Sample records for river basin india

  1. Interlinking feasibility of five river basins of Rajasthan in India

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    Sunil Kumar Vyas


    Annual surplus water of about 1437 MCM in the river Chambal is going waste and ultimately reaches to sea after creating flood situations in various places in India including Rajasthan, while on the other hand 1077 MCM water is a requirement in the four other basins in Rajasthan i.e. Banas, Banganga, Gambhir and Parbati at 75% dependability. Interlinking and water transfer from Chambal to these four river basins is the prime solution for which 372 km link channel including 9 km tunnel of design capacity of 300 cumec with 64 m lift is required.

  2. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India (United States)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish


    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  3. Glof Study in Tawang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India


    Panda, R.; Padhee, S. K.; Dutta, S.


    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is one of the major unexpected hazards in the high mountain regions susceptible to climate change. The Tawang river basin in Arunachal Pradesh is an unexplored region in the Eastern Himalayas, which is impending to produce several upcoming hydro-electric projects (HEP). The main source of the river system is the snow melt in the Eastern Himalayas, which is composed of several lakes located at the snout of the glacier dammed by the lateral or end mor...

  4. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Srikantia 1987, 1988; Srikantia and Bhargava. 1998; Vaidyanandan and Ramakrishnan ... Geological map of the Suketi river basin, Mandi District, Himachal Pradesh (modified after Srikantia 1987;. Srikantia and Bhargava 1998). The Suketi ..... tate high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting into low ...

  5. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 7 ... The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh ...

  6. Lumped conceptual hydrological model for Purna river basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Purna river basin is having three classes of soils, i.e., B, C, and D types. The predominant soil in the catchment is loamy soil. (B class, around 63% of the total catchment area), in which the water is well drained with mod- erate erosion and runoff potential, see table 2 and figure 3. The characteristics of soils, such as.

  7. Morphotectonics of the Jamini River basin, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India; using remote sensing and GIS technique (United States)

    Prakash, K.; Mohanty, T.; Pati, J. K.; Singh, S.; Chaubey, K.


    Morphological and morphotectonic analyses have been used to obtain information that influence hydrographic basins, predominantly these are modifications of tectonic elements and the quantitative description of landforms. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of active tectonics of the Jamini river basin consists the analyses of asymmetry factor, ruggedness number, basin relief, gradient, basin elongation ratio, drainage density analysis, and drainage pattern analysis, which have been completed for each drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Jamini river is one of the major tributaries of the Betwa river in central India. The Jamini river basin is divided into five subwatersheds viz. Jamrar, Onri, Sainam, Shahzad and Baragl subwatershed. The quantitative approach of watershed development of the Jamini river basin, and its four sixth (SW1-SW4) and one fifth (SW5) order subwatersheds, was carried out using Survey of India toposheets (parts of 54I, 54K, 54L, 54O, and 54P), Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER (GDEM) data, and field data. The Jamini river has low bifurcation index which is a positive marker of tectonic imprint on the hydrographic network. The analyses show that the geomorphological progression of the study area was robustly influenced by tectonics. The analysis demonstrates to extensional tectonics system with the following alignments: NE-SW, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, E-W, and N-S. Three major trends are followed by lower order streams viz. NE-SW, NW-SE, and E-W directions which advocate that these tectonic trends were active at least up to the Late Pleistocene. The assessment of morphotectonic indices may be used to evaluate the control of active faults on the hydrographic system. The analysis points out westward tilting of the drainage basins with strong asymmetry in some reaches, marked elongation ratio of subwatersheds, and lower order streams having close alignment with lineaments (active faults). The study facilitated to considerate the

  8. Lineament and Morphometric Analysis for Watershed Development of Tarali River Basin, Western India

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    Vikrant Bartakke


    Full Text Available Tarali river is major tributary of River Krishna, which is flowing in western India. The study area lies between latitude 17°23' to 17°38' N and longitude 73°48' to 74°7' E. The area has steep to moderate slope and elevation ranges from 584 - 1171m above mean sea level. Basin exhibits hilly and mountain terrain forming ridges and Western Ghats with deep valley, plateaus and plain. The whole area can be obtained in topographical maps i.e. 47 G/14, 47 G/15 47 K/2, 47 K/3 covering area of about 627, acquired from Survey of India. Present study includes lineament and morphometric analysis of Tarali River basin for management and conservation of watershed.

  9. Glof Study in Tawang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India (United States)

    Panda, R.; Padhee, S. K.; Dutta, S.


    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is one of the major unexpected hazards in the high mountain regions susceptible to climate change. The Tawang river basin in Arunachal Pradesh is an unexplored region in the Eastern Himalayas, which is impending to produce several upcoming hydro-electric projects (HEP). The main source of the river system is the snow melt in the Eastern Himalayas, which is composed of several lakes located at the snout of the glacier dammed by the lateral or end moraine. These lakes might prove as potential threat to the future scenario as they have a tendency to produce flash flood with large quantity of sediment load during outbursts. This study provides a methodology to detect the potential lakes as a danger to the HEP sites in the basin, followed by quantification of volume of discharge from the potential lake and prediction of hydrograph at the lake site. The remote location of present lakes induced the use of remote sensing data, which was fulfilled by Landsat-8 satellite imagery with least cloud coverage. Suitable reflectance bands on the basis of spectral responses were used to produce informational layers (NDWI, Potential snow cover map, supervised classification map) in GIS environment for discriminating different land features. The product obtained from vector overlay operation of these layers; representing possible water area, was further utilized in combination with Google earth to identify the lakes within the watershed. Finally those identified lakes were detected as potentially dangerous lakes based on the criteria of elevation, area, proximity from streamline, slope and volume of water held. HEC-RAS simulation model was used with cross sections from Google Earth and field survey as input to simulate dam break like situation; hydrodynamic channel routing of the outburst hydrograph along river reach was carried out to get the GLOF hydrograph at the project sites. It was concluded from the results that, the assessed GLOF would be a

  10. Lumped conceptual hydrological model for Purna river basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. V D Loliyana1 P L Patel2. Department of Civil Engineering and Centre of Excellence (CoE) on 'Water Resources and Flood Management', SVNIT Surat, Surat 395 007, Gujarat, India; Department of Civil Engineering, SVNIT Surat, Surat 395 007, Gujarat, India ...

  11. Interesting rotifers (Rotifera: Eurotatoria from floodplain lakes of lower Brahmaputra river basin of Assam, northeast India

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    Sharma, B.K.


    Full Text Available The plankton and semi-plankton samples collected from four floodplain lakes (beels of Barpeta district of lower Brahmaputra river basin, Assam state, northeastern India (NEI revealed eighteen rotifer species of biodiversity and biogeographic interest belonging to five families and six genera. One species is new to the Indian Rotifera and one species is new to Assam. Our collections are characterized by two Australasian elements, five Oriental endemics, seven paleotropical species, and one cosmo (sub tropical species. Nine species, restricted to date to NEI, are examples of regional distribution importance in India while six species depicted disjunct distribution in the country. Interestingly, seven species are categorized as Eastern hemisphere elements. All the taxa are illustrated to warrant validation as an increasing magnitude of ‘unverifiable records’ is a serious impediment for the progress of rotifer biodiversity in India.

  12. Computation of groundwater resources and recharge in Chithar River Basin, South India. (United States)

    Subramani, T; Babu, Savithri; Elango, L


    Groundwater recharge and available groundwater resources in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India spread over an area of 1,722 km(2) have been estimated by considering various hydrological, geological, and hydrogeological parameters, such as rainfall infiltration, drainage, geomorphic units, land use, rock types, depth of weathered and fractured zones, nature of soil, water level fluctuation, saturated thickness of aquifer, and groundwater abstraction. The digital ground elevation models indicate that the regional slope of the basin is towards east. The Proterozoic (Post-Archaean) basement of the study area consists of quartzite, calc-granulite, crystalline limestone, charnockite, and biotite gneiss with or without garnet. Three major soil types were identified namely, black cotton, deep red, and red sandy soils. The rainfall intensity gradually decreases from west to east. Groundwater occurs under water table conditions in the weathered zone and fluctuates between 0 and 25 m. The water table gains maximum during January after northeast monsoon and attains low during October. Groundwater abstraction for domestic/stock and irrigational needs in Chithar River basin has been estimated as 148.84 MCM (million m(3)). Groundwater recharge due to monsoon rainfall infiltration has been estimated as 170.05 MCM based on the water level rise during monsoon period. It is also estimated as 173.9 MCM using rainfall infiltration factor. An amount of 53.8 MCM of water is contributed to groundwater from surface water bodies. Recharge of groundwater due to return flow from irrigation has been computed as 147.6 MCM. The static groundwater reserve in Chithar River basin is estimated as 466.66 MCM and the dynamic reserve is about 187.7 MCM. In the present scenario, the aquifer is under safe condition for extraction of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes. If the existing water bodies are maintained properly, the extraction rate can be increased in future about 10% to 15%.

  13. Study of coal mine fire in Damodar River basin,India using thermal remote sensing technique (United States)

    Chatterjee, Alokesh; Bhattacharya, Asis

    Coal mine fires are a serious socio-economic problem because of hazards to health and the environment including toxic fumes, and subsidence of surface infrastructures. Globally, thou-sands of inextinguishable mine fires are burning today, especially in China and India. In India, Damodar River basin is the repository of the 46The entire Damodar River basin exhibits in an almost linear fashion in the central part of the Jharkhand and western part of West Bengal States of India. The coal fields are adjacent to the Damodar River or its tributaries. The general trends of coalfields are nearly east-west and showing gentle dip towards south. The area is bounded within Latitude 2330 -2350N and Longitude 8456 -8648E. Since all the coal deposits of Damodar River basin were formed in almost similar sedimentary environmental condition and are of equivalent geologic age; and the coal grades are more or less comparable, it is highly probable that the other coal fields in this region are also vulnerable to mine fires. Aerial and Space borne Thermal Infra-Red Remote Sensing method has been proved to be the most cost effective and time saving method to find out the thermal anomalies present in an area. Here, an attempt has been made to find out the presence of coalmine fire and their aerial extent in Damodar River basin including the well known Jharia and Raniganj coalfields using Space borne single band thermal IR data of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor. Two daytime Landsat ETM+ images (path / row:140/44), acquired on 07.03.2001 and 24.01.2003, covering visible, one near Infrared (NIR), two short wave infrared (SWIR), one thermal infrared (TIR) and a panchromatic band, were used for the present study. Standard procedure of calculating surface temperature from band 6 of Landsat ETM+ data was followed. These include atmospheric corrections, data normalization for sun elevation angle, conversion of image DN values to spectral radiance and spectral radiance to radiant

  14. Mapping Flooded Rice Paddies Using Time Series of MODIS Imagery in the Krishna River Basin, India

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    Pardhasaradhi Teluguntla


    Full Text Available Rice is one of the major crops cultivated predominantly in flooded paddies, thus a large amount of water is consumed during its growing season. Accurate paddy rice maps are therefore important inputs for improved estimates of actual evapotranspiration in the agricultural landscape. The main objective of this study was to obtain flooded paddy rice maps using multi-temporal images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in the Krishna River Basin, India. First, ground-based spectral samples collected by a field spectroradiometer, CROPSCAN, were used to demonstrate unique contrasts between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Land Surface Water Index (LSWI observed during the transplanting season of rice. The contrast between Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI from MODIS time series data was then used to generate classification decision rules to map flooded rice paddies, for the transplanting seasons of Kharif and Rabi rice crops in the Krishna River Basin. Consistent with ground spectral observations, the relationship of the MODIS EVI vs. LSWI of paddy rice fields showed distinct features from other crops during the transplanting seasons. The MODIS-derived maps were validated against extensive reference data collected from multiple land use field surveys. The accuracy of the paddy rice maps, when determined using field plot data, was approximately 78%. The MODIS-derived rice crop areas were also compared with the areas reported by Department of Agriculture (DOA, Government of India (Government Statistics. The estimated root mean square difference (RMSD of rice area estimated using MODIS and those reported by the Department of Agriculture over 10 districts varied between 3.4% and 6.6% during 10 years of our study period. Some of the major factors responsible for this difference include high noise of the MODIS images during the prolonged monsoon seasons (typically June–October and

  15. Acoustic wipeouts over the continental margins off Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi river basins, East coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    GEOLOGICAL SOClEn' OF iNDIA Vol. 35, June 1990, pp. 559 10 568 Acoustic wipeouts over the Continental Margins off Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi River Basins, East Coast of India K. S. R. MURTHY AND T. C. S. RAO National Institute of Oceanography, Regional... Centre, Plot No. 52, Kirlampudi LayouI, Vishakapatnam 530023, India Abstract. Loss of seismic reflections, termed as acoustic wipeouts, are observed in lhe high resolution sparker seismic records over the continental shelf and slope of Krishna, Godavari...

  16. Identification of trend in long term precipitation and reference evapotranspiration over Narmada river basin (India) (United States)

    Pandey, Brij Kishor; Khare, Deepak


    Precipitation and reference evapotranspiration are key parameters in hydro-meteorological studies and used for agricultural planning, irrigation system design and management. Precipitation and evaporative demand are expected to be alter under climate change and affect the sustainable development. In this article, spatial variability and temporal trend of precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ETo) were investigated over Narmada river basin (India), a humid tropical climatic region. In the present study, 12 and 28 observatory stations were selected for precipitation and ETo, respectively of 102-years period (1901-2002). A rigorous analysis for trend detection was carried out using non parametric tests such as Mann-Kendall (MK) and Spearman Rho (SR). Sen's slope estimator was used to analyze the rate of change in long term series. Moreover, all the stations of basin exhibit positive trend for annual ETo, while 8% stations indicate significant negative trend for mean annual precipitation, respectively. Change points of annual precipitation were identified around the year 1962 applying Buishand's and Pettit's test. Annual mean precipitation reduced by 9% in upper part while increased maximum by 5% in lower part of the basin due temporal changes. Although annual mean ETo increase by 4-12% in most of the region. Moreover, results of the study are very helpful in planning and development of agricultural water resources.

  17. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India (United States)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar


    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  18. Landslide susceptibility mapping & prediction using Support Vector Machine for Mandakini River Basin, Garhwal Himalaya, India (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Thakur, Manoj; Dubey, Chandra S.; Shukla, Dericks P.


    In recent years, various machine learning techniques have been applied for landslide susceptibility mapping. In this study, three different variants of support vector machine viz., SVM, Proximal Support Vector Machine (PSVM) and L2-Support Vector Machine - Modified Finite Newton (L2-SVM-MFN) have been applied on the Mandakini River Basin in Uttarakhand, India to carry out the landslide susceptibility mapping. Eight thematic layers such as elevation, slope, aspect, drainages, geology/lithology, buffer of thrusts/faults, buffer of streams and soil along with the past landslide data were mapped in GIS environment and used for landslide susceptibility mapping in MATLAB. The study area covering 1625 km2 has merely 0.11% of area under landslides. There are 2009 pixels for past landslides out of which 50% (1000) landslides were considered as training set while remaining 50% as testing set. The performance of these techniques has been evaluated and the computational results show that L2-SVM-MFN obtains higher prediction values (0.829) of receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-area under the curve) as compared to 0.807 for PSVM model and 0.79 for SVM. The results obtained from L2-SVM-MFN model are found to be superior than other SVM prediction models and suggest the usefulness of this technique to problem of landslide susceptibility mapping where training data is very less. However, these techniques can be used for satisfactory determination of susceptible zones with these inputs.

  19. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India. (United States)

    Chetia, Mridul; Chatterjee, Soumya; Banerjee, Saumen; Nath, Manash J; Singh, Lokendra; Srivastava, Ravi B; Sarma, Hari P


    Distribution of arsenic (As) and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Millions of individuals worldwide are suffering from arsenic toxic effect due to drinking of As-contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain, which is formed by the Ganga-Padma-Meghna-Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh is considered as the worst As-affected alluvial basin. The present study was carried out to examine As contamination in the state of Assam, an adjoining region of the West Bengal and Bangladesh borders. Two hundred twenty-two groundwater samples were collected from shallow and deep tubewells of six blocks of Golaghat district (Assam). Along with total As, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, viz., Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, and Mg with pH, total hardness, and SO[Formula: see text], was also carried out. In respect to the permissible limit formulated by the World Health Organization (WHO; As 0.01 ppm, Fe 1.0 ppm, and Mn 0.3 ppm for potable water), the present study showed that out of the 222 groundwater samples, 67%, 76.4%, and 28.5% were found contaminated with higher metal contents (for total As, Fe, and Mn, respectively). The most badly affected area was the Gamariguri block, where 100% of the samples had As and Fe concentrations above the WHO drinking water guideline values. In this block, the highest As and Fe concentrations were recorded 0.128 and 5.9 ppm, respectively. Tubewell water of depth 180±10 ft found to be more contaminated by As and Fe with 78% and 83% of the samples were tainted with higher concentration of such toxic metals, respectively. A strong significant correlation was observed between As and Fe (0.697 at p<0.01), suggesting a possible reductive dissolution of As-Fe-bearing minerals for the mobilization of As in the groundwater of the region.

  20. Discriminant analysis for characterization of hydrochemistry of two mountain river basins of contrasting climates in the southern Western Ghats, India. (United States)

    Thomas, Jobin; Joseph, Sabu; Thrivikramji, K P


    Discriminant analysis (DA) was performed on river hydrochemistry data for three seasons (i.e., monsoon (MON), post-monsoon (POM), and pre-monsoon (PRM)) to examine the spatio-temporal hydrochemical variability of two mountain river basins (Muthirapuzha River Basin (MRB) and Pambar River Basin (PRB)) of the southern Western Ghats, India. Although the river basins drain tropical mountainous terrain, climate and degree of anthropogenic disturbances show significant differences (i.e., humid, more disturbed MRB vs semiarid, less disturbed PRB). In MRB, TDS, Na(+), pH, Mg(2+), and K(+) are the attributes responsible for significant hydrochemical variations between the seasons, while Cl(-), TH, and Na(+) are the predictors in PRB. The temporal discriminant models imply the importance of rainfall pattern, relative contribution of groundwater toward stream discharge and farming activities in hydrochemistry between the seasons. Inclusion of hydrochemical attributes (in the temporal discriminant functions) that can be derived from both natural and anthropogenic sources suggests that ionic enrichment strongly depends on the seasons, and is mainly due to the variability in the intensity of anthropogenic activities as well as fluctuations in river discharge. In spatial discriminant models, Cl(-) is the only variable responsible for hydrochemical variations between the basins (during MON), whereas Si discriminates during POM and PRM, implying the role of atmospheric supply, anthropogenic modifications as well as intensity of weathering. In the spatial discrimination models, misclassification of hydrochemistry data between MRB and PRB can be attributed to the overlapping effect of humid climate of MRB extending toward the upstream of (semiarid) PRB. This study underscores the versatility of DA in deciphering the significance of climatic controls on hydrochemical composition of tropical mountain rivers.

  1. Assessment of Land Degradation and Greening in Ken River Basin of Central India (United States)

    Pandey, Ashish; Palmate, Santosh S.


    Natural systems have significant impact of land degradation on biodiversity loss, food and water insecurity. To achieve the sustainable development goals, advances in remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) are progressively utilized to combat climate change, land degradation and poverty issues of developing country. The Ken River Basin (KRB) has dominating land cover pattern of agriculture and forest area. Nowadays, this pattern is affected due to climate change and anthropogenic activity like deforestation. In this study, land degradation and greening status of KRB of Central India during the years 2001 to 2013 have been assessed using MODIS land cover (MCD12Q1) data sets. International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land cover data has been extracted from the MCD12Q1 data product. Multiple rasters of MODIS landcover were analyzed and compared for assigning unique combination of land cover dynamics employing ArcGIS software. Result reveals that 14.38% natural vegetation was degraded, and crop land and woody savannas were greened by 9.68% to 6.94% respectively. Natural vegetation degradation have been observed in the upper KRB area, and resulted to increase in crop land (3418.87 km2) and woody savannas (1242.23 km2) area. Due to transition of 1043.6 km2 area of deciduous broadleaf forest to woody savannas greening was also observed. Moreover, both crop land and woody savannas showed inter-transitions of 669.31 km2 into crop land to woody savannas, and 874.09 km2 into woody savannas to crop land. The present analysis reveals that natural vegetation has more land conversions into woody savannas and crop land in the KRB area. Further, Spatial change analysis shows that land degradation and greening has occurred mostly in the upper part of the KRB. The study reveals that the land transition information can be useful for proper planning and management of natural resources.

  2. A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India (United States)

    Rai, Praveen Kumar; Mohan, Kshitij; Mishra, Sameer; Ahmad, Aariz; Mishra, Varun Narayan


    The study indicates that analysis of morphometric parameters with the help of geographic information system (GIS) would prove a viable method of characterizing the hydrological response behaviour of the watershed. It is also well observed that remote sensing satellite data is emerging as the most effective, time saving and accurate technique for morphometric analysis of a basin. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its stream networks through ASTER (DEM) in conjunction with remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm+, 2013 and georeferenced survey of Indian toposheet, 1972). In this study, Kanhar basin a tributaries of Son River has been selected for detailed morphometric analysis. Seven sub-watersheds are also delineated within this basin to calculate the selected morphometric parameters. Morphometric parameters viz; stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form factor, circulatory ratio, etc., are calculated. The drainage area of the basin is 5,654 km2 and shows sub-dendritic to dendritic drainage pattern. The stream order of the basin is mainly controlled by physiographic and lithological conditions of the area. The study area is designated as seventh-order basin with the drainage density value being as 1.72 km/km2. The increase in stream length ratio from lower to higher order shows that the study area has reached a mature geomorphic stage.

  3. Isotopic characterization and mass balance reveals groundwater recharge pattern in Chaliyar river basin, Kerala, India

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    A. Shahul Hameed


    New hydrological insights for the region: Based on the spatio-temporal variation in δ18O values of river and groundwater and fluctuation in ground water levels, following important inferences are made: (1 estimated river water contribution to post-monsoon groundwater recharge is ∼16% in the lowland coastal area of the Chaliyar river basin and 29% in midland region; (2 northeast winter monsoon rains contribute to the groundwater of Chaliyar river basin only in an insignificant manner, and with a delayed response; (3 unlike river water samples which exhibit both seasonal and spatial variation of more than 3‰, the groundwater samples vary only marginally (∼1‰ between the seasons and across the physiographic zones; (4 groundwater samples exhibit inverse altitude gradient in δ18O values in the highland zone, in all the three seasons. This may be due to flow of the isotopically depleted groundwater down the gradient and evaporation of residual water in the upper reaches of the basin.

  4. Drought analysis in the Tons River Basin, India during 1969-2008 (United States)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Gautam, Randhir; Kahya, Ercan


    The primary focus of this study is the analysis of droughts in the Tons River Basin during the period 1969-2008. Precipitation data observed at four gauging stations are used to identify drought over the study area. The event of drought is derived from the standardized precipitation index (SPI) on a 3-month scale. Our results indicated that severe drought occurred in the Allahabad, Rewa, and Satna stations in the years 1973 and 1979. The droughts in this region had occurred mainly due to erratic behavior in monsoons, especially due to long breaks between monsoons. During the drought years, the deficiency of the annual rainfall in the analysis of annual rainfall departure had varied from -26% in 1976 to -60% in 1973 at Allahabad station in the basin. The maximum deficiency of annual and seasonal rainfall recorded in the basin is 60%. The maximum seasonal rainfall departure observed in the basin is in the order of -60% at Allahabad station in 1973, while maximum annual rainfall departure had been recorded as -60% during 1979 at the Satna station. Extreme dry events (z score drought conditions in the Tons River Basin are dominantly driven by total rainfall throughout the period between June and November.

  5. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. (United States)

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P


    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.

  6. Rotifer assemblages (Rotifera: Eurotatoria of the floodplain lakes of Majuli River Island, the Brahmaputra river basin, northeast India

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    Bhushan Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available Our plankton and semi-plankton collections from twelve floodplain lakes (beels of Majuli River Island, Upper Assam reveal 124 rotifer species (32 genera and 17 families; these merit biodiversity value as ~52.0% and ~30.0% of species, ~68.0 and ~45.0% of  genera and ~74.0 and ~65.0% of the families of the Phylum known from northeast India (NEI and India, respectively. Two species are new to India with Trichocerca uncinata as new record to the Oriental region.  Eleven species are new to the study area and we provide an updated list (144 species for following meta-analyses of Majuli Rotifera. Biogeographically important elements include one Australasian, four Oriental, four Palaeotropical and one cosmo (sub tropical species while several species are of regional distribution interest. The rotifer fauna is predominantly tropical and Lecanidae > Lepadellidae collectively include ~53.0% species but it records paucity of Brachionus species. Individual beels record total richness of 60-100 (77 ± 12 species, monthly richness between 24 ± 7-34 ± 7 species and maximum up to 54 species/sample. The results are characterized by high community similarities (59.7-90.4% vide Sørensen’s index, more rotifer homogeneity amongst beels, lack of any pattern of temporal richness variations and much limited influence of abiotic parameters.

  7. Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, and Phytotoxicity of Tannery Effluent Discharged into Palar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

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    Suki Roy


    Full Text Available Ambur, a town located on the banks of Palar River, is considered one of the most polluted areas in India and occupied by hundreds of tanneries and leather product units. The present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of discharged tannery effluent (TE on model agricultural crops, ecofriendly microorganisms, and human blood cells. The phytotoxic effects of TE tested on Allium cepa and Lemna minor revealed inhibition of root growth and significant reduction in number of fronds, protein, and chlorophyll content. Moreover, TE induced chlorosis and tissue necrosis in Nostoc muscorum at low concentration (10%. TE has also negative impact on ecofriendly microorganisms, Bacillus thuringiensis, Rhizobium etli, and Aspergillus terreus which play an important role in the nutrition of plant growth. The genotoxicity of TE was investigated in human leukocytes which showed interference with normal mitotic division with subsequent cell lysis. It also intervened with the normal replication process and induced micronucleus formation in the healthy leukocyte. 5% concentration of TE has been revealed to be toxic to erythrocytes. From this study TE found in the Palar River of Ambur has adverse effects on all the three levels of organisms in ecosystem even at lower concentrations.

  8. Linkage between global sea surface temperature and hydroclimatology of a major river basin of India before and after 1980 (United States)

    Pattanayak, Sonali; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.; Nagesh Kumar, D.


    The frequent occurrence of flood and drought worldwide has drawn attention to assessing whether the hydroclimatology of major river basins has changed. The Mahanadi river basin (MRB) is the major source of fresh water for both Chattisgarh and Odisha states (71 million people approximately) in India. The MRB (141 600 km2 area) is one of the most vulnerable to climate change and variations in temperature and precipitation. In recent years, it has repeatedly faced adverse hydrometeorological conditions. Large-scale ocean–atmospheric phenomena have a substantial influence on river hydroclimatology. Hence global sea surface temperature (SST) linkage with the precipitation and surface temperature of the MRB was analyzed over the period 1950–2012. Significant changes in seasonal correlation patterns were witnessed from 1950–1980 (PR-80) to 1981–2012 (PO-80). The correlation was higher during PR-80 compared to PO-80 between the El Niño region SST versus the maximum temperature (T max) in all seasons except the pre-monsoon season and the minimum temperature (T min) in all seasons except the monsoon season. However, precipitation correlation changes are not prominent. Like the SST, the correlation patterns of sea level pressure with precipitation, T max and T min shifted conspicuously from PR-80 to PO-80. These shifts could be related to change in Pacific decadal SST patterns and anthropogenic effects. Fingerprint-based detection and attribution analysis revealed that the observed changes in T min (pre-monsoon and monsoon season) during the second half of the 20th century cannot be explained solely by natural variability and can be attributed to an anthropogenic effect.

  9. Age and growth in the Indian major carp Labeo rohita Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae from tropical rivers of Ganga basin, India

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    Javaid Iqbal Mir


    Full Text Available Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in India. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1 082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga basin. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8 age classes were recorded from two rivers Betwa and Sharda. The back-calculated lengths at 8 age class ranged from 86.22cm to 91.66cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7 age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase Cl and specific rate of weight increase Cw showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data Clt. Analysis of variance ANOVA of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference p0.05. All three populations showed significant variation in length attainment during 1 and 3 age groups, while two populations showed significant variation in length attainment during the 2 and 7 age classes. Additionally, analysis of age frequency at different length intervals indicated that with increase in age class, number of fish samples was reduced. Since the pattern of life history traits of L. rohita have not been attempted in the recent past; therefore, this study will guide fisheries biologists about the current stock structure of this fish across different spatial scale of the Ganga basin.

  10. Rotifera diversity of a floodplain lake of the Brahmaputra river basin of lower Assam, Northeast India

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    Sharma, B.K.


    Full Text Available This study analyzed diversity and ecology of planktonic Rotifera of Ghorajan beel, a floodplain lake of the Brahmaputrariver basin of lower Assam region of Northeast India. Plankton samples collected (January–December, 2010 fromlittoral (station 1 and semi-limnetic regions (station 2 of this tropical wetland revealed a fairly rich rotifer fauna (84 and 80species with distinct variations (range, average ± SD in monthly richness (35–55, 46±6 and 24–54, 36±5 species andcommunity similarities (46.6–80.4 and 37.0–95.9 % at both sampling stations. The richness followed unclear annual patterns.The rotifers mainly contributed (53.3±5.1 and 55.6± 3.6 % to zooplankton abundance variations and showed high abundancefrom June through November at both stations. Brachionidae > Lecanidae exhibited high number of individuals; Asplanchnidaeand Flosculariidae were also quantitatively important families; specifically, Asplanchna priodonta, Sinantherina socialis, Brachionusfalcatus and Lecane bulla were important species for their abundance. Single abiotic factors exerted a more limited influence on richness than on abundance. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA explained 55.6 % and 59.5 % cumulative variance of the rotifer assemblages along axis 1 and 2, respectively; the CCA indicated the importance of transparency and rainfall at station 1, and of transparency, dissolved oxygen and rainfall at station 2. Consequently, the littoral and semi-limnetic stations are characterized by micro-environmental differences.

  11. River basin administration (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  12. Modelling the impact of a subsurface barrier on groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India (United States)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.


    Groundwater modelling is widely used as a management tool to understand the behaviour of aquifer systems under different hydrological stresses, whether induced naturally or by humans. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a subsurface barrier on groundwater flow in the Palar River basin, Tamil Nadu, southern India. Groundwater is supplied to a nearby nuclear power plant and groundwater also supplies irrigation, industrial and domestic needs. In order to meet the increasing demand for groundwater for the nuclear power station, a subsurface barrier/dam was proposed across Palar River to increase the groundwater heads and to minimise the subsurface discharge of groundwater into the sea. The groundwater model used in this study predicted that groundwater levels would increase by about 0.1-0.3 m extending out a distance of about 1.5-2 km from the upstream side of the barrier, while on the downstream side, the groundwater head would lower by about 0.1-0.2 m. The model also predicted that with the subsurface barrier in place the additional groundwater requirement of approximately 13,600 m3/day (3 million gallons (UK)/day) can be met with minimum decline in regional groundwater head.

  13. Mapping Irrigated Areas Using MODIS 250 Meter Time-Series Data: A Study on Krishna River Basin (India

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    Andrew Nelson


    Full Text Available Mapping irrigated areas of a river basin is important in terms of assessing water use and food security. This paper describes an innovative remote sensing based vegetation phenological approach to map irrigated areas and then the differentiates the ground water irrigated areas from the surface water irrigated areas in the Krishna river basin (26,575,200 hectares in India using MODIS 250 meter every 8-day near continuous time-series data for 2000–2001. Temporal variations in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI pattern obtained in irrigated classes enabled demarcation between: (a irrigated surface water double crop, (b irrigated surface water continuous crop, and (c irrigated ground water mixed crops. The NDVI patterns were found to be more consistent in areas irrigated with ground water due to the continuity of water supply. Surface water availability, on the other hand, was dependent on canal water release that affected time of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the NDVI pattern. Double cropped and light irrigation have relatively late onset of greenness, because they use canal water from reservoirs that drain large catchments and take weeks to fill. Minor irrigation and ground water irrigated areas have early onset of greenness because they drain smaller catchments where aquifers and reservoirs fill more quickly. Vegetation phonologies of 9 distinct classes consisting of Irrigated, rainfed, and other land use classes were also derived using MODIS 250 meter near continuous time-series data that were tested and verified using groundtruth data, Google Earth very high resolution (sub-meter to 4 meter imagery, and state-level census data. Fuzzy classification accuracies for most classes were around 80% with class mixing mainly between various irrigated classes. The areas estimated from MODIS were highly correlated with census data (R-squared value of 0.86.

  14. Hydrogeochemistry of the Paravanar River Sub-Basin, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India

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    K. Shankar


    Full Text Available To assess the groundwater quality of the Paravanar river basin, groundwater data were collected by conventional methods. Hydrogeochemical facies of groundwater of study area reveals fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. Piper plot shows that most of the groundwater samples fall in the mixed field of Ca-Mg-Cl type. Using GIS mapping technique, major element concentration of groundwater has been interpolated and studied. Groundwater thematic maps on electrical conductivity (EC, hydrogen ion concentration, bicarbonates, chlorides and nitrates were prepared from the groundwater quality data. Different classes in thematic maps were categorized as i good, ii moderate and iii poor with respect to groundwater quality. Northeast and southeast parts of the study area represent the doubtful water class regarding the concentration of EC to represent connate nature of water adjacent to the coast. NNE (North-North-East and southern parts of the study area have pH ranging from 7 to 8 indicating acidic nature as they were from the weathered Cuddalore sandstone. As northern part of the study area is irrigated, fertilizer used for agriculture may be the source for increase in concentration of nitrates. Chloride clusters in the south central part of the study area from coast up to NLC mines and reveals the chloridization of aquifer in 48 years either due to upwelling of connate water from the deeper aquifer as a result of depressurization of Neyveli aquifer for the safe mining of lignite.

  15. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of groundwater quality of Amaravathi River Basin: South India (United States)

    Loganathan, K.; Ahamed, A. Jafar


    The study of groundwater in Amaravathi River basin of Karur District resulted in large geochemical data set. A total of 24 water samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, and the abundance of cation and anion concentrations was in the following order: Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ = Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-. Correlation matrix shows that the basic ionic chemistry is influenced by Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl-, and also suggests that the samples contain Na+-Cl-, Ca2+-Cl- an,d mixed Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- types of water. HCO3 -, SO4 2-, and F- association is less than that of other parameters due to poor or less available of bearing minerals. PCA extracted six components, which are accountable for the data composition explaining 81% of the total variance of the data set and allowed to set the selected parameters according to regular features as well as to evaluate the frequency of each group on the overall variation in water quality. Cluster analysis results show that groundwater quality does not vary extensively as a function of seasons, but shows two main clusters.

  16. Groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural use in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. (United States)

    Ramesh, K; Elango, L


    Assessment of suitability of groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes was carried out in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The study area covers an area of 315 km(2) and lies in a semiarid region. Groundwater is the major source for domestic and agricultural activity in this area. Groundwater samples were collected from 45 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period in the year 2006. The water samples were analysed for physical and chemical characteristics. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on salinity hazard, sodium percent, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, US salinity diagram, Wilcox's diagram, Kelly's ratio and permeability index. Ca-HCO(3), mixed Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl were the dominant groundwater types. High hardness and electrical conductivity in this area makes the groundwater unsuitable for drinking and agricultural purposes. Concentration of trace elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) did not exceed the permissible limit for drinking and agricultural purposes. Majority of the groundwater samples were unsuitable for domestic and agricultural purposes except for 31% and 36%, which were suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, respectively.

  17. Estimation of Soil loss by USLE Model using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques: A case study of Muhuri River Basin, Tripura, India

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    Amit Bera


    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a most severe environmental problem in humid sub-tropical hilly state Tripura. The present study is carried out on Muhuri river basin of Tripura state, North east India having an area of 614.54 In this paper, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model, with Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS have been used to quantify the soil loss in the Muhuri river basin. Five essential parameters such as Runoff-rainfall erosivity factor (R, soil erodibility Factor (K, slope length and steepness (LS, cropping management factor (C, and support practice factor (P have been used to estimate soil loss amount in the study area. All of these layers have been prepared in GIS and RS platform (Mainly Arc GIS 10.1 using various data sources and data preparation methods. In these study DEM and LISS satellite data have been used. The daily rainfall data (2001-2010 of 6 rain gauge stations have been used to predict the R factor. Soil erodibility (K factor in Basin area ranged from 0.15 to 0.36. The spatial distribution map of soil loss of Muhuri river basin has been generated and classified into six categories according to intensity level of soil loss. The average annual predicted soil loss ranges between 0 to and 650 t/ha/y. Low soil loss areas (70 t/ha/y of soil erosion was found along the main course of Muhuri River.

  18. Detecting the long-term impacts from climate variability and increasing water consumption on runoff in the Krishna river basin (India

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    L. M. Bouwer


    Full Text Available Variations in climate, land-use and water consumption can have profound effects on river runoff. There is an increasing demand to study these factors at the regional to river basin-scale since these effects will particularly affect water resources management at this level. This paper presents a method that can help to differentiate between the effects of man-made hydrological developments and climate variability (including both natural variability and anthropogenic climate change at the basin scale. We show and explain the relation between climate, water consumption and changes in runoff for the Krishna river basin in central India. River runoff variability due to observed climate variability and increased water consumption for irrigation and hydropower is simulated for the last 100 years (1901–2000 using the STREAM water balance model. Annual runoff under climate variability is shown to vary only by about 14–34 millimetres (6–15%. It appears that reservoir construction after 1960 and increasing water consumption has caused a persistent decrease in annual river runoff of up to approximately 123 mm (61%. Variation in runoff under climate variability only would have decreased over the period under study, but we estimate that increasing water consumption has caused runoff variability that is three times higher.

  19. Documenting human transformation and establishing the reference condition of large river systems using Corona images: a case study from the Ganga River basin, India (United States)

    Sinha, Rajiv; Pipil, Shobhit; Carbonneau, Patrice; Galiatsatos, Nikolaos


    The Ganga basin in northern India is one of the most populous river basin in the world with nearly half a billion inhabitants. In the post-independence era, population expansion and human interventions have left the ecosystem of the Ganga in a severely damaged state with dwindling water levels, pollution due to human activity and natural sediment transport severely perturbed by dams and barrages. Fortunately, there is a growing recognition by the policy managers in India that the restoration of the Ganga to a healthier status, closer to its original unperturbed state, would set a strong foundation to future, greener, economic growth in Northern India. However, given the past six decades of fast development, efforts to restore the Ganga to its original condition are faced with a fundamental question: What was the original state of the Ganga? Answering this question will require some knowledge of the former course of the Ganga and of the farming and urban density of the surrounding plains before the impacts of human disturbance could be felt. We have made use of the Corona spy satellite program that collected a large number of earth observation photos in the 1960s. These photos, now declassified, offer us a unique view of the Ganga at the very early stages of intense development and thus before the worst ecological damages occurred. However, actual usage of these images poses significant technical challenges. In the design of the Corona cameras, very high resolution comes at the cost of complex distortions. Furthermore, we have no information on the exact position and orientation of the satellite at the time of image acquisition so an accurate reprojection of the image into conventional map coordinates is not straightforward. We have developed a georectification process based on polynomial transformation to achieve a positional accuracy of ±20m for the area of our interest. Further, We have developed an object-based classification method that uses both texture and

  20. Environmental tritium (³H) and hydrochemical investigations to evaluate groundwater in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Ravikumar, P; Somashekar, R K


    The present study aimed at assessing the activity of natural radionuclides ((3)H) and hydrochemical parameters (viz., pH, EC, F(-), NO(3)(-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) in the groundwater used for domestic and irrigation purposes in the Varahi and Markandeya river basins to understand the levels of hydrochemical parameters in terms of the relative age(s) of the groundwater contained within the study area. The recorded environmental (3)H content in Varahi and Markandeya river basins varied from 1.95 ± 0.25T.U. to 11.35 ± 0.44T.U. and 1.49 ± 0.75T.U. to 9.17 ± 1.13T.U. respectively. Majority of the samples in Varahi (93.34%) and Markandeya (93.75%) river basins being pre-modern water with modern recharge, significantly influenced by precipitation and river inflowing/sea water intrusion. The EC-Tritium and Tritium-Fluoride plots confirmed the existence of higher total dissolved solids (SEC > 500 μS/cm) and high fluoride (MAC > 1.5 mg/L) in groundwater of Markandeya river basin, attributed to relatively longer residence time of groundwater interacting with rock formations and vice versa in case of Varahi river basin. The tritium-EC and tritium-chloride plots indicated shallow and deep circulating groundwater types in Markandeya river basin and only shallow circulating groundwater type in Varahi river basin. Increasing Mg relative to Ca with decreasing tritium indicated the influence of incongruent dissolution of a dolomite phase. The samples with high nitrate (MAC > 45 mg/L) are waters that are actually mixtures of fresh water (containing very high nitrate, possibly from agricultural fertilizers) and older 'unpolluted' waters (containing low nitrate levels), strongly influenced by surface source. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geochemistry of Groundwater: An Overview of Sporadic Fluoride and Nitrate Contamination in Parts of Yamuna River Basin, India

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    Shadab Khurshid


    Full Text Available The chemical characteristics of groundwater in parts of Yamuna river sub-basin utilized for both irrigation and domestic purposes were investigated by analyzing samples collected from the western part of Yamuna basin. It is observed that majority of the ground water samples are saline due to the presence of more clayey material with low permeability leading to longer residence time. Occurrence and distribution of fluoride and nitrate in groundwater on either bank of Yamuna river are studied and high concentrations of F and NO3 exceeding standard limits of various organization were observed at places suggesting their non-solubility for drinking purposes. Low concentration of nitrate is due to denitrification. Fluoride correlates positively with HCO3 and negatively with Ca. Discharge of untreated industrial effluents in unlined drains, dumping of solid wastes in open field and increased utilization of nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers are responsible for the degradation of groundwater quality in parts of Yamuna basin.

  2. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the river Ganga basin, India

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    Vineet Kumar Dubey


    Full Text Available In India, freshwater aquatic resources are suffering from increasing human population, urbanization and shortage of all kind of natural resources like water. To mitigate this, all the major rivers have been planned for a river-interlinking through an interlinking canal system under a huge scheme; yet, the baseline information on ecological conditions of those tropical rivers and their fish communities is lacking at present. In view of that, the present study was undertaken to assess the ecological condition by comparing the trophic metrics of the fish community, conservation status and water chemistry of the two tropical rivers of the Ganga basin, from October 2007 to November 2009. The analysis of trophic niches of the available fish species indicated dominancy of carnivorous (19 species in river Ken and omnivorous (23 species in Betwa. The trophic level score of carnivorous species was recorded similar (33.33% in both rivers, whereas omnivorous species were mostly found in Betwa (36.51% than Ken (28.07%. Relatively undisturbed sites of Betwa (B1, B2 and B3 and Ken (K2, K3 and K5 were characterized by diverse fish fauna and high richness of threatened species. The higher mean trophic level scores were recorded at B4 of Betwa and K4 of Ken. The Bray-Curtis index for trophic level identified the carnivorous species (>0.32 as an indicator species for pollution. Anthropogenic exposure, reflected in water quality as well as in fish community structure, was found higher especially in the lower stretches of both rivers. Our results suggest the importance of trophic metrics on fish community, for ecological conditions evaluation, which enables predictions on the effect of future morphodynamic changes (in the post-interlinking phases, and provide a framework and reference condition to support restoration efforts of relatively altered fish habitats in tropical rivers of India.

  3. Pathways of heavy metals contamination and associated human health risk in Ajay River basin, India. (United States)

    Singh, Umesh Kumar; Kumar, Balwant


    The sources of heavy metals and their loads in the Ajay River were investigated based on the seasonal and spatial variations. To identify variation and pathways of heavy metals, seventy-six water samples were estimated for 2 years at nineteen sampling sites. The multifaceted data were applied to evaluate statistical relation between variables and arithmetic calculation of the indices. Fickling plot suggested that the acidic pollutants do not affect the water quality because all samples lie within the neutral pH range. Further, OC showed significant relation with Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Compositional analysis identified weathering of rocks, mobility of soil and sediment, atmospheric deposition and numerous anthropogenic inputs as major sources of heavy metals. The mean values of heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and pollution index (PI) were found above the critical index and strong loadings respectively due to higher values of Cd, Pb and Fe. Similarly, assessment of human risk revealed that the high load of Cd, Pb and Fe in water body could harm the population. Majority of the samples showed high concentration of heavy metals as compared to regulatory standard and background values, which suggests that the water is highly contaminated through numerous geogenic and anthropogenic sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate change, land use and land cover change detection and its impact on hydrological hazards and sustainable development: a case study of Alaknanda river basin, Uttarakhand, India.

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    Full Text Available Extreme climatic events impact on the natural ecosystems of Alaknanda river basin which affect the socio-economic condition of the rural communities, loss of life, livelihood and natural resources. They pose a serious threat to normal life as well as the process of sustainable development. Rivers are fragile ecosystems which are globally important as water tower of the earth, reservoirs of rich biodiversity, and a popular destination for recreation, tourism and culture heritage. Rivers provides direct life support base for humankind. The unique Geo-climatic condition of Garhwal Himalaya, Alaknanda River basin, Uttarakhand makes it one of the most vulnerable regions in the India. Hydrological hazards are sudden calamities, which involve loss of life, property and livelihood. This paper presents a methodological approach for the integration of extreme events, climatic vulnerability, land use scenario, and flood risk assessment. Anthropogenic activities are continuously disturbing the natural system of the Garhwal Himalaya and its impact on extreme hydrological events. Factors causing these changes have been attempted to be understood through the use of GIS and Geospatial techniques. Human interference, unscientific developmental activities, agriculture extension, tourism activity and road construction are creating the hydrological hazards. Soil erosion and landslide have been recognised as major hazards in the high altitude region of Himalaya. This paper has analysed and evaluates the climate and livelihood vulnerability assessment and its adaptation for sustainable development in the near district headquarter (NDH away district headquarter (ADH determined mainly by a weighted matrix index. The Geospatial technique is used to find out the land use/cover change detection and secondary data is taken to carry out the analysis work. Primary data from each hotspot has been collected through a questionnaire survey and a Participatory Research Approach

  5. Rainfall variability and its association with El Niño Southern Oscillation in Tons River Basin, India (United States)

    Duhan, Darshana; Pandey, Ashish; Srivastava, Puneet


    In this study, rainfall variability in connection with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the Tons River Basin which is a sub-basin of the Ganges River has been examined. The rainfall trends on annual and seasonal basis for 15 weather stations were examined using the data of 1951-2004. Furthermore, the association between ENSO and rainfall was analyzed using three methods, namely cumulative frequency distributions, correlation analysis, and composite analysis. The annual rainfall series analysis indicated a significant decrease at Govindgarh (5.5 mm/year) and Meja (6.6 mm/year) stations. Seasonal rainfall analysis indicated significant decreasing trends at fourteen stations in pre-monsoon season, ten stations in winter season, two stations in post-monsoon, and only one station in monsoon season. The average frequency of occurrence of drought is once in every 4-7 years. Only monsoon season rainfall showed a significant negative correlation with Niño 3.4 SST at almost all the stations. During El Niño, the probability of below normal rainfall is high. However, during La Niña, the probability of above normal or near normal rainfall is high in monsoon season. Furthermore, comparison of results before (Pre76) and after (Post76) the climate shift revealed that the relationship between rainfall and El Niño has strengthened after the climate shift.

  6. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS. (United States)

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S


    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin.

  7. GIS based quantitative morphometric analysis and its consequences: a case study from Shanur River Basin, Maharashtra India (United States)

    Pande, Chaitanya B.; Moharir, Kanak


    A morphometric analysis of Shanur basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. These techniques are found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. Hence, from the study, it is concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM data of 30 m resolution) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool used in morphometric analysis and evaluation of linear, slope, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The combined outcomes have established the topographical and even recent developmental situations in basin. It will also change the setup of the region. It therefore needs to analyze high level parameters of drainage and environment for suitable planning and management of water resource developmental plan and land resource development plan. The Shanur drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 281.33 km2. The slope of the basin varies from 1 to 10 %, and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The main stream length ratio of the basin is 14.92 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The morphometric parameters of the stream have been analyzed and calculated by applying standard methods and techniques viz. Horton (Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361, 1945), Miller (A quantitative geomorphologic study of drainage basin characteristics in the clinch mountain area, Virginia and Tennessee Columbia University, Department of Geology, Technical Report, No. 3, Contract N6 ONR 271-300, 1953), and Strahler (Handbook of applied hydrology, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1964). GIS based on analysis of all morphometric parameters and the erosional development of the area by the streams has been progressed well beyond maturity and lithology is

  8. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.


    In hard-rock terrain, due to the lack of primary porosity in the bedrock, joints, fault zones, and weathered zones are the sources for groundwater occurrence and movement. To study the groundwater potential in the hard-rock terrain and drought-prone area in the Niva River basin, southern Andhra Pradesh state, India, Landsat 5 photographic data were used to prepare an integrated hydrogeomorphology map. Larsson's integrated deformation model was applied to identify the various fracture systems, to pinpoint those younger tensile fracture sets that are the main groundwater reservoirs, and to understand the importance of fracture density in groundwater prospecting. N35°-55°E fractures were identified as tensile and N35°-55°W fractures as both tensile and shear in the study area. Apparently, these fractures are the youngest open fractures. Wherever N35°-55°E and N35°-55°W fracture densities are high, weathered-zone thickness is greater, water-table fluctuations are small, and well yields are high. Groundwater-potential zones were delineated and classified as very good, good to very good, moderate to good, and poor. Résumé. Dans les roches de socle, l'absence de porosité primaire dans la roche fait que les fractures, les zones de faille et les zones d'altération sont les sites où l'eau souterraine est présente et s'écoule. Pour étudier le potentiel en eau souterraine dans la région de socle sujette à la sécheresse du bassin de la rivière Niva (sud de l'État d'Andhra Pradesh, Inde), des données photographiques de Landsat 5 ont été utilisées pour préparer une carte hydro-géomorphologique. Le modèle intégré de déformation de Larssons a été mis en œuvre pour identifier les différents systèmes de fractures, pour mettre l'accent sur les ensembles de fractures en extension les plus jeunes qui constituent les principaux réservoirs d'eau souterraine, et pour comprendre l'importance de la densité de fractures pour la prospection de l

  9. Morphotectonic and Morphometric analysis of Vishav Basin left bank Tributary of Jhelum River SW Kashmir Valley India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jaan


    Full Text Available Morphotectonics interplays between the landscape development and the tectonics. Usually, the development of many geomorphic features has been related solely to exogenic and nontectonic causes but many of them are developed mainly due to the prevailing tectonic forces in the area. In the present study the Vishav basin located in the NW-Himalayas has been selected for the morphotectonic study as Vishav is considered as one of the largest contributors to the Jhelum River. The different geomorphic indices were calculated using satellite data and toposheets. The calculated geomorphic indices were then used in accessing the tectonics of the study area. The parameters like mountain front sinuosity, hypsometry and the sinuosity index provide clues about the ample work of the tectonics in the area. The development of triangular facets in the area is also the indicator of the tectonic work in the area. Lithological variations and/or tectonic uplift have led to the development of knick-points and abruptly high SL index value. Morphotectonic analysis shows that the tectonic uplift, lithology and climate forcing played an interdependent role in the landscape evolution of the Vishav basin. Thus, the results of the present study will provide clues about the tectonic activity and may initiate some thoughts about the futuristic ramifications of the geomorphic activity operating in the Vishav drainage basin.

  10. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India (United States)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  11. Climate change impacts on irrigated rice and wheat production in Gomti River basin of India: a case study. (United States)

    Abeysingha, N S; Singh, Man; Islam, Adlul; Sehgal, V K


    Potential future impacts of climate change on irrigated rice and wheat production and their evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements in the Gomti River basin were assessed by integrating a widely used hydrological model "Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)" and climate change scenario generated from MIROC (HiRes) global climate model. SWAT model was calibrated and validated using monthly streamflow data of four spatially distributed gauging stations and district wise wheat and rice yields data for the districts located within the basin. Simulation results showed an increase in mean annual rice yield in the range of 5.5-6.7, 16.6-20.2 and 26-33.4 % during 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Similarly, mean annual wheat yield is also likely to increase by 13.9-15.4, 23.6-25.6 and 25.2-27.9 % for the same future time periods. Evapotranspiration for both wheat and rice is projected to increase in the range of 3-9.6 and 7.8-16.3 %, respectively. With increase in rainfall during rice growing season, irrigation water allocation for rice is likely to decrease (<5 %) in future periods, but irrigation water allocation for wheat is likely to increase by 17.0-45.3 % in future periods.

  12. Dynamic reorganization of river basins. (United States)

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu


    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

  13. Statistical evaluation of rainfall time series in concurrence with agriculture and water resources of Ken River basin, Central India (1901-2010) (United States)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Meshram, Chandrashekhar; Deo, Ravinesh C.; Ambade, Balram


    Trend analysis of long-term rainfall records can be used to facilitate better agriculture water management decision and climate risk studies. The main objective of this study was to identify the existing trends in the long-term rainfall time series over the period 1901-2010 utilizing 12 hydrological stations located at the Ken River basin (KRB) in Madhya Pradesh, India. To investigate the different trends, the rainfall time series data were divided into annual and seasonal (i.e., pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter season) sub-sets, and a statistical analysis of data using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall (MK) test and the Sen's slope approach was applied to identify the nature of the existing trends in rainfall series for the Ken River basin. The obtained results were further interpolated with the aid of the Quantum Geographic Information System (GIS) approach employing the inverse distance weighted approach. The results showed that the monsoon and the winter season exhibited a negative trend in rainfall changes over the period of study, and this was true for all stations, although the changes during the pre- and the post-monsoon seasons were less significant. The outcomes of this research study also suggest significant decreases in the seasonal and annual trends of rainfall amounts in the study period. These findings showing a clear signature of climate change impacts on KRB region potentially have implications in terms of climate risk management strategies to be developed during major growing and harvesting seasons and also to aid in the appropriate water resource management strategies that must be implemented in decision-making process.

  14. Multivariate statistical evaluation of heavy metals in the surface water sources of Jia Bharali river basin, North Brahmaputra plain, India (United States)

    Khound, Nayan J.; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.


    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of surfacewater sources in the Jia Bharali river basin and adjoining areas of the Himalayan foothills with respect to heavy elements viz. (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) by hydrochemical and multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). This study presents the first ever systematic analysis on toxic elements of water samples collected from 35 different surface water sources in both the dry and wet seasons for a duration of 2 hydrological years (2009-2011). Varimax factors extracted by principal component analysis indicates anthropogenic (domestic and agricultural run-off) and geogenic influences on the trace elements. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 35 surfacewater sources into three statistically significant clusters based on the similarity of water quality characteristics. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of complex data sets, and in water quality assessment, identification of pollution sources/factors and understanding temporal/spatial variations in water quality for effective surfacewater quality management.

  15. Hydrological Modelling of Ganga River basin. (United States)

    Anand, J.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.


    Application of a hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to the Ganga basin having a total drainage area of around 1.08 M sq. km extending over Tibet, Nepal, India and Bangladesh has been made. The model is calibrated to determine the spatial deviations in runoff at sub-basin level, and to capture the water balance of the river basin. Manual calibration approach was used for calibrating the SWAT model by following multi-step procedure to get to the realistic present situation as close as possible. Simulations were then further made with and without proposed future projects to obtain various scenarios. The various statistical parameters used for the evaluation of the monthly runoff simulation showed that SWAT performed well in mimicking the monthly stream flow for Ganga River basin. The model under predicted the flows in the non-perennial region during non-monsoon season, due to low rainfall and regulated flows and seepage taking place from the reservoirs. The impacts of the interventions, both existing as well as proposed, on the water balance of the basin were evaluated and quantified. The derived results suggest that there is a substantial reduction in overall water resources availability in the study basin on account of the current level of development and further, future developments, as are being proposed, may require a careful study of their potential impact on currently sanctioned water use. The present study showcases that efficacy of the model for simulating the stream flow is admirable.

  16. Use of geospatial technology for delineating groundwater potential zones with an emphasis on water-table analysis in Dwarka River basin, Birbhum, India (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Gupta, Arindam; Reddy, D. V.; Kaur, Harjeet


    Dwarka River basin in Birbhum, West Bengal (India), is an agriculture-dominated area where groundwater plays a crucial role. The basin experiences seasonal water stress conditions with a scarcity of surface water. In the presented study, delineation of groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) is carried out using a geospatial multi-influencing factor technique. Geology, geomorphology, soil type, land use/land cover, rainfall, lineament and fault density, drainage density, slope, and elevation of the study area were considered for the delineation of GWPZs in the study area. About 9.3, 71.9 and 18.8% of the study area falls within good, moderate and poor groundwater potential zones, respectively. The potential groundwater yield data corroborate the outcome of the model, with maximum yield in the older floodplain and minimum yield in the hard-rock terrains in the western and south-western regions. Validation of the GWPZs using the yield of 148 wells shows very high accuracy of the model prediction, i.e., 89.1% on superimposition and 85.1 and 81.3% on success and prediction rates, respectively. Measurement of the seasonal water-table fluctuation with a multiplicative model of time series for predicting the short-term trend of the water table, followed by chi-square analysis between the predicted and observed water-table depth, indicates a trend of falling groundwater levels, with a 5% level of significance and a p-value of 0.233. The rainfall pattern for the last 3 years of the study shows a moderately positive correlation (R 2 = 0.308) with the average water-table depth in the study area.

  17. Multi-proxy evidence for compositional change of organic matter in the largest tropical (peninsular) river basin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pradhan, U.K.; Ying Wu; Shirodkar, P.V.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, G.

    and concentrations of lignin phenols were analyzed in total suspended matter (TSM), sediments, agriculture soils and plants from Godavari basin. The results indicated that the upper tributaries drained heavier carbon (δ13Corg = −20.4 ± 2.2‰) than the lower...

  18. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project... (United States)


    ... Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012...

  19. Assessment on seasonal variation of groundwater quality of phreatic aquifers - A river basin system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Gopinath, G.

    Spatial distribution of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), fluoride and total iron content of ground water samples collected from the muvattupuzha river basin, Kerala, India, has been studied for pre monsoon and post...

  20. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.


    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  1. Low-cost, open access flood inundation modelling with sparse data: A case study of the Lower Damodar River Basin, India (United States)

    Sanyal, J.; Carbonneau, P.


    In developed nations, flood monitoring and management benefits from a range of high-cost modern data and methods such as high resolution terrain data and digital elevation models, cloud penetrating radar data which defines flood extents and advanced computer modelling software. However, in developing countries, such resources are rarely available. The situation is further compounded by the fact that developing countries often have higher population densities which are even more vulnerable to flood hazards. This paper addresses these issues and presents a methodology for flood modelling which is accessible within the resource constraints which are typical in developing countries. A 20 Km flood prone reach of the lower Damodar River Basin in Northern India has been selected as the study area. This area has been subjected to inundation 4 times during the last 6 years due to water released from a network of upstream reservoirs during intense monsoon rainfall events. Within the study site, topographic data from three sources was available. First, we used SRTM data. Second, 40 cross-sections were surveyed with differential GPS and a handheld depth sounder. These data were corrected and their datum adjusted to that of the SRTM DEM with the precise point positioning (PPP) system freely available from Natural Resources Canada. Third, low-cost Cartosat-1 stereo images were used to produce a DEM with Leica Photogrammetry Suite. The elevation points derived from Cartosat-1 images were then manually edited in a 3D stereo viewing environment to represent the narrow but hydraulically significant features, such as the embankments, roads, smaller depressions and merged with the surveyed points for the channel. The SRTM data over the featureless farmland was also made bare-earth and merged with the rest of the mass points to create a hybrid point cloud. The RMSE of this hybrid terrain data was found to be 1.1 m as compared to 2.4 m for the original SRTM DEM. TELEMAC2D, an open

  2. Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program (United States)

    Doug Duncan; Robert W. Clarkson


    The Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program was established to conserve native fishes and manage against nonnative fishes in response to several Endangered Species Act biological opinions between the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Central Arizona Project (CAP) water transfers to the Gila River basin. Populations of some Gila...

  3. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia (United States)

    Karthe, Daniel


    management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in

  4. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst


    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  5. An extended linear scaling method for downscaling temperature and its implication in the Jhelum River basin, Pakistan, and India, using CMIP5 GCMs (United States)

    Mahmood, Rashid; JIA, Shaofeng


    In this study, the linear scaling method used for the downscaling of temperature was extended from monthly scaling factors to daily scaling factors (SFs) to improve the daily variations in the corrected temperature. In the original linear scaling (OLS), mean monthly SFs are used to correct the future data, but mean daily SFs are used to correct the future data in the extended linear scaling (ELS) method. The proposed method was evaluated in the Jhelum River basin for the period 1986-2000, using the observed maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) of 18 climate stations and the simulated Tmax and Tmin of five global climate models (GCMs) (GFDL-ESM2G, NorESM1-ME, HadGEM2-ES, MIROC5, and CanESM2), and the method was also compared with OLS to observe the improvement. Before the evaluation of ELS, these GCMs were also evaluated using their raw data against the observed data for the same period (1986-2000). Four statistical indicators, i.e., error in mean, error in standard deviation, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient, were used for the evaluation process. The evaluation results with GCMs' raw data showed that GFDL-ESM2G and MIROC5 performed better than other GCMs according to all the indicators but with unsatisfactory results that confine their direct application in the basin. Nevertheless, after the correction with ELS, a noticeable improvement was observed in all the indicators except correlation coefficient because this method only adjusts (corrects) the magnitude. It was also noticed that the daily variations of the observed data were better captured by the corrected data with ELS than OLS. Finally, the ELS method was applied for the downscaling of five GCMs' Tmax and Tmin for the period of 2041-2070 under RCP8.5 in the Jhelum basin. The results showed that the basin would face hotter climate in the future relative to the present climate, which may result in increasing water requirements in public, industrial, and agriculture

  6. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph


    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  7. Deformed river basins of the Himalaya (United States)

    Walcott, R.; Sinclair, H.


    Identification of the controls on basin morphology in mountain belts is needed to understand how landscapes evolve under changing conditions. Although river basins vary enormously in area, many of their morphological relationships, such as Hack's law, are scale invariant irrespective of mountain type. This suggests that, in most mountain belts, the fundamental process(es) that control basin morphology are also scale invariant and therefore largely insensitive to variations in tectonic activity. However, river basins in the Himalaya are anomalously wide when compared with basins developed on the flanks of other semi-linear ranges. We present a detailed study of Himalayan river basin morphology to determine how the evolution of this orogen may have influenced the shape of these unusual basins. We investigate, in particular, the statistical geometric properties of basins, such as the length, width and area of basins, with respect to the scale and the location of the basin within the mountain belt. Our results show that the anomalously wide basins found over much of the Himalaya have a limited scale range and distribution. These data therefore provide an indication of the significant control that the evolution of this mountain range has had on basin morphology at the local scale. The fact that these catchments have departed from what is perceived as a stable scaling relationship implies that, while their rivers can incise at a rate broadly comparable to the rate of rock uplift, their drainage divides can not migrate fast enough to reconfigure in response to tectonic shortening. As a result, long-term crustal shortening has significantly deformed the river network within the central and western Himalaya.



    Agita Slara


    The article describes advantages and disadvantages in tourism planning, using the river basins as background territory and borders. Tourism development planning is taking place according administrative territorial borders till nowadays in Latvia and in other tourism destinations in abroad. According tourist and visitor needs and environmental friendly approach it is more appropriate to use river basins in tourism planning. Tourists are not interested in administrative borders, but in qualitat...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sub-basins, and their subsequent projection are derived from the Population Census .... Social scientists are inclined to consider the impact of social, cultural and institutional fac- tors on population-environment relationships, and much recent research .... river sub-basin at each point in time during the projection period.

  10. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case – Crasna River Basin (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert


    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  11. 18 CFR 725.7 - Regional or river basin planning. (United States)


    ... Responsibilities § 725.7 Regional or river basin planning. (a) In agreements between river basin commissions or other regional planning sponsors and the Council for the preparation and revision of regional and river... representing the river basin commission or regional planning sponsor shall certify to the Council that the...

  12. Environmental factors other than iodine deficiency in the pathogenesis of endemic goiter in the basin of river Ganga and Bay of Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar K Chandra


    Full Text Available Background: In iodine-replete basin of the river Ganga and the Bay of Bengal, we studied iodine nutritional status of school children by goiter prevalence and their urinary iodine (UI, iodine content in edible salt, and the bioavailability of iodine through water and its contribution to iodine nutrition. We also studied consumption pattern of common goitrogenic plants by measuring urinary thiocyanate (USCN, hardness of water (calcium and magnesium salt content and assessed the effect of concomitant exposure of those environmental factors in goitrogenesis. Methods: 4603 children aged 6-12 years were examined for goiter by palpation, 520 urine samples were analyzed for UI and USCN; iodine content was estimated in 455 household salt and 130 water samples tested both for iodine and hardness. Results: The total goiter rate was 35.9%, median UI was 231 ΅g/l, mean USCN was 0.857 ± 0.48 mg/dl, iodine content in water was 44.7 ± 4.1 ΅g/l, 66.4% of salt samples contained iodine (15 ppm, and water was found to be hard. UI was correlated with both the drinking water iodine content and USCN and the degree of hardness in drinking water was associated with goiter prevalence. Conclusions: The studied population has endemic goitre despite iodine sufficiency. The concomitant exposure of a number of environmental factors, i.e., thiocyanate of cyanogenic plant food, hardness of drinking water, and excess iodine from environmental sources other than iodide salt are likely responsible for the causation and persistence of endemic goiter in the region.

  13. Hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; McCabe, Gregory; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie


    Despite the importance of the Missouri River for navigation, recreation, habitat, hydroelectric power, and agriculture, relatively little is known about the basic hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (MRB). This is of particular concern given the droughts and floods that have occurred over the past several decades and the potential future exacerbation of these extremes by climate change. Here, observed and modeled hydroclimatic data and estimated natural flow records in the MRB are used to 1) assess the major source regions of MRB flow, 2) describe the climatic controls on streamflow in the upper and lower basins , and 3) investigate trends over the instrumental period. Analyses indicate that 72% of MRB runoff is generated by the headwaters in the upper basin and by the lowest portion of the basin near the mouth. Spring precipitation and temperature and winter precipitation impacted by changes in zonal versus meridional flow from the Pacific Ocean play key roles in surface water supply variability in the upper basin. Lower basin flow is significantly correlated with precipitation in late spring and early summer, indicative of Atlantic-influenced circulation variability affecting the flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Although increases in precipitation in the lower basin are currently overriding the effects of warming temperatures on total MRB flow, the upper basin’s long-term trend toward decreasing flows, reduction in snow versus rain fraction, and warming spring temperatures suggest that the upper basin may less often provide important flow supplements to the lower basin in the future.

  14. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.


    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Changes in agricultural cropland areas between a water-surplus year and a water-deficit year impacting food security, determined using MODIS 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques, in the Krishna river basin (India) (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Muralikrishna, I.V.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Gangadhararao, P.T.; Dheeravath, V.; Biradar, C.M.; Nalan, S.A.; Gaur, A.


    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in cropland areas as a result of water availability using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques (SMTs). The study was conducted in the Krishna River basin in India, a very large river basin with an area of 265 752 km2 (26 575 200 ha), comparing a water-surplus year (2000–2001) and a water-deficit year (2002–2003). The MODIS 250 m time-series data and SMTs were found ideal for agricultural cropland change detection over large areas and provided fuzzy classification accuracies of 61–100% for various land‐use classes and 61–81% for the rain-fed and irrigated classes. The most mixing change occurred between rain-fed cropland areas and informally irrigated (e.g. groundwater and small reservoir) areas. Hence separation of these two classes was the most difficult. The MODIS 250 m-derived irrigated cropland areas for the districts were highly correlated with the Indian Bureau of Statistics data, with R 2-values between 0.82 and 0.86.The change in the net area irrigated was modest, with an irrigated area of 8 669 881 ha during the water-surplus year, as compared with 7 718 900 ha during the water-deficit year. However, this is quite misleading as most of the major changes occurred in cropping intensity, such as changing from higher intensity to lower intensity (e.g. from double crop to single crop). The changes in cropping intensity of the agricultural cropland areas that took place in the water-deficit year (2002–2003) when compared with the water-surplus year (2000–2001) in the Krishna basin were: (a) 1 078 564 ha changed from double crop to single crop, (b) 1 461 177 ha changed from continuous crop to single crop, (c) 704 172 ha changed from irrigated single crop to fallow and (d) 1 314 522 ha changed from minor irrigation (e.g. tanks, small reservoirs) to rain-fed. These are highly significant changes that will

  16. Plant biodiversity in the Mahanadi Basin, India, during the Gondwana period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K.J. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)


    The Mahanadi Basin is one of five major sedimentary basins of Peninsular India. The sediments are exposed in two different regions: an extensive basin comprising Lower to Upper Gondwana with coal measures towards the west (Talchir and Ib-River Sub-basins); and the Athgarh Sub-basin in the east with rocks of only Upper Gondwana age. This study was mainly concerned with plant species diversification and the development of flora in the Mahanadi Basin from the Early Permian to the Early Cretaceous. A number of successive megafloras were recognised with gaps in the sequence. Leaves were the dominant part of the preserved flora, followed by fruits. Maximum plant diversification in gymnosperms was recorded in the Late Permian (Kamthi Formation), and in pteridophytes in the Early Cretaceous (Athgarh Formation).

  17. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin (United States)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina


    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (ΔW = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of suspended and dissolved matter transport is indicated along Tuul-Orkhon river system (right tributary of the Selenga river where Mongolia capital Ulaanbaator, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines). The results provide evidence on a connection between increased heavy metal concentrations in water-sediment systems of transboundary rivers and pollutant source zones at industrial and mining centers, both as in-channel erosion and land use.

  18. Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin. (United States)

    Sue A. Ferguson


    This work describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin. Widely differing climates help define each major zone and reporting unit, the pattern of which is controlled by three competing air masses: marine, continental, and arctic. Paleoclimatic evidence and historical...

  19. Robustness of river basin water quality models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blois, Chris; Wind, H.G.; de Kok, Jean-Luc; Koppeschaar, K.


    In this paper the concept of robustness is introduced and applied to a model for the analysis of the impacts of spatially distributed policy measures on the surface water quality on a river basin scale. In this model the influence of precipitation on emissions and resuspension of pollutants in the

  20. Updating river basin models with radar altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    of historical discharge data. For the few VS where in-situ data was available for comparison, the discharge estimates were found to be within 4.1 to 13.8% of mean annual gauged amplitude. One of the main obstacles to the use of RA in hydrological applications is the low temporal resolution of the data which has...... suited for use in data assimilation frameworks which combine the information content from models and current observations to produce improved forecasts and reduce prediction uncertainty. The focus of the second and third papers of this thesis was therefore the use of radar altimetry as update data...... studies: the Brahmaputra and Zambezi River basins. In the Brahmaputra, data from 6 Envisat VS located along the main reach was assimilated. The assimilation improved model performance with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency increasing from 0.78 to 0.84 at the outlet of the basin. In the Zambezi River basin...

  1. Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    River Son, draining diverse lithologies in the subtropical climate of the peninsular sub-basin of the Ganga basin, is one of the major tributaries of the Ganga River. The chemistry of major ions in the surface water of the Son River was studied in detail to determine various source(s) and processes controlling its water ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell


    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  3. Flood tracking chart, Amite River Basin, Louisiana (United States)

    Callender, Lawrence E.; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.; Anderson, Mary L.; Ensminger, Paul A.


    The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

  4. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R.; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A.; Ribas, Camila C.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C.


    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin’s floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  5. Saving the Mekong River Basin


    Houba, Harold; Pham Do, Kim Hang; Zhu, Xueqin


    The Mekong River (MR) is shared by six countries: China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Over the years there have been both conflict and cooperation on managing the water resources to meet population growth, climate change and the desire for economic development. Currently, the MR Committee (MRC) has weak policy instruments. This paper exploits an axiomatic bargaining approach to examine how China and the MRC might negotiate effective joint management. We investigate what wel...

  6. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical equation that can be used for estimating the suspended sediment yields of river drainage basins without sediment data has been established for basins in the sub-tropical forest Southwestern river basin system of Ghana. The power law equation relates mean annual specific suspended sediment yield (t km-2 ...

  7. Rain gauge network design for flood forecasting using multi-criteria decision analysis and clustering techniques in lower Mahanadi river basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Kar


    New hydrological insights for the region: This study establishes different possible key RG networks using Hall’s method, analytical hierarchical process (AHP, self organization map (SOM and hierarchical clustering (HC using the characteristics of each rain gauge occupied Thiessen polygon area. Efficiency of the key networks is tested by artificial neural network (ANN, Fuzzy and NAM rainfall-runoff models. Furthermore, flood forecasting has been carried out using the three most effective RG networks which uses only 7 RGs instead of 14 gauges established in the Kantamal sub-catchment, Mahanadi basin. The Fuzzy logic applied on the key RG network derived using AHP has shown the best result for flood forecasting with efficiency of 82.74% for 1-day lead period. This study demonstrates the design procedure of key RG network for effective flood forecasting particularly when there is difficulty in gathering the information from all RGs.

  8. Controls on morphological variability and role of stream power distribution pattern, Yamuna River, western India (United States)

    Bawa, Nupur; Jain, Vikrant; Shekhar, Shashank; Kumar, Niraj; Jyani, Vikas


    Understanding the controls on the morphological variability of river systems constitutes one of the fundamental questions in geomorphic investigation. Channel morphology is an important indicator of river processes and is of significance for mapping the hydrology-ecologic connectivity in a river system and for predicting the future trajectory of river health in response to external forcings. This paper documents the spatial morphological variability and its natural and anthropogenic controls for the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganga River, India. The Yamuna River runs through a major urban centre i.e. Delhi National Capital Region. The Yamuna River was divided into eight geomorphically distinct reaches on the basis of the assemblages of geomorphic units and the association of landscape, valley and floodplain settings. The morphological variability was analysed through stream power distribution and sediment load data at various stations. Stream power distribution of the Yamuna River basin is characterised by a non-linear pattern that was used to distinguish (a) high energy ‘natural' upstream reaches, (b) ‘anthropogenically altered', low energy middle stream reaches, and (c) ‘rejuvenated' downstream reaches again with higher stream power. The relationship between stream power and channel morphology in these reaches was integrated with sediment load data to define the maximum flow efficiency (MFE) as the threshold for geomorphic transition. This analysis supports the continuity of river processes and the significance of a holistic, basin-scale approach rather than isolated local scale analysis in river studies.

  9. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.


    indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

  10. Hydrological River Drought Analysis (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought from the hydrological viewpoint is a continuation of the meteorological drought that cause of the lack of surface water such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater resources. This analysis, which is generally on the surface streams, reservoirs, lakes and groundwater, takes place as hydrological drought considered and studied. So the data on the quantity of flow of the rivers in this study is of fundamental importance. This data are included, level, flow, river flow is no term (5. Overall the hydrological drought studies are focused on annual discharges, maximum annual discharge or minimum discharge period. The most importance of this analysis is periodically during the course of the analysis remains a certain threshold and subthresholdrunoff volume fraction has created. In situations where water for irrigation or water of a river without any reservoir, is not adequate, the minimum flow analysis, the most important factor to be considered (4. The aim of this study is evaluatingthe statistical distributions of drought volume rivers data from the Urmia Lake’s rivers and its return period. Materials and Methods: Urmia Lake is a biggest and saltiest continued lake in Iran. The Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important basins in Iran region which is located in the North West of Iran. With an extent of 52700 square kilometers and an area equivalent to 3.21% of the total area of the country, This basin is located between the circuit of 35 degrees 40 minutes to 38 degrees 29 minutes north latitude and the meridian of 44 degrees 13 minutes to 47 degrees 53 minutes east longitude. In this study used the daily discharge data (m3s-1 of Urmia Lake Rivers. Extraction of river drought volume The drought durations were extracted from the daily discharge of 13 studied stations. The first mean year was calculated for each 365 days using the Eq 1 (14. (1 (For i=1,2,3,…,365 That Ki is aith mean year, Yijis ith day discharge in jth

  11. Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins


    Cabo, Francisco; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Tidball, Mabel


    This paper analyzes the dynamic interaction between two regions with interconnected river basins. Precipitation is higher in one river-basin while water productivity is higher in the other. Water transfer increases productivity in the recipient basin, but may cause environmental damage in the donor basin. The recipient faces a trade-off between paying the price of the water transfer, or investing in alternative water supplies to achieve a higher usable water capacity. We analyze the design of...

  12. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management (United States)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen


    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting

  13. Spatial Preference Heterogeneity for Integrated River Basin Management: The Case of the Shiyang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus Asefaw Aregay


    Full Text Available Integrated river basin management (IRBM programs have been launched in most parts of China to ease escalating environmental degradation. Meanwhile, little is known about the benefits from and the support for these programs. This paper presents a case study of the preference heterogeneity for IRBM in the Shiyang River Basin, China, as measured by the Willingness to Pay (WTP, for a set of major restoration attributes. A discrete choice analysis of relevant restoration attributes was conducted. The results based on a sample of 1012 households in the whole basin show that, on average, there is significant support for integrated ecological restoration as indicated by significant WTP for all ecological attributes. However, residential location induced preference heterogeneities are prevalent. Generally, compared to upper-basin residents, middle sub-basin residents have lower mean WTP while lower sub-basin residents express higher mean WTP. The disparity in utility is partially explained by the difference in ecological and socio-economic status of the residents. In conclusion, estimating welfare benefit of IRBM projects based on sample responses from a specific sub-section of the basin only may either understate or overstate the welfare estimate.

  14. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trasmonte


    Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April, when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l., while the low (or null probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.. Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l., moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  15. Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of river basins, (ii) influence of basin geology, tectonics, climate and anthropogenic activities on riverine chemistry and (iii) elemental fluxes from rivers to oceans (Subramanian 1979, 1983;. Biksham and Subramanian 1988; Sarin et al. 1989;. Chakrapani and Subramanian 1990; Ramanathan et al. 1994; Krishnaswami and ...

  16. DNA barcodes for the fishes of the Narmada, one of India's longest rivers. (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab Dattarao; Jamdade, Rahul; Naik, Suresh; David, Lior; Haymer, David


    This study describes the species diversity of fishes of the Narmada River in India. A total of 820 fish specimens were collected from 17 sampling locations across the whole river basin. Fish were taxonomically classified into one of 90 possible species based on morphological characters, and then DNA barcoding was employed using COI gene sequences as a supplemental identification method. A total of 314 different COI sequences were generated, and specimens were confirmed to belong to 85 species representing 63 genera, 34 families and 10 orders. Findings of this study include the identification of five putative cryptic or sibling species and 43 species not previously known from the Narmada River basin. Five species are endemic to India and three are introduced species that had not been previously reported to occur in the Narmada River. Conversely, 43 species previously reported to occur in the Narmada were not found. Genetic diversity and distance values were generated for all of the species within genera, families and orders using Kimura's 2 parameter distance model followed by the construction of a Neighbor Joining tree. High resolution clusters generated in NJ trees aided the groupings of species corresponding to their genera and families which are in confirmation to the values generated by Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery bioinformatics platform. This aided to decide a threshold value for the discrimination of species boundary from the Narmada River. This study provides an important validation of the use of DNA barcode sequences for monitoring species diversity and changes within complex ecosystems such as the Narmada River.

  17. Estimating Stream Discharge of Aboine River Basin of Southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The study attempts to estimate the stream discharge of the Aboine river basin, southeast Nigeria, using modified climatic water balance approach. Moisture deficit in the basin generally begins from January and lasts up to April while utilization begins from October up to December. The basin attains a field ...

  18. Morphometric analyses of the river basins in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    to satisfy Horton's Laws. The bifurcation ratios show the maturity of the dissected basins. Except for the basins of Mandovi and Zuvari rivers which are more elongated and less circular, the other five basins are more circular and less elongated. The high...

  19. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.


    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  20. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  1. Climate sensitivity of major river basins in Africa (United States)

    Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.


    We simulate the land surface water balance of five major African river basins using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface hydrologic model forced by gridded climate data of precipitation and temperature for the period 1979-1999. The seasonality and inter-annual variability of the water balance terms vary across the continent and at each river basin. The long-term mean vapor flux convergence P-E agrees well with observed runoff for the eastern and north western basins, whereas there is a relatively large imbalance (28%) for the Oranje River basin possibly because of its small size. The Zambezi and Oranje River basins act as a net source of moisture in dry seasons (strong negative P-E). Both the Nile and Zambezi basins have a low runoff efficiency and a high dryness index, indicating a high sensitivity to climate change in the case of the Nile, and moderate sensitivity in the case of the Zambezi. Although the severity of climate change impacts depends primarily on the magnitude of change, the different hydrological sensitivities of the basins are also important. Precipitation elasticities range from 2.2 to 3.1 for 10% increase and -2.1 to -2.7 for 10% decrease in precipitation respectively over the five river basins, whereas the sensitivity of runoff to temperature ranges (absolute value) from a high of -5%/degC for the Niger basin to a low of -1% for the Orange basin.

  2. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins (United States)

    Vanham, Davy


    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  3. Social Learning in European River-Basin Management: Barriers and Fostering Mechanisms from 10 River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Mostert


    Full Text Available We present and analyze 10 case studies of participatory river-basin management that were conducted as part of the European HarmoniCOP project. The main theme was social learning, which emphasizes the importance of collaboration, organization, and learning. The case studies show that social learning in river-basin management is not an unrealistic ideal. Resistance to social learning was encountered, but many instances of social learning were found, and several positive results were identified. Moreover, 71 factors fostering or hindering social learning were identified; these could be grouped into eight themes: the role of stakeholder involvement, politics and institutions, opportunities for interaction, motivation and skills of leaders and facilitators, openness and transparency, representativeness, framing and reframing, and adequate resources. Promising topics for further research include the facilitation of the social learning processes, the role of power, and interactions in political and institutional contexts.

  4. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.


    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays δ66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  5. Irrigation drainage: Green River basin, Utah (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, Jerry B.


    A reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah during 1986-87 determined that concentrations of selenium in water and biological tissues were potentially harmful to wildlife at the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and in the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Concentations of selenium in irrigation drainage entering Stewart Lake ranged from 14 to 140 micrograms per liter; liver tissue from coots collected from the lake contained selenium concentrations of as much as 26 micrograms per gram and samples of tissue from carp contained as much as 31 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of selenium in a pond at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, which receives irrigation water and shallow ground water, were as much as 93 micrograms per liter. Liver tissue from coots collected from this pond contained selenium concentrations of as much as 43 micrograms per gram; eggs of water birds contained as much as 120 micrograms per gram.

  6. Birds of the Shatan River Basin, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold


    Full Text Available In our study we recorded 149 species of birds belonging to 97 genera and 36 families in 15 orders. These bird species compose 32% of Mongolian registered bird fauna. Of these 149 species, 54% are passeriformes. Our observation was held in three different habitats: mountains ranging with rocks and forest (88 species, river basins (45 species, and an area around human habitation, specifically train stations outside towns (16 species. Of our studied bird species, 11 are enlisted in the International Union for Conservation of Nature red list as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened species, and 144 are known as least concerned. Also 20 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and 15 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species.

  7. Time Series Analysis of Floods across the Niger River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aich, Valentin; Koné, Bakary; Hattermann, Fred; Paton, Eva


    This study analyses the increasing number of catastrophic floods in the Niger River Basin, focusing on the relation between long term hydro-climatic variability and flood risk over the last 40 to 100 years...

  8. Landslide Inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified...

  9. Permafrost of the Usa River Basin, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The map consists of ESRI Shapefiles of the Usa River basin, Russia, including Lek-Vorkuta and Bolshaya Rogovaya. There are four data layers in the data set: a base...

  10. Appropriate modelling in DSSs for river basin management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Pahl-Wostl, Claudia; Schmidt, Sonja; Rizzoli, Andrea E.; Jakeman, Anthony J.


    There is increasing interest in the development of decision support systems (DSSs) for river basin management. Moreover, new ideas and techniques such as sustainability, adaptive management, Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing and participations of new stakeholders have stimulated their

  11. 2012 Water Levels - Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  12. Lehigh River Basin, Hydropower Study. Stage 1. Reconnaissance Report. (United States)


    Bethlehem Old Waterworks Bethlehem Tannery , The, Laston i.ehigh Canal: Eastern Section Glendon and Abbott Street Industrial Sites, Easton Nicholas...Employment by Major Industry Division 30 in Pennsylvania, by County: Ist Quarter, 1976 10 Total Civilian Labor Force, Employment, 31 Unemployment, and...Earnings By Industry 1975, for Counties 33 in the Lehigh River Basin Area 13 Pennsylvania Inventory of Historic 35-36 Places Lehigh River Basin 14 Proposed

  13. Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Blackstone and Thames River basins (United States)

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William


    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Blackstone and Thames River basins in eastern Hampden, eastern Hampshire, western Norfolk, southern Middlesex, and southern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Blackstone River, French River, or Quinebaug River. (USGS)

  14. [Upper Steele Bayou Projects : Yazoo River Basin, Mississippi (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a collection of documents related to four projects which were proposed by the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers in the Yazoo River Basin. The Upper Yazoo Basin...

  15. Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of the Columbia River basin assessment area. (United States)

    Sam. James


    Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status...

  16. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River Basin case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Jensen, Iris Hedegaard; Guzinski, R.


    assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. This study is funded by the European Space Agency under the TIGER-NET project. The objective of TIGER-NET is to develop open-source software tools...... to support integrated water resources management in Africa and to facilitate the use of satellite earth observation data in water management. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic–hydrodynamic model which is entirely based....... The forecasting system delivers competitive forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days....

  17. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.


    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  18. Slope control on the aspect ratio of river basins (United States)

    Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Darrioulat, A.


    River networks and their drainage basins have attracted a large attention due to their remarkable statistical properties (1-5). For example, although fluvial networks patterns seem to be influenced by diverse geological and climatic processes, the river basins that enclose them appear to mirror each other faithfully. Basin area A and length L of rivers from around the world consistently scale following L=cAexp(h) (2) with h often close to 0.5 (and c a constant) suggesting that river basins are self-similar (1, 6). Likewise, the main river basins that drain linear mountain ranges consistently manifest similar length-width aspect ratios between 1 and 5 (7). These observations question how the interplay between climate and tectonics is reflected in landscapes, and they highlight the challenge of inverting modern landscape records to reveal previous climates and tectonics. The invariance of river basins aspect-ratio is puzzling when compared against observations at smaller spatial scales (Hack, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B, (1957). 3.R. E. Horton, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 56, 275 (1945). 4.J. W. Kirchner, Geology 21, 591 (1993). 5.I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, A. Rinaldo, Fractal river basins: chance and self-organization. (1997). 6.D. R. Montgomery, W. E. Dietrich, Science 255, 826 (1992). 7.N. Hovius, Basin Res. 8, 29 (1996). 8.R. S. Parker, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University 90, 58 (1977). 9.J. D. Pelletier, Geomorphology 53, 183 (2003). 10.Schumm, The Fluvial System. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977), pp. 338. 11.G. D. H. Simpson, F. Schlunegger, J. Geophys. Res 108, 2300 (2003). 12.N. Schorghofer, D. H. Rothman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1633 (2002).

  19. Securing food and water in Pakistan's vulnerable Indus River basin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jun 23, 2014 ... The Indus River flows through the heart of Pakistan, weaving past mountains, forest, and desert to arrive at an impressive delta. This happens to be one of the principal river basins in South Asia, and one that is vulnerable to flood events.

  20. Struggling with scales: revisiting the boundaries of river basin management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.; Wester, P.; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.


    This article reviews, illustrated by two case studies, how struggles around scales play out in three globally hegemonic trends in river governance: (1) stakeholder participation for (2) integrated water resources management (IWRM), conceived at (3) the watershed or river basin level. This ‘holy

  1. Evolving provenance in the Proterozoic Pranhita-Godavari Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeni Amarasinghe


    Full Text Available The Pranhita-Godavari Basin in central eastern India is one of the Proterozoic “Purāna” basins of cratonic India. New geochronology demonstrates that it has a vast depositional history of repeated basin reactivation from the Palaeoproterozoic to the Mesozoic. U-Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry dating of detrital zircons from two samples of the Somanpalli Group—a member of the oldest sedimentary cycle in the valley—constrains its depositional age to ∼1620 Ma and demonstrates a tripartite age provenance with peaks at ∼3500 Ma, ∼2480 Ma and ∼1620 Ma, with minor age peaks in the Eoarchaean (∼3.8 Ga and at ∼2750 Ma. These ages are consistent with palaeocurrent data suggesting a southerly source from the Krishna Province and Enderby Land in East Antarctica. The similarity in the maximum depositional age with previously published authigenic glauconite ages suggest that the origin of the Pranhita-Godvari Graben originated as a rift that formed at a high angle to the coeval evolving late Meosproterozoic Krishna Province as Enderby Land collided with the Dharwar craton of India. In contrast, detrital zircons from the Cycle III Sullavai Group red sandstones yielded a maximum depositional age of 970 ± 20 Ma and had age peaks of ∼2550 Ma, ∼1600 Ma and then a number of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons terminating in three analyses at ∼970 Ma. The provenance of these is again consistent with a southerly source from the Eastern Ghats Orogen and Antarctica. Later cycles of deposition include the overlying Albaka/Usur Formations and finally the late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic Gondwana Supergroup.

  2. Emergence, concept, and understanding of Pan-River-Basin (PRB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu


    Full Text Available In this study, the concept of Pan-River-Basin (PRB for water resource management is proposed with a discussion on the emergence, concept, and application of PRB. The formation and application of PRB is also discussed, including perspectives on the river contribution rates, harmonious levels of watershed systems, and water resource availability in PRB system. Understanding PRB is helpful for reconsidering river development and categorizing river studies by the influences from human projects. The sustainable development of water resources and the harmonization between humans and rivers also requires PRB.

  3. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins (United States)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.


    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  4. Spatial and temporal variability of nutrient retention in river basins: A global inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysmans, D.J.J.; Löhr, A.J.; Kroeze, C.; Ivens, W.P.M.F.; Wijnen, van T.K.


    Nutrient export by rivers may cause coastal eutrophication. Some river basins, however, export more nutrients than others. We model the Basin-Wide Nutrient Export (BWNE) Index, defined as nutrient export by rivers as percentage of external nutrient inputs in the basins. We present results for rivers

  5. India-Asia convergence: Insights from burial and exhumation of the Xigaze fore-arc basin, south Tibet (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Kohn, Barry; Sandiford, Mike; Xu, Zhiqin


    The composite fore-arc/syncollisional Xigaze basin in south Tibet preserves a key record of India-Asia collision. New apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He data from an N-S transect across the preserved fore-arc basin sequence near Xigaze show a consistent northward Late Cretaceous to middle Miocene younging trend, while coexisting apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages are all Miocene. Corresponding detrital zircon U-Pb data are also reported for constraining the Cretaceous depositional ages of the Xigaze basin sequence in the region. Thermal history modeling indicates that the basin experienced northward propagating episodic exhumation, along with a northward migration of the depocenter and a pre-existing Cenozoic syncollisional basin sequence which had been removed. In the southern part, fore-arc exhumation commenced in the Late Cretaceous ( 89 ± 2 Ma). Following transition to a syncollisional basin in the Paleocene, sedimentation in the central and northern Xigaze basin continued until the latest Eocene ( 34 ± 4 Ma). Ongoing folding and thrusting (e.g., Great Counter Thrusts) caused by progressive plate convergence during late Oligocene-early Miocene time resulted in regional uplift and considerable basin denudation, which fed two fluvial basins along its northern and southern flanks and exposed the basement ophiolite. Subsequent incision of the Yarlung River resulted in Miocene cooling in the region. Different episodes in the exhumation history of the Xigaze basin, caused by thrusting of an accretionary wedge and ophiolitic basement, can be linked to changes in India-Asia convergence rates and the changing subduction pattern of the Indian and Neo-Tethyan slabs.

  6. Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes, dissolved fluxes and water quality assessment. Chinmaya Maharana, Sandeep Kumar Gautam,. Abhay Kumar Singh and Jayant K Tripathi. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124(6) cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary data ...

  7. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.


    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn

  8. Drought in the Klamath River Basin (United States)


    For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground

  9. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.


    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  10. How different institutional arrangements promote integrated river basin management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Frederiksen, Pia; Saarikoski, Heli


    , member states must therefore address both the roles of different institutional actors and the interplay among institutions. In this paper, we will explore strengths and weaknesses of different institutional arrangements for integrated water management through a comparative analysis of River Basin......The EU Water Framework Directive introduces the principle of integrated river basin management, incorporating both the idea of spatial fit between ecosystems and social systems and a requirement to integrate water management across scales and sectors. In designing their implementation setups...... Management Planning processes in six countries around the Baltic Sea. We use theories on multi-level governance, regime interplay and institutional effectiveness. We find that, in most cases, central governments have played a dominant role in the formulation of river basin management plans, while local...

  11. An integrated multiscale river basin observing system in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China (United States)

    Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.


    Using the watershed as the unit to establish an integrated watershed observing system has been an important trend in integrated eco-hydrologic studies in the past ten years. Thus far, a relatively comprehensive watershed observing system has been established in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. In addition, two comprehensive remote sensing hydrology experiments have been conducted sequentially in the Heihe River Basin, including the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) (2007-2010) and the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) (2012-2015). Among these two experiments, an important result of WATER has been the generation of some multi-scale, high-quality comprehensive datasets, which have greatly supported the development, improvement and validation of a series of ecological, hydrological and quantitative remote-sensing models. The goal of a breakthrough for solving the "data bottleneck" problem has been achieved. HiWATER was initiated in 2012. This project has established a world-class hydrological and meteorological observation network, a flux measurement matrix and an eco-hydrological wireless sensor network. A set of super high-resolution airborne remote-sensing data has also been obtained. In addition, there has been important progress with regard to the scaling research. Furthermore, the automatic acquisition, transmission, quality control and remote control of the observational data has been realized through the use of wireless sensor network technology. The observation and information systems have been highly integrated, which will provide a solid foundation for establishing a research platform that integrates observation, data management, model simulation, scenario analysis and decision-making support to foster 21st-century watershed science in China.

  12. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  13. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme


    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  14. Comparison of single-grain and small-aliquot OSL dose estimates in < 3000 years old river sediments from South India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.J.; Jain, M.; Juyal, N.


    We report on OSL dose distributions derived from small-aliquot and single grains of quartz in young fluvial sediments sampled from the Penner River basin, South India. The single-grain dose distributions suggest that 13 out of 19 samples were well bleached. In many well-bleached samples, there wa...

  15. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin (United States)

    Chen, N. Sh.; Hu, G. Sh.; Deng, W.; Khanal, N.; Zhu, Y. H.; Han, D.


    The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and sedimentation. This paper describes the characteristics of water hazards in the basin, based on the literature review and site investigation covering hydrology, meteorology, geology, geomorphology and socio-economics. Glacial lake outbursts are a huge threat to the local population in the region and they usually further trigger landslides and debris flows. Floods are usually a result of interaction between man-made hydraulic structures and the natural environment. Debris flows are widespread and occur in clusters. Droughts tend to last over long periods and affect vast areas. Rapid population increase, the decline of ecosystems and climate change could further exacerbate various hazards in the region. The paper has proposed a set of mitigating strategies and measures. It is an arduous challenge to implement them in practice. More investigations are needed to fill in the knowledge gaps.

  16. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  17. Tectono-geomorphic indices of the Erin basin, NE Kashmir valley, India (United States)

    Ahmad, Shabir; Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Bashir; Afzal, Ahsan; Bhat, M. I.; Sultan Bhat, M.; Farooq Ahmad, Hakim; Tectonics; Natural Hazards Research Group


    The present study aims to assess the tectonic activity in the Erin basin (NE Kashmir) on the basis of several relevant geomorphic indices and field observations. We use Digital Elevation Model (SRTM) and Survey of India (SoI) topographic maps in GIS environment to compute the geomorphic indices. The indices i.e., convex hypsometric curve, high hypsometric integral value (Hi > 0.5), low basin elongation ratio (Eb = 0.17), low mountain front sinuosity values (Smf = 1.08 average), low valley floor width ratios (Vf T factor (AF 4) suggest that the area is tectonically active. Moreover, prominent irregularities (knickpoints/knickzones) along longitudinal profile of the Erin River even in homogenous resistant lithology (Panjal trap) and anomalous stream gradient index (SL) values reflect that the Erin basin is dissected by two faults (EF-1 and EF-2) with NNW-SSE and SSW-NNE trends respectively. The results of this preliminary study further substantiate the recent GPS studies, which argue that the maximum strain is accumulating in the NE part of the Kashmir Himalaya.

  18. Regionalization of flood hydrograph parameters in the Kolubara River Basin (United States)

    Drobnjak, Aleksandar; Zlatanovic, Nikola; Bozovic, Nikola; Stojkovic, Milan; Orlic Momcilovic, Aleksandra; Jelovac, Milena; Prohaska, Stevan


    The Kolubara River basin is located in the western part of Serbia. There are several hydrological and rainfall gauging stations in the basin, while a large part of the basin is ungauged. In recent years in this area floods have been a common occurrence, so it is necessary to improve the system of flood protection. The research that is presented in this study represents a hydrological aspect to strengthening flood protection. This study presents the procedure of regionalization of basic flood hydrograph parameters in the Kolubara river basin. All significant observed flood waves in the basin over the past 50 years were collected, assimilated and analyzed. In this research, the method applied was based on the separation of flood hydrograph parameters, for each hydrological station: time to peak (time from the beginning of the hydrograph to its peak) (Tp), time of recession (time from the peak to the end of the recession limb) (Tr), retention time of rainfall in the catchment (tp) and time of concentration (Tc). Using these parameters and morphological characteristics of the basin, such as catchment area, the distance weighted channel slope, length of the main stream, the distance of the center of basin to the profile of each hydrological stations, regional dependencies were established. Parameters of flood hydrograph were analyzed as dependent variables, while the morphological characteristics of the basin represent independent variables. The final goal of this work is to use the obtained regional dependence for flood hydrograph parameter estimation at ungauged locations, with the end goal of improving flood protection in the Kolubara river basin.

  19. Environmental flow for Monsoon Rivers in India: The Yamuna River as a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Vikram; Singh, Diwan


    We consider the flows of Monsoon Rivers in India that will permit the river to perform all its natural functions. About 80% of the total flow for Indian rivers is during the monsoon and the remaining 20% is during the non monsoon period. By carrying out a case study of the river Yamuna in Delhi we find that at least 50% of the virgin monsoon (July to September) flow is required for the transport of the full spectrum of soil particles in the river sediment. A similar flow is needed for adequate recharge of the floodplain aquifers along river. For the non monsoon period (October to June) about 60% of the virgin flow is necessary to avoid the growth of still water algae and to support river biodiversity.

  20. Long term spatial and temporal rainfall trends and homogeneity analysis in Wainganga basin, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Taxak


    Full Text Available Gridded rainfall data of 0.5×0.5° resolution (CRU TS 3.21 was analysed to study long term spatial and temporal trends on annual and seasonal scales in Wainganga river basin located in Central India during 1901–2012. After testing the presence of autocorrelation, Mann–Kendall (Modified Mann–Kendall test was applied to non-auto correlated (auto correlated series to detect the trends in rainfall data. Theil and Sen׳s slope estimator test was used for finding the magnitude of change over a time period. For detecting the most probable change year, Pettitt–Mann–Whitney test was applied. The Rainfall series was then divided into two partial duration series for finding changes in trends before and after the change year. Arc GIS was used to explore spatial patterns of the trends over the entire basin. Though most of the grid points shows a decreasing trend in annual rainfall, only seven grids has a significant decreasing trend during 1901–2012. On the basis of seasonal trend analysis, non-significant increasing trend is observed only in post monsoon season while seven grid points show significant decreasing trend in monsoon rainfall and non-significant in pre-monsoon and winter rainfall over the last 112 years. During the study period, overall a 8.45% decrease in annual rainfall is estimated. The most probable year of change was found to be 1948 in annual and monsoonal rainfall. There is an increasing rainfall trend in the basin during the period 1901–1948, which is reversed during the period 1949–2012 resulting in decreasing rainfall trend in the basin. Homogeneous trends in annual and seasonal rainfall over a grid points is exhibited in the basin by van Belle and Hughes׳ homogeneity trend test.

  1. Break-up characteristics of Chena River Basin (United States)

    Carlson, R. F. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. Results from snowmelt model were obtained showing the decreasing changes in snow depth for four elevational ranges in the Chena River Basin. This model is based on the energy balance of the snowpack and the results are shown on attached figures. Also, the measured hydrographs for two stations on the Chena River are shown. The next phase of the study will be to analyze the model using both ERTS-1 imagery and measured field values.

  2. Performance assessment of groundwater drainage basin in small-sized mountain rivers based on DTM (United States)

    Nikitenkov, A.; Dutova, E.; Pokrovsky, D.


    The paper describes the performance assessment methods for groundwater drainage basin based on the analysis of morphometric indices of small-sized mountain river drainage basins. DTM was applied to analyze morphometric indices of drainage basins.

  3. An environmental streamflow assessment for the Santiam River basin, Oregon (United States)

    Risley, John C.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mangano, Joseph F.; Jones, Krista L.


    The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon and drains an area of 1,810 square miles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates four dams in the basin, which are used primarily for flood control, hydropower production, recreation, and water-quality improvement. The Detroit and Big Cliff Dams were constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River. The Green Peter and Foster Dams were completed in 1967 on the South Santiam River. The impacts of the structures have included a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of floods and an increase in low flows. For three North Santiam River reaches, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 42–50 percent because of regulated streamflow conditions. Likewise, for three reaches in the South Santiam River basin, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 39–52 percent because of regulation. In contrast to their effect on high flows, the dams increased low flows. The median of annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased under regulated streamflow conditions between 60 and 334 percent. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows decreased from February to May and increased from September to January in all the reaches. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from dams because of cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater entering the North, South, and main-stem Santiam Rivers below the dams. A Wilcox rank-sum test of monthly precipitation data from Salem, Oregon, and Waterloo, Oregon, found no significant difference between the pre-and post-dam periods, which suggests that the construction and operation of the dams since the 1950s and 1960s are a primary cause of alterations to the Santiam River basin streamflow regime. In addition to the streamflow analysis, this report provides a geomorphic characterization of the Santiam River basin and the associated conceptual

  4. Palaeoclimatological perspective on river basin hydrometeorology: case of the Mekong Basin (United States)

    Räsänen, T. A.; Lehr, C.; Mellin, I.; Ward, P. J.; Kummu, M.


    Globally, there have been many extreme weather events in recent decades. A challenge has been to determine whether these extreme weather events have increased in number and intensity compared to the past. This challenge is made more difficult due to the lack of long-term instrumental data, particularly in terms of river discharge, in many regions including Southeast Asia. Thus our main aim in this paper is to develop a river basin scale approach for assessing interannual hydrometeorological and discharge variability on long, palaeological, time scales. For the development of the basin-wide approach, we used the Mekong River basin as a case study area, although the approach is also intended to be applicable to other basins. Firstly, we derived a basin-wide Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA). Secondly, we compared the basin-wide PDSI with measured discharge to validate our approach. Thirdly, we used basin-wide PDSI to analyse the hydrometeorology and discharge of the case study area over the study period of 1300-2005. For the discharge-MADA comparison and hydrometeorological analyses, we used methods such as linear correlations, smoothing, moving window variances, Levene type tests for variances, and wavelet analyses. We found that the developed basin-wide approach based on MADA can be used for assessing long-term average conditions and interannual variability for river basin hydrometeorology and discharge. It provides a tool for studying interannual discharge variability on a palaeological time scale, and therefore the approach contributes to a better understanding of discharge variability during the most recent decades. Our case study revealed that the Mekong has experienced exceptional levels of interannual variability during the post-1950 period, which could not be observed in any other part of the study period. The increased variability was found to be at least partly associated with increased El Niño Southern

  5. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)


    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)


    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  7. Reduced river discharge intensifies phytoplankton bloom in Godavari estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Acharyya, T.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Sridevi, B.; Venkataramana, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Naidu, S.A.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Prasad, V.R.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Reddy, N.P.C.; DileepKumar, M.

    ) rainfall (July-September). Most of these rivers are dammed at several locations along their course for crop irrigation and domestic as well as industrial consumptive usages. Availability of fresh water in the downstream rivers and estuaries are thus...:// Cultivation of paddy, which is the major crop in India, is done during the ISM period when the rainfall is plentiful throughout the alluvial plain. Excess of the fertilizers that are applied in the field during this time is washed...

  8. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; McEnnis, S.; Berry, P. A. M.


    is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements......Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study...... to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available...

  9. Numerical representation of rainfall field in the Yarmouk River Basin (United States)

    Shentsis, Isabella; Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien; Rosenthal, Eliyahu


    Rainfall is the decisive factors in evaluating the water balance of river basins and aquifers. Accepted methods rely on interpolation and extrapolation of gauged rain to regular grid with high dependence on the density and regularity of network, considering the relief complexity. We propose an alternative method that makes up to those restrictions by taking into account additional physical features of the rain field. The method applies to areas with (i) complex plain- and mountainous topography, which means inhomogeneity of the rainfall field and (ii) non-uniform distribution of a rain gauge network with partial lack of observations. The rain model is implemented in two steps: 1. Study of the rainfall field, based on the climatic data (mean annual precipitation), its description by the function of elevation and other factors, and estimation of model parameters (normalized coefficients of the Taylor series); 2. Estimation of rainfall in each historical year using the available data (less complete and irregular versus climatic data) as well as the a-priori known parameters (by the basic hypothesis on inter-annual stability of the model parameters). The proposed method was developed by Shentsis (1990) for hydrological forecasting in Central Asia and was later adapted to the Lake Kinneret Basin. Here this model (the first step) is applied to the Yarmouk River Basin. The Yarmouk River is the largest tributary of the Jordan River. Its transboundary basin (6,833 sq. km) extends over Syria (5,257, Jordan (1,379 sq. km) and Israel (197 sq. km). Altitude varies from 1800 m (and more) to -235 m asl. The total number of rain stations in use is 36 (17 in Syria, 19 in Jordan). There is evidently lack and non-uniform distribution of a rain gauge network in Syria. The Yarmouk Basin was divided into five regions considering typical relationship between mean annual rain and elevation for each region. Generally, the borders of regions correspond to the common topographic

  10. The problem of salt waters and its influence on the rivers in the Odra river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdziorz, A.; Lach, R.; Korczak, K.; Pluta, I.; Niedziocha, Z.; Dziewulski, M.; Lach, H.; Filipek, K. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Water Protection


    Coal mining in the Odra and Wisla river basins in Poland gives rise to salination of the rivers Olza, Klodnica, Ruda and Nacyna, and Bierawka. This causes problems in use of river water for drinking water, for irrigation and for industrial applications and causes corrosion of water facilities. The paper discusses the water pollution due to mine drainage in the Odra basin and then reviews methods to reduce this (by desalination, hydrotechnological methods, hydrogeological methods (recirculation and deep roll injection), and mining methods). 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Integrated geographical research in the Khovd River basin (Mongolia) (United States)

    Mukhanova, Mariia; Syromyatina, Margarita; Kurochkin, Yuriy; Chistyakov, Kirill


    Khovd River located in the endorheic basin of Grate Lakes Depression is a main river of western Mongolia. It has more than 500 km length and runs from the glaciers of the Tavan Bogd Mountains through different vegetation zones to the terminal Khar-Us lake. The main purpose of the study is to estimate the current state and dynamics of the geosystems in this river basin as it plays a critical part in the water supply of submontane desert steppe plains of western Mongolia. One of the objectives is to understand the formation and regime of water discharge in this inland river basin with glaciation. The results are mostly based on the 2013-2016 integrated field research including glaciological, meteorological, hydrological and dendrochronological measurements as well as hydrometeorological stations' data analysis and remote sensing data acquired from satellites. Last year the main attention was given to hydrological and hydrochemical research. In summer we measured TDS concentration in 71 points throughout the stream course of Khovd River and its tributaries. TDS is changing from 0-1 ppm at glaciers to 67 ppm at river mouth and 93 ppm at Khar-Us lake. The hydrochemical analysis shows that the water type is changing from hydrocarbonate-calcium at the beginning of the river to the sulfate-calcium at the mouth. Glaciers play a crucial role in feeding the river only in its upper part. Glaciological study revealed that the areas of the main glaciers were not much changed since 1989, while the glacier tongue regression was fixed. The total glacier area decreased approximately by 4.5 % in the Tsagaan-Gol basin and by 6.9 % in the Tsagaan-Us basin from 1989 to 2013. Large glaciers were retreating at an average rate of 28-34 m/year between 2001 and 2014. The hydrometeorological data analysis shows that most of the catchment area is characterized by aridization tendency for the last 10 years. This fact is well confirmed by the dendrochronological streamflow reconstruction of the

  12. Uncertainty in future high flows in Qiantang River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Y.; Booij, Martijn J.; Wang, G.


    Uncertainties in high flows originating from greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, hydrological model structures, and their parameters for the Jinhua River basin, China, were assessed. The baseline (1961–90) and future (2011–40) climates for A1B, A2, and B2 scenarios were downscaled from the general

  13. Spatial hydrological drought characteristics in Karkheh River basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Esmaeel Dodangeh


    Aug 31, 2017 ... Maryam MirAkbari3. 1. Department of Watershed Management, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran. 2 ... intervals in Karkheh River basin (southwest Iran) which is facing severe water-deficit problems. Daily ... Drought can be defined with different disciplinary perspectives.

  14. Stable isotope characteristics of precipitation of Pamba River basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isotope Hydrology Division, Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, .... 5.9% by fallow lands. 2.1 Climate. The Pamba River basin experiences ∼3000 mm of rainfall per year. The south-west and north- east monsoons have great influence over the cli- ..... precipitation per 100 m of elevation change.

  15. Invertebrates of the Columbia River basin assessment area. (United States)

    Christine G. Niwa; Roger E. Sandquist; Rod Crawford; et al.


    A general background on functional groups of invertebrates in the Columbia River basin and how they affect sustainability and productivity of their ecological communities is presented. The functional groups include detritivores, predators, pollinators, and grassland and forest herbivores. Invertebrate biodiversity and species of conservation interest are discussed....

  16. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E


    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched...

  17. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utilizing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) tools, mineral composite characteristics (ferrous minerals (FM), iron oxide (IO), and clay minerals (CM)) of the Kelkit River Basin (15913.07 km2) in Turkey were investigated and mapped. Mineral composite (MC) index maps were produced from three ...

  18. Digital atlas of the upper Washita River basin, southwestern Oklahoma (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.; Masoner, Jason R.; Scott, Jonathon C.


    Numerous types of environmental data have been collected in the upper Washita River basin in southwestern Oklahoma. However, to date these data have not been compiled into a format that can be comprehensively queried for the purpose of evaluating the effects of various conservation practices implemented to reduce agricultural runoff and erosion in parts of the upper Washita River basin. This U.S. Geological Survey publication, 'Digital atlas of the upper Washita River basin, southwestern Oklahoma' was created to assist with environmental analysis. This atlas contains 30 spatial data sets that can be used in environmental assessment and decision making for the upper Washita River basin. This digital atlas includes U.S. Geological Survey sampling sites and associated water-quality, biological, water-level, and streamflow data collected from 1903 to 2005. The data were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database on September 29, 2005. Data sets are from the Geology, Geography, and Water disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey and cover parts of Beckham, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Kiowa, and Washita Counties in southwestern Oklahoma. A bibliography of past reports from the U.S. Geological Survey and other State and Federal agencies from 1949 to 2004 is included in the atlas. Additionally, reports by Becker (2001), Martin (2002), Fairchild and others (2004), and Miller and Stanley (2005) are provided in electronic format.

  19. The Rotifera Fauna Of Gongola River Basin, Northeast Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to characterize the taxa composition, distribution pattern and the abundance of rotifers in surface waterbodies in the Gongola basin of Nigeria, West Africa. It was based on the analysis of net zooplankton samples collected from the River Gongola, its flow-through reservoirs, borrow-pit ponds and ...

  20. Land ownership patterns in the Tanana River basin, Alaska, 1984. (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees


    Aerial photo sampling coupled with information taken on the ground provided data for development of estimates of land and forest area by ownership group within the boundaries of the 1971-75 Tanana River Basin timber inventory unit, Alaska. Area of privately owned timberland is estimated at 280,634 acres (113 569 hectares).

  1. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus


    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  2. How well will SWOT observe global river basins? (United States)

    Fisher, C. K.; Pan, M.; Wood, E. F.


    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is designed to provide global observations of water surface elevation and slope from which river discharge can be estimated using a data assimilation system. This mission will provide increased spatial and temporal coverage compared to current altimeters, with an expected accuracy for water level elevations of 10 cm on rivers greater than 100 m wide. Within the 21-day repeat cycle, a river reach will be observed 2-4 times on average. Due to the relationship between the basin orientation and the orbit, these observations may not be evenly distributed in time, which can impact the derived discharge values. There is, then, a need for a better understanding of how the mission will observe global river basins. In this study, we investigate how SWOT will observe 32 global river basins and how the temporal sampling impacts the discharge estimated from assimilation. SWOT observations can be assimilated using the Inverse Streamflow Routing (ISR) model of Pan and Wood [2013] with a fixed interval Kalman smoother. Previous work has shown that the ISR assimilation method can be used to reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of discharge within many global basins: however, this performance was strongly impacted by the spatial and temporal availability of discharge observations. In this study, we apply the ISR method to basins with different geometries and crossing patterns for the future orbit. For each basin, three synthetic experiments are carried out. These are: (1) assimilating in-situ gauges only, (2) using in-situ gauges and SWOT-retrieved "gauges", and (3) using SWOT-retrieved "gauges" only. Results show that the model performance varies significantly across basins and is driven by the orientation, flow distance, and travel time in each. Based on these properties, we classify the "observability" of each basin and relate this to the performance of the ISR method. Finally, we attempt to improve the ISR performance

  3. Inter-basin water transfer: case studies from Australia, United States, Canada, China, and India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghassemi, F; White, I


    ... operating in these countries. It examines the water resources of Australia, the driest inhabited continent, and explores inter-basin water transfer projects in the United States, Canada, China and India, examining their benefits...

  4. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi


    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  6. Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Pandya


    Full Text Available The Mahi river estuary is one of the major estuaries of Gujarat. This paper presents a comprehensive list of birds of the Mahi river estuary (nearly 50 km stretch and the adjacent banks/ravines and defines the avian diversity at three major estuarine gradations with a brief check of similarity and diversity within the three. The present observation is the outcome of a 3 year period from August 2006 to July 2009. A sum total of 118 species belonging to 42 families were reported and listed as on Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream of estuary. No significant difference was seen in the species richness at the three zones; a change in avian composition at upstream and downstream was notable.

  7. Isotopic fingerprint of the middle Olt River basin, Romania. (United States)

    Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Axente, Damian


    One of the most important tributaries of the Danube River in Romania, the Olt River, was characterized in its middle catchment in terms of the isotopic composition using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Throughout a period of 10 months, from November 2010 to August 2011, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected in order to investigate the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the basin waters. The results revealed a significant difference between the Olt River and its tributaries, by the fact that the Olt River waters show smaller seasonal variations in the stable isotopic composition and are more depleted in (18)O and (2)H. The waters present an overall enrichment in heavy isotopes during the warm seasons.

  8. Estimation of Continental-Basin-Scale Sublimation in the Lena River Basin, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Suzuki


    Full Text Available The Lena River basin in Siberia produces one of the largest river inflows into the Arctic Ocean. One of the most important sources of runoff to the river is spring snowmelt and therefore snow ablation processes have great importance for this basin. In this study, we simulated these processes with fine resolution at basin scale using MicroMet/SnowModel and SnowAssim. To assimilate snow water equivalent (SWE data in SnowAssim, we used routine daily snow depth data and Sturm’s method. Following the verification of this method for SWE estimation in the basin, we evaluated the impact of snow data assimilation on basin-scale snow ablation. Through validation against MODIS snow coverage data and in situ snow survey observations, we found that SnowAssim could not improve on the original simulation by MicroMet/SnowModel because of estimation errors within the SWE data. Vegetation and accumulated snowfall control the spatial distribution of sublimation and we established that sublimation has an important effect on snow ablation. We found that the ratio of sublimation to snowfall in forests was around 26% and that interannual variation of sublimation modulated spring river runoff.

  9. Hydrological modeling of the Mun River basin in Thailand (United States)

    Akter, Aysha; Babel, Mukand S.


    SummarySources of pollution in river basins are increasing due to rapid changes in land uses and excessive nutrient application to crops which lead to degraded instream water quality. In this connection, the Mun River basin, one of the important and largest river basins in Thailand, has been studied. Comparative figures of nutrients in the Mun's water over a decade showed an increased total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) ratio in the Lower Mun region (TN:TP > 14). Laboratory analysis of weekly water samples showed a realistic nutrient response when daily rainfall was compared to the seasonal water quality data collected by the Pollution Control Department (PCD). The Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was calibrated and used to assess the effects of different land uses on river water quality. Model parameters related to hydrology and sediment were calibrated and validated using relevant measurements by the Royal Irrigation Department (RID). With a reasonable and acceptable model performance (r2 = 0.62), the highest simulated runoff was observed in urban areas. The trend of agricultural land (as a percentage of total area) - total nitrogen showed a linear relationship of a good correlation (i.e. r2 = 0.85). Based on the findings, it can be concluded that this model is expected to provide vital information for developing suitable land management policies and strategies to improve river water quality.

  10. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil. (United States)

    Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S


    The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts.

  11. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  12. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin (United States)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.


    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  13. Flood forecasting and alert system for Arda River basin (United States)

    Artinyan, Eram; Vincendon, Beatrice; Kroumova, Kamelia; Nedkov, Nikolai; Tsarev, Petko; Balabanova, Snezhanka; Koshinchanov, Georgy


    The paper presents the set-up and functioning of a flood alert system based on SURFEX-TOPODYN platform for the cross-border Arda River basin. The system was built within a Bulgarian-Greek project funded by the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) Programme and is in operational use since April 2014. The basin is strongly influenced by Mediterranean cyclones during the autumn-winter period and experiences dangerous rapid floods, mainly after intensive rain, often combined with snow melt events. The steep mountainous terrain leads to floods with short concentration time and high river speed causing damage to settlements and infrastructure. The main challenge was to correctly simulate the riverflow in near-real time and to timely forecast peak floods for small drainage basins below 100 km2 but also for larger ones of about 1900 km2 using the same technology. To better account for that variability, a modification of the original hydrological model parameterisation is proposed. Here we present the first results of a new model variant which uses dynamically adjusted TOPODYN river velocity as function of the computed partial streamflow discharge. Based on historical flooding data, river sections along endangered settlements were included in the river flow forecasting. A continuous hydrological forecast for 5 days ahead was developed for 18 settlements in Bulgaria and for the border with Greece, thus giving enough reaction time in case of high floods. The paper discusses the practical implementation of models for the Arda basin, the method used to calibrate the models' parameters, the results of the calibration-validation procedure and the way the information system is organised. A real case of forecasted rapid floods that occurred after the system's finalisation is analysed. One of the important achievements of the project is the on-line presentation of the forecasts that takes into account their temporal variability and uncertainty. The web presentation includes a

  14. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Z; Liu, J.; Koeneman, P.H.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this

  15. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Z.; Liu, J.; Koeneman, P.H.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this

  16. A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River


    Kuok K. Kuok; Sobri Harun; Po-Chan Chiu


    Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP) that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water&#...

  17. Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana


    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river and artificial lakes, built in its river basin, according to the data of Republic Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia. Also, it will be present polluter cadastre in river basin.

  18. Geohydrologic summary of the Pearl River basin, Mississippi and Louisiana (United States)

    Lang, Joseph W.


    Fresh water in abundance is contained in large artesian reservoirs in sand and gravel deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary ages in the Pearl River basin, a watershed of 8,760 square miles. Shallow, water-table reservoirs occur in Quarternary deposits (Pleistocene and Holocene) that blanket most of the uplands in .the southern half of the basin and that are present in smaller upland areas and along streams elsewhere. The shallow reservoirs contribute substantially to dry-weather flow of the Strong River and Bogue Chitto and of Holiday, Lower Little, Silver, and Whitesand Creeks, among others. About 3 billion acre-feet of ground water is in storage in the fresh-water section, which extends from the surface to depths ranging from about sea level in the extreme northern part of the basin to more than 3,000 feet below sea level in the southern part of the basin. Variations in low flow for different parts of the river basin are closely related to geologic terrane and occurrence of ground water. The upland terrace belt that crosses the south-central part of the basin is underlain by permeable sand and gravel deposits and yields more than 0.20 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area to streamflow, whereas the northern part of the basin, underlain by clay, marl, and fine to medium sand, yields less than 0.05 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area (based on 7-day Q2 minimum flow computed from records). Overall, the potential surface-water supplies are large. Because water is available at shallow depths, most of the deeper aquifers have not been developed anywhere in the basin. At many places in the south, seven or more aquifers could be developed either by tapping one sand in each well or by screening two or more sands in a single well. Well fields each capable, of producing several million gallons of water a day are feasible nearly anywhere in the Pearl River basin. Water in nearly all the aquifers is of good to excellent quality and requires

  19. Driver detection of water quality trends across Mediterranean river basins (United States)

    Diamantini, Elena; Lutz, Stefanie; Mallucci, Stefano; Majone, Bruno; Merz, Ralf; Bellin, Alberto


    In this study, thirteen physicochemical surficial water variables and four drivers (i.e. monthly aggregated air temperature and streamflow, population density and percentage of agricultural land use) were analysed in three large Mediterranean river basins (i.e. Adige, Ebro, Sava). In particular, the purpose of the analysis is to identify how indicators of water quality and drivers of change coevolve in three large river basins representing the diversity of climatic, soil and water uses conditions observed in southern Europe. Spearman rank correlation, principal component analysis, Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen's Slope estimator were performed in order to (i) analyse long-term time series of water quality data during the period 1990-2015, (ii) detect links between variables patterns and drivers and (iii) compare the river basins under investigation with respect to their vulnerability and resilience to the identified drivers of change. Results show that air temperature, considered as a proxy of climate change, has a significant impact in all basins but in particular in the Adige and Ebro: positive trends of water temperature and negative for dissolved oxygen are found to be correlated with upward trends of air temperatures. The aquatic ecosystems of these rivers are therefore experiencing a reduction in oxygen, which may further worsen in the future given the projected increase of temperature for this century. At the same time, monthly streamflow has been shown to reduce in the Ebro River, thereby decreasing the beneficial effect of dilution, as appears evident from the observed upward patterns of chloride concentration and electrical conductivity. Upward trends of chloride and biological oxygen demand in the Adige and Sava and positive trends of phosphate in the Adige are related to the increase of population and finally phosphates in the Sava and biological oxygen demand in the Ebro are highly correlated with agricultural land use. The study showed the complex

  20. The main factors of water pollution in Danube River basin

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    Carmen Gasparotti


    Full Text Available The paper proposed herewith aims to give an overview on the pollution along the Danube River. Water quality in Danube River basin (DRB is under a great pressure due to the diverse range of the human activities including large urban center, industrial, agriculture, transport and mining activities. The most important aspects of the water pollution are: organic, nutrient and microbial pollution, , hazardous substances, and hydro-morphological alteration. Analysis of the pressures on the Danube River showed that a large part of the Danube River is subject to multiple pressures and there are important risks for not reaching good ecological status and good chemical status of the water in the foreseeable future. In 2009, the evaluation based on the results of the Trans National Monitoring Network showed for the length of water bodies from the Danube River basin that 22% achieved good ecological status or ecological potential and 45% river water bodies achieved good chemical status. Another important issue is related to the policy of water pollution.

  1. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.


    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  2. Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, South China Sea: Implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia (United States)

    Lei, Chao; Ren, Jianye; Sternai, Pietro; Fox, Matthew; Willett, Sean; Xie, Xinong; Clift, Peter D.; Liao, Jihua; Wang, Zhengfeng


    The temporal link between offshore stratigraphy and onshore topography is of key importance for understanding the long-term surface evolution of continental margins. Here we present a grid of regional, high-quality reflection seismic and well data to characterize the basin structure. We identify fast subsidence of the basin basement and a lack of brittle faulting of the offshore Red River fault in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin since 5.5 Ma, despite dextral strike-slip movement on the onshore Red River fault. We calculate the upper-crustal, whole-crustal, and whole-lithospheric stretching factors for the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, which show that the overall extension observed in the upper crust is substantially less than that observed for the whole crust or whole lithosphere. We suggest that fast basement subsidence after 5.5 Ma may arise from crustal to lithospheric stretching by the regional dynamic lower crustal/mantle flow originated by collision between India-Eurasia and Indian oceanic subduction below the Eurasian margin. In addition, we present a basin wide sediment budget in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin to reconstruct the sedimentary flux from the Red River drainage constrained by high-resolution age and seismic stratigraphic data. The sediment accumulation rates show a sharp increase at 5.5 Ma, which suggests enhanced onshore erosion rates despite a slowing of tectonic processes. This high sediment supply filled the accommodation space produced by the fast subsidence since 5.5 Ma. Our data further highlight two prominent sharp decreases of the sediment accumulation at 23.3 Ma and 12.5 Ma, which could reflect a loss of drainage area following headwater capture from the Paleo-Red River. However, the low accumulation rate at 12.5 Ma also correlates with drier and therefore less erosive climatic conditions.

  3. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.


    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  4. Susquehanna River Basin Flood Control Review Study (United States)


    Economy 31 Flood Damages 31 Water Use 33 Power Supply 39 Recreation Resources 41 Existing Plans and Improvements 43 Reservoirs 43 Upstream Watershed...a broadview of the overall study. Included in the report is a descrirption of the basin resources and economy ; problems and needs; the evaluation and...accompanied by heavy showers and thundershowers. Tropical Storm Agnes, which had originated days earlier as a tropical depression of the Yucatan

  5. Characterization and evolution of primary and secondary laterites in northwestern Bengal Basin, West Bengal, India

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    Sandipan Ghosh


    Full Text Available It is quite impossible to travel far in India without observing the remarkable ferruginous crust to which Buchanan in 1807 gave the name of laterite. In Indian peninsula, it is a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession with a polycyclic nature of evolution which marks the unconformity with recent Quaternary alluvium. There are perennial problems and research gaps in the investigation of laterites in India as well as in West Bengal: (1 defining, identifying and classifying lateritic materials, (2 mode of formation of laterite and its other horizons, (3 determining the ages of laterites, (4 reliability of laterites as palaeoclimatic indicators, (5 identifying topographic requirements and pedogeomorphic processes for laterite formation, and (6 reconstructions of former lateritized landscapes. The formation of north‒south lateritic hard crust (i.e. Rarh Bengal on the Rajmahal Basalt Traps, Archean granite‒gneiss, Gondwana sediments, Paleogene gravels and older deltaic alluvium is analyzed here to resolve the aforesaid problems and to depict the variable characteristics of laterites with special reference to its tectono-climatic evolution in the northwestern marginal part of Bengal Basin. This paper reveals that the low-level secondary laterites (probably the Pliocene‒Early Pleistocene age of Rarh Bengal are composed of heterogeneous Fe‒Al rich gravelly materials which were derived from the high-level primary laterites (probably the Eocene‒Miocene age of plateau since the Paleogene Period by the peninsular river system, following the underlying structure of Bengal Basin. Alongside the roles of drifting of Indian Plate, establishment of monsoon climate, neo-tectonic uplifts and re-lateritization of ferruginous shelf deposits are determined here to unearth the palaeogenesis of primary and secondary laterites in West Bengal.

  6. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study (United States)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.


    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in

  7. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15771 Athens (Greece); Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, C/ Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain)


    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification.

  8. Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River drainage basin, southeast Minnesota, and the St. Louis River drainage basin, northeast Minnesota (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Jacobsen, Katrin E.


    Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River and St. Louis River drainage basins were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Legislative-Citizen Commission on Minnesota Resources, to illustrate relative and cumulative streamflow distributions. The Cannon River was selected to provide baseline data to assess the effects of potential surficial sand mining, and the St. Louis River was selected to determine the effects of ongoing Mesabi Iron Range mining. Each drainage basin (Cannon, St. Louis) was subdivided into nested drainage basins: the Cannon River was subdivided into 152 nested drainage basins, and the St. Louis River was subdivided into 353 nested drainage basins. For each smaller drainage basin, the estimated volumes of groundwater discharge (as base flow) and surface runoff flowing into all surface-water features were displayed under the following conditions: (1) extreme low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.95; (2) low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.90; (3) a median condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.50; and (4) a high-flow condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.02.Streamflow distribution maps were developed using flow-duration curve exceedance-probability quantiles in conjunction with Soil-Water-Balance model outputs; both the flow-duration curve and Soil-Water-Balance models were built upon previously published U.S. Geological Survey reports. The selected streamflow distribution maps provide a proactive water management tool for State cooperators by illustrating flow rates during a range of hydraulic conditions. Furthermore, after the nested drainage basins are highlighted in terms of surface-water flows, the streamflows can be evaluated in the context of meeting specific ecological flows under different flow regimes and potentially assist with decisions regarding groundwater and surface

  9. Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011 (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie


    Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards

  10. Decapod crustaceans of the Sinu River Basin, Cordoba, Colombia

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    Jorge Alexander Quirós Rodríguez


    Full Text Available To review the composition, abundance and distribution of decapod crustaceans in the Sinu river basin, Department of Cordoba (Colombia eight locations were studied: four on the Sinu River and four in the Low Complex Swampy Sinu. For that, six samplings between April 2005 and May 2006 were made. In total 458 decapod crustaceans were recorded distributed into three families, six genus and eight species. The family best represented was Trichodactylidae with four genus and four species, followed by Palaemonidae with one genus and three species, while family Atyidae recorded only one species. Species such as Macrobrachium carcinus and M. acanthurus presented the wider range of distribution for both the Sinu River as the  Low Complex Swampy Sinu.  Among the identified species Atya crassa in the Sinu River and Trichodactylus quinquedentatus in the Low Complex Swampy Sinu are new records for the Department of Cordoba.

  11. LBA-ECO LC-02 Tributary Coordinates, Acre River, Tri-national River Basin: 2003-2004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides coordinates for points at the mouth of tributaries of the Acre River in the Tri-national River Basin in South America. Three Global...

  12. LBA-ECO LC-02 Tributary Coordinates, Acre River, Tri-national River Basin: 2003-2004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides coordinates for points at the mouth of tributaries of the Acre River in the Tri-national River Basin in South America. Three Global...

  13. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro


    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  14. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India (United States)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.


    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  15. Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova (United States)

    Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm


    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient

  16. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.


    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  17. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998 (United States)

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.


    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asia Čičić-Močić


    Full Text Available The first detailed investigation of Gastropods in the basin of river Fojnička has been carried out in 2001–2002. The material has been sampled five times during four seasons (October 2001–September 2002 at 11 sites in the following waterways: the rivers Fojnička, Dragača, Željeznica, Kreševka and Lepenica. Measurement of certain physical and chemical parameters (BOD5, water temperature, pH value, amount of dissolved oxygen, saturation with oxygen and one time measurement of concentration of nitrates and phosphates has been carried out together with collecting of macroinvertebrates of zoobenthos. Since the knowledge of biodiversity of Gastropods in Bosnia and Herzegovina is at the very low level, the main objective of this paper is to give an overview of distribution of Gastropods communities in the Fojnička river basin. In these investigations, 11 taxa of Gastropods and 1468 individuals have been determined. The Gastropods made 16% of total settlement of macroinvertebrates of zoobenthos. Dominant species at investigated sites was Ancylus fluviatilis, while species Acicula sp., Saxurinator sp. and Valvata piscinalis were just sporadically recorded. The largest number of individuals (657 and largest number of species (eight was recorded at the mouth of the river Fojnička into the river Bosna.

  19. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey (United States)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan


    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  20. Helminth parasites of freshwater fishes, Nazas River basin, northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León, G. Pérez-Ponce


    Full Text Available This paper represents the first study of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from the Nazas River basinin northern Mexico. Between July 2005 and December 2008, 906 individual fish were collected and examined for helminthparasites in 23 localities along the river basin. Twenty-three species of fish were examined as a part of this inventory work.In total, 41 helminth species were identified: 19 monogeneans, 10 digeneans, seven cestodes, one acanthocephalan, andfour nematodes. The biogeographical implications of our findings are briefly discussed.

  1. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.


    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  2. Water quality in Una River Basin – Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Silva Tavares


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the lower portion of Una River Basin, Pernambuco, by means of analysis of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The monitoring was conducted among October 2013 and March 2014. Sampling locations were in the cities of Catende, Palmares and Água Preta, selecting three collection points in each district. Parameters analyzed: temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, potassium, pH, total phosphorus, thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia Coli. The results showed the water quality in the Basin Una River is outside of CONAMA standars Resolution 357/2005 for fresh water Class II parameters: dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphorus, thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia Coli. Potassium concentration shows the discharge of effluents from the processing of sugar cane in the hydrous body did not affect the quality of the water. The main contamination source of water was the release of domestic sewage.

  3. Nutrient attenuation in rivers and streams, Puget Sound Basin, Washington (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Black, Robert W.


    Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are important for aquatic ecosystem health. Excessive amounts of nutrients, however, can make aquatic ecosystems harmful for biota because enhanced growth and decay cycles of aquatic algae can reduce dissolved oxygen in the water. In Puget Sound marine waters, low dissolved oxygen concentrations are observed in a number of marine nearshore areas, and nutrients have been identified as a major stressor to the local ecosystem. Delivery of nutrients from major rivers in the Puget Sound Basin to the marine environment can be large. Therefore, it is important to identify factors related to how nutrients are retained (attenuated) within streams and rivers in the Puget Sound Basin. Physical, chemical, and biological factors related to nutrient attenuation were identified through a review of related scientific literature.

  4. Water Resources Development in the Mbuluzi River Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mbuluzi river basin originates in Swaziland and exits in Mozambique. The mean annual runoff is estimated to be 372x10 m. The highest recorded flow is 68m/s while the lowest flow is 1.1m/s. The current water demand is estimated to be 8.14m/s while the projected water demand excluding irrigation water demand is ...

  5. River Basin Management Plans - Institutional framework and planning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pia; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth


    The report it a deliverable to the Waterpraxis project, based on research carried out in WP3. It is based on country reports from analyses of water planning in one river basin district in each of the countries Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany and Denmark, and it compares the in...... the institutional set-up, the public participation and the potentials and barriers for implementing the water plans....

  6. Shifts in historical streamflow extremes in the Colorado River Basin


    Kurt C. Solander; Katrina E. Bennett; Richard S. Middleton


    The global phenomenon of climate change-induced shifts in precipitation leading to “wet regions getting wetter” and “dry regions getting drier” has been widely studied. However, the propagation of these changes in atmospheric moisture within stream channels is not a direct relationship due to differences in the timing of how changing precipitation patterns interact with various land surfaces. Streamflow is of particular interest in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) due to the region’s rapidly gr...

  7. Kankakee River Basin: Evaluation of Sediment Management Strategies (United States)


    basin, and development of a SIAM model from an existing US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center, River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ...4 SIAM Model A SIAM model was developed from an existing calibrated HEC - RAS model provided by the Rock Island District. The limits of the HEC - RAS ...model are shown in Figure 4.1. No further effort was made to verify the calibration of the HEC - RAS model. The estimated sediment loads were used to

  8. Mercury pollution in the Upper Beni River, Amazonian basin : Bolivia


    Maurice Bourgoin, Laurence; Quiroga, I.; GUYOT,Jean-Loup; Malm, O


    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, an...

  9. Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa: The Case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa


    Kiptala, J.K.


    For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed and supplementary irrigated agriculture that rely on green water resources. Downstream, most blue water uses are confined to the river channels, mainly for hydropower and the environment. Over time ...

  10. Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China. (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui


    The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration.

  11. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Droughts in the Xijiang River Basin, China and Its Responses to Global Climatic Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Qiu


    Full Text Available The Xijiang River is a main branch of the Pearl River, the largest river in South China. Droughts in this area have seriously influenced local water resource utilization, and socio-economic development. The spatiotemporal distribution of droughts and its responses to global climatic events are of critical significance for the assessment and early warning of drought disasters. In this paper, the spatiotemporal patterns of droughts characterized by Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function/Rotated Principal Components (REOF/RPC in the Xijiang River Basin, China were evaluated using the Self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (Sc-PDSI. The drought responses to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, India Ocean Dipole (IOD, and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO were analysed by Pearson correlation and multiple stepwise regression. The results showed that one year earlier NAO was the dominant factor impacting the droughts in the Xijiang Basin. Its contribution for the RPC2s of the annual, the first and second half years, winter, summer, autumn, and February were −0.556, −0.419, 0.597, −0.447, 0.542, 0.600, and −0.327, respectively. Besides the two adjacent Pacific and India oceans, the droughts seem be influenced by distant Atlantic climatic events. These results offer new reference insights into the early warning of droughts as well as the planning and management of water resources in the study area.

  12. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jingjing


    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  13. Global Overview On Delivery Of Sediment To The Coast From Tropical River Basins (United States)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Kettner, A. J.; Brakenridge, G. R.


    Depending on definition, the tropics occupy between 16% and 19% of the earth's land surface, and discharge ~18.5% of the earth's fluvial water runoff. These flow regimes are driven by three types of sub-regional climate: rainforest, monsoon, and savannah. Even though the tropics include extreme precipitation events, particularly for the SE Asian islands, the general rainfall pattern alternates between wet and dry seasons as the ITCZ follows the sun and where annual monsoonal rain occurs. ITCZ convective rainfall is the dominant style of precipitation but this can be influenced by rare intra-tropical cyclone events, and by atmospheric river events set up by strong monsoonal conditions. Though a rainy season is normal (for example, portions of India discharge in summer may reach 50 times that of winter), the actual rainfall events are in the form of short bursts of precipitation (hours to days) separated by periods of dry (hours to weeks). Some areas of the tropics receive more than 100 thunderstorms per year. Rivers respond to this punctuated weather by seasonal flooding. For the smaller island nations and locales (e.g. Indonesia, Philippines, Borneo, Hainan, PNG, Madagascar, Hawaii, Taiwan) flash floods are common. Larger tropical river systems (Niger, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Congo, Amazon, Orinoco, Magdalena) show typical seasonally modulated discharges. The sediment flux from tropical rivers is approximately 17% to 19% of the global total - however individual river basins offer a wide range in sediment yields reflecting highly variable differences in their hinterland lithology, tectonic activity and volcanism, land-sliding, and relief. Human influences also greatly influence the range for tropical river sediment yield. Some SE Asian Rivers continue to be greatly affected by deforestation, road construction, and monoculture plantations. Sediment flux is more than twice the pre-Anthropocene flux in many of these SE Asian countries, especially where dams and reservoir

  14. Hydrological assessment of TRMM rainfall data over Yangtze River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-he Gu


    Full Text Available High-quality rainfall information is critical for accurate simulation of runoff and water cycle processes on the land surface. In situ monitoring of rainfall has a very limited utility at the regional and global scale because of the high temporal and spatial variability of rainfall. As a step toward overcoming this problem, microwave remote sensing observations can be used to retrieve the temporal and spatial rainfall coverage because of their global availability and frequency of measurement. This paper addresses the question of whether remote sensing rainfall estimates over a catchment can be used for water balance computations in the distributed hydrological model. The TRMM 3B42V6 rainfall product was introduced into the hydrological cycle simulation of the Yangtze River Basin in South China. A tool was developed to interpolate the rain gauge observations at the same temporal and spatial resolution as the TRMM data and then evaluate the precision of TRMM 3B42V6 data from 1998 to 2006. It shows that the TRMM 3B42V6 rainfall product was reliable and had good precision in application to the Yangtze River Basin. The TRMM 3B42V6 data slightly overestimated rainfall during the wet season and underestimated rainfall during the dry season in the Yangtze River Basin. Results suggest that the TRMM 3B42V6 rainfall product can be used as an alternative data source for large-scale distributed hydrological models.

  15. Water resources in the Blackstone River basin, Massachusetts (United States)

    Walker, Eugene H.; Krejmas, Bruce E.


    The Blackstone River heads in brooks 6 miles northwest of Worcester and drains about 330 square miles of central Massachusetts before crossing into Rhode Island at Woonsocket. The primary source of the Worcester water supply is reservoirs, but for the remaining 23 communities in the basin, the primary source is wells. Bedrock consists of granitic and metamorphic rocks. Till mantles the uplands and extends beneath stratified drift in the valleys. Stratified glacial drift, consisting of clay, silt, and fine sand deposited in lakes and coarse-textured sand and gravel deposited by streams, is found in lowlands and valleys. The bedrock aquifer is capable of sustaining rural domestic supplies throughout the Blackstone River basin. Bedrock wells yield an average of 10 gallons per minute, but some wells, especially those in lowlands where bedrock probably contains more fractures and receives more recharge than in the upland areas, yield as much as 100 gallons per minute. Glacial sand and gravel is the principal aquifer. It is capable of sustaining municipal supplies. Average daily pumpage from this aquifer in the Blackstone River basin was 10.4 million gallons per day in 1978. The median yield of large-diameter wells in the aquifer is 325 gallons per minute. The range of yields from these wells is 45 to 3,300 gallons per minute. The median specific capacity is about 30 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown.

  16. Impact of climate change and agricultural developments in the Taquari River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Jonker, R.N.J.; Padovani, C.; Soriano, B.; Galdino, S.


    The Pantanal wetland is part of the Upper Paraguay River basin. The major driving force of the wetland system is the annual oscillation between dry and wet seasons. This study focussed on the Taquari basin, a tributary of the Paraguay River, where erosion takes place and parts of the river silt up,

  17. Sustainable Land Management in the Lim River Basin (United States)

    Grujic, Gordana; Petkovic, Sava; Tatomir, Uros


    In the cross-border belt between Serbia and Montenegro are located more than one hundred torrential water flows that belong to the Lim River Basin. Under extreme climate events they turned into floods of destructive power and great energy causing enormous damage on the environment and socio-economic development in the wider region of the Western Balkans. In addition, anthropogenic factors influence the land instability, erosion of river beds and loss of topsoil. Consequently, this whole area is affected by pluvial and fluvial erosion of various types and intensity. Terrain on the slopes over 5% is affected by intensive degree of erosion, while strong to medium degree covers 70% of the area. Moreover, in the Lim River Basin were built several hydro-energetic systems and accumulations which may to a certain extent successfully regulate the water regime downstream and to reduce the negative impact on the processes of water erosion. However, siltation of accumulation reduces their useful volume and threatens the basic functions (water reservoirs), especially those ones for water supply, irrigation and energy production that have lost a significant part of the usable volume due to accumulated sediments. Facing the negative impacts of climate change and human activities on the process of land degradation in the Lim River basin imposes urgent need of adequate preventive and protective measures at the local and regional level, which can be effectively applied only through enhanced cross-border cooperation among affected communities in the region. The following set of activities were analyzed to improve the actual management of river catchment: Identifying priorities in the spatial planning, land use and water resources management while respecting the needs of local people and the communities in the cross border region; development of cooperation and partnership between the local population, owners and users of real estate (pastures, agricultural land, forests, fisheries

  18. The Water Footprint of Agriculture in Duero River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel de Miguel


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF of crops in the Duero river basin. For this purpose CWUModel was developed. CWUModel is able to estimate the green and blue water consumed by crops and the water needed to assimilate the nitrogen leaching resulting from fertilizer application. The total WF of crops in the Spanish Duero river basin was simulated as 9473 Mm3/year (59% green, 20% blue and 21% grey. Cultivation of crops in rain-fed lands is responsible for 5548 Mm3/year of the WF (86% green and 14% grey, whereas the irrigated WF accounts for 3924 Mm3/year (20% green, 47% blue and 33% grey. Barley is the crop with the highest WF, with almost 37% of the total WF for the crops simulated for the basin, followed by wheat (17%. Although maize makes up 16% of the total WF of the basin, the blue and grey components comprise the 36% of the total blue and grey WF in the basin. The relevance of green water goes beyond the rain-fed production, to the extent that in long-cycle irrigated cereals it accounts for over 40% of the total water consumed. Nonetheless, blue water is a key component in agriculture, both for production and economically. The sustainability assessment shows that the current blue water consumption of crops causes a significant or severe water stress level in 2–5 months of the year. The anticipated expansion of irrigation in the coming years could hamper water management, despite the Duero being a relatively humid basin.

  19. Range extension of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther,1864 to the Pindaré river drainage, of Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin of northeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Cristofore Guimarães


    Full Text Available The present study reports range extansion of Moenkhausia oligolepis to the Pindaré river drainage, of the Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. This species was previously known only from Venezuela, Guianas, and the Amazon River basins. In addition, we present some meristic and morphometric data of the specimens herein examined and discuss on its diagnostic characters.

  20. Tuff beds in Kurnool subbasin, southern India and implications for felsic volcanism in Proterozoic intracratonic basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Saha


    Full Text Available A first report on tuff beds from the Owk Shale in the Proterozoic Kurnool sub-basin in southern India is presented. The rhyolitic to rhodacitic tuffs, overlying shelfal limestones formed at depths below storm wave base, have rheomorphic features indicative of viscoplastic flow, and geochemical signatures of rhyolitic to rhyodacitic unwelded to welded tuffs, similar to those described from other Proterozoic intracratonic basins like Vindhyan and Chhattisgarh basins in India. Fragmentary nature of altered glass with perlitic cracks and local admixture with intrabasinal sediments suggest phreatomagmatic reactions. The widespread and repeated occurrences of felsic tuffs in these basins, possibly derived from low degree melting of continental crust, suggest intermittent tectonothermal instability which likely influenced basinal topography and cyclic development of the carbonate platforms.

  1. Climate-driven disturbances in the San Juan River sub-basin of the Colorado River (United States)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Bohn, Theodore J.; Solander, Kurt; McDowell, Nathan G.; Xu, Chonggang; Vivoni, Enrique; Middleton, Richard S.


    Accelerated climate change and associated forest disturbances in the southwestern USA are anticipated to have substantial impacts on regional water resources. Few studies have quantified the impact of both climate change and land cover disturbances on water balances on the basin scale, and none on the regional scale. In this work, we evaluate the impacts of forest disturbances and climate change on a headwater basin to the Colorado River, the San Juan River watershed, using a robustly calibrated (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency 0.76) hydrologic model run with updated formulations that improve estimates of evapotranspiration for semi-arid regions. Our results show that future disturbances will have a substantial impact on streamflow with implications for water resource management. Our findings are in contradiction with conventional thinking that forest disturbances reduce evapotranspiration and increase streamflow. In this study, annual average regional streamflow under the coupled climate-disturbance scenarios is at least 6-11 % lower than those scenarios accounting for climate change alone; for forested zones of the San Juan River basin, streamflow is 15-21 % lower. The monthly signals of altered streamflow point to an emergent streamflow pattern related to changes in forests of the disturbed systems. Exacerbated reductions of mean and low flows under disturbance scenarios indicate a high risk of low water availability for forested headwater systems of the Colorado River basin. These findings also indicate that explicit representation of land cover disturbances is required in modeling efforts that consider the impact of climate change on water resources.

  2. Climate-driven disturbances in the San Juan River sub-basin of the Colorado River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Bohn, Theodore; Solander, Kurt; McDowell, Nate G.; Xu, Chonggang; Vivoni, Enrique; Middleton, Richard


    Accelerated climate change and associated forest disturbances in the Southwestern USA are anticipated to have substantial impacts on regional water resources. Few studies have quantified the impact of both climate change and land cover disturbances on water balances at the basin scale, and none at the regional scale. In this work, we evaluate the impacts of forest disturbances and climate change for a headwater basin to the Colorado River, the San Juan River watershed, using a robustly-calibrated (Nash Sutcliff 0.80) hydrologic model run with updated formulations that improve estimates of evapotranspiration for semi-arid regions. Our results show that future disturbances will have a substantial impact on streamflow with implications for water resource management. Our findings are in contradiction with conventional thinking that forest disturbances reduce ET and increase streamflow. In this study, annual average regional streamflow under the coupled climate-disturbances scenarios is at least 6–11% lower than those scenarios accounting for climate change alone, and for forested zones of the San Juan River basin streamflow is 15–21% lower. The monthly signals of altered streamflow point to an emergent streamflow pattern related to changes in forests of the disturbed systems. Exacerbated reductions of mean and low flows under disturbance scenarios indicate a high risk of lower water availability for forested headwater systems to the Colorado River basin. These findings also indicate that explicit representation of land cover disturbances is required in modelling efforts that consider the impact of climate change on water resources.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.


    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  4. Evaluation of TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) against terrestrial measurement over a humid sub-tropical basin, India (United States)

    Kumar, Dheeraj; Gautam, Amar Kant; Palmate, Santosh S.; Pandey, Ashish; Suryavanshi, Shakti; Rathore, Neha; Sharma, Nayan


    To support the GPM mission which is homologous to its predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), this study has been undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) daily-accumulated precipitation products for 5 years (2008-2012) using the statistical methods and contingency table method. The analysis was performed on daily, monthly, seasonal and yearly basis. The TMPA precipitation estimates were also evaluated for each grid point i.e. 0.25° × 0.25° and for 18 rain gauge stations of the Betwa River basin, India. Results indicated that TMPA precipitation overestimates the daily and monthly precipitation in general, particularly for the middle sub-basin in the non-monsoon season. Furthermore, precision of TMPA precipitation estimates declines with the decrease of altitude at both grid and sub-basin scale. The study also revealed that TMPA precipitation estimates provide better accuracy in the upstream of the basin compared to downstream basin. Nevertheless, the detection capability of daily TMPA precipitation improves with increase in altitude for drizzle rain events. However, the detection capability decreases during non-monsoon and monsoon seasons when capturing moderate and heavy rain events, respectively. The veracity of TMPA precipitation estimates was improved during the rainy season than during the dry season at all scenarios investigated. The analyses suggest that there is a need for better precipitation estimation algorithm and extensive accuracy verification against terrestrial precipitation measurement to capture the different types of rain events more reliably over the sub-humid tropical regions of India.

  5. [Comprehensive assessment on environmental quality in vulnerable ecotone of Tarim River Basin]. (United States)

    Wang, R; Song, Y; Fan, Z; You, X


    Tarim River Basin (TRB) is one of ecological environment vulnerable areas. Due to the matching of material and energy existed in some problems, the different fragility characteristics occurred obviously. According to related principles of ecological environment quality assessment, combined with ecological environment situation of Tarim River Basin, 20 indexes were selected, and the indicator system for synthetically ecological environment assessment was built. Moreover, ecological fragility index was set up, which can be used to indicate the degree of ecological environment quality in Tarim River Basin. The results were as follows: Aksu River Basin belongs to improved area. Yerkart River Basin and the upper reaches of TRB belongs to balance areas and Hetian River Basin and the middle reaches of TRB belongs to maladjustment areas. The lower reaches of TRB belongs to severe damage area. The assessment results are consonant with actual situation, which play an important function in ecological environment construction.

  6. Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa: The Case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptala, J.K.


    For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed

  7. Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa : The case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptala, J.K.


    For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed

  8. XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System

    CERN Document Server

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio


    Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

  9. The evolution and performance of river basin management in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross


    Full Text Available We explore bioregional management in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB in Australia through the institutional design characteristics of the MDB River Basin Organization (RBO, the actors and organizations who supported and resisted the establishment of the RBO, and the effectiveness of the RBO. During the last 25 years, there has been a major structural reform in the MDB RBO, which has changed from an interstate coordinating body to an Australian government agency. Responsibility for basin management has been centralized under the leadership of the Australian government, and a comprehensive integrated Basin plan has been adopted. The driving forces for this centralization include national policy to restore river basins to sustainable levels of extraction, state government difficulties in reversing overallocation of water entitlements, the millennium drought and its effects, political expediency on the part of the Australian government and state governments, and a major injection of Australian government funding. The increasing hierarchy and centralization of the MDB RBO does not follow a general trend toward multilevel participative governance of RBOs, but decentralization should not be overstated because of the special circumstances at the time of the centralization and the continuing existence of some decentralized elements, such as catchment water plans, land use planning, and water quality. Further swings in the centralization-decentralization pendulum could occur. The MDB reform has succeeded in rebalancing Basin water allocations, including an allocation for the environment and reduced diversion limits. There are some longer term risks to the implementation of reform, including lack of cooperation by state governments, vertical coordination difficulties, and perceived reductions in the accountability and legitimacy of reform at the local level. If implementation of the Basin plan is diverted or delayed, a new institution, the Commonwealth

  10. Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China. (United States)

    Li, Honghua; Shang, Hongtao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin


    The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively.

  11. Predicted riparian vegetation - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  12. Predicted channel types - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  13. 2009-2012 Indiana Statewide Imagery and LiDAR Program: Maumee River Basin Counties (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The counties comprised in this dataset have been chosen based on the relation to the Maumee River basin, a portion of the Lake Erie basin and correlated with the...

  14. LBA-ECO CD-06 Amazon River Basin Land and Stream Drainage Direction Maps (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides high-resolution (~500 m) gridded land and stream drainage direction maps for the Amazon River basin, excluding the Rio Tocantins basin. These...

  15. Fluvial bar dynamics in large meandering rivers with different sediment supply in the Amazon River basin (United States)

    Monegaglia, Federico; Zolezzi, Guido; Tubino, Marco; Henshaw, Alex


    Sediments in the large meandering rivers of the Amazon basin are known to be supplied by sources providing highly different magnitudes of sediment input and storage, ranging from the sediment-rich Andean region to the sediment-poor Central Trough. Recent observations have highlighted how such differences in sediment supply have an important, net effect on the rates of planform activity of meandering rivers in the basin, in terms of meander migration and frequency of cutoffs. In this work we quantify and discuss the effect of sediment supply on the organization of macroscale sediment bedforms on several large meandering rivers in the Amazon basin, and we link our findings with those regarding the rates of planform activity. Our analysis is conducted through the newly developed software PyRIS, which enables us to perform extensive multitemporal analysis of river morphodynamics from multispectral remotely sensed Landsat imagery in a fully automated fashion. We show that large rivers with low sediment supply tend to develop alternate bars that consistently migrate through long reaches, characterized at the same time by limited planform development. On the contrary, high sediment supply is associated with the development of point bars that are well-attached to the evolving meander bends and that follow temporal oscillations around the bend apexes, which in turn show rapid evlution towards complex meander shapes. Finally, rivers with intermediate rates of sediment supply develop rather steady point bars associated with slowly migrating, regular meanders. We finally discuss the results of the image analysis in the light of the properties of river planform metrics (like channel curvature and width) for the examined classes of river reaches with different sediment supply rates.

  16. Emergy-based energy and material metabolism of the Yellow River basin (United States)

    Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.


    The Yellow River basin is an opening ecosystem exchanging energy and materials with the surrounding environment. Based on emergy as embodied solar energy, the social energy and materials metabolism of the Yellow River basin is aggregated into emergetic equivalent to assess the level of resource depletion, environmental impact and local sustainability. A set of emergy indices are also established to manifest the ecological status of the total river basin ecosystem.

  17. Climate and basin drivers of seasonal river water temperature dynamics (United States)

    Laizé, Cédric L. R.; Bruna Meredith, Cristian; Dunbar, Michael J.; Hannah, David M.


    Stream water temperature is a key control of many river processes (e.g. ecology, biogeochemistry, hydraulics) and services (e.g. power plant cooling, recreational use). Consequently, the effect of climate change and variability on stream temperature is a major scientific and practical concern. This paper aims (1) to improve the understanding of large-scale spatial and temporal variability in climate-water temperature associations, and (2) to assess explicitly the influence of basin properties as modifiers of these relationships. A dataset was assembled including six distinct modelled climatic variables (air temperature, downward short-wave and long-wave radiation, wind speed, specific humidity, and precipitation) and observed stream temperatures for the period 1984-2007 at 35 sites located on 21 rivers within 16 basins (Great Britain geographical extent); the study focuses on broad spatio-temporal patterns, and hence was based on 3-month-averaged data (i.e. seasonal). A wide range of basin properties was derived. Five models were fitted (all seasons, winter, spring, summer, and autumn). Both site and national spatial scales were investigated at once by using multi-level modelling with linear multiple regressions. Model selection used multi-model inference, which provides more robust models, based on sets of good models, rather than a single best model. Broad climate-water temperature associations common to all sites were obtained from the analysis of the fixed coefficients, while site-specific responses, i.e. random coefficients, were assessed against basin properties with analysis of variance (ANOVA). All six climate predictors investigated play a role as a control of water temperature. Air temperature and short-wave radiation are important for all models/seasons, while the other predictors are important for some models/seasons only. The form and strength of the climate-stream temperature association vary depending on season and on water temperature. The

  18. Resilience in Transboundary Water Governance: the Okavango River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia O. Green


    Full Text Available When the availability of a vital resource varies between times of overabundance and extreme scarcity, management regimes must manifest flexibility and authority to adapt while maintaining legitimacy. Unfortunately, the need for adaptability often conflicts with the desire for certainty in legal and regulatory regimes, and laws that fail to account for variability often result in conflict when the inevitable disturbance occurs. Additional keys to resilience are collaboration among physical scientists, political actors, local leaders, and other stakeholders, and, when the commons is shared among sovereign states, collaboration between and among institutions with authority to act at different scales or with respect to different aspects of an ecological system. At the scale of transboundary river basins, where treaties govern water utilization, particular treaty mechanisms can reduce conflict potential by fostering collaboration and accounting for change. One necessary element is a mechanism for coordination and collaboration at the scale of the basin. This could be satisfied by mechanisms ranging from informal networks to the establishment of an international commission to jointly manage water, but a mechanism for collaboration at the basin scale alone does not ensure sound water management. To better guide resource management, study of applied resilience theory has revealed a number of management practices that are integral for adaptive governance. Here, we describe key resilience principles for treaty design and adaptive governance and then apply the principles to a case study of one transboundary basin where the need and willingness to manage collaboratively and iteratively is high - the Okavango River Basin of southwest Africa. This descriptive and applied approach should be particularly instructive for treaty negotiators, transboundary resource managers, and should aid program developers.

  19. Changes in groundwater recharge under projected climate in the upper Colorado River basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tillman, Fred D; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom


    Understanding groundwater‐budget components, particularly groundwater recharge, is important to sustainably manage both groundwater and surface water supplies in the Colorado River basin now and in the...

  20. Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects. (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique


    Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin.

  1. Integrated resource assessment of the Drina River Basin (United States)

    Almulla, Youssef; Ramos, Eunice; Gardumi, Francesco; Howells, Mark


    The integrated assessment and management of resources: water, energy, food and environment is of fundamental importance, yet it is a very challenging task especially when it is carried out on the transboundary level. This study focuses on the Drina River Basin (DRB) which is a transboundary basin in South East Europe spreading across Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro with a total surface area of 19,982 km2. Water resources from the Drina River Basin are shared among many activities in the basin: domestic water supply, electricity generation, fishery, tourism and, to a lesser extent, irrigation, industry and mining. The region has recently experienced repeated events of floods and droughts causing significant damage to the economy, showing a high vulnerability of the area to the effects of climate change. The assessment of the Drina River Basin is carried out in the framework of the project "Water food energy ecosystems nexus in transboundary river basins" under the UNECE Water Convention. This study aims to: 1) Improve the cooperation in the operation of dams and hydropower plants in the DRB for optimized production; 2) Explore the opportunities generated by electricity trade between the DRB countries as a mechanism to enhance cooperation and as an enabler for the synchronised operation of hydropower plants; 3) Motivate the implementation of energy efficiency measures to reduce the electricity production requirement from hydro and thermal power. In order to achieve that, a multi-country electricity system model was developed for the three countries of Drina river basin using the Open Source energy MOdelling SYStem (OSeMOSYS). The model represents the whole electricity system of each country, with special cascade representation of hydropower plants along Drina river and its tributaries. The results show that, in a scenario of synchronised operation of all power plants along Drina and its tributaries, those downstream can significantly increase their

  2. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán


    examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime

  3. Evolution of the River Basin Concept in National and International Water Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    Planning and managing the use of rivers, lakes and related groundwaters by river basin units is a 20th Century concept, expressed in law through statutes and treaties mostly within the past 50 to 75 years...

  4. Near real time water resources data for river basin management (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  5. Hydrological responses to landscape changes in Arctic river basins (United States)

    Mård, Johanna; Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia


    River discharge is an important catchment integrator of the impacts of climate-driven and other anthropogenic environmental changes across large landscape areas. Discharge changes may thus enable interpretation of which large-scale change drivers that may dominate resulting change effects on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. Changes in the latter include then precipitation, evapotranspiration and water storage changes in addition to and combination with the discharge changes over hydrological basins. Among water storage changes in the Arctic, thawing permafrost, glacier retreat, and changes in the distribution of lakes and wetlands are part of the total hydrological change, which in turn interacts with changes in Arctic ecosystems. We have investigated the patterns of lake-area and hydro-climatic changes in Arctic river basins (˜11,000-50,000 km2) and the possible influence of permafrost change reflected in such patterns. A salient change pattern emerging across all investigated basins is an opposite direction of runoff change to that of precipitation change. This contrast is explainable by apparent evapotranspiration changes that may be due to observed changes in surface water (lake) area and associated water-storage changes. This work shows that patches of local lake-area change can add up to considerable large-scale effects on evapotranspiration, runoff and associated ecosystem changes.

  6. Case Study: A Real-Time Flood Forecasting System with Predictive Uncertainty Estimation for the Godavari River, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Barbetta


    Full Text Available This work presents the application of the multi-temporal approach of the Model Conditional Processor (MCP-MT for predictive uncertainty (PU estimation in the Godavari River basin, India. MCP-MT is developed for making probabilistic Bayesian decision. It is the most appropriate approach if the uncertainty of future outcomes is to be considered. It yields the best predictive density of future events and allows determining the probability that a critical warning threshold may be exceeded within a given forecast time. In Bayesian decision-making, the predictive density represents the best available knowledge on a future event to address a rational decision-making process. MCP-MT has already been tested for case studies selected in Italian river basins, showing evidence of improvement of the effectiveness of operative real-time flood forecasting systems. The application of MCP-MT for two river reaches selected in the Godavari River basin, India, is here presented and discussed by considering the stage forecasts provided by a deterministic model, STAFOM-RCM, and hourly dataset based on seven monsoon seasons in the period 2001–2010. The results show that the PU estimate is useful for finding the exceedance probability for a given hydrometric threshold as function of the forecast time up to 24 h, demonstrating the potential usefulness for supporting real-time decision-making. Moreover, the expected value provided by MCP-MT yields better results than the deterministic model predictions, with higher Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients and lower error on stage forecasts, both in term of mean error and standard deviation and root mean square error.

  7. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zeng


    Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr−1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production. The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" (surface- and groundwater component of WF was 811 million m3 yr−1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than "green" (soil water WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

  8. Water Cycle Dynamics in the Snake River Basin, Alaska (United States)

    Busey, R.; Hinzman, L. D.


    Alaska’s Seward Peninsula is underlain in the south by areas of near-freezing, continuous and discontinuous permafrost. These conditions make it susceptible to changing climatic conditions such as acceleration of the hydrologic cycle or general atmospheric warming. This study looks at the hydrologic record of the Snake River over the mid-twentieth century through present. The Snake River basin drains an area of about 22 square kilometers into Norton Sound near the Bering Strait, off the western coast of Alaska. Climate for this area is maritime in summer and somewhat continental in winter once the sea ice forms. Hydrometeorological parameters have been measured locally for more than fifty years with temperature being measured regularly over the last 100 years. Discharge has been measured in the Snake River intermittently over that time period as well. This study looks closely at drivers of inter-annual variations in soil moisture in the basin over the observational record using a physically based numerical hydrological model. Unlike many areas of Alaska, the meteorological record at Nome, located at the mouth of the watershed, shows no statistically significant increase in precipitation over either the last 30 years or the last 100 years. However, there has been a small increase in temperature over the 100 year time period.

  9. Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Deep River and Dan River Triassic Basins, North Carolina (United States)

    Reid, Jeffrey C.; Milici, Robert C.


    This report presents an interpretation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Deep River and Dan River basins, North Carolina, based on previously unpublished organic geochemistry data. The organic geochemical data, 87 samples from 28 drill holes, are from the Sanford sub-basin (Cumnock Formation) of the Deep River basin, and from the Dan River basin (Cow Branch Formation). The available organic geochemical data are biased, however, because many of the samples collected for analyses by industry were from drill holes that contained intrusive diabase dikes, sills, and sheets of early Mesozoic age. These intrusive rocks heated and metamorphosed the surrounding sediments and organic matter in the black shale and coal bed source rocks and, thus, masked the source rock potential that they would have had in an unaltered state. In places, heat from the intrusives generated over-mature vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profiles and metamorphosed the coals to semi-anthracite, anthracite, and coke. The maximum burial depth of these coal beds is unknown, and depth of burial may also have contributed to elevated thermal maturation profiles. The organic geochemistry data show that potential source rocks exist in the Sanford sub-basin and Dan River basin and that the sediments are gas prone rather than oil prone, although both types of hydrocarbons were generated. Total organic carbon (TOC) data for 56 of the samples are greater than the conservative 1.4% TOC threshold necessary for hydrocarbon expulsion. Both the Cow Branch Formation (Dan River basin) and the Cumnock Formation (Deep River basin, Sanford sub-basin) contain potential source rocks for oil, but they are more likely to have yielded natural gas. The organic material in these formations was derived primarily from terrestrial Type III woody (coaly) material and secondarily from lacustrine Type I (algal) material. Both the thermal alteration index (TAI) and vitrinite reflectance data

  10. Carbonate platform development in a Paleoproterozoic extensional basin, Vempalle Formation, Cuddapah Basin, India (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Gopal; Shome, Debasish; Kumar, Subhasish; Stephens, George M.; Kah, Linda C.


    Sedimentological investigation of the late Paleoproterozoic (Orosirian) Vempalle Formation of the Cuddapah Basin, Dharwar craton, India, reveals three facies association that range from supratidal to deep subtidal. Sedimentary rocks of this succession are dominated by heterolithic carbonate mudstone, intraformational carbonate conglomerate, and a variety of columnar, domal, and stratiform microbialite facies. Deposition occurred in an extensional regime during development of a low-gradient ramp, where the distribution of microbialite facies is distinctly depth-partitioned. A gradual increase in synoptic relief of columnar stromatolites through the section, and the upward transition from stratiform to columnar microbialites, record a prolonged marine transgression with little or no influx of terrigenous detritus. Siliciclastic influx along the northeastern side of the shelf reflects the redistribution of topographic highs concomitant with large scale volcanic activity. Redistribution of topographic highs eventually led to progradation of peritidal facies and shutting down of the carbonate factory. Earthquake-induced ground shaking and voluminous volcanism experienced by this platform point to the reactivation of a deep-seated mantle-plume that resulted in thermal doming of the Dharwar crust prior to the onset of Cuddapah deposition. Isotopic and elemental chemistry of a selection of Vempalle Formation carbonate rocks record elevated Mn2+ and Fe2+ concentrations and depleted carbon isotope values in inner ramp lagoonal facies, relative to more open marine stromatolitic facies. Patterns of isotopic and elemental variation suggest the presence of geochemically distinct water masses-either within the water column or within substrate pore fluids-that resulted from a combination of globally low marine oxygenation and restricted oceanographic circulation in inner ramp environments. These data suggest that, even in the aftermath of Early Paleoproterozoic oxygenation, that

  11. Studies on heavy metal contamination in Godavari river basin (United States)

    Hussain, Jakir; Husain, Ikbal; Arif, Mohammed; Gupta, Nidhi


    Surface water samples from Godavari river basin was analyzed quantitatively for the concentration of eight heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analyzed data revealed that iron and zinc metals were found to be the most abundant metals in the river Godavari and its tributaries. Iron (Fe) recorded the highest, while cadmium (Cd) had the least concentration. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, iron and zinc metals are within the acceptable limit of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 1050 (2012) Specification for drinking water, pp 1-5). The analysis of Godavari river and its tributary's water samples reveals that the water is contaminated at selected points which are not suitable for drinking. Nickel and Copper concentration is above acceptable limit and other metal concentration is within the acceptable limit. Comprehensive study of the results reveals that out of 18 water quality stations monitored, water samples collected at 7 water quality stations are found to be within the permissible limit for all purposes. While Rajegaon, Tekra, Nandgaon, P. G. Bridge, Bhatpalli, Kumhari, Pauni, Hivra, Ashti, Bamini, and Jagda stations were beyond the desirable limit due to presence of copper and nickel metals. The contents of copper metal ions were higher at some water quality stations on Wunna river (Nandgaon); Wardha river (Hivra) and Wainganga river (Kumhari, Pauni, Ashti) during Feb. 2012, while nickel concentration during Feb. 2012, June 2012, March 2013 and Aug. 2013 at some water quality stations on rivers Bagh, Indravati, Pranhita, Wunna, Penganga, Peddavagu, Wainganga and Wardha. It can be concluded that rapid population growth and industrialization have brought about resource degradation and a decline in environmental quality.

  12. Managing River Resources: A Case Study Of The Damodar River, India (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, K.


    used in this study to track flow regime and sedimentation characteristics. Data from topographical maps, cadastral or mouza maps, and satellite images has been consolidated. Significant stress has been given on extensive and intensive field survey in order to assess human perception, adaptability and resource management in the sandbars or char lands. The Damodar River is located in West Bengal, India but the findings on the controlled Lower Damodar are not exclusive to this river. These findings may help in managing water resources in other regulated rivers in India or outside India. The primary objectives of this paper have been to trace the impact of control measures on discharge, sedimentation characteristics and consequent changes in the perception and adjustment of the riverbed occupiers to life with floods and dams. In this age of heightened environmental awareness, we all know that the survival of our civilization depends on rational and constructive maintenance and use of our river resources. The major challenge in the coming decade is to develop a holistic and sustainable river management system that will be environmentally accountable, socially acceptable and economically feasible. The primary issue to be addressed, therefore, is not whether dams are needed but how a river system is cared for in the presence of floods, dams and islanders. River resources should be treated as economic assets since ongoing economic development depends on a riverine regime that is ecologically sound. These worthwhile goals, however, will remain out of reach unless we have effective government policy and the legal structure to support it.

  13. Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project (United States)

    Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.


    The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or

  14. Crop domestication in the upper Madeira River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Roland Clement

    Full Text Available Abstract Most native Amazonian crops were domesticated in the periphery of the basin. The upper Madeira River basin is an important part of this periphery where several important crops were domesticated and others are suspected to have been domesticated or arrived early. Some of these crops have been reasonably well studied, such as manioc, peanut, peach palm, coca and tobacco, while others are not as well known, such as the hot peppers Capsicum baccatum and C. frutescens, and still others need confirmation, such as cocoyam and annatto. We review the information available for manioc, peach palm, Capsicum, peanut, annatto and cocoyam. The state-of-the-art for Capsicum frutescens, annatto and cocoyam is insufficient to conclude definitively that they were domesticated in the upper Madeira, while all the others have at least one of their origins or centers of diversity in the upper Madeira.

  15. Erosion in the juniata river drainage basin, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Sevon, W.D.


    Previously calculated erosion rates througouth the Appalachians range from 1.2 to 203 m Myr-1. Calculation of erosion rates has been accomplished by: (1) evaluation of riverine solute and sediment load in either large or small drainage basins; (2) estimation from the volume of derived sediments; and (3) methods involving either 10Be or fission-track dating. Values of specific conductance and suspended sediment collected at the Juniata River gauging station at Newport, Pennsylvania are used, with corrections, along with a bedload estimate to determine the total amount eroded from the 8687 km2 drainage basin during the water years 1965-1986. The amount eroded is used to calculate a present erosion rate of 27 m Myr-1. ?? 1989.

  16. The cost of noncooperation in international river basins (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.


    In recent years there has been a renewed interest for water supply enhancement strategies in order to deal with the exploding demand for water in some regions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Within such strategies, reservoirs, especially multipurpose ones, are expected to play a key role in enhancing water security. This renewed impetus for the traditional supply-side approach to water management may indeed contribute to socioeconomic development and poverty reduction if the planning process considers the lessons learned from the past, which led to the recommendations by the World Commission on Dams and other relevant policy initiatives. More specifically, the issues dealing with benefit sharing within an efficient and equitable utilization of water resources are key elements toward the successful development of those river basins. Hence, there is a need for improved coordination and cooperation among water users, sectors, and riparian countries. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify, in monetary terms, the economic costs of noncooperation, which we believe to be important information for water managers and policy makers, especially at a time when major developments are planned. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the economic costs of noncooperation when managing large-scale water resources systems involving multiple reservoirs, and where the dominant uses are hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. An analysis of the Zambezi River basin, one of the largest river basins in Africa that is likely to see major developments in the coming decades, is carried out. This valuation exercise reveals that the yearly average cost of noncooperation would reach 350 million US$/a, which is 10% of the annual benefits derived from the system.

  17. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail


    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  18. [Spatiotemporal characteristics of reference crop evapotranspiration in inland river basins of Hexi region]. (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Dong; Wang, He-ling; Ma, Zhong-ming


    Based on the 1961-2008 daily observation data from 17 meteorological stations in the inland river basins in Hexi region, the daily reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) in the basins was computed by Penman-Monteith equation, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal and annual ET0 were studied by GIS and IDW inverse-distance spatial interpolation. In 1961-2008, the mean annual ET0 (700-1330 mm) increased gradually from southeast to northwest across the basins. The high value of mean annual ET0 in Shule River basin and Heihe River basin declined significantly (P spring > autumn > winter. Wind speed and maximum temperature were the primary factors affecting the ET0 in the basins. Furthermore, wind speed was the predominant factor of downward trend of ET0 in Shule and Heihe basins, while maximum temperature and sunshine hours played an important role in the upward trend of ET0 in Shiyang basin.

  19. Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.


    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

  20. Quantifying the impact of land use change on hydrological responses in the Upper Ganga Basin, India (United States)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Mijic, Ana; Moulds, Simon; Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, Pradeep; Buytaert, Wouter


    Quantifying how changes in land use affect the hydrological response at the river basin scale is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. Earlier work by the authors developed and used high-resolution, reconstructed land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery and historic land-use maps for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. Large-scale land use changes and their effects on landscape patterns can impact water supply in a watershed by altering hydrological processes such as evaporation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater discharge and stream flow. Three land use scenarios were tested to explore the sensitivity of the catchment's response to land use changes: (a) historic land use of 1984 with integrated evolution to 2010; (b) land use of 2010 remaining stable; and (c) hypothetical future projection of land use for 2030. The future scenario was produced with Markov chain analysis and generation of transition probability matrices, indicating transition potentials from one land use class to another. The study used socio-economic (population density), geographic (distances to roads and rivers, and location of protected areas) and biophysical drivers (suitability of soil for agricultural production, slope, aspect, and elevation). The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was integrated at a resolution of 0.01° for the years 1984 to 2030. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive parameters were identified. Then, the model was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data. The impact of land use changes was investigated by calculating annual variations in hydrological components, differences in annual stream flow and surface runoff during the simulation period. The land use changes correspond to significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes for each scenario. Once analysed from a future water resources perspective, the results will be

  1. Landform development in a zone of active Gedi Fault, Eastern Kachchh rift basin, India (United States)

    Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Rastogi, B. K.; Morthekai, P.; Dumka, Rakesh K.


    An earthquake of 2006 Mw 5.7 occurred along east-west trending Gedi Fault (GF) to the north of the Kachchh rift basin in western India which had the epicenter in the Wagad upland, which is approximately 60 km northeast of the 2001 Mw 7.7 earthquake site (or epicenter). Development of an active fault scarp, shifting of a river channel, offsetting of streams and uplift of the ground indicate that the terrain is undergoing active deformation. Based on detailed field investigations, three major faults that control uplifts have been identified in the GF zone. These uplifts were developed in a step-over zone of the GF, and formed due to compressive force generated by left-lateral motion within the segmented blocks. In the present research, a terrace sequence along the north flowing Karaswali river in a tectonically active GF zone has been investigated. Reconstructions based on geomorphology and terrace stratigraphy supported by optical chronology suggest that the fluvial aggradation in the Wagad area was initiated during the strengthening (at ~ 8 ka) and declining (~ 4 ka) of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). The presence of younger valley fill sediments which are dated ~ 1 ka is ascribed to a short lived phase of renewed strengthening of ISM before present day aridity. Based on terrace morphology two major phases of enhanced uplift have been estimated. The older uplift event dated to 8 ka is represented by the Tertiary bedrock surfaces which accommodated the onset of valley-fill aggradation. The younger event of enhanced uplift dated to 4 ka was responsible for the incision of the older valley fill sediments and the Tertiary bedrock. These ages suggest that the average rate of uplift ranges from 0.3 to 1.1 mm/yr during the last 9 ka implying active nature of the area.

  2. Identification of Flood Source Areas in Pahang River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman


    Full Text Available The roles of upland watersheds in flood source contribution towards downstream areas in a river basin system are generally neglected in the inclusion of management strategy related to downstream flood management. In this study an assessment on the flood source area of Pahang river basin was attempted. The concept of unit flood response as an index of hydrologic response was used in identifying the flood source areas for the basin. The results indicated that among the 16 sub-basins of Pahang river basin, sub-basin of Sungai Pahang is ranked first in production of flood discharge while Sungai Perting sub-basin is ranked last in term of production of flood discharge. Comparison between maximum daily discharge of upper and lower segments of Pahang river basin indicated that up-stream watershed contributes significantly high and more flood (94.78% than down-stream (5.22%. In addition, the upland watersheds were found to more efficient in producing surface runoff and send the floodwater to the lower receiving basin of Sungai Pahang. Considering that basin flood response is generally a nonlinear function of many factors, the sub-basins that are located nearest to and most distance from the basin outlet do not necessarily generate the highest and lowest contribution to the flood peak at the outlet. Similarly, sub-basins producing the highest or lowest absolute or specific discharge at their own outlet may not necessarily ranked first and last in flood index.

  3. Heavy metals partitioning in sediments of the Kabini River in South India. (United States)

    Hejabi, Azadeh Taghinia; Basavarajappa, H T


    Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the sediments of the Kabini River, Karnataka, India was studied to determine the association of metal with various geochemical phases by sequential extraction. The variations of heavy metal concentration depend on the lithology of the river basin and partly on anthropogenic activities. The Kabini River sediments are dominated by Sargur supracrustals with amphibolites, gneisses, carbonates, and ultrabasic rocks weathering into gneissic and serpentine soils carrying a natural load of cationic heavy metals. The source of heavy metals in the Kabini riverbed sediments is normally envisaged as additional inputs from anthropogenic over and above natural and lithogenic sources. Geochemical study indicates the metals under study were present mostly in the least mobilizable fraction in the overlying water and it is concluded that heavy metals in these sediments are to a great extent derived from multisource anthropogenic inputs besides geochemical background contributions The results show that lead and chromium have higher potential for mobilization from the sediment due to higher concentration at the exchangeable ion and sulfide ion bounded, also Cu and Pb have the greatest percentage of carbonate fraction, it means that the study area received inputs from urban and industrial effluents. Association of the Fe with organic matter fraction can be explained by the high affinity of these elements for the humic substances. Further, Zn and Ni reveal a significant enrichment in sediment and it is due to release of industrial wastewater into the river. These trace metals are possible contaminants to enter into aquatic and food chain.

  4. The Pine-Popple River basin--Hydrology of a wild river area, northeastern Wisconsin (United States)

    Oakes, Edward L.; Field, Stephen J.; Seeger, Lawrence P.


    The Pine and Popple Rivers, virtually unaltered by man, flow through a semiprimitive area of forests, lakes, and glacial hills. White-water streams, natural lakes, fish and animal life, and abundant vegetation contribute to the unique recreational and aesthetic characteristics of the area. Resource planning or development should recognize the interrelationships within the hydrologic system and the possible effects of water and land-use changes upon the wild nature of the area. The basin covers about 563 square miles in northeastern Wisconsin. Swamps and wetlands cover nearly 110 square miles, and the 70 lakes cover about 11 square miles. The undulating topography is formed by glacial deposits overlying an irregular, resistant surface of bedrock. An annual average of 30 inches of precipitation, highest from late spring to early autumn, falls on the basin. Of this amount, evapotranspiration, highest in mid summer and late summer, averages 19 inches; the remaining 11 inches is runoff, which is highest in spring and early summer. Ground water from the glacial drift is the source of water for the minor withdrawal use in the basin. Ground-water movement is to streams and lakes and regionally follows the slope of topography and the bedrock surface, which is generally west to east. Ground water is of good quality, although locally high in iron. The major uses of water are for recreation and power generation. Domestic use is slight. No water is withdrawn from lakes or streams, and no sewage or industrial wastes are added to lakes or streams. Most of the flow of the Pine River is used for power generation. The main stems of the Pine and Popple Rivers contain 114 canoeable miles, of which 95 percent is without such major obstructions as falls or large rapids. In general streams support cold-water fish, and lakes support warm-water fish. Trout is the principal stream and game fish in the basin. The basin has no significant water problems. Future development between the Pine

  5. A Paradigm Confronting Reality: The River Basin Approach and Local Water Management Spaces in the Pucara Basin, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cossío


    Full Text Available The current Bolivian water policy incorporates the IWRM paradigm adopting the river basin as the space for water management in the country. The linkage of water management with communal territories in the Andes challenges the application of the river basin approach, bringing water spaces into the discussion. Considering the example of the Pucara River Basin, the article uses space theory to identify characteristics of local spaces for water management and to contrast them with the river basin concept. The river basin concept is applied by water professionals, mostly taking the perceived dimension of this space into consideration and sometimes in abstract terms. In contrast, the lived dimension of space is more important in local water management spaces and it is not represented in abstract terms. Local water spaces are flexible and strongly related to local organisations, which allows them to respond appropriately to the needs and demands of peasant society in the area, characteristics that cannot be found in the river basin space.

  6. Fish guild structure along a longitudinally-determined ecological zonation of Teesta, an eastern Himalayan river in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarty, M


    Full Text Available The Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot contains exceptional freshwater biodiversity and ecosystems that are of vital importance to local and regional livelihoods, but these are under threat from the developmental and anthropogenic pressures arising from the 62 million people living in the area. Therefore, monitoring the riverine health and considering future conservation approach, the study of fish biodiversity plays a significant role in this region. The River Teesta in the Brahmaputra basin in India forms one of the major rivers in the Eastern Himalayas. In the present investigation, we studied ecological fish guilds as they can enhance the usefulness of fish zonation concepts and serve as tools to assess and manage the ecological integrity of large rivers. We classified fish species according to their water flow preference and spawning substrate preference. Ten spawning habitats were identified, occurring in three water flow guilds. The most widely preferred habitat in upstream zones was lithophils while in lower stretches it was lithopleagophils. On applying predictions of the River Continuum Concept, our results indicated the presence of a zonation pattern based on fish species assemblage and their ecological attributes along the longitudinal stretch of the Teesta River in west Bengal. Along the longitudinal stretch of the river, species richness increased downstream, with maximum richness in the mid-reaches. However, species richness decreased further downstream. The number of ecological guilds also increased downstream, and there were clear shifts in the structure of the guilds.

  7. Two distinct phylogenetic clades of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus overlap within the Columbia River basin (United States)

    Garver, K.A.; Troyer, R.M.; Kurath, G.


    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an aquatic rhabdovirus, causes a highly lethal disease of salmonid fish in North America. To evaluate the genetic diversity of IHNV from throughout the Columbia River basin, excluding the Hagerman Valley, Idaho, the sequences of a 303 nt region of the glycoprotein gene (mid-G) of 120 virus isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons revealed 30 different sequence types, with a maximum nucleotide diversity of 7.3% (22 mismatches) and an intrapopulational nucleotide diversity of 0.018. This indicates that the genetic diversity of IHNV within the Columbia River basin is 3-fold higher than in Alaska, but 2-fold lower than in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. Phylogenetic analyses separated the Columbia River basin IHNV isolates into 2 major clades, designated U and M. The 2 clades geographically overlapped within the lower Columbia River basin and in the lower Snake River and tributaries, while the upper Columbia River basin had only U clade and the upper Snake River basin had only M clade virus types. These results suggest that there are co-circulating lineages of IHNV present within specific areas of the Columbia River basin. The epidemiological significance of these findings provided insight into viral traffic patterns exhibited by IHNV in the Columbia River basin, with specific relevance to how the Columbia River basin IHNV types were related to those in the Hagerman Valley. These analyses indicate that there have likely been 2 historical events in which Hagerman Valley IHNV types were introduced and became established in the lower Columbia River basin. However, the data also clearly indicates that the Hagerman Valley is not a continuous source of waterborne virus infecting salmonid stocks downstream.

  8. Mercury concentrations in Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and sediments in the Columbia River basin. (United States)

    Linley, Timothy; Krogstad, Eirik; Mueller, Robert; Gill, Gary; Lasorsa, Brenda


    The accumulation of mercury was investigated in Pacific lamprey and stream sediments in the Columbia River basin. Mercury concentrations in larval lamprey differed significantly among sample locations (p Pacific lamprey in the Columbia River basin may be exposed to mercury levels that have adverse ecological effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2571-2576. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Use of remote sensing data in distributed hydrological models: Applications in the Senegal river basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Andersen, Jens; Dybkjær, Gorm Ibsen


    Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she......Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she...

  10. opulation growth and deforestation in the Volta River basin of Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Volta River basin in Ghana, about 160,000 km2, is experiencing rapid deforestation. Paper uses satellite, household survey and population census data to relate trends and patterns of population in the Volta River sub-basins to forest cover. It assesses amount of forest available in 1990 and 2000, and the relationship ...

  11. The State of Food Insecurity among Households in Juba River Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the state of insecurity in Somalia, it is important that continuous research be done to understand the causes of lack of food and the consequences to the society. Juba River Basin has always been a major producer of food for Somalia. Yet, the state of household food insecurity in the Juba River Basin is an ...

  12. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State... Integrated Water Resource Management Alternative in June 2009 under SEPA. The Integrated Water Resource...

  13. Range maps of terrestrial species in the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Barbara C. Wales; Rick. Demmer


    Current range distribution maps are presented for 14 invertebrate, 26 amphibian, 26 reptile, 339 bird, and 125 mammal species and selected subspecies (530 total taxa) of the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins in the United States. Also presented are maps of historical ranges of 3 bird and 10 mammal species, and 6 maps of...

  14. Tectonic subsidence of the Zhu 1 Sub-basin in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyin; Yang, Shuchun; Zhu, Junzhang; Long, Zulie; Jiang, Guangzheng; Huang, Shaopeng; Hu, Shengbiao


    The Pearl River Mouth Basin, which is situated on the northern margin of the South China Sea, has attracted great attention not only because of its tectonic setting but also because of its abundant hydrocarbon resources. We have analyzed the Cenozoic tectonic subsidence history of 4 drilled wells and 43 artificial wells from the Zhu 1 Sub-basin of the Pearl River Mouth Basin by back-stripping, using newly interpreted seismic profiles. We also calculated the average tectonic subsidence rates of the four sags in the Zhu 1 Sub-basin. The rifting and post-rifting stages are separated by abrupt changes in the tectonic subsidence curves and average subsidence rates. In the eastern sags of the Zhu 1 Sub-basin, tectonic subsidence started to slow at ca. 30 Ma, compared with ca. 23.8 Ma in the western sags. This probably corresponds to the timing of break-up and suggests that rifting in the Pearl River Mouth Basin ended earlier in the eastern sags than in the western sags. Anomalously accelerated tectonic subsidence occurred at 17.5-16.4 Ma during the post-rifting stage, with average subsidence rates as high as 301.9 m/Myr. This distinguishes the Pearl River Mouth Basin from classical Atlantic passive continental marginal basins, which demonstrate exponentially decaying post-rift tectonic subsidence.

  15. Seasonal nutrient chemistry in mountainous river systems of tropical Western Peninsular India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pradhan, U.K.; Wu, Y.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Zhang, J.

    Nutrient chemistry was studied in three mountainous rivers (Mandovi, Zuari and Netravati), across western peninsular India (WPI) during south-west monsoon (SWM), post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons of year 2011-2012. Nutrients in rainwater were...

  16. Daphnia diversity in water bodies of the Po River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marková


    Full Text Available Shallow water bodies dominate the areal extent of continental waters and host a proportion of biodiversity higher than the percentage of Earth’s surface they cover. Daphnia is a key component of small aquatic ecosystems food webs. Here we present the result of a survey in 24 ponds located in the core of Po river Basin, to assess the actual spreading of Daphnia species in one of the most productive areas of the Northern hemisphere. By using diagnostic genetic markers (12S rRNA and ND5 genes we identified five Daphnia species: D. ambigua, D. curvirostris, D. longispina, D. obtusa and D. pulex in fourteen ponds. Additional analyses of two nuclear genes (LdhA and Rab4 revealed that D. pulex in the study area is native European strain. In opposite, D. ambigua shared haplotype with the North-Eastern American lineage that was introduced to Europe by long-distance dispersal. In the Po river Basin we identified a highly divergent lineage of D. longispina group that formed a clade with individuals from northern European Russia and might represent a new Daphnia species. Daphnia species in the Cremona province have European origin, except for D. ambigua which is a North American species spreading across Europe. Future attention will require monitoring of invasive species, particularly D. ambigua and the North American invasive clone of D. pulex that is already present in Northern Italy. 

  17. Landslide inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven


    This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified according to a number of specific characteristics identified at the time recorded in the GIS database. The classification scheme was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009). Several significant landslide characteristics recorded in the database are portrayed with symbology on this map. The specific characteristics shown for each landslide are the activity of landsliding, landslide features, deep or shallow failure, type of landslide movement, and confidence of landslide interpretation. These landslide characteristics are determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features, or landforms, observed for each landslide. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey. Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  18. Pesticides in the rivers and streams of two river basins in northern Greece. (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Tsaboula, Aggeliki; Vryzas, Zisis; Kotopoulou, Athina; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia


    The pollution caused by pesticides, and their ecotoxicological implications were investigated in water samples from the Strymonas and Nestos river basins (Northern Greece). Chlorpyrifos was the most frequently detected pesticide in both basins (42 and 37% in the Strymonas and Nestos basins, respectively), followed by fluometuron and terbuthylazine (25 and 12%, Strymonas), and bentazone and boscalid (24 and 10%, Nestos). The Annual Average and the Maximum Allowable Concentration of Environmental Quality Standards set in European Union Directives were exceeded in several cases by alphamethrin and chlorpyrifos. Risk Quotient assessment revealed significant ecological risk towards the aquatic organisms in over 20% of the water samples. Insecticides (mostly pyrethroids and organophosphosphates) contributed more in the ecotoxicological risk than herbicides and fungicides. The three main rivers in the current study (Strymonas, Aggitis, Nestos) exhibited similar sum of RQs indicating that aquatic life in all three of them was at the same risk level. However, the sums of RQs were higher in the various streams monitored than the three rivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptation tot changing water resources in the Ganges basin, northern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Groot, A.M.E.; Biemans, H.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Siderius, C.; Stoffel, M.


    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) runs from the EU HighNoon project are used to project future air temperatures and precipitation on a 25 km grid for the Ganges basin in northern India, with a view to assessing impact of climate change on water resources and determining what multi-sector

  20. Middle Pleistocene infill of Tibetan Plateau margin rivers, Zanskar, India (United States)

    Munack, Henry; Blöthe, Jan; Korup, Oliver; Fülöp, Réka-Hajnalka; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fink, David


    The Indus, one of Asia's premier rivers, drains the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that fringe the western Tibetan Plateau margin. There, upstream of the western Himalayan syntaxis, river valleys alternate between deeply incised bedrock gorges and broad alluviated reaches, while average denudation rates decrease by an order of magnitude towards the Tibetan Plateau margin to rates of ~10 mm ka-1. Vast fill terrace staircases, the highest of them located up to 400 m above current river level, and intercalated lake sediments indicate alternating phases of incision and aggradation within the region, underlining the high landform preservation potential in the rain shadow of the High Himalaya. However, despite a broad interest in a better understanding of mechanisms that modulate plateau erosion, age constraints on the generation of these impressive features are sparse, though indicate mainly Pleistocene formation ages. We present new age constraints from the More Plains section in the headwaters of the Zanskar River, a major tributary to the upper Indus. The vast sedimentary successions of the More Plains originally belonged to a former endorheic basin that has been tapped by the Zanskar River, today revealing exposures of >250 m of sedimentary fill that continues to smother a previously dissected alpine headwater landscape. We combine 10Be surface exposure dating and catchment-averaged denudation rates, morphometric analysis and field observation to constrain the late Quaternary history of this section. Analysis of a 10Be depth profile on top of the More Plains, together with the dating of nearby amalgamated surface samples, indicate a surface exposure of ~170 +/- 20 ka such that deposition of this valley fill ceased during a Middle Pleistocene cold stage (MIS 6). Using GIS-based algorithms we estimate that ~3.6 km3 was removed from this section by fluvial erosion, requiring a specific sediment yield of >130 t km-2 yr-1 averaged over the past 170 ka. This

  1. Time Series Analysis of Floods across the Niger River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Aich


    Full Text Available This study analyses the increasing number of catastrophic floods in the Niger River Basin, focusing on the relation between long term hydro-climatic variability and flood risk over the last 40 to 100 years. Time series for three subregions (Guinean, Sahelian, Benue show a general consistency between the annual maximum discharge (AMAX and climatic decadal patterns in West Africa regarding both trends and major changepoints. Variance analysis reveals rather stable AMAX distributions except for the Sahelian region, implying that the changes in flood behavior differ within the basin and affect mostly the dry Sahelian region. The timing of the floods within the year has changed only downstream of the Inner Niger Delta due to retention processes. The results of the hydro-climatic analysis generally correspond to the presented damage statistics on people affected by catastrophic floods. The damage statistics shows positive trends for the entire basin since the beginning in the 1980s, with the most extreme increase in the Middle Niger.

  2. Anthropogenic impacts on hydrology of Karkheh River Basin (United States)

    Ashraf, B.; Aghakouchak, A.; Alizadeh, A.; Mousavi Baygi, M.


    The Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in southwest Iran is a key region for agriculture and energy production. KRB has high human-induced water demand and suffers from low water productivity. The future of the KRB and its growth clearly relies on sustainable water resources and hence, requires a holistic, basin-wide management and monitoring of natural resources (water, soil, vegetation, livestock, etc.). The KRB has dry regions in which water scarcity is a major challenge. In this study, we investigate changes in the hydrology of the basin during the past three decades including human-induced alterations of the system. We evaluate climatic variability, agricultural water use, land cover change and agriculture production. In this reaserch, we have developed a simple indicator for quantifying human influence on the hydrologic cycle. The results show that KRB's hydrology is significantly dominated by human activities. The anthropogenic water demand has increased substantially caused by growth in agriculture industry. In fact, the main reason for water scarcity in the region appears to be due to the increased anthropogenic water demand resulting from substantial socio-economic growth in the past three decades. Our results show that continued growth in the region is not sustainable without considering major changes in water use efficiency, land cover management and water productivity.

  3. A Yukon River Basin Landsat Mosaic for Assessing Environmental Change (United States)

    Bouchard, M. A.; Dwyer, J. L.; Granneman, B.


    Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produced from 66 Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images collected from 1999-2002. Two products were created: (1) a geographically referenced database containing all seven of the spectral bands for the individual scenes and (2) a 3-band (shortwave infrared, near-infrared, and green - 7,4,2) radiometrically normalized shaded relief image map using the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset and Canadian Digital Elevation Data from Natural Resources Canada. The science data product will facilitate studies to map the extent of snow, ice and surface water at a basin-wide scale. Focused studies on snow/ice transitions for selected glaciers will be conducted in order to establish accumulation ratios for use in future monitoring. The mosaic also shows the complex patterns of wildfires in the interior forests and the diversity of ecosystems throughout the basin. The shaded relief product image mosaic is a reference map for reconnaissance studies as well as a geographic framework within which to spatially integrate project-wide data and information.

  4. Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana


    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2010 (United States)

    Reddy, James E.


    Water samples collected from eight production wells and eight private residential wells in the Genesee River Basin from September through December 2010 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in the basin. Eight of the wells were completed in sand and gravel aquifers, and eight were finished in bedrock aquifers. Three of the 16 wells were sampled in the first Genesee River Basin study during 2005-2006. Water samples from the 2010 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although concentrations of the following constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards at each of the 16 wells sampled: color (one sample), sodium (three samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (four samples), aluminum (one sample), arsenic (two samples), copper (one sample), iron (nine samples), manganese (eight samples), radon-222 (nine samples), and total coliform bacteria (six samples). Existing drinking-water standards for pH, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides and VOCs analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  6. Reconnaissance investigation of the ground-water resources of the Brazos River basin, Texas (United States)

    Cronin, J.G.; Follett, C.R.; Shafer, G.H.; Rettman, P.L.


    The Brazos River Basin in Texas extends from the New Mexico State line southeastward to the Gulf of Mexico. The basin is about 600 miles long and ranges in width from 1 to 120 miles--an area of about 42,000 square miles, which includes all or parts of 69 counties. About 1,385,000 persons reside in the basin.

  7. Shifting rights and access to irrigation water in a context of growing scarcity: the Krishna Basin, south India1


    Venot, Jean-Philippe


    Introduction: are water rights right? In many regions water use for urban, industrial and agricultural growth is approaching, and sometimes even exceeding, the availability of renewable water resources. Conflicts over access and allocation of water become more likely. Intense water development results in over-commitment of water and river basin closure. A generally accepted definition of a closed river basin is a basin where most or all available water is committed and river discharge falls ...

  8. Hydrology of the Upper Malad River basin, southeastern Idaho (United States)

    Pluhowski, Edward J.


    The report area comprises 485 square miles in the Basin and Range physiographic province. It includes most of eastern' Oneida County and parts of Franklin, Bannock, and Power Counties of southeastern Idaho. Relief is about 5,000 feet; the floor of the Malad Valley is at an average altitude of about 4,400 feet. Agriculture is, by far, ,the principal economic .activity. In 1960 the population of the upper Malad River basin was about 3,600, of which about 60 percent resided in Malad City, the county seat of Oneida County. The climate is semiarid throughout the Malad Valley and its principal tributary valleys; ,above 6,500 feet the climate is subhumid. Annual precipitation ranges from about 13 inches in the lower Malad Valley to more than 30 inches on the highest peaks of the Bannock and Malad ranges. Owing to ,the normally clear atmospheric conditions, large daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations are common. Topography, distance from the Pacific Ocean, .and the general atmospheric circulation are the principal factors governing the climate of the Malad River basin. The westerlies transport moisture from the P.acific Ocean toward southeastern Idaho. The north-south tren4ing mountains flanking the basin are oriented orthogonally to the moisture flux so that they are very effective in removing precipitable water from the air. A minimum uplift of 6,000 feet is required to transport moisture from the Pacific source region; accordingly, most air masses are desiccated long before they reach the Malad basin. Heaviest precipitation is generally associated with steep pressure gradients in the midtroposphere that are so oriented as to cause a deep landward penetration of moisture from the Pacific Ocean. Annual water yields in the project area range from about 0.8 inch in the, lower Malad Valley to more than 19 inches on the high peaks north and east of Malad City. The mean annual water yield for the entire basin is 4 inches, or about 115,000 acre-feet. Evaporation is

  9. Drainage basin security of hazardous chemical fluxe in the Yodo River basin. (United States)

    Matsui, S


    The Yodo River basin consists of three major tributary basins (and other small river basins) namely Uji, Katsura and Kizu, which overlap respectively Shiga, Kvoto and Nara prefectures' administrative areas. Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan, drains water through the Uji river. The water quality of the lake, in terms of BOD, continuously improved over the last decade. However, the quality in terms of COD did not show any improvement in spite of a large amount of infrastructure finance being introduced. Eutrophication of the lake still continues, showing no improvement in the nitrogen concentration level. Non-point as well as point source control is not strong enough. There is a gap between BOD and COD evaluations of the lake water quality. Hazardous chemical fluxes are estimated based upon PRTR reports of Japan (2001). PCBs are still discharged into the lake, although the report of Shiga Prefecture showed zero discharge. Dace fish monitoring clearly showed that PCB contamination of the fish had not changed since the 1980s in spite of a ban on use and production of PCBs in the 1970s. There is still leakage of PCBs into the lake. The major exposure of dioxins to Japanese is fish rather than meat and eggs. The risk of water contamination must take into consideration not only drinking water safety but also ecological magnification of food chains in water. The ecological health aspect of hazardous chemicals is also important, such as organotins with imposex of sea snails. Finally, public participation in hazardous chemical management is very important using the method of risk communication based upon the annual report of PRTR in Japan.

  10. Large-scale avulsion of the late Quaternary Sutlej river in the NW Indo-Gangetic foreland basin (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Gupta, Sanjeev; Sinha, Rajiv; Carter, Andrew; Thomsen, Kristina J.; Mark, Darren F.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Mason, Philippa J.; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank; Paul, Debajyoti


    River avulsions are important processes in the spatial evolution of river systems in tectonically active sedimentary basins as they govern large-scale patterns of sediment routing. However, the pattern and timing of avulsions in large river systems are poorly documented and not well understood. Here we document late Quaternary paleo-river channel changes in the Indo-Gangetic basin of northwest India. Using a combination of satellite remote sensing and detailed sediment coring, we analyse the large-scale planform geometry, and detailed sedimentary and stratigraphic nature of a major fluvial sedimentary deposit in the shallow subsurface. This sediment body records aggradation of multiple fluvial channel fills. Satellite remote sensing analysis indicates the trace of the buried channel complex and demonstrates that it exists in region of the Himalayan foreland where no major rivers are currently present. Thus it records the former drainage pathway of a major river, which has since been diverted. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques to develop an age model for the stratigraphic succession and hence constrain the timing of river channel existence and diversion. Provenance analysis based on U-Pb dating of detrital zircons and detrital mica Ar-Ar ages indicate sediment sources in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline and Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Series indicating that this paleo-river channel system formed a major perennial river derived from the main body of the Himalaya. Specifically we are able to fingerprint bedrock sources in the catchment of the present-day Sutlej river indicating that the paleo-fluvial system represents the former course of the Sutlej river prior to a major nodal avulsion to its present day course. Our results indicate that on geologically relatively short time-scales, we observe dramatic along strike shifts in the location of major Himalayan rivers. Our sediment records when combined with high-resolution dating and

  11. River discharge estimation at daily resolution from satellite altimetry over an entire river basin (United States)

    Tourian, M. J.; Schwatke, C.; Sneeuw, N.


    One of the main challenges of hydrological modeling is the poor spatiotemporal coverage of in situ discharge databases which have steadily been declining over the past few decades. It has been demonstrated that water heights over rivers from satellite altimetry can sensibly be used to deal with the growing lack of in situ discharge data. However, the altimetric discharge is often estimated from a single virtual station suffering from coarse temporal resolution, sometimes with data outages, poor modeling and inconsistent sampling. In this study, we propose a method to estimate daily river discharge using altimetric time series of an entire river basin including its tributaries. Here, we implement a linear dynamic model to (1) provide a scheme for data assimilation of multiple altimetric discharge along a river; (2) estimate daily discharge; (3) deal with data outages, and (4) smooth the estimated discharge. The model consists of a stochastic process model that benefits from the cyclostationary behavior of discharge. Our process model comprises the covariance and cross-covariance information of river discharge at different gauges. Combined with altimetric discharge time series, we solve the linear dynamic system using the Kalman filter and smoother providing unbiased discharge with minimum variance. We evaluate our method over the Niger basin, where we generate altimetric discharge using water level time series derived from missions ENVISAT, SARAL/AltiKa, and Jason-2. Validation against in situ discharge shows that our method provides daily river discharge with an average correlation of 0.95, relative RMS error of 12%, relative bias of 10% and NSE coefficient of 0.7. Using a modified NSE-metric, that assesses the non-cyclostationary behavior, we show that our estimated discharge outperforms available legacy mean daily discharge.

  12. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Michailovsky


    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  13. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin (United States)

    Michailovsky, C. I.; McEnnis, S.; Berry, P. A. M.; Smith, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.


    Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  14. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System: effects of changes on hydrological balance and society. (United States)

    Hasson, Shabeh; Lucarini, Valerio; Riaz Khan, Mobushir; Petitta, Marcello; Bolch, Tobias; Gioli, Giovanna


    In this study we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  15. Estimating Snow Mass and Peak River Flows for the Mackenzie River Basin Using GRACE Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusen Wang


    Full Text Available Flooding is projected to increase with climate change in many parts of the world. Floods in cold regions are commonly a result of snowmelt during the spring break-up. The peak river flow (Qpeak for the Mackenzie River, located in northwest Canada, is modelled using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite observations. Compared with the observed Qpeak at a downstream hydrometric station, the model results have a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (p < 0.001 and a mean absolute error of 6.5% of the mean observed value of 28,400 m3·s−1 for the 12 study years (2003–2014. The results are compared with those for other basins to examine the difference in the major factors controlling the Qpeak. It was found that the temperature variations in the snowmelt season are the principal driver for the Qpeak in the Mackenzie River. In contrast, the variations in snow accumulation play a more important role in the Qpeak for warmer southern basins in Canada. The study provides a GRACE-based approach for basin-scale snow mass estimation, which is largely independent of in situ observations and eliminates the limitations and uncertainties with traditional snow measurements. Snow mass estimated from the GRACE data was about 20% higher than that from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS datasets. The model is relatively simple and only needs GRACE and temperature data for flood forecasting. It can be readily applied to other cold region basins, and could be particularly useful for regions with minimal data.

  16. Challenging Futures Studies To Enhance Participatory River Basin Management (United States)

    van der Helm, R.

    Can the field of futures research help advance participatory management of river basins? This question is supposed to be answered by the present study of which this paper will mainly address the theoretical and conceptual point of view. The 2000 EU Framework directive on water emphasises at least two aspects that will mark the future management of river basins: the need for long-term planning, and a demand for participation. Neither the former nor the latter are new concepts as such, but its combination is in some sense revolutionary. Can long-term plans be made (and implemented) in a participative way, what tools could be useful in this respect, and does this lead to a satisfactory situation in terms of both reaching physical targets and enhancing social-institutional manageability? A possibly rich way to enter the discussion is to challenge futures research as a concept and a practice for enabling multiple stakeholders to design appropriate policies. Futures research is the overall field in which several methods and techniques (like scenario analysis) are mobilised to systematically think through and/or design the future. As such they have proven to be rich exercises to trigger ideas, stimulate debate and design desirable futures (and how to get there). More importantly these exercises have the capability to reconstitute actor relations, and by nature go beyond the institutional boundaries. Arguably the relation between futures research and the planning process is rather distant. Understandably commitments on the direct implementation of the results are hardly ever made, but its impact on changes in the capabilities of the network of actors involved may be large. As a hypothesis we consider that the distant link between an image of the future and the implementation in policy creates sufficient distance for actors to participate (in terms of responsibilities, legal constraints, etc.) and generate potentials, and enough degrees of freedom needed for a successful

  17. Hydrological effects of cropland and climatic changes in arid and semi-arid river basins: A case study from the Yellow River basin, China (United States)

    Li, Huazhen; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Sun, Peng


    The Yellow River basin is a typical semi-arid river basin in northern China. Serious water shortages have negative impacts on regional socioeconomic development. Recent years have witnessed changes in streamflow processes due to increasing human activities, such as agricultural activities and construction of dams and water reservoirs, and climatic changes, e.g. precipitation and temperature. This study attempts to investigate factors potentially driving changes in different streamflow components defined by different quantiles. The data used were daily streamflow data for the 1959-2005 period from 5 hydrological stations, daily precipitation and temperature data from 77 meteorological stations and data pertaining to cropland and large reservoirs. Results indicate a general decrease in streamflow across the Yellow River basin. Moreover significant decreasing streamflow has been observed in the middle and lower Yellow River basin with change points during the mid-1980s till the mid-1990s. The changes of cropland affect the streamflow components and also the cumulative effects on streamflow variations. Recent years have witnessed moderate cropland variations which result in moderate streamflow changes. Further, precipitation also plays a critical role in changes of streamflow components and human activities, i.e. cropland changes, temperature changes and building of water reservoirs, tend to have increasing impacts on hydrological processes across the Yellow River basin. This study provides a theoretical framework for the study of the hydrological effects of human activities and climatic changes on basins over the globe.

  18. Numerical modelling of ice floods in the Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.


    The Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin is located in the Inner Mongolia region at the Northern part of the Yellow River. Due to the special geographical conditions, the river flow direction is towards the North causing the Ning-Meng reach to freeze up every year in wintertime. Both during the

  19. Simulated Water-Management Alternatives Using the Modular Modeling System for the Methow River Basin, Washington (United States)


    represented 16 surface-water diversions to irrigation canals, canal seepage, application of water to agricultural fields, and ET and infiltration of...parameters (table 1) were modified in 36 HRUs representing the drainage basins for Andrews, Lake, Little Bridge, and Buttermilk Creeks. The Andrews Creek...and Lake Creek Basins constitute 12 percent (62 of 525 square miles) of the Chewuch River Basin, and Little Bridge and Buttermilk Creek Basins

  20. Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water (United States)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

    Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

  1. Record of continental to marine transition from the Mesoproterozoic Ampani basin, Central India: An exercise of process-based sedimentology in a structurally deformed basin (United States)

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Saha, Subhojit; Das, Kaushik


    The Mesoproterozoic Ampani Group of rocks, a structurally deformed sedimentary package hosted within the Bastar Craton in central India, was studied for process-based facies and paleoenvironmental analyses. Outcrop mapping on 1:1500 scale, deconvolution of deformation pattern, and process-based facies analyses have led to the identification of fifteen facies types, clubbed under four facies associations. A range of paleoenvironmental settings varying from continental fluvial to distal marine shelf is inferred. Deductive paleohydrology revealed poorly-efficient 'dirty river' character for the Ampani River system with low water discharge. However, at times of catastrophic sheet floods release of sediments trapped at the river mouth in form of hyperpycnal underflows triggered formation of river mouth delta. Reworking of delta front sediment in wave-dominated coastline resulted development of beach-foreshore and shoreface (proximal to distal). Variation in the relative proportion of bar and interbar products within the shoreface successions exposed at different studied sections is interpreted as signature of relative bathymetric variation. The pro-deltaic Ampani shelf was storm infested. Tectonic perturbance in the basin hinterland in course of Ampani sedimentation is inferred from occurrence of a disparately thick lobate high-density flow deposit towards the top of shoreface succession and increase in feldspar content upward within the shoreface succession. Addition of detritus from a ∼1600 Ma Mesoproterozoic provenance in upper part of shoreface also strengthen the contention. Deconvolution of deformation pattern and delineation of environmental products ranging between continental and deep marine allowed us to infer the Ampani sediment package as fining-upward in character evolved in a transgressive mode.

  2. Incorporating safety into surface haulage in the Powder River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, W.; Jennings, C.


    The Powder River Basin (PRB) coal deposit extends from southeast Montana to northeast Wyoming. This paper describes a number of haulage practices and tools in use at several mines of the southern PRB and the way in which safety has been designed into and implemented for surface haulage of coal and overburden. Experiences described herein focus on the northeastern corner of Wyoming. All the mines in this area rely on safe and efficient movement of enormous volumes of material, and the results achieved in safety underscore the planning and attention to detail present in the PRB. There are currently 12 large surface mines (those greater than 10.0MM tons/year) operating in this area. In 1995, these mines produced over 230.0MM tons of coal.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Carreto-Pérez


    Full Text Available We present the floristic composition of the Papagayo river basin, Guerrero, México.Field work was carried out from June 2011 to June 2012. We identified a total of 204 species of vascular plants, including 73 families and 163 genus. Families Fabaceae,Poaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae and Rubiaceae represented 41% of all species and 38% of the genus in the study area. The herbaceous plant life form was the best represented with 81 species (40%. Were determined 10 vegetation types, of which the tropical deciduous forest covers the largest area and has the richest flora. Eleven species were recorded under the category of threatened by NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, of which one is endemic to Mexico (Rhizophora mangle.

  4. Water poverty in upper Bagmati River Basin in Nepal

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    Jay Krishna Thakur


    The WPI was calculated for the upper Bagmati river Basin together with High–Medium–Low category scale and interpretations. WPI intensity scale depicts Sundarijal and Lubhu are in a range of very low water poverty, which means the water situation is better in these two areas. Daman region has a medium level, meaning this region is located into poor-accessible water zone. Kathmandu, Sankhu and Thankot have a low to medium low WPI, what characterize them as neutral. WPI can be used as an effective tool in integrated water resources management and water use master plan for meeting sustainable development goals. Based on the observation, the water agencies required to focus over water-poverty interface, water for sanitation, hygiene and health, water for production and employment generation, sustainable environmental management, gender equality, and water rights.

  5. Problems of riverbed evolution in the basin of the Ural River (United States)

    Padalko, Yu. A.; Chibilyov, A. A.


    Aspects of riverbed evolution including bank erosion in the Ural River basin have been considered in this paper. The natural morphodynamic types of riverbeds have been described. The spatial features of their genesis have been characterized within the Ural River basin. To study the riverbed processes, decoding of remote sensing data of the water surface has been used. The risks for the infrastructure facilities and for the residential districts have been analyzed in terms of the bank erosion in the Ural River basin. The issues concerning the border between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan due to riverbed reconfiguration of the Ural River have been outlined. Maps of the development of bank erosion in the Ural River basin have been created. A way to solve the problem of riverbed evolution along the border area has been proposed by organizing an Intergovernmental Specially Protected Natural Zone.

  6. Evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates over Ethiopian river basins

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    T. G. Romilly


    Full Text Available High resolution satellite-based rainfall estimates (SREs have enormous potential for use in hydrological applications, particularly in the developing world as an alternative to conventional rain gauges which are typically sparse. In this study, three SREs have been evaluated against collocated rain gauge measurements in Ethiopia across six river basins that represent different rainfall regimes and topography. The comparison is made using five-year (2003–2007 averages, and results are stratified by river basin, elevation and season. The SREs considered are: the Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Neural Networks (PERSIANN and the real-time version of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42RT. Overall, the microwave-based products TMPA 3B42RT and CMORPH outperform the infrared-based product PERSIANN: PERSIANN tends to underestimate rainfall by 43 %, while CMORPH tends to underestimate by 11 % and TMPA 3B42RT tends to overestimate by 5 %. The bias in the satellite rainfall estimates depends on the rainfall regime, and, in some regimes, the elevation. In the northwest region, which is characterized mainly by highland topography, a humid climate and a strong Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ effect, elevation has a strong influence on the accuracy of the SREs: TMPA 3B42RT and CMORPH tend to overestimate at low elevations but give reasonably accurate results at high elevations, whereas PERSIANN gives reasonably accurate values at low elevations but underestimates at high elevations. In the southeast region, which is characterized mainly by lowland topography, a semi-arid climate and southerly winds, elevation does not have a significant influence on the accuracy of the SREs, and all the SREs underestimate rainfall across almost all elevations.

  7. Basin Tendency on Flood and Drought Occurrence for Two Major Rivers in China (United States)

    Niu, J.; Chen, J.


    River basins play a key role in modulating precipitation variability and manifesting the diversified variability response by runoff or soil moisture. These responses are basin-dependent and frequency dependent controlled by many catchment-related characteristics. The fundamental idea of flood/drought tendency evaluation is to examine the basin response in keeping the high-frequency precipitation variability and memorizing the long-term precipitation variability. This study presents the uses of (1) the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and (2) continuous wavelet transform for the tendency evaluation in the sub-basin basis for two major river basins in China, namely the Yangtze River basin and the Pearl River basin. The terrestrial hydrological processes over the two basins are simulated by using the macro-scale hydrological VIC model over the period of 1951-2000. The variability properties of hydrological variable for different sub-basins in time-frequency domain, ranged from 1/6 - 9 years, are revealed by the wavelet transform. With inspection on the wavelet power ratios of runoff and soil moisture to precipitation across different timescales, the flood or drought tendency is then investigated in associated with the effects of basin geomorphologic factors. The results obtained provide valuable information in devising adaptation and mitigation strategies in humid and semi-humid regions, especially in the context of possible climate change.

  8. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Jensen, Iris Hedegaard; Guzinski, R.


    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data...... in Africa. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations....... Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0-7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators and the performance is compared to persistence and climatology benchmarks. The forecasting system delivers useful forecasts...

  9. GRACE-based estimates of water discharge over the Yellow River basin

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    Qiong Li


    Full Text Available As critical component of hydrologic cycle, basin discharge is a key issue for understanding the hydrological and climatologic related to water and energy cycles. Combining GRACE gravity field models with ET from GLDAS models and precipitation from GPCP, discharge of the Yellow River basin are estimated from the water balance equation. While comparing the results with discharge from GLDAS model and in situ measurements, the results reveal that discharge from Mosaic and CLM GLDAS model can partially represent the river discharge and the discharge estimation from water balance equation could reflect the discharge from precipitation over the Yellow River basin.

  10. Economic Peculiarities of the Romanian Tisa River Basin

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    Full Text Available A possible answer to the current challenges of the Tisa catchment area, correlated with water management, social and economic development, environmental conservation, is the transnational initiative of the five countries drained by the tributaries of the Tisa River. In this context, the spatial development has a major impact on the Romanian Tisa catchment area by providing the economic cohesion. The purpose of the present paper is to define the current status of economy in the Romanian Tisa River Basin, through the filter of achieving the level of competitiveness claimed by the national, European, or global authorities. By setting several quantitative indicators, analyzed for a standard territorial level (NUTS 3, for a definite time interval (2002-2007, those more or less competitive economic branches, activities or aspects of the analyzed territory were identified, and, at the same time, the elements that “hinder” development, the traditional remnants, or the existing entrepreneurial initiatives. On the basis of relevant indicators, the calculation of an index of competitiveness was proposed at territorial level, the results certifying a certain level of competitiveness for the region under consideration.

  11. Curve Number Applications for Restoration the Zarqa River Basin

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    Maisa’a W. Shammout


    Full Text Available The great demand for water resources from the Zarqa River Basin (ZRB has resulted in a base-flow reduction of the River from 5 m3/s to less than 1 m3/s. This paper aims to predict Curve Numbers (CNs as a baseline scenario and propose restoration scenarios for the ZRB. The method includes classifying the soil type and land use, predicting CNs, and proposing CN restoration scenarios. The prediction of existing CNs will be in parallel with the runoff prediction by using the US Army Corps of Engineers HEC-1 Model, and the Rainfall–Runoff Model (RRM. The models have been set up at the land use distribution of 0.3% water body, 9.3% forest and orchard, 71% mixture of grass, weeds, and desert shrubs, 7.0% crops, 4.0% urban areas, and 8.4% bare soil. The results show that CNs are 59, 78 and 89 under dry, normal and wet conditions, respectively. During the vegetation period, CNs are 52, 72 and 86 for dry, normal and wet conditions respectively. The restoration scenarios include how CNs decrease the runoff and increase the soil moisture when using the contours, terraces and crop residues. Analyzing the results of CN scenarios will be a fundamental tool in achieving watershed restoration targets.

  12. Providing peak river flow statistics and forecasting in the Niger River basin (United States)

    Andersson, Jafet C. M.; Ali, Abdou; Arheimer, Berit; Gustafsson, David; Minoungou, Bernard


    Flooding is a growing concern in West Africa. Improved quantification of discharge extremes and associated uncertainties is needed to improve infrastructure design, and operational forecasting is needed to provide timely warnings. In this study, we use discharge observations, a hydrological model (Niger-HYPE) and extreme value analysis to estimate peak river flow statistics (e.g. the discharge magnitude with a 100-year return period) across the Niger River basin. To test the model's capacity of predicting peak flows, we compared 30-year maximum discharge and peak flow statistics derived from the model vs. derived from nine observation stations. The results indicate that the model simulates peak discharge reasonably well (on average + 20%). However, the peak flow statistics have a large uncertainty range, which ought to be considered in infrastructure design. We then applied the methodology to derive basin-wide maps of peak flow statistics and their associated uncertainty. The results indicate that the method is applicable across the hydrologically active part of the river basin, and that the uncertainty varies substantially depending on location. Subsequently, we used the most recent bias-corrected climate projections to analyze potential changes in peak flow statistics in a changed climate. The results are generally ambiguous, with consistent changes only in very few areas. To test the forecasting capacity, we ran Niger-HYPE with a combination of meteorological data sets for the 2008 high-flow season and compared with observations. The results indicate reasonable forecasting capacity (on average 17% deviation), but additional years should also be evaluated. We finish by presenting a strategy and pilot project which will develop an operational flood monitoring and forecasting system based in-situ data, earth observations, modelling, and extreme statistics. In this way we aim to build capacity to ultimately improve resilience toward floods, protecting lives and

  13. India. (United States)


    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  14. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Southwestern Powder River Basin, Wyoming (United States)

    Osmonson, Lee M.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.


    The availability of abundant new borehole data from recent coal bed natural gas development was utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey for a comprehensive evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the southwestern part of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This report on the Southwestern Powder River Basin assessment area represents the third area within the basin to be assessed, the first being for coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coal field in 2008, and the second for coal resources and reserves in the northern Wyoming area of the basin in 2010.

  15. Coupled hydrologic and hydraulic modeling of Upper Niger River Basin (United States)

    Fleischmann, Ayan; Siqueira, Vinícius; Paris, Adrien; Collischonn, Walter; Paiva, Rodrigo; Gossett, Marielle; Pontes, Paulo; Calmant, Stephane; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Crétaux, Jean-François; Tanimoune, Bachir


    The Upper Niger Basin is located in Western Africa, flowing from Guinea Highlands towards the Sahel region. In this area lies the seasonally inundated Niger Inland Delta, which supports important environmental services such as habitats for wildlife, climate and flood regulation, as well as large fishery and agricultural areas. In this study, we present the application of MGB-IPH large scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic model for the Upper Niger Basin, totaling c.a. 650,000 km2 and set up until the city of Niamey in Niger. The model couples hydrological vertical balance and runoff generation with hydrodynamic flood wave propagation, by allowing infiltration from floodplains into soil column as well as representing backwater effects and floodplain storage throughout flat areas such as the Inland Delta. The model is forced with TRMM 3B42 daily precipitation and Climate Research Unit (CRU) climatology for the period 2000-2010, and was calibrated against in-situ discharge gauges and validated with in-situ water level, remotely sensed estimations of flooded areas (classification of MODIS imagery) and satellite altimetry (JASON-2 mission). Model results show good predictions for calibrated daily discharge and validated water level and altimetry at stations both upstream and downstream of the delta (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency>0.7 for all stations), as well as for flooded areas within the delta region (ENS=0.5; r2=0.8), allowing a good representation of flooding dynamics basinwide and simulation of flooding behavior of both perennial (e.g., Niger main stem) and ephemeral rivers (e.g., Niger Red Flood tributaries in Sahel). Coupling between hydrology and hydrodynamic processes indicates an important feedback between floodplain and soil water storage that allows high evapotranspiration rates even after the flood passage around the inner delta area. Also, representation of water retention in floodplain channels and distributaries in the inner delta (e.g., Diaka river

  16. Scaling up watershed model parameters - flow and load simulations of the Edisto River basin (United States)

    Toby Feaster; Stephen Benedict; Jimmy Clark; Paul Bradley; Paul Conrads


    The Edisto River is the longest and largest river system completely contained in South Carolina and is one of the longest free flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River basin also has fish-tissue mercury concentrations that are among the highest recorded in the United States. As part of an ongoing effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand...

  17. Assessment of Wetland Ecosystem Health in the Yangtze and Amazon River Basins

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    Rui Sun


    Full Text Available As “kidneys of the earth”, wetlands play an important role in ameliorating weather conditions, flood storage, and the control and reduction of environmental pollution. With the development of local economies, the wetlands in both the Amazon and Yangtze River Basins have been affected and threatened by human activities, such as urban expansion, reclamation of land from lakes, land degradation, and large-scale agricultural development. It is necessary and important to develop a wetland ecosystem health evaluation model and to quantitatively evaluate the wetland ecosystem health in these two basins. In this paper, GlobeLand30 land cover maps and socio-economic and climate data from 2000 and 2010 were adopted to assess the wetland ecosystem health of the Yangtze and Amazon River Basins on the basis of a pressure-state-response (PSR model. A total of 13 indicators were selected to build the wetland health assessment system. Weights of these indicators and PSR model components, as well as normalized wetland health scores, were assigned and calculated based on the analytic hierarchy process method. The results showed that from 2000 to 2010, the value of the mean wetland ecosystem health index in the Yangtze River Basin decreased from 0.482 to 0.481, while it increased from 0.582 to 0.593 in the Amazon River Basin. This indicated that the average status of wetland ecosystem health in the Amazon River Basin is better than that in the Yangtze River Basin, and that wetland health improved over time in the Amazon River Basin but worsened in the Yangtze River Basin.

  18. Evaluation of genetic population structure of smallmouth bass in the Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Schall, Megan K.; Bartron, Meredith L.; Wertz, Timothy; Niles, Jonathan M.; Shaw, Cassidy H.; Wagner, Tyler


    The Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu was introduced into the Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania, nearly 150 years ago. Since introduction, it has become an economically and ecologically important species that supports popular recreational fisheries. It is also one of the most abundant top predators in the system. Currently, there is no information on the level of genetic diversity or genetic structuring that may have occurred since introduction. An understanding of genetic diversity is important for the delineation of management units and investigation of gene flow at various management scales. The goals of this research were to investigate population genetic structure of Smallmouth Bass at sites within the Susquehanna River basin and to assess genetic differentiation relative to Smallmouth Bass at an out-of-basin site (Allegheny River, Pennsylvania) located within the species’ native range. During spring 2015, fin clips (n = 1,034) were collected from adults at 11 river sites and 13 tributary sites in the Susquehanna River basin and at one site on the Allegheny River. Fin clips were genotyped at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Based on our results, adults sampled throughout the Susquehanna River basin did not represent separate genetic populations. There were only subtle differences in genetic diversity among sites (mean pairwise genetic differentiation index FST = 0.012), and there was an overall lack of population differentiation (K = 3 admixed populations). The greatest genetic differentiation was observed between fish collected from the out-of-basin site and those from the Susquehanna River basin sites. Knowledge that separate genetic populations of Smallmouth Bass do not exist in the Susquehanna River basin is valuable information for fisheries management in addition to providing baseline genetic data on an introduced sport fish population.

  19. Changing sediment budget of the Mekong: Cumulative threats and management strategies for a large river basin. (United States)

    Kondolf, G Mathias; Schmitt, Rafael J P; Carling, Paul; Darby, Steve; Arias, Mauricio; Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea; Cochrane, Thomas A; Gibson, Stanford; Kummu, Matti; Oeurng, Chantha; Rubin, Zan; Wild, Thomas


    Two decades after the construction of the first major dam, the Mekong basin and its six riparian countries have seen rapid economic growth and development of the river system. Hydropower dams, aggregate mines, flood-control dykes, and groundwater-irrigated agriculture have all provided short-term economic benefits throughout the basin. However, it is becoming evident that anthropic changes are significantly affecting the natural functioning of the river and its floodplains. We now ask if these changes are risking major adverse impacts for the 70 million people living in the Mekong Basin. Many livelihoods in the basin depend on ecosystem services that will be strongly impacted by alterations of the sediment transport processes that drive river and delta morpho-dynamics, which underpin a sustainable future for the Mekong basin and Delta. Drawing upon ongoing and recently published research, we provide an overview of key drivers of change (hydropower development, sand mining, dyking and water infrastructures, climate change, and accelerated subsidence from pumping) for the Mekong's sediment budget, and their likely individual and cumulative impacts on the river system. Our results quantify the degree to which the Mekong delta, which receives the impacts from the entire connected river basin, is increasingly vulnerable in the face of declining sediment loads, rising seas and subsiding land. Without concerted action, it is likely that nearly half of the Delta's land surface will be below sea level by 2100, with the remaining areas impacted by salinization and frequent flooding. The threat to the Delta can be understood only in the context of processes in the entire river basin. The Mekong River case can serve to raise awareness of how the connected functions of river systems in general depend on undisturbed sediment transport, thereby informing planning for other large river basins currently embarking on rapid economic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Li-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A.; Widory, D.; Bourrain, X.


    The Loire River in France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117 800 km2. Upstream, the Loire River flows following a south to north direction from the Massif Central down to the city of Orléans, 650 km from its source. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic Ocean. Over time, its basin has been exposed to numerous sources of anthropogenic metal pollutions, such as metal mining, industry, agriculture and domestic inputs. The Loire River basin is thus an excellent study site to develop new isotope systematics for tracking anthropogenic sources of metal pollutions (Zn and Pb) and also to investigate Li isotope tracing that can provide key information on the nature of weathering processes at the Loire River Basin scale. Preliminary data show that Li-Zn-Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions span a wide range in river waters of the Loire River main stream and the main tributaries. There is a clear contrast between the headwaters upstream and rivers located downstream in the lowlands. In addition, one of the major tributaries within the Massif Central (the Allier River) is clearly influenced by inputs resulting from mineralizations and thermomineral waters. The results showed that, on their own, each of these isotope systematics reveals important information about the geogenic or anthropogenic origin Li-Zn-Pb. Considered together, they are however providing a more integrated understanding of the overall budgets of these elements at the scale of the Loire River Basin.

  1. Studies on water resources carrying capacity in Tuhai river basin based on ecological footprint (United States)

    Wang, Chengshuai; Xu, Lirong; Fu, Xin


    In this paper, the method of the water ecological footprint (WEF) was used to evaluate water resources carrying capacity and water resources sustainability of Tuhai River Basin in Shandong Province. The results show that: (1) The WEF had a downward trend in overall volatility in Tuhai River Basin from 2003 to 2011. Agricultural water occupies high proportion, which was a major contributor to the WEF, and about 86.9% of agricultural WEF was used for farmland irrigation; (2) The water resources carrying capacity had a downward trend in general, which was mostly affected by some natural factors in this basin such as hydrology and meteorology in Tuhai River Basin; (3) Based on analysis of water resources ecological deficit, it can be concluded that the water resources utilization mode was in an unhealthy pattern and it was necessary to improve the utilization efficiency of water resources in Tuhai River Basin; (4) In view of water resources utilization problems in the studied area, well irrigation should be greatly developed at the head of Yellow River Irrigation Area(YRIA), however, water from Yellow River should be utilized for irrigation as much as possible, combined with agricultural water-saving measures and controlled exploiting groundwater at the tail of YRIA. Therefore, the combined usage of surface water and ground water of YRIA is an important way to realize agricultural water saving and sustainable utilization of water resources in Tuhai River Basin.

  2. Diatom community structure along physicochemical gradients in upland river segments of Tamiraparani river system, South India

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    Meenakshisundaram Amutha


    Full Text Available This study examines the diversity and distributional patterns of benthic diatom assemblages in the upland streams of Tamiraparani River system, southern part of Western Ghats of Peninsular India. A total of 168 benthic diatoms representing 16 orders, 32 families, and 47 genera were enumerated. Structuring of diatom community was dependent on the environmental conditions of the respective habitats. Canonical correspondence analysis described both physical habitat quality and water parameter gradient and factors that correlated significantly were substrate type, water temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate content. Gomphonema gandhii, Cocconeis placentula and Navicula cuspidate were strongly associated with sites with embedded substrates and clear water. Diatoms could be effective in assessing physical habitat alterations in streams.

  3. Craton-derived alluvium as a major sediment source in the Himalayan Foreland Basin of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, R.; Kettanah, Y.; Gibling, M.R.


    , which drain northward into the Yamuna, are vigorous monsoonal rivers with large catchments. Stratigraphic and petrographic evidence shows that sediment derived largely from these rivers extends north of the axial Yamuna River. Red feldspathic sand and gravel underlie much of the southern foreland basin...... of the Bundelkhand Complex. Along the Yamuna Valley the red alluvium is overlain by gray alluvium dated at 82–35 ka ago, which also yields a cratonic signature, with large amounts of smectite derived from the Deccan Traps. Cratonic contributions are evident in alluvium as young as 9 ka ago in a section 25 km north...

  4. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 8: Quinnipiac River basin (United States)

    Mazzaferro, David L.; Handman, Elinor H.; Thomas, Mendall P.


    The Quinnipiac River basin area in southcentral Connecticut covers 363 square miles, and includes all drainage basins that enter Long Island Sound from the Branford to the Wepawaug Rivers. Its population in 1970 was estimated at 535,000. Precipitation averages 47 inches per year and provides an abundant supply of water. Twenty-one inches returns to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration; the remainder flows directly to streams or percolates to the water table and discharges to Long Island Sound. Small amounts of water are exported from the basin by the New Britain Water Department, and small amounts are imported to the basin by the New Haven Water Company. The amount of water that can be developed at a given place depends upon precipitation, variability of streamflow, hydraulic properties and areal extent of the aquifers, and hydraulic connection between the aquifers and major streams. The quality of the water is determined by the physical environment and the effects of man. Stratified drift is the only aquifer capable of large sustained yields of water to individual wells. Yields of 64 screened wells tapping stratified drift range from 17 to 2,000 gpm (gallons per minute); their median yield is 500 gpm. Till is widespread and generally provides only small amounts of water. Wells in till normally yield only a few hundred gallons of water daily and commonly are inadequate during dry periods. Till is generally used only as an emergency or secondary source of water. Bedrock aquifers underlie the entire report area and include sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock types. These aquifers supply small but reliable quantities of water to wells throughout the basin and are the chief source for many nonurban homes and farms. About 90 percent of the wells tapping bedrock yield at least 2 pgm, and much larger yields are occasionally reported. Maximum well yields of 305 gpm for sedimentary, 75 gpm for igneous, and 200 gpm for metamorphic bedrock have been reported. Water

  5. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene. (United States)

    Kumaran, Navnith K P; Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B; S, Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G


    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of land

  6. Seed banks and their implications of rivers with different trophic levels in Chaohu Lake Basin, China. (United States)

    Cui, Naxin; Wu, Juan; Zhong, Fei; Yang, Lihua; Xiang, Dongfang; Cheng, Shuiping; Zhou, Qi


    The seed banks of three rivers, with different trophic levels in Chaohu Lake Basin, China, were investigated to explore the dynamics of seed bank under the pressure of eutrophication. A total of 60 species from 25 family 43 genera were identified from the seed banks of the three rivers. In the eutrophic Paihe River, the species richness and mean seed density were the highest, followed by the oligotrophic Hangbuhe River and the hypereutrophic Nanfeihe River. Various compositions of three functional group assemblage of hydro-ecotypes were found in different rivers. The dominant and endemic species were aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial species in Hangbuhe River, Paihe River, and Nanfeihe River, respectively. The shift trend of seed bank in three rivers probably presented past vegetation dynamics under the trophic process in the rivers of Chaohu Lake Basin. Seed bank in the river bed might be quickly assessed by its trophic level. Additionally, it might imply that the seed bank with more aquatic species in the oligotrophic river would be a potential seed resource for vegetation restoration of severely degraded river ecosystems.

  7. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil....

  8. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. These data...

  9. River Basin Development and Human Rights in Eastern Africa — A Policy Crossroads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Claudia J


    .... It examines major river basin development underway in the semi-arid borderlands of Ethiopia, Kenya and South Sudan and its disastrous human rights consequences for a half-million indigenous people...

  10. 1:250,000-scale geology of the Carson River Basin, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital continuous geologic data for the Carson River Basin, Nevada and California. It was compiled from individual county 1:250,000-scale...

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in fishes and sediments from the Tensas River Basin, Lousiana (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aquatic habitats of the Tensas River Basin in northeastern Louisiana have been heavily impacted by sediment and agrichemical runoff due to intensive drainage,...

  12. Drainage areas for selected stream-sampling stations, Missouri River Basin (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), an investigation of the Missouri River Basin is being conducted to...

  13. Location of Photographs Showing Landslide Features in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data points represent locations of photographs taken of landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. Photos were taken in spring of 2010 during field...

  14. Lower Arkansas River basin high priority issue : Rattlesnake creek subbasin : January 2009 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a section from Volume III: Kansas River Basins, of the Kansas Water Plan, January 2009. This section is pertaining to Rattlesnake Creek subbasin,...

  15. Aerial photo mosaic of the Wilson and Kilchis Rivers, Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1939 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  16. Aerial photo mosaic of the Tillamook and Trask Rivers, Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1939 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  17. Landslide Deposit Boundaries for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This layer is an inventory of existing landslides deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide deposit shown on this map has been...

  18. LBA-ECO CD-06 Soil Classification Map, Ji-Parana River Basin, Rondonia, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a digital map of soil orders for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil (Western Amazonia). Soil orders were manually...

  19. LBA-ECO CD-06 Soil Classification Map, Ji-Parana River Basin, Rondonia, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides a digital map of soil orders for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil (Western Amazonia). Soil orders were...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Structural Features (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following publication: Anna, L.O., 1986, Geologic framework of the ground water...

  1. Freshwater Mussel Surveys Of The Pee Dee River Basin in South Carolina (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pee Dee River Basin is a major drainage of the Atlantic slope in the southeastern United States. The 10,755 sq mile drainage area incorporates portions of...

  2. Head Scarp Boundary for the Landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Polygons represent head scarps and flank scarps associated with landslide deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. This work was completed as part...

  3. Biodiversity and conservation status of fish of Ceyhan River basin in Osmaniye, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Dağlı


    The conservation measures suggested in this river basin must include strict regulation and control over removal of sand, controlling pollution and minimizing the threats caused by the increasing number of exotic species.

  4. Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhuo, L; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    .... A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River basin in the period considered...

  5. Superfund and mining megasites: lessons from the Coeur d'Alene River basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Division on Earth and Life Studies; Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Committee on Superfund Site Assessment and Remediation in the Coeur d' Alene River Basin; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences


    ...) listed a 21-square mile mining area in northern Idaho as a Superfund site. EPA extended those boundaries in 1998 to include areas throughout the 1500-square mile area Coeur d'Alene River Basin project area...

  6. Point of Rocks, Black Butte faults, Green River Basin, Wyoming (grbfltg.shp) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a line representation of faults in a portion of the the Green River Basin. The fault data are part of the National Coal Resource...

  7. Mineral Occurrence data for the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance and Uinta Basins (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This legacy database lists occurrences of minerals identified in the Green River Formation in the Uinta and Piceance Basins, Utah and Colorado using X-ray...

  8. Recent spatiotemporal temperature and rainfall variability and trends over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mengistu, Daniel; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Lal, Rattan


    This study analyses the spatial and temporal variability and trends of rainfall, mean maximum and minimum temperatures at seasonal and annual timescales over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia...

  9. Precipitation Frequency for Ohio River Basin, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 2 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Ohio River Basin and Surrounding states is based on precipitation data collected between...

  10. Water Scarcity as a Cause of Conflict in the Nile, Euphrates, and Jordan River Basins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Still, Douglas R


    The Euphrates, Nile, and Jordan Rivers are at center stage in the continued existence of the peoples in their basins where water scarcity serves as a source of conflict between the region's riparian...

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Anna Lineaments (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper: Anna, L.O., 1986, Geologic...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Slack Lineaments (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following publication: Slack, P. B., 1981, Paleotectonics and hydrocarbon...

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Maughan and Perry Lineaments (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following publication: Maughan, E.K., and Perry, W.J., Jr., 1986, Lineaments and...

  14. LBA-ECO CD-06 Amazon River Basin Land and Stream Drainage Direction Maps (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides high-resolution (~500 m) gridded land and stream drainage direction maps for the Amazon River basin, excluding the Rio Tocantins...

  15. Fish collections in the Niobrara River basin, Nebraska : 1893-2005 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White paper on the history of fish collections in the Niobrara River basin, from 1893 to 2005. This paper discusses locations of previous fish sampling, and...

  16. Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jun Xu


    Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004 river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2, total phosphorous (TP, and total organic carbon (TOC through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%, TP (41%, and TOC (12%, but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%. On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

  17. Human activities and its Responses to Glacier Melt Water Over Tarim River Basin (United States)

    He, Hai; Zhou, Shenbei; Bai, Minghao


    Tarim River Basin lies in the south area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the north-west area of China. It is the longest inland river of China. Being far away from ocean and embraced by high mountains, Tarim River Basin is the typical arid region in the world. The intensity of human activities increased rapidly in Tarim River Basin since 1980's and water resources lacking is the major issue restricting the development of social economy. The glacier melt water plays an important role for the regional social and economic development, and it accounts for 40% of mountain-pass runoff. It is a fragile mutual-dependent relationship between local sustainable development and runoff. Under the background of global change glacier melt water process has also changed especially in the arid and semi-arid region. Due to climate change, glacier in Tarim River Basin has melted in an observed way since 1980s, together with increasing trend of annual rainfall and virgin flow in mountain basins. Correspondingly, human activity gets more frequent since 1970s, resulting into the obvious fragile mutual-dependent relationship between basin runoff and water use amount. Through an analysis of meteorological, hydrological and geographical observation data from 1985 to 2015, this thesis make a multi-factor variance analysis of population, cultivation area, industrial development and runoff in upstream and mid-stream of Tarim River under changing conditions. Furthermore, the regulation function of natural factors and water demand management factors on relationship between runoff and water using amount are discussed, including temperature, rainfall, and evaporation, water conservation technology and soil-water exploitation administrative institutions. It concludes that: first, increase in glacier runoff, rainfall amount, and virgin flow haven't notably relieved ecological issue in Tarim River Basin, and even has promoted water use behaviour in different flowing areas and noticeably reduced

  18. Assessing Future Hydrological Changes in the Tana River Basin, Kenya (United States)

    Jenkins, Rhosanna


    Changes in precipitation will be one of the most significant factors in determining the overall impact of global climate change but are also one of the most uncertain and difficult to project. The reliability of global climate models (GCMs) for predicting changes in rainfall is particularly concerning for East Africa. This research focuses on Kenya's Tana River Basin and aims to project the impacts of climate change upon the hydrology in order to inform national climate change adaptation plans. The Tana basin has been identified as crucial for Kenya's development, with increased irrigated agriculture and additional dams planned. The area is also important for biodiversity and contains already-threatened ecosystems and endemic species. Kenya is already a water-scarce country and demand for water is expected to increase in the future as the country develops. Therefore, examining changes to precipitation with climate change is vital. The WaterWorld Policy Support System (, a physically-based hydrological model, has been used to determine annual and monthly changes in hydrology. WaterWorld utilises the WorldClim (Hijmans et al., 2005) climate projections for the latest generation of climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) to characterise the temperature and precipitation changes. In order to better understand the high uncertainties in projections of climate change, the full range of latest emissions scenarios (the representative concentration pathways or RCPs) were used to force the WaterWorld model. The WorldClim baseline values were evaluated by comparing them to observations and were found to correctly represent the annual cycle of precipitation. In addition, the CRU TS3.22 data (Harris et al., 2014) have also been examined and provide a valuable comparison to the WorldClim dataset. These simulations encompass a broad range of climate projections, but show a general trend towards

  19. Water Accounting Plus for Water Resources Reporting and River Basin Planning


    Karimi, P.


    This thesis introduces Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. WA+ is a simple, yet comprehensive and understandable water accounting framework that provides a standardized way of data collection and a presentation system that describes the overall land and water management situation in complex river basins. WA+ tracks water depletions rather than withdrawals...

  20. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin


    Saadé-Sbeih, Myriam; Zwahlen, François; Haj Asaad, Ahmed; Gonzalez, Raoul; Jaubert, Ronald


    Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  1. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saadé-Sbeih


    Full Text Available Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  2. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin (United States)

    Saadé-Sbeih, Myriam; Zwahlen, François; Haj Asaad, Ahmed; Gonzalez, Raoul; Jaubert, Ronald


    Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  3. Water resources of the English River, Old Mans Creek, and Clear Creek basins in Iowa (United States)

    Schwob, H.H.


    The surface and ground water resources of a 991 square mile area comprising the drainage basins of English River, Old Mans Creek and Clear Creek are presented. These basins lie to the west and southwest of Iowa City, Iowa, and all three streams are tributary to the Iowa River. The area is comprised of rolling uplands with relatively broad valleys and is devoted mainly to agriculture and livestock farming.

  4. Hypothesis of historical effects from selenium on endangered fish in the Colorado River basin (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.


    Anthropogenic selenium contamination of aquatic ecosystems was first associated with cooling reservoirs of coal-fired power plants in the late 1970s, and later with drainage water from agricultural irrigation activities in the 1980s. In the 1990s, selenium contamination has been raised as a concern in the recovery of currently endangered fish in the Colorado River system. Widespread contamination from seleniferous drain waters from agriculture has been documented in the upper and lower Colorado River basins. Historically, irrigation started in the upper Colorado River basin in the late 1880s. In the 1930s, selenium concentrations in various drains, tributaries, and major rivers in the upper and lower Colorado River basins were in the 100 s and 1000 s of µg/L. Native fish inhabiting large rivers such as the Colorado pikeminnow and razorback sucker were abundant before 1890, but became rare after 1910 to 1920, before the influence of mainstem reservoirs in the upper and lower Colorado River. A hypothesis is presented that selenium contamination of the tributaries and major rivers of the Colorado River basin in the 1890 to 1910 period caused the decline of the endangered fish and continues to inhibit their recovery.

  5. Drought forecasting in Luanhe River basin involving climatic indices (United States)

    Ren, Weinan; Wang, Yixuan; Li, Jianzhu; Feng, Ping; Smith, Ronald J.


    Drought is regarded as one of the most severe natural disasters globally. This is especially the case in Tianjin City, Northern China, where drought can affect economic development and people's livelihoods. Drought forecasting, the basis of drought management, is an important mitigation strategy. In this paper, we evolve a probabilistic forecasting model, which forecasts transition probabilities from a current Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) value to a future SPI class, based on conditional distribution of multivariate normal distribution to involve two large-scale climatic indices at the same time, and apply the forecasting model to 26 rain gauges in the Luanhe River basin in North China. The establishment of the model and the derivation of the SPI are based on the hypothesis of aggregated monthly precipitation that is normally distributed. Pearson correlation and Shapiro-Wilk normality tests are used to select appropriate SPI time scale and large-scale climatic indices. Findings indicated that longer-term aggregated monthly precipitation, in general, was more likely to be considered normally distributed and forecasting models should be applied to each gauge, respectively, rather than to the whole basin. Taking Liying Gauge as an example, we illustrate the impact of the SPI time scale and lead time on transition probabilities. Then, the controlled climatic indices of every gauge are selected by Pearson correlation test and the multivariate normality of SPI, corresponding climatic indices for current month and SPI 1, 2, and 3 months later are demonstrated using Shapiro-Wilk normality test. Subsequently, we illustrate the impact of large-scale oceanic-atmospheric circulation patterns on transition probabilities. Finally, we use a score method to evaluate and compare the performance of the three forecasting models and compare them with two traditional models which forecast transition probabilities from a current to a future SPI class. The results show that the

  6. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu


    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  7. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in three river basins (United States)

    Powers, Stephen M.; Bruulsema, Thomas W.; Burt, Tim P.; Chan, Neng Iong; Elser, James J.; Haygarth, Philip M.; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Jarvie, Helen P.; Lyu, Yang; Peterson, Heidi M.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Shen, Jianbo; Worrall, Fred; Zhang, Fusuo


    Global food production depends on phosphorus. Phosphorus is broadly applied as fertilizer, but excess phosphorus contributes to eutrophication of surface water bodies and coastal ecosystems. Here we present an analysis of phosphorus fluxes in three large river basins, including published data on fertilizer, harvested crops, sewage, food waste and river fluxes. Our analyses reveal that the magnitude of phosphorus accumulation has varied greatly over the past 30-70 years in mixed agricultural-urban landscapes of the Thames Basin, UK, the Yangtze Basin, China, and the rural Maumee Basin, USA. Fluxes of phosphorus in fertilizer, harvested crops, food waste and sewage dominate over the river fluxes. Since the late 1990s, net exports from the Thames and Maumee Basins have exceeded inputs, suggesting net mobilization of the phosphorus pool accumulated in earlier decades. In contrast, the Yangtze Basin has consistently accumulated phosphorus since 1980. Infrastructure modifications such as sewage treatment and dams may explain more recent declines in total phosphorus fluxes from the Thames and Yangtze Rivers. We conclude that human-dominated river basins may undergo a prolonged but finite accumulation phase when phosphorus inputs exceed agricultural demand, and this accumulated phosphorus may continue to mobilize long after inputs decline.

  8. Mapping the Soil Texture in the Heihe River Basin Based on Fuzzy Logic and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Lu


    Full Text Available Mapping soil texture in a river basin is critically important for eco-hydrological studies and water resource management at the watershed scale. However, due to the scarcity of in situ observation of soil texture, it is very difficult to map the soil texture in high resolution using traditional methods. Here, we used an integrated method based on fuzzy logic theory and data fusion to map the soil texture in the Heihe River basin in an arid region of Northwest China, by combining in situ soil texture measurement data, environmental factors, a previous soil texture map, and other thematic maps. Considering the different landscape characteristics over the whole Heihe River basin, different mapping schemes have been used to extract the soil texture in the upstream, middle, and downstream areas of the Heihe River basin, respectively. The validation results indicate that the soil texture map achieved an accuracy of 69% for test data from the midstream area of the Heihe River basin, which represents a much higher accuracy than that of another existing soil map in the Heihe River basin. In addition, compared with the time-consuming and expensive traditional soil mapping method, this new method could ensure greater efficiency and a better representation of the explicitly spatial distribution of soil texture and can, therefore, satisfy the requirements of regional modeling.

  9. Exposure of the Main Italian River Basin to Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Ferrari


    Full Text Available This study give a preliminary survey of pharmaceutical contamination and accumulation in surface waters and sediments along the river Po basin (74,000 km2, the largest in Italy, a strategic region for the Italian economy: it collects sewage from a vast industrialized area of Italy (Autorità di Baciono del fiume Po, 2006, 2009. 10 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, propanolol, metoprolol, nimesulide, furosemide, carbamazepine, ranitidine, metronidazole, paracetamol, and atorvastatin from several therapeutic classes were searched in 54 sampling points along the river Po from the source to the delta, and at the mouth of its major effluents. In water samples were found pharmaceuticals in the range of 0.38–0.001 μg/L, except for furosemide (max conc. 0.605 μg/L, paracetamol (max conc. 3.59 μg/L, metoprolol (never detected and for atenolol (not analysed. In sediment samples, only paracetamol was not detected, while the others were generally found in the range of 0.4–0.02 μg/kg ww with high concentrations for atenolol (max conc. 284 μg/kg ww and furosemide (max conc. 98.4 μg/kg ww. The findings confirm also STPs as point sources of contamination. Despite of the much evidence for the adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, the observed low levels cannot be considered to pose a serious risk to human health; further studies are necessary for a comprehensive risk assessment.

  10. The ecological and cultural functions of invertebrates in the Congo River basin. (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot


    One of the entomologically richest, yet least studied, regions of Africa is the interior Congo River Basin. Forests of this region have been called Earth's "second lung" (after the Amazon Basin forests) and harbor an immense diversity of invertebrates. In these tropical rainforests live people of several cultures whose lives and livelihoods are...

  11. Revised estimates for direct-effect recreational jobs in the interior Columbia River basin. (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes


    This paper reviews the methodology used to derive the original estimates for direct employment associated with recreation on Federal lands in the interior Columbia River basin (the basin), and details the changes in methodology and data used to derive new estimates. The new analysis resulted in an estimate of 77,655 direct-effect jobs associated with recreational...

  12. Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: The Colorado River Basin, the High Plains, and California (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown


    We quantify the vulnerability of water supply to shortage for the Colorado River Basin and basins of the High Plains and California and assess the sensitivity of their water supply system to future changes in the statistical variability of supply and demand. We do so for current conditions and future socio-economic scenarios within a probabilistic framework that...

  13. 78 FR 72860 - White River National Forest; Summit County, CO; 2013 Arapahoe Basin Improvements EIS (United States)


    .... SUMMARY: Arapahoe Basin Ski Area (A-Basin) has submitted a proposal to the White River National Forest... designed to: Provide The Beavers with snow safety operations and ski patrol services consistent with statements made in the 2002 WRNF Forest Plan FEIS; accommodate existing and future demand for high Alpine and...

  14. Degradation and damages from utilizing ecosystem services in a river basin (United States)

    Travis W. Warziniack


    We examine the tradeoffs between utilizing multiple ecosystem services in an economic model of the Lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. We show how economic development in the basin degraded the ecosystem, but diversified the economy. A degraded ecosystem and more employment opportunities elsewhere reduced the region's reliance on agriculture and other...

  15. Fine particle emission potential from overflowing areas of Tarim River in the Tarim Basin (United States)

    In the low-precipitation zone (Tarim Basin, wind erosion and fugitive dust emission is a recognized problem. There is limited information, however, regarding wind erosion on river overflowing areas, areas of temporal flooding, in the Tarim Basin. The objectives o...

  16. Radon Concentration in the Cataniapo-Autana River Basin, Amazonas State, Venezuela (United States)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Greaves, E. D.; Alvarez, H.; Liendo, J.; Vásquez, G.


    Radon activity concentration is measured in rivers of the Autana-Cataniapo hydrologic basin. The region experiments mining and it is forecasted that the basin will be perturbed. Radon activity monitoring is one of the methods to measure environmental changes. Values of radon concentration in water range between 0.4 and 30 Bq L-1.

  17. Report for Flood Control and Allied Purposes, Whitewater River Basin, California. (United States)


    the Whitewater River Basin. Agriculture is the dominant economic characteristic of the southern Coachella Valley, or the southern part of the basin. The...some projects would probably be economically justified. In addition, the Coachella Valley Association of Governments (CVAG) task force committee on... impacts under "without" conditions. The task of impact assessment requires identifying all significant economic , social, environmental, and

  18. Hydrological assessment of freshwater resource areas in the Zambezi River Basin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc


    Full Text Available to hydrogeology, IAH Publ. 8, Verlag Heinz Heisse. Xu, Y. and Beekman, H.E. (Eds). 2003. Groundwater recharge estimation in southern Africa. UNESCO IHP Series No. 64. UNESCO Paris. Figure 1: The Zambezi River Basin and its 13 sub basins Figure 3: High water...


    A set of backcast and forecast land use maps of the Ohio River Basin (ORB) was developed that could be used to assess the spatial-temporal patterns of land use/land cover (LULC) change in this important basin. This approach was taken to facilitate assessment of integrated sustain...

  20. Water and Climate Data in the Ganges Basin: Assessing Access to Information Regimes and Implications for Cooperation on Transboundary Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Prasai


    Full Text Available Public access to government-maintained water and climate data in the three major co-riparian countries of the Ganges Basin – Nepal, India and Bangladesh – has been either inadequately granted or formally restricted. This paper examines the effects of newly enacted Right to Information (RTI laws in these three countries to assess changes in the information access regimes as they relate to hydrological data. We find that neither the RTI laws nor the internal and external demand for increased transparency in governments have affected access to information regimes on water at a fundamental level. In India, the RTI laws have not eased public access to data on its transboundary rivers including in the Ganges Basin and in Nepal and Bangladesh, while data can be legally accessed using RTI laws, the administrative procedures for such an access are not developed enough to make a tangible difference on the ground. We then discuss the implications of our findings on the continuing impasse on regional collaboration on water in South Asia and point to rapid advancements in technology as an emerging pathway to greater data democracy.

  1. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data, South Rewa Gondwana Basin, India (United States)

    Chowdari, Swarnapriya; Singh, Bijendra; Rao, B. Nageswara; Kumar, Niraj; Singh, A. P.; Chandrasekhar, D. V.


    Intracratonic South Rewa Gondwana Basin occupies the northern part of NW-SE trending Son-Mahanadi rift basin of India. The new gravity data acquired over the northern part of the basin depicts WNW-ESE and ENE-WSW anomaly trends in the southern and northern part of the study area respectively. 3D inversion of residual gravity anomalies has brought out undulations in the basement delineating two major depressions (i) near Tihki in the north and (ii) near Shahdol in the south, which divided into two sub-basins by an ENE-WSW trending basement ridge near Sidi. Maximum depth to the basement is about 5.5 km within the northern depression. The new magnetic data acquired over the basin has brought out ENE-WSW to E-W trending short wavelength magnetic anomalies which are attributed to volcanic dykes and intrusive having remanent magnetization corresponding to upper normal and reverse polarity (29N and 29R) of the Deccan basalt magnetostratigrahy. Analysis of remote sensing and geological data also reveals the predominance of ENE-WSW structural faults. Integration of remote sensing, geological and potential field data suggest reactivation of ENE-WSW trending basement faults during Deccan volcanism through emplacement of mafic dykes and sills. Therefore, it is suggested that South Rewa Gondwana basin has witnessed post rift tectonic event due to Deccan volcanism.

  2. Evaluation of relative tectonic perturbations of the Kashmir Basin, Northwest Himalaya, India: An integrated morphological approach (United States)

    Dubey, R. K.; Dar, Javid Ahmad; Kothyari, Girish Ch.


    Geomorphic and morphotectonic evaluations of the Kashmir Basin have been carried by implicating different geomorphic indices such as stream-gradient index (SL), hypsometric integral (HI), drainage basin asymmetry (AF), valley floor height and width ratio (Vf), transverse topographic symmetry factor (T), mountain front sinuosity (Smf), drainage basin shape (BS) and sinuosity index (SI) for the categorization of relative index of active tectonics (RIAT) through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) so as to decipher the role of neotectonics in geomorphologic evolution of the basin. The verified RIAT classes through field investigation and validation reveal the traverse of twenty-one active faults in the basin with demarcation of three RIAT classes viz., class-1 (inactive 20.07% of the area), class-2 (moderately active; 36.52% of the area) and class-3 (very active; 43.4% of the area). The observed values of RIAT distribution pattern are well corroborated with field observations. Ultimately, the overall geomorphic outputs and clustering of recent seismicity support the active tectonic control over the Kashmir basin, India.

  3. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.M.; Wang, F.


    Reduced stream flow and increased sediment discharge are a major concern in the Yellow River basin of China, which supplies water for agriculture, industry and the growing populations located along the river. Similar concerns exist in the Wei River basin, which is the largest tributary of the Yellow

  4. Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in the Ganga River Basin: A Future Health Danger. (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Singh, Sushant K; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy


    This study highlights the severity of arsenic contamination in the Ganga River basin (GRB), which encompasses significant geographic portions of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Tibet. The entire GRB experiences elevated levels of arsenic in the groundwater (up to 4730 µg/L), irrigation water (~1000 µg/L), and in food materials (up to 3947 µg/kg), all exceeding the World Health Organization's standards for drinking water, the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization's standard for irrigation water (100 µg/L), and the Chinese Ministry of Health's standard for food in South Asia (0.15 mg/kg), respectively. Several individuals demonstrated dermal, neurological, reproductive, cognitive, and cancerous effects; many children have been diagnosed with a range of arsenicosis symptoms, and numerous arsenic-induced deaths of youthful victims are reported in the GRB. Victims of arsenic exposure face critical social challenges in the form of social isolation and hatred by their respective communities. Reluctance to establish arsenic standards and unsustainable arsenic mitigation programs have aggravated the arsenic calamity in the GRB and put millions of lives in danger. This alarming situation resembles a ticking time bomb. We feel that after 29 years of arsenic research in the GRB, we have seen the tip of the iceberg with respect to the actual magnitude of the catastrophe; thus, a reduced arsenic standard for drinking water, testing all available drinking water sources, and sustainable and cost-effective arsenic mitigation programs that include the participation of the people are urgently needed.

  5. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.


    This study provides information on channel and flood-plain processes and historical trends to guide effective restoration and monitoring strategies for the Sprague River Basin, a primary tributary (via the lower Williamson River) of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The study area covered the lower, alluvial segments of the Sprague River system, including the lower parts of the Sycan River, North Fork Sprague River, South Fork Sprague River, and the entire main-stem Sprague River between the confluence of the North Fork Sprague and the South Fork Sprague Rivers and its confluence with the Williamson River at Chiloquin, Oregon. The study included mapping and stratigraphic analysis of flood-plain deposits and flanking features; evaluation of historical records, maps and photographs; mapping and analysis of flood-plain and channel characteristics (including morphologic and vegetation conditions); and a 2006 survey of depositional features left by high flows during the winter and spring of 2005–06.

  6. Variations in concentrations and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients related to catchment scale human interventions in Pamba River, Kerala, India (United States)

    David, S. E.; Jennerjahn, T. C.; Chattopadhyay, S.


    River basins are geo-hydrological units. Water flowing out of the basin bears the imprint of natural factors such as geology, soil, vegetation and rainfall along with anthropogenic factors including the type and degree of human intervention within the basin. Pamba, a small mountainous river in the SW coast of India with a population density of ~1,400 persons km-2 was studied for its varying land use and human interventions as the global database are biased towards temperate regions while little is know about the smaller catchments from tropical regions. Land use comprised of dense forest in the highland region together with forest plantation and the human impacted Sabarimala temple- the second largest pilgrim, settlement with mixed tree crop (smt) in the midland and lowland paddy cultivated region. 50-60 million devotees visiting Sabarimala during November to January every year associated with the ritual bathing, discharge of human wastes emanating from the influx of millions of pilgrims due to inadequate number of sanitary latrines and the lack of facilities for sewage collection and treatment caused several ecological variations during pilgrim season. In order to asses the effect of land use and pilgrims in combination with seasonal variations in hydrology we investigated the seasonal and spatial variations in physicochemical and nutrient concentrations. Samples were collected from March 2010 to February 2012 during premonsoon (January-May), SW(June to September) and NE monsoon(October to December), from sites varying in land use. Nutrient budgets (load and yield) were calculated to quantify the inputs from various land use segments. Spatio-temporal variations in the physicochemical and dissolved nutrient concentrations were observed along the course of the river. Upstream forest region had highest dissolved oxygen(DO) and pH together with lowest dissolved inorganic nitrogen(DIN) values indicating almost pristine conditions. DIN in the temple region had the

  7. Sinos River Hydrographic Basin: urban occupation, industrialization and environmental memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Nunes

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the process of industrialization and urbanization of the Sinos Valley in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, starting from the establishment of leather goods and footwear manufacturing in the region during the 19th century when tanneries and factories producing footwear and/or components for footwear began to appear, and with special attention to aspects related to the environmental impact on the Sinos river hydrographic basin. The article is based on both bibliographic and documentary research and also draws on biographical narratives of workers with links to the leather goods and footwear industry obtained using ethnographic method. It was found that contemporary environmental conflicts emerge from within a memory of work and an environmental memory in which the factories, the unplanned urbanization, and the utilization of water and other natural resources form a chain of significance. Significance that precludes any form of fragmented analysis that isolates any of these aspects from the others: the economic, socio-historic, cultural, political, or the environmental.

  8. Thallium distribution in sediments from the Pearl river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Lippold, Holger [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Chunlin [Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)


    Thallium (Tl) is a rare element of high toxicity. Sediments sampled in three representative locations near industries utilizing Tl-containing raw materials from the Pearl River Basin, China were analyzed for their total Tl contents and the Tl contents in four sequentially extracted fractions (i.e., weak acid exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction). The results reveal that the total Tl contents (1.25-19.1 {mu}g/g) in the studied sediments were slightly high to quite high compared with those in the Chinese background sediments. This indicates the apparent Tl contamination of the investigated sediments. However, with respect to the chemical fractions, Tl is mainly associated with the residual fraction (>60%) of the sediments, especially of those from the mining area of Tl-bearing pyrite minerals, indicating the relatively low mobility, and low bioavailability of Tl in these sediments. This obviously contrasts with the previous findings that Tl is mainly entrapped in the first three labile fractions of the contaminated samples. Possible reasons were given for the dominating association of Tl with the residual fraction (>95%) of the mining area sediments. The significant role of certain K-containing silicates or minerals of these sediments on retaining Tl in the residual fraction, discovered by this study, provides a special field of research opportunity for the Tl-containing wastewater treatment. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Adaptive Governance and Resilience: the Columbia River Basin (United States)

    Cosens, B.; Boll, J.; Fremier, A. K.


    Ecologists have made progress in developing criteria for describing the resilience of an ecological system. Expansion of that effort to social-ecological systems has begun the identification of institutional changes to the social system necessary to foster ecological resilience including the use of adaptive management and integrated ecosystem management. But the changes in governance needed to foster ecosystem resilience will not be adopted by democratic societies without careful attention to their effect on the social system itself. Increased flexibility by resource management agencies in the form of adaptive management must be exercised in a manner that is legitimate and responsive to the social system. In addition, any change in governance must begin with the current complexities in which jurisdictional boundaries do not mimic those of ecosystems, and economic dependency on development imposes risk on any management change. We use the concept of legitimacy in governance as a necessary component of any change to achieve greater social-ecological resilience and turn to network theory as a means to facilitate legitimacy across existing geographic and subject matter jurisdictional boundaries. In application to the Columbia River Basin shared by the US and Canada, we explore the concept of resilience in a complex multi-jurisdictional watershed, taking the position that while adaptive management may foster ecological resilience, it is only one factor in the institutional changes needed to foster social-ecological resilience captured in the concept of adaptive governance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. G. Santos


    Full Text Available The rainfall characteristics within Klang River basin is analyzed by the continuous wavelet transform using monthly rainfall data (1997–2009 from a raingauge and also using daily rainfall data (1998–2013 from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. The wavelet power spectrum showed that some frequency components were presented within the rainfall time series, but the observed time series is short to provide accurate information, thus the daily TRMM rainfall data were used. In such analysis, two main frequency components, i.e., 6 and 12 months, showed to be present during the entire period of 16 years. Such semiannual and annual frequencies were confirmed by the global wavelet power spectra. Finally, the modulation in the 8–16-month and 256– 512-day bands were examined by an average of all scales between 8 and 16 months, and 256 and 512 days, respectively, giving a measure of the average monthly/daily variance versus time, where the periods with low or high variance could be identified.

  11. Digital soil map of the Ussuri River basin (United States)

    Bugaets, A. N.; Pschenichnikova, N. F.; Tereshkina, A. A.; Krasnopeev, S. M.; Gartsman, B. I.; Golodnaya, O. M.; Oznobikhin, V. I.


    On the basis of digital soil, topographic, and geological maps; raster topography model; forestry materials; and literature data, the digital soil map of the Ussuri River basin (24400 km2) was created on a scale of 1: 100000. To digitize the initial paper-based maps and analyze the results, an ESRI ArcGIS Desktop (ArcEditor) v.10.1 ( and an open-code SAGA GIS v.2.3 (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses, were used. The spatial distribution of soil areas on the obtained digital soil map is in agreement with modern cartographic data and the SRTM digital elevation model (SRTM DEM). The regional soil classification developed by G.I. Ivanov was used in the legend to the soil map. The names of soil units were also correlated with the names suggested in the modern Russian soil classification system. The major soil units on the map are at the soil subtypes that reflect the entire vertical spectrum of soils in the south of the Far East of Russia (Primorye region). These are mountainous tundra soils, podzolic soils, brown taiga soils, mountainous brown forest soils, bleached brown soils, meadow-brown soils, meadow gley soils, and floodplain soils). With the help of the spatial analysis function of GIS, the comparison of the particular characteristics of the soil cover with numerical characteristics of the topography, geological composition of catchments, and vegetation cover was performed.

  12. Modeling floods in large river basins: Model resolution and storm patterns (United States)

    Troy, T.; Lall, U.; Devineni, N.


    Floods in large river basins are not the simple result of heavy rainfall; rather it is the confluence of the spatio-temporal pattern of single to multiple rainfall events, antecedent moisture conditions, and the river network. Increasing the routing model resolution can improve modeled flood peak, volume and duration; however this can be computationally intensive. We use a high-resolution river routing model coupled to the VIC land surface model over the Ohio and Danube Rivers, both of which are large, flood-prone river basins. Using detailed river channel data from across the Ohio River basin to parameterize the river routing model, we demonstrate that channel width parameters can be transferred to the Danube River, providing a potential strategy for implementing high-resolution models in data-poor regions. Spatial and temporal resolutions at which runoff is generated for the flood model has varying impacts for different sub-basins, and we hypothesize that this is tied to the scale of the flood-generating precipitation events. This modeling framework, which is able to accurately simulate peak flood rate and flood volume, then allows us to explore the relative importance of antecedent moisture conditions and the spatio-temporal pattern of rainfall. We find that working back from the annual maximum flood, we have high correlation with the 7-day runoff preceding the flood event for the Ohio. However starting with the annual maximum 7-day runoff does not necessarily result in a flood, pointing to the importance of considering both the rainfall patterns and river network for flooding in large river basins.

  13. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River, Eastern Lake Ontario, and Lower Hudson River Basins, New York, 2013 (United States)

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Reddy, James E.


    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, water samples were collected from 4 production wells and 4 domestic wells in the Chemung River Basin, 8 production wells and 7 domestic wells in the Eastern Lake Ontario Basin, and 12 production wells and 13 domestic wells in the Lower Hudson River Basin (south of the Federal Lock and Dam at Troy) in New York. All samples were collected in June, July, and August 2013 to characterize groundwater quality in these basins. The samples were collected and processed using standard USGS procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  14. Environmental flow assessment for improvement of ecological integrity in the Haihe River Basin, China. (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Jingling; Chen, Qiuying; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yi


    The Haihe River Basin is a semiarid water resources area of China. River ecosystem was degraded for high population density and intensive water resources development activities. To assist in the improvement of the ecological integrity of this river ecosystem, an environmental flow assessment model was developed that consider both spatial structure and dominant eco-function parameters. River ecosystem was divided into three sub-ecosystems which including river reach, wetland and estuary based on the spatial structure of river ecosystem. River reach was divided into three types which including habitat restoration type (HR), water quality restoration type (WQR) and vegetation restoration substitute water quantity restoration type (VRSWQR) according to their dominant eco-function. The spatio-temporal distribution of environmental flow (EF) for the river ecosystem in the Haihe River Basin was assessed based on the model. The results indicate that the EF for the river reach, wetland, and estuary are 2.267, 1.532, and 0.972 billion m(3), respectively. The EF for HR type of river reach, the WQR type of river reach and VRSWQR type of river reach are 1.140, 1.138, and 0.154 billion m(3), which are equal to 4.320, 4.312, and 0.584 % of the average annual flow of 26.39 billion m(3), respectively. EF for river ecosystem in wet period (June-September), normal period (October-January) and dry period (February-May) are 2.999, 0.951, and 0.821 billion m(3), respectively. Annual EF for river ecosystem of the Basin are 4.771 billion m(3), which accounts for 18 % of the average annual flows of 26.39 billion m(3).

  15. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

  16. Flood forecasting for the upper reach of the Red River Basin, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vu Quang station on the Lo River. Located on the upper reach of the Red River basin, these stations do not have any tidal effect. As such, no tidal data are needed for forecasting purposes . Multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The general forecasting equation based on MLR can be written as follows: H, =A+Iaj Hr- I +.

  17. Salinity management in river basins : modelling and management of the salt-affected Jarreh Reservoir (Iran)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiati, K.


    The sources and origin of salts in the basin of the two salt- affected Shapur and Dalaki rivers (Southern Iran) and the processes involved in salinization have been studied. The extent of water deterioration have been identified by examining spatial changes in the rivers water

  18. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Magnesium (Mg++) and Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) showed no definite pattern of variation. This paper focuses on this aspect of Orle River, thus giving baseline information on the temporal and spatial dynamics in the chemical attributes of the basin. This is necessary since the rivers form a major source of drinking ...

  19. Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail:, e-mail:


    A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

  20. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010 (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.


    Water samples were collected from 10 production and domestic wells in the Delaware River Basin in New York and from 20 production and domestic wells in the St. Lawrence River Basin in New York from August through November 2010 to characterize groundwater quality in the basins. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  1. The Role of Cooperation and Information Exchange in Transnational River Basins: the Zambezi River case (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.


    The presence of multiple, institutionally independent but physically interconnected decision-makers is a distinctive features of many water resources systems, especially of transnational river basins. The adoption of a centralized approach to study the optimal operation of these systems, as mostly done in the water resources literature, is conceptually interesting to quantify the best achievable performance, but of little practical impact given the real political and institutional setting. Centralized management indeed assumes a cooperative attitude and full information exchange by the involved parties. However, when decision-makers belong to different countries or institutions, it is very likely that they act considering only their local objectives, producing global externalities that negatively impact on other objectives. In this work we adopt a Multi-Agent Systems framework, which naturally allows to represent a set of self-interested agents (decision-makers and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision-making process. According to this agent-based approach, each agent represents a decision-maker, whose decisions are defined by an explicit optimization problem considering only the agent's local interests. In particular, this work assesses the role of information exchange and increasing level of cooperation among originally non-cooperative agents. The Zambezi River basin is used to illustrate the methodology: the four largest reservoirs in the basin (Ithezhithezhi, Kafue-Gorge, Kariba and Cahora Bassa) are mainly operated for maximizing the economic revenue from hydropower energy production with considerably negative effects on the aquatic ecosystem in the Zambezi delta due to the alteration of the natural flow regime. We comparatively analyse the ideal centralized solution and the current situation where all the decision-makers act independently and non-cooperatively. Indeed, although a new basin-level institution called Zambezi Watercourse Commission

  2. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.


    where the annual maximum temperature typically occurred in September or October. Without-dam temperatures also tended to have more daily variation than with-dam temperatures. Examination of the without-dam temperature estimates indicated that dam sites could be grouped according to the amount of streamflow derived from high-elevation, spring-fed, and snowmelt-driven areas high in the Cascade Mountains (Cougar, Big Cliff/Detroit, River Mill, and Hills Creek Dams: Group A), as opposed to flow primarily derived from lower-elevation rainfall-driven drainages (Group B). Annual maximum temperatures for Group A ranged from 15 to 20 degree(s)C, expressed as the 7-day average of the daily maximum (7dADM), whereas annual maximum 7dADM temperatures for Group B ranged from 21 to 25 degrees C. Because summertime stream temperature is at least somewhat dependent on the upstream water source, it was important when estimating without-dam temperatures to use correlations to sites with similar upstream characteristics. For that reason, it also is important to maintain long-term, year-round temperature measurement stations at representative sites in each of the Willamette River basin's physiographic regions. Streamflow and temperature estimates downstream of the major dam sites and throughout the Willamette River were generated using existing CE-QUAL-W2 flow and temperature models. These models, originally developed for the Willamette River water-temperature Total Maximum Daily Load process, required only a few modifications to allow them to run under the greatly reduced without-dam flow conditions. Model scenarios both with and without upstream dams were run. Results showed that Willamette River streamflow without upstream dams was reduced to levels much closer to historical pre-dam conditions, with annual minimum streamflows approximately one-half or less of dam-augmented levels. Thermal effects of the dams varied according to the time of year, from cooling in mid-summer to warm

  3. The future of the reservoirs in the Siret River Basin considering the sediment transport of rivers (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru OLARIU


    Full Text Available The Siret River Basin is characterized by an important use of hydro potential, resulted in the number of reservoirs constructed and operational. The cascade power stage of the reservoirs on Bistrita and Siret rivers indicate the anthropic interventions with different purposes (hydro energy, water supply, irrigation etc. in the Siret River Basin. In terms of the capacity in the Siret River Basin there is a dominance of the small capacity reservoirs, which is given by the less than 20 mil m³ volumes. Only two lakes have capacities over 200 mil m³: Izvoru Muntelui on Bistrita River and Siriu on Buzau River. Based on the monitoring of the alluvial flow at the hydrometric stations, from the Siret River Basin, there have been analysed the sediment yield formation and the solid transit dimensions in order to obtain typical values for the geographical areas of this territory. The silting of these reservoirs was monitored by successive topobatimetric measurements performed by the Bureau of Prognosis, Hydrology and Hydrogeology and a compartment within Hidroelectrica S.A. Piatra Neamt Subsidiary. The quantities of the deposited sediments are very impressive. The annual rates range betwee3 000 – 2 000 000 t/year, depending on the size of the hydrographical basin, the capacity of the reservoirs, the liquid flow and many other factors which may influence the upstream transport of sediments. These rates of sedimentation lead to a high degree of silting in the reservoirs. Many of them are silted over 50% of the initial capacity and the others even more. The effects of the silting have an important impact when analysing the effective exploitation of the reservoirs. 

  4. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Borowski


    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  5. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  6. Effects of Flood Control Works Failure in the Missouri River Basin (United States)


    hydrologist with the National Resources Conservation Service; Bill Lawrence, a hydrologist with the National Weather Service; and Darwin Ockerman, a...duration of flooding in the Missouri River basin occurred in Saint Charles , Missouri. The Missouri River at Saint Charles stayed at or above flood...that protect Saint Charles and Saint Louis Counties along the Missouri River as displayed in figure 7. These levees protect over 69,000 acres; most of

  7. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. (Tom Raadgever


    Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

  8. Mapping and Assessment of Degraded Land in the Heihe River Basin, Arid Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Cai


    Full Text Available Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the aridinland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects ofenvironmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resourceutilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, suchas its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based onfield observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classificationand evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River.There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in thesouthern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the lowreaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2,22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin wasevaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils,land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

  9. Quantifying ages of river terraces and basin wide denudation rates in Pamir (United States)

    Sulaymonova, Vasila A.; Fuchs, Margret C.; Gloaguen, Richard; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg


    The Pamir is located at the western edge of the Indian indenter and results from the India-Asia collision. The Pamir also lies at the transition between zones dominated either by the Westerlies or the Indian Summer Monsoon. The ongoing tectonic deformation together with the climatic gradients from the two prevailing atmospheric circulation systems provide a natural laboratory to study surface processes and their rates. To determine and quantify the interaction between tectonics and the drainage system in the Tajik Pamir we use cosmogenic nuclide based techniques. We measured 10Be and 26Al concentrations of modern fluvial sediments sampled from drainage system of Pamirs. Depth profiles enable to determine exposure ages of fluvial terraces, while the modern river sediments reveal basin-wide erosion rates. However, accurate measurement results depend on the quality of the sample preparation. The samples from Pamir contain a high amount of various feldspars that are very difficult to separate from quartz using standard procedures such as magnetic or density separation. Unclean samples cause uncertainties in chemical procedures, especially in the case of combined 10Be and 26Al analysis. We developed a feldspar flotation in addition to our sample preparation procedure that allowed an almost complete separation of the quartz, up to 95%. Several depth profiles were analyzed to determine the exposure age of fluvial terraces. The first results of one terrace along the southern Panj River east of Langar, and one along the Shakhdara River are promising. The AMS results demonstrated that the depth profiles are consistent, with 10Be and 26Al concentrations decreasing with depth. The results of both fluvial terraces show similar denudation rates 0.5mm/yr., while exposure age analysis yields 3.5 ka for the Langar and 19 ka Shakhdara terrace. Further analyses are ongoing. These ages are validated by OSL dates at or nearby the same sites. 10Be denudation rates on modern river

  10. Pb-Zn-Cd-Hg multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France (United States)

    Millot, R.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Guerrot, C.; Bourrain, X.; Johnson, T. M.


    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition (major ions and pollutants such as metals) of the dissolved load of rivers. Furthermore, this influence can also be evidenced in the suspended solid matter known to play an important role in the transport of heavy metals through river systems. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. Initially, the Loire upstream flows in a south to north direction originating in the Massif Central, and continues up to the city of Orléans, 650 km from the source. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The Loire River then follows a general east to west direction to the Atlantic Ocean. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for heavy metals Zn-Cd-Pb-Hg in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for these metals for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of

  11. A High-performance temporal-spatial discretization method for the parallel computing of river basins (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Yuanjian; Wang, Guangqian


    The distributed basin model (DBM) has become one of the most effective tools in river basin studies. In order to overcome the efficiency bottleneck of DBM, an effective parallel-computing method, named temporal-spatial discretization method (TSDM), is proposed. In space, TSDM adopts the sub-basin partitioning manner to the river basin. Compared to the existing sub-basin-based parallel methods, more computable units can be supplied, organized and dispatched using TSDM. Through the characteristic of the temporal-spatial dual discretization, TSDM is capable of exploiting the river-basin parallelization degree to the maximum extent and obtaining higher computing performance. A mathematical formula assessing the maximum speedup ratio (MSR) of TSDM is provided as well. TSDM is independent of the implementation of any physical models and is preliminarily tested in the Lhasa River basin with 1-year rainfall-runoff process simulated. The MSR acquired in the existing traditional way is 7.98. Comparatively, the MSR using TSDM equals to 15.04 under the present limited computing resources, which appears to still have potential to keep increasing. The final results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of TSDM.

  12. Regional Flood Frequency Analysis in the Volta River Basin, West Africa

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    Kossi Komi


    Full Text Available In the Volta River Basin, flooding has been one of the most damaging natural hazards during the last few decades. Therefore, flood frequency estimates are important for disaster risk management. This study aims at improving knowledge of flood frequencies in the Volta River Basin using regional frequency analysis based on L-moments. Hence, three homogeneous groups have been identified based on cluster analysis and a homogeneity test. By using L-moment diagrams and goodness of fit tests, the generalized extreme value and the generalized Pareto distributions are found suitable to yield accurate flood quantiles in the Volta River Basin. Finally, regression models of the mean annual flood with the size of the drainage area, mean basin slope and mean annual rainfall are proposed to enable flood frequency estimation of ungauged sites within the study area.

  13. Evaluation of ecological instream flow considering hydrological alterations in the Yellow River basin, China (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Zongjiao; Shi, Peijun; Singh, Vijay P.; Gu, Xihui


    The Yellow River is the second largest river in China and is the important source for water supply in the northwestern and northern China. It is often regarded as the mother river of China. Owing to climatic change and intensifying human activities, such as increasing withdrawal of water for meeting growing agricultural irrigation needs since 1986, the flow of Yellow River has decreased, with serious impacts on the ecological environment. Using multiple hydrological indicators and Flow Duration Curve (DFC)-based ecodeficit and ecosurplus, this study investigates the impact of hydrological alterations, such as the impact of water reservoirs or dams, on downstream ecological instream flow. Results indicate that: (1) due to the impoundment and hydrological regulations of water reservoirs, occurrence rates and magnitudes of high flow regimes have decreased and the decrease is also found in the magnitudes of low flow events. These changes tend to be more evident from the upper to the lower Yellow River basin; (2) human activities tend to enhance the instream flow variability, particularly after the 1980s;(3) the ecological environment in different parts of the Yellow River basin is under different degrees of ecological risk. In general, lower to higher ecological risk can be detected due to hydrological alterations from the upper to the lower Yellow River basin. This shows that conservation of ecological environment and river health is facing a serious challenge in the lower Yellow River basin; (4) ecological instream flow indices, such as ecodeficit and ecosurplus, and IHA32 hydrological indicators are in strong relationships, suggesting that ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be regarded as appropriate ecological indicators for developing measures for mitigating the adverse impact of human activities on the conservation of ecological environment in the Yellow River basin.

  14. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Keskinen


    Full Text Available The water-energy-food nexus is promoted as a new approach for research and policy-making. But what does the nexus mean in practice and what kinds of benefits does it bring? In this article we share our experiences with using a nexus approach in Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake area. We conclude that water, energy and food security are very closely linked, both in the Tonle Sap and in the transboundary Mekong River Basin generally. The current drive for large-scale hydropower threatens water and food security at both local and national scales. Hence, the nexus provides a relevant starting point for promoting sustainable development in the Mekong. We also identify and discuss two parallel dimensions for the nexus, with one focusing on research and analysis and the other on integrated planning and cross-sectoral collaboration. In our study, the nexus approach was particularly useful in facilitating collaboration and stakeholder engagement. This was because the nexus approach clearly defines the main themes included in the process, and at the same time widens the discussion from mere water resource management into the broader aspects of water, energy and food security.

  15. Systematic impact assessment on inter-basin water transfer projects of the Hanjiang River Basin in China (United States)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Hong, Xingjun; Chang, Fi-John


    China's inter-basin water transfer projects have gained increasing attention in recent years. This study proposes an intelligent water allocation methodology for establishing optimal inter-basin water allocation schemes and assessing the impacts of water transfer projects on water-demanding sectors in the Hanjiang River Basin of China. We first analyze water demands for water allocation purpose, and then search optimal water allocation strategies for maximizing the water supply to water-demanding sectors and mitigating the negative impacts by using the Standard Genetic Algorithm (SGA) and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA), respectively. Lastly, the performance indexes of the water supply system are evaluated under different scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects. The results indicate that: the AGA with adaptive crossover and mutation operators could increase the average annual water transfer from the Hanjiang River by 0.79 billion m3 (8.8%), the average annual water transfer from the Changjiang River by 0.18 billion m3 (6.5%), and the average annual hydropower generation by 0.49 billion kW h (5.4%) as well as reduce the average annual unmet water demand by 0.40 billion m3 (9.7%), as compared with the those of the SGA. We demonstrate that the proposed intelligent water allocation schemes can significantly mitigate the negative impacts of inter-basin water transfer projects on the reliability, vulnerability and resilience of water supply to the demanding sectors in water-supplying basins. This study has a direct bearing on more intelligent and effectual water allocation management under various scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects.

  16. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins (United States)

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.


    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous

  17. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre


    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Estimating stream discharge of Aboine River Basin of Southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of bifurcation ratio, compactness coefficient, stream length and modeling of inter-basin parameters showed that the Aboine drainage basin is basically a flat surface. This will affect both the amount of water available from the basin for any water resources projects. Such information also provides the basis for ...

  19. Monitoring Changes in Croplands Due to Water Stress in the Krishna River Basin Using Temporal Satellite Imagery

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    Venkata Ramana Murthy Reddi


    Full Text Available Remote sensing-based assessments of large river basins such as the Krishna, which supplies water to many states in India, are useful for operationally monitoring agriculture, especially basins that are affected by abiotic stress. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time series products can be used to understand cropland changes at the basin level due to abiotic stresses, especially water scarcity. Spectral matching techniques were used to identify land use/land cover (LULC areas for two crop years: 2013–2014, which was a normal year, and 2015–2016, which was a water stress year. Water stress-affected crop areas were categorized into three classes—severe, moderate and mild—based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and intensity of damage assessed through field sampling. Furthermore, ground survey data were used to assess the accuracy of MODIS-derived classification individual products. Water inflows into and outflows from the Krishna river basin during the study period were used as direct indicators of water scarcity/availability in the Krishna Basin. Furthermore, ground survey data were used to assess the accuracy of MODIS-derived LULC classification of individual year products. Rainfall data from the tropical rainfall monitoring mission (TRMM was used to support the water stress analysis. The nine LULC classes derived using the MODIS temporal imagery provided overall accuracies of 82% for the cropping year 2013–2014 and 85% for the year 2015–2016. Kappa values are 0.78 for 2013–2014 and 0.82 for 2015–2016. MODIS-derived cropland areas were compared with national statistics for the cropping year 2013–2014 with a R2 value of 0.87. Results show that both rainfed and irrigated areas in 2015–2016 saw significant changes that will have significant impacts on food security. It has been also observed that the farmers in the basin tend to use lower inputs and labour per ha during drought years. Among

  20. Flathead River Basin Hydrologic Observatory, Northern Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Woessner, W. W.; Running, S. W.; Potts, D. F.; Kimball, J. S.; Deluca, T. H.; Fagre, D. B.; Makepeace, S.; Hendrix, M. S.; Lorang, M. S.; Ellis, B. K.; Lafave, J.; Harper, J.


    We are proposing the 22, 515 km2 glacially-sculpted Flathead River Basin located in Montana and British Columbia as a Hydrologic Observatory. This hydrologic landscape is diverse and includes large pristine watersheds, rapidly developing intermountain valleys, and a 95 km2 regulated reservoir and 510 km2 lake. The basin has a topographic gradient of over 2,339 m, and spans high alpine to arid climatic zones and a range of biomes. Stream flows are snow-melt dominated and underpinned by groundwater baseflow. The site headwaters contain 37 glaciers and thousands of square kilometers of watersheds in which fire and disease are the only disturbances. In contrast, the HO also contains watersheds at multiple scales that were dominated by glaciers within the last 100 years but are now glacier free, impacted by timber harvests and fires of varying ages to varying degrees, modified by water management practices including irrigation diversion and dams, and altered by development for homes, cities and agriculture. This Observatory provides a sensitive monitor of historic and future climatic shifts, air shed influences and impacts, and the consequences of land and water management practices on the hydrologic system. The HO watersheds are some of the only pristine watersheds left in the contiguous U.S.. They provide critical habitat for key species including the native threaten bull trout and lynx, and the listed western cutthroat trout, bald eagle, gray wolf and the grizzly bear. For the last several thousand years this system has been dominated by snow-melt runoff and moderated by large quantities of water stored in glacial ice. However, the timing and magnitude of droughts and summer flows have changed dramatically. With the information that can be gleaned from sediment cores and landscape records at different scales, this HO provides scientists with opportunities to establish baseline watershed conditions and data on natural hydrologic variability within the system. Such a

  1. Managing Water Resource Challenges in the Congo River Basin (United States)

    Aloysius, N. R.


    Water resources in the tropical regions are under pressure from human appropriation and climate change. Current understanding of interactions between hydrology and climate in the tropical regions is inadequate. This is particularly true for the Congo River Basin (CRB), which also lacks hydroclimate data. Global climate models (GCM) show limited skills in simulating CRB's climate, and their future projections vary widely. Yet, GCMs provide the most credible scenarios of future climate, based upon which changes in water resources can be predicted with coupled hydrological models. The objectives of my work are to i) elucidate the spatial and temporal variability of water resources by developing a spatially explicit hydrological model suitable for describing key processes and fluxes, ii) evaluate the performance of GCMs in simulating precipitation and temperature and iii) develop a set of climate change scenarios for the basin. In addition, I also quantify the risks and reliabilities in smallholder rain-fed agriculture and demonstrates how available water resources can be utilized to increase crop yields. Key processes and fluxes of CRB's hydrological cycle are amply characterized by the hydrology model. Climate change projections are evaluated using a multi-model ensemble approach under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The near-term projections of climate and hydrological fluxes are not affected by emission scenarios. However, towards the mid-21st century, projections are emission scenario dependent. Available freshwater resources are projected to increase in the CRB, except in the semiarid southeast. These increases present new opportunities and challenges for augmenting human appropriation of water resources. By evaluating agricultural water requirements, and timing and availability of precipitation, I challenge the conventional wisdom that low agriculture productivities in the CRB are primarily attributable to nutrient limitation. Results show that

  2. Social-ecological resilience and law in the Platte River Basin (United States)

    Birge, Hannah E.; Allen, Craig R.; Craig, Robin; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Hamm, Joseph A.; Babbitt, Christina; Nemec, Kristine T.; Schlager, Edella


    Efficiency and resistance to rapid change are hallmarks of both the judicial and legislative branches of the United States government. These defining characteristics, while bringing stability and predictability, pose challenges when it comes to managing dynamic natural systems. As our understanding of ecosystems improves, we must devise ways to account for the non-linearities and uncertainties rife in complex social-ecological systems. This paper takes an in-depth look at the Platte River basin over time to explore how the system's resilience—the capacity to absorb disturbance without losing defining structures and functions—responds to human driven change. Beginning with pre-European settlement, the paper explores how water laws, policies, and infrastructure influenced the region's ecology and society. While much of the post-European development in the Platte River basin came at a high ecological cost to the system, the recent tri-state and federal collaborative Platte River Recovery and Implementation Program is a first step towards flexible and adaptive management of the social-ecological system. Using the Platte River basin as an example, we make the case that inherent flexibility and adaptability are vital for the next iteration of natural resources management policies affecting stressed basins. We argue that this can be accomplished by nesting policy in a resilience framework, which we describe and attempt to operationalize for use across systems and at different levels of jurisdiction. As our current natural resources policies fail under the weight of looming global change, unprecedented demand for natural resources, and shifting land use, the need for a new generation of adaptive, flexible natural resources govern-ance emerges. Here we offer a prescription for just that, rooted in the social , ecological and political realities of the Platte River basin. Social-Ecological Resilience and Law in the Platte River Basin (PDF Download Available). Available


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    Full Text Available Te flood risk in the Ialomita river basin case study: the july 1975 flash flood. Since over the last four decades the Ialomita River Basin has been affected by several catastrophic hydrological events, of which the most important were the ones in 1975, 2001 and 2005, for a better management of the extreme situations generated by such episodes we propose a new methodology regarding the estimation of the flash-flood appearance potential in this particular river basin, as well as an analysis of such an event that occurred in July 1975 and affected large swaths of the geographic area we have taken into consideration. In order to identify the regions which are vulnerable to the processes caused by slope run-off we have used the Flash Flood Potential Transmission Index (FFPTI, first proposed and used by Smith (2003 in the “Western Region Flash Flood Project” (WRFFP and then by several researchers from Romania, such as G. Minea (2011, M. Mătreață (2011 and M. Borcan (2011. The main purpose of this method is the estimation of an index that would synthetically express the flashflood potential for both a major river basin (such as Ialomita River Basin as well as for a minor river basin (usually sub-components of major river basins. The quantification of the impact that the major physical-geographic factors (slope, soil texture and land use and the main run-off causing factor, rainfall, have gives the magnitude of this flash-flood potential transmission index.

  4. New River Dam Foundation Report. Gila River Basin: Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River). (United States)


    further downstream before merging with the Agua Fria River. 6 Site Geology 2.08 The geological formations present within the project area and tributary wash deposits. The older Quaternary alluvium also includes the usually thin spotty veneer of residual soil and slope wash found on...that post magmatic hydrothermal alteration may have been caused by residual aqueous-gaseous fluids rising through the intergranular pore spaces in the

  5. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.


    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  6. Lithofacies architecture and palaeogeography of the Late Paleozoic glaciomarine Talchir Formation, Raniganj Basin, India

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    H.N. Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Talchir Formation (Permo–Carboniferous of the Gondwana Supergroup records the Late Paleozoic glaciation in Peninsular India. Talchir sedimentary succession of the Raniganj Basin, Damodar Valley Coalfields, Peninsular India, bears ten facies types grouped under three facies associations, viz., the proglacial conglomerate–sandstone facies association (CS, the foreshore–shoreface conglomerate–sandstone–mudstone facies association (CSM and the prodelta–shelf sandstone–mudstone facies association (SM. Overall facies architecture reflects initial ice–covered terrestrial subglacial sedimentation, which was subsequently reworked and emplaced subaqueously in front of the ice–grounding line, and finally overlapped by storm–laid prodelta–shelf sediments. Repeated glacial advance–retreats with shifts in the position of the ice–grounding line during phases of climatic amelioration led to multiple deglaciation– related fining–up cycles. Decoupled ice sheet and floating icebergs contributed icerafted debris (IRD to these sediments. Gradual retreat of the ice sheet, however, restricted the supply of IRD towards top of the succession. Overlap of wave–agitated shoreface–shelf sediments on the glaciogenic sediments indicates widespread marine transgression caused by glacier melting during ice–house to green–house climatic transition, and crustal downsagging related to glacioisostasy. Subsequently, complete disappearance of the ice sheet caused basinal exhumation along with crustal uplift due to isostatic rebound, leading to multiple horst–graben bounded basinal systems, which received post–Talchir coal–bearing Gondwana sediments.

  7. Rural Settlement Development and Environment Carrying Capacity Changes in Progo River Basin

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    Su Ritohardoyo


    Full Text Available Generally the broader rural settlement the heavier population pressure on agricultural land. It indicates that carrying capacity of the rural environment threatened lower. The spatial distribution of the threat in a river basin is quite important as one of the river basin management inputs. Therefore, this article aims at exposing result of research about influence rural population growth and rural settlement land changes to environment carrying capacity. This research was carried out in the rural area in Progo river basin consists 56 sub districts (34 sub districts part of Jawa Tengah Province, and 22 sub districts part of Yogyakarta Special Region. The whole sub districts are such as unit analysis, and research method is based on secondary data analysis. Several data consist Districts Region in Figure 1997 and 2003 (Temanggung, Magelang, Kulon Progo, Sleman and Bantul such as secondary data analysis. Data analysis employs of frequency and cross tabulation, statistics of regression and test. Result of the research shows that population growth of the rural areas in Progo river basin are about 0.72% annum; or the household growth about 3.15% annum as long as five years (1996-2003. Spatial distribution of the population growth in the upper part of the Progo river basin is higher than in the middle and lower part of the basin. The number proportion of farmer in every sub district area in this river basin have increased from 69.95% in 1997 to 70.81% in the year of 2003. It means that work opportunities broadening are still sluggish. However, the number proportion of farmers in the upper part of the Progo river basin is lower than in the middle and lower part of the basin. The rates of settlement land areas changes (0.32 ha/annum as long as five years (1997-2003 is not as fast as the rates of agricultural land areas changes (0.47 ha/annum. Spatial land settlement areas changes in the lower (6.1 ha/annum and middle parts (2.4 ha/annum faster than

  8. Progress, challenges and prospects of eco-hydrological studies in the Tarim river basin of Xinjiang, China. (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Xu, Changchun; Chen, Yapeng; Liu, Yongbo; Li, Weihong


    Eco-hydrological research in arid inland river basins has been a focus of geologists and ecologists as it is crucial for maintaining the sustainable development of socio-economy, particularly in ecologically vulnerable areas. Based on the research work carried out in the Tarim River basin of Xinjiang, northwestern China, this paper summarizes synthetically the climate change and associated responses of water resources in the mountainous area, land use and land cover in the oasis, and plants responding to environmental stresses in the desert area of the river basin. Research gaps, challenges, and future perspectives in the eco-hydrological studies of the Tarim River basin are also discussed.

  9. The Tana River Basin and the opportunity for research on the land-ocean interaction in the Tana Delta


    Kitheka, Johnson U.; Ongwenyi, George S.


    The Tana River basin is one of the five main drainage basins in the Republic of Kenya. In terms of river discharge, it is one of the largest and also one of the most important drainage basins. It occupies about 23% of the total land area and contributes 32% of the total river runoff in Kenya. The basin is composed of the vast eastern plateau forelands, which sprawl between the Central Kenya Highlands to the west and the coastal strip on the east. The river flows down a gentle slope towards th...

  10. Foundations of the participatory approach in the Mekong River basin management. (United States)

    Budryte, Paulina; Heldt, Sonja; Denecke, Martin


    Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) was acknowledged as a leading concept in the water management for the last two decades by academia, political decision-makers and experts. It strongly promotes holistic management and participatory approaches. The flexibility and adaptability of IWRM concept are especially important for large, transboundary river basins - e.g. the Mekong river basin - where natural processes and hazards, as well as, human-made "disasters" are demanding for a comprehensive approach. In the Mekong river basin, the development and especially the enforcement of one common strategy has always been a struggle. The past holds some unsuccessful experiences. In 2016 Mekong River Commission published IWRM-based Basin Development Strategy 2016-2020 and The Mekong River Commission Strategic Plan 2016-2020. They should be the main guiding document for the Mekong river development in the near future. This study analyzes how the concept of public participation resembles the original IWRM participatory approach in these documents. Therefore, IWRM criteria for public participation in international literature and official documents from the Mekong river basin are compared. As there is often a difference between "de jure" and "de facto" implementation of public participation in management concepts, the perception of local stakeholders was assessed in addition. The results of social survey give an insight if local people are aware of Mekong river basin development and present their dominant attitudes about the issue. The findings enable recommendations how to mitigate obstacles in the implementation of common development strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

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    M. A. Kabir


    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the

  12. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River Basin, New York, 2008 (United States)

    Risen, Amy J.; Reddy, James E.


    The second groundwater quality study of the Chemung River Basin in south-central New York was conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 305(b) water-quality-monitoring program. Water samples were collected from five production wells and five private residential wells from October through December 2008. The samples were analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of the groundwater. Five of the wells are screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and five are finished in bedrock aquifers. Two of these wells were also sampled for the first Chemung River Basin study of 2003. Samples were analyzed for 6 physical properties and 217 constituents, including nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and four types of bacterial analyses. Results of the water-quality analyses for individual wells are presented in tables, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were: sodium (one sample), total dissolved solids (one sample), aluminum (one sample), iron (one sample), manganese (four samples), radon-222 (eight samples), trichloroethene (one sample), and bacteria (four samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.5); the median water temperature was 11.0 degrees Celsius (?C). The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate (median 202 milligrams per liter [mg/L]) and calcium (median 59.0 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is moderately hard to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or greater) than were moderately hard (61-120 mg/L as Ca

  13. Spatiotemporal trends in extreme rainfall and temperature indices over Upper Tapi Basin, India (United States)

    Sharma, Priyank J.; Loliyana, V. D.; S. R., Resmi; Timbadiya, P. V.; Patel, P. L.


    infrastructure against flood disasters in Upper Tapi Basin, India.

  14. Historical pan evaporation changes in Qiantang River Basin, China (United States)

    Xu, Y. P.; Pan, S.; Fu, G.


    Pan evaporation has been decreasing in many regions of the world in the past decades. Analysis of the changes in pan evaporation helps to understand the variation of vapor in the hydrological cycle and the impact of climate change. This study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal trends in pan evaporation and analyze the causes of its variation in Qiantang River Basin, East China. A self-organizing map neural network is first applied to classify the 40 hydrological stations. Based on the clustering results, a trend-free pre-whitening Mann-Kendall test is used to investigate the historical trends based on more than 50 years of observations. Finally, global sensitivity analysis is conducted for evaluating the relationship between evaporation and five climate variables and for investigating the causes of changes. It is found that the hydrological stations can be classified into six sub-areas and the evaporation trends vary substantially at different sub-areas. Generally, there is a decreasing trend in a majority of months and the most significant decreases occur in summer. The results of sensitivity analysis reveal that pan evaporation is more sensitive to solar radiation, followed by minimum air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and maximum air temperature. The contribution of interaction effects between different climate variables to the variation of pan evaporation cannot be ignored in some specific stations. Overall, the change is mainly due to the decrease of solar radiation. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the causes of pan evaporation variation and valuable information for sustainable water and crop management in this region.

  15. A historical perspective of river basin management in the Pearl River Delta of China. (United States)

    Weng, Qihao


    Three innovations in water and soil conservancy technology in the Pearl River Delta of South China, i.e., dike building, land reclamation, and dike-pond systems, were examined from a historical perspective. They were found to best reflect local farmers' efforts to cope with the challenges of various water disasters and to build a harmonious relationship with the changed environment. These technologies were critical to the agricultural success and sustainability over the past 2000 years, and reflected local farmers' wisdom in balancing land use and environmental conservation. Imprudent use of a new agricultural technology could damage the environment, and could disturb the human-environment relationship, as evidenced by the more frequent flooding that followed inappropriate dike building and premature reclamation. It is suggested that as the urbanization and industrialization process in the delta region continues, the kind of thinking that made the water and soil conservancy sustainable needs to be incorporated into the design of similar technologies for water use and river basin management today.

  16. Impacts of Changing Climate and Environment on the Stormwater Runoff in the Kissimmee River Basin, Florida (United States)

    Islam, M. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.


    Changes in climate and land use/cover can cause great impacts on the hydrologic processes, especially on stormwater runoff generation. Considering the Kissimmee River Basin of Florida as an example of complex inland urban-natural basins, we quantified reference sensitivities of stormwater runoff to plausible scenarios of climatic and land use/cover changes by developing a large-scale, dynamic rainfall runoff model with EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM 5.1). Reference changes in basin rainfall, evapotranspiration, imperviousness, roughness and land use types resulted in substantial changes of total stormwater budget. Potential storm runoff in the coupled urban-natural basin exhibited high and notably different seasonal sensitivities to rainfall. The total basin runoff was highly sensitive to the basin imperviousness and roughness, while showing moderate sensitivities to the water storage capacity of pervious areas and soil hydraulic conductivity. The changes in runoff under simultaneous hydro-climatic or climate-land use perturbations were notably different than the summations of their individual contributions. The developed model was used to estimate the potential stormwater budget of the Kissimmee River Basin in 2050s using downscaled GCM-RCM climate projections and anticipated land use/cover scenarios. A significant change in basin runoff was noted by 2050s due to changing rainfall regimes and continuing urbanization. Our findings can be useful in managing stormwater runoff in the Kissimmee and similar complex urban-natural basins around the world.

  17. Development and preliminary application of a method to assess river ecological status in the Hai River Basin, north China. (United States)

    Shan, Baoqing; Ding, Yuekui; Zhao, Yu


    The river ecosystem in the Hai River Basin (HRB), an important economic region in China, is seriously degraded. With the aim of river restoration in the HRB, we developed a method to assess the river's ecological status and conducted a preliminary application of the method. The established method was a predictive model, which used macroinvertebrates as indicator organisms. The river's ecological status was determined by calculating the ratio of observed to expected values (O/E). The method included ecoregionalization according to natural factors, and the selection of reference sites based on combinations of habitat quality and macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate taxa included Insecta, Crustacea, Gastropoda, and Oligochaeta, with 39 families and 95 genera identified in the HRB. The HRB communities were dominated by pollution tolerant taxa, such as Lymnaeidae, Chironomus, Limnodrilus, Glyptotendipes, and Tubifex. The average Shannon-Wiener index was 1.40±0.5, indicating a low biodiversity. In the river length of 3.31×10(4) km, 55% of the sites were designated poor, with a bad ecological status. Among nine secondary river systems, Luan and Zi-ya had the best and worst river conditions, respectively. Only 17 reference site groups were selected for river management in the 41 ecoregions examined. This study lays the foundation for river restoration and related research in the HRB, and we anticipate further developments of this novel method. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Multi-tracer investigation of river and groundwater interactions: a case study in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Dai, Zhenxue; Yang, Fengtian; Zhu, Pucheng; Huang, Yong


    Environmental tracers (such as major ions, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and heat) monitored in natural waters provide valuable information for understanding the processes of river-groundwater interactions in arid areas. An integrated framework is presented for interpreting multi-tracer data (major ions, stable isotopes (2H, 18O), the radioactive isotope 222Rn, and heat) for delineating the river-groundwater interactions in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken to estimate the bidirectional water exchange associated with small-scale interactions between groundwater and surface water. Along the river stretch, groundwater and river water exchange readily. From the high mountain zone to the alluvial fan, groundwater discharge to the river is detected by tracer methods and end-member mixing models, but the river has also been identified as a losing river using discharge measurements, i.e. discharge is bidirectional. On the delta-front of the alluvial fan and in the alluvial plain, in the downstream area, the characteristics of total dissolved solids values, 222Rn concentrations and δ18O values in the surface water, and patterns derived from a heat-tracing method, indicate that groundwater discharges into the river. With the environmental tracers, the processes of river-groundwater interaction have been identified in detail for better understanding of overall hydrogeological processes and of the impacts on water allocation policies.

  19. Suwannee river basin and estuary integrated science workshop: September 22-24, 2004 Cedar Key, Florida (United States)

    Katz, Brian; Raabe, Ellen


    In response to the growing number of environmental concerns in the mostly pristine Suwannee River Basin and the Suwannee River Estuary system, the States of Florida and Georgia, the Federal government, and other local organizations have identified the Suwannee River as an ecosystem in need of protection because of its unique biota and important water resources. Organizations with vested interests in the region formed a coalition, the Suwannee Basin Interagency Alliance (SBIA), whose goals are to promote coordination in the identification, management, and scientific knowledge of the natural resources in the basin and estuary. To date, an integrated assessment of the physical, biological, and water resources has not been completed. A holistic, multi-disciplinary approach is being pursued to address the research needs in the basin and estuary and to provide supportive data for meeting management objectives of the entire ecosystem. The USGS is well situated to focus on the larger concerns of the basin and estuary by addressing specific research questions linking water supply and quality to ecosystem function and health across county and state boundaries. A strategic plan is being prepared in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies to identify and implement studies to address the most compelling research issues and management questions, and to conduct fundamental environmental monitoring studies. The USGS, Suwannee River Water Management District and the Florida Marine Research Institute are co-sponsoring this scientific workshop on the Suwannee River Basin and Estuary to: Discuss current and past research findings, Identify information gaps and research priorities, and Develop an action plan for coordinated and relevant research activities in the future. This workshop builds on the highly successful basin-wide conference sponsored by the Suwannee Basin Interagency Alliance that was held three years ago in Live Oak, Florida. This years workshop will focus on

  20. Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin (United States)

    Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar


    This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

  1. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus


    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  2. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.


    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a

  3. Landscape Based Modeling of Nonpoint Source Nitrogen Loading in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T.


    The objective of this research was to arrive at a quantitative and qualitative assessment of nonpoint sources of potential excess N under different land use/land cover (LULC) categories in the Neuse River Basin on a seasonal time scale. This assessment is being supplied to EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, for inclusion in a hydrologic model to predict seasonal fluxes of N from the terrestrial landscape to surface receiving waters and groundwater in the Neuse River Basin. The analysis was performed in the following five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model to predict potential excess N on land, (2) a literature review to parameterize N fluxes under LULC categories found in the Neuse River Basin, (3) acquisition of high resolution (15-m pixel) LULC data from EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, (4) acquisition of a soil N inventory map for the Neuse River Basin, (5) calculations of potential excess N on a seasonal basis for the entire Neuse River Basin.

  4. Probabilistic forecasting of seasonal drought behaviors in the Huai River basin, China (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzhong; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong


    The Huai River basin is one of the major supplier of agricultural products in China, and droughts have critical impacts on agricultural development. Good knowledge of drought behaviors is of great importance in the planning and management of agricultural activities in the Huai River basin. With the copula functions to model the persistence property of drought, the probabilistic seasonal drought forecasting models have been built in the Huai River basin. In this study, droughts were monitored by the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) with the time scales of 3, 6, and 9 months, and their composite occurrence probability has been used to forecast the seasonal drought. Results indicated that the uncertainty related to the predicted seasonal drought is larger when more severe droughts occurred in the previous seasons, and the severe drought which occurs in summer and autumn will be more likely to be persistent in the next season while the severe drought in winter and spring will be more likely to be recovered in the subsequent season. Furthermore, given the different drought statuses in the previous season, spatial patterns of the predicted drought events with the largest occurrence probability have also been investigated, and results indicate that the Huai River basin is vulnerable to the extreme drought in most parts of the basin, e.g., the severe drought in winter will be more likely to be persistent in spring in the central part of the southern Huai River basin. Such persistent drought events pose serious challenges for planning and management of agricultural irrigation, then results of the study will be valuable for the planning of crop cultivation or mitigation of the losses caused by drought in the Huai River basin, China.

  5. Implementing Integrated Catchment Management in the upper Limpopo River basin: A situational assessment (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Meissner, R.; Engelbrecht, F. A.


    A three-phase study was initiated as a way to promote Integrated Catchment Management approaches in the Limpopo River basin. This paper presents the situational assessment, which should enable De Beers to understand how their Venetia Mine operations are located within a broader and highly dynamic socio-economic and ecohydrological landscape as it pertains to water risks. The second phase, Risk assessment, aims to develop conservation interventions in the identified areas; the third phase will develop mechanisms for implementing water stewardship schemes to mitigate the shared water risks. Analysis of the social-ecological system (hydrological, climatic, ecological, socio-economic and governance systems) of the Limpopo River basin indicates that the institutional arrangement of the Limpopo River basin is neither simple nor effective. The basin is rapidly approaching closure in the sense that almost all of the available supplies of water have already been allocated to existing water users. If the proposed ecological flow requirements were to be met for all of the tributaries, the basin would be 'closed'. On-going and projected land use changes and water resources developments in the upper reaches of the basin, coupled with projected rainfall reductions and temperature increases, and allocation of the flows for the ecological reserve, are likely to further reduce downstream river flows. The coupled increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall is of great concern for everyone in the basin, especially the poorer communities, who rely on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihoods. Increased temperatures also lead to increased evaporation from reservoirs and therefore result in a decrease in water availability. This will lead to increased abstraction of groundwater, especially from alluvial aquifers, and consequently an increase in river transmission losses and a decrease in river flows.

  6. Seepage study of the Sevier River Basin above Sevier Bridge Reservoir, Utah, 1988 (United States)

    Sandberg, George W.; Smith, Cynthia J.


    A seepage study was done during 1988 on selected reaches of the Sevier River in Utah above Sevier Bridge Reservoir, the East Fork Sevier River in Black Canyon and Kingston Canyon, Long-East Bench and McEwen Canals in the upper Sevier River basin, and the San Pitch River in Sanpete Valley to determine gain or loss of flow from seepage. A net gain occurred in all of the reaches except Kingston Canyon on the East Fork Sevier River, which had a net loss. In the upper Sevier River basin, the Sevier River between Hatch and Circleville Canyon had a net gain of about 125 cubic feet per second; Long-East Bench Canal had a net gain of about 0.7 cubic foot per second; McEwen Canal had a net gain of about 0.9 cubic foot per second; the East Fork Sevier River in Black Canyon had a net gain of about 3.0 cubic feet per second; and the East Fork Sevier River in Kingston Canyon had a net loss of about 8.0 cubic feet per second. In central Sevier Valley, both the south and the north sections had large gains. The net gain for both sections, combined, was about 213 cubic feet per second for August 1988 and about 230 cubic feet per second for October 1988. The reach of the San Pitch River studied had a net gain of about 23.4 cubic feet per second.

  7. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of rivers in northern area of Haihe River Basin, China]. (United States)

    Shang, Lin-Yuan; Sun, Ran-Hao; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Ji, Yu-He; Chen, Li-Ding


    Using Håkanson potential ecological risk index, the paper assesses heavy metal risk levels in northern parts of Haihe River basin based on 39 sampling sites. The results indicate that, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Cr in Haihe River basin are higher than the background values of heavy metals in China mainland, while the concentration of Pb is close to the background value in China mainland. Based on the potential ecological risk index for single heavy metal, the risk of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr belongs to the "slight" level, while Cd has various risk levels at different sampling sites. Generally, the risk order of the heavy metals is Cd > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. According to Håkanson potential ecological risk index, 32 monitoring sites belong to "slight" level, 5 sampling sites belong to "middle" level, and 2 monitoring sites belong to "very strong" level. The most polluted sites are Tang River and Dashi River of Beijing, Juma River in Baoding. Therefore, these rivers should be taken more considerations in the river management.

  8. [Spatial heterogeneity and classified control of agricultural non-point source pollution in Huaihe River Basin]. (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Jian-Gang; Sun, Dong-Qi; Ni, Tian-Hua


    Agricultural non-point source pollution is of importance in river deterioration. Thus identifying and concentrated controlling the key source-areas are the most effective approaches for non-point source pollution control. This study adopts inventory method to analysis four kinds of pollution sources and their emissions intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in 173 counties (cities, districts) in Huaihe River Basin. The four pollution sources include livestock breeding, rural life, farmland cultivation, aquacultures. The paper mainly addresses identification of non-point polluted sensitivity areas, key pollution sources and its spatial distribution characteristics through cluster, sensitivity evaluation and spatial analysis. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. The results show that: the COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural non-point sources were 206.74 x 10(4) t, 66.49 x 10(4) t, 8.74 x 10(4) t separately in Huaihe River Basin in 2009; the emission intensity were 7.69, 2.47, 0.32; the proportions of COD, TN, TP emissions were 73%, 24%, 3%. The paper achieves that: the major pollution source of COD, TN and TP was livestock breeding and rural life; the sensitivity areas and priority pollution control areas among the river basin of non-point source pollution are some sub-basins of the upper branches in Huaihe River, such as Shahe River, Yinghe River, Beiru River, Jialu River and Qingyi River; livestock breeding is the key pollution source in the priority pollution control areas. Finally, the paper concludes that pollution type of rural life has the highest pollution contribution rate, while comprehensive pollution is one type which is hard to control.

  9. A study on the role and importance of irrigation management in integrated river basin management. (United States)

    Koç, Cengiz


    The purpose of this paper is to identify the role and the importance of irrigation management in integrated river basin management during arid and semi-arid conditions. The study has been conducted at Büyük Menderes Basin which is located in southwest of Turkey and where different sectors (irrigation, drinking and using, industry, tourism, ecology) related to the use and distribution of water sources compete with each other and also where the water demands for important ecological considerations is evaluated and where the river pollution has reached important magnitudes. Since, approximately 73% of the water resources of the basin are utilized for irrigation; as a result, irrigation management becomes important for basin management. Irrigation operations have an effect on basin soil resources, water users, and environmental and ecological conditions. Thus, the determination of the role and importance of irrigation management require an integrated and interdisciplinary approach. In the studies conducted in Turkey, usually the environmental reactions have been analyzed in the basin studies and so the other topics related to integrated river basin management have not been taken into account. Therefore, this study also is to address these existing gaps in the literature and practice.

  10. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris


    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  11. Enhancing Floodplain Management in the Lower Mekong River Basin Using Vegetation and Water Cycle Satellite Observations (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Spruce, J.; Wilson, R.; Strauch, K.; Doyle, T.; Srinivan, R.; Lakshmi, V.; Gupta, M.


    The Lower Mekong River Basin shared by China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, is considered the lifeblood of Southeast Asia. The Mekong Basin is subject to large hydrological fluctuations on a seasonal and inter-annual basis. The basin remains prone to severe annual floods that continue to cause widespread damage and endanger food security and the livelihood of the millions who dwell in the region. Also the placement of newly planned dams primarily for hydropower in the Lower Mekong Basin may cause damaging social, agriculture and fisheries impacts to the region where we may now likely be at a critical 'tipping point'. The primary goal of this project is to apply NASA and USGS products, tools, and information for improved flood and water management in the Lower Mekong River Basin to help characterize, understand, and predict future changes on the basin. Specifically, we are providing and helping transfer to the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the member countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam, and Burma the enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using remotely sensed surface, ground water, and root zone soil moisture along with improved Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) maps. In order to estimate the flood potential and constrain the SWAT Available Water Capacity model parameter over the region, we are assimilated GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage observations into the Catchment Land Surface Model. In addition, a Graphic Visualization Tool (GVT) as been developed to work in concert with the output of the SWAT model parameterized for the Mekong Basin as an adjunct tool of the MRC Decision Support Framework. The project requires a close coordination of the development and assessment of the enhanced MRC SWAT with the guidance of MRC resource managers and technical advisors. This presentation will evaluate the skill of the enhanced SWAT model using qualitative (i.e., MODIS change detection) and quantitative (e.g., streamflow) metrics over one

  12. Spatial and temporal characteristics of stable isotopes in the Tarim River Basin. (United States)

    Sun, Congjian; Li, Xingong; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Stotler, Randy L; Zhang, Yongqing


    By using 233 isotope samples, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in precipitation and surface water, and the contribution of different water sources in the rivers within the Tarim River Basin (TRB), which receives snow/glacier meltwater, groundwater, and rainfall. Our study revealed a similar seasonal pattern of precipitation δ(18)O and δ(2)H at both the north and south edges of the basin, indicating the dominant effect of westerly air masses in the summer and the combined influence of westerly and polar air masses during the winter, although the southern part showed more complex precipitation processes in the summer. River water in the basin has relatively large temporal variations in both δ(18)O and δ(2)H showing a distinct seasonal pattern with lower isotope values in May than in September. Higher d-excess values throughout the year in the Aksu river and the Tizinafu river suggest that water may be intensively recycled in the mountains of the TRB. Based on isotopic hydrograph separation, we found that groundwater is the main water source that discharges the entire basin although individual rivers vary.

  13. An ECOMAG-based Regional Hydrological Model for the Mackenzie River basin (United States)

    Motovilov, Yury; Kalugin, Andrey; Gelfan, Alexander


    A physically-based distributed model of runoff generation has been developed for the Mackenzie River basin (the catchment area is 1 660 000 km2). The model is based on the ECOMAG (ECOlogical Model for Applied Geophysics) hydrological modeling platform and describes processes of interception of rainfall/snowfall by the canopy, snow accumulation and melt, soil freezing and thawing, water infiltration into unfrozen and frozen soil, evapotranspiration, thermal and water regime of soil, overland, subsurface and ground flow, flow routing through a channel network accounting for flow regulation by lakes and reservoirs. The governing model's equations are derived from integration of the basic hydro- and thermodynamics equations of water and heat vertical transfer in snowpack, frozen/unfrozen soil, horizontal water flow under and over catchment slopes, etc. The Mackenzie basin's schematization was performed on the basis of the global DEM data (1-km resolution) from the HYDRO1K database of the U.S. Geological Survey. Most of the model parameters are physically meaningful and derived through the global datasets of the basin characteristics: FAO/IIASA Harmonized World Soil Database, USGS EROS Global Land Cover Characteristics project, etc. The 0.5ox0.5o WATCH reanalysis daily precipitation, air temperature and air humidity data were used as the model input for the period of 1971-2002. The daily discharge data provided by the Water Survey of Canada for 10 streamflow gauges, which are located at the Mackenzie River and the main tributaries (Peel River, Great Bear River, Liard River, Slave River and Athabasca River), were used for calibration (1991-2001) and validation (1971-1990) of the model. The gauges' catchment areas vary from 70600 km2 (Peel River above Fort Mopherson) to 1 660 000 km2 (Mackenzie River at Arctic Red River). The model demonstrated satisfactory performance in terms of Nash-and Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE(daily)0.60 and NSE(monthly)0.70) and percent bias

  14. Sediment transport following water transfer from Yangtze River to Taihu Basin


    Gong, Zheng; Chang-kuan ZHANG; Cheng-biao ZUO; Wei-deng WU


    To meet the increasing need of fresh water and to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, water transfer from the Yangtze River was initiated in 2002. This study was performed to investigate the sediment distribution along the river course following water transfer. A rainfall-runoff model was first built to calculate the runoff of the Taihu Basin in 2003. Then, the flow patterns of river networks were simulated using a one-dimensional river network hydrodynamic model. Based on the boundary c...

  15. Planning and design of studies for river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins, California and Nevada (United States)

    Nowlin, Jon O.; Brown, W.M.; Smith, L.H.; Hoffman, R.J.


    The objectives of the Geological Survey 's river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins in California and Nevada are to identify the significant resource management problems; to develop techniques to assess the problems; and to effectively communicate results to responsible managers. Six major elements of the assessment to be completed by October 1981 are (1) a detailing of the legal, institutional, and structural development of water resources in the basins and the current problems and conflicts; (2) a compilation and synthesis of the physical hydrology of the basins; (3) development of a special workshop approach to involve local management in the direction and results of the study; (4) development of a comprehensive streamflow model emcompassing both basins to provide a quantitative hydrologic framework for water-quality analysis; (5) development of a water-quality transport model for selected constituents and characteristics on selected reaches of the Truckee River; and (6) a detailed examination of selected fish habitats for specified reaches of the Truckee River. Progress will be periodically reported in reports, maps, computer data files, mathematical models, a bibliography, and public presentations. In building a basic framework to develop techniques, the basins were viewed as a single hydrologic unit because of interconnecting diversion structures. The framework comprises 13 hydrographic subunits to facilitate modeling and sampling. Several significant issues beyond the scope of the assessment were considered as supplementary proposals; water-quality loadings in Truckee and Carson Rivers, urban runoff in Reno and management alternatives, and a model of limnological processes in Lahontan Reservoir. (USGS)

  16. Phosphorus Concentrations, Loads, and Yields in the Illinois River Basin, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 1997-2001 (United States)

    Pickup, Barbara E.; Andrews, William J.; Haggard, Brian E.; Green, W. Reed


    The Illinois River and tributaries, Flint Creek and the Baron Fork, are designated scenic rivers in Oklahoma. Recent phosphorus increases in streams in the basin have resulted in the growth of excess algae, which have limited the aesthetic benefits of water bodies in the basin, especially the Illinois River and Lake Tenkiller. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board has established a standard for total phosphorus not to exceed the 30- day geometric mean concentration of 0.037 milligram per liter in Oklahoma Scenic Rivers. Data from water-quality samples from 1997 to 2001 were used to summarize phosphorus concentrations and estimate phosphorus loads, yields, and flowweighted concentrations in the Illinois River basin. Phosphorus concentrations in the Illinois River basin generally were significantly greater in runoff-event samples than in base-flow samples. Phosphorus concentrations generally decreased with increasing base flow, from dilution, and increased with runoff, possibly because of phosphorus resuspension, stream bank erosion, and the addition of phosphorus from nonpoint sources. Estimated mean annual phosphorus loads were greater at the Illinois River stations than at Flint Creek and the Baron Fork. Loads appeared to generally increase with time during 1997-2001 at all stations, but this increase might be partly attributable to the beginning of runoff-event sampling in the basin in July 1999. Base-flow loads at stations on the Illinois River were about 10 times greater than those on the Baron Fork and 5 times greater than those on Flint Creek. Runoff components of the annual total phosphorus load ranged from 58.7 to 96.8 percent from 1997-2001. Base-flow and runoff loads were generally greatest in spring (March through May) or summer (June through August), and were least in fall (September through November). Total yields of phosphorus ranged from 107 to 797 pounds per year per square mile. Greatest yields were at Flint Creek near Kansas (365 to 797 pounds per

  17. Structural interpretation of the Konkan basin, southwestern continental margin of India, based on magnetic and bathymetric data (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K. S.; Murthy, G. P. S.; Rao, D. Gopala; Ramana, M. V.; Rao, M. Gangadhara


    Magnetic and bathymetric studies on the Konkan basin of the southwestern continental margin of India reveal prominent NNW-SSE, NW-SE, ENE-WSW, and WNW-ESE structural trends. The crystalline basement occurs at about 5 6 km below the mean sea level. A mid-shelf basement ridge, a shelf margin basin, and the northern extension of the Prathap Ridge complex are also inferred. The forces created by the sea-floor spreading at Carlsberg Ridge since late Cretaceous appears to shape the present-day southwestern continental margin of India and caused the offsets in the structural features along the preexisting faults.

  18. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China. (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing


    The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale.

  19. Summary of Hydrologic Data for the Tuscarawas River Basin, Ohio, with an Annotated Bibliography (United States)

    Haefner, Ralph J.; Simonson, Laura A.


    The Tuscarawas River Basin drains approximately 2,600 square miles in eastern Ohio and is home to 600,000 residents that rely on the water resources of the basin. This report summarizes the hydrologic conditions in the basin, describes over 400 publications related to the many factors that affect the groundwater and surface-water resources, and presents new water-quality information and a new water-level map designed to provide decisionmakers with information to assist in future data-collection efforts and land-use decisions. The Tuscarawas River is 130 miles long, and the drainage basin includes four major tributary basins and seven man-made reservoirs designed primarily for flood control. The basin lies within two physiographic provinces-the Glaciated Appalachian Plateaus to the north and the unglaciated Allegheny Plateaus to the south. Topography, soil types, surficial geology, and the overall hydrology of the basin were strongly affected by glaciation, which covered the northern one-third of the basin over 10,000 years ago. Within the glaciated region, unconsolidated glacial deposits, which are predominantly clay-rich till, overlie gently sloping Pennsylvanian-age sandstone, limestone, coal, and shale bedrock. Stream valleys throughout the basin are filled with sands and gravels derived from glacial outwash and alluvial processes. The southern two-thirds of the basin is characterized by similar bedrock units; however, till is absent and topographic relief is greater. The primary aquifers are sand- and gravel-filled valleys and sandstone bedrock. These sands and gravels are part of a complex system of aquifers that may exceed 400 feet in thickness and fill glacially incised valleys. Sand and gravel aquifers in this basin are capable of supporting sustained well yields exceeding 1,000 gallons per minute. Underlying sandstones within 300 feet of the surface also provide substantial quantities of water, with typical well yields of up to 100 gallons per minute

  20. Late Permian Palynology and depositional environment of Chintalapudi sub basin, Pranhita-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India (United States)

    Jha, Neerja; Pauline Sabina, K.; Aggarwal, Neha; Mahesh, S.


    The present study deals with the palynological dating, correlation and depositional setting of the sediments from bore cores MGP-11 and MGP-4 from Gauridevipet area of Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari master basin, south India. On the basis of palynological studies, three palynoassemblages have been identified, one in bore core MGP-11 a Faunipollenites (=Protohaploxypinus) and Striasulcites assemblage and two in bore core MGP-4; one is characterized by the dominance of striate bisaccates and Densipollenites and the other by Striatopodocarpites and Cresentipollenites palynoassemblages. The other stratigraphically significant taxa include Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lunatisporites noviaulensis, Lunatisporites pellucidus, Densoisporites contactus, Chordasporites australiensis, Goubinispora spp., Lundbladispora microconata, Lundbladispora raniganjensis and Klausipollenites schaubergeri. The recovered taxa suggest a Late Permian, Lopingian age for these rocks. This interpretation is based on the correlation of the assemblages with similar assemblages from previous Gondwana studies chiefly Densipollenites magnicorpus Zone of Damodar Basin, India and Late Permian palynoassemblages from Africa, Antarctica, Australia and South America. On the basis of palaeobotanical affinity of the identified microflora it has been inferred that the peat forming plant community was composed mainly of gymnosperm pollen attributable to glossopterids, that includes striate and non-striate bisaccates and paucity of cordaites which includes monosaccates. Spores are subordinate and are derived from lycopsids (Lundbladispora, Densoisporites), sphenopsids (Latosporites) and filicopsids (Horriditriletes, Lophotriletes, Verrucosisporites, Osmundacidites, Leiotriletes, Callumispora, Brevitriletes and Microbaculispora) occurring in variable proportions. The dominance of subarborescent/arborescent vegetation suggests a development in a forest swamp probably in a small distant marginal part of the

  1. Hydrogeologic framework and selected components of the groundwater budget for the upper Umatilla River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    Herrera, Nora B.; Ely, Kate; Mehta, Smita; Stonewall, Adam J.; Risley, John C.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Conlon, Terrence D.


    Executive SummaryThis report presents a summary of the hydrogeology of the upper Umatilla River Basin, Oregon, based on characterization of the hydrogeologic framework, horizontal and vertical directions of groundwater flow, trends in groundwater levels, and components of the groundwater budget. The conceptual model of the groundwater flow system integrates available data and information on the groundwater resources of the upper Umatilla River Basin and provides insights regarding key hydrologic processes, such as the interaction between the groundwater and surface water systems and the hydrologic budget.The conceptual groundwater model developed for the study area divides the groundwater flow system into five hydrogeologic units: a sedimentary unit, three Columbia River basalt units, and a basement rock unit. The sedimentary unit, which is not widely used as a source of groundwater in the upper basin, is present primarily in the lowlands and consists of conglomerate, loess, silt and sand deposits, and recent alluvium. The Columbia River Basalt Group is a series of Miocene flood basalts that are present throughout the study area. The basalt is uplifted in the southeastern half of the study area, and either underlies the sedimentary unit, or is exposed at the surface. The interflow zones of the flood basalts are the primary aquifers in the study area. Beneath the flood basalts are basement rocks composed of Paleogene to Pre-Tertiary sedimentary, volcanic, igneous, and metamorphic rocks that are not used as a source of groundwater in the upper Umatilla River Basin.The major components of the groundwater budget in the upper Umatilla River Basin are (1) groundwater recharge, (2) groundwater discharge to surface water and wells, (3) subsurface flow into and out of the basin, and (4) changes in groundwater storage.Recharge from precipitation occurs primarily in the upland areas of the Blue Mountains. Mean annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation for the upper

  2. Analysis of trends in selected streamflow statistics for the Concho River Basin, Texas, 1916-2009 (United States)

    Barbie, Dana L.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.; May, Jayne E.


    The Concho River Basin is part of the upper Colorado River Basin in west-central Texas. Monotonic trends in streamflow statistics during various time intervals from 1916-2009 were analyzed to determine whether substantial changes in selected streamflow statistics have occurred within the Concho River Basin. Two types of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow data comprise the foundational data for this report: (1) daily mean discharge (daily discharge) and (2) annual instantaneous peak discharge. Trend directions are reported for the following streamflow statistics: (1) annual mean daily discharge, (2) annual 1-day minimum discharge, (3) annual 7-day minimum discharge, (4) annual maximum daily discharge, and (5) annual instantaneous peak discharge.

  3. Initial sediment transport model of the mining-affected Aries River Basin, Romania (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.; Linard, Joshua I.


    The Romanian government is interested in understanding the effects of existing and future mining activities on long-term dispersal, storage, and remobilization of sediment-associated metals. An initial Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was prepared using available data to evaluate hypothetical failure of the Valea Sesei tailings dam at the Rosia Poieni mine in the Aries River basin. Using the available data, the initial Aries River Basin SWAT model could not be manually calibrated to accurately reproduce monthly streamflow values observed at the Turda gage station. The poor simulation of the monthly streamflow is attributed to spatially limited soil and precipitation data, limited constraint information due to spatially and temporally limited streamflow measurements, and in ability to obtain optimal parameter values when using a manual calibration process. Suggestions to improve the Aries River basin sediment transport model include accounting for heterogeneity in model input, a two-tier nonlinear calibration strategy, and analysis of uncertainty in predictions.

  4. Analysis of precipitation cycles based on MEM in the Yellow River basin (United States)

    Li, Z.; Cheng, T.; Song, H.; Li, Z.; Yu, J.


    Using the monthly precipitation series of 32 meteorological stations in the Yellow River basin from 1951 to 2003, the precipitation cycles were discussed using the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM), the spatial distribution of the precipitation cycles were analysed, and the possible driving factors of the cycles investigated. The results show that the precipitation in the Yellow River has decadal (60a), inter-decadal (25a and 14a) and inter-annual cycles (9a and 3a). The main oscillations over the whole basin are 3a and 9a. There are clearer inter-decadal variations in the riverhead area with much greater water resources, and north of the region of LanHe main stream. The decadal signals are detected in the inner area with less precipitation and Wei River basin. These differences are possibly related to some physical processes, such as the mutual action of sea and atmosphere, and solar activities.

  5. Modeling the Hydropower–Food Nexus in Large River Basins: A Mekong Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Pittock


    Full Text Available An increasing global population and growing wealth are raising demand for energy and food, impacting on the environment and people living in river basins. Sectoral decision-making may not optimize socio-economic benefits because of perverse impacts in other sectors for people and ecosystems. The hydropower–food supply nexus in the Mekong River basins is assessed here in an influence model. This shows how altering one variable has consequent effects throughout the basin system. Options for strategic interventions to maximize benefits while minimizing negative impacts are identified that would enable national and sub-national policy makers to take more informed decisions across the hydropower, water and food supply sectors. This approach should be further tested to see if it may aid policy making in other large river systems around the world.

  6. Modelling nutrient emissions and the impact of nutrient reduction measures in the Weser river basin, Germany. (United States)

    Hirt, Ulrike; Venohr, Markus; Kreins, Peter; Behrendt, Horst


    To implement the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) into German law, measures have to be taken to reduce the unacceptably high nutrient input into rivers. To identify the most effective measures, the sources and pathways of nutrient emissions into rivers have to be quantified. Therefore, the MONERIS model is applied, which quantifies nutrients emissions into river basins, via various point and diffuse pathways, as well as nutrient load in rivers. Most nitrogen emissions come from groundwater flow (43%), tile drainages (30%), and point sources (12%), whereas most phosphorus emissions come from groundwater flow (31%), point sources (23%), erosion (13%) and overland flow (12%). Because of their great distance from the river basin outlet, the southern sub-basins Werra and Fulda-Diemel have an 8% reduction in their nitrogen loads and a 15% and 16% reduction in their phosphorus loads, respectively. This reduction is due to retention in the main part of the river Weser. For the choice of the most effective measures, the different retention in the river is relevant. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. Analysis on dry-wet characteristics in the Zhujiang River Basin in recent 55 years (United States)

    Qiu, Jizhong; Wang, Yunpeng; Xiao, Jie


    Based on Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), this paper analysed the spatial distribution of dry-wet condition in the Zhujiang River Basin in 1961-2015, and studied the dry-wet climatic regionalization by Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF). The results show most areas in the Zhujiang River Basin was in normal state of dry-wet condition and the whole basin can be divided into 7 dry-wet climate zones. The above conclusions reflect the dry-wet characteristics in the basin reasonably, which can provide a reference on prediction, monitoring and evaluation of some kinds of extreme climatic disasters such as floods and droughts inextricably linked with dry-wet condition.

  8. Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.


    The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999-2007), and projections of global warming have raised questions about the long-term sustainability of water supply in the southwestern United States. In this study, the potential effects of specific levels of atmospheric warming on water-year streamflow in the Colorado River basin are evaluated using a water-balance model, and the results are analyzed within the context of a multi-century tree-ring reconstruction (1490-1998) of streamflow for the basin. The results indicate that if future warming occurs in the basin and is not accompanied by increased precipitation, then the basin is likely to experience periods of water supply shortages more severe than those inferred from the longterm historical tree-ring reconstruction. Furthermore, the modeling results suggest that future warming would increase the likelihood of failure to meet the water allocation requirements of the Colorado River Compact.

  9. Distribution of extreme rainfall events over Ebro River basin (United States)

    Saa, Antonio; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Valencia, Jose Luis; Gascó, Jose Maria


    The purpose of this work is to provide a description of the heavy rainfall phenomenon on statistical tools from a Spanish region. We want to quantify the effect of the climate change to verify the rapidity of its evolution across the variation of the probability distributions. Our conclusions have special interest for the agrarian insurances, which may make estimates of costs more realistically. In this work, the analysis mainly focuses on: The distribution of consecutive days without rain for each gauge stations and season. We estimate density Kernel functions and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) for a network of station from the Ebro River basin until a threshold value u. We can establish a relation between distributional parameters and regional characteristics. Moreover we analyze especially the tail of the probability distribution. These tails are governed by law of power means that the number of events n can be expressed as the power of another quantity x : n(x) = x? . ? can be estimated as the slope of log-log plot the number of events and the size. The most convenient way to analyze n(x) is using the empirical probability distribution. Pr(X > x) ∞ x-?. The distribution of rainfall over percentile of order 0.95 from wet days at the seasonal scale and in a yearly scale with the same treatment of tails than in the previous section. The evolution of the distribution in the second XXth century and the impact on the extreme values model. After realized the analyses it does not appreciate difference in the distribution throughout the time which suggests that this region does not appreciate increase of the extreme values both for the number of dry consecutive days and for the value of the rainfall References: Coles, Stuart (2001). An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values,. Springer-Verlag Krishnamoorthy K. (2006), Handbook of Statistical Distributions with Applications, Chapman & Hall/CRC. Bodini A., Cossu A. (2010). Vulnerability assessment

  10. A market-based approach to share water and benefits in transboundary river basins (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus


    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived as efficient, as well as equitable, in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. In this methodology (i) a hydro-economic model is used to efficiently allocate scarce water resources to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges are equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users. The amount of monetary compensation, for each water user, is determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The technique ensures economic efficiency and may lead to more equitable solutions in the sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins because the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as would be the case if existing methods, such as game theory, were applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. McLachlan


    In December 1992, the CBR was awarded a five-year grant of $25M from the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project was an interdisciplinary, collaborative research and education project aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments. This project funded 15 collaborative cluster multi-year projects and 41 one-year initiation projects out of 165 submitted research proposals. This project was carried out by 134 research and technical support faculty from Xavier University (School of Arts and Sciences, and College of Pharmacy) and Tulane University (Schools of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Health and Tropical Medicine), and 173 publications and 140 presentations were produced. More than 100 graduate and undergraduate students were trained through these collaborative cluster and initiation research projects. Nineteen Tulane graduate students received partial funding to conduct their own competitively-chosen research projects, and 28 Xavier undergraduate LIFE Scholars and 30 LIFE Interns were supported with DOE funding to conduct their mentored research projects. Studies in this project have defined: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, (2) the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and (3) the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The bayou and spoil banks of Bayou Trepagnier were mapped and analyzed in terms of risks associated with the levels of hydrocarbons and metals at specific sample sites. Data from contaminated sample sites have been incorporated into a large database and used in GIS analyses to track the fate and transport of heavy metals from spoil banks into the surrounding marsh. These data are crucial

  12. Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10 (United States)

    Morace, Jennifer L.


    Toxic contamination is a significant concern in the Columbia River Basin in Washington and Oregon. To help water managers and policy makers in decision making about future sampling efforts and toxic-reduction activities, a reconnaissance was done to assess contaminant concentrations directly contributed to the Columbia River through wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent and stormwater runoff from adjacent urban environments and to evaluate instantaneous loadings to the Columbia River Basin from these inputs.

  13. Scaling up watershed model parameters--Flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul


    The Edisto River is the longest and largest river system completely contained in South Carolina and is one of the longest free flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River basin also has fish-tissue mercury concentrations that are some of the highest recorded in the United States. As part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River basin were made with the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). The potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River basin, was assessed. Scaling up was done in a step-wise process beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic wetness index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made with subsequent simulations culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the two models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the significant difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variables in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD-H, and LOADEST

  14. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

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    Welber Senteio Smith


    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y

  15. Originality of Foreign Language Teaching Technologies in Higher Educational Establishments of the Danube River Basin Countries

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    Olga Demchenko


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at investigating the originality of foreign language teaching technologies in higher educational establishments of the Danube river basin countries. Definitions of teaching technologies, typology of some foreign language teaching technologies, analysis of activity learning technologies are given. The stress is made on the importance of competence and communicative approaches in Maritime English teaching in the Danube basin higher educational establishments.

  16. Dust and Black Carbon Radiative Forcing Controls on Snowmelt in the Colorado River Basin


    Skiles, Sara McKenzie


    Light absorbing impurities (LAIs), like dust and black carbon (BC), initiate powerful albedo feedbacks when deposited on snow cover, yet due to a scarcity of observations radiative forcing by LAIs is often neglected, or poorly constrained, in climate and hydrological models. This has important consequences for regions like the Colorado River Basin, where dust deposition to mountain snow cover frequently occurs in the upper basin in the springtime, a relatively new phenomenon since western exp...

  17. Quality of surface water in the Bear River basin, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Price, Don


    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, began a reconnaissance in 1967 to obtain essential water-quality information for the Bear River basin. The reconnaissance was directed toward defining the chemical quality of the basin’s surface waters, including suitability for specific uses, geology, and general basin hydrology. Emphasis was given to those areas where water-development projects are proposed or being considered.

  18. Glacier Area and River Runoff Changes in the Head of Ob River Basins During the Last 50 Years (United States)

    Surazakov, A. B.; Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Nikitin, S. A.; Narojniy, J. K.


    The Altai mountains in Siberia define southern periphery of the Asian Arctic Basin, and the Ob River is a major Siberian river fed by fresh water from Altai glaciers. Intensification of glacier melt in the head of Ob River since the middle of 20th century may have a considerable influence on the water resources and hydrological regime of Siberian rivers, and freshwater budget of the Arctic Ocean. In our research we estimated glacier area and runoff changes in the Aktru River basin (34.9 km2, 45% covered by glaciers) in the Central Altai using remote sensing data and in situ glaciological and hydrological observations. The measurements of the glacier mass-balance started in this basin in 1952 as a part of the World Glacier Monitoring Service, however an accurate estimation of the glacier area change in the last two decades have not been accomplished. In our research we used aerial photographs (1952, 1975), Corona (1968) and ASTER (2004) images, and Ground Control Points collected with DGPS in 2005 and 2006 field surveys. Preliminary analysis shows that area of the studied glaciers reduced up to 7% and glacier tongues retreated up to 600 m from 1952 to 2004. The rate of the glacier recession doubled between 1975 and 2004 and the river runoff increased by 30 mm/year at the head of Ob river tributaries fed by snow and glacier melt water. During the period from 1954 to 2004 annual (mainly summer) air temperature increased by 0.1 C° a decade and precipitation (mainly spring and summer) increased by 50 mm at an elevation of 2000 m.

  19. Hydro-meteorological risk reduction and climate change adaptation in the Sava River Basin (United States)

    Brilly, Mitja; Šraj, Mojca; Kryžanowski, Andrej


    The Sava River Basin covered the teritory of several countries. There were, in past thirty years, several flood hazard events with almost hundred years return period. Parts of the basin suffer by severe droughts also. In the presentation we covered questions of: • Flood hazard in complex hydrology structure • Landslide and flush flood in mountainous regions • Floods on karst polje • Flood risk management in the complex international and hydrological condition. • Impact of man made structures: hydropower storages, inundation ponds, river regulation, alternate streams, levees system, pumping stations, Natura 2000 areas etc. • How to manage droughts in the international river basin The basin is well covered by information and managed by international the SRB Commission ( that could help. We develop study for climate change impact on floods on entire river basin financing by UNECE. There is also study provide climate change impact on the water management provide by World Bank and on which we take part. Recently is out call by world bank for study »Flood risk management plan for the SRB«.

  20. Population growth and natural-resources pressures in the Mekong River Basin. (United States)

    Pech, Sokhem; Sunada, Kengo


    The Mekong River Basin possesses the region's largest potential water source and related resources, which support ongoing economic development and basin community livelihoods. It is currently witnessing a major demographic transition that is creating both opportunities and challenges. An analysis of the complex relationship between demographic changes and impacts on the natural-resource base confirms that resource exploitation is occurring not only to meet growing domestic needs but also for other vested interests. Population, together with other major drivers, such as institutions, markets, and technology, will have a very strong bearing on the way in which the rich resources of the Mekong River Basin are developed and distributed in the present and future. The Mekong River Basin's rich resources, and the benefits derived from them, are unevenly distributed both in time and geographically. Moreover, since the causes and impacts do not respect political boundaries, the Mekong countries need to jointly develop alternative management strategies to meet projected demands within the sustainable capacity of the Mekong River Basin natural-resource base.

  1. Reconstruction of North American drainage basins and river discharge since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Wickert


    Full Text Available Over the last glacial cycle, ice sheets and the resultant glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA rearranged river systems. As these riverine threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea were stretched, severed, and restructured, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and time-varying drainage basin areas, and sometimes delivered enough meltwater to the oceans in the right places to influence global climate. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges, by combining models of past ice sheets, glacial isostatic adjustment, and climate. The result is a time series of synthetic paleohydrographs and drainage basin maps from the Last Glacial Maximum to present for nine major drainage basins – the Mississippi, Rio Grande, Colorado, Columbia, Mackenzie, Hudson Bay, Saint Lawrence, Hudson, and Susquehanna/Chesapeake Bay. These are based on five published reconstructions of the North American ice sheets. I compare these maps with drainage reconstructions and discharge histories based on a review of observational evidence, including river deposits and terraces, isotopic records, mineral provenance markers, glacial moraine histories, and evidence of ice stream and tunnel valley flow directions. The sharp boundaries of the reconstructed past drainage basins complement the flexurally smoothed GIA signal that is more often used to validate ice-sheet reconstructions, and provide a complementary framework to reduce nonuniqueness in model reconstructions of the North American ice-sheet complex.

  2. Hydrogeology of the West Branch Delaware River basin, Delaware County, New York (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J.


    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, began a study of the hydrogeology of the West Branch Delaware River (Cannonsville Reservoir) watershed. There has been recent interest by energy companies in developing the natural gas reserves that are trapped within the Marcellus Shale, which is part of the Hamilton Group of Devonian age that underlies all the West Branch Delaware River Basin. Knowing the extent and thickness of stratified-drift (sand and gravel) aquifers within this basin can help State and Federal regulatory agencies evaluate any effects on these aquifers that gas-well drilling might produce. This report describes the hydrogeology of the 455-square-mile basin in the southwestern Catskill Mountain region of southeastern New York and includes a detailed surficial geologic map of the basin. Analysis of surficial geologic data indicates that the most widespread surficial geologic unit within the basin is till, which is present as deposits of ablation till in major stream valleys and as thick deposits of lodgment till that fill upland basins. Till and colluvium (remobilized till) cover about 89 percent of the West Branch Delaware River Basin, whereas stratified drift (outwash and ice-contact deposits) and alluvium account for 8.9 percent. The Cannonsville Reservoir occupies about 1.9 percent of the basin area. Large areas of outwash and ice-contact deposits occupy the West Branch Delaware River valley along its entire length. These deposits form a stratified-drift aquifer that ranges in thickness from 40 to 50 feet (ft) in the upper West Branch Delaware River valley, from 70 to 140 ft in the middle West Branch Delaware River valley, and from 60 to 70 ft in the lower West Branch Delaware River valley. The gas-bearing Marcellus Shale underlies the entire West Branch Delaware River Basin and ranges in thickness from 600 to 650 ft along the northern divide of the basin to 750 ft thick

  3. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the northern Wyoming Powder River Basin (United States)

    Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.


    The abundance of new borehole data from recent coal bed natural gas development in the Powder River Basin was utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey for the most comprehensive evaluation to date of coal resources and reserves in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. It is the second area within the Powder River Basin to be assessed as part of a regional coal assessment program; the first was an evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coal field, adjacent to and south of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. There are no active coal mines in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area at present. However, more than 100 million short tons of coal were produced from the Sheridan coal field between the years 1887 and 2000, which represents most of the coal production within the northwestern part of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. A total of 33 coal beds were identified during the present study, 24 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. Given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining, seven of the beds were evaluated for potential reserves. The restrictions included railroads, a Federal interstate highway, urban areas, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as depth, thickness of coal beds, mined-out areas, and areas of burned coal, were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area for all 24 coal beds assessed, with no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 285 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 263 billion short tons (92.3 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is that portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined

  4. Mapping the Soil Texture in the Heihe River Basin Based on Fuzzy Logic and Data Fusion


    Ling Lu; Chao Liu; Xin Li; Youhua Ran


    Mapping soil texture in a river basin is critically important for eco-hydrological studies and water resource management at the watershed scale. However, due to the scarcity of in situ observation of soil texture, it is very difficult to map the soil texture in high resolution using traditional methods. Here, we used an integrated method based on fuzzy logic theory and data fusion to map the soil texture in the Heihe River basin in an arid region of Northwest China, by combining in situ soil ...

  5. Concentration Assessment of Chromium and Arsenic Heavy Metals in Rivers Basins of Baft and Rabor Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malakootian


    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are regarded as toxic stable elements in the environment that with the entry into water sources, finally it enters into the biological cycle of life and develops some adverse effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the concentration of chromium and arsenic heavy metals in the river basins of Baft and Ravar dams. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2013 to June 2014. During the field surveys of the river basins, 4 sampling stations of river basins of Baft and Rabor dams were selected. One combined sample was taken on 15th of each month from the mentioned river basins as well as Baft and Rabor dams. The chromium and arsenic concentrations were measured for 12 months in river basins of Baft and Rabar dams by Furnace Atomic Absorption device, and the study data were analyzed applying SPSS software. Results:. The mean concentration of chromium was reported 5.01 and 5.19 in the river basins of Baft dam and 5.44, 5.5, 5.42 and 5.45 ppb in river basins of Rabor dam. The mean concentration of arsenic in the river basins was demonstrated to be 16.52 and 11.71 ppb in Baft dam, and 12.28, 13.6, 7.13 and 8.78 ppb in Rabor dam. In addition, the mean concentration of chromium was reported 5.02 and 5.38, and arsenic concentration was obtained 23.53 and 9.12 ppb, respectively in Baft and Rabar dams. Conclusion: Based on the study results, the chromium concentration in the studied stations was demonstrated to be significantly less than guidelines of WHO, EPA and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, whereas arsenic concentration was demonstrated to be significantly higher compared to these guidelines(p<0.0001. As a result, this difference needs to be diminished via implementing the required plans.

  6. Ecosystem Resilience to Drought and Temperature Anomalies in the Mekong River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Na-U-Dom, T.; Garcia, Monica; Mo, X.


    -regressive model of NDVI in the Mekong River basin (around 759,000 km2) where large ecological and climatic gradients exist. Gridded temperature, and the Global Standard Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI) and antecedent NDVI were used as model predictors. The forest in north Laos was more resilient...... and the Mekong delta were less sensitive to the temperature anomalies effect compared to other part of Mekong River basin. The map of resistance and resilience metrics can help to determine the most vulnerable regions to extreme events for policy makers....

  7. Distributed hydrological modelling of the Senegal river basin - model construction and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh


    A modified version of the physically-based distributed MIKE SHE model code was applied to the 375,000 km(2) Senegal River Basin. On the basis of conventional data from meteorological stations and readily accessible databases on topography, soil types, vegetation type, etc. three models with diffe......A modified version of the physically-based distributed MIKE SHE model code was applied to the 375,000 km(2) Senegal River Basin. On the basis of conventional data from meteorological stations and readily accessible databases on topography, soil types, vegetation type, etc. three models...

  8. Hydrological modeling of the semi-arid Andarax river basin in southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Hauge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge

    as this it will lead to better estimate of the groundwater recharge and hereby of the groundwater availability in the delta region.   The hydrological behaviour of the Andarax river basin is simulated by the MIKE SHE code, which is a physically based, distributed and integrated hydrological model. In the first...... scenario we only use traditional meteorological data and standard values for the vegetation characteristics. The traditional meteorological data are rather sparse for the Andarax river basin and to improve the estimation of evapotranspiration we use an energy-based two-layer SVAT model and apply remote...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sustainable management of water resources involves inventory, conservation, efficient utilization, and quality management. Although, activities relating to quantity assessment and management in terms of river discharge and water resources planning are given attention at the basin level, water quality assessment are still being done at specific locations of major concern. The use of Geographical Information System (GIS based water quality information system and spatial analysis with Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation enabled the mapping of water quality indicators in Ogun and Ona catchment of Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria. Using 27 established gauging stations as sampling locations, water quality indicators were monitored over 12 months covering full hydrological season. Maps of seasonal variations in 10 water quality indicators as impacted by land-use types were produced. This ensured that trends of specific water quality indicator and diffuse pollution characteristics across the basin were better presented with the variations shown along the river courses than the traditional line graphs. The production of water quality maps will improve monitoring, enforcement of standards and regulations towards better pollution management and control. This strategy holds great potential for real time monitoring of water quality in the basin with adequate instrumentation.

  10. Water-Energy Nexus in Shared River Basins: How Hydropower Shapes Cooperation and Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouangpalath Phimthong


    Full Text Available The construction of hydropower plants on transboundary rivers is seldom done with equal benefits to all riparians, and therefore presents coordination and cooperation challenges. Without a supra-national authority in charge of transboundary river basins, coordination between sectors (water, energy and environment and cooperation between countries largely depends on willingness of the individual nation states and the power relations between these countries. This paper discusses how the interests and relative power positions of actors in transboundary water management shape the outcomes, and what roles are played by River Basin Organisations and foreign investors (especially in hydropower development. These issues are illustrated with examples from the Mekong river in Southeast Asia (Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, the Euphrates-Tigris (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran and Kuwait and the Çoruh in Turkey and Georgia.

  11. Regional and temporal variation in minor ions in groundwater of a part of a large river delta, southern India. (United States)

    Elumalai, Vetrimurugan; Brindha, K; Elango, L


    Impact of agricultural activities on groundwater can be determined from the concentration of nutrients present in groundwater. This study was carried out with the aim to assess the minor ions content of groundwater and to identify its sources, spatial, and seasonal variations in a part of the Cauvery River basin, southern India. Groundwater samples were collected from July 2007 to September 2009 and were analyzed for minor ions. These ions were in the order of dominance of nitrate> phosphate> bromide> fluoride> ammonium= nitrite> lithium. The concentration of ions tends to increase towards the coast except for fluoride. Increased concentration of ions identified in shallow wells than in deep wells with an exception of few locations indicates the impact of human activities. Relatively high concentration of agriculture-sourced nitrate was identified which pose a threat to groundwater suitability for agriculture and domestic usage. Combined influence of use of agrochemicals, improper sewage disposal, aquaculture activities, seawater intrusion due to heavy pumping near the coast, and natural weathering of aquifer materials are the major sources. Also, fine grain sediments of this area aid in poor flushing of the ions towards the sea resulting in accumulation of higher concentration of ions. A sustainable management strategy is essential to control the concentration of these ions, especially nitrate. Reduced use of fertilizers, increasing the rainfall recharge for diluting the pollutants in groundwater and maintaining the river flow for sufficiently longer period to reduce dependence on groundwater for irrigation can help to improve the situation.

  12. Geomorphological Analysis and Hydrological Potential Zone of Baira River Watershed, Churah in Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Pareta


    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the quantitative geomorphological analysis and hydrological characterization of 95 micro-watersheds (MWS of Baira river watershed in Himachal Pradesh, India with an area of 425.25 Km2. First time in the world, total 173 morphometric parameters have been generated in a single watershed using satellite remote sensing data (i.e. IRS-P6 ResourceSAT-1 LISS-III, LandSAT-7 ETM+, and LandSAT-8 PAN & OLI merge data, digital elevation models (i.e. IRS-P5 CartoSAT-1 DEM, ASTER DEM data, and soI topographical maps of 1: 50,000 scale. The ninety-five micro-watersheds (MWS of Baira river watershed have been prioritized through the morphometric analysis of different morphometric parameters (i.e. drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture analysis, and relief characterizes . The study has concurrently established the importance of geomorphometry as well as the utility of remote sensing and GIS technology for hydrological characterization of the watershed and there for better resource and environmental managements.

  13. Residual fluxes and suspended sediment transport in the lower reaches of Muvattupuzha River, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Balachandran, K.K.; Xavier, J.K.; Rejendran, N.C.

    Spatial and seasonal variation of different physical processes governing the transport of salt and sediment of the Muvattupuzha River, in Kerala, India are discussed. Salt and suspended sediment due to tidal pumping was directed upstream, salt...