, indicating plains cottonwoods germinate on top of point bars prior to overbank deposition. The precise germination age and depth provide elevations and minimum age constraints for the point bar deposits and maximum ages for the overlying sediment, helping constrain past channel positions and overbank deposition rates. Germination years of the excavated trees, estimated from cores taken 1.5 m above ground level, range from 2014 to 1862. Accurate establishment years determined by cross-dating the buried section of the tree can add an additional 10 years to the cored age. The sedimentation rate and accumulation thickness varied with tree age. The germination year, total sediment accumulation, and average sedimentation rate at the five sampled trees is

  2. Using 10Be erosion rates and fluvial channel morphology to constrain fault throw rates in the southwestern Sacramento River Valley, California, USA (United States)

    Cyr, A. J.


    The Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, is a critical region for California water resources, agriculture, and threatened or endangered species. This landscape is affected by an extensive set of levees that enclose artificial islands created for agricultural use. In addition to their importance for sustaining agriculture, this levee system also supports extensive transport and power transmission infrastructure and urban/suburban development. These levees are susceptible to damage from even moderate ground shaking by either a large earthquake on one of the high-activity faults in the nearby San Francisco Bay region, or even a moderate earthquake on one of the low-activity faults in the Delta region itself. However, despite this danger the earthquake hazards in this region are poorly constrained due to our lack of understanding of faults in and near the Delta region. As part of an effort to better constrain the seismic hazard associated with known, but poorly constrained, faults in the region, a geomorphic analysis of the Dunnigan Hills, northwest of Woodland, CA, is being combined with cosmogenic 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates. The Dunnigan Hills are a low-relief (maximum elevation 87 m) landscape generated by fault-bend folding above the west-vergent Sweitzer reverse fault that soles into a blind east-vergent reverse fault. These faults have been imaged by seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity indicates that this system is actively propagating to the east. However, the throw rates on the faults in this system remain unconstrained, despite the potential for significant shaking such as that experienced in the nearby April, 1892 earthquake sequence between Winters and Vacaville, Ca, ~25 km to the south, which has been estimated at magnitude 6.0 or greater. Geomorphic and cosmogenic 10Be analyses from 12 catchments draining the eastern flank of the Dunnigan Hills will be used to infer vertical rock uplift rates to better constrain

  3. Suspended sediment transport trough a large fluvial-tidal channel network (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Morgan-King, Tara L.


    The confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, CA, forms a large network of interconnected channels, referred to as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta). The Delta comprises the transition zone from the fluvial influences of the upstream rivers and tidal influences of San Francisco Bay downstream. Formerly an extensive tidal marsh, the hydrodynamics and geomorphology of Delta have been substantially modified by humans to support agriculture, navigation, and water supply. These modifications, including construction of new channels, diking and draining of tidal wetlands, dredging of navigation channels, and the operation of large pumping facilities for distribution of freshwater from the Delta to other parts of the state, have had a dramatic impact on the physical and ecological processes within the Delta. To better understand the current physical processes, and their linkages to ecological processes, the USGS maintains an extensive network of flow, sediment, and water quality gages in the Delta. Flow gaging is accomplished through use of the index-velocity method, and sediment monitoring uses turbidity as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration. Herein, we present analyses of the transport and dispersal of suspended sediment through the complex network of channels in the Delta. The primary source of sediment to the Delta is the Sacramento River, which delivers pulses of sediment primarily during winter and spring runoff events. Upon reaching the Delta, the sediment pulses move through the fluvial-tidal transition while also encountering numerous channel junctions as the Sacramento River branches into several distributary channels. The monitoring network allows us to track these pulses through the network and document the dominant transport pathways for suspended sediment. Further, the flow gaging allows for an assessment of the relative effects of advection (the fluvial signal) and dispersion (from the tides) on the sediment pulses as they

  4. A Leapfrog Navigation System (United States)

    Opshaug, Guttorm Ringstad

    There are times and places where conventional navigation systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), are unavailable due to anything from temporary signal occultations to lack of navigation system infrastructure altogether. The goal of the Leapfrog Navigation System (LNS) is to provide localized positioning services for such cases. The concept behind leapfrog navigation is to advance a group of navigation units teamwise into an area of interest. In a practical 2-D case, leapfrogging assumes known initial positions of at least two currently stationary navigation units. Two or more mobile units can then start to advance into the area of interest. The positions of the mobiles are constantly being calculated based on cross-range distance measurements to the stationary units, as well as cross-ranges among the mobiles themselves. At some point the mobile units stop, and the stationary units are released to move. This second team of units (now mobile) can then overtake the first team (now stationary) and travel even further towards the common goal of the group. Since there always is one stationary team, the position of any unit can be referenced back to the initial positions. Thus, LNS provides absolute positioning. I developed navigation algorithms needed to solve leapfrog positions based on cross-range measurements. I used statistical tools to predict how position errors would grow as a function of navigation unit geometry, cross-range measurement accuracy and previous position errors. Using this knowledge I predicted that a 4-unit Leapfrog Navigation System using 100 m baselines and 200 m leap distances could travel almost 15 km before accumulating absolute position errors of 10 m (1sigma). Finally, I built a prototype leapfrog navigation system using 4 GPS transceiver ranging units. I placed the 4 units in the vertices a 10m x 10m square, and leapfrogged the group 20 meters forwards, and then back again (40 m total travel). Average horizontal RMS position

  5. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to...

  6. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  7. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  8. 33 CFR 207.60 - Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level. 207.60 Section 207.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., N.Y.; pool level. (a) Whenever the elevation of the pool created by the Federal dam at Troy, N.Y...

  9. Mouth Bar Formation in Yangtze River Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.


    The periodic shifting of the bifurcation point of the North Channel and South Channel of the Yangtze river is very important in the estuary. The North Channel is bifurcated from the South Branch by cutting a channel through the submerged sandbanks. Once a bifurcation channel is formed, the

  10. 33 CFR 117.823 - Cape Fear River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River. 117.823 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.823 Cape Fear River. The draw of the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge, mile 26.8, at Wilmington need not open for the passage of vessel from 8...

  11. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.829 Northeast Cape... the Seaboard System Railroad Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear River, mile 27.0, at Castle Hayne...

  12. Getting Lost Through Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.


    In this presentation, I argued two things. First, that it is navigation that lies at the core of contemporary (3D-) videogames and that its analysis is of utmost importance. Second, that this analysis needs a more rigorous differentiation between specific acts of navigation. Considering the Oxford...... in videogames is a configurational rather than an interpretational one (Eskelinen 2001). Especially in the case of game spaces, navigation appears to be of importance (Wolf 2009; Flynn 2008). Further, it does not only play a crucial role for the games themselves, but also for the experience of the player...

  13. Inertial navigation without accelerometers (United States)

    Boehm, M.

    The Kennedy-Thorndike (1932) experiment points to the feasibility of fiber-optic inertial velocimeters, to which state-of-the-art technology could furnish substantial sensitivity and accuracy improvements. Velocimeters of this type would obviate the use of both gyros and accelerometers, and allow inertial navigation to be conducted together with vehicle attitude control, through the derivation of rotation rates from the ratios of the three possible velocimeter pairs. An inertial navigator and reference system based on this approach would probably have both fewer components and simpler algorithms, due to the obviation of the first level of integration in classic inertial navigators.

  14. A decision support system for real-time management of dissolvedoxygen in the Stockton deep water ship channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Chen, Carl W.; Stringfellow, William T.


    A decision support system(DSS)is under development to assistin the control and management of episodes of dissolved oxygen sag in aDeep Water Ship Channel (DWSC), located in Stockton, California. The DWSCwas formed by excavating the bed of the San Joaquin River in the 1950'sto allow navigation by ocean-going cargo ships to the Port of Stockton.The deepened channel has the effect of increasing hydraulic residencetime by a factor of ten. allowing accumulation of decaying algae andother oxygen demanding substances - which creates a barrier to themigration of anadromous fish. This problem, which manifests itself inlate summer and early autumn, is an impediment to a multimillion dollarhabitat restoration effort for the salmon fishery in the San JoaquinRiver basin (SJRB). A hydrodynamic and water quality model of the Deltaand San Joaquin River forms the basis of the DSS which will provideforecasts of dissolved oxygen sag in the DWSC and provide modelingsupport for management actions such as forced aeration to improvedissolved oxygen concentrations in the Ship Channel. A graphical userinterlace, currently used for displaying flow and salinity forecasts onthe San Joaquin River, is being adapted to allow the display of dissolvedoxygen forecasts and to encourage the formation of a stakeholder-ledentity or institution to adaptively manage the problem.

  15. 75 FR 33690 - Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA (United States)


    ... scenario with potential for loss of life and property. Basis and Purpose The New Hope Chamber of Commerce... to protect life and property operating on the navigable waterways of the Delaware River in New Hope...-AA00 Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA AGENCY: Coast...

  16. Mitigation and enhancement techniques for the Upper Mississippi River system and other large river systems (United States)

    Schnick, Rosalie A.; Morton, John M.; Mochalski, Jeffrey C.; Beall, Jonathan T.


    Extensive information is provided on techniques that can reduce or eliminate the negative impact of man's activities (particularly those related to navigation) on large river systems, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi River. These techniques should help resource managers who are concerned with such river systems to establish sound environmental programs. Discussion of each technique or group of techniques include (1) situation to be mitigated or enhanced; (2) description of technique; (3) impacts on the environment; (4) costs; and (5) evaluation for use on the Upper Mississippi River Systems. The techniques are divided into four primary categories: Bank Stabilization Techniques, Dredging and Disposal of Dredged Material, Fishery Management Techniques, and Wildlife Management Techniques. Because techniques have been grouped by function, rather than by structure, some structures are discussed in several contexts. For example, gabions are discussed for use in revetments, river training structures, and breakwaters. The measures covered under Bank Stabilization Techniques include the use of riprap revetments, other revetments, bulkheads, river training structures, breakwater structures, chemical soil stabilizers, erosion-control mattings, and filter fabrics; the planting of vegetation; the creation of islands; the creation of berms or enrichment of beaches; and the control of water level and boat traffic. The discussions of Dredging and the Disposal of Dredged Material consider dredges, dredging methods, and disposal of dredged material. The following subjects are considered under Fishery Management Techniques: fish attractors; spawning structures; nursery ponds, coves, and marshes; fish screens and barriers; fish passage; water control structures; management of water levels and flows; wing dam modification; side channel modification; aeration techniques; control of nuisance aquatic plants; and manipulated of fish populations. Wildlife Management

  17. 33 CFR 117.213 - New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers. (United States)


    ... Mill Rivers. 117.213 Section 117.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers. The draws of the Tomlinson bridge, mile 0.0, the Ferry Street... bridge, mile 0.4 across Mill River, shall operate as follows: (a) The draws shall open on signal; except...

  18. 33 CFR 334.460 - Cooper River and tributaries at Charleston, SC. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and tributaries at... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.460 Cooper River and tributaries at Charleston, SC. (a) The areas: (1) That portion of the Cooper River beginning on the west shore...

  19. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and Charleston....470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area No. 1 is that portion of the Cooper River beginning near the westerly shore north of Shipyard Creek at...

  20. 33 CFR 165.709 - Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina. (United States)


    ..., Cooper River, South Carolina. 165.709 Section 165.709 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.709 Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina. (a) Regulated area. The Coast Guard is establishing a fixed security zone on all waters of the Cooper River, bank-to-bank and surface...

  1. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. (United States)


    ... Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. 165.708 Section 165.708 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. (a... Cooper River. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (2) All waters within 100 yards of the...

  2. Semiotic resources for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Brian Lystgaard; Lange, Simon Bierring


    This paper describes two typical semiotic resources blind people use when navigating in urban areas. Everyone makes use of a variety of interpretive semiotic resources and senses when navigating. For sighted individuals, this especially involves sight. Blind people, however, must rely on everything...... else than sight, thereby substituting sight with other modalities and distributing the navigational work to other semiotic resources. Based on a large corpus of fieldwork among blind people in Denmark, undertaking observations, interviews, and video recordings of their naturally occurring practices...... of walking and navigating, this paper shows how two prototypical types of semiotic resources function as helpful cognitive extensions: the guide dog and the white cane. This paper takes its theoretical and methodological perspective from EMCA multimodal interaction analysis....

  3. Visual Guided Navigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, Martin


    .... Similarly, the problem of visual navigation is the recovery of an observer's self-motion with respect to the environment from the moving pattern of light reaching the eyes and the complex of extra...

  4. Tinnitus Patient Navigator (United States)

    ... Cure About Us Initiatives News & Events Professional Resources Tinnitus Patient Navigator Want to get started on the ... unique and may require a different treatment workflow. Tinnitus Health-Care Providers If you, or someone you ...

  5. Monitoring of zebra mussels in the Shannon-Boyle navigation, other


    Minchin, D.; Lucy, F.; Sullivan, M.


    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population has been closely monitored in Ireland following its discovery in 1997. The species has spread from lower Lough Derg, where it was first introduced, to most of the navigable areas of the Shannon and other interconnected navigable waters. This study took place in the summers of 2000 and 2001 and investigated the relative abundance and biomass of zebra mussels found in the main navigations of the Shannon and elsewhere in rivers, canals and lakes...

  6. Spatial patterns of aquatic habitat richness in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain, USA (United States)

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.


    Interactions among hydrology and geomorphology create shifting mosaics of aquatic habitat patches in large river floodplains (e.g., main and side channels, floodplain lakes, and shallow backwater areas) and the connectivity among these habitat patches underpins high levels of biotic diversity and productivity. However, the diversity and connectivity among the habitats of most floodplain rivers have been negatively impacted by hydrologic and structural modifications that support commercial navigation and control flooding. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the rate of increase in patch richness (# of types) with increasing scale reflects anthropogenic modifications to habitat diversity and connectivity in a large floodplain river, the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). To do this, we calculated the number of aquatic habitat patch types within neighborhoods surrounding each of the ≈19 million 5-m aquatic pixels of the UMR for multiple neighborhood sizes (1–100 ha). For all of the 87 river-reach focal areas we examined, changes in habitat richness (R) with increasing neighborhood length (L, # pixels) were characterized by a fractal-like power function R = Lz (R2 > 0.92 (P z) measures the rate of increase in habitat richness with neighborhood size and is related to a fractal dimension. Variation in z reflected fundamental changes to spatial patterns of aquatic habitat richness in this river system. With only a few exceptions, z exceeded the river-wide average of 0.18 in focal areas where side channels, contiguous floodplain lakes, and contiguous shallow-water areas exceeded 5%, 5%, and 10% of the floodplain respectively. In contrast, z was always less than 0.18 for focal areas where impounded water exceeded 40% of floodplain area. Our results suggest that rehabilitation efforts that target areas with <5% of the floodplain in side channels, <5% in floodplain lakes, and/or <10% in shallow-water areas could improve habitat diversity across multiple scales in the UMR.

  7. Analysis of the effects of human activities on the hydromorphological evolution channel of the Saint-Maurice River downstream from La Gabelle dam (Quebec, Canada) (United States)

    Vadnais, Marie-Ève; Assani, Ali A.; Landry, Raphaëlle; Leroux, Denis; Gratton, Denis


    During the first half of the twentieth century, many hydroelectric facilities were built in the Saint-Maurice River watershed, followed by other human activities in the second half of the century (pleasure boating, boom dismantling, urbanization, etc.). The goal of the study is to constrain the effects of these various types of human activities, particularly those of the many dams in the watershed, on the hydromorphological evolution of the Saint-Maurice River downstream from the La Gabelle (dam) power plant (43,000 km2). Comparison of specific discharge in this river with streamflow measured in a natural river setting reveals a significant decrease in seasonal maximum flows, aside from winter, when daily maximum flows increased significantly. Also, unlike natural rivers, the long-term trend in spring flows is not characterized by a significant change in mean downstream from the La Gabelle plant. These hydrological changes are linked to the inversion-type management mode of the reservoirs built downstream from the plant. As for the morphological evolution, the longitudinal variability of bankfull width downstream from the plant shows two significant shifts in mean: the first, which was quasi-abrupt, took place downstream of the des Forges rapid; and the second, which was gradual, occurred upstream from the confluence of the Saint-Maurice River with the St. Lawrence River, above the point where the Saint-Maurice splits into two branches. Comparison of aerial photographs taken at various times (1948, 1964, 1975, 1996, and 2008) reveals no significant change in the mean of bankfull width over time. However, a significant increase in the surface area of islets located at the confluence was observed, which is caused by sediment accumulation. These sediments were likely derived from local bank erosion resulting from anthropogenic changes.

  8. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.


    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  9. 33 CFR 117.417 - Ohio River. (United States)


    ....417 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.417 Ohio River. The draw of the Southern Railway railroad bridge, mile 607.4 at New Albany, Indiana, need not be opened for the passage of vessels. [CGD 82...

  10. Characteristics of Phytoplankton Biomass, Primary Production and Community Structure in the Modaomen Channel, Pearl River Estuary, with Special Reference to the Influence of Saltwater Intrusion during Neap and Spring Tides. (United States)

    Zhou, Weihua; Gao, Jie; Liao, Jianzu; Shi, Ronggui; Li, Tao; Guo, Yajuan; Long, Aimin


    In recent decades, increasing frequency and intensity of saltwater intrusion in the Modaomen Channel has threatened the freshwater supply in the surrounding cities of the Pearl River Estuary, and ulteriorly changed the environmental conditions of the estuarine waters. Phytoplankton biomass, primary production (PP) and species composition, as well as hydrological and chemical parameters were examined along a downstream transect in the Modaomen Channel during neap tide (NT) and spring tide (ST), when a strong saltwater intrusion event occurred in late September, 2011. A total of 46 species phytoplankton were identified, including Bacillariophyta (25 species), Dinoflagellate (14 species), Chlorophyta (4 species), Cyanophyta (2 species) and Euglenozoa (1 species). The dominant species were shifted from freshwater diatoms (e.g., Melosira granulata and Melosira granulata var. angustissima) in the upper reaches to saline water diatoms (e.g., Skeletonema costatum and Coscinodiscus sp.) in the river mouth. Generally, phytoplankton density, biomass (chl-a) and PP decreased from the upper to lower reaches along the channel, and were significantly higher in NT than those of ST. There was a shift from large-sized phytoplankton (>20 μm) in the upper reaches to relative small-sized cells (5-20 μm) in the lower reaches. Compared to NT, low discharge and flow velocity, coupled with strong easterly winds during ST specially aggravated saltwater intrusion further to the upstream (~50 km from the estuary). The intruded saltwater diluted nutrients, N/P ratios, chl-a, and phytoplankton abundances, and thereby led to a decline in PP during ST.

  11. Sedimentation rate and lateral migration of tidal channels in the Lagoon of Venice (Northern Italy) (United States)

    Donnici, Sandra; Madricardo, Fantina; Serandrei-Barbero, Rossana


    Tidal channels are crucial for the functioning of highly valuable coastal environments, such as estuaries and lagoons. Their properties, however, are currently less understood than those of river systems. To elucidate their past behaviour, an extensive geophysical investigation was performed to reconstruct the evolution of channels and tidal surfaces in the central part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) over the past 5000 years. Comparing high-spatial-resolution acoustic data and sedimentary facies analyses of 41 cores, 29 of which were radiocarbon dated, revealed the sedimentation rates in different lagoonal environments and allowed the migration of two large meanders to be reconstructed. The average sedimentation rate of the study succession in the different sedimentary environments was 1.27 mm yr-1. The lateral migration rates were 13-23 m/century. This estimate is consistent with the lateral migration rates determined by comparing aerial photographs of recent channels. Comparing the buried channels with historical and current maps showed that, in general, the number of active channels is now reduced. Their morphology was sometimes simplified by artificial interventions. An understanding of the impact of the artificial interventions over time is useful for the management and conservation of tidal environments, particularly for the Lagoon of Venice, where management authorities are currently debating the possible deepening and rectification of large navigation channels.

  12. 33 CFR 207.320 - Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River, Twin City... § 207.320 Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level. In... the Twin City Locks and Dam, Minneapolis, in the interest of navigation, and supersedes rules and...

  13. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (United States)


    ... Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean... part. (2) No person or vessel may enter or navigate within this security zone unless authorized to do...

  14. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension. Volume 4. Appendixes D - F (United States)


    River) Montreal River Serpent River Ontonagon McCurry Lake Outlet Maitland River Douglas Point NOTE: Except for connecting channels, problem areas...loca- ian and white National ted _ cemetery ...... Reister 20 MU 27 George Campau Muskegon Not on the none trading post, National ...... 1833-1835

  15. Research notes : solar powered navigational lighting system demonstration project. (United States)


    ODOT will be installing a solar powered navigational lighting system on the AstoriaMegler Bridge as part of a pilot project approved by the Federal Highways Administration (FHWA). The coastal bridge is the connection across the Columbia River on U.S....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franto Novico


    Full Text Available The public transportation system along the Kapuas River, Central Kalimantan are highly depend on water transportation. Natural condition gives high distribution to the smoothness of the vessel traffic along the Kapuas Murung River. The local government has planned to build specific port for stock pile at the Batanjung which would face with natural phenomena of sedimentation and erosion at a river mouth. Erosion and sedimentation could be predicted not only by field observing but it is also needed hypotheses using software analysis. Hydrodynamics and transport sediment models by Mike 21 HDFM-MT software will be applied to describe the position of sedimentations and erosions at a river mouth. Model is assumed by two different river conditions, wet and dry seasons. Based on two types of conditions the model would also describe the river flow and sediment transport at spring and neap periods. Tidal fluctuations and a river current as field observation data would be verified with the result of model simulations. Based on field observation and simulation results could be known the verification of tidal has an 89.74% correlation while the river current correlation has 43.6%. Moreover, based on the simulation the sediment patterns in flood period have a larger area than ebb period. Furthermore, the erosion patterns dominantly occur during wet and dry season within ebb period. Water depths and sediment patterns should be considered by the vessels that will use the navigation channel at a river mouth.

  17. Navigable windows of the Northwest Passage (United States)

    Liu, Xing-he; Ma, Long; Wang, Jia-yue; Wang, Ye; Wang, Li-na


    Artic sea ice loss trends support a greater potential for Arctic shipping. The information of sea ice conditions is important for utilizing Arctic passages. Based on the shipping routes given by ;Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report;, the navigable windows of these routes and the constituent legs were calculated by using sea ice concentration product data from 2006 to 2015, by which a comprehensive knowledge of the sea ice condition of the Northwest Passage was achieved. The results showed that Route 4 (Lancaster Sound - Barrow Strait - Prince Regent Inlet and Bellot Strait - Franklin Strait - Larsen Sound - Victoria Strait - Queen Maud Gulf - Dease Strait - Coronation Gulf - Dolphin and Union Strait - Amundsen Gulf) had the best navigable expectation, Route 2 (Parry Channel - M'Clure Strait) had the worst, and the critical legs affecting the navigation of Northwest Passage were Viscount Melville Sound, Franklin Strait, Victoria Strait, Bellot Strait, M'Clure Strait and Prince of Wales Strait. The shortest navigable period of the routes of Northwest Passage was up to 69 days. The methods used and the results of the study can help the selection and evaluation of Arctic commercial routes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Azevedo Macedo


    Full Text Available Rivers are immensely important to human activities such as water supply, navigation, energy generation, and agriculture. They are also an important morphodynamic agent of erosion, transport and deposition. Their capacity to transport sediment depends on their hydraulic characteristics and can be predicted by mathematical models. Several mathematical models can be used to compute bed-load transport. Each one is appropriately better for certain conditions. In this paper, we present an application built in Microsoft Excel to compute the bed-load transport in rivers based on the Van Rijn mathematical model. The Van Rijn model is appropriate for rivers transporting sandy sediments in conditions of subcritical flow. Hydraulic parameters such as channel slope, stream power, and Reynolds and Froude numbers can be calculated using the application proposed here. The application was tested in the Paraná River and results from the calculations are consistent with data obtained from fieldwork surveys. The error of the application was only 20%, which shows good agreement of the model with survey values.

  19. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter


    The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks...... that are caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  20. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  1. Navigating ‘riskscapes’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gee, Stephanie; Skovdal, Morten


    This paper draws on interview data to examine how international health care workers navigated risk during the unprecedented Ebola outbreak in West Africa. It identifies the importance of place in risk perception, including how different spatial localities give rise to different feelings of threat...... or safety, some from the construction of physical boundaries, and others mediated through aspects of social relations, such as trust, communication and team dynamics. Referring to these spatial localities as ‘riskscapes’, the paper calls for greater recognition of the role of place in understanding risk...... perception, and how people navigate risk....

  2. Navigating on handheld displays: Dynamic versus Static Keyhole Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehra, S.; Werkhoven, P.; Worring, M.


    Handheld displays leave little space for the visualization and navigation of spatial layouts representing rich information spaces. The most common navigation method for handheld displays is static peephole navigation: The peephole is static and we move the spatial layout behind it (scrolling). A

  3. Improving Canada's Marine Navigation System through e-Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Breton


    The conclusion proposed is that on-going work with key partners and stakeholders can be used as the primary mechanism to identify e-Navigation related innovation and needs, and to prioritize next steps. Moving forward in Canada, implementation of new e-navigation services will continue to be stakeholder driven, and used to drive improvements to Canada's marine navigation system.

  4. Dungeness Crab Dredging Entrainment Studies in the Lower Columbia River, 2002 – 2004: Loss Projections, Salinity Model, and Scenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.


    Dungeness crab studies conducted in 2002 for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) constituted a major step forward in quantifying crab entrainment through statistical projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) and loss to the fishery (LF) from proposed construction and maintenance dredging in the Columbia River navigation channel (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). These studies also examined the influence of bottom salinity on crab abundance and entrainment rates. Additional sampling was conducted in 2004 to tighten loss projections, further develop the crab salinity model, and apply the model to assess correlations of entrainment rates and projected losses with seasonal salinity changes.

  5. 75 FR 27353 - Navigation Safety Advisory Council; Meeting (United States)


    ... meet at the Courtyard by Marriott Washington Capitol Hill/Navy Yard Hotel, Admiral I and II Conference... online docket, USCG-2010-0387, at . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Mike... Installations (OREI) NVIC 02-07 review. (3) Designation of ``narrow channels'' for Inland Navigation Rule 9...

  6. Bank erosion of navigation canals in the western and central Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Wilson, Scott A.


    Erosion of navigation canal banks is a direct cause of land loss, but there has been little quantitative analysis to determine why certain major canals exhibit faster widening rates (indicative of erosion) than others in the coastal zones of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. We hypothesize that navigation canals exhibit varying rates of erosion based on soil properties of the embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region (derived from digital versions of state geologic maps), and the presence or absence of canal bank armaments (that is, rock rip-rap, concrete bulkheads, or other shoreline protection structures). The first objective of this project was to map the shoreline position and substrate along both banks of the navigation canals, which were digitized from 3 different time periods of aerial photography spanning the years of 1978/79 to 2005/06. The second objective was to quantify the erosion rates of the navigation canals in the study area and to determine whether differences in erosion rates are related to embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region, or soil type. To measure changes in shoreline position over time, transects spaced at 50-m (164-ft) intervals were intersected with shorelines from all three time periods, and an annual rate of change was calculated for each transect. Mean annual rates of shoreline change ranged from 1.75 m/year (5.74 ft/year) on the west side of the Atchafalaya River, La., where there was shoreline advancement or canal narrowing, to -3.29 m/year (-10.79 ft/year) on the south side of the Theodore Ship Channel, Ala., where there was shoreline retreat or erosion. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in shoreline retreat rates according to geologic region and marsh vegetation type, and a weak relationship with soil organic content. This information can be used to better estimate future land loss rates associated with navigation canals and to prioritize the location of

  7. Electrophysiological correlates of mental navigation in blind and sighted people. (United States)

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Wood, Guilherme; Kampl, Christiane; Neuper, Christa; Ischebeck, Anja


    The aim of the present study was to investigate functional reorganization of the occipital cortex for a mental navigation task in blind people. Eight completely blind adults and eight sighted matched controls performed a mental navigation task, in which they mentally imagined to walk along familiar routes of their hometown during a multi-channel EEG measurement. A motor imagery task was used as control condition. Furthermore, electrophysiological activation patterns during a resting measurement with open and closed eyes were compared between blind and sighted participants. During the resting measurement with open eyes, no differences in EEG power were observed between groups, whereas sighted participants showed higher alpha (8-12Hz) activity at occipital sites compared to blind participants during an eyes-closed resting condition. During the mental navigation task, blind participants showed a stronger event-related desynchronization in the alpha band over the visual cortex compared to sighted controls indicating a stronger activation in this brain region in the blind. Furthermore, groups showed differences in functional brain connectivity between fronto-central and parietal-occipital brain networks during mental navigation indicating stronger visuo-spatial processing in sighted than in blind people during mental navigation. Differences in electrophysiological parameters between groups were specific for mental navigation since no group differences were observed during motor imagery. These results indicate that in the absence of vision the visual cortex takes over other functions such as spatial navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nautical Navigation Aids (NAVAID) Locations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Structures intended to assist a navigator to determine position or safe course, or to warn of dangers or obstructions to navigation. This dataset includes lights,...

  9. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station Mayport, Florida. (a) The areas. (1) The St. Johns River restricted...

  10. Navigating ECA-Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Hendriksen, Christian

    This report examines the effect that ECA-zone regulation has on the optimal vessel fuel strategies for compliance. The findings of this report are trifold, and this report is coupled with a calculation tool which is released to assist ship-owners in the ECA decision making. The first key insight...... much time their operated vessels navigate the ECA in the future....

  11. Lowland river systems - processes, form and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. L.; Kronvang, B.; Sand-Jensen, K.


    Present day river valleys and rivers are not as dynamic and variable as they used to be. We will here describe the development and characteristics of rivers and their valleys and explain the background to the physical changes in river networks and channel forms from spring to the sea. We seek...... to answer two fundamental questions: How has anthropogenic disturbance of rivers changed the fundamental form and physical processes in river valleys? Can we use our understanding of fl uvial patterns to restore the dynamic nature of channelised rivers and drained fl oodplains in river valleys?...

  12. Channel Classification across Arid West Landscapes in Support of OHW Delineation (United States)


    perspective at Agua Fria River, AZ ...................................................................... 24 Figure 12. Landscape perspective at...27 Figure 16. Active channel at Agua Fria River, AZ...33 Figure 24. Landscape perspective at Agua Fria River, AZ

  13. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative prey fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.; Prendergast, L.A.; Hansel, H.C.


    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983-1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes and smallmouth bass occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn and near midnight. Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length, for walleyes 201-250 mm, for smallmouth bass 176-200 mm, and for channel catfish 401-450 mm. Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April-August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass was about twice that of channel catfish, northern squawfish, and walleyes. However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids

  14. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf


    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  15. Real-time Risk Assessment for Aids to Navigation Using Fuzzy-FSA on Three-Dimensional Simulation System


    Jinbiao Chen; Chaojian Shi; Dongxing Jia


    The risk level of the Aids to Navigation (AtoNs) can reflect the ship navigation safety level in the channel to some extent. In order to appreciate the risk level of the aids to navigation (AtoNs) in a navigation channel and to provide some decision-making suggestions for the AtoNs Maintenance and Management Department, the risk assessment index system of the AtoNs was built considering the advanced experience of IALA. Under the Formal Safety Assessment frame, taking the advantages of the fuz...

  16. 77 FR 22216 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA (United States)


    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... schedule that governs the Tower Drawbridge across the Sacramento River, mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA. The... River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation span provides a vertical clearance of 30 feet...

  17. 78 FR 23489 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA (United States)


    ... Operation Regulation; Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation... operating regulation that governs the Tower Drawbridge across Sacramento River, mile 59.0, at Sacramento, CA... Tower Drawbridge, mile 59.0, over Sacramento River, at Sacramento, CA. The Tower Drawbridge navigation...

  18. 78 FR 24071 - Safety Zone; Pasquotank River; Elizabeth City, NC (United States)


    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pasquotank River; Elizabeth City, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Pasquotank River in Elizabeth City, NC in support of the Fireworks display for the Potato Festival. This... Guard is establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Pasquotank River in Elizabeth City, NC...

  19. 77 FR 63725 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Old River, Orwood, CA (United States)


    ... BNSF Middle River drawbridge as an alternative path for navigation. DATES: The temporary deviation... Operation Regulation; Old River, Orwood CA'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 58491). The temporary deviation... Operation Regulations; Old River, Orwood, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of a...

  20. 77 FR 22530 - Safety Zone; Fireworks, Hudson River, Rhinecliff, NY (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks, Hudson River, Rhinecliff, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... navigable waters of the Hudson River in the vicinity of Rhinecliff, NY for a fireworks display. This... fireworks displays. This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of the Hudson River before...

  1. 33 CFR 207.425 - Calumet River, Ill.; Thomas J. O'Brien Lock and Controlling Works and the use, administration and... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calumet River, Ill.; Thomas J. O... DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.425 Calumet River, Ill.; Thomas J. O'Brien Lock and Controlling Works... paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (b) Lock—(1) Operation. The Thomas J. O'Brien Lock and Dam is part of the...

  2. Hydromorphological conditions of the lower Vistula in the development of navigation and hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Babiński


    Full Text Available The article presents general principles of development of the lower Vistula channel in the Holocene period, with a particular emphasis on the unintentional human interference in the fluvial processes associated with deforestation and cultivation of cereals and root crops. It also characterises the basic hydraulic engineering works in the form of construction of embankments, adjustment of the bed and construction of the Włocławek barrage as factors of deliberate human interference and their impact on channel changes. The article characterises morphological and morphodynamic conditions of the basic bed forms, i.e. sandy and gravel bars and pools determining the possibility of river transport, and its development in time and space (depth of navigable route. Perspectives of multi-directional hydraulic development are presented, including the main cascade developments of the lower Vistula. The article presents the opportunities for a comprehensive use of the waterway, which forms route E40 in the section of the lower Vistula, taking into account sustainable development and compensation in the form of restoration of the valley bottom.

  3. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.


    This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced

  4. Stochastic modelling of river morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vuren, B.G.


    Modern river management has to reconcile a number of functions, such as protection against floods and provision of safe and efficient navigation, floodplain agriculture, ecology and recreation. Knowledge on uncertainty in fluvial processes is important to make this possible, to design effective

  5. Mobile Robot Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian


    the current position to a desired destination. This thesis presents and experimentally validates solutions for road classification, obstacle avoidance and mission execution. The road classification is based on laser scanner measurements and supported at longer ranges by vision. The road classification...... is sufficiently sensitive to separate the road from flat roadsides, and to distinguish asphalt roads from gravelled roads. The vision-based road detection uses a combination of chromaticity and edge detection to outline the traversable part of the road based on a laser scanner classified sample area....... The perception of these two sensors are utilised by a path planner to allow a number of drive modes, and especially the ability to follow road edges are investigated. The navigation mission is controlled by a script language. The navigation script controls route sequencing, junction detection, junction crossing...

  6. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.36 Navigable waters...

  7. Effect of excess pore pressure on the long runout of debris flows over low gradient channels: A case study of the Dongyuege debris flow in Nu River, China (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Kun; Yang, Kui; Tang, Yong-Jun; Tian, Lin; Xu, Ze-Min


    Debris flows with long reaches are one of the major natural hazards to human life and property on alluvial fans, as shown by the debris flow that occurred in the Dongyuege (DYG) Gully in August 18, 2010, and caused 96 deaths. The travel distance and the runout distance of the DYG large-scale tragic debris flow were 11 km and 9 km, respectively. In particular, the runout distance over the low gradient channel (channel slope sediment and water are related to the maximum grain size (MGS), gradation and mineralogy of clay-size particles of the sediment. The layer-lattice silicates in clay particles can be the typical clay minerals, including kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite, and also the unrepresentative clay minerals such as muscovite and chlorite. Moreover, small woody debris can also contribute to the slurrying of sediments and maintenance of debris flows in well vegetated mountainous areas and the boulders suspended in debris flows can elevate excess pore pressure and extend debris-flow mobility. The parameters, including Id, Kp, R and etc., are affected by the intrinsic properties of debris. They, therefore, can reflect the slurrying susceptibility of sediments, and can also be applied to the research on the occurrence mechanisms and risk assessment of other debris flows.

  8. 33 CFR 165.720 - Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns River, Jacksonville, FL. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED... § 165.720 Safety/Security Zone: St. Johns River, Jacksonville, FL. (a) Location. The water and the land...

  9. Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Upper Mississippi River: Observations at Selected Sites Within the 9-Foot Navigation Channel Project for the St. Paul District, United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1977 - 1979. Volume II. Appendices. (United States)


    as caz’nata A J T R H Ligwnia recta L. subrost rat a Carunculina parva Lampsilis terea L. higginsi L. radiata siliquoidea L. ovata ventricosa Plagio ...radiata siZiquc’idea 1 1 0.?2 X L. ovata ventricosa 2 2 0. 3 Plagio Za trique tra X Arcidens con fragosus 2 2 0.3 Lasmiqona camptlcnata L. cost ata L

  10. Fresh-Water Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Upper Mississippi River: Observations at Selected Sites within the 9-Foot Channel Navigation Project on Behalf of the U.S. Army. (United States)


    Deertoe Ohovaria olivaria *Hjckorynut Glassback Eggshell Long ’Solid Actinonaias carinata *Mucket Mouket Mougat A. elipsiformie *Ellipse Liqumia recta...Catservatuls end Iited States Nepartmet of Agriculture, Soil Ctsraemtioa Service, Jeferson City* Missourl. Pp. I-ISO. Seshoala, A. V. 1941. Tapoles as

  11. River meander modeling of the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.; Boldt, Justin A.


    Natural river channels continually evolve and change shape over time. As a result, channel evolution or migration can cause problems for bridge structures that are fixed in the flood plain. A once-stable bridge structure that was uninfluenced by a river’s shape could be encroached upon by a migrating river channel. The potential effect of the actively meandering Wabash River on the Interstate 64 Bridge at the border with Indiana near Grayville, Illinois, was studied using a river migration model called RVR Meander. RVR Meander is a toolbox that can be used to model river channel meander migration with physically based bank erosion methods. This study assesses the Wabash River meandering processes through predictive modeling of natural meandering over the next 100 years, climate change effects through increased river flows, and bank protection measures near the Interstate 64 Bridge.

  12. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (United States)


    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA. 100.T05-0443 Section 100.T05-0443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict.... Bridge located in New Hope, PA, and 400 ft east of the shoreline of New Hope, PA. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  13. 33 CFR 165.515 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (United States)


    ... Cape Fear River to the stern of the Battleship USS NORTH CAROLINA. (b) Definitions. The designated..., Wilmington, North Carolina. 165.515 Section 165.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.515 Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a) Location. The following area is...

  14. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (United States)


    ... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...) in length, carrying persons for the purpose of viewing the fireworks, may take position in an area...

  15. 78 FR 77591 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, NJ (United States)


    ... Operation Regulation; Shark River, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge... governs the bascule span of the Route 71 Bridge across Shark River (South Channel), mile 0.8, at Belmar... motor seals and instrumentation on the bridge. The Route 71 Bridge across Shark River (South Channel...

  16. Optimum swimming pathways of fish spawning migrations in rivers (United States)

    McElroy, Brandon; DeLonay, Aaron; Jacobson, Robert


    Fishes that swim upstream in rivers to spawn must navigate complex fluvial velocity fields to arrive at their ultimate locations. One hypothesis with substantial implications is that fish traverse pathways that minimize their energy expenditure during migration. Here we present the methodological and theoretical developments necessary to test this and similar hypotheses. First, a cost function is derived for upstream migration that relates work done by a fish to swimming drag. The energetic cost scales with the cube of a fish's relative velocity integrated along its path. By normalizing to the energy requirements of holding a position in the slowest waters at the path's origin, a cost function is derived that depends only on the physical environment and not on specifics of individual fish. Then, as an example, we demonstrate the analysis of a migration pathway of a telemetrically tracked pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River (USA). The actual pathway cost is lower than 105 random paths through the surveyed reach and is consistent with the optimization hypothesis. The implication—subject to more extensive validation—is that reproductive success in managed rivers could be increased through manipulation of reservoir releases or channel morphology to increase abundance of lower-cost migration pathways.

  17. Elements of a decision support system for real-time management ofdissolved oxygen in the San Joaquin River deep water ship channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Jacobs, Karl; Chen, Carl W.; Stringfellow, WilliamT.


    A decision support system (DSS) has been designed and will be implemented over the next three years to assist in the control and management of episodes of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in a Deep Water Ship Channel (DWSC), located near Stockton, California. The DSS integrates three information technology functions. The first part is the collection and management of data on flow, pollution loads and water quality. The second part is the simulation model which can forecast the dissolved oxygen sag in the DWSC and determine management actions necessary to improve dissolved oxygen concentrations. The third part is the graphical user interface, which facilitates the computer simulations and posting of the forecasted dissolved oxygen and remedial measures to a stakeholder group for implementations.

  18. The Judicial Regime of Danube Navigation between 1856- 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tănase


    Full Text Available The basics of the judicial regime of Danube navigation, in the moern sens of the term, were inserted in the Peace Treaty in Paris, March 30, 1856, concluded at the end of Crimeea War. This judicial act of international law ended a situation in the area of the large European river where the rules were imposed by the big empires of Austria, Turkey and Russia, according to their interests. The rights and interests of the riverains such as the Romanian states, Serbia, Bulgari etc. were ignored and brutally violated. Until 1919, the European Danube Commission, institution created by the Paris Treaty, has contributed to the modernization of the lower Danube and development of navigation in this sector. This paper aims at clarifying to a certain extent the circumstances of the regulation of navigation during the reference period of time in this naval sector.

  19. Indoor navigation by image recognition (United States)

    Choi, Io Teng; Leong, Chi Chong; Hong, Ka Wo; Pun, Chi-Man


    With the progress of smartphones hardware, it is simple on smartphone using image recognition technique such as face detection. In addition, indoor navigation system development is much slower than outdoor navigation system. Hence, this research proves a usage of image recognition technique for navigation in indoor environment. In this paper, we introduced an indoor navigation application that uses the indoor environment features to locate user's location and a route calculating algorithm to generate an appropriate path for user. The application is implemented on Android smartphone rather than iPhone. Yet, the application design can also be applied on iOS because the design is implemented without using special features only for Android. We found that digital navigation system provides better and clearer location information than paper map. Also, the indoor environment is ideal for Image recognition processing. Hence, the results motivate us to design an indoor navigation system using image recognition.

  20. Application of GIS tools in determining the navigability of waterways (United States)

    Nadolny, Grzegorz; Rabant, Hubert; Szatten, Dawid


    This article presents the results of a research conducted on Lower Noteć river for the application of geographic information system (GIS) tools. The study consisted of longitudinal profile soundings of navigable route combined with statistical analysis of water levels. GIS software - ArcMap v. 10.0 was used to perform analysis of changes in waterway depth depending on hydrological conditions. A mileage of waterway sections was specified depending on whether they met or did not meet classification requirements in accordance with Polish law. The application of spatial data of Lower Noteć river developed for the purpose of the article is presented. Conducted analyses and obtained results demonstrate the importance of GIS tools in inland navigation studies.

  1. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue


    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  2. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian


    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  3. Understanding satellite navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Rajat


    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  4. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the main...

  5. Multitarget Approaches to Robust Navigation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance, stability, and statistical consistency of a vehicle's navigation algorithm are vitally important to the success and safety of its mission....

  6. Advancements in Optical Navigation Capabilities (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Goddard Image Analysis and Navigation Tool (GIANT) is a tool that was developed for the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification,...

  7. A State-Space Model for River Ice Forecasting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Steven


    Each winter ice forms on rivers streams, and navigable waterways, causing many problems through its effects on the operation of hydraulic control structures, locks and dams, hydropower plants, and water intakes...

  8. Inland Waters - Mississippi River Centerline - Headwaters to Gulf Coast (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Mississippi River centerline data derived from USACE navigation sailing line (recommended track) data and on-screen digitized in areas of no data. Data set extends...

  9. Review of Ice-Induced Scour Impacts to Navigation and Structures (United States)


    Channel Responses to River Ice. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering 164:191–217. ———. 2008. Ice Effects on Sediment Transport in Rivers. In...Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Ettema, R., F. Braileanu, and M. Muste. 2000. Method for Estimating Sediment Transport in Ice-Covered Channels ... Sediment Transport in Ice-Covered Channels . International Journal of Sediment Research 301:63–67. ERDC SR-17-3 35 Knack, I. M., A. M. Tuthill

  10. Learning for Autonomous Navigation (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric


    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  11. The vascular flora of a section of the transformed Piwonia River channel - the surrounding ditch on Lake Bikcze (Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland - in relation to habitat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pogorzelec


    Full Text Available In the period 2007-2009, floristic, habitat and physico- chemical analysis was made of the hydraulically improved surrounding ditch of Lake Bikcze in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland. Hemicryptophytes, with a large proportion of geophytes as well as hydrophytes and helophytes, were the main component of the flora of the studied section of the transformed Piwonia River channel. In terms of historical-geographical classification, spontaneophytes were predominant, and apophytes among them, whereas anthropophytes were poorly represented, which was confirmed by the correspondingly high values of the synanthropization and apophytization indices (> 50% as well as the low value of the anthropophytization index (approx. 2%. In the aspect of the range of occurrence, Euro-Siberian and cosmopolitan species were predominant, which are classified in terms of the indicator values as hygrophilous plants, neutral to continentality, living in moderately cool or moderately warm climatic conditions, characterized by a wide range of tolerance to the trophic state index and to soil acidity. An analysis of the values of the basic physico-chemical factors of the stagnant water in the surrounding ditch showed variations in the value of pH, electrolytic conductivity and the value of the concentration of organic and ammonium nitrogen as well as of organic phosphorus and phosphates. In spite of the anthropogenic nature of the studied watercourse, the qualitative and quantitative proportions of the flora species indicated the natural state of the flora based on the native vegetation, characteristic of the study area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Kerch Strait was the main passage between the Azov Sea and the Black Sea.The passage of ships through the strait is hampered by several physical and geographical factors: emerged and submerged morphology, the climatic and hydrological parameters. As a result of the extremely low depths of the strait, for the safety of navigation, authorities have been forced to dredge a canal for passage of the vessels with a medium draft, to make a properly hydrographical develop¬ment of the fairway and of the shores, and to establish a favorable anchoring area etc. Ice, which occurs in winter, makes the navigation very difficult, which takes place in convoys, preceded by ice breakers. Fog, frequent in the transitional seasons, hampered navigation; many accidents happened because of this inconvenience. Most accidents due to weather conditions (fog, wind are specific to smaller vessels, sea-river type, which are sailing in the area and which, due to their construction, are not able to deal with exceptional weather conditions at sea. The existence of surface currents, with the dominant direction north-south, from the Sea of Azov to the Black Sea, affects navigation only around the heads where cau¬ses circular currents. In this case are affected only pleasure boats and low powered vessel. With all these impediments to navigation, the Kerch Strait is an important waterway, especially for the countries bordering the Sea of Azov: Ukraine and the Russian Federation, and also for the countries from the Black Sea basin.

  13. From automatic control of vessels designed to operate in offshore conditions to automatic control of a large barge convoy in a river/channel: lessons learned; Do controle automatico de embarcacoes projetadas para condicoes operacionais de offshore para o controle automatico de um grande comboio de barcacas em um rio/canal: licoes aprendidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, Anselmo Carvalho [Symmetry Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Edson Mesquita do [Marinha do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The waterway transportation sector, despite its problems and bottlenecks, is continually seeking alternatives to improve its operations. With goals of increased efficiency, safety and cost reduction, the sector is modernizing and acquiring new technology. The Dynamic Position control system for a large barge convoy is one of the new technology highlights. This innovation may make development in the Brazilian waterway transportation sector feasible by permitting navigational safety and greater flexibility in transport and distribution not only for mined products but for petroleum and its derivatives. This paper presents the development process of The Dynamic Position control system for a large barge convoy in the Parana-Paraguay River, for Rio Tinto Mining Company. The hydrodynamics effects in a river are quite different than those of the traditional offshore environment. The degree of difficulty involved in solving this problem is highly dependent on a ship's characteristics, which can be analyzed in function of their hydrodynamic coefficients. Model tests in towing tanks were made to adjust the hydrodynamic coefficients and characteristics of the thrusters. The choice of the 'backstepping' control law and observer (state estimator) presented in this paper is a result of these particular conditions. The authors point out the advantage of using this technique, since all the properties of the coefficients of the hull, propeller(s) and thruster(s) have already been tested and tuned and are able to make a reliable set-up that optimizes navigation in restricted waterways. (author)

  14. Passive Imagery Navigation (United States)


    SEASONAL CHANGES Unusually shaped wooded areas in winter. Open country and frozen lakes in winter unless Dry river beds if they contrast with in forested...representation or image chips for correlation matching o Processing Techniques (Indication of threshold settings, and which low-level processing techniques are...2U.9AY O LCHE lCA , OPIO LMSC-D767313 Next, the areas of the first image which were covered by landmarks are blocked out and interesting

  15. The sedimentary record of submarine channel morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, J.


    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the ocean floor and are considered to be the equivalent of rivers on land. These channels are created by turbidity currents, which originate from the continental margins and which can transport sediment for thousands of kilometres into the oceans. The aim of this

  16. Steady turbulent flow in curved rectangular channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.


    After the study of fully developed and developing steady laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectangular wet cross-section (see earlier reports in this series), steady turbulent flow in such channels is investigated as a next step towards a mathematical model of the flow in shallow river

  17. Exploring Controls on Sinuousity, Terraces and River Capture in the Upper Dajia River, Taiwan (United States)

    Belliveau, L. C.; Ouimet, W. B.; Chan, Y. C.; Byrne, T. B.


    Taiwan is one of the most tectonically active regions in the world and is prone to landslides due to steep topography, large earthquakes and frequent typhoons. Landslides often affect and alter the river valleys beneath them, producing knickpoints on longitudinal river profiles, segmenting valleys into mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers and affecting river incision for tens to thousands of years. This study investigates the origin and evolution of complex channel morphologies, terraces and river capture along a 20km stretch of the Upper Da-Jia River in the Heping area of Taiwan. Through GIS analysis and field studies, we explore controls on river channel sinuousity, terrace development and river capture in relation to tectonic and climatic forcing, rock erodibility and landslides. High channel sinuousity is proposed as the result of a coupling between bank erosion and landslides. We discuss three types of landslide-induced meanders and increased sinuousity: (a) depositional-push meanders, (b) failure-zone erosional meanders, and (c) complex-erosional meanders. We also investigate spatial variation in channel morphology (slope, width) and the distribution and heights of river terraces within the Upper Da-Jia watershed associated with periods of widespread valley filling from landslide activity. Examples of river capture provide further evidence of the dynamic interactions between river incision, landslides and associated changes in channel morphology and terrace development within steep rapidly uplift, eroding and evolving mountain belts.

  18. Dynamic Transportation Navigation (United States)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    Miniaturization of computing devices, and advances in wireless communication and sensor technology are some of the forces that are propagating computing from the stationary desktop to the mobile outdoors. Some important classes of new applications that will be enabled by this revolutionary development include intelligent traffic management, location-based services, tourist services, mobile electronic commerce, and digital battlefield. Some existing application classes that will benefit from the development include transportation and air traffic control, weather forecasting, emergency response, mobile resource management, and mobile workforce. Location management, i.e., the management of transient location information, is an enabling technology for all these applications. In this chapter, we present the applications of moving objects management and their functionalities, in particular, the application of dynamic traffic navigation, which is a challenge due to the highly variable traffic state and the requirement of fast, on-line computations.

  19. Sensory bases of navigation. (United States)

    Gould, J L


    Navigating animals need to know both the bearing of their goal (the 'map' step), and how to determine that direction (the 'compass' step). Compasses are typically arranged in hierarchies, with magnetic backup as a last resort when celestial information is unavailable. Magnetic information is often essential to calibrating celestial cues, though, and repeated recalibration between celestial and magnetic compasses is important in many species. Most magnetic compasses are based on magnetite crystals, but others make use of induction or paramagnetic interactions between short-wavelength light and visual pigments. Though odors may be used in some cases, most if not all long-range maps probably depend on magnetite. Magnetitebased map senses are used to measure only latitude in some species, but provide the distance and direction of the goal in others.

  20. Comprehension of Navigation Directions (United States)

    Schneider, Vivian I.; Healy, Alice F.


    In an experiment simulating communication between air traffic controllers and pilots, subjects were given navigation instructions varying in length telling them to move in a space represented by grids on a computer screen. The subjects followed the instructions by clicking on the grids in the locations specified. Half of the subjects read the instructions, and half heard them. Half of the subjects in each modality condition repeated back the instructions before following them,and half did not. Performance was worse for the visual than for the auditory modality on the longer messages. Repetition of the instructions generally depressed performance, especially with the longer messages, which required more output than did the shorter messages, and especially with the visual modality, in which phonological recoding from the visual input to the spoken output was necessary. These results are explained in terms of the degrading effects of output interference on memory for instructions.