Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette
; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....
Logan, T K; Schenck, J E; Leukefeld, C G; Meyers, J; Allen, S
There are two primary purposes of this paper. The first is to summarize the results of a survey conducted in a rural area of Kentucky on attitudes and behaviors regarding substance use. The second purpose is to examine differences in drug attitudes and behaviors for higher and lower density rural areas. Participants for this study were contacted by telephone in March 1996. The sample was generated by random digit dialing for eight county telephone exchanges. The sample included 334 respondents from the eight counties who were grouped into respondents from higher density areas (n = 132) and lower density areas (n = 202). Results indicated that respondents from both higher density and lower density areas were similar on drug use and attitudes. However, lower density areas reported their county as a worse place to live and less safe than respondents from higher density areas. Respondents from lower density areas were also more likely to report there was more alcohol/drug use and more alcohol bootlegging in the past year, and that bootlegging alcohol is a serious problem in their county. Future research could include the examination of heterogeneity of rural areas using different indices.
Nydegger, Liesl A; Ames, Susan L; Stacy, Alan W; Grenard, Jerry L
HIV infection is problematic among all drug users, not only injection drug users. Drug users are at risk for contracting HIV by engaging in risky sexual behaviors. The present study sought to determine whether inhibitory processes moderate the relationship between problematic drug use and HIV-risk behaviors (unprotected sex and multiple sex partners). One hundred ninety-six drug offenders enrolled in drug education programs were administered a battery of computer-based assessments. Measures included a cued go/no-go assessment of inhibitory processes, the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) assessment of problematic drug use, and self-report assessment of condom use and multiple sex partners. Findings revealed that response inhibition assessed by the proportion of false alarms on the cued go/no-go moderated the relationship between problematic drug use and an important measure of HIV risk (condom nonuse) among drug offenders. However, response inhibition did not moderate the relationship between problematic drug use and another measure of HIV risk: multiple sex partners. Among this sample of drug offenders, we have found a relationship between problematic drug use and condom nonuse, which is exacerbated by poor control of inhibition. These findings have implications for the development of HIV intervention components among high-risk populations.
Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Medina-García, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Pulido-Manzanero, José; Fernández-Villa, Tania
Drug and alcohol use are known to increase the risk of traffic accidents, especially among youth. However, the association between habitual drug use and the adoption of risky driving behavior is not well known. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the association between habitual drug use and involvement in risky driving practices overall and by gender among university students. A cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was composed of 559 car drivers younger than 31 years who completed an online questionnaire during the 2011-2012 academic year. Among other factors, the questionnaire assessed the following items: habitual drug consumption (20 or more days) during the last year and involvement in other risky driving practices during the last month. A total of 27.7% of students reported they had used drugs regularly during the last year. Drug use was associated with a higher frequency of involvement in risky driving practices. In men, the factors most strongly associated with drug consumption were speeding, driving under influence of alcohol, and feeling drowsy while driving. In women, drug consumption was mainly associated with smoking while driving, drunk driving, and driving without rest. The results of our study support the hypothesis that habitual drug use is associated with an increased frequency of risky driving behavior. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Cheung, N Wt; Cheung, Y W; Chen, X
To examine the effects of a permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and other psychosocial variables in the drug use of psychoactive drug users. Psychosocial factors that might affect a permissive attitude towards regular / occasional drug use and life satisfaction were further explored. We analysed data of a sample of psychoactive drug users from a longitudinal survey of psychoactive drug abusers in Hong Kong who were interviewed at 6 time points at 6-month intervals between January 2009 and December 2011. Data of the second to the sixth time points were stacked into an individual time point structure. Random-effects probit regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative contribution of the independent variables to the binary dependent variable of drug use in the last 30 days. A permissive attitude towards drug use, life satisfaction, and depression at the concurrent time point, and self-esteem at the previous time point had direct effects on drug use in the last 30 days. Interestingly, permissiveness to occasional drug use was a stronger predictor of drug use than permissiveness to regular drug use. These 2 permissive attitude variables were affected by the belief that doing extreme things shows the vitality of young people (at concurrent time point), life satisfaction (at concurrent time point), and self-esteem (at concurrent and previous time points). Life satisfaction was affected by sense of uncertainty about the future (at concurrent time point), self-esteem (at concurrent time point), depression (at both concurrent and previous time points), and being stricken by stressful events (at previous time point). A number of psychosocial factors could affect the continuation or discontinuation of drug use, as well as the permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention work targeted at
Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina; Markšaitytė, Rasa; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Šeibokaitė, Laura; Pranckevičienė, Aistė
The study aims to evaluate how the factors of motivation and attitudes about traffic safety are related to risky driving evaluated by young drivers both subjectively and objectively. Risky driving was evaluated in three ways: self-knowledge, driving in a simulation environment, and recalled violations of road traffic regulations as well as accidents caused. 226 respondents aged 18–29 answered the questions from the self-knowledge questionnaire, 40 of them participated in the experiment of dri...
Leech, Tamara G J
This study examines the association between gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior among young women. Previous studies have posed seemingly contradictory arguments: that either traditional attitudes or egalitarian attitudes are associated with riskier behavior. Data are based on the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, representing 520 sexually active 18-19-year-old women. Propensity radius matching was used to assess differences in rates of multiple sexual partners and sex outside of a committed relationship. Relative to moderate gender role attitudes, both egalitarian gender role attitudes and traditional gender role attitudes are associated with higher rates of risky sexual behavior. Both women with egalitarian role attitudes and those with traditional role attitudes have about a 10% higher prevalence of risky behavior compared to women with more moderate gender role attitudes. Existing, seemingly contradictory contentions about the relationship between gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior may be more coherent than they seem. By shifting focus from risk to protection, the results suggest that moderate gender role attitudes are protective against risky sexual behavior. Future studies should investigate the causal mechanisms and intervention implications of this protective relationship. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M
Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in
Martinussen, Laila Marianne
; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....
Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael J.; Møller, Mette
Self-report measures of driving-related attitudes and beliefs miss potentially important precursors of driving behaviour, namely, automatic and implicit thought processes. The present study used an adapted Go/No-go Association Task to measure implicit thought without relying on the participants......' self-reports. Implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving were measured in 53 Danish drivers (31 female, 22 male). Further, we explored the relationship between implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving, and self-reported driving behaviour and skills. The results suggest that implicit...... attitudes were significantly related to self-reported driving behaviour and skills for male (but not female) drivers. Pending future research with larger sample sizes, the difference between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical...
Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano
Although there are several studies on the effects of personality and attitudes on risky driving among young drivers, related research in older drivers is scarce. The present study assessed a model of personality-attitudes-risky driving in a large sample of active older drivers. A cross-sectional design was used, and structured and anonymous questionnaires were completed by 485 older Italian drivers (Mean age=68.1, SD=6.2, 61.2% males). The measures included personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, risky driving (errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and self-reported crash involvement and number of issued traffic tickets in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling showed that personality traits predicted both directly and indirectly traffic violations, errors, and lapses. More positive attitudes toward traffic safety negatively predicted risky driving. In turn, risky driving was positively related to self-reported crash involvement and higher number of issued traffic tickets. Our findings suggest that theoretical models developed to account for risky driving of younger drivers may also apply in the older drivers, and accordingly be used to inform safe driving interventions for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Slavinskienė, Justina; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Šeibokaitė, Laura; Markšaitytė, Rasa
Worldwide statistics indicate that novice drivers are still one of the riskiest drivers’ groups as they highly contribute to road accidents and traffic rules violations. Thus, the psychological variables that allow predicting whether novice drivers will violate traffic rules are important in risky driving research. The aim of this study is to find out if pre-drivers’ attitudes towards risky driving measured before obtaining driving license could predict future traffic offences during the firs...
Neppl, Tricia K; Dhalewadikar, Jui; Lohman, Brenda J
Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence. Results indicated that parenting and deviant peers was related to engagement in tobacco use, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Moreover, attitudes and intentions mediated this relationship even after parent use and adolescent early involvement in these behaviors were taken into account.
Objective: This research work is aimed at determining the kidney failure risk behaviours and attitudes of healthy populace of workers of Ede North Local Government Area of ... Conclusion: The reflections of their attitude about their knowledge of kidney failure in their exhibitions of risk behaviours for kidney failure are strong ...
The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a 'risky' cybersecurity behaviours scale. The results demonstrated that Internet addiction was a significant predictor for risky cybersecurity behaviours. A positive attitude towards cybersecurity in business was negatively related to risky cybersecurity behaviours. Finally, the measure of impulsivity revealed that both attentional and motor impulsivity were both significant positive predictors of risky cybersecurity behaviours, with non-planning being a significant negative predictor. The results present a further step in understanding the individual differences that may govern good cybersecurity practices, highlighting the need to focus directly on more effective training and awareness mechanisms.
Bone, Curtis W; Goodfellow, Amelia M; Vahidi, Mani; Gelberg, Lillian
Sexual violence (SV) is common; however, the prevalence of SV and its long term sequela vary geographically and among subpopulations within the USA. As such, the aims of this study are the following: (1) to determine the prevalence of SV, (2) to identify correlates of SV, and (3) to determine if SV is associated with depression among male and female risky drug users in urban Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in Los Angeles. This study includes adult patients of five urban FQHCs who self-reported risky drug use. We identified survivors of SV and those experiencing depression through survey questions that queried, before or after age 18, "Were you ever sexually assaulted, molested or raped?" and with the RAND Mental Health Index (MHI-5). We utilized Pearson's chi-square tests to assess predictors of SV and logistic regression to assess for an association between SV and depression. Data collection took place from February 2011 to November 2012. Of the 334 study patients, 49% of females and 25% of males reported surviving SV. Exposure to SV, (both before 18 years of age and after 18 years of age) was the strongest predictor of depression among men and women in this study (OR 4.7, p < 0.05). These data demonstrate that sexual violence is prevalent in this urban FQHC population and is strongly associated with depression. Providers should consider screening both men and women with risky drug use for SV while health systems should continue to align mental health and primary care services to appropriately care for these extremely vulnerable patients. Trial Registration Clinical Trials. gov ID NCT01942876, Protocol ID DESPR DA022445, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use and its relationship with HIV infection among Chinese MSM. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 625 MSM was conducted in Shenyang, China. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on recreational drug use and sexual behaviors. Blood specimens were collected to test for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results. Nearly a quarter (23.2%, 145/625 of participants reported ever using recreational drugs, among which alkyl nitrites (poppers was the most frequently used drug (19.2%, followed by methylmorphine phosphate (5.1%, methamphetamine (4.0%, and ketamine (0.8%. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis was 9.6% and 10.4%, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that recreational drug use was significantly correlated with age ≤25 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1–2.9, single marital status (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2–3.6, and seeking male sexual partners mainly through Internet (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.8–2.8. Recreational drug use was independently associated with an increased risk of HIV infection (aOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 2.0–6.2. Conclusions. Our study suggests that recreational drug use is popular among Chinese MSM and is associated with significantly increased HIV infection risk. HIV prevention intervention programs should reduce both drug use and risky sexual behaviors in this population.
Xu, Jun-Jie; Qian, Han-Zhu; Chu, Zhen-Xing; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Qing-Hai; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Geng, Wen-Qing; Zhang, Christiana Meng; Shang, Hong
Objective. To investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use and its relationship with HIV infection among Chinese MSM. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 625 MSM was conducted in Shenyang, China. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on recreational drug use and sexual behaviors. Blood specimens were collected to test for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results. Nearly a quarter (23.2%, 145/625) of participants reported ever using recreational drugs, among which alkyl nitrites (poppers) was the most frequently used drug (19.2%), followed by methylmorphine phosphate (5.1%), methamphetamine (4.0%), and ketamine (0.8%). The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis was 9.6% and 10.4%, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that recreational drug use was significantly correlated with age ≤25 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1–2.9), single marital status (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2–3.6), and seeking male sexual partners mainly through Internet (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.8–2.8). Recreational drug use was independently associated with an increased risk of HIV infection (aOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 2.0–6.2). Conclusions. Our study suggests that recreational drug use is popular among Chinese MSM and is associated with significantly increased HIV infection risk. HIV prevention intervention programs should reduce both drug use and risky sexual behaviors in this population. PMID:24829916
The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a ?risky? cybersecurity ...
Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hafen, Christopher A; Hessel, Elenda T; Szwedo, David E; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior.
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265
Millay, Tamara A; Satyanarayana, Veena A; O'Leary, Catina C; Crecelius, Robert; Cottler, Linda B
Incarcerated women report multiple vulnerabilities and, yet, are under-represented in research. This study used focus-group methodology to explore high-risk sexual behaviors, drug use, and victimization among female offenders in St. Louis. Inmates of the St. Louis Medium Security Institution (MSI) were invited to participate in one of five focus groups between May and September 2005 in preparation for an NIH/NINR HIV-prevention intervention study among female offenders in Drug Court. The focus group sample of 30 women was 70% African-American, with a mean age of 36 years. Results indicated that oral sex was the most common sex trade activity. Consistent with the literature, condom usage was described as irregular. In terms of drug use, participants reported that crack was most commonly used, with binges often lasting for several days. Regarding victimization, women frequently reported sexual abuse in childhood, and some described abusive relationships as adults. Participants also reported being beaten and raped by customers, which led to their concealing knives in purses and razors under the tongue. Consequently, perpetrated violence, including murder, was reported as protection against further violence. These findings confirm the vulnerability of this population of women who are at high risk for HIV. Effective HIV-prevention interventions are needed to assist these incarcerated women in making lifestyle changes during incarceration and sustaining them after release.
Carpentier, Aline; Brijs, Kris; Declercq, Katrien; Brijs, Tom; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert
The aim of the study was to examine the relative importance of young novice drivers' family climate on their driving behavior. A sample of young novice drivers (N=171) between the age of 17 and 24, who held their permanent (or temporary) driver's license for no longer than one year, participated. The questionnaire included items related to the participants' family climate, 3 socio-cognitive determinants (i.e., attitude, locus of control and social norm), and risky driving behaviors. We expected both family climate and the socio-cognitive determinants to exert a direct effect on risky driving. Furthermore we hypothesized that the socio-cognitive determinants would moderate the impact of family climate on risky driving. The results showed that the effect of family climate on risky driving only originated from one single factor (i.e., noncommitment). Besides that, the results confirmed the importance of the three socio-cognitive determinants to the degree that attitude, locus of control, and social norm significantly predicted the self-reported risky driving. In line of what we hypothesized, attitude moderated the relationship between noncommitment and risky driving. Lastly, we found an unexpected three-way interaction which indicated that locus of control moderated the relation between noncommitment and risky driving only when young drivers' attitude was risk-supportive. We recommend scholars and practitioners to take into account the interaction between external sources of influence (such as an individual's family climate) and more personally oriented dispositions (such as an individual's attitude, social norm and locus of control) when trying to explain and change young novices' risky driving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Touloupis, Thanos; Athanasiades, Christina
The present study aimed to investigate primary school principals' attitudes towards risky internet use of school-aged students and how occupational factors, such as work self-efficacy, job satisfaction, and burnout, may affect these attitudes especially in a context of economic crisis, which has adversely affected working conditions and duties of…
For 40 years the world has lived with the threat of nuclear war and, recently, with the possibility of nuclear power plant accidents. Although virtually every generation must confront various national or international crises, the threat of nuclear war is unprecedented in its destructive potential. This study is an attempt to assess attitudes and amount of distress associated with the ever-present threat of nuclear war and the possibility of accidents at nuclear power plants. The Nuclear Attitudes Questionnaire (NAQ) consists of 15 items and was administered to 722 young adults who have grown up in the nuclear age. The items were found to reflect four latent factors of nuclear concern, nuclear support, fear of the future, and nuclear denial, all of which in turn represent a second-order construct of nuclear anxiety. Women reported significantly more nuclear concern, less nuclear support, more fear of the future, and less nuclear denial than did men. In latent-variable models, nuclear anxiety was found to be significantly associated with less purpose in life, less life satisfaction, more powerlessness, more depression, and more drug use. It is concluded that the threat of nuclear war and accidents is significantly related to psychological distress and may disturb normal maturational development.
For 40 years the world has lived with the threat of nuclear war and, recently, with the possibility of nuclear power plant accidents. Although virtually every generation must confront various national or international crises, the threat of nuclear war is unprecedented in its destructive potential. This study is an attempt to assess attitudes and amount of distress associated with the ever-present threat of nuclear war and the possibility of accidents at nuclear power plants. The Nuclear Attitudes Questionnaire (NAQ) consists of 15 items and was administered to 722 young adults who have grown up in the nuclear age. The items were found to reflect four latent factors of nuclear concern, nuclear support, fear of the future, and nuclear denial, all of which in turn represent a second-order construct of nuclear anxiety. Women reported significantly more nuclear concern, less nuclear support, more fear of the future, and less nuclear denial than did men. In latent-variable models, nuclear anxiety was found to be significantly associated with less purpose in life, less life satisfaction, more powerlessness, more depression, and more drug use. It is concluded that the threat of nuclear war and accidents is significantly related to psychological distress and may disturb normal maturational development
Sheridan, Janie; Stewart, Joanna; Smart, Ros; McCormick, Ross
To estimate the prevalence of risky drinking among customers in community pharmacies and to explore customer attitudes towards screening and brief intervention (SBI). Cross-sectional, anonymous survey, using random selection of community pharmacies in New Zealand to collect data using self-completion questionnaires and an opportunity to enter a prize draw. Participants were customers/patients attending the community pharmacy on a specific, randomly selected day (Monday to Friday) in one set week. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)-C using a cut-off score of 5 was used to measure risky drinking. Attitudes towards pharmacists engaging in SBI for risky drinkers were measured. 2384 completed customer/patient questionnaires from 43 participating pharmacies. Almost 84% ever drank alcohol and using a score of 5 or more as a cut-off, 30% of the sample would be considered as risky drinkers. Attitudes were generally positive to pharmacists undertaking SBI. Logistic regression with AUDIT-C positive or negative as the dependent variable found those taking medicines for mental health and liver disease being more likely to score negative on the AUDIT-C, and smokers and those purchasing hangover cures were more likely than average to have a positive AUDIT-C screen. This study indicates there is scope for community pharmacists to undertake SBI for risky drinking, and that customers find this to be acceptable. Targeted screening may well be useful, in particular for smokers. Further research is required to explore the effectiveness of SBI for risky drinkers in this setting. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a ‘risky’ cybersecurity behaviours scale. The results demonstrated that Internet addiction was a significant predictor for risky cybersecurity behaviours. A positive attitude towards cybersecurity in business was negatively related to risky cybersecurity behaviours. Finally, the measure of impulsivity revealed that both attentional and motor impulsivity were both significant positive predictors of risky cybersecurity behaviours, with non-planning being a significant negative predictor. The results present a further step in understanding the individual differences that may govern good cybersecurity practices, highlighting the need to focus directly on more effective training and awareness mechanisms.
Benedict, Jamie; Evans, William; Calder, Judy Conger
Examines drug use and eating behaviors of northern Nevadan adolescents (N=401). Results indicate that high-risk users less frequently ate lunch, meals at home, or with their family and ate more often at convenience stores, fast food restaurants, or with their friends. Gender differences are examined. Implications for prevention programming and…
Yamada, Junichi; Takayanagi, Risa; Yokoyama, Haruko; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sinohara, Satomi; Yamada, Yasuhiko
The educational intervention could improve knowledge about rational drug use in the junior high school. Improving knowledge about rational drug use at an early age may be a good way to increase the population's awareness of health, medicines and self-medication. To educate the rational drug use, it is desirable that the school pharmacists participate in this educational program in the junior high school. So we conducted an educational lecture by school pharmacists to promote rational drug use and self-medication in junior high school students. The study compared participant responses before and after a lecture. After the first questionnaire, we lectured the mentioned above to them. Afterward, second questionnaire was conducted. In the second questionnaire, more than 95% of the students understood the contents of the lecture to some extent. After a lecture, students who answered that 'I don't have confidence that I can buy medicines rightly by myself' decreased from 42.7% to 11.7%. And students who answered that 'I don't have confidence that I can use medicines rightly by myself' decreased from 25.2% to 12.6%. It was possible to achieve a favorable modification of attitudes to rational use of medicines in junior high school students. Continuous interventions might allow better effects and could help to fill the gap in health education of the general population.
Full Text Available In this article a study between the university population of Centro Regional Chontales in Universidad Nacional Autónoma of Nicaragua is presented. The attitudes facing with the HIV are analyzed and the knowledge that the lecturers and students have about this topic, also the risky practices that they usually realize.Method:Only one ad hoc questionnaire was used with questions about sexual orientation, sexual habits and birth control, knowledge about HIV, other sexually transmitted diseases, attitudes, perceptions and risky practices. A proportional stratified sampling was used to select the samples. Descriptive analysis (percentage, correlation analysis (correlation coefficient and contrast of the non-parametric hypothesis bymeans of the correlation coefficient test. Results: Fromthe analysis realized we can deduce that there is still a lack of awareness about the transmission routes of the disease (just the 14,57 % of the students and the 8,43 % of the lecturers knows that the spread is possible by blood transfusion in certain conditions. There are problems by means of attitudes and risky practices (almost the 59 % of the students states that they do not use any type of birth control in their sexual relations also the persistency of social discrimination elements (almost the 42%of the students states that theywould not livewith a person with AIDS or they say that they do not know if they would do it or not due to fear of transmission.Conclusions: It has been considered necessary to develop social and educational initiatives of healthy promotion in this environment, a multisectorial questions approach facing with the HIV, where the social and educational has a prevailing place
Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to explore the structural relationship between religious activity, religious struggle, attitude to drugs, social modeling, spiritual well-being, and cigarette and tobacco smoking among students. Method: For this purpose, 504 male and female students from Kharazmi University, Agricultural Paradise, and Azad University of Karaj were selected by cluster sampling and they were asked to complete spiritual well-being scale, religious activity scale, religious struggle scale, social modeling scale, negative beliefs about drugs, and the tobacco section of the high-risk behavior questionnaire. Results: The results showed that the effect of religious activity on cigarette and tobacco smoking was mediated by negative beliefs about drugs, social modeling, spiritual well-being, and incentives for drug use. Similarly, the effect of religious struggle on cigarette and tobacco smoking was mediated by spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It seems that religion prevents people joining the unhealthy peer groups by the establishment of moral discipline, internal and external rules, and healthy coping styles therefore, people get less attracted to cigarette and tobacco smoking. Accordingly, these factors should be paid more attention in prevention programs for drug use, particularly cigarette and tobacco that are considered as the gateway to other drugs.
Lenton, Simon; Farringdon, Fiona
Western Australia (WA) became the fourth Australian jurisdiction to adopt a prohibition with civil penalties scheme for minor cannabis offences when its Cannabis Infringement Notice (CIN) scheme came into effect on 22 March 2004. This study, part of the pre--post evaluation of the legislative reforms, aimed to measure the impact of the changes on attitudes and drug use of school children. A self-completion survey was conducted of 2,638 students in years 9 and 12 from a selection of 11 government secondary schools in Perth. The students knew more about the risks and harms associated with cannabis than they did about prevalence of use and cannabis law. Half the year 12s and 28% of the year 9s had used the drug. Only 32% of students understood the term 'prohibition with civil penalties'. Once explained, 70% of those who had never used the drug said they would not try it if such a scheme were introduced, 5% said they would try it and 24% did not know. Significantly more (11%) said that they would try the drug if it were legalized. Although the CIN scheme applies only to adults there was a concern that such a change would indirectly affect cannabis use by children. This pre-change study suggests this is unlikely, but this will be monitored in the post-change phase of the research.
Nosic, Alen; Weber, Martin
Our study analyzes the determinants of investors' risk taking behavior. We find that investors' risk taking behavior is affected by their subjective risk attitude and by the risk and return of an investment alternative. Our results also suggest that consistent with previous findings in the literature objective or historical return and volatility of a stock are not as good predictors of risk taking behavior as subjective risk and return measures. Moreover, we illustrate that overconfidence or ...
Full Text Available In 2005 the WHO declared as many as 457 million people worldwide were affected by sexually transmitted infections. Transvestite is one of a high-risk group for contracting STIs and HIV. STI prevalence is still high on tranvestite, this is due to the use of condoms is still low and this can trigger the occurrence of STI. This study aimed to look at sexual behavior risk of transvestites, includes knowledge and attitudes related to the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs on transvestites in Sidoarjo. This research used analytic study design in which the type of research is a case control. Respondents in the research were transvestites within the range of KPA Sidoarjo, as many as 54 people who were divided into two groups: 18 in cases group and 36 in control group. Age of the respondents from both groups were the same. >40 years, the highest educational level in case group was senior high school and for the control group was high school junior, both groups had the same marital status which was not married, the occupation mostly in the case group was sex workers and as beauty shop workers in the control group, lenght of time been being transvestite on case group vary for 1-12 years and 13-24 years in the control group. There was a relationship between knowledge of the incidence of STIs in transgender (p = 0.007 p < α. There was a relationship between the attitude of the incidence of STIs in transgender (p = 0.001 p < α. Keyword: transvestite, Sexual Transmitted Disease, risk behaviour, knowledge, attitude
Bachoo, Shaneel; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin
Road traffic accidents (RTAs) constitute a serious global health risk, and evidence suggests that young drivers are significantly overrepresented among those injured or killed in RTAs. This study explores the role of anger, impulsivity, sensation seeking and driver attitudes as correlates for risky driving practices among drivers, drawing comparisons between age and gender. The study used a cross-sectional survey design, with a sample of 306 post-graduate university students from two universities in Durban, South Africa, who completed the self-administered questionnaire. The results indicate that drivers with higher driver anger, sensation seeking, urgency, and with a lack of premeditation and perseverance in daily activities were statistically more likely to report riskier driving acts. Males reported significantly more acts of risky driving behaviour (RDB) than females. Driver attitudes significantly predicted self-reported acts of RDB on most indicators. Older drivers (25 years and older) had safer driver attitudes and a lower sense of sensation seeking and urgency in life. Interventions targeting young drivers, which focus on impeding the manifestation of anger, impulsivity and sensation seeking are recommended. Also, the empirical support for the attitude-behaviour hypothesis evidenced in this study vindicates the development or continuation of interventions that focus on this dynamic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Irrational drug usage is one of the important public health problems in all countries. Also in our country irrational drug usage patterns is a serious problem and it increases the drug’s share of public health care costs. The aim of our study was evaluate the drug use patterns of patients and relatives of patients in Cukurova University Medical Faculty Balcali Hospital. Material and Methods: Face-to-face interviews (using a questionnaire about Rational Drug Use Survey with 209 patients and patients relatives, admitted to Cukurova University Medical Faculty Balcali Hospital clinics. Results: 209 people participated in this study and 58 % (124 of these are women. The mean age of women was 41,39±13,76 and the mean age of the man was 44,67±13,55. If we decompose the participants to their educational attainment; primary school (34,4 %, secondary school (18,7 %, high school (26,3 % and university (20,6 %. 11,0 % of the participants have no social security. 5,7 % of the participants have acute disease, 54,5 % of them have chronic disease and 39,7 % of them have no medical problems. 53,1 % of the participants said that they do not use drugs without consulting a medical doctor, 11,0 % of the participants said that they sometimes use drugs, 30,6 % of the participants said that they rarely use drugs and 5,3 % of the participants said that they often use drugs without consulting a medical doctor. 14,8 % of the participants said that they use drugs with advise of their relatives, friends and neighbors, 17,2 % of the participants said that they advise the drugs to their relatives, friends and neighbors when they were sick. 16,7 % of the participants said that they often use antibiotics and 77,5 % of the participants said that they sometimes use antibiotics without consulting a doctor when they had common cold or flu. 40,2 % of the participants said that they do not use herbal medicine in treatment. Patients with canser 2,4 %, patients with
Williams-Petersen, M G; Myers, B J; Degen, H M; Knisely, J S; Elswick, R K; Schnoll, S S
Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby.
Singh, T; Natu, M V
Attitudes of 40 interns towards rational drug use (RDU) were assessed, using a standardized Likert type scale. The assessment was repeated after 4 months to evaluate the effect of usual working conditions of the hospital. After this period, the attitudes had slided towards negative side (p attitudes of test group returned towards positive side (p attitudes.
Risky Driving Attitudes and Self-Reported Traffic Violations Among Turkish Drivers : The Case of Eskişehir = Türk Sürücülerinin Kendi Bildirimlerine Dayanan Trafik İhlalleri ve Riskli Sürüş Tutumlari: Eskişehir Örneği
H. Eray ÇELİK
Full Text Available Risky driving attitude terminology is used to explain behaviors, which directly increase accident risk, such as over speeding or violation to traffic rules while driving and attitudes related to traffic safety. This study is focused on driver factors in traffic accidents and was carried out in order to show risky drivers' attitudes tendency, especially. In this study, in order to develop a risky driver attitude model, factors explaining obedience to speed rules, caring about traffic accidents, risk taking tendency in traffic and violations of basic traffic rules were studied. For this reason with the assistance of structural equation models LISREL 8.54 was used to try to develop a model, and fitness of the model has been discussed considering various fitness criteria. On the other hand, analysis of variance was performed for factors measuring sex, education level, age and driving experience, in order to portrait risky drivers.
The Export Development Corporation (EDC) supports Canadian exporters and investors in international projects by providing export credit insurance for commodities and by providing financing for projects ranging from chemical plants to pipeline projects. EDC has been an active participant in financing projects in 'risky markets' in China, Columbia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia and Venezuela. This presentation reviewed the origins and dimensions of the Asian crisis and how the spillover effects are showing up in most regions of the world. It was suggested that the factors which contributed to the crisis were: (1) growing macroeconomic imbalances, (2) excessive private capital inflows financing risky and low-profitability ventures, (3) financial sector mismanagement, (4) political uncertainty, and (5) decline in investor confidence. The Asian financial crisis will affect other developing countries in the following ways: (1) shrinking foreign private capital flows, (2) widening spreads for foreign and private borrowers, (3) reduced trade volumes due to import compression, (4) lower prices for traded goods, (5) depressed international interest rates. As a result of the Asian crisis, banks in Japan, Korea, Singapore, Europe and North America have cancelled or restructured several billion dollars in loans. Several projects are now under review, have been delayed or cancelled. It was suggested that significant changes in risk management strategies must be made in order for the countries of Asia to restructure their economies. Putting an end to 'cronyism' establishing well-supervised banking, legal and court systems that are up-to-date and transparent, are also essential ingredients of recovery
Valdiney V. Gouveia
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer evidências de validade fatorial e preditiva de uma medida de atitudes ante o uso de drogas em geral (EAAUD. MÉTODO: Participaram voluntariamente 276 estudantes universitários de vários cursos, provenientes de uma universidade pública (94,2% e outra particular (5,8% da cidade de João Pessoa (PB. Estes tinham idade média de 21 anos (DP = 3,40; 93,5% eram de jovens de 17 a 25 anos, a maioria solteira (91% e do sexo feminino (65,6%. Além de um conjunto de perguntas demográficas, os participantes preencheram a EAAUD. Esta compreende uma medida formada por quatro itens/adjetivos bipolares (positivo/negativo, gosto/desgosto, bom/ruim e desejável/indesejável respondidos em escala do tipo diferencial semântico, de 9 pontos, variando de - 4 a + 4. RESULTADOS: De acordo com a análise de componentes principais, um único componente emergiu, com todos os itens apresentando saturação acima de |0,40|; este teve valor próprio de 3,17, explicando 79,3% da variância total. Sua consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,91. Por meio de regressão logística, comprovou-se que as pontuações na EAAUD predisseram significativamente a condição de ser um usuário de drogas, B = 0,17, Wald (1 = 8,45, p = 0,004. CONCLUSÃO: Tais resultados indicam que esta medida reúne evidências de validade fatorial e preditiva, podendo ser empregada para conhecer o potencial envolvimento dos jovens com drogas. Não obstante, sugerem-se novas pesquisas com amostras maiores e mais diversificadas.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at knowing evidences of factor and predictive validity of a measure of attitudes toward drugs use (ATDUS. METHODS: Participants were 276 volunteer undergraduate students of several courses. They were of a public (94.2% and other private (5.8% university from João Pessoa city (Paraíba, with mean age of 21 years old (SD = 3.40; 93.5% were youths, with age ranging from 17 to 25. Most of
Harling, Martyn R
In the context of a recent emphasis on compassion in the delivery of health care, the current study set out to measure the attitudes of different groups of health and social care students toward illicit drug users. Previous research has identified variations in the attitudes of different groups of health and social care professionals toward working with illicit drug users. Nurses, in particular, have been reported as holding moralistic or stereotypical views of illicit drug users. However, few studies have measured the attitudes of student nurses or compared their attitudes to other health and social care students. This article describes the use of a bespoke attitude scale to measure the attitudes of cohorts of student nurses, clinical psychology trainees, health and social care, social work and midwifery students at the start of their course (N=308). Results indicated that student nurses had the least tolerant attitudes, reinforcing the need for a specific educational focus on working with illicit drug users in nurse education. Variations between student groups indicate that Interprofessional Education can provide an opportunity to improve attitudes toward illicit drug users, particularly amongst student nurses. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Folasayo, Adigun Temiloluwa; Oluwasegun, Afolayan John; Samsudin, Suhailah; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Osman, Malina; Hamat, Rukman Awang
This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present w...
Risky behavior regarding drug use and HIV infection: an Internet questionnaire coupled with short education texts for Portuguese speakers Comportamento de risco para uso de drogas e infecção pelo HIV: questionário na internet acoplado com textos educacionais para língua portuguesa
Full Text Available Surveys of risky behavior relating to HIV/AIDS are generally made for groups at risk of infection, for which HIV/AIDS prevalence is usually expected to be higher than in the general population. Therefore, an educational homepage in Portuguese was created on the Internet to inform/ask internauts regarding knowledge and behavior. The internauts were classified as adolescents (13 to 25 years and adults (>25 years. The number of STDs was reported as 1. 8 ± 2. 6 infections (range: 1 to 20 infections; 43% used condoms during sexual intercourse. Alcohol consumption was reported by 63% and illicit drug use by 32% (marijuana 24% and inhalants 15%. Among the adolescents, 31% did not classified alcohol as a drug. The adults more frequently reported homosexuality, anal intercourse and STDs, although the adolescents also presented high rates of risky behavior. These results show the need to reach out to internauts through better control strategies. Different types of strategies must be encouraged, in order to reach people that use this means of communication and entertainment.Levantamentos de comportamento de risco para HIV/AIDS são geralmente feitos para grupos de risco onde a prevalência é normalmente esperada ser maior que na população geral. Assim, foi criada uma homepage educacional em português para informar/perguntar sobre conhecimento e comportamento aos internautas. Os internautas foram classificados em grupos: adolescentes (13 a 25a e adultos (>25a. DST foi relatada como 1,8 ± 2,6 infecções (intervalo de 1 a 20 infecções; 43% usaram preservativo durante ralação sexual. Álcool foi referido por 63%, droga ilícita por 32% (maconha 24% e inalantes 15%. Trinta e um por cento dos jovens não classificaram álcool como droga. Adultos referiram maior freqüência em homossexualismo, sexo anal e DST, embora jovens apresentem altas taxas no comportamento de risco. Os resultados mostram necessidade de atingir internautas com melhores estrat
Reid, Adam M.; Graziano, Paulo A.; Balkhi, Amanda M.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; Cottler, Linda B.; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R.
Objective: The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. Participants: A sample of 555 college students was…
Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia
Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.
Comportamiento sexual riesgoso en adolescentes y sus actitudes hacia individuos con VIH en la Parroquia 23 de Enero, Caracas, Venezuela Risky Sexual Behavior and Attitudes towards People with HIV of Adolescents from Parish 23 de Enero, Caracas, Venezuela
Rafael Antonio Broche Morera
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, desde enero de 2007 hasta enero de 2008, con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento sexual de riesgo en un grupo de adolescentes de la Parroquia 23 de Enero, del Distrito Metropolitano de Caracas, así como las actitudes desarrolladas por los mismos hacia individuos contagiados con VIH. El universo estuvo constituido por 1256 sujetos, de entre los que se seleccionó una muestra de 450 que se encuestaron anónimamente. Los resultados demuestran un predominio del comportamiento sexual riesgoso en el grupo de edades comprendido entre los 14 y los 17 años, y el estrato social bajo. Las prácticas sexuales presentaron una tendencia a las calificaciones negativas. Existe correspondencia entre la evaluación de las actitudes desarrolladas hacia las personas contagiadas con VIH y el comportamiento sexual individual de los adolescentes.From January 2007 to January 2008, we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study to characterize the risky sexual behavior and attitudes towards people with HIV of adolescents from Parish 23 de Enero, Metropolitan District of Caracas. Out of a universe of 1 256 adolescents, we selected a random sample of 450 who were surveyed anonymously. Results showed the risky sexual behavior of the group of age 14 - 17. Sexual practices trended towards negative evaluations. There is a correspondence between the evaluation of attitudes towards people with HIV and the individual sexual behavior of the adolescents.
Talih, Farid; Daher, Michel; Daou, Dayane; Ajaltouni, Jean
This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of burnout, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms and attitudes toward substance use in medical students as well as their evolution during the 4 years of medical school. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) between September and December 2016. In total, 176 out of 412 eligible medical students responded. The survey was anonymous and administered via e-mail link to an electronic form. The study included general socio-demographic questions and standardized validated tools to measure depressive symptomatology (PHQ-9), burnout (Burnout Measure), anxiety (GAD-7), alcohol use (AUDIT), and substance abuse (DAST-10) as well as questions pertaining to attitudes toward recreational substance use. Overall, 23.8% of medical students reported depressive symptomatology, with 14.5% having suicidal ideations. Forty-three percent were found to have burnout. Those who screened positive for burnout were more likely to be males, to be living away from their parents, and to have experienced a stressful life event during the last year. With the exception of burnout, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of depression or anxiety among the 4 years of medical school. There was a significant difference in alcohol use, illicit substance use, and marijuana use during the four medical school years. The results of this study show high rates of depression, burnout, and suicidal ideation among medical students from the Middle East region. Increased rates of substance use were detected as well as a more tolerant attitude toward substance use in general, specifically cannabis. It is crucial that medical educators and policymakers keep tackling the complex multifactorial mental health issues affecting medical students and design effective solutions and support systems.
Kocher, M.G.; Pahlke, J.; Trautmann, S.T.
We study the effects of time pressure on risky decisions for pure gain prospects, pure loss prospects, and mixed prospects involving both gains and losses. In two experiments we find that time pressure has no effect on risk attitudes for gains, but increases risk aversion for losses. For mixed
Reid, Adam M; Graziano, Paulo A; Balkhi, Amanda M; McNamara, Joseph P H; Cottler, Linda B; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R
The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. A sample of 555 college students was collected between August 2010 and February 2012. Students completed several self-report measures assessing their drug use history, attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms, temperament, and risky behaviors beyond drug use. Those who reported more frequent NPSU were more likely to engage in high-risk behavior across all 4 domains studied. Further, effortful control abilities partially mediated the link between NPSU and risky behaviors. These results highlight the associated risks of frequent NPSU for college students as well as provide future directions for examining effortful control as a potentially important mechanism linking NPSU to other risky behaviors.
Ruiter Robert AC
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.
Mizner, George L.; And Others
Initial data from a survey of drug usage among college students was presented. A large-scale effort was made to produce reliable figures on: (1) drug use patterns; (2) attitudes toward drug use; and (3) incidence of drug use among college students. Questionnaires were answered by 26,000 college students from the Denver-Boulder area, who were…
Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Adigun Temiloluwa Folasayo
Full Text Available This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6% had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6% by the students, while chlamydia (26% and trichomoniasis (21.0% were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level (p-values < 0.05. Most of them (88.8% were aware that STD screening was important while use of condoms was protective (63.8%. The majority of them strongly felt that treatment should be sought immediately if they (85.5% and their partners (87.4% have symptoms. Among the sexually-active students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24–30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.377–0.859 and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019–8.057 were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented.
Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Folasayo, Adigun Temiloluwa; Oluwasegun, Afolayan John; Samsudin, Suhailah; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Osman, Malina; Hamat, Rukman Awang
This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6%) by the students, while chlamydia (26%) and trichomoniasis (21.0%) were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level ( p -values students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24-30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.377-0.859) and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019-8.057) were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented.
Uncu, Yeşim; Vural, Pinar; Büyükuysal, Cağatay; Alper, Züleyha; Kiliç, Emine Zinnur
We aimed to evaluate the computer usage patterns of adolescents and to determine the effects of family life and parental attitude on these patterns. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, population-based survey that included 935 children between 11 and 16 years of age who were students in the second level of primary school and their parents as well. The following instruments were used in the survey: student and parent questionnaires on computer usage patterns and the Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) to assess parental attitudes towards child-rearing and family life. Of the study population, the majority of the students had a computer in their homes and spent a lot of time on the Internet. Parental control over the amount of time spent on the Internet and the websites that were visited had sometimes limited and contradictory effects on computer usage among the students. A democratic parental attitude was the best approach. Using the computer as a reward or punishment had a negative impact on the children's computer usage patterns. Although parents are confused concerning the benefits and harms of the Internet for their children and not certain how to manage their children's use of the computer and safe navigation of the Internet, a democratic parental attitude appears to be the best approach for reaching the most beneficial computer usage patterns for students.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: At this study to be aimed to assess status of the knowledge of nurses who working in public and private health institutions in Sivas province use of medication fort he treatment during their illnesses and patients and the attitudes of rational drug application. Matherials and methods: the researc planned to attend 750 nurses but it has been completed with participation of 641 nurses (Reaching rate 85,5%. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. in the study data were collected with a questionaire, percentages stated and chi square test was used for analysis. Results: %95,3 of nurses were females and mean age of them 29.21±4.85 years. The rate of contacting a doktor in case of illness is higher in 39.1% of nurses in the 21-30 age group and 48.6% of nurses working in primary care institutions. The level of self-treating is higher in 45.5 % of nurses working less than a year in profession .In the case of illness, 53% of nurses stated that they had left the medicine when signs of disease over. %98.8 of nurses expressed that they know effects of drugs used and 99.1% of them stated they know the side effects of drugs used. The entire group of postgraduate education status stated that they have not received the drug recommended by others. The level of suggesting a drug to someone else fort he same disease is higher in 65.8% of the group 31 years and older and group working over 40 hours per week. It were determined that used in consultation with the physician 65.2% of nurses antibiotics, 87.5% of them weiht loss drug and 82.7% of them contraceptive . 99.5% of the nurses have expressed that they inform to patients about use of their medications. Among the issues that expressed informations took place the application form of drugs (51.0 %and information of need to consult one if deemed one unexpected effect (59.6% . Also has been identified that of nurses acquired inform about drugs from drug book (vademecum (87.5 % and they
Christiansen, Ask Vest
Taking some of the most significant academic works into consideration this chapter describes how the scholarly interest in drug use in gyms rose from studies of competitive bodybuilding to studies of larger segments of the gym population. The challenge of establishing reliable figures...... for the frequency of anabolic steroid use and describing the typical users is then addressed. Next, the chapter discusses the associated cultural, psychological, and evolutionary explanations for anabolic steroid use in gyms and fitness centres. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of some...... of the significant political campaigns and strategies to regulate and counter drug use in gyms....
Nowlis, Helen H.
This paper discusses the nature and extent of student drug use, its meaning and significance, society's response to it, and some of the problems resulting from efforts to control it. Drugs are any substance which by its chemical nature affects the structure or function of the living organism. Abuse refers to any use of a non-medically approved…
Rollins, Joan H.; Holden, Raymond H.
This paper analyzes data from interviews with 167 drug users in the community, including age, sex, birth order, education, family constellation, and circumstances of first drug use. The majority of subjects had tried to stop using drugs, but most had been unsuccessful at the time of the interview. (Author)
Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.
This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…
Yola Yuniaarti Herijanto
Full Text Available Background: Drugs use and risky sexual behavior among teenager are some of crucial problems arising in Indonesia. Statistic showed that there is an increasing prevalence in drugs use and risky sexual behavior among teenagers. This study was conducted to analyze the relationship between drugs use and risky sexual behaviors among high school students. Methods: An analytic study involving 432 students in 5 state high schools located in Kerees region Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, was carried out in 2013. The region was chosen due the high prevalence of substance abuse. The inclusion criteria were every high school students in the Karees region. The exclusion criteria were the students who refused to participate in the study, did not come when the sample was taken, and did not fill the questionnaire completely. The instruments used for the study were questionnaires with cross-sectional technique. Furthermore, the questionnaire used for analyzing drugs use was Addiction Severity Index-Lite Version (ASI-lite questionnaire; with additional questionnaire to analyze risky sexual behaviors. Results: Out of 432 students, 23.8% students already engaged to one or more risky sexual behavior. Among all respondents, the prevalence of students who had already done kissing was 22.7%, necking 9.3%, petting 7.2% and sexual intercourse 1.2%. Illegal drugs had been used at least once by 21.8% students. According to Chi-square test, drugs use and risky sexual behavior were related. Conclusions:The prevalence of both drugs use and risky sexual behaviors are high and students who use drugs are more prone to do risky sexual behavior.
Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G
Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections.
Full Text Available The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.
Friis, Karina; Østergaard, Jeanette; Reese, Sidsel; Lasgaard, Mathias
Previous studies indicate that young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drugs are more inclined to experiment with them. The first aim of our study was to identify the sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics of young people (16-24 years) with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. The second aim was to identify the characteristics of young people with positive attitudes towards illicit drugs among those who had never tried drugs, those who had tried cannabis but no other illicit drugs, and those who regularly used cannabis and/or had tried other illicit drugs. The analysis was based on a population-based survey from 2013 ( N = 3812). Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the association between sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics and positive attitudes towards illicit drugs. Young men had twice the odds of having positive attitudes towards illicit drug use compared with young women (AOR = 2.1). Also, young age, being single, being employed, smoking tobacco, practising unprotected sex, and experimental cannabis use were associated with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. Finally, use of cannabis at least 10 times during the previous year and/or use of other illicit drugs had the strongest association with positive attitudes to illicit drug use (AOR = 6.0). Young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drug use are characterized by a broad range of risky behaviours. These findings may help to identify young people at risk of initiating illicit drug use and thereby support the development and implementation of prevention programmes.
Rapp, Carolin; Shore, Jennifer; Tosun, Jale
This article addresses ongoing debates about whether the welfare state hinders or fosters self-employment. Starting a business can be an inherently risky undertaking and is thus not a feasible option for all people. Policies that have the potential to shoulder some of this risk can be particularly...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been known to be responsible for several negative forms, of behavior, actions, attitudes and social ills. The link between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behavior has also been established. As the scorge of HIV ravages the population, the ...
Ellis, Walter L
A sample of 498 sexually active first-year students matriculating at a historically Black college in North Carolina was used to determine correlates of risky sexual behaviors. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression, the self-esteem element "I take a positive attitude toward myself" (B = 1.12, p = .05), non-condom use because of partner issues (B = .53, p = .05) and being drunk or high (B = 1.20, p = .001), oral sex (B = 1.74, p = .001), anal sex (B = .61, p = .04), and bisexuality (B = .85, p = .03) all increased the number of these behaviors. Higher scores on the condom usage scale (B = -.38, p = .002) were found to decrease the number of risky sexual behaviors. Illicit drug use was an underpinning of the surprisingly positive relationship between positive self-image and risky sexual behaviors. It was concluded that school-based social workers, mental health care professionals, and community-based prevention providers can play a critical role in the training of peer facilitators, development, and supervision of peer-driven risk-reduction programs to address the complex interplay among self-esteem, sex, and substances.
Michael Grossman; Sarah Markowitz
Risky sexual behaviors by teenagers have shown to be strongly correlated with drug and alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study is to examine the question of whether alcohol and drug use increases the likelihood that teenagers will engage in four risky sexual behaviors: having sex, sex with multiple partners, sex without a condom, and sex without birth control. Two-stage least squares and a reduced form model are used to account for the potential endogeneity of substance use. The findin...
Wong, Mitchell D; Coller, Karen M; Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Kennedy, David P; Buddin, Richard; Shapiro, Martin F; Kataoka, Sheryl H; Brown, Arleen F; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Bergman, Peter; Chung, Paul J
We examined whether exposure to high-performing schools reduces the rates of risky health behaviors among low-income minority adolescents and whether this is due to better academic performance, peer influence, or other factors. By using a natural experimental study design, we used the random admissions lottery into high-performing public charter high schools in low-income Los Angeles neighborhoods to determine whether exposure to successful school environments leads to fewer risky (eg, alcohol, tobacco, drug use, unprotected sex) and very risky health behaviors (e.g., binge drinking, substance use at school, risky sex, gang participation). We surveyed 521 ninth- through twelfth-grade students who were offered admission through a random lottery (intervention group) and 409 students who were not offered admission (control group) about their health behaviors and obtained their state-standardized test scores. The intervention and control groups had similar demographic characteristics and eighth-grade test scores. Being offered admission to a high-performing school (intervention effect) led to improved math (P performance of public schools in low-income communities may be a powerful mechanism to decrease very risky health behaviors among low-income adolescents and to decrease health disparities across the life span. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Callier, Heather H.
Ecstasy is a risky behavior that continues to be a concern in the education system today. The review of the Ecstasy literature focused on the definition of risky behavior, prevalence, and other basis aspects of Ecstasy; discovering life events that are associated with Ecstasy use, the function of this behavior, interventions for substance abuse,…
Thomsen, Cynthia J; Stander, Valerie A; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S
Although research has documented negative effects of combat deployment on mental health, few studies have examined whether deployment increases risky or self-destructive behavior. The present study addressed this issue. In addition, we examined whether deployment effects on risky behavior varied depending on history of pre-deployment risky behavior, and assessed whether psychiatric conditions mediated effects of deployment on risky behavior. In an anonymous survey, active duty members of the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy (N = 2116) described their deployment experiences and their participation in risky recreational activities, unprotected sex, illegal drug use, self-injurious behavior, and suicide attempts during three time frames (civilian, military pre-deployment, and military post-deployment). Respondents also reported whether they had problems with depression, anxiety, or PTSD during the same three time frames. Results revealed that risky behavior was much more common in civilian than in military life, with personnel who had not deployed, compared to those who had deployed, reporting more risky behavior and more psychiatric problems as civilians. For the current time period, in contrast, personnel who had deployed (versus never deployed) were significantly more likely to report both risky behavior and psychiatric problems. Importantly, deployment was associated with increases in risky behavior only for personnel with a pre-deployment history of engaging in risky behavior. Although psychiatric conditions were associated with higher levels of risky behavior, psychiatric problems did not mediate associations between deployment and risky behavior. Implications for understanding effects of combat deployment on active duty personnel and directions for future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Verona, Edelyn; Murphy, Brett; Javdani, Shabnam
Recent work has emphasized the role of violent victimization, along with risky contexts like sex exchange, in pathways to problems of externalizing and substance use in women. Nonetheless, few studies have empirically tested gender differences involving the roles of adversity factors (e.g., childhood violent maltreatment, sex exchange) in drug use patterns. The present study tested a model of gender differences in relationships between childhood physical and sexual abuse, sex exchange, and two indicators of drug use: engagement and symptoms of disorder. We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 304 (130 women) adults with recent histories of violence and/or drug use, who completed a substance use diagnostic interview, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and a sex exchange questionnaire. First, structural equation modeling revealed that childhood sexual and physical abuse were related to increased drug engagement in women and men, respectively, above the influence of early childhood contextual variables (e.g., neighborhood, family) and age. Second, sexual abuse was related to sex exchange, which in turn was related to drug use symptoms in women but not men. These data provide empirical support for distinct trauma-related pathways to drug use problems in men and women, which has implications for gendered explanations and prevention approaches.
Xu, Eric R; Kralik, Jerald D
Rhesus monkeys have been shown to prefer risky over safe options in experiential decision-making tasks. These findings might be due, however, to specific contextual factors, such as small amounts of fluid reward and minimal costs for risk-taking. To better understand the factors affecting decision-making under risk in rhesus monkeys, we tested multiple factors designed to increase the stakes including larger reward amounts, distinct food items rather than fluid reward, a smaller number of trials per session, and risky options with greater variation that also included non-rewarded outcomes. We found a consistent preference for risky options, except when the expected value of the safe option was greater than the risky option. Thus, with equivalent mean utilities between the safe and risky options, rhesus monkeys appear to have a robust preference for the risky options in a broad range of circumstances, akin to the preferences found in human children and some adults in similar tasks. One account for this result is that monkeys make their choices based on the salience of the largest payoff, without integrating likelihood and value across trials. A related idea is that they fail to override an impulsive tendency to select the option with the potential to obtain the highest possible outcome. Our results rule out strict versions of both accounts and contribute to an understanding of the diversity of risky decision-making among primates.
Full Text Available Unhealthy drug use ranges from use that risks health harms through severe drug use disorders. This narrative review addresses whether screening and brief intervention, efficacious for risky alcohol use, has efficacy for reducing other drug use and consequences. Brief intervention among those seeking help shows some promise. Screening tools have been validated though most are neither brief nor simple enough for use in general health settings. Several randomized trials have tested the efficacy of brief intervention for unhealthy drug use identified by screening in general health settings (i.e. in people not seeking help for their drug use. Substantial evidence now suggests efficacy is limited or non-existent. Reasons likely include a range of actual and perceived severity (or lack of severity, concomitant unhealthy alcohol use and comorbid mental health conditions, and the wide range of types of unhealthy drug use (e.g. from marijuana, to prescription drugs, to heroin. Although brief intervention may have some efficacy for unhealthy drug users seeking help, the model of screening and brief intervention that has effects in primary care settings on risky alcohol use may not be efficacious for other drug use.
Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.
Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk
A PhD Dissertation, presented as part of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the NOVA - School of Business and Economics This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between risky behaviors and social environment, including the strategic construction of conversational networks to discuss HIV related issues, the impact of social stigma on risky behaviors, and how subjective expectations from parents can influence childhood obesity. Underst...
Light, Audrey; Ahn, Taehyun
Given that divorce often represents a high-stakes income gamble, we ask how individual levels of risk tolerance affect the decision to divorce. We extend the orthodox divorce model by assuming that individuals are risk averse, that marriage is risky, and that divorce is even riskier. The model predicts that conditional on the expected gains to marriage and divorce, the probability of divorce increases with relative risk tolerance because risk averse individuals require compensation for the additional risk that is inherent in divorce. To implement the model empirically, we use data for first-married women and men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a probit model of divorce in which a measure of risk tolerance is among the covariates. The estimates reveal that a 1-point increase in risk tolerance raises the predicted probability of divorce by 4.3% for a representative man and by 11.4% for a representative woman. These findings are consistent with the notion that divorce entails a greater income gamble for women than for men.
Full Text Available Aim: In the last decade, the prevalence of injecting drugs has been increasing rapidly. Injecting drug use puts one at the risk of risky behaviors that affect the health of individual and society. The present study aims at evaluating and comparing risky behaviors of injecting and non-injecting drug users. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 4400 addicts referred to public, private and drop-in-centers (DICs in 2014 were enrolled. The addicts were divided into injecting and non-injecting drug users. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and the pattern of drug use and risky behavior. Data were analyzed by SPSSV21, chi-square test and ANOVA. A significance level of less than 0.05 was considered. Results: Among the addicts, 4% were injecting drug users (IDUs and 96% non-injecting drug addicts (non-IDUs. The age of the first injection was 24.68 ± 6.45 years old. The age of onset of drug use in IDUs was significantly lower than in non-IDUs (P<0.001. Risky behaviors including the use of shared needles, risky sexual relations, a history of sexually transmitted infections and a history of imprisonment and suicide were significantly higher in IDUs. Addiction relapse and slip during treatment were higher in IDUs (P<0.001. Conclusion: Injecting drug addiction significantly increases the risk of relapse and risky behaviors. Priority should be given to risky behavior prevention programs.
DONENBERG, GERI R.; EMERSON, ERIN; BRYANT, FRED B.; KING, SCOTT
We investigated the moderating effects of drug/alcohol use in the past 3 months on the relationships of peer influence, parental permissiveness, and teen disposition (i.e., achievement motivation, attitude toward school, and value placed on health) with adolescent risky sexual behaviour. Participants were 207 adolescents receiving psychiatric care. Substance use did not moderate the relationship between adolescent disposition and risky sex. By contrast, peer influence and parental permissiven...
Foxall, Gordon Robert; Sigurdsson, Valdimar
Seeking integration of drug consumption research by a theory of memory function and emphasizing drug consumption rather than addiction, Müller & Schumann (M&S) treat drug self-administration as part of a general pattern of consumption. This insight is located within a more comprehensive framework for understanding drug use as consumer behavior that explicates the reinforcement contingencies associated with modes of drug consumption.
Seidman, S N; Sterk-Elifson, C; Aral, S O
Drug-using men are at high risk for acquisition and transmission of STD, presumably due to the risky behaviors practiced in environments of drug use. To study behaviors associated with STD transmission among drug-using men. Drug outreach workers distributed vouchers to self-identified drug-using men in urban Atlanta. Vouchers could be redeemed for cash at a storefront clinic where subjects provided urine for a urethritis screening test (leukocyte esterase test) and a drug screen, and were interviewed. Of 382 voucher recipients, 252 (66%) came to the clinic. Subjects were predominantly black (92%), homeless (70%), and aged 20 to 40 (88%). All used illicit drugs; none were currently receiving drug abuse treatment. Urine drug screen confirmed recent cocaine use in 63%, and recent opiate use in 4%. Three-fourths reported a history of STD, mostly gonorrhea. In the preceding 3 months, 14% had not had sex, 80% had sex exclusively with women, 4% had sex with both men and women, and 2% had sex exclusively with men. Of the heterosexually active men, 29% had 5 or more recent partners. Compared to other heterosexually active men, these men were more likely to always use alcohol or crack before having sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-2.5) and to drink alcohol every day (PR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.3). Daily crack use was associated with choosing partners at elevated STD risk; daily alcohol use with having more partners. Positive drug screen for cocaine was associated with self-reported crack use. Urethritis, detected in 16%, was not correlated with behavior. A substantial number of drug-using men practice high-risk sexual behavior and should be targeted for intervention. Monetary and other incentives should be considered for recruitment. Further study is needed to clarify the relationship between sexual behavior, cocaine use, and STD.
Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy
This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.
Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs
Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Natu, M V; Zachariah, P; Zachariah, A; Chand, S; Singh, T; Choudhry, K
A workshop covering various aspects of rational drug use was conducted for interns of Christian Medical College, Ludhiana. Evaluation of the workshop revealed that it was able to bring about an attitudinal change regarding rational drug use. The methodology and evaluation procedures have been described. It is suggested that similar attempts should be made at all medical colleges so that every graduate enters medical practice with a positive attitude towards rational drug use.
Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others
The current prevalence of drug use among American high school seniors and the trends in use since 1975 are the two major topics treated. Also reported are prevailing attitudes and beliefs among seniors concerning various types of drug use. Eleven separate classes of drugs are distinguished: marihuana (including hashish), inhalants, hallucinogens,…
Watts, W D; Short, A P
Work-related stress is predicted to be correlated with wanting to leave the teaching profession and drug use. A stratified random sample of 500 Texas teachers was surveyed (56.5% responded), regarding working conditions, collegial and supervisory relationships, job satisfaction, rigidity of attitudes and drug use. Two-thirds of teachers may want to quit the profession, while 36.4 percent are likely to quit. Teachers report higher rates than a national sample of lifetime alcohol, amphetamine, and tranquilizer use and higher rates of alcohol use in the last year and last month. Selected measures of stress are correlated with drug use, particularly amphetamine use, over the lifetime, last year, and last month.
In everyday life, we often have to decide between options that differ in their immediate and long-term consequences. Would you, for example, opt for a delicious piece of cake or rather eat a healthy apple? To investigate how people make risky decisions, this thesis focuses on the Iowa gambling task
Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi L H; Minieri, Alexandra; Oser, Carrie; Webster, J Matthew; Havens, Jennifer; Leukefeld, Carl
Rural women, particularly those in the criminal justice system, are at risk for HIV related to the increasing prevalence of injection drug use as well as limited services. Research on HIV risk correlates, including drug use and mental health, has primarily focused on urban women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine dual HIV risk by 3 different mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) among drug-using women in rural jails. This study involved random selection, screening, and face-to-face interviews with 136 women in 1 Appalachian state. Analyses focused on the relationship between mental health and HIV risk. Nearly 80% of women self-reported symptoms of depression, and more than 60% endorsed symptoms consistent with anxiety and PTSD symptoms. Mental health significantly correlated with severity of certain types of drug use, as well as risky sexual activity. In addition, for women experiencing anxiety and PTSD, injection drug use moderated the relationship between mental health and risky sexual activity. Based on these rates of drug use, mental health problems, and the emergence of injection drug use in rural Appalachia, the need to explore the relationships between these issues among vulnerable and understudied populations, such as rural women, is critical. Because of service limitations in rural communities, criminal justice venues such as jails provide opportune settings for screening, assessment, and intervention for drug use, mental health, and HIV education and prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Bryant, Fred B; King, Scott
We investigated the moderating effects of drug/alcohol use in the past 3 months on the relationships of peer influence, parental permissiveness, and teen disposition (i.e., achievement motivation, attitude toward school, and value placed on health) with adolescent risky sexual behaviour. Participants were 207 adolescents receiving psychiatric care. Substance use did not moderate the relationship between adolescent disposition and risky sex. By contrast, peer influence and parental permissiveness were linked to risky sex but only for teens who reported using drugs/alcohol. Controlling for other predictors in the model, negative peer influence explained 21% and parental permissiveness explained 13% of the variance in risky sex among substance users, but less than half of 1% of the variance among non-substance users. The disinhibiting effects of substance use on decision-making and the need for effective parental monitoring to reduce opportunities for risk behaviour are discussed.
... The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points Email Facebook Twitter ... was last updated February 2017 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal ...
Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo
Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.
Orthodox Jewish adolescents are increasingly seeking stimulation with illegal drugs. Eleven Orthodox Jewish adolescents were surveyed with semi-structured interviews on the Orthodox Jewish cultural aspects of their illegal drug use. Adolescents had mixed beliefs about religious teachings affecting their illegal drug use. No consistent pattern existed for particular ethnic aspects of Orthodox Jewish religious practice as a risk factor for illegal drug use. Language used to describe illegal drug use in this population is described. Unlike illegal drug use in secular and non-Jewish adolescents, these adolescents reported very little family discord or poor relationships with their parents.
Full Text Available Introduction: Problem of addiction on psychoactive substances is one of the most diffi cult problems in a modern society, which brings serious consequences, both for the individual, his environment and the whole society.Methods: The study included 95 children and adolescents of medical school. Among the respondents, there were 44 subjects of third year of high school and 51 respondent-grader.Results: Students involved in this research as an answer to why young people start using drugs often reported curiosity in over 50% of cases, as well as pressure of friends. For students who use narkotine respondents generally thought they are reasonable and sufficiently weak and limited personality. Thelargest number of high school students who were involved in the study did not know the individuals who use drugs.Conclusion: Drug addiction is a serious problem all over the country, and the number of addicts is becoming larger. Particularly worrisome is the fact that the consumption of the drug phenomenon is a characteristic of young population, especially high school students
Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Jamieson, Patrick E; Khurana, Atika; Weitz, Ilana
To investigate how exposure to sex, alcohol and violent content in mainstream and Black-oriented movies relates to corresponding adolescent behavior among Black youth from the United States and whether those relationships are moderated by ethnic identity. The present study uses survey data from an online sample of 1000 Black adolescents and content analysis ratings on top-grossing 2014 films and 2013/2014 Black-oriented films. Content-specific exposure measures for alcohol, sexual activity, and violence were calculated from self-reported exposure data and content analysis ratings. Regression analyses estimated the associations among exposures to risky health content in mainstream and Black-oriented films and adolescent behaviors as well as moderation by ethnic group identity. Black adolescents were mostly unaffected by exposure to risk portrayals in mainstream films, but exposure to risk in Black-oriented films was related to their behavior in all three domains. Strong group identity strengthened the relationship between exposure to sex in Black-oriented and mainstream films depending on the sexual outcome. The type of movie (i.e., mainstream or Black-oriented) through which Black adolescents are exposed to risky health portrayals is important for understanding its relationship to their behavior, and variations by ethnic identity were limited to sex content. Future research should identify the mechanisms through which risk content in Black-oriented films is associated with Black adolescents' risky behaviors to determine how media influence contributes to behavioral disparities among youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zahnow, Renee; Winstock, Adam R; Maier, Larissa J; Levy, Jay; Ferris, Jason
Research demonstrates gender related differences in drug-use practices and risk behaviours. Females' structural vulnerability stemming from traditional gender roles and gender-power relations may enhance their propensity to experience injecting related risk. In this paper we explore gender differences in injection practices at the initiation event, during the first year of injecting and in the most recent 12-month period, to inform more effective harm reduction strategies. Data used in this study were drawn from the Global Drug Survey 2015. The study employs chi-square and logistic regression to assess gender differences in injection behaviours in a sample of current injectors residing in six global regions: North-West Europe; Southern Eastern Europe; North America. South America and Oceania. Females were more likely than males to report being injected by an intimate partner at initiation (OR = 4.4, 95%CI: 2.2-8.8), during the first year of injecting (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.4-9.3) and in the most recent 12-month period (OR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.0-6.2). Females reported greater difficulties accessing sterile equipment (X 2 (2,N = 453) = 8.2, p = 0.02) and were more likely to share injecting equipment than males (X 2 (1,N = 463) = 3.9, p = 0.05). Our findings highlight females' continued dependence on their intimate partner to administer the injection into the first year of their injecting career. Females remained more likely than males to rely on intimate partners for injection during the most recent 12-month period. Females report greater difficulties in sourcing sterile equipment and are more likely to share injecting equipment. We suggest that these findings reflect the broader social structure in which females are disempowered through traditional gender roles and the lack of gender appropriate harm reduction services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Hingson, Ralph
We examined the prevalence of impaired driving among US high school students and associations with substance use and risky driving behavior. We assessed driving while alcohol or drug impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol- or drug-impaired drivers (RWI) in a nationally representative sample of 11th-grade US high school students (n = 2431). We examined associations with drinking and binge drinking, illicit drug use, risky driving, and demographic factors using multivariate sequential logistic regression analysis. Thirteen percent of 11th-grade students reported DWI at least 1 of the past 30 days, and 24% reported RWI at least once in the past year. Risky driving was positively associated with DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25; P phone calls (OR = 3.2) while driving. Our findings suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to the prevention of DWI, RWI, and other risky driving behavior.
Christine L Cox
individual differences in attitudes toward risk-taking are reflected in the brain's functional architecture and may have implications for engaging in real-world risky behaviors.
Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines Reg...... extensive psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. Further scrutiny is needed to assess the rationale behind this widespread use....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75, Baja (103 and private owned car (172 drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9. Majority were 339 (96.9% males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6% had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6% had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7% had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3% had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7% had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6% house car and 58(37.4% taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6% followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9% of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22% ever had car accident while driving. Conclusions Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky
Long, Arwen B.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; Platt, Michael L.
Some people love taking risks, while others avoid gambles at all costs. The neural mechanisms underlying individual variation in preference for risky or certain outcomes, however, remain poorly understood. Although behavioral pathologies associated with compulsive gambling, addiction and other psychiatric disorders implicate deficient serotonin signaling in pathological decision making, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating a link between serotonin and risky decision making, in ...
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S
Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Traub, Stuart H.
Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)
Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K
Individual differences in attitudes to risk (a taste for risk, known probabilities) and ambiguity (a tolerance for uncertainty, unknown probabilities) differentially influence risky decision-making. However, it is not well understood whether risk and ambiguity are coded differently within individuals. Here, we tested whether individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes were reflected in distinct neural correlates during choice and outcome processing of risky and ambiguous gambles. To these ends, we developed a neuroimaging task in which participants ( n = 50) chose between a sure gain and a gamble, which was either risky or ambiguous, and presented decision outcomes (gains, no gains). From a separate task in which the amount, probability, and ambiguity level were varied, we estimated individuals' risk and ambiguity attitudes. Although there was pronounced neural overlap between risky and ambiguous gambling in a network typically related to decision-making under uncertainty, relatively more risk-seeking attitudes were associated with increased activation in valuation regions of the brain (medial and lateral OFC), whereas relatively more ambiguity-seeking attitudes were related to temporal cortex activation. In addition, although striatum activation was observed during reward processing irrespective of a prior risky or ambiguous gamble, reward processing after an ambiguous gamble resulted in enhanced dorsomedial PFC activation, possibly functioning as a general signal of uncertainty coding. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms reflect individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes and that risk and ambiguity may impact overt risk-taking behavior in different ways.
Cheng, Tessa; Wood, Evan; Nguyen, Paul; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora
Among a cohort of drug-using street-involved youth, we sought to identify the prevalence of reporting increases and decreases in illicit drug use due to their current housing status and to identify factors associated with reporting these changes. This longitudinal study was based on data collected between June 2008 and May 2012 from a prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada. At semi-annual study follow-up visits, youth were asked if their drug use was affected by their housing status. Using generalized estimating equations, we identified factors associated with perceived increases and decreases in drug use attributed to housing status. Among our sample of 536 participants at baseline, 164 (31%) youth reported increasing their drug use due to their housing situation and 71 (13%) reported decreasing their drug use. In multivariate analysis, factors that were positively associated with perceived increases in drug use attributed to housing status included the following: being homeless, engaging in sex work and drug dealing. Regular employment was negatively associated with increasing drug use due to housing status. Among those who reported decreasing their drug use, only homelessness was significant in bivariate analysis. Perceived changes in drug use due to housing status were relatively common in this setting and were associated with being homeless and, among those who increased their drug use, engaging in risky income generation activities. These findings suggest that structural factors, particularly housing and economic opportunities, may be crucial interventions for reducing or limiting drug use among street-involved youth.
A Survey of Secondary School Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Use of Drugs by Teenagers. Part I, Part II, Part III.; A Survey of Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions of the Role of the Schools in Dealing with Teenage Drug Use. A General Overview of Survey Findings.
Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.
Three volumes report the findings of a student survey among a random sample of 2,777 junior high and senior high school students. Volume one presents the overall findings: the typical student believes that drug use and experimentation are not common, except for marihuana, alcohol, cigarettes, and glue; believes that drug use is increasing; is not…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the risky health behaviors and to raise the awareness of adolescents (attending high school education about prevention of risky behaviors and solutions by the effect of module-based training courses (about reproductive health and birth control, sexually transmitted infections, harmful habits, psychosocial behavior. Being planned as cross-sectional, this study was performed between September 2013-June 2014 in three states and a private high school in Zonguldak and conducted with a group of students aged between 14 and 19.926 students have participated before the training and 534 students have participated after training. It was seen that the mean scores of ‘The Adolescent Risk-Taking Questionnaire', ‘The Adolescent's Attitudes Towards Violence Scale' and ‘taking risk about social status', ‘traffic', ‘subtance use' subscales have decreased after the risk prevention trainings. The means scores of ‘Adolescent Coping with Problems Scale', ‘Nutrition Behaviour Scale' and ‘Nutrition Attitude Scale' have raised. Hence, the scores of domains reflecting adolescent health perception such as hygiene, sleep and exercise have raised while the scores of somatic symptoms domain, such as abdominal pain, headache, and fatigue have been failed. Consequently, it was determined that the training courses about risky health behaviours were effective in preventing risky health behaviors and creating positive health perceptions of adolescents.
Peng, Jiaxi; Zhang, Jiaxi; Sun, Hao; Zeng, Zhicong; Mai, Yuexia; Miao, Danmin
By applying unitive vocabulary, "die" or "save," to respective frames of the Asian disease problem, Tversky and Kahneman were able to define framing effect. In this study, we preliminarily explored the effect of mixed frames, which are characterized by the use of different vocabulary in one frame. In study 1, we found that only the sure option description had significant effect on decision-making, while the effects of risky option descriptions were not significant, nor were interactions between descriptions. In study 2, the results suggested that after controlling the effects of the hedonic tone of the sure options, risky option description did not significantly predict decision-making. In study 3, we found that neither the sure-to-risky option presentation order nor presentation order within risky options had significant effect on decision-making. We thus concluded that sure option description can serve as the decision-making foundation (reference point) for decision-makers in mixed frames.
... Issues Subscribe September 2011 Print this issue Risky Business Dealing With Your Teen’s Behavior Send us your ... go it alone. You can find helpful resources online and in community and school programs (See our ...
Dunn, Matthew; Thomas, Johanna O; Swift, Wendy; Burns, Lucinda
The false consensus effect (FCE) is the tendency for people to assume that others share their attitudes and behaviours to a greater extent than they actually do. The FCE has been demonstrated for a range of health behaviours, including substance use. The study aimed to explore the relationship between elite athlete's engagement in recreational drug use and their consensus estimates (the FCE) and to determine whether those who engage in the behaviour overestimate the use of others around them. The FCE was investigated among 974 elite Australian athletes who were classified according to their drug use history. Participants tended to report that there was a higher prevalence of drug use among athletes in general compared with athletes in their sport, and these estimates appeared to be influenced by participants' drug use history. While overestimation of drug use by participants was not common, this overestimation also appeared to be influenced by athletes' drug use history. The results suggest that athletes who have a history of illicit drug use overestimate the prevalence of drug use among athletes. These findings may be helpful in the formulation of normative education initiatives. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Maldonado, Antonio; Serra, Sara; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Megías, Alberto
The main aim of this research was to investigate the decision making process in risky situations. We studied how different types of feedback on risky driving behaviors modulate risk evaluation and risk-taking. For a set of risky traffic situations, participants had to make evaluative judgments (judge the situation as risky or not) and urgent decisions (brake or not). In Experiment 1, participants received feedback with and without negative emotional content when they made risky behaviors. In Experiment 2 we investigated the independent effects of feedback and negative emotional stimuli. The results showed three important findings: First, urgent decisions were faster [F(1, 92) = 6.76, p = .01] and more cautious [F(1, 92) = 17.16, p towards more cautious responses [F(1, 111) = 14.09, p emotional stimuli had an effect only when they were presented as feedback. The results of this research increase our understanding of the processes involved in risky driving behavior and suggest efficient ways to control risk taking through the use of feedback.
Hotton, Tina; Haans, Dave
This analysis presents the prevalence of substance use among young adolescents. The extent to which factors such as peer behaviour, parenting practices and school commitment and achievement are associated with drinking to intoxication and other drug use is investigated. The data are from the 1998/99 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Analysis is based on a cross-sectional file from 4,296 respondents aged 12 to 15. Prevalence estimates for alcohol and drug use were calculated by sex. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the odds of drinking to intoxication and drug use, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, peer and parent substance use, parenting practices, school commitment/attachment, emotional health and religious attendance. In general, drinking to intoxication and drug use were more common among 14- and 15-year-olds than among 12- and 13-year-olds. The odds of drinking to intoxication and drug use were highest among adolescents whose friends used alcohol or drugs or were often in trouble, who reported low commitment to school, or whose parents had a hostile and ineffective parenting style.
Sorensen, James L.; Joffe, Stephen J.
Aimed at encouraging rational decision making about drug use, a peer oriented drug education program was conducted in a community youth project. Youth and leaders shared feelings and knowledge about drugs. Compared with four program dropouts, six participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the drug group, its leaders and themselves.…
Full Text Available Cocaine use disorder is associated with maladaptive decision-making behaviour, which strongly contributes to the harmful consequences of chronic drug use. Prior research has shown that cocaine users exhibit impaired neuropsychological test performances, particularly with regard to attention, learning, and memory but also in executive functions such as decision-making and impulse control. However, to what extent cocaine users show impaired decision-making under risk without feedback has not yet been investigated systematically. Therefore, to examine risk-taking behaviour, 31 chronic cocaine users and 26 stimulant-naïve healthy controls, who were part of the Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study, performed the Randomized Lottery Task (RALT with winning lotteries consisting of an uncertain and a certain prospect. Results revealed that risky decisions were associated with male sex, increased cocaine use in the past year, higher cocaine concentrations in the hair, and younger age. In addition, higher levels of cocaine in the hair and cumulative lifetime consumption were associated with risky decisions, whereas potentially confounding factors including cognition and psychiatric symptoms had no significant effect. Taken together, our results indicate that cocaine users who increased their consumption over a period of one year show deficits in the processing of risky information accompanied with increased risk-taking. Future research should analyse whether risky decisions could potentially serve as a prognostic marker for cocaine use disorder.
Full Text Available Background. World Health Organization data show alarming rates of alcohol consumption among those aged 15 and older in Ukraine. This study examined the feasibility and initial efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce risky drinking among adults (age between 18-25 in Ukraine. Methods. Adults were screened for risky drinking with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C. Those with AUDIT-C score (>5 were enrolled in the study: 59 participants from the hospital setting (mean age = 22.6 (2.1, 55.9% male and 61 participants from the university setting (mean age = 20.1(2.3, 55.7% male. After self-administering a computerized baseline assessment, participants were randomized to receive an in-person brief intervention by telephone or to a control condition; participants underwent a computerized follow-up at 3 months. Results. Regression analyses for prediction of alcohol outcomes (alcohol consumption and consequences were conducted separately for each setting; models were controlled for baseline alcohol levels and assigned condition (brief intervention or control. In both settings, the brief intervention group showed significantly less alcohol consumption and consequences at 3-months as compared to the control group (p<.001; however, the groups did not significantly differ on other drug use (DAST-10 score. Conclusion. Findings suggest that brief motivational interventions are promising for reducing risky drinking among emerging adults in the Ukraine in both inpatient hospital and university settings. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and extend these effects to reduce other drug use among young people in the Ukraine.
Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization data shows alarming rates of alcohol consumption among those ages 15 and older in the Ukraine. This study examined the feasibility and initial efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce risky drinking among emerging adults (ages 18-25 in the Ukraine. Methods: Emerging adults presenting to two settings were screened for risky drinking (Railway Clinical Hospital and Bogomolets National Medical University, with those screening positive on the AUDIT-C (>5 enrolled in the study: 59 participants from the hospital setting (mean age = 22.6 (2.1, 55.9%% male and 61 participants from the university setting (mean age = 20.1(2.3, 55.7% male. After self-administering a computerized baseline assessment, participants were randomized to receive an in-person brief intervention with telephone booster or to a control condition; participants self-administered a computerized follow-up at 3 months. Results: Regression analyses were conducted, separately for each setting, predicting alcohol outcomes (alcohol consumption and consequences; models controlled for baseline alcohol levels and condition assignment (brief intervention or control. In both settings, the brief intervention group showed significantly less alcohol consumption and consequences at 3-months as compared to the control group (p<.001; however, the groups did not significantly differ on other drug use (DAST-10 score. Conclusions: Findings suggest that brief motivational interventions are promising for reducing risky drinking among emerging adults in the Ukraine in both inpatient hospital and university settings. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and extend these effects to reduce other drug use among young people in the Ukraine.
Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Ewing, Brett A.; Storholm, Erik D.; Parast, Layla; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.
Despite suggestions that there are gender differences in the association between conduct disorder (CD) and risky sexual behavior, limited empirical research has examined this question. Youth (N = 616) were recruited from four primary care clinics and completed questions related to risky sexual behavior, alcohol and marijuana use, and CD. Results of stratified multivariate models indicated that the association between CD and having four or more lifetime partners, having two or more partners in the last 3 months, and engaging in condomless sex was stronger among female youth. However, association between CD and alcohol and other drug use before sex was stronger in male youth. This is an important contribution to our understanding of gender-specific manifestations of conduct disorder, and has the potential to inform screening and brief intervention efforts for this population. PMID:28182979
Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Ewing, Brett A; Storholm, Erik D; Parast, Layla; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
Despite suggestions that there are gender differences in the association between conduct disorder (CD) and risky sexual behavior, limited empirical research has examined this question. Youth (N = 616) were recruited from four primary care clinics and completed questions related to risky sexual behavior, alcohol and marijuana use, and CD. Results of stratified multivariate models indicated that the association between CD and having four or more lifetime partners, having two or more partners in the last 3 months, and engaging in condomless sex was stronger among female youth. However, the association between CD and alcohol and other drug use before sex was stronger in male youth. This is an important contribution to our understanding of gender-specific manifestations of conduct disorder, and has the potential to inform screening and brief intervention efforts for this population. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe
This article analyses the process of going from recreational use to regular and problematic use of illegal drugs. We present a model containing six career contingencies relevant for young people’s progress from recreational to regular drug use: the closing of social networks, changes in forms...
Krug, Samuel E.; Henry, Thomas J.
Interrelationships between patterns of drug abuse and personality and motivation were determined for male and female subjects. Significant sex differences were found with respect to drug behavior. Females used amphetamines more frequently than males and also showed greater multiple drug use. (Author)
Kolek, Ethan A.
The purpose of this study was to explore recreational prescription drug use among undergraduate students. Although anecdotal accounts on this subject abound, empirical research is extremely limited. Data from a survey of a random sample of 734 students at a large public research university in the Northeast were examined. Results indicate that a…
Shams, Mohsen; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
Iran has one of the highest fatality rates due to road traffic crashes (RTC) in the world. The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for RTC in Iran is more than 1,300,000 years, which is more than that for any other disease such as cardiovascular or cancer. We evaluated risky driving behaviors in Tehran, the capital of Iran. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on the data obtained from the Tehran Police Safety Driving Department. Offenses and crashes were studied in different municipal districts in Tehran from March 2006 to March 2007. The inclusion criteria were risky driving behaviors fined by the police. Nonbehavioral offences were excluded. There were 3,821,798 offenses in Tehran. Not wearing a seat belt was the most common (59%) example of risky driving behavior, followed by tailgating, not wearing motorcycle helmets, talking on the cell phone while driving, overtaking from the wrong side, speeding, not driving between the lanes, weaving in and out of traffic, left deviation, and changing lanes without signals. The most common causes of RTC in Tehran are speeding, overtaking from the wrong side, and the rapid changing of driving lanes. The study factors effective in preventing risky driving behaviors in Tehran is recommended. The consideration of specific characteristics of the municipal districts is necessary to reduce risky driving behaviors.
Baldwin, Julie A; Brown, Betty G; Wayment, Heidi A; Nez, Ramona Antone; Brelsford, Kathleen M
The Sacred Mountain Youth Project was conducted to investigate risk and protective factors related to alcohol and drug use among American Indian youth. Findings indicated that stressful life events were positively associated with depressed mood, substance use, and risky behavior; cultural identity had no direct effects, but a secondary model showed that social support and protective family and peer influences were related to cultural identity. These findings suggest that the relationships between stressors and their negative sequelae are complex. Emphasis on protective processes that are culturally specific to American Indian youth may lead to effective alcohol and drug use prevention programs.
Thomas J Crowley
Full Text Available Adolescents with conduct and substance problems ("Antisocial Substance Disorder" (ASD repeatedly engage in risky antisocial and drug-using behaviors. We hypothesized that, during processing of risky decisions and resulting rewards and punishments, brain activation would differ between abstinent ASD boys and comparison boys.We compared 20 abstinent adolescent male patients in treatment for ASD with 20 community controls, examining rapid event-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD responses during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In 90 decision trials participants chose to make either a cautious response that earned one cent, or a risky response that would either gain 5 cents or lose 10 cents; odds of losing increased as the game progressed. We also examined those times when subjects experienced wins, or separately losses, from their risky choices. We contrasted decision trials against very similar comparison trials requiring no decisions, using whole-brain BOLD-response analyses of group differences, corrected for multiple comparisons. During decision-making ASD boys showed hypoactivation in numerous brain regions robustly activated by controls, including orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, anterior cingulate, basal ganglia, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. While experiencing wins, ASD boys had significantly less activity than controls in anterior cingulate, temporal regions, and cerebellum, with more activity nowhere. During losses ASD boys had significantly more activity than controls in orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum, with less activity nowhere.Adolescent boys with ASD had extensive neural hypoactivity during risky decision-making, coupled with decreased activity during reward and increased activity during loss. These neural patterns may underlie the dangerous, excessive, sustained risk-taking of such boys. The findings suggest that the dysphoria, reward
Party drug use, the intermittent use of stimulants, ecstasy and so-called 'designer drugs' at dance parties or 'raves', is now part of the culture of many young Australians. This article discusses the risks associated with the use of 'party drugs' and describes an useful approach to general practitioner assessment and management of patients who may be using party drugs. Party drug use is associated with a range of harms, including risks associated with behaviour while drug affected, toxicity and overdose, mental health complications and physical morbidity. Multiple substance use, particularly combining sedatives, further amplifies risk. If GPs have some understanding of these drugs and their effects, they are well placed to provide an effective intervention in party drug users by supporting the reduction of harm.
Kim, Rubin W; Juzych, Mark S; Eliott, Dean
Injection drug use can result in a variety of severe ocular conditions. Hematogenous dissemination of various fungi and bacteria may produce endophthalmitis with resultant severe visual loss. Retinal arterial occlusive disease may result from talc and other particulate emboli. Most commonly, life-threatening systemic diseases such as endocarditis and HIV infection secondarily affect the eye. Because many of these conditions may result in blindness if untreated, accurate diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential.
Full Text Available Taking care of oneself is crucial for maintaining one´s psychical and physical health. In the context of risky profession this topic can play an even more important role, because it can be the source of necessary information for improvement of coping capacity when one is confronted with crisis situations. The aim of the present study is to identify the most common forms of self-care among selected risky professions. In the second part is the attention focused on the comparison of the specificities of risky to non-risky professions in self-care. Methods: For data collection Self-regulation Self-care Questionnaire by authors Hricová and Lovaš (in press is used. The sample consists of two groups. In the first one participated 156 respondents, who worked in risky professions - namely police officers (60 at the age between 22 to 55 years (average age is 36.88, SD=9.49, fire fighters (46 at the age between 22 to 62 years (average age is 35.13, SD=8.31 and paramedics (50 at the age between 25 to 55 years (average age is 40.3, SD=6.62. 76.2% of the sample are men, 19.0% are women and 4,8% didn´t state their gender. The second sample consists of 161 participants who work in administrative, industry production or IT sphere. They were at the age between 23 to 61 years (average age is 38.01, SD=10.45. 74% of the sample are men and 21.7% are women. Results and discussion: Results confirmed the dominance of psychological self-care above physical among risky professions. To the forefront gets the need to live meaningful life, to fully use one´s skills and to be satisfied with one´s life and decisions. All this needs can be assigned to the necessity of sense, which could be seen as a result of everyday contact with critical and life threaten situations. Equally important sphere of self-care is the necessity of high-quality relationships, which doesn´t mean only relationships with family or friends. It is important to highlight also relationships with
... Risky Surgical Combination A A A | Print | Share Smoking and Bone Healing – A Risky Surgical Combination Imagine ... saying that they'd prefer patients to quit smoking. There hasn't been a great deal of ...
Long, Arwen B; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Platt, Michael L
Some people love taking risks, while others avoid gambles at all costs. The neural mechanisms underlying individual variation in preference for risky or certain outcomes, however, remain poorly understood. Although behavioral pathologies associated with compulsive gambling, addiction and other psychiatric disorders implicate deficient serotonin signaling in pathological decision making, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating a link between serotonin and risky decision making, in part due to the lack of a good animal model. We used dietary rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) to acutely lower brain serotonin in three macaques performing a simple gambling task for fluid rewards. To confirm the efficacy of RTD experiments, we measured total plasma tryptophan using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. Reducing brain serotonin synthesis decreased preference for the safe option in a gambling task. Moreover, lowering brain serotonin function significantly decreased the premium required for monkeys to switch their preference to the risky option, suggesting that diminished serotonin signaling enhances the relative subjective value of the risky option. These results implicate serotonin in risk-sensitive decision making and, further, suggest pharmacological therapies for treating pathological risk preferences in disorders such as problem gambling and addiction.
Birnbaum, Michael H.
During the last 25 years, prospect theory and its successor, cumulative prospect theory, replaced expected utility as the dominant descriptive theories of risky decision making. Although these models account for the original Allais paradoxes, 11 new paradoxes show where prospect theories lead to self-contradiction or systematic false predictions.…
Matthies, S; Philipsen, A; Svaldi, J
Risky decision making and disadvantageous choices constitute core characteristics of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Consequences include negative psychosocial and health-related outcomes. However, risky decision making and its interrelations with emotional states in ADHD are poorly understood. Therefore, the authors investigated risky decision making without and after boredom induction in adults with and without ADHD. In study 1, ADHD patients (n = 15) and age/education matched controls (CG; n = 16) were compared on the Game of Dice Task (GDT), an established task measuring decision making in unambiguous situations. In study 2, ADHD patients (n = 14) and CG (n = 13) underwent boredom induction prior to the GDT. In study 1, ADHD patients selected the disadvantageous alternatives significantly more often than CG. In study 2, no significant group differences were found due to an increase in risky decision making in CG following the boredom induction. Even if severity of depression did not affect our results, it may be necessary to compare GDT responses in ADHD patients with and without current depression. Risk as a motor of disadvantageous decision making needs to be taken into account in therapeutic contexts as a maintenance factor of dysfunctional behaviour. The findings of study 2 are in line with postulated alterations of emotional state adjustment in ADHD. The link between decisions making and emotional regulation in ADHD needs further attention in research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
05) and adolescents' sexual risky behaviour. The results further showed the significant position between Parents adolescent disclosure (X2 cal = 32.856) is the most potent factor followed Parental autonomy (X2 cal = 24.642); Parent adolescent relationship (X2 cal = 18.986); Positive adolescent behaviour (X2 cal = 11.626); ...
Tobler, P.N.; Weber, E.U.; Glimcher, P.W.; Fehr, E.
In this chapter, we describe how risk and ambiguity impact the value of choice options, how this impact can be modelled formally and how it is implemented in the brain. In particular, we give an overview of two distinct ways of how risky choice options can be decomposed – either into outcomes and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of psychoactive substances is one of the most important public health issues. Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs are among the top risk factors for ill-health defined by World Health Organisation. The risky behaviours acquired in teenage can be magnified or decreased during university when a person starts having more awareness about the importance of own wellness. This paper describes the results of the project "Sportello Salute Giovani" ("Youth Health Information Desk" with respect to risky behaviours in a large sample of Italian university students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 questions of the survey "Sportello Salute Giovani" dealing with risky behaviors, the use of psychoactive substances such as tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs were included. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Besides, chi square test were used to test the differences in sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: About 24% of the interviewed students currently smokes. 89% and 42.2% respectively drinks at least rarely or weekly beer, wine or spirits. About 40% of students smoked at least a joint and about 2% used other drugs (mostly cocaine. CONCLUSION: The "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey suggests that the frequency of risky behaviours in Italian university students is not reassuring, although they should be aware about the negative consequences on their and others health because of their educational level.
Lucas, Brian J; Galinsky, Adam D
Philosophers and psychologists have long been interested in identifying factors that influence moral judgment. In the current analysis, we compare the literatures on moral psychology and decision making under uncertainty to propose that utilitarian choices are driven by the same forces that lead to risky choices. Spanning from neurocognitive to hormonal to interpersonal levels of analysis, we identify six antecedents that increase both utilitarian and risky choices (ventromedial prefrontal cortex brain lesions, psychopathology, testosterone, incidental positive affect, power, and social connection) and one antecedent that reduces these choices (serotonin activity). We identify the regulation of negative affect as a common mechanism through which the effects of each antecedent on utilitarian and risky choices are explained. By demonstrating that the same forces and the same underlying mechanism that produce risky choices also promote utilitarian choices, we offer a deeper understanding of how basic psychological systems underlie moral judgment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Blondel, Serge; Lohéac, Youenn; Rinaudo, Stéphane
In rational addiction theory, higher discount rates encourage drug use. We test this hypothesis in the general framework of rationality and behaviour under risk. We do so using an experimental design with real monetary incentives. The decisions of 34 drug addicts are compared with those of a control group. The decisions of drug users (DU) are not any less consistent with standard theories of behaviour over time and under risk. Further, there is no difference in the estimated discount rate between drug users and the control group, but the former do appear to be more risk-seeking.
Olesen, Charlotte; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge
pregnancy 44.2% of the women received prescriptions for at least one drug. Users received 2.6 prescriptions on average during pregnancy: 5% of the users redeemed 24.2% of all prescriptions. The proportion of women who redeemed prescriptions for more than three different drugs was 2.7%. The majority.......7%). CONCLUSION: A high proportion of the women received drugs during pregnancy. The pattern of drug use within the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical (ATC) groups changed, i.e. the amount of broad spectrum antibiotics decreased and the proportion of prescriptions for local use increased. A small proportion...... of women redeemed prescriptions for more than three different drugs during pregnancy....
Matthew T. Sutherland
Full Text Available Higher trait levels of psychopathy have been associated with both a tendency to maintain disadvantageous decision-making strategies and aberrant cortico-limbic neural activity. To explore the neural mechanisms associated with the psychopathy-related propensity to continue selecting risky choices, a non-forensic sample of participants completed a self-report psychopathy questionnaire and two runs of a risky decision-making task during H215O positron emission tomography (PET scanning. In this secondary data analysis study, we leveraged data previously collected to examine the impact of previous drug use on risky decision-making to explore the relations between self-reported psychopathy and behavioral and brain metrics during performance of the Cambridge Decision-Making Task (CDMT, in which volunteers chose between small/likely or large/unlikely potential reward outcomes. Behaviorally, we observed that psychopathy scores were differentially correlated with the percent of risky decisions made in run 1 vs. run 2 of the task. Specifically, higher levels of psychopathy, above and beyond that attributable to drug use or sex, were associated with greater tendencies to make risky selections only in the second half (run 2 of the task. In parallel, psychopathy scores negatively correlated with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the right insula and right ventral striatum during run 2 of the CDMT. These exploratory outcomes suggest that greater levels of psychopathy may be associated with an inability to translate experience with negative outcomes into behavioral adaptations possibly due to decreased neural efficiency in regions related to somatic and/or reward feedback processes.
Abdulkarim, A A; Mokuolu, O A; Adeniyi, A
The types and frequency of drug use among 1200 students aged 10-19 years was investigated and a prevalence rate of 40.1% found; currently used drugs included mild stimulants such as kolanut and coffee 294 (26.2%), alcohol 164 (14.5%), sniffing agents 80 (7.2%), amphetamine and ephedrine 66 (6.7%), cigarette 54 (4.8%), heroin 45 (4%) cocaine 40 (3.6%) and cannabis 38 (3.4%). Multiple drug use was found among the students, with the abuse of cannabis, cocaine and heroin being significant among those who smoked cigarette (Pcannabis use when cigarette was smoked was 37.4 (24.1-57.8); RR for cigarette smoking when alcohol was used, 6.8, while RR for cocaine abuse when cigarette was used, 21.8 (13.9-34.5) and 52.8 (29.2-95.5) when cannabis was used. It is therefore concluded that the use of the licit and "socially" acceptable drugs may pave the way for the abuse of illicit ones.
Zila M. Sanchez
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Alcohol and other drug use appears to reduce decision-making ability and increase the risk of unsafe sex, leading to possible unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus/HIV transmission, and multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that risky sexual behaviors among adolescents are associated with legal and illegal drug use. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey of 17,371 high-school students was conducted in 2010. Students were selected from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals by a multistage probabilistic sampling method and answered a self-report questionnaire. Weighted data were analyzed through basic contingency tables and logistic regressions testing for differences in condom use among adolescents who were sexually active during the past month. RESULTS: Approximately one third of the high school students had engaged in sexual intercourse in the month prior to the survey, and nearly half of these respondents had not used a condom. While overall sexual intercourse was more prevalent among boys, unsafe sexual intercourse was more prevalent among girls. Furthermore, a lower socioeconomic status was directly associated with non-condom use, while binge drinking and illegal drug use were independently associated with unsafe sexual intercourse. CONCLUSION: Adolescent alcohol and drug use were associated with unsafe sexual practices. School prevention programs must include drug use and sexuality topics simultaneously because both risk-taking behaviors occur simultaneously.
Sanchez, Zila M; Nappo, Solange A; Cruz, Joselaine I; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Carlini, Claudia M; Martins, Silvia S
Alcohol and other drug use appears to reduce decision-making ability and increase the risk of unsafe sex, leading to possible unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus/HIV transmission, and multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that risky sexual behaviors among adolescents are associated with legal and illegal drug use. A national cross-sectional survey of 17,371 high-school students was conducted in 2010. Students were selected from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals by a multistage probabilistic sampling method and answered a self-report questionnaire. Weighted data were analyzed through basic contingency tables and logistic regressions testing for differences in condom use among adolescents who were sexually active during the past month. Approximately one third of the high school students had engaged in sexual intercourse in the month prior to the survey, and nearly half of these respondents had not used a condom. While overall sexual intercourse was more prevalent among boys, unsafe sexual intercourse was more prevalent among girls. Furthermore, a lower socioeconomic status was directly associated with non-condom use, while binge drinking and illegal drug use were independently associated with unsafe sexual intercourse. Adolescent alcohol and drug use were associated with unsafe sexual practices. School prevention programs must include drug use and sexuality topics simultaneously because both risk-taking behaviors occur simultaneously.
Bittner, Jenny; Landwehr, Julia; Hertel, Guido; Binnewies, Carmen; Krumm, Stefan; Holling, Heinz; Kleinmar, Martin
Purpose We examined the contribution of implicit and explicit risk-attitudes to the prediction of risky management decisions. Indirect methods allow for the measurement of implicit attitudes, while self-report is typically used to measure explicit, reflective attitudes. Indirect methods make it
Vingilis, Evelyn; Yıldırım-Yenier, Zümrüt; Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Wickens, Christine; Seeley, Jane; Fleiter, Judy; Grushka, Daniel H
Entry of terms reflective of extreme risky driving behaviors into the YouTube website yields millions of videos. The majority of the top 20 highly subscribed automotive YouTube websites are focused on high-performance vehicles, high speed, and often risky driving. Moreover, young men are the heaviest users of online video sharing sites, overall streaming more videos, and watching them longer than any other group. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on YouTube videos and risky driving. A systematic search was performed using the following specialized database sources-Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, ERIC, and Google Scholar-for the years 2005-2015 for articles in the English language. Search words included "YouTube AND driving," "YouTube AND speeding," "YouTube AND racing." No published research was found on the content of risky driving videos or on the effects of these videos on viewers. This literature review presents the current state of our published knowledge on the topic, which includes a review of the effects of mass media on risky driving cognitions; attitudes and behavior; similarities and differences between mass and social media; information on the YouTube platform; psychological theories that could support YouTube's potential effects on driving behavior; and 2 examples of risky driving behaviors ("sidewalk skiing" and "ghost riding the whip") suggestive of varying levels of modeling behavior in subsequent YouTube videos. Every month about 1 billion individuals are reported to view YouTube videos (ebizMBA Guide 2015 ) and young men are the heaviest users, overall streaming more YouTube videos and watching them longer than women and other age groups (Nielsen 2011 ). This group is also the most dangerous group in traffic, engaging in more per capita violations and experiencing more per capita injuries and fatalities (e.g., Parker et al. 1995 ; Reason et al. 1990 ; Transport Canada 2015 ; World Health Organization 2015 ). YouTube also
Full Text Available The high prevalence of risky irrational drug use behaviors mean that outpatients face high risks of drug resistance and even death. This study represents the first application of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB model on rational drug use behavior among second-level hospital outpatients from three prefecture-level cities in Anhui, China. Using the IMB model, our study examined predictors of rational drug use behavior and determined the associations between the model constructs.This study was conducted with a sample of 1,214 outpatients aged 18 years and older in Anhui second-level hospitals and applied the structural equation model (SEM to test predictive relations among the IMB model variables related to rational drug use behavior.Age, information and motivation had significant direct effects on rational drug use behavior. Behavioral skills as an intermediate variable also significantly predicted more rational drug use behavior. Female gender, higher educational level, more information and more motivation predicted more behavioral skills. In addition, there were significant indirect impacts on rational drug use behavior mediated through behavioral skills.The IMB-based model explained the relationships between the constructs and rational drug use behavior of outpatients in detail, and it suggests that future interventions among second-level hospital outpatients should consider demographic characteristics and should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills in addition to the publicity of knowledge.
Bian, Cheng; Xu, Shuman; Wang, Heng; Li, Niannian; Wu, Jingya; Zhao, Yunwu; Li, Peng; Lu, Hua
The high prevalence of risky irrational drug use behaviors mean that outpatients face high risks of drug resistance and even death. This study represents the first application of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model on rational drug use behavior among second-level hospital outpatients from three prefecture-level cities in Anhui, China. Using the IMB model, our study examined predictors of rational drug use behavior and determined the associations between the model constructs. This study was conducted with a sample of 1,214 outpatients aged 18 years and older in Anhui second-level hospitals and applied the structural equation model (SEM) to test predictive relations among the IMB model variables related to rational drug use behavior. Age, information and motivation had significant direct effects on rational drug use behavior. Behavioral skills as an intermediate variable also significantly predicted more rational drug use behavior. Female gender, higher educational level, more information and more motivation predicted more behavioral skills. In addition, there were significant indirect impacts on rational drug use behavior mediated through behavioral skills. The IMB-based model explained the relationships between the constructs and rational drug use behavior of outpatients in detail, and it suggests that future interventions among second-level hospital outpatients should consider demographic characteristics and should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills in addition to the publicity of knowledge.
Buvik, Kristin; Bye, Elin K; Gripenberg, Johanna
There is increased concern about the use of alcohol and illicit drugs in nightlife settings. Most studies of substance use in nightlife settings are from the patrons' perspective, which leaves an understudied population - the nightclub staff. The aim of this paper is to study self-reported alcohol and substance use among staff at licensed premises in Norway: types of illicit drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among patrons. A survey was conducted at server-training courses in 20 different cities in Norway during 2015. The survey included: demographics, respondents' own alcohol and drug experience, attitudes towards drug use, and observed drug use among patrons at licensed premises. Data were collected from 912 staff working at licensed premises. A majority reported alcohol use in the past year, and 61% reported alcohol use two or more times a month. Overall, 45% of the respondents reported ever-used of illicit drugs. The four most commonly used drugs among staff were cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy/MDMA, and amphetamine. The majority of respondents supported Norway's strict drug laws, and 63% reported observing drug-intoxicated patrons at licensed premises during the past six months. The proportion of frequent drinkers and heavy episodic drinking among staff at licensed premises was high, and the prevalence of illicit drug use was much higher compared with the general population. Thus, staff at licensed premises can be considered a risk-group for alcohol and illicit drug use and therefore represent an important target population in club drug-prevention programmes.
Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hurdle, Donna
This article presents the findings of a survey completed by 1351 predominantly Mexican American middle school students residing in a large urban center in the U.S. Southwest. The study explores possible associations between drug use attitudes and behaviors and gender (biological sex), gender identity, ethnicity, and acculturation status. Based on the concepts of “machismo” and “marianismo” that have been used to describe Mexican populations, four dimensions of gender identity were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity, and submissive femininity. In explaining a variety of indicators of drug use behaviors and anti-drug norms, gender alone had limited explanatory power, while gender identity—often regardless of gender—was a better predictor. Aggressive masculinity was generally associated with higher risk of drug use, while the other three gender identity measures had selected protective effects. However, the impact of gender identity was strongly mediated by acculturation. Less acculturated Mexican American students reported lower aggressive masculinity scores than non-Latinos. Less acculturated Mexican American girls reported both the lowest aggressive masculinity scores and the highest submissive femininity scores. More acculturated Mexican American students, along with the less acculturated Mexican American boys, did not appear to be following a polarized approach to gender identity (machismo and marianismo) as was expected. The findings suggest that some aspects of culturally prescribed gender roles can have a protective effect against drug use behaviors and attitudes, possibly for both girls and boys. PMID:21359134
Full Text Available As centres of human existence, places and spaces are vital for individuals’ understanding of themselves and who they might become. We explore these aspects of existence through a longitudinal study of 43 current and former drug users. First, we identify the differences between those who have desisted from drug use and those who continued. These differences manifested themselves in the routines that frequently governed desisters’ lives. Persisters had very little in the way of routines that served to structure their time and where they did these were more likely to be seen as a burden. Further, the places our respondents occupied served as indications of their own understandings of their self and their efforts to desist. Second, we investigate in detail one individual’s desistance from drug use and the accompanying change in his existential geography. As Peter desisted his goals and aspirations changed, becoming less focused on avoiding drug use and directed to more positive desires. We discuss the implications of this work for desistance research. Como centros de la existencia humana, los lugares y los espacios son vitales para que los individuos se conozcan a sí mismos, y sepan en quién podrían convertirse. Estos aspectos de la existencia se analizan a través de un estudio longitudinal de 43 personas que consumen o han consumido drogas. En primer lugar, se identifican las diferencias entre los que han abandonado el consumo de drogas, y los que siguen consumiéndolas. Estas diferencias se manifestaron en las rutinas que a menudo regían en las vidas de los que habían abandonado el consumo. Los que seguían consumiendo tenían pocas rutinas que sirvieran para estructurar su tiempo, y si las tenían, se percibían como una carga. Además, los lugares que los encuestados ocupaban servían como indicaciones de su propia autocomprensión y sus esfuerzos para dejar el consumo. En segundo lugar, se investigó en detalle el abandono del
Taubman – Ben-Ari, Orit; Kaplan, Sigal; Lotan, Tsippy
of 163 young male drivers, who also completed self-report instruments tapping traits and perceptions. Personality traits were assessed near in time to receipt of the driving license, and actual risky driving and driving-related variables were measured 9–12 months after licensure to examine relatively......The study investigated the relation between the risky driving behavior of young male drivers and their personality traits, familial attitudes and conduct in respect to road safety, intentions to drive recklessly, and driving anger. In-vehicle data recorders were used to measure the actual driving...... stable driving behavior and attitudes. Findings indicate that (a) young male drivers’ personality traits and tendencies play a major role in predicting risky behavior; (b) intentions to drive recklessly are translated into actual behavior; and (c) the parental role is extremely relevant and counteracts...
Drug abuse is both a personal and a public issue, raising questions about individual rights and the boundaries of law, as well as about national sovereignty and international control. Ethical issues that arise under these headings may be related to certain broad ethical positions. The implications of adopting utilitarian assumptions may be contrasted with basing ethics on a theory of individual rights, closely related to a theory of human nature. Neither position justifies a libertarian presumption against control, for, first, an individual decision to expose one's mind and personality to the control of drugs cannot be ethically justified and, second, there are no ethical reasons, nor any compelling arguments from social and political theory, for decriminalizing non-medical drug use.
The perceived inability of the Skyrme model to reproduce pseudovector pion-baryon coupling has come to be known as the ''Yukawa problem.'' In this talk, we review the complete solution to this problem. The solution involves a new configuration known as the rotationally improved Skyrmion, or ''RISKY,'' in which the hedgehog structure is modified by a small quadrupole distortion. We illustrate our ideas both in the Skyrme model and in a simpler model with a global U(l) symmetry
Chua, J.; Woodward, R.
Over the past few years many Canadian oil producers have shifted their exploration efforts to finding larger reserves outside of Canada. Evaluation of such international projects requires the same type of economic analysis as is carried out for domestic projects, essentially discounted cash flow or net present value analysis. Applying this evaluation methodology requires two types of data: a series of forecasted cash flows and an appropriate hurdle rate. Conventional wisdom states that foreign projects should be evaluated at a higher discount rate than domestic projects. This wisdom is called into question. While some overseas projects may indeed be of higher risk, especially unconventional projects or those located in politically unstable areas, it is not obvious that overseas projects located in politically stable economies and comparable technologically to domestic projects are indeed more risky. In addition to evaluating the market riskiness of overseas projects, the extent to which on-going globalization of world financial markets might impact the riskiness of both domestic and overseas investments in the energy industry is assessed. It is indicated that it may be appropriate for Canadian oil and gas companies to revisit the methods used to measure their corporate hurdle rates in light of this globalization process. 3 tabs
Full Text Available It is not known whether patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME differ from healthy people in decision making under risk, i.e., when the decision-making context offers explicit information about options, probabilities, and consequences already from the beginning. In this study, we adopted the Game of Dice Task-Double to investigate decision making under risk in a group of 36 patients with JME (mean age 25.25/SD 5.29 years and a group of 38 healthy controls (mean age 26.03/SD 4.84 years. Participants also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment focused on frontal executive functions. Significant group differences were found in tests of psychomotor speed and divided attention, with the patients scoring lower than the controls. Importantly, patients made risky decisions more frequently than controls. In the patient group, poor decision making was associated with poor executive control, poor response inhibition, and a short interval since the last seizure episode. Executive control and response inhibition could predict 42% of variance in the frequency of risky decisions. This study indicates that patients with JME with poorer executive functions are more likely to make risky decisions than healthy controls. Decision making under risk is of major importance in every-day life, especially with regard to treatment decisions and adherence to long-term medical therapy. Since even a single disadvantageous decision may have long-lasting consequences, this finding is of high relevance.
Unterberger, Iris; Zamarian, Laura; Prieschl, Manuela; Bergmann, Melanie; Walser, Gerald; Luef, Gerhard; Javor, Andrija; Ransmayr, Gerhard; Delazer, Margarete
It is not known whether patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) differ from healthy people in decision making under risk, i.e., when the decision-making context offers explicit information about options, probabilities, and consequences already from the beginning. In this study, we adopted the Game of Dice Task-Double to investigate decision making under risk in a group of 36 patients with JME (mean age 25.25/SD 5.29 years) and a group of 38 healthy controls (mean age 26.03/SD 4.84 years). Participants also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment focused on frontal executive functions. Significant group differences were found in tests of psychomotor speed and divided attention, with the patients scoring lower than the controls. Importantly, patients made risky decisions more frequently than controls. In the patient group, poor decision making was associated with poor executive control, poor response inhibition, and a short interval since the last seizure episode. Executive control and response inhibition could predict 42% of variance in the frequency of risky decisions. This study indicates that patients with JME with poorer executive functions are more likely to make risky decisions than healthy controls. Decision making under risk is of major importance in every-day life, especially with regard to treatment decisions and adherence to long-term medical therapy. Since even a single disadvantageous decision may have long-lasting consequences, this finding is of high relevance.
Full Text Available Using five variants of the Asian Disease Problem, we dissected the risky-choice framing effect by requiring each participant to provide preference ratings for the full decision problem and also to provide attractiveness ratings for each of the component parts, i.e., the sure-thing option and the risky option. Consistent with previous research, more risky choices were made by respondents receiving negatively framed versions of the decision problems than by those receiving positively framed versions. However, different processes were evident for those scoring high and low on numeracy. Whereas the choices of the less numerate showed a large effect of frame above and beyond any influence of their evaluations of the separate options, the choices of the highly numerate were almost completely accounted for by their attractiveness ratings of the separate options. These results are consistent with an increased tendency of the highly numerate to integrate complex numeric information in the construction of their preferences and a tendency for the less numerate to respond more superficially to non-numeric sources of information.
This short WHO manual outlines methods for evaluating drug use indicators in health facilities. The broad areas of ... Washington: American Psychiatric Press, Inc. 1991. ISBN 0-88048-114-5. This book is ... discussion of different symptom categories using the DSM. (Diagnostic Statistical Manual) as a base. The definition of.
Marcelle Aparecida de Barros
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies on drugs use point towards this phenomenon as a public health problem. Nowadays, the Family Health Program (FHP is presented by the Health Ministry as a model to restructure primary health care and aims to offer family-centered care, permeated by integrality, problem solving and community bonds. This article aims to discuss action possibilities of Family Health Care professionals involving drugs patients. It is evident that, as opposed to other actions already developed by FHP professionals in other health care areas, which has appeared clearly and objectively. This fact is observed in the daily activities of FHP professionals, which give little attention to drugs-related problems. However, research emphasizes that there exists a broad range of action possibilities for FHP professionals. Although other studies evidence this team’s fragilities in terms of care for drugs users, these can be overcome by investing in the training and valuation of these professionals. KEY WORDS: Family Health Program; Street drugs; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice.
Yang, Yuan-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Cellular phone use (CPU) is an important part of life for many adolescents. However, problematic CPU may complicate physiological and psychological problems. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. A total of 11,111 adolescent students in Southern Taiwan were randomly selected into this study. We used the Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire to identify the adolescents with problematic CPU. Meanwhile, a series of risky behaviors and self-esteem were evaluated. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the associations between problematic CPU and risky behaviors and low self-esteem regarding gender and age. The results indicated that positive associations were found between problematic CPU and aggression, insomnia, smoking cigarettes, suicidal tendencies, and low self-esteem in all groups with different sexes and ages. However, gender and age differences existed in the associations between problematic CPU and suspension from school, criminal records, tattooing, short nocturnal sleep duration, unprotected sex, illicit drugs use, drinking alcohol and chewing betel nuts. There were positive associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. It is worthy for parents and mental health professionals to pay attention to adolescents' problematic CPU.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular phone use (CPU is an important part of life for many adolescents. However, problematic CPU may complicate physiological and psychological problems. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A total of 11,111 adolescent students in Southern Taiwan were randomly selected into this study. We used the Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire to identify the adolescents with problematic CPU. Meanwhile, a series of risky behaviors and self-esteem were evaluated. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the associations between problematic CPU and risky behaviors and low self-esteem regarding gender and age. Results The results indicated that positive associations were found between problematic CPU and aggression, insomnia, smoking cigarettes, suicidal tendencies, and low self-esteem in all groups with different sexes and ages. However, gender and age differences existed in the associations between problematic CPU and suspension from school, criminal records, tattooing, short nocturnal sleep duration, unprotected sex, illicit drugs use, drinking alcohol and chewing betel nuts. Conclusions There were positive associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. It is worthy for parents and mental health professionals to pay attention to adolescents' problematic CPU.
... HIV/AIDS Treatment Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection All FDA-approved medicines used in the ...
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to identify certain risky behavior patterns (unsafe sex, tobacco and drug use, and binge drinking and the factors affecting these behaviors among first- and third-year students in a university. Method: The study included a total of 8407 students enrolled as first- (4392 and third- (4015 year students. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. In data analysis, respecting sampling weights, models were formed by logistic regression method to determine factors that affect the risky behaviors. Results: 731 male–1114 female students from the first year and 560 male–1096 female students from the third year were interviewed. Male students were found to be engaged in risky behaviors more frequently than females. Logistic models of the study indicated that gender, place of residence, relationship with parents, and socialization with friends have profound effects on risky behaviors. Conclusion: After leaving home, young people develop their own lifestyles, and this study demonstrates that lifestyle is the main effective factor for risky behaviors in this group. Universities need to assume more responsibility to guide students’ lives and to provide the facilities and opportunities that encourage and facilitate their adoption of a healthy lifestyle. Key Words: University students, risky behaviours Bir Üniversitede Öğrencilerin Riskli Davranışları: Kesitsel Bir Çalışma Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, bir üniversitenin birinci ve üçüncü sınıf öğrencileri arasında bazı riskli davranış modellerini (güvensiz seks, tütün ve uyuşturucu kullanımı ve aşırı alkol ve bu davranışları etkileyen faktörleri saptamaktır. Yöntem: Araştırmanın evrenini birinci (4392 ve üçüncü (4015 sınıflarda kayıtlı 8407 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Veri öğrencilerin gözlem altında doldurdukları anket aracılığı ile toplanmıştır. Riskli davranışları etkileyen fakt
Muller, C.P.; Homberg, J.R.
The use of psychoactive drugs is a wide spread behaviour in human societies. The systematic use of a drug requires the establishment of different drug use-associated behaviours which need to be learned and controlled. However, controlled drug use may develop into compulsive drug use and addiction, a
Lynsay A. Shepherd
Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.
Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.
Li, Cunbin; Yuan, Jiahang; Qi, Zhiqiang
With rapid speed on electricity using and increasing in renewable energy, more and more research pay attention on distribution grid planning. For the drawbacks of existing research, this paper proposes a new risky group decision-making method for distribution grid planning. Firstly, a mixing index system with qualitative and quantitative indices is built. On the basis of considering the fuzziness of language evaluation, choose cloud model to realize "quantitative to qualitative" transformation and construct interval numbers decision matrices according to the "3En" principle. An m-dimensional interval numbers decision vector is regarded as super cuboids in m-dimensional attributes space, using two-level orthogonal experiment to arrange points uniformly and dispersedly. The numbers of points are assured by testing numbers of two-level orthogonal arrays and these points compose of distribution points set to stand for decision-making project. In order to eliminate the influence of correlation among indices, Mahalanobis distance is used to calculate the distance from each solutions to others which means that dynamic solutions are viewed as the reference. Secondly, due to the decision-maker's attitude can affect the results, this paper defines the prospect value function based on SNR which is from Mahalanobis-Taguchi system and attains the comprehensive prospect value of each program as well as the order. At last, the validity and reliability of this method is illustrated by examples which prove the method is more valuable and superiority than the other.
Full Text Available The paper researches the tendencies and dynamic characteristics of risky business. The means of development stimulation in risky business in the USA are examined. The factors for insurance companies, banks, retirement funds of their investors’ function inability are explained. The multichoice model of economy structure transformation according to the innovative changes and regulatory policy is developed. The authors systematize the factors, which determine the branch attraction for risky investment. Four scenarios for the development of risky industry in Ukraine are studied and the matrix of their development is formed.
Laussen, Peter C; Allan, Catherine K; Larovere, Joan M
Remarkable achievements have occurred in pediatric cardiac critical care over the past two decades. The specialty has become well defined and extremely resource intense. A great deal of focus has been centered on optimizing patient outcomes, particularly mortality and early morbidity, and this has been achieved through a focused and multidisciplinary approach to management. Delivering high-quality and safe care is our goal, and during the Risky Business symposium and simulation sessions at the Eighth International Conference of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society in Miami, December 2010, human factors, systems analysis, team training, and lessons learned from malpractice claims were presented.
An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...
Albarracin, Dolores; Shavitt, Sharon
This review covers research on attitudes and attitude change published between 2010 and 2017. We characterize this period as one of significant progress toward an understanding of how attitudes form and change in three critical contexts. The first context is the person, as attitudes change in connection to values, general goals, language, emotions, and human development. The second context is social relationships, which link attitude change to the communicator of persuasive messages, social media, and culture. The third context is sociohistorical and highlights the influence of unique events, including sociopolitical, economic, and climatic occurrences. In conclusion, many important recent findings reflect the fact that holism, with a focus on situating attitudes within their personal, social, and historical contexts, has become the zeitgeist of attitude research during this period.
Ndoye Niane, A.F.; Burger, C.P.J.
Agricultural production is typically a risky business. Farm households have to tackle several risks. So, farm households’ risk attitude is an important issue connected with decision making and greatly affects their economic performance. Particularly in Senegal, for horticultural households, output
Simon, Nicholas W.; Montgomery, Karienn S.; Beas, Blanca S.; Mitchell, Marci R.; LaSarge, Candi L.; Mendez, Ian A.; Bañuelos, Cristina; Vokes, Colin M.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Haberman, Rebecca P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry
Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by abnormal risky decision-making and dysregulated dopamine receptor expression. The current study was designed to determine how different dopamine receptor subtypes modulate risk-taking in young adult rats, using a “Risky Decision-making Task” that involves choices between small “safe” rewards and large “risky” rewards accompanied by adverse consequences. Rats showed considerable, stable individual differences in risk preference in the task, which were not related to multiple measures of reward motivation, anxiety, or pain sensitivity. Systemic activation of D2-like receptors robustly attenuated risk-taking, whereas drugs acting on D1-like receptors had no effect. Systemic amphetamine also reduced risk-taking, an effect which was attenuated by D2-like (but not D1-like) receptor blockade. Dopamine receptor mRNA expression was evaluated in a separate cohort of drug-naive rats characterized in the task. D1 mRNA expression in both nucleus accumbens shell and insular cortex was positively associated with risk-taking, while D2 mRNA expression in orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex predicted risk preference in opposing nonlinear patterns. Additionally, lower levels of D2 mRNA in dorsal striatum were associated with greater risk-taking. These data strongly implicate dopamine signaling in prefrontal corticalstriatal circuitry in modulating decision-making processes involving integration of reward information with risks of adverse consequences. PMID:22131407
Full Text Available This study tests the specific hypothesis that the 9R/9R genotype in the VNTR of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 exerts a general protective effect against a spectrum of risky behaviors in comparison to the 10R/9R and 10R/10R genotypes, drawing on three-time repeated measures of risky behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood on about 822 non-Hispanic white males from the Add Health study. Our data have established two empirical findings. The first is a protective main effect in the DAT1 gene against risky behaviors. The second finding is that the protective effect varies over age, with the effect prominent at ages when a behavior is illegal and the effect largely vanished at ages when the behavior becomes legal or more socially tolerated. Both the protective main effect and the gene-lifecourse interaction effect are replicated across a spectrum of most common risky behaviors: delinquency, variety of sexual partners, binge drinking, drinking quantity, smoking quantity, smoking frequency, marijuana use, cocaine use, other illegal drug use, and seatbelt non-wearing. We also compared individuals with the protective genotype and individuals without it in terms of age, physical maturity, verbal IQ, GPA, received popularity, sent popularity, church attendance, two biological parents, and parental education. These comparisons indicate that the protective effect of DAT1*9R/9R cannot be explained away by these background characteristics. Our work demonstrates how legal/social contexts can enhance or reduce a genetic effect on risky behaviors.
BACKGROUND: Students of higher institutions are assumed to be exposed to many risky sexual behaviors. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of risky behavior and predisposing factors in the context of higher education institutions in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the pattern of ...
Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, Kathryn Paige
Adolescents engage in more risky behavior when they are with peers and show, on average, heightened susceptibility to peer influence relative to children and adults. However, individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence are not well understood. The current study examined whether the effect of peers on adolescents' risky decision…
Pearson, Carolyn M; Pisetsky, Emily M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B
Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) frequently endorse risky behaviors such as self-harm and substance use. However, no studies of BN to date have examined factors associated with engaging in individual or co-occurring risky behaviors. Given that individuals with BN often have personality psychopathology, which has been linked to symptoms and course of illness, this study sought to examine how personality may differentiate engagement in risky behaviors among BN individuals. A sample of 133 women with BN completed self-report measures of personality psychopathology at baseline, and then reported on bulimic and risky behaviors (e.g., substance misuse, self-harm) over 2 weeks using ecological momentary assessment. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the unique associations between state-level predictor variables (each risky behavior, e.g., substance misuse, and combination of risky behaviors, e.g., substance misuse plus self-harm) and trait-level personality constructs. Substance misuse behavior, above and beyond all other risky behaviors, was significantly associated with higher scores on trait dissocial behavior (P = 0.004). Substance misuse in BN has a unique association with dissocial behavior, a personality trait characterized by hostility, impulsivity, and entitlement. These results suggest that targeting personality variables may help facilitate more effective treatment of risky behaviors, including substance use in BN. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:681-688). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sarkar, Sheila; Andreas, Marie
Data gathered from 1,430 teenage student drivers and 880 teenage traffic violators were used to examine the levels of exposure to risky driving behaviors and perceptions concerning the level of danger of such behaviors. For student drivers, 55% reported exposure to risky driving by being in a car with a driver engaging in such activities as drunk…
Stern, Susannah; Morr, Lindsey
Studies indicate that films can influence adolescents' attitudes toward and initiation of substance use. It is therefore important to periodically assess film content to assess the types of imagery adolescents are likely to encounter. This study content analyzed teen characters in top films featuring teenagers from 2007, 2008, and 2009 to assess smoking, drinking, and drug use portrayals. Results indicate a relatively low incidence of smoking and drug use. However, one in five teen characters are shown drinking. Overall, substance use depictions have diminished considerably compared with films released at the earlier end of the decade. However, consequences of substance use were infrequently depicted, and characters seldom refused invitations to drink or do drugs. Given these findings, some potentially counterproductive outcomes are discussed.
Nazar P. Shabila
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil, Iraq, and to explore the relationship between risky driving behaviours and perceptions of risky driving. Methods: This self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to May 2014 among a random sample of 400 medical students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil. The questionnaire was designed to assess the frequency of engagement in 21 risky driving behaviours, the perceived risk of each behaviour and the preference for each behaviour as ranked on a 5-point scale. Results: A total of 386 students responded to the survey (response rate: 96.5%. Of these, 211 reported that they currently drove a vehicle (54.7%. Drivers most frequently engaged in the following behaviours: playing loud music (35.9%, speeding (30.4%, allowing front seat passengers to not wear seat belts (27.9% and using mobile phones (27.7%. Least frequent driving behaviours included not stopping at a red light (3.9%, driving while sleepy (4.4%, driving after a mild to moderate intake of alcohol (4.5% and drunk driving (6.4%. Mean risky driving behaviour scores were significantly higher among males (P 20-year-olds (P = 0.028. There was a significant positive relationship between the preference for risky behaviours and risky driving behaviours (beta = 0.44; P <0.001. Conclusion: Medical students in Erbil reported high frequencies of several serious risky driving behaviours. The preference for risky behaviours was found to be an important predictor of risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil.
Ross, J Megan; Duperrouzel, Jacqueline; Vega, Melanie; Gonzalez, Raul
Engagement in risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a significant public health concern. A growing body of literature is elucidating the role of brain systems and neuropsychological constructs implicated in RSB, which may pave the way for novel insights and prevention efforts. In this article, we review studies incorporating neuropsychology into the study of RSB across the lifespan. The review of the literature on the neuropsychology of RSB is separated into three different sections by age of participants. Background is presented on research associating RSB with neurocognitive processes and the brain systems involved. Given the overlap between RSBs and substance use, studies addressing these problems in tandem are also discussed. Neurocognitive constructs are implicated in RSB, including impulsivity, decision-making, and working memory. Thus far, evidence suggest that neuropsychological factors are associated with engagement in RSB. More research on the influence of neuropsychological factors on engagement in RSB is necessary and may help inform future prevention efforts. (JINS, 2016, 22, 586-594).
The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have....... The "extreme 20th century" will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be more extreme and its temporal bindings easier to observe. The much celebrated revolutions in military affairs will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away. Kantian convergences may appear....
Jacques Aviñó, Constanza; García de Olalla, Patricia; Díez, Elia; Martín, Silvia; Caylà, Joan A
To explore views about risky sexual behaviors and perceptions of HIV, and to propose interventions for preventing HIV infections in a group of men who have sex with men. We performed a qualitative study in a sample of 13 men who have sex with men, who were participating in an HIV-seronegative cohort, and who we contacted via saunas for the gay community in Barcelona (Spain). We performed in-depth semi-structured interviews, followed by content analysis. Risky sexual behaviors were associated with masculinity related to strong sexual needs, certain sexual exchange venues (such as saunas, private parties and clubs), drug use, and a desire to experiment with risk and one's own sexuality. HIV infection was perceived as a normalized disease, although becoming infected was still associated with shame and guilt. Proposed interventions included raising awareness of what it is like to live with HIV, generating greater social alarm, incorporating new technologies in prevention, and intensifying activity at gay venues. The concept of masculinity plays a fundamental role in sexual practices among men who have sex with men. We suggest renewed innovation in preventive programs and incorporating the perception of risk and HIV infection from a gender perspective. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Binge eating has been usually viewed as a preference for risky over safe appetitive rewards although this view has been drawn without manipulating stressing-inducing food cues. In healthy women, stressful cues bias behavior for safer options, raising the question of whether food cues modulate binging patients’ behaviors towards safer options.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with binging patients (20 bulimia nervosa (BN and 23 binging anorexia nervosa (ANB patients and two control groups (22 non-binging restrictive (ANR anorexia nervosa patients and 20 healthy participants, without any concomitant impulsive disorder. We assessed decisions under risk with a gambling task with known probabilities and decisions under uncertainty with the balloon analog risk taking task (BART with unknown probabilities of winning, in three cued-conditions including neutral, binge food and stressful cues.Results: In the gambling task, binging patients and ANR patients adopted similar safer attitudes and coherently elicited a higher aversion to losses when primed by food as compared to neutral cues. This differential behavior was also observed in the BART in BN and ANR patients only, aligning with the behavior of healthy controls when primed with stressful cues. In ANB patients, similar safer behaviors were observed in food and neutral conditions in the BART but with a higher variability in their choices in food condition. This higher variability was associated with higher difficulties to discard irrelevant information. Conclusion: Decision making under risk and under uncertainty is not fundamentally altered in binging patients but might be disturbed by a concomitant task.
... adolescents evince a peculiar pattern of drug use due to influence from significant others. It is recommended that counselling programmes which focus on cognitive reorientation towards drug use and the need to keep good friends be set up for adolescents. Relevant agencies should also enforce restrictions on the sale of ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse. ...
Schirm, Eric; Schwagermann, M.P.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina
Objective: To survey drug use by breastfeeding women, and to compare this with nonbreastfeeding women. In addition, we were interested whether drug use was of influence on the decision to give breastfeeding, and the other way around. Design and setting: During a 6-week period in 2002, a
Goodall, Catherine E.; Slater, Michael D.
Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertis...
Goncalves de Moura, Yone; van der Meer Sanchez, Zila; Noto, Ana Regina
In this study we aimed to investigate through ethnographic methods the different contexts of drug use by street adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Participant observations and semistructured interviews were performed at 11 major points of adolescent concentration in the streets of the city and in 10 care institutions. The sample was composed of 17 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Data showed diverse patterns of drug use distributed by geographic situation and street circumstances. Observations were grouped into three main contexts: (a) immersion: greater intensity of drug use associated with greater involvement in the street culture; (b) surface: less drug use associated with family closeness; and (c) alternative-migratory: greater involvement with drug trafficking and prostitution associated with less family closeness and street culture. The drug use patterns varied in accordance with the diversity of street situations. Therefore, the peculiarities of each context should be taken into consideration in the development of social/ health policies.
Tse, Samson; Zhu, Shimin; Yu, Chong Ho; Wong, Paul; Tsang, Sandra
Youth drug use is a significant at-risk youth behaviour and remains as one of the top priorities for mental health services, researchers and policy planners. The ecological characteristics of secondary school students' behaviour in Hong Kong are understudied. To examine individual, familial, social and environmental correlates of drug use among secondary students in Hong Kong. Data were extracted from a school survey with 3078 students. Among the 3078 students, 86 students reported to have used drugs in the past 6 months. A total of 86 age- and gender-matched controls with no drug-use behaviour in the past 6 months were randomly selected from the remaining students. Multiple logistic analysis was used to examine differential correlates between those who used and did not use substance in the past 6 months. Positive school experience and perspective to school and parental support are protective factors of drug use. Lower self-esteem, lower self-efficacy against using drugs and higher level of permissive attitude towards drugs were associated with drug use. Students who were low in self-esteem and rather impulsive tend to use drugs. To prevent students from drug use, efforts in individual, family, school and community-levels should be addressed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gripenberg Abdon Johanna
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to examine self-reported drug use among staff at licensed premises, types of drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among guests. Results are presented from two measurement points (in 2001 and 2007/08. This study was carried out within the framework of the "Clubs against Drugs" program, which is a community-based multi-component intervention targeting licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted, the first in 2001 and the second in 2007/08. Staff at licensed premises attending server training were asked to participate in the anonymous survey. A survey was administered in a classroom setting and consisted of four sections: 1 demographics, 2 respondents' own drug use experience, 3 respondents' attitudes towards drug use, and 4 observed drug use among guests at licensed premises. Results Data were collected from 446 staff in 2001 and 677 staff in 2007/08. The four most commonly used drugs among staff were cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, and ecstasy. The highest rates of drug use were reported by staff in the two youngest age groups, i.e., those younger than 25 and those between the ages of 25 and 29. In 2007/08 staff reported significantly lower rates of drug use than staff in 2001. Last year drug use for the sample in 2007/08 was 19% compared to 27% for the 2001 sample. While drug-using staff compared to non drug-using staff reported more observations of drug use among guests, they were less inclined to intervene. Overall, staff reported restrictive attitudes towards drugs. Conclusions The prevalence of life-time and last year drug use among staff at licensed premises is high compared to the general population in Sweden. Lower rates of self-reported drug use among staff were reported in 2007/08. The results of this study highlight that staff at licensed premises represent an important target population in club drug prevention
Evans, W Douglas; Holtz, Kristen; White, Tanya; Snider, Jeremy
Health brands are based on the relations between individuals and health behaviors and lifestyles. Brands can be measured by the brand equity construct validated in previous studies. The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign brands alternative, non-drug use behaviors as a behavior change strategy. This study goes beyond previous campaign evaluations, which did not include specific brand equity measurements. Using data from a nationally representative media tracking, this study examined the relation between antidrug campaign brand equity and adoption of targeted attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Data were gathered before the relaunch of the campaign, and follow-up data collected 3 months later. On the basis of factor analysis, the authors developed a higher order antidrug brand equity factor and regressed campaign outcomes on that factor in multivariable models. The authors observed significant effects of higher brand equity on higher levels of targeted antidrug attitudes and normative beliefs at follow-up. The authors also observed some counterintuitive relations (i.e., less positive attitudes at follow-up). They interpreted these results in light of the changing messages and campaign strategy. The authors conclude that antidrug brand equity is an important construct for understanding campaign effectiveness. The present campaign shows signs of changing targeted antidrug attitudes and beliefs among youth with brand equity.
Lamis, Dorian A; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Patel, Amee B
The college years are marked by social changes and behavioral experimentation which may increase risk of suicidal ideation. We propose a novel pathway for the development of suicidal thoughts between two established suicide risk factors, loneliness and drug use, which have not been examined in a nonclinical sample. Data were collected from 207 undergraduate drug-using students at a large southeastern university. As hypothesized, suicidal ideation was positively correlated with both loneliness (r = .40) and drug use (r = .29). After controlling for several demographic variables, social desirability, and anxiety sensitivity, drug use was tested as a potential mediator in the loneliness-suicidal ideation link using a single-mediator model. Results indicated a significant indirect (mediated) effect of loneliness on suicidal ideation via drug use (ab = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02-0.18), suggesting that loneliness may contribute to suicidal ideation through increased drug use among college students. Identification of and intervention with students reporting loneliness and drug use may be a promising suicide prevention strategy on college campuses. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.
Full Text Available Miriam Boeri, Thor Whalen, Benjamin Tyndall, Ellen BallardKennesaw State University, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Kennesaw GA, USAAbstract: To better understand patterns of drug use trajectories over time, it is essential to have standard measures of change. Our goal here is to introduce measures we developed to quantify change in drug use behaviors. A secondary goal is to provide effective visualizations of these trajectories for applied use. We analyzed data from a sample of 92 older drug users (ages 45 to 65 to identify transition patterns in drug use trajectories across the life course. Data were collected for every year since birth using a mixed methods design. The community-drawn sample of active and former users were 40% female, 50% African American, and 60% reporting some college or greater. Their life histories provided retrospective longitudinal data on the diversity of paths taken throughout the life course and changes in drug use patterns that occurred over time. Bayesian analysis was used to model drug trajectories displayed by innovative computer graphics. The mathematical techniques and visualizations presented here provide the foundation for future models using Bayesian analysis. In this paper we introduce the concepts of transition counts, transition rates and relapse/remission rates, and we describe how these measures can help us better understand drug use trajectories. Depicted through these visual tools, measurements of discontinuous patterns provide a succinct view of individual drug use trajectories. The measures we use on drug use data will be further developed to incorporate contextual influences on the drug trajectory and build predictive models that inform rehabilitation efforts for drug users. Although the measures developed here were conceived to better examine drug use trajectories, the applications of these measures can be used with other longitudinal datasets.Keywords: drug use, trajectory patterns
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Ruiz, Yumary; Hagan, Holly; Delva, Marlyn; Quiñones, Zahira; Kamler, Alexandra; Robles, Gabriel
While the Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, insufficient attention has been paid to contributing factors of the region's elevated risk. Largely neglected is the potential role of drugs in shaping the Caribbean HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Caribbean studies have almost exclusively focused on drug transportation and seldom acknowledged local user economies and drug-related health and social welfare consequences. While tourism is consistently implicated within the Caribbean HIV epidemic, less is known about the intersection of drugs and tourism. Tourism areas represent distinct ecologies of risk often characterised by sex work, alcohol consumption and population mixing between lower and higher risk groups. Limited understanding of availability and usage of drugs in countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR), the Caribbean country with the greatest tourist rates, presents barriers to HIV prevention. This study addresses this gap by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 drug users in Sosúa, a major sex tourism destination of the DR. A two-step qualitative data analysis process was utilised and interview transcripts were systematically coded using a well-defined thematic codebook. Results suggest three themes: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviours in tourism areas.
... on Your Summer Fun Print version Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun Summer ... adults involve the use of alcohol. 1 Swimmers can get in over their heads. Alcohol impairs judgment ...
Key words: Risky sexual behaviours, University students, Debre Tabor. Introduction .... Missionary/religious school. 2. 0.6. Others. 1 ..... Abebe A, Mitikie G. Perception of high school students towards voluntary HIV counseling and testing, using ...
Beck, Kenneth H; Ali, Bina; Daughters, Stacey B
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between distress tolerance and risky and aggressive driving. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was hypothesized to be related negatively to aggressive driving and risky driving. An anonymous, web-based survey of 769 college students was conducted at a large East Coast university. After controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, year in school, grade point average, and driving frequency, distress tolerance was significantly inversely related to reported risky driving and aggressive driving. College drivers who have a diminished capacity to endure frustration without experiencing negative emotional states (i.e., low distress tolerance) tend to drive aggressively and in a risky manner. Traditional deterrence-based approaches to highway safety may benefit from inclusion of a wider array of prevention strategies that focus on emotion regulation while driving.
Trocki, Karen; Michalak, Laurence; McDaniel, Patricia
The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of bars where drug use was observed compared to those where no drug use was observed. The study was done through a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques gleaned through observations and interviews. Among the most important of indicators were the type of activity (particularly dancing) and the level of rowdiness evident in the bars. In addition drug use bars had higher levels of other types of rule-breaking. Patron characteristics (more men) and behavioral patterns (more sexual risk-taking) also distinguished these bars. PMID:25221431
Castle, N G
Numerous studies of health service use reveal considerable variation in the degree of services provided. In this article the variation in psychotropic drug use in nursing homes is examined. First, a descriptive analysis of nursing homes with and without high levels of psychotropic drug use is provided. Second, an analysis of the determinants of high levels of psychotropic drug use in nursing homes is provided. Factors such as ownership, staffing levels, having special care units, case-mix intensity, competitiveness of the nursing home market, and the state Medicaid reimbursement rate structure are examined. The results of these analyses are discussed in terms of their policy issues.
Rodríguez García de Cortázar, Ainhoa; Hernán García, Mariano; Cabrera León, Andrés; García Calleja, José María; Romo Avilés, Nuria
The objective of this article is to analyse the opinions of adolescents and young people, from gypsy and non-gypsy populations, on the relationship between recreational drug use and sexual practices that increase the risk of HIV infection. A descriptive qualitative research was undertaken. 14 focus groups were conducted with 98 adolescents and young people, and 7 semi-structured interviews with young recreational drug users. Both sort of results were triangulated. Two major discursive lines emerge in the analysis. The first one defends the notion that moderate consumption of alcohol facilitates the sexual encounter, but it does not imply risky behaviours. However, polydrug use or an elevated use of recreational drugs is related to a lack of concern for sexual risks, and in men with the loss of sexual sensitivity that sometimes justifies not using a condom. The second line argues other reasons for the non-use of condoms, such as their lack of availability, confidence in one's sexual partner, a concept of desire as something uncontrollable, infatuation and the state of mind or self-esteem. Some recommendations to prevent sexual transmission of HIV are derived from the results, such as the distribution of condoms in places where alcohol and other drugs are consumed, publicising the use of condoms and other latex barriers for oral genital sexual practices, working with young males on the optimisation of pleasure, designing preventive interventions targeting stable partners, and training adolescent girls in the social skills needed to negotiate the use of condoms.
Goggin, Leigh S; Gately, Natalie; Bridle, Russell I
There is a lack of information regarding the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in Western Australia. The aim of this study was to pilot-test an online survey to obtain data on the prevalence of NPS and other drug use by young Western Australians aged between 18 and 35 years. The Young Adult Drug and Alcohol Survey (YADAS) was a questionnaire deployed online for a period of six months. Participants were recruited via a combined targeted sampling and snowball methodology. There were 472 valid responses. Overall lifetime use of NPS was relatively high (17.6%), while use in the last year was lower (6.6%). These proportions were comparable to that of cocaine use. The most popular NPS were the synthetic cannabinoids. The proportions of respondents drinking alcohol at risky levels, mixing alcohol with energy drinks, and using pharmaceuticals such as ADHD medications for non-medical reasons were high. The YADAS is the first survey to ascertain the prevalence of use of numerous types of NPS in a large sample of young Western Australian adults. The utilization of an online survey methodology yielded valid results as compared to more intensive surveys, and enables researchers greater flexibility in being able to capture current trends.
Ana I. Gil Lacruz; Marta Gil Lacruz; Juan Oliva
Sexually transmitted diseases pose an important public health problem around the world. Although many studies have explored the link between alcohol use and risky sexual practices, the unobserved differences among individuals make it difficult to assess whether the associations are casual in nature. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have obtained data from the Spanish Health and Sexual Behavior Survey (2003) in order to analyze risky sexual behaviors using four alternative methodolo...
Shapiro, Gilla K; Tatar, Ovidiu; Sutton, Arielle; Fisher, William; Naz, Anila; Perez, Samara; Rosberger, Zeev
Tinder is a frequently used geosocial networking application that allows users to meet sexual partners in their geographical vicinity. Research examining Tinder use and its association with behavioral outcomes is scarce. The objectives of this study were to explore the correlates of Tinder use and risky sexual behaviors in young adults. Participants aged 18-26 were invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire between January and May 2016. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, Tinder use, health related behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and sexual attitudes. Associations among these variables were estimated using multivariate logistic regressions. The final sample consisted of 415 participants (n = 166 Tinder users; n = 249 nonusers). Greater likelihood of using Tinder was associated with a higher level of education (OR = 2.18) and greater reported need for sex (OR = 1.64), while decreased likelihood of using Tinder was associated with a higher level of academic achievement (OR = 0.63), lower sexual permissiveness (OR = 0.58), living with parents or relatives (OR = 0.38), and being in a serious relationship (OR = 0.24). Higher odds of reporting nonconsensual sex (OR = 3.22) and having five or more previous sexual partners (OR = 2.81) were found in Tinder users. Tinder use was not significantly associated with condom use. This study describes significant correlates of using Tinder and highlights a relationship between Tinder use with nonconsensual sex and number of previous sexual partners. These findings have salience for aiding public health interventions to effectively design interventions targeted at reducing risky sexual behaviors online.
Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as it is across other Western countries. However, there is no systematic mechanism for gathering data about cosmetic surgery, nor about the outcomes of that surgery. This column argues that the business of cosmetic surgery in Australia has questionable marketing standards, is conducted with little scrutiny or accountability and offers patients imperfect knowledge about cosmetic procedures. It also argues that while medical practitioners debate among themselves over who should carry out cosmetic procedures, little attention has been paid to questionable advertising in the industry and even less to highlighting the real risks of undergoing cosmetic surgery. While consumers are led to believe that cosmetic surgery is accessible, affordable and safe, they are sheltered from the reality of invasive and risky surgery and from the ability to clearly discern that all cosmetic procedures carry risk. While doctors continue to undertake advertising and engage in a territorial war, they fail to address the really important issues in cosmetic surgery. These are: providing real evidence about what happens in the industry, developing stringent regulations under which the industry should operate and ensuring that all patients considering cosmetic surgery are fully informed as to the risks of that surgery.
Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...
prevalence of irrational drug use and factors associated with it were ... The selection process adapted a ... Cultural preferences and beliefs also influence. 5 ... drugs remain a major problem. .... accounting for 51.4% of the records surveyed.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...
Wurcel, Alysse G.; Merchant, Elisabeth A.; Clark, Roger P.; Stone, David R.
This comprehensive review of infectious and noninfectious syndromes associated with illicit drug use focuses on underrecognized complications of common illicit drugs and constellations of syndromes associated with emerging illicit drugs.
Filges, Trine; Nielsen, Sine Kirkegaard; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Many treatments are not rigorously evaluated as to their effectiveness, and it is uncertain which types of interventions are more effective than others in reducing illicit drug use. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic mapping of the research literature of the effectiveness of 12-step...... programs in reducing illicit drug use. A systematic literature search was conducted based on 17 international and Nordic Bibliographic databases. A total of 15993 references were screened, and eleven unique studies were finally included in this mapping. The included studies demonstrated conflicting results...... regarding the effectiveness of the 12-step treatment and TSF in reducing individuals’ drug use. Two studies reported a positive effect of the TSF treatment compared to the comparison conditions in reducing drug use. Six studies reported no differences between 12-step program and the comparison condition...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...
A. R. Titova
Full Text Available The widespread «off-label» drug use and the prescribing of unlicensed medicines in pediatric practice is a major health problem. The authors discuss actual regulatory and legal issues of «off-label» drug use in children in the US, Europe and Russia. The results of different population-based studies from many countries, showing the structure and frequency of «off-label» drug use in children, are summarized in this article. It is shown that such practice increases the risk of adverse drug reactions. The authors offer practical recommendations for a safer use of drugs in pediatric practice. The priority issue is conducting high quality clinical trials with the participation of children, improving national pharmacovigilance and the monitoring of off-label drug use, developing pediatric formularies, improving doctors’ knowledge and awareness of safety and efficacy of medicines in pediatric population.
Melo, Jason S; Mittal, Maria Luisa; Horyniak, Danielle; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Werb, Dan
Dual epidemics of injection drug use and blood-borne disease, characterized as "syndemics," are present in a range of settings. Behaviors that drive such syndemics are particularly prevalent among mobile drug-using populations, for whom cross-border migration may pose additional risks. This narrative review aims to characterize the risk factors for injection drug use initiation associated with migration, employing a risk environment framework and focusing on the San Diego-Tijuana border region as the most dynamic example of these phenomena. Based on previous literature, we divide migration streams into three classes: intra-urban, internal, and international. We synthesized existing literature on migration and drug use to characterize how mobility and migration drive the initiation of injection drug use, as well as the transmission of hepatitis and HIV, and to delineate how these might be addressed through public health intervention. Population mixing between migrants and receiving communities and the consequent transmission of social norms about injection drug use create risk environments for injection drug use initiation. These risk environments have been characterized as a result of local policy environments, injection drug use norms in receiving communities, migration-related stressors, social dislocation, and infringement on the rights of undocumented migrants. Policies that exacerbate risk environments for migrants may inadvertently contribute to the expansion of epidemics of injection-driven blood-borne disease. Successful interventions that address emerging syndemics in border regions may therefore need to be tailored to migrant populations and distinguish between the vulnerabilities experienced by different migration classes and border settings.
McCabe, Connor J; Louie, Kristine A; King, Kevin M
Young adulthood is a peak period for externalizing behaviors such as substance abuse and antisocial conduct. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that externalizing conduct within this time period may be associated with a "developmental asymmetry" characterized by an early peak in sensation seeking combined with a relatively immature impulse control system. Trait measures of impulsivity-sensation seeking and premeditation-are psychological manifestations of these respective systems, and multiple prior studies suggest that high sensation seeking and low premeditation independently confer risk for distinct forms of externalizing behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this developmental asymmetry hypothesis, examining whether trait premeditation moderates the effect of sensation seeking on substance use and problems, aggression, and rule-breaking behavior. Using a cross-sectional sample of college-enrolled adults (n = 491), we applied zero-inflated modeling strategies to examine the likelihood and level of risky externalizing behaviors. Results indicated that lower premeditation enhanced the effect of higher sensation seeking on higher levels of positive and negative alcohol consequences, more frequent drug use, and more problematic drug use, but was unrelated to individual differences in antisocial behaviors. Our findings indicate that the developmental asymmetry between sensation seeking and a lack of premeditation is a risk factor for individual differences in problematic substance use among young adults, and may be less applicable for antisocial behaviors among high functioning individuals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J
The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as adolescents' attitudes about sex, perceived parental norms, knowledge about sexual health, and birth-control self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of contextual factors such as parent-adolescent relationship quality, school connectedness, and exposure to AIDS and pregnancy education on a number of risky sexual behaviors and outcomes: early sex initiation, sex under the influence of substances, condom use at last intercourse, and having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Different patterns of direct and mediated effects emerged for each sexual outcome. Results are discussed in terms of the complex interplay between environment and individual and in terms of how, when, and with whom to intervene in order to improve adolescent sexual health outcomes.
Stewart, S H; Karp, J; Pihl, R O; Peterson, R A
Two studies examined the relationships between anxiety sensitivity (AS), drug use, and reasons for drug use. In Study 1, 229 university students (57% F) completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) and a drug use survey, assessing use of a variety of drugs within the last month, and coping reasons for drug use. Consistent with a modified tension-reduction hypothesis, ASI scores were positively correlated with the number of both anxiety- and depression-related reasons for drug use endorsed. In Study 2, 219 university students (74% F) completed the ASI and a drug use survey, assessing use of several drugs (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes, caffeine, and marijuana/hashish) within the last year, and primary reasons (coping, affiliative, or enhancement) for the use of each drug. Marijuana/hashish users reported lower ASI scores than non-users supporting a negative relation between AS and the use of cannabis. ASI scores were positively correlated with the use of alcohol primarily to cope, and negatively correlated with the use of alcohol primarily to affiliate, among both gender groups, and ASI scores were positively correlated with the use of nicotine primarily to cope among the females. Implications of these findings for understanding risk for abuse of stress-response-dampening drugs by high AS individuals are discussed.
Habibi, Mojtaba; Darharaj, Mohammad; Kelly, Adrian B; Shahmiri, Hasan; Malekianjabali, Mona; Kheirolomoom, Seyedeh Leili
Given the stressful nature of military life, people in the armed forces are vulnerable to substance use. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between family and peers with drug use among military forces in Iran. Convenience sampling was used to recruit a total of 422 draftees doing military service in army units in Tehran, Iran. Measures of family and peers' risk and protective factors, alcohol use, and other drug use were administered. Findings indicated significant relationships between family (i.e., family models for risk behavior, parent sanctions, and family controls) and peers (i.e., peer modeling for risk behavior, peer controls, support from friends) with drug use. A multiple regression analysis revealed that peer modeling for risk behavior, family models for risk behavior, and parent sanctions were significant predictors of drug use in soldiers. These results were consistent with the influence of family and peer on drug use amongst soldiers. Programs designed to reduce alcohol and other drug use may benefit from tailoring to fit risk and protective files amongst peer and family networks.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359
Danielson, Carla Kmett; Macdonald, Alexandra; Amstadter, Ananda B; Hanson, Rochelle; de Arellano, Michael A; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often considered the primary problematic outcome of child sexual abuse (CSA). However, a number of other, relatively understudied negative sequelae appear to be prevalent as well. Data from 269 adolescents with a CSA history from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication Study were therefore used to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors (i.e., problematic alcohol and drug use, delinquent behavior) and depression in this sample. The frequencies of these problems in youth with and without a history of PTSD also were examined. Results indicated that risky behaviors and depression were reported as or more frequently than PTSD. Among youth with a history of PTSD, depression and delinquent behavior were more common than among those without a history of PTSD. However, there were no differences between adolescents with and without a history of PTSD in reported problematic substance use. Findings highlight the need for comprehensive trauma-informed interventions for CSA-exposed adolescents.
Brook, J S; Whiteman, M; Shapiro, J; Cohen, P
The interrelation between parental drug use and parental personality and the effects on 18-month-old children's adjustment were examined. Data on the parents were available at four points in time: Time 1 at mean age 6.1 years, Time 2 at mean age 13.7 years, Time 3 at mean age 16.4 years, and at Time 4 at mean age 22.2 years. Data on their toddlers at 18 months of age were also available. Structured interviews were used to assess personality and drug use and the toddlers' adjustment. Time 3 parental personality traits were related to Time 4 personality traits, which in turn were related to toddler adjustment. The influence of parental alcohol involvement (Time 3) on toddler adjustment was mediated by parental personality (Times 3 and 4) and parental alcohol problems (Time 4). Interactive effects demonstrated that protective parental personality traits (nondrug conducive) enhanced the effects of low parental drug use, resulting in the highest amounts of toddler adjustment. There are significant pathways between parental personality and drug use and toddler adjustment. Parental protective factors enhance the effect of parental low drug use on toddler adjustment.
Full Text Available The main research problem is focused on the following question: Is it possible to identify specific patterns of interaction between precipitating and protective factors for the risky behavior among adolescents. The research was conducted on the sample of 204 adolescents of both genders (18 to 20 years old. Specific personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics are manifested as the most important precipitating and/or protective factors for the risky behavior. The frame of reference for personality assessment was the alternative five-factor model (Zuckerman, 2002, specified in the ZKPQ-50-CC questionnaire, and consisted of the five biologically determined personality traits: activity, aggressiveness/hostility, impulsive sensation seeking, neuroticism/anxiety and sociability. Latent dimensions of the risky behavior: risky activities and life - conditions, were extracted by applying the homogeneity analyses (HOMALS. The matrix of squared Euclidean distances (in the common space of factor scores on the principal components of ZKPQ questionnaire, scores on HOMALS dimensions and school grades was a subject of the Ward hierarchical cluster analysis method, extracting three clusters. According to the discriminant functions: risk proneness and pro-social activity, the clusters were identified: the group of pro-social oriented adolescents, the aloof group and the group of adolescents prone to risky behavior. The results have considerable implications for the prevention programs’ development and implementation.
Palfai, Tibor P; Cheng, Debbie M; Bernstein, Judith A; Palmisano, Joseph; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A; Goodness, Tracie; Saitz, Richard
Although a number of brief intervention approaches for drug use are based on motivational interviewing (MI), relatively little is known about whether the quality of motivational interviewing skills is associated with intervention outcomes. The current study examined whether indices of motivational interviewing skill were associated with subsequent drug use outcomes following two different MI-based brief interventions delivered in primary care; a 15 min Brief Negotiated Interview (BNI) and a 45 min adaptation of motivational interviewing (MOTIV). Audio recordings from 351 participants in a randomized controlled trial for drug use in primary care were coded using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Scale, (MITI Version 3.1.1). Separate negative binomial regression analyses, stratified by intervention condition, were used to examine the associations between six MITI skill variables and the number of days that the participant used his/her main drug 6 weeks after study entry. Only one of the MITI variables (% reflections to questions) was significantly associated with the frequency of drug use in the MOTIV condition and this was opposite to the hypothesized direction (global p=0.01, adjusted IRR 1.50, 95%CI: 1.03-2.20 for middle vs. lowest tertile [higher skill, more drug use]. None were significantly associated with drug use in the BNI condition. Secondary analyses similarly failed to find consistent predictors of better drug outcomes. Overall, this study provides little evidence to suggest that the level of MI intervention skills are linked with better drug use outcomes among people who use drugs and receive brief interventions in primary care. Findings should be considered in light of the fact that data from the study are from negative trial of SBI and was limited to primary care patients. Future work should consider alternative ways of examining these process variables (i.e., comparing thresholds of proficient versus non-proficient skills) or
Zoratto, F; Oddi, G; Gori, E; Micucci, A; De Petrillo, F; Paglieri, F; Adriani, W; Laviola, G; Addessi, E
Both human and non-human animals frequently deal with risky decisions in a social environment. Nevertheless, the influence of the social context on decision-making has been scarcely investigated. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether the presence of a conspecific influences risk preferences in rats and in tufted capuchin monkeys. Subjects received a series of choices between a constant, safe option and a variable, risky option, both alone (Alone condition) and when paired with a conspecific (Paired condition). The average payoff of the risky option was always lower than that of the safe option. Overall, the two species differed in their attitude towards risk: whereas rats were indifferent between options, capuchins exhibited a preference for the safe option. In both species, risk preferences changed in the Paired condition compared to the Alone condition, although in an opposite way. Whereas rats increased their risk preferences over time when paired with a conspecific, capuchins chose the risky option less in the Paired condition than in the Alone condition. Moreover, whereas anxiety-like behaviours decreased across sessions in rats, these behaviours where more represented in the Paired condition than in the Alone condition in capuchins. Thus, our findings extends to two distantly-related non-human species the evidence, so far available for human beings, that a decrease in anxiety corresponds to an increase in risk preferences, and vice versa. This suggests that the modulation of risk preferences by social influences observed in rats and capuchin monkeys may rely on a common, evolutionarily ancient, mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fronczak, Carolyn M; Kim, Edward D; Barqawi, Al B
One-third of infertile couples may have a male factor present. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility and includes use of anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, opioid narcotics, cocaine, and methamphetamines. The use of these illicit drugs is common in the United States, with a yearly prevalence rate for any drug consistently higher in males compared with females. We aim to provide a review of recent literature on the prevalence and effects of illicit drug use on male fertility and to aid health professionals when counseling infertile men whose social history suggests illicit drug use. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics all negatively impact male fertility, and adverse effects have been reported on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, sperm function, and testicular structure. The use of illicit drugs is prevalent in our society and likely adversely impacting the fertility of men who abuse drugs.
Thylstrup, Birgitte; Clausen, Thomas; Hesse, Morten
Objectives To present the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a national cohort of patients seeking treatment for drug use disorders (DUD). Methods This is a longitudinal record linkage study of consecutive DUD treatment admissions between 2000 and 2006 from Denmark. Results...... treatment (SHR = 1.15, p = 0.022). The use of amphetamines was negatively associated with the risk of CVD within this cohort (SHR = 0.75, p = 0.001). Conclusions Patients injecting drugs using prescribed methadone were at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease and should be monitored for CVD. Opioid...... medications should be evaluated in terms of their cardiovascular sequelae....
Nørgaard, Ane; Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Gasse, Christiane
: To investigate time trends in use of antipsychotics and other psychotropic drugs in dementia care. METHODS: The study included longitudinal data on all Danish residents ≥65 years. The study population was defined on January 1 of each year from 2000-2012. Data included prescriptions, discharge diagnoses......, and somatic and psychiatric comorbidities. Multivariate time trend analyses of psychotropic drug use in patients with dementia within 4-year age bands were performed. RESULTS: Overall, among patients with dementia the prevalence of antipsychotic drug use decreased from 31.3% in 2000 to 20.4% in 2012...
Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine; Brännström, Lars
12-step programs for reducing illicit drug use are neither better nor worse than other interventions Illicit drug abuse has serious and far-reaching implications for the abuser, their family members, friends, and society as a whole. Preferred intervention programs are those that effectively reduce...... illicit drug use and its negative consequences, and are cost-effective as well. Current evidence shows that overall, 12-step programs are just as effective as alternative, psychosocial interventions. The costs of programs are, therefore, an important consideration. However, the strength of the studies...
The article analyzes Danish clubbers’ strategies for taking drugs in night clubs. This exploration is framed within the discussion of a possible normalization of youth drug use. Thus, the article investigates how young drug-users experience the level of acceptability of drug use in clubs and how ...... are indicative of the level of acceptability of drugs in club settings. Through this focus on the micro-level, the article adds to the limited amount of literature on this dimension of the normalization thesis. Empirically, the article is based on a Danish mixed methods club study....
Mota, Daniel Marques; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; Sudo, Elisa Cazue; Ortún, Vicente
The present article approaches rational drug use (RDU) from the economical point of view. The implementation of RDU implies in costs and involves acquisition of knowledge and behavioral changes of several agents. The difficulties in implementing RDU may be due to shortage problems, information asymmetry, lack of information, uncertain clinical decisions, externalities, time-price, incentives for drug prescribers and dispensers, drug prescriber preferences and marginal utility. Health authorities, among other agencies, must therefore regularize, rationalize and control drug use to minimize inefficiency in pharmaceutical care and to prevent exposing the population to unnecessary health risks.
Nevadomsky, J J
Based on a sample of nearly 300 university students in Benin City, Nigeria, the present study shows that, although a wide range of various drugs are readily available and known, the substances most frequently used by university students are coffee, cola nuts, alcohol, spirits and cigarettes. Diazepam and diazepoxide are also used with some frequency. Students tend to use stimulants and depressants sequentially, mainly during and after sessional examinations. The stimulants keep them alert while they are studying for an examination, and the depressants help them to rest after an examination is over. Cannabis is well-known and has been tried by many students.
Shimp, Kristy G; Mitchell, Marci R; Beas, B Sofia; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry
The ability to make advantageous decisions under circumstances in which there is a risk of adverse consequences is an important component of adaptive behavior; however, extremes in risk taking (either high or low) can be maladaptive and are characteristic of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. To better understand the contributions of various affective and cognitive factors to risky decision making, cohorts of male Long-Evans rats were trained in a "Risky Decision making Task" (RDT), in which they made discrete trial choices between a small, "safe" food reward and a large, "risky" food reward accompanied by varying probabilities of footshock. Experiment 1 evaluated the relative contributions of the affective stimuli (i.e., punishment vs. reward) to RDT performance by parametrically varying the magnitudes of the footshock and large reward. Varying the shock magnitude had a significant impact on choice of the large, "risky" reward, such that greater magnitudes were associated with reduced choice of the large reward. In contrast, varying the large, "risky" reward magnitude had minimal influence on reward choice. Experiment 2 compared individual variability in RDT performance with performance in an attentional set shifting task (assessing cognitive flexibility), a delayed response task (assessing working memory), and a delay discounting task (assessing impulsive choice). Rats characterized as risk averse in the RDT made more perseverative errors on the set shifting task than did their risk taking counterparts, whereas RDT performance was not related to working memory abilities or impulsive choice. In addition, rats that showed greater delay discounting (greater impulsive choice) showed corresponding poorer performance in the working memory task. Together, these results suggest that reward-related decision making under risk of punishment is more strongly influenced by the punishment than by the reward, and that risky and impulsive decision making are associated with
Šeibokaitė, Laura; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Sullman, Mark J M; Markšaitytė, Rasa; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina
Risky driving is a common cause of traffic accidents and injuries. However, there is no clear evidence of how difficulties in emotion regulation contribute to risky driving behavior, particularly in small post-Soviet countries. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and self-reported risky driving behavior in a sample of Lithuanian drivers. A total of 246 nonprofessional Lithuanian drivers participated in a cross-sectional survey. Difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer 2004), and risky driving behavior was assessed using the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ; Lajunen et al. 2004). Males scored higher than females in aggressive violations and ordinary violations. Females scored higher for the nonacceptance of emotional responses, whereas males had more difficulties with emotional awareness than females. More difficulties in emotion regulation were positively correlated with driving errors, lapses, aggressive violations, and ordinary violations for both males and females. Structural equation modeling showed that difficulties in emotion regulation explained aggressive and ordinary violations more clearly than lapses and errors. When controlling for interactions among the distinct regulation difficulties, difficulties with impulse control and difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior predicted risky driving. Furthermore, nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation strategies were related to less violations and more driving errors. Emotion regulation difficulties were associated with the self-reported risky driving behaviors of Lithuanian drivers. This provides useful hints for improving driver training programs in order to prevent traffic injuries.
Goodall, Catherine E; Slater, Michael D
Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between risky sexual behaviours and substance uses among Ghanaian youth were investigated. Methods An in-school cross-sectional representative survey was conducted among 12-18-year- old youth in Ghana in 2008 (N = 1195, response rate =90%. Logistic regression analyses were employed to investigate the association between substance use (tobacco use, drunkenness, marijuana use and other drug uses and risky sexual behaviours (sexual debut, condom use and number of sexual partners. Results Of all youth, 25% (28% boys and 23% girls were sexually experienced. The mean age for first sexual intercourse was 14.8 years (14.4 years for boys and 15.1 years for girls. Among the sexually experienced, 31% had multiple sexual partners. Older age (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4 and rural residency (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1 were independently associated with sexual debut while only older age (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4 was associated with condom use. Additionally, smoking (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.0-6.8, tawa use (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.3-4.7, tobacco use (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7-4.7 drunkenness (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.8 and marijuana use (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.6-7.0 were independently associated with sexual debut. Furthermore, all substance uses studied were associated with having one or multiple sexual partners. Conclusion Substance use seems to be a gateway for risky sexual behaviours among Ghanaian youth. Public health interventions should take into account the likelihood of substance use among sexually experienced youth.
Dahal, Govinda P.; Hennink, Monique; Hinde, Andrew
We use the Nepal Adolescents and Young Adults (NAYA) Survey of 2000 to analyse the prevalence of sexual activity and risky sexual behaviour among Nepalese males aged 14-22 years. Risky sexual behaviour is considered to be characterised by having multiple partners, or having one non-regular partner with whom a condom was not used, in the 12 months before the survey. About 9 per cent of the sexually active married men aged 14-22 years, and about 20 per cent of sexually active single men in the ...
Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and the determinants of risky sexual behavior (defined as having multiple sex partners and paying for sex among male rural-to-urban migrants in China. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with increased risk of risky sexual behavior from 4,069 subjects. In total 1,132 (27.8% participants reported two or more sex partners and 802 (19.7% participants paid for sex. A considerable proportion (29.6%–41.5% did not use a condom during risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression analysis revealed that unmarried status (OR: 0.62, CI: 0.42–0.85 for married, earlier age at first sexual experience (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.31–0.91 for ≥22 years old, poor perception of risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.33–1.96 for unlikely; OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.61–3.70 for impossible, frequent exposure to pornography (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.60–0.81 for sometimes; OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.43 for never, attitudes toward legalization of commercial sex (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.59 for no, peer influence (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27–0.88 for no, and not knowing someone who had/had died from HIV/AIDS (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.20–0.53 for yes were all significantly associated with having multiple sex partners. Those who paid for sex showed similar findings.
Schneider, Dona; Morris, Joyce
We surveyed varsity athletes at a Big East university to assess attitudes toward a mandatory drug education and testing program and examined whether there were differences in drug-related attitudes and behaviors based on gender or varsity sport. We found no statistically significant differences in personal drug use behaviors based on gender or team affiliation. Attitudes about drug use and knowledge of a teammate using drugs did show significant differences based on varsity sport. Tennis play...
Richardson, Gale A.; Larkby, Cynthia; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.
Objective: To investigate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent drug use, while controlling for other predictors of adolescent use. Method: Data are from a longitudinal study of PCE in which women and their offspring were assessed throughout childhood. Adolescents were interviewed at 15 years about their age at…
studies have shown clearly that frequent and regular use of alcohol, tobacco ... This lack of knowledge potentially hampers the development of interventions that delay or halt drug use progression. This ... study, the. English version of the CIDI was translated into several other ...... States: Evidence from the Republic of Chile.
Substance abuse is a critical problem in Botswana, yet empirical evidence on substance users is limited. The current study sought to examine patterns of drug use and sociodemographic profiles of clients who sought treatment at a substance abuse treatment centre in Gaborone, Botswana. Findings showed clients' age ...
Aim: To ascertain the prevalence and nature of psychoactive drug use amongst taxi drivers in Nigeria. Materials and Method: A total of 192 taxi drivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria was studied using a questionnaire. Information obtained from the questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the drivers, ...
O'Malley, Patrick M.; And Others
Contrary to previous findings, drug use rates were not very different for various categories of prospective military servicemen. Findings suggest that there is currently no selection effect operating such that those who enter all-volunteer military service are more prone to drug abuse than their comparably educated age/sex mates. (Author/WI)
Rouse, Beatrice A.; Ewing, John A.
This study seeks: (1) to detect whether an increase in drug use occurred in the two years since a previous similar study; (2) to determine the kinds and levels of risk which the students associated with the nonprescription use of various drugs; and (3) to examine the extent to which the marihuana groups showed alienation. The study drew a…
Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Kiley, Marion C.
This article examines the subculture of violence thesis as it relates to female street sex workers in Miami. Interview and focus group methods were used to study the intersections of childhood trauma, drug use, and violent victimization among 325 women. Using targeted sampling, crack- and heroin-using sex workers were recruited through street…
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…
Simeon J. Crawford
Full Text Available Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use.
Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice
This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…
Huang, David Y. C.; Evans, Elizabeth; Hara, Motoaki; Weiss, Robert E.; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study investigated the impact of drug use on employment over 20 years among men and women, utilizing data on 7661 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Growth mixture modeling was applied, and five distinct employment trajectory groups were identified for both men and women. The identified patterns were largely similar…
Cousineau, D.; Savard, M.; Allard, D.
Illicit drug use was studied in 2071 students 11 to 18 years of age. Almost all drug users had friends who consumed drugs, compared with only one third of those who did not use drugs. This suggests a bond between adolescent drug users, who form a distinct group of which most students are unaware.
Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A
Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.
Riley, Anthony L; Hempel, Briana J; Clasen, Matthew M
The study of sex as a biological variable is a necessary emphasis across a wide array of endpoints, including basic neuroscience, medicine, mental health, physiology and behavior. The present review summarizes work from clinical and preclinical populations on sex differences in drug use and abuse, ranging from initiation to escalation/dysregulation and from drug cessation/abstinence to relapse. These differences are analyzed in the context of the addiction cycle conceptualization of Koob and his colleagues and address patterns of drug use (binge/intoxication), motivation underlying its use (withdrawal/negative affect) and likelihood and causes of craving and relapse of drug taking (preoccupation/anticipation). Following this overview, an assessment of the basis for the reported sex differences is discussed in the context of the affective (rewarding and aversive) properties of drugs of abuse and how such properties and their balance vary with sex and contribute to drug intake. Finally, the interaction of sex with several experiential (drug history) and subject (age) factors and how these interactions affect reward and aversion are discussed to highlight the importance of understanding such interactions in predicting drug use and abuse. We note that sex as a biological variable remains one of critical evaluation and that such investigations of sex differences in drug use and abuse continue and be expanded to assess all facets of their mediation, including these affective properties, how their balance may be impacted by the multiple conditions under which drugs are taken and how this overall balance affects drug use and addiction vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integrated biobehavioral surveys (IBBS have been used to evaluate the impact of HIV prevention efforts among most-at-risk groups in Ukraine since 2007. Harm reduction program coverage among injecting-drug users (IDUs increased substantially from 96,000 in 2008 to 170,000 in 2010 with support from the Global Fund, and IBBS have shown declining HIV prevalence. Aim of the study was to examine the changes in HIV prevalence, drug use patterns and risky behaviors in IDUs on national and city level.METHODS: For this analysis, three IDU-IBBS datasets were combined – 2008 (N=3711, 2009 (N=3962, and 2011 (N=9069. The analysis included 25 cities that participated in either 2008 or 2009, and 2011. Changes in HIV prevalence, drug use, and risk behaviors were compared between 2008/9 and 2011.RESULTS: The surveyed IDU population in 2011 was older than in 2008/9 (31.0 vs. 32.8 years; p<.0001, and included more females (23.5% vs. 25.5%; p=.0038, with substantial variation across cities.Overall HIV prevalence in the sample declined slightly (22.9% to 21.6%; p=.05. In eight cities, HIV prevalence decreased significantly (-5% to -18%, while significant increases were seen in five cities (8% to 15%. Prevalence among IDUs younger than 25 years declined (9.9% to 7.2%; p=.0078.The combined dataset showed no difference in opioid or stimulant past-30-day use, with variation at city level. Clean needle/syringe use during last injection increased significantly (88.8% to 97.0%; p<.0001, with no opposing trend in any city. Three cities had an increase in past-30-day needle/syringe sharing; nine – in container sharing; twelve – in use of preloaded syringes. Changes in condom use were not significant (54.1% to 54.9%, p=.32.CONCLUSIONS: IDUs in Ukraine are ageing and HIV seroprevalence among IDUs continues to decline, especially among young IDUs. However, prevention programming needs to respond to significant regional variations in risk behaviors and HIV
Salameh, P; Zeenny, R; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I
Sexuality is still a taboo in Middle Eastern countries, and Lebanon is no exception. This study's objective was to evaluate attitudes towards sexuality and its practice among university students in Lebanon and assess their respective correlates. The cross-sectional study was carried out among students selected from seventeen universities across Lebanon. The participants received a self-administered standardized questionnaire that assessed their attitudes towards sexuality. It included questions on socio-demographic factors, risk-taking, risky behaviours and sexuality-related questions. Among 3384 students, 2700 (79.8%) answered the questions on sexuality. Around 15% had engaged in sexual activity, while 20% were regularly sexually active. Among males, 34.8% had never had sexual activity, 29.9% had tried it and 35.3% were regularly sexually active. Among females the results were respectively 85.1%, 5.3% and 9.6% (p<0.001). Only 36% regularly used condoms during their relationships. A liberal attitude towards sex, male sex, motives for risky behaviours, current cigarette smoking and problematic alcohol consumption were associated with sexual activity. Realizing that risky behaviours are dangerous, health concerns related to sexual relationships and a liberal attitude towards sex were associated with regular condom use. However, being bothered by condoms and female sex were inversely associated with condom use. Finally, participants who had motives for, and those who felt excited about risky behaviours, and those reporting current cigarette and waterpipe smoking and problematic alcohol consumption (β=0.600; p=0.002) embraced a more liberal attitude towards sex. Conversely, females (β=-7.58; p<0.001) and individuals who considered risky behaviours as dangerous reported an unfavourable attitude towards sexuality. A substantial proportion of Lebanese university students have regular sexual activity, but a low percentage use condoms for protection. Interventions are
Dawson, Deborah A; Compton, Wilson M; Grant, Bridget F
The objective of this study was to test the ability of a question on frequency of drinking 5+ (for men) or 4+ (for women) drinks to screen for drug use and drug-use disorders (DUDs) in a general population sample. Using data collected in 2001-2002 from a representative U.S. adult population sample (N= 43,093), including a subsample of those with past-year emergency-department use (n = 8,525), past-year frequency of drinking 5+/4+ drinks was evaluated as a screener for drug use and DUDs for four categories of illicit drugs. Sensitivities and specificities of the 5+/4+ drinks screener were 72.4% and 76.6% for any drug dependence, 71.9% and 77.3% for any DUD, and 63.3% and 78.9% for any drug use in the general population. Sensitivities and specificities were higher for marijuana and cocaine/crack and lowest for illicit prescription drugs. Optimal screening cut-points were once a month or more for cocaine/crack dependence, either once or more a month or seven or more times a year for cocaine/crack DUDs, seven or more times a year for cocaine/crack use, and once or more a year for the other drug use and DUD measures. Sensitivity and specificity were similar among adults who had visited an emergency department in the past year, and the optimal screening cutpoints were identical. Past-year frequency of drinking 5+/4+ drinks was quite accurate as a screener for past-year marijuana and cocaine/crack use and DUDs, but it was less accurate for illicit prescription drug use and DUDs. Its drug-screening potential can be thought of as "added value" from an item already likely to be asked in the interest of detecting problem drinking. Future work may consider using the alcohol consumption screener as a starting point, with follow-up questions to assess illicit drug use among those who screen positive.
Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F
The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.
Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily
Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein
Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily informed by protection motivation theory. We invited…
Swanholm, Eric; Vosvick, Mark; Chng, Chwee-Lye
Objective: To explain variance in depression in students (N = 648) using a model incorporating sexual trauma, pessimism, and risky sex. Method: Survey data collected from undergraduate students receiving credit for participation. Results: Controlling for demographics, a hierarchical linear regression analysis [Adjusted R[superscript 2] = 0.34,…
This paper contributes to conflicting evidence on the link between poverty and risky sexual behaviour by examining the effect of wealth status on age at first sex, condom use, and multiple partners using nationally representative adolescents\\' data from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. The results show that the ...
Keywords: Risky sexual behavior, living with parents, family environment. African Halth ... increases the probability of negative consequences ... greater the gender imbalance in rates of HIV infection, with ... communication and family support) (22 Items with. 5-point ... students relationship and school-students relationship).
Full Text Available Substance abuse and risky sexual behavior have been identified as behaviors that can endanger adolescent psychosocial development. This study examined the relationship between methamphetamine (MAMP use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents. Risky sexual behavior was compared not only between MAMP users and non-users, but also between high-frequency and low-frequency MAMP users. We compared the sexual intercourse histories of 85 adolescents formally charged as MAMP users with those of 170 gender-matched adolescents with no record of MAMP use. MAMP usage characteristics were compared between users who had and those who had not experienced sexual intercourse. Previous sexual experience was more likely in MAMP users than in non-users. MAMP users were also more likely to have had a greater total number of sexual partners and were more likely to have had unplanned sex under the influence of alcohol. High-frequency MAMP use was associated with increased tendencies to engage in unprotected sex and to use MAMP before sexual intercourse. In general, the chance of sexual intercourse increased in proportion to frequency of MAMP use. Given the clear link between MAMP use and risky sexual behavior, risk-reduction programs directed at teen MAMP users are urgently needed.
Backgound: HIV/AIDS pandemic is a great public health concern hence the need to identify interventions to prevent new infections among risk groups. Objective: To determine risky sexual behaviours among HIV sero-discordant individuals attending Defence Forces Memorial Hospital (DFMH). Design: A descriptive ...
Oct 2, 2017 ... journalCode=rsah20. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact ..... borative experiences between different role players can facilitate ..... between participants meaning that for some there was more of.
though male circumcision coupled with preventive behaviour reduces this risk. Objective: To compare the factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among circumcised and uncircumcised men in Bo- tswana. Methods: Nationally representative data from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey III were used. A sample of 313 ...
... it was recommended that those in the helping professions should take cognizance of those variables that have been found to influence risky sexual behaviours and decisions among couples. The result also recommends intervention strategy to help couples achieve a better reproductive health behaviour, relationship and ...
DeKay, Michael L.; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Fischbeck, Paul S.
Substantial evidence indicates that information is distorted during decision making, but very few studies have assessed the distortion of probability and outcome information in risky decisions. In two studies involving six binary decisions (e.g., banning blood donations from people who have visited England, because of "mad cow disease"),…
Chen, Yiwei; Ma, Xiaodong
The present study investigated the role of anticipated emotions in risky decisions of young and older adults. Young and older adults were asked to make a choice between an alternative that may have either a very positive or a very negative consequence and an alternative that was relatively safe. Meanwhile, they rated their anticipated emotions if…
, sexual activity, exposure to HIV-prevention services, and to identify correlates of risky sexual behaviour (not having used a condom at first or last sexual encounter and/or having multiple sexual partners over a 12-month period) among street ...
Background: Risky sexual behavior is any behavior that increases the probability of negative consequences associated with sexual contact. Family environment, peer influence, community factors and school attachment seem an important factor affecting sexual risk behavior and decision of in-school youths. Objective: To ...
Salamanca Acosta, N.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.; Montizaan, R.M.
Using representative household panel data, we show that the investment behavior of households is related to the economic locus of control of household heads. A household’s internal locus of control in economic issues is positively related to its decision to hold risky assets as well as its share of
Salamanca, N.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.; Montizaan, R.M.
Using representative household panel data, we show that the investment behavior of households is related to the economic locus of control of household heads. A household's internal locus of control in economic issues is positively related to its decision to hold risky assets as well as its share of
Descriptive and stepwise logistic regression model was carried out using SPSS version 21. ... (STI) were 16 times more likely to have early sexual contact compared to those students who ... Key words: Risky sexual behaviours, University students, Debre Tabor. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the prevalence of drug abuse before prison admission and to identify associated sociodemographic and family history risk factors, according to gender, in prisons of Peru. Materials and methods: A secondary analysis was carried out with data from the First National Prisoner Census 2016, using a questionnaire of 173 items that was applied to the whole prison population of Peru. The types of drugs used before admission were analyzed according to characteristics of the penitentiary population, and generalized linear models were used to calculate prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals to identify possible factors associated with drug use. Results: Out of a population of 76,180 prisoners, 71,184 (93.4% answered the survey (men 67,071, 94.2%. The overall prevalence of drug consumption before admission was 24.4% (25.3 % in men and 9.1% in women, the highest prevalence in the 18-29 age group (36.3% in men and 14.9% in women. The most commonly used drugs were marijuana (58.2%, coca paste/cocaine or crack (40.3% and inhalants (1%. The factors most strongly associated with consumption were having a family member who consumed drugs (59.8%, history of previous imprisonment (59.1%, unemployment (48.4%, relationships at school with classmates who had problems with the law (46.9%, background of a family member who attended a penitentiary (38.4%, and history of running away from home before age 15 (35.9%. Conclusions: In Peru, drug use is higher in the prison population than in the general population, and there are differences according to sex in the prevalence of drug use and associated factors prior to admission to a prison. The study demonstrated that childhood events, such as child abuse, having a family member imprisoned, having a family member who used drugs, or who previously abused alcohol, are factors associated with drug use in the penitentiary population. Some of these risk factors are modifiable, so it is
Odalovic, Marina; Vezmar Kovacevic, Sandra; Ilic, Katarina; Sabo, Ana; Tasic, Ljiljana
Observation of drug use patterns during pregnancy is necessary for the recognition of potential bad practices and improvement of safe drug use in pregnancy. To investigate prescription and over the counter drug use among Serbian women in the 6 months before pregnancy and in the first 6 months of pregnancy, and to evaluate the drugs used according to the risk to a fetus. Setting Six maternity care units and five community pharmacies. A multi-center study was performed in Serbia during the period from March 2009-March 2010. A self-reporting questionnaire was used as a data source. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) risk classification system was used to determine the risk of used drugs for the fetus. Differences between subgroups were assessed using McNemar's test on paired proportions. Main outcome measure Proportion of women exposed to drugs or class of drugs. The overall drug exposure was higher in pregnancy (34.7 %) than before pregnancy (29.9 %), p > 0.05, in the cohort of 311 pregnant women. A significantly greater prescription drug use, 19.0 versus 27.3 % of women, p drugs in pregnancy, 15.1 versus 8.7 %, p drugs were musculoskeletal drugs, analgesics/antipyretics and respiratory system drugs before pregnancy (13.8, 12.5, and 6.4 % of women, respectively), and progestogens, analgesics/antipyretics, and antibiotics for the systemic use in pregnancy (9.0, 7.7, and 7.4 %, respectively). A greater exposure to drugs belonging to the FDA risk category A (3.9 vs. 60.8 %, p 0.05), C (10.0 vs. 10.3 %, p > 0.05) and D (2.9 vs. 10.9 %, p drugs belonging to category X (0.3 vs. 0 %, p > 0.05) were observed in pregnancy. Folic acid was used by 60.8 % of women in pregnancy, and by only 3.9 % before pregnancy. Besides higher overall drug use in pregnancy than before pregnancy, particularly the use of progestogens, and, subsequently, D category drugs, less selfmedication with over the counter drugs was observed in pregnancy. Insufficient use of folic acid before pregnancy
Marsh, Barnaby; Kacelnik, Alex
Animals are predominantly risk prone toward reward delays and risk averse toward reward amounts. Humans in turn tend to be risk-seeking for losses and risk averse for gains. To explain the human results, Prospect Theory postulates a convex utility for losses and concave utility for gains. In contrast, Scalar Utility Theory (SUT) explains the animal data by postulating that the cognitive representation of outcomes follows Weber's Law, namely that the spread of the distribution of expected outcomes is proportional to its mean. SUT also would explain human results if utility (even if it is linear on expected outcome) followed Weber's Law. We present an experiment that simulates losses and gains in a bird, the European Starling, to test the implication of SUT that risk proneness/aversion should extend to any aversive/desirable dimension other than time and amount of reward. Losses and gains were simulated by offering choices of fixed vs. variable outcomes with lower or higher outcomes than what the birds expected. The subjects were significantly more risk prone for losses than for gains but, against expectations, they were not significantly risk averse toward gains. The results are thus, in part, consistent with Prospect Theory and SUT and show that risk attitude in humans and birds may obey a common fundamental principle.
Robertson, E; Donnermeyer, J F
This article examines illegal drug use among adults living in nonmetropolitan and rural areas of the United States using data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Subjects were classified into three categories by residence: nonmetropolitan-urban, metropolitan-rural, and nonmetropolitan-rural. Respondents indicate about 10% of adults were current users of marijuana or other illegal drugs. Discriminant analysis was used to examine differences among groups of individuals classified as current users, past users, and nonusers. For both marijuana and other illegal drugs, the variables that accounted most for group differences were age, marital, status, employment status, occupation, and income. Only minor differences in drug use were exhibited across the three residential categories. It is recommended that future research on the rural and nonmetropolitan adult population incorporate both structural level measures of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of localities, and individual level measures of peer influence, work stress, family factors, and psychosocial characteristics.
Gaist, David; Rodríguez, Luis Alberto García; Hellfritzsch, Maja
Importance: Incidence of subdural hematoma has been reported to be increasing. To what extent this is related to increasing use of antithrombotic drugs is unknown. Objectives: To estimate the association between use of antithrombotic drugs and subdural hematoma risk and determine trends in subdural...... hematoma incidence and antithrombotic drug use in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case-control study of 10 010 patients aged 20 to 89 years with a first-ever subdural hematoma principal discharge diagnosis from 2000 to 2015 matched by age, sex, and calendar year to 400...... 380 individuals from the general population (controls). Subdural hematoma incidence and antithrombotic drug use was identified using population-based regional data (population: 484 346) and national data (population: 5.2 million) from Denmark. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds...
Roederer, Mary W; Sanchez-Giron, Francisco; Kalideen, Kusha; Kudzi, William; McLeod, Howard L; Zhang, Wei
The WHO embraces evidence-based medicine to formulate an essential medicines list (EML) considering disease prevalence, drug efficacy, drug safety and cost-effectiveness. The EML is used by developing countries to build a national formulary. As pharmacogenetics in developed countries evolves, the Pharmacogenetics for Every Nation Initiative (PGENI) convened with representatives from China, Mexico, Ghana and South Africa in August 2009 to evaluate the use of human pharmacogenetics to enhance global drug use policy. The diseases causing mortality, the lack of integration of pharmacovigilance at the national formulary level, the pharmacogenetics research agenda and pharmacogenetics clinician education did not differ greatly among the countries. While there are many unanswered questions, systematically incorporating pharmacogenetics at the national formulary level promises to improve global drug use.
Neurotoxicity of methamphetamine : Mechanisms of action and issues related to aging. In Miller, M. A., & Kozel, N. J., (Eds.), op. cit. 99. Cox et al...lives. This presents a dilemma for clearance adjudicators. If clearance standards are too lax, security may not be protected . If standards are too...strict, many well-adjusted, adventuresome, and creative employees may be screened out. Drug use may weaken judgment and affect ability to protect
Irrational drug use in neuropathic pain treatment: a twoyear data analysis. E Tan, A Akıncı, G Ayvaz, T Erbaş, M Ertaş, O Güç, S Hepgüler, S Kiraz, SZ Oşar, S Öztürk, NS Özyalçın, S Palaoğlu, M Uyar, S Ünal, S Yalçın ...
Jakelline Cipriano dos Santos Raposo; Ana Carolina de Queiroz Costa; Paula Andréa de Melo Valença; Patrícia Maria Zarzar; Alcides da Silva Diniz; Viviane Colares; Carolina da Franca
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolesc...
Alemi, Farrokh; Haack, Mary; Nemes, Susie; Harge, Angela; Baghi, Heibatollah
To examine the effect of online counseling abuse counseling on drug use among underserved patients. Subjects were recruited from an Indian Reservation in Eagle Butte, South Dakota; a family court in Newark, New Jersey; a probation office in Alexandria, Virginia; and a co-occurring disorders treatment clinic in Washington, District of Columbia. Subjects were predominantly poor, undereducated, unemployed, court involved, or diagnosed with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. A total of 79 subjects volunteered to participate in the project. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group. The control and experimental groups were both issued an Internet-ready computer and 1 year of Internet service. Only the experimental group had access to online counseling intervention. Drug use was measured using a combination of self-usage reporting and supervised urine tests. Urine tests were available for 37% of subjects. Exit surveys containing self-reported usage were obtained from 54% of the subjects. Self-usage reports or urine test results were available from 70% of subjects. The difference of the rates of drug use in the control and experimental groups (as calculated from urine tests or through self-report) was not significantly different from zero, suggesting that online counseling had not led to a reduction in substance use. It is possible that the study lacked sufficient power to detect small differences in the rate of drug use in the experimental and control groups. Additional research is needed to establish the efficacy of online counseling in hard-to-reach populations.
Genberg, Becky L; Astemborski, Jacquie; Vlahov, David; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H
There is limited longitudinal research examining incarceration and subsequent changes in drug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States. The objective of the current study was to characterize the frequency of incarceration and estimate the association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use among current and former PWIDs in one US city. ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience) is a prospective cohort study of current and former PWIDs, with semi-annual follow-up occurring since 1988. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. A total of 3245 participants with 48 738 study visits were included. Participants enrolled from 1988 to 2012 with a median of 13 follow-up visits per participant (Interquartile range = 7-25). Incarcerations were defined as any self-reported jail or prison stays in the previous 6 months that were ≥7 days or longer. The primary outcome was defined as any self-reported injection drug use in the previous 6 months. At baseline, 29% were female, 90% African American and 33% HIV-positive. Fifty-seven per cent of participants experienced at least one incarceration episode. After adjusting for confounders, there was a positive association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-1.59]; however, stratified analysis showed that the effect was restricted to those who were not injecting at the time of incarceration (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.88-2.37). In the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Mack, Karin A; Jones, Christopher M; Ballesteros, Michael F
Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015. The National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) collects information through face-to-face household interviews about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the U.S. noninstitutionalized civilian population aged ≥12 years. Respondents include residents of households and noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, rooming houses, dormitories, migratory workers' camps, and halfway houses) and civilians living on military bases. NSDUH variables include sex, age, race/ethnicity, residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan), annual household income, self-reported drug use, and drug use disorders. National Vital Statistics System Mortality (NVSS-M) data for U.S. residents include information from death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Cases were selected with an underlying cause of death based on the ICD-10 codes for drug overdoses (X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14). NVSS-M variables include decedent characteristics (sex, age, and race/ethnicity) and information on intent (unintentional, suicide, homicide, or undetermined), location of death (medical facility, in a home, or other [including nursing homes, hospices, unknown, and other locations]) and county of residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan). Metropolitan/nonmetropolitan status is assigned independently in each data system. NSDUH uses a three-category system: Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of ≥1 million persons; CBSA of illicit drugs, the prevalence was highest for the large metropolitan areas compared with
Lewis, Ben; Hoffman, Lauren A; Nixon, Sara Jo
Available evidence indicates women with substance use disorders may experience more rapid progression through usage milestones (telescoping). The few investigations of sex differences in treatment-seeking populations often focus on single substances and typically do not account for significant polysubstance abuse. The current study examined sex differences in a heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking polysubstance users. We examined patterns of drug use, age at drug use milestones (e.g., initial use, regular use), and progression rates between milestones. Nicotine and alcohol use were also evaluated. Participants (n = 543; 288 women) completed personal histories of substance use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, as well as inventories assessing affect, and intellectual ability. Rates of drug use and milestone ages varied by sex and specific drug. Analyses suggested pronounced telescoping effects for pain medication and marijuana, with women progressing more rapidly through usage milestones. Our data were generally supportive of telescoping effects, although considerable variance in progression measures was noted. The contrast between the marked telescoping observed in pain medication use and the absence of telescoping in other opioids was of particular interest. The discrepancy in telescoping effects, despite shared pharmacologies, suggests the need for further work examining underlying psychosocial factors. These results highlight that the specific sample population, substance, and outcome measure should be carefully considered when interpreting sex differences in substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yone Gonçalves de Moura
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated to frequent and heavy drug use among street children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. A sample of 2,807 street children and adolescents from the 27 Brazilian state capital cities was analyzed. A World Health Organization questionnaire for non-students was adapted for use in Brazil. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression and decision tree models. Factors inversely associated with frequent and heavy drug use were: being age nine to 11 years (OR = 0.1; school attendance (OR = 0.3; daily time (one to five hours spent on the streets (OR = 0.3 and 0.4; not sleeping on the streets (OR = 0.4; being on the streets for less than one year (OR = 0.4; maintenance of some family bonds (OR = 0.5; presence on the streets of a family member (OR = 0.6; not suffering domestic violence (OR = 0.6; being female (OR = 0.8. All of these variables were significant at the p < 0.05 level. The findings suggest that being younger, having family bonds and engagement in school are important protective factors that affect drug use among this population and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.
Kohn, Christine; Saleheen, Hassan; Borrup, Kevin; Rogers, Steve; Lapidus, Garry
Drug use by drivers is a significant and growing highway safety problem. College students are an important population to understand drugged driving. The objective of this study was to examine correlates of drugged driving among undergraduate college students. We conducted an anonymous, confidential, 24-question survey at a large New England public university during the 2010-2011 academic year among undergraduates in courses that met a graduation requirement. Data include demographics; academics; housing status; lifestyle; personal values; high school/college drug use; and driving following alcohol use, drug use, or both; and as a passenger with a driver who used alcohol, drugs, or both. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests compared driver alcohol use, drug use, or both with demographic, academic, and lifestyle variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed with drugged driving as the dependent variable. Odds ratios and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated for each of the potential explanatory variables in relation to the outcome. Four hundred forty-four of 675 students completed surveys (66% participation rate). Participants were representative of the student body with a mean age of 19.4 (±1.3 years), 51 percent male, 75 percent white, and 10 percent Hispanic. Seventy-eight percent lived on campus, 93 percent had a driver's license, and 37 percent had access to a car. Students disagreed that cannabinoids impair driving (18%) compared to other drugs (17%), stimulants (13%), depressants (11%), hallucinogens (8%), and alcohol (7%). Twenty-three percent drove after alcohol use and 22 percent drove after drug use. Forty-one percent reported having been a passenger with a driver who had been drinking and 37 percent with a driver using drugs. Drugged driving was more likely among males vs. females (30% vs. 14%, P driving included using drugs in high school (odds ratio [OR] = 9.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4
Carlini, Claudia; Andreoni, Solange; Sanchez, Zila M
The purpose of this study was to identify environmental factors associated with patterns of psychotropic drug use in nightclubs. Mixed methods were used to investigate psychotropic drugs consumption among patrons of 31 nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1822 patrons at the entrance and exit of the venues and 30 staff members of the nightclubs were interviewed. The observational data were collected through 307 h of observational research using a structured guide to register environmental measures. Psychotropic drug use in nightclubs was classified into three categories (1: no drugs; 2: legal drugs [e.g., alcohol and tobacco]; or 3: illicit drugs regardless of alcohol and tobacco use). Illicit drugs used were self-reported by patrons, and alcohol use was measured using a breathalyzer. The data were analyzed in clusters using correlated multinomial logistic regression models. The following environmental variables were associated with illicit drug use in nightclubs: all-you-can-drink service (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 11.84, 95%CI [4.06;34.57]) and light effects, such as laser and "disco lights" (aOR = 24.49, 95%CI [8.48;70.77]). The number of bouncers per capita × 100 and the presence of two or more dance floors were inversely associated with the use of illicit drugs (aOR = 0.26, 95%CI [0.11;0.65], and aOR = 0.13, 95%CI [0.06;0.29], respectively). Legal drug use was associated with all-you-can-drink service (aOR = 2.17, 95%CI [1.43;5.04]), the presence of two or more dance floors (aOR = 2.06, 95%CI [1.40;3.05]), and the number of bouncers per capita × 100 (aOR = 1.39, 95%CI [1.22;1.59]). These findings suggest that this is a multivariate phenomenon that would require an integrated approach involving the venue owners, staff members, patrons, local governments, and law enforcement agencies.
Conclusions: Knowledge towards sexually transmitted infections (STIs and condom use is still inadequate, especially regarding risky behaviors such as anal sex, and attitudes are mainly negative. Identifying at-risk populations, HIV-positive sex workers, education and campaigns to change the attitudes towards AIDS should be regarded a high priority in Iran.
Tubman, Jonathan G.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Schwartz, Seth J.; O'Hare, Thomas
The present study evaluated the use of the Risky Sex Scale (RSS; O'Hare, 2001) among youth in outpatient treatment for substance use problems. An ethnically diverse sample of 394 adolescents (280 males; Mage = 16.33 years, SDage = 1.15) was recruited from two treatment sites. The study was guided by two aims. First, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on RSS item responses. Findings replicated the factor structure identified in previous studies of undergraduate students cited for campus alcohol violations. Second, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to document associations between RSS subscales and self-reported substance use and sexual risk behaviors. The Risky Sex Expectancies (RSE) subscale was significantly associated with co-occurring alcohol use and sex, alcohol use at last intercourse, and alcohol use during the prior 30 days. The Risky Sex Behaviors (RSB) subscale was significantly associated with cooccurring drug use and sex, condom use at last intercourse and unprotected intercourse during the prior 30 days. The factor structure of the RSS was consistent across age group (12-16 and 16- 18) and across gender, and the links between the RSS subscales and health risk behaviors varied somewhat by gender but not by age group. These findings suggest that the RSS is an appropriate brief screening tool for predicting health risk behaviors among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. PMID:22425202
Chesky, Kris; Pair, Marla; Lanford, Scott; Yoshimura, Eri
The effectiveness of a hearing loss prevention program within a college may be dependent on attitudes among students majoring in music. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of music majors toward noise and to compare them to students not majoring in music. Participants ( N = 467) filled out a questionnaire designed to assess attitudes toward noise in youth culture and attitudes toward influencing their sound environment. Results showed that students majoring in music have a healthier attitude toward sound compared to students not majoring in music. Findings also showed that music majors are more aware and attentive to noise in general, likely to perceive sound that may be risky to hearing as something negative, and are more likely to carry out behaviors to decrease personal exposure to loud sounds. Due to these differences, music majors may be more likely than other students to respond to and benefit from a hearing loss prevention program.
Chen, Jie; Rizzo, John A
Little is known about racial and ethnic disparities in health care utilization, expenditures and drug choice in the antidepressant market. This study investigates factors associated with the racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use. We seek to determine the extent to which disparities reflect differences in observable population characteristics versus heterogeneity across racial and ethnic groups. Among the population characteristics, we are interested in identifying which factors are most important in accounting for racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use. Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 1996-2003, we have an available sample of 10,416 Caucasian, 1,089 African American and 1,539 Hispanic antidepressant drug users aged 18 to 64 years. We estimate individual out-of-pocket payments, total prescription drug expenditures, drug utilization, the probability of taking generic versus brand name antidepressants, and the share of drugs that are older types of antidepressants (e.g., TCAs and MAOIs) for these individuals during a calendar year. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition techniques are employed to determine the extent to which disparities reflect differences in observable population characteristics versus unobserved heterogeneity across racial and ethnic groups. Caucasians have the highest antidepressant drug expenditures and utilization. African-Americans have the lowest drug expenditures and Hispanics have the lowest drug utilization. Relative to Caucasians and Hispanics, African-Americans are more likely to purchase generics and use a higher share of older drugs (e.g., TCAs and MAOIs). Differences in observable characteristics explain most of the racial/ethnic differences in these outcomes, with the exception of drug utilization. Differences in health insurance and education levels are particularly important factors in explaining disparities. In contrast, differences in drug utilization largely reflect unobserved
Melo, Victor Hugo; Botelho, Ana Paula Machado; Maia, Marcelle Marie Martins; Correa, Mário Dias; Pinto, Jorge Andrade
To determine if illicit drug use increases the vertical transmission of HIV, to identify the risk factors involved in mother and child health and the prevalence of illicit drug use among these pregnant women. Sixty-four (7.6%) of 845 pregnant women from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, attended in the service between October 1997 and February 2012 reported the use of illicit drugs. Cases were HIV-positive drug users (n=64) and controls were women who did not use drugs (n=192). Three controls were selected for each case. Several conditions of exposure were considered in the control group such as tobacco use, alcohol use, alcohol and tobacco use, maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and marital status. Problems during the prenatal period, delivery and postpartum, vertical HIV transmission and neonatal outcomes were also investigated. Univariate analysis showed as significant variables: maternal age, tobacco use, number of prenatal care visits, antiretroviral therapy, mode of infection, and viral load at delivery. Logistic regression revealed as significant variables: maternal age (less than 25 years); tobacco use, and number of prenatal care visits (less than 6). The vertical transmission of HIV was 4,8% (95%CI 1.7-13.3) among drug users and 2,1% (95%CI 0.8-5.2) in the control group, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Neonatal complications were more frequent among drug users, but also with no statistically significant difference between groups. The use of illicit drug is frequent during pregnancy among HIV-infected women. The approach to illicit drug use should be routine during prenatal care visits. These women are more discriminated against and tend to deny their habits or do not seek prenatal care. There was no difference in vertical virus transmission between groups, probably indicating adherence to antiretroviral use for antiretroviral therapies during pregnancy.
Gabriela Arantes Wagner
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze drug use trends among college students in 1996, 2001 and 2009. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study with a multistage stratified cluster sample with 9,974 college students was conducted in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on drug use assessed in lifetime, the preceding 12 months and the preceding 30 days. The Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons of drug use rates between surveys. RESULTS: There were changes in the lifetime use of tobacco and some other drugs (hallucinogens [6.1% to 8.8%], amphetamines [4.6% to 8.7%], and tranquilizers [5.7% to 8.2%] from 1996 to 2009. Differences in the use of other drugs over the 12 months preceding the survey were also seen: reduced use of inhalants [9.0% to 4.8%] and increased use of amphetamines [2.4% to 4.8%]. There was a reduction in alcohol [72.9% to 62.1%], tobacco [21.3% to 17.2%] and marijuana [15.0% to 11.5%] use and an increase in amphetamine use [1.9% to 3.3%] in the preceeding 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Over the 13-year study period, there was an increase in lifetime use of tobacco, hallucinogens, amphetamines, and tranquilizers. There was an increase in amphetamine use and a reduction in alcohol use during the preceding 12 months. There was an increase in amphetamine use during the preceding 30 days.
Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.
Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes, and practices of risky sexual behavior. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus 1 campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community leaders to discuss these issues in everyday…
Cederbaum, Julie A.; Rodriguez, Aubrey J.; Sullivan, Kathrine; Gray, Kandice
Background: Risky sexual behaviors put adolescents at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Parents, school-based adults, and peers play important roles in influencing these sex intentions. Methods: This work explored the influence of parent-child sex communication on adolescent attitudes, perceived norms, and intentions to have sex, including the…
Van Havere, Tina; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Lammertyn, Jan; Broekaert, Eric; Bellis, Mark
Research over the last decade has focused almost exclusively on the association between electronic music and MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") or other stimulant drug use in clubs. Less attention has been given to other nightlife venues and music preferences, such as rock music or southern/funky music. This study aims to examine a broader spectrum of nightlife, beyond dance music. It looks at whether certain factors influence the frequency of illegal drug and alcohol use: the frequency of going to certain nightlife venues in the previous month (such as, pubs, clubs or goa parties); listening to rock music, dance music or southern and funky music; or sampling venues (such as, clubs, dance events or rock festivals). The question of how these nightlife variables influence the use of popular drugs like alcohol, MDMA, cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines is addressed. The study sample consisted of 775 visitors of dance events, clubs and rock festivals in Belgium. Study participants answered a survey on patterns of going out, music preferences and drug use. Odds ratios were used to determine whether the odds of being an illegal substance user are higher for certain nightlife-related variables. Furthermore, five separate ordinal regression analyses were used to investigate drug use in relation to music preference, venues visited during the last month and sampling venue. Respondents who used illegal drugs were 2.5 times more likely to report that they prefer dance music. Goa party visitors were nearly 5 times more likely to use illegal drugs. For those who reported visiting clubs, the odds of using illegal drugs were nearly 2 times higher. Having gone to a pub in the last month was associated with both more frequent alcohol use and more frequent illegal substance use. People who reported liking rock music and attendees of rock festivals used drugs less frequently. It was concluded that a more extended recreational environment, beyond dance clubs, is
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research over the last decade has focused almost exclusively on the association between electronic music and MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy" or other stimulant drug use in clubs. Less attention has been given to other nightlife venues and music preferences, such as rock music or southern/funky music. This study aims to examine a broader spectrum of nightlife, beyond dance music. It looks at whether certain factors influence the frequency of illegal drug and alcohol use: the frequency of going to certain nightlife venues in the previous month (such as, pubs, clubs or goa parties; listening to rock music, dance music or southern and funky music; or sampling venues (such as, clubs, dance events or rock festivals. The question of how these nightlife variables influence the use of popular drugs like alcohol, MDMA, cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines is addressed. Methods The study sample consisted of 775 visitors of dance events, clubs and rock festivals in Belgium. Study participants answered a survey on patterns of going out, music preferences and drug use. Odds ratios were used to determine whether the odds of being an illegal substance user are higher for certain nightlife-related variables. Furthermore, five separate ordinal regression analyses were used to investigate drug use in relation to music preference, venues visited during the last month and sampling venue. Results Respondents who used illegal drugs were 2.5 times more likely to report that they prefer dance music. Goa party visitors were nearly 5 times more likely to use illegal drugs. For those who reported visiting clubs, the odds of using illegal drugs were nearly 2 times higher. Having gone to a pub in the last month was associated with both more frequent alcohol use and more frequent illegal substance use. People who reported liking rock music and attendees of rock festivals used drugs less frequently. Conclusions It was concluded that a
Background Research over the last decade has focused almost exclusively on the association between electronic music and MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") or other stimulant drug use in clubs. Less attention has been given to other nightlife venues and music preferences, such as rock music or southern/funky music. This study aims to examine a broader spectrum of nightlife, beyond dance music. It looks at whether certain factors influence the frequency of illegal drug and alcohol use: the frequency of going to certain nightlife venues in the previous month (such as, pubs, clubs or goa parties); listening to rock music, dance music or southern and funky music; or sampling venues (such as, clubs, dance events or rock festivals). The question of how these nightlife variables influence the use of popular drugs like alcohol, MDMA, cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines is addressed. Methods The study sample consisted of 775 visitors of dance events, clubs and rock festivals in Belgium. Study participants answered a survey on patterns of going out, music preferences and drug use. Odds ratios were used to determine whether the odds of being an illegal substance user are higher for certain nightlife-related variables. Furthermore, five separate ordinal regression analyses were used to investigate drug use in relation to music preference, venues visited during the last month and sampling venue. Results Respondents who used illegal drugs were 2.5 times more likely to report that they prefer dance music. Goa party visitors were nearly 5 times more likely to use illegal drugs. For those who reported visiting clubs, the odds of using illegal drugs were nearly 2 times higher. Having gone to a pub in the last month was associated with both more frequent alcohol use and more frequent illegal substance use. People who reported liking rock music and attendees of rock festivals used drugs less frequently. Conclusions It was concluded that a more extended recreational
Møldrup, Claus; Hansen, Rikke Rie
OBJECTIVE: This article deals with the issue of ordinary healthy people using drugs to improve or enhance non-disease conditions. The objective is to illuminate the extent of public acceptance of this practice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The results are based on two studies: a classically...... of drugs for non-disease conditions. Men in particular look favourably on the use of drugs by healthy individuals. People with less education find this type of drug use unacceptable to a greater extent than those with more education, who are more positive. If we look at political affiliation, a pattern...
Herrera, Aubrey V; Benjet, Corina; Méndez, Enrique; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena
The normative process of autonomy development in adolescence involves changes in adolescents' information management typically characterized by decreasing disclosure and increasing concealment. These changes may have an important impact on the early detection and timely treatment of mental health conditions and risky behavior. Therefore, the objective was to extend our understanding of how these developmental changes in adolescent disclosure might impact adolescent mental health interviews. Specifically, we estimated the effects of third party presence and type of third party presence (adult, child, or both) on adolescents' reports of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, suicidal behavior, and childhood adversity. In this representative sample of 3005 adolescents from Mexico City (52.1 % female), administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A), adult presence influenced reporting the most; in their presence, adolescents reported more ADHD, parental mental illness and economic adversity, but less panic disorder, PTSD, drug use and disorder, and suicidal behavior. The presence of children was associated with increased odds of reporting conduct disorder, opportunity for drug use, parental criminal behavior, neglect, and the death of a parent. While adolescent information management strategies are normative and even desirable as a means of gaining emotional autonomy, they may also interfere with timely detection and treatment or intervention for mental health conditions and risky behaviors. Research and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT...pharmacy records, and the screening proce - dures to detect risky alcohol use in these individuals 15-Oct-2014 Task 3: Complete training for the two...has contributed to discussions about research design and statistical analyses, and provided updated power calculations to ad- dress reduced sample
John W. Payne; Dan J. Laughhunn; Roy Crum
This investigation draws upon concepts from prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky [Kahneman, D., A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: an analysis of decisions under risk. Econometrica 47 263--291.]) and multiattribute utility theory (Keeney and Raiffa [Keeney, R. L., H. Raiffa. 1976. Decisions with Multiple Objectives: Preferences and Value Tradeoffs. Wiley, New York.]) in an examination of the multiattribute risky choice behavior of 128 managers. The questions of how managers edit multiattribu...
Tomkins, A; Ahmad, S; Cannon, L; Higgins, S P; Kliner, M; Kolyva, A; Ward, C; Vivancos, R
Recreational drug use (RDU) has been reported to be disproportionately higher in men who have sex with men (MSM) when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. To identify RDU, links to risky sexual practices and infections for MSM attending three sexual health clinics across Manchester, United Kingdom, a retrospective case note review was conducted using a random powered sample of service users attending three sites during 2014. Three hundred and fifty-seven case notes were reviewed across three sites. Eighteen per cent of service users reported any type of RDU. Use of at least one of the three drugs associated with chemsex (crystal methamphetamine, mephedrone, gamma hydroxybutyrate/gamma butyrolactone) was reported by 3.6%. A statistically significant difference was identified between non-drug users and any-drug users reporting: group sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.88, p = 0.013), condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) (OR 2.77, p = 0.003) and condomless oral intercourse (OR 2.52, p = 0.016). A statistically significant difference was identified between chemsex-related drug user and non-drug user groups reporting: group sex (OR 13.05, p = 0.023), CRAI (OR 3.69, p = 0.029) and condomless insertive anal intercourse (OR 1.27, p = 0.039). There was also a statistically higher incidence of gonorrhoea infection in chemsex-related drug use compared with those not using drugs (p = 0.002, OR 6.88). This study identifies that substance use is common in MSM attending sexual health clinics in Manchester. High-risk sexual practices and certain sexually transmitted infections are more common in MSM reporting RDU.
James B. Hittner
Full Text Available This study investigated the relevance of social settings as predictors of risky sexual behavior. In a young adult sample (n = 324, M age = 20.2 years, we examined the association between frequency of attendance at five different settings and frequency of engaging in four risky sexual behaviors (i.e., unprotected intercourse when not drunk or high, unprotected intercourse when drunk or high, casual sex when not drunk or high, casual sex when drunk or high. Predictive associations were examined using negative binomial regression, and all analyses controlled for frequency of recent alcohol use and age at first use of alcohol. Greater attendance at fraternity/sorority parties predicted more frequent intercourse for females in the not drunk or high and drunk or high contexts, and more frequent casual sex for males in the not drunk or high context. Greater attendance at large private parties predicted more frequent intercourse for females in the not drunk or high context. Greater attendance at bars without dance floors predicted more frequent intercourse for males in the drunk or high context. These findings highlight the importance of socializing habits in understanding risky sexual behavior.
Full Text Available The study reported in this manuscript used a mixture item response model with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2009 (N = 16,410 to identify subtypes of adolescents at-risk for engaging in unhealthy behaviors, and to find individual survey items that were most effective at identifying such students within each subtype. The goal of the manuscript is twofold: 1 To demonstrate the utility of the mixture item response theory model for identifying subgroups in the population and for highlighting the use of group specific item response parameters and 2 To identify typologies of adolescents based on their propensity for engaging in sexually and substance use risky behaviors. Results indicate that 4 classes of youth exist in the population, with differences in risky sexual behaviors and substance use. The first group had a greater propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior, while group 2 was more likely to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol. Group 3 was the most likely to use other substances, such as marijuana, methamphetamine, and other mind altering drugs, and group 4 had the lowest propensity for engaging in any of the sexual or substance use behaviors included in the survey. Finally, individual items were identified for each group that can be most effective at identifying individuals at greatest risk. Further proposed directions of research and the contribution of this analysis to the existing literature are discussed.
Becoña, Elisardo; Martínez, Úrsula; Calafat, Amador; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Juan, Montse; Sumnall, Harry; Mendes, Fernando; Gabrhelík, Roman
Parents play an important role in determining the risk of children's drug use. The aim of this study was to analyse how certain family-related variables (permissiveness toward drug use, and parental control and affect) were linked to the use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, based on young people's self-report of such variables. The sample was composed of 1,428 school children (51.8% males) aged between 11 and 19 from Mallorca (Spain). We found that the young people who perceived their parents as permissive and those who perceived less maternal control and higher levels of both paternal and maternal affect were more likely to use alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. Sex differences were found within this pattern. Variables of maternal affect and control were not influential among males, whereas the general pattern was maintained among females. This study highlights the importance of perceived permissiveness and the need of considering parent's and children's gender when providing control and affect, as fathers will influence male children whereas mothers will influence female children.
de Aquino, Daniela Silva L
According to the World Health Organization, rational drug use means that patients receive medicines appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and their community. However, as far as one can see, the reality is very different. In Brazil, at least, 35% of medicines are purchased for self-medication. Medicaments are responsible for 27% of intoxications in Brazil and for 16% of deaths due to poisoning are caused by medicaments. Moreover, 50% of medicaments are prescribed, dispensed or used inappropriately and hospitals spend about 15 to 20% of their budgets to deal with the troubles caused by misuse of medicaments. The promise of immediate relief of suffering is a very attractive appeal, but it has its price. Sometimes the price we pay is our health. Rational drug use requires a very complex logical chain involving a number of variables and participation of different social actors including patients, health professionals, legislators, policy makers, industry, commerce and the government.
Adhikari, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, J.C.
Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background UK Government expenditure on combatting drug abuse is based on estimates of illicit drug users, yet the validity of these estimates is unknown. This study aims to assess the face validity of problematic drug use (PDU and injecting drug use (IDU estimates for all English Drug Action Teams (DATs in 2001. The estimates were derived from a statistical model using the Multiple Indicator Method (MIM. Methods Questionnaire study, in which the 149 English Drug Action Teams were asked to evaluate the MIM estimates for their DAT. Results The response rate was 60% and there were no indications of selection bias. Of responding DATs, 64% thought the PDU estimates were about right or did not dispute them, while 27% had estimates that were too low and 9% were too high. The figures for the IDU estimates were 52% (about right, 44% (too low and 3% (too high. Conclusion This is the first UK study to determine the validity estimates of problematic and injecting drug misuse. The results of this paper highlight the need to consider criterion and face validity when evaluating estimates of the number of drug users.
Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš
This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; Pstudents not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; Pstudents is marijuana. Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs.
Full Text Available Drugs used in sexual assault, which are also called as date rape drugs, are common phenomenon of crime in many countries. In a typical scenario, a perpetrator adds a date-rape drug which has sedative effect into alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person. After drug administration, mostly amnesia and symptoms such as confussion, loss of memory, lack of muscle control, dizziness occur. The main drugs in sexual assaults are benzodiazepines such as γ-hydroxy butyrate and its analogs, clonazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam, oxazepam, ketamine, barbiturates, antidepressants, cocaine and stimulants. Most of these drugs are colorless, odorless and highly soluble in alcohol or other beverages quickly. They are rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration. A victim may complain to police or other legal forces after several days due to emotional trauma as shame, fear, doubt and disbelief. For this reason, It is important to know what time the sample is taken from the victim to confirm the presence of the drug. In this study, we will present a general approach to date-rape drugs used in sexual assault. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 418-425
Krohn, Marvin D.; Hall, Gina Penly; Lizotte, Alan J.
Changes in the family structure can be very disruptive to adolescents who live in those families. This article examines the impact of the number of family transitions on delinquent and drug-using behavior. Specifically, the effect of family transitions is hypothesized to be mediated by problems within the family, school, and peer settings. A sample of 646 boys (73%) and girls (27%) taken from a longitudinal panel study of high-risk adolescents are used to examine these hypotheses. For girls, little support is found for the direct or the indirect effect of family transitions on delinquent behavior or drug use. For boys, however, both forms of problem behavior are influenced by family transitions directly and indirectly through changes in, and problems with, peer associations. The findings suggest that during times of family turmoil, the friendship network of adolescent male children is also disrupted, leading to an increase in associations with delinquent others and, in turn, an increase in problematic behaviors. PMID:19636758
Ford, Jason A; Arrastia, Meagan C
Data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study, a national sample of U.S. college students, were used to conduct multinomial logistic regression analysis examining correlates of substance use. Students were divided into three groups based on their lifetime substance use: non-users, non-medical prescription drug use only, and illicit/street drug use only. The purpose of this analytic strategy was to examine the similarities/differences in the correlates of non-medical prescription drug use and illicit/street drug use. Findings indicate that race, age, G.P.A., sexual activity, health, binge drinking, marijuana use, social bonding and social learning measures are correlates of non-medical prescription drug use. Correlates of illicit/street drug use include gender, Hispanic ethnicity, sexual activity, binge drinking, marijuana use, social bonding and social learning measures. Finally, the focus of the paper is a comparison of students who report only non-medical prescription drug use to students who report only illicit/street drug use. Findings indicate that gender, race, marital status, sexual activity, marijuana use, and social bonding measures significantly distinguish illicit/street drug use from non-medical prescription drug use. Important implications, limitations, and future research needs were discussed.
Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Young, Robert; West, Patrick
As the promotion of alcohol and tobacco to young people through direct advertising has become increasingly restricted, there has been greater interest in whether images of certain behaviours in films are associated with uptake of those behaviours in young people. Associations have been reported between exposure to smoking images in films and smoking initiation, and between exposure to film alcohol images and initiation of alcohol consumption, in younger adolescents in the USA and Germany. To date no studies have reported on film images of recreational drug use and young people's own drug use. Cross sectional multivariable logistic regression analysis of data collected at age 19 (2002-4) from a cohort of young people (502 boys, 500 girls) previously surveyed at ages 11 (in 1994-5), 13 and 15 in schools in the West of Scotland. Outcome measures at age 19 were: exceeding the 'sensible drinking' guidelines ('heavy drinkers') and binge drinking (based on alcohol consumption reported in last week), and ever use of cannabis and of 'hard' drugs. The principle predictor variables were an estimate of exposure to images of alcohol, and of drug use, in films, controlling for factors related to the uptake of substance use in young people. A third of these young adults (33%) were classed as 'heavy drinkers' and half (47%) as 'binge drinkers' on the basis of their previous week's consumption. Over half (56%) reported ever use of cannabis and 13% ever use of one or more of the 'hard' drugs listed. There were linear trends in the percentage of heavy drinkers (p = .018) and binge drinkers (p = 0.012) by film alcohol exposure quartiles, and for ever use of cannabis by film drug exposure (p = .000), and for ever use of 'hard' drugs (p = .033). The odds ratios for heavy drinking (1.56, 95% CI 1.06-2.29 comparing highest with lowest quartile of film alcohol exposure) and binge drinking (1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.30) were attenuated by adjustment for gender, social class, family background
Full Text Available Abstract Background As the promotion of alcohol and tobacco to young people through direct advertising has become increasingly restricted, there has been greater interest in whether images of certain behaviours in films are associated with uptake of those behaviours in young people. Associations have been reported between exposure to smoking images in films and smoking initiation, and between exposure to film alcohol images and initiation of alcohol consumption, in younger adolescents in the USA and Germany. To date no studies have reported on film images of recreational drug use and young people's own drug use. Methods Cross sectional multivariable logistic regression analysis of data collected at age 19 (2002-4 from a cohort of young people (502 boys, 500 girls previously surveyed at ages 11 (in 1994-5, 13 and 15 in schools in the West of Scotland. Outcome measures at age 19 were: exceeding the 'sensible drinking' guidelines ('heavy drinkers' and binge drinking (based on alcohol consumption reported in last week, and ever use of cannabis and of 'hard' drugs. The principle predictor variables were an estimate of exposure to images of alcohol, and of drug use, in films, controlling for factors related to the uptake of substance use in young people. Results A third of these young adults (33% were classed as 'heavy drinkers' and half (47% as 'binge drinkers' on the basis of their previous week's consumption. Over half (56% reported ever use of cannabis and 13% ever use of one or more of the 'hard' drugs listed. There were linear trends in the percentage of heavy drinkers (p = .018 and binge drinkers (p = 0.012 by film alcohol exposure quartiles, and for ever use of cannabis by film drug exposure (p = .000, and for ever use of 'hard' drugs (p = .033. The odds ratios for heavy drinking (1.56, 95% CI 1.06-2.29 comparing highest with lowest quartile of film alcohol exposure and binge drinking (1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.30 were attenuated by adjustment for
Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A
Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''
Blomberg, M; Jensen, M Blomberg; Henry, A
Antimicrobial drug use and overuse have been a topic of interest for many years, lately focusing on the growing resistance worldwide. This study was conducted in a small Indian hospital, where more than 80% of all admitted patients received antimicrobial drugs. Penicillin, gentamycin, co......-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were most commonly used and all antimicrobial drugs were given empirically with no confirmation of the infective agent. Reports of increasing resistance to antimicrobial drugs in India, and elsewhere, necessitates a focus on how antimicrobials drugs are used in relation...... to investigations of resistance patterns among the local strains of pathogens. This study may be considered a base-line study, though of relevance for other hospitals, in particular in low-income areas, where development of resistance to standard antimicrobial drugs may have severe implications for both patients...
Jean Lud eCadet
Full Text Available Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users.
Smith, Benjamin J; Xue, Feng; Droutman, Vita; Barkley-Levenson, Emily; Melrose, A James; Miller, Lynn C; Monterosso, John R; Bechara, Antoine; Appleby, Paul R; Christensen, John L; Godoy, Carlos G; Read, Stephen J
HIV is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and although most MSM use condoms consistently during casual sex, some take risks. To better understand the psychology of those risky decisions, we examined neural correlates of playing a virtual sexual 'hook up' game in an functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner in MSM who had, in the past 90 days, been sexually risky (N = 76) or safe (N = 31). We found that during potentially risky sexual choices, previously risky MSM had more right insula activity than previously safe MSM. Real-life sexual risk was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Insula activity that differentiated risky and safe MSM was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Future work should further examine if, and to what extent, insula activation during safe sex negotiation drives MSM's rash risky sexual decision-making. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Flouri, Eirini; Ioakeimidi, Sofia
Longitudinal patterns of maternal depressive symptoms have yet to be linked to risky behaviours, such as substance use or violence, in early adolescence, when such behaviours may be particularly detrimental. This study was carried out to do this. Using data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, it modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms at child ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years on antisocial behaviour and delinquency at age 11 years (N = 12,494). It also explored their role in predicting moral judgement and attitudes to alcohol at age 11, important predictors of delinquent or antisocial behaviour and alcohol use, respectively. Latent class analysis showed four longitudinal types of maternal depressive symptoms (chronically high, consistently low, moderate-accelerating and moderate-decelerating). Maternal symptom typology predicted antisocial behaviour in males and attitudes to alcohol in females, even after adjusting for youth's age and pubertal status and after correcting for confounding. Specifically, compared to males growing up with never-depressed mothers, those exposed to chronically high or accelerating maternal depressive symptoms were more likely to report engaging in loud and rowdy behaviour, alcohol use and bullying. Females exposed to chronically high maternal depressive symptoms were more likely than those growing up with never-depressed mothers to support the view that alcohol use is harmless. While causal conclusions cannot be drawn, these findings suggest that preventing or treating maternal depressive symptoms in childhood may be a useful approach to reducing future externalising and health-risk behaviours in offspring.
Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results indicate that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper min...
De Gouveia, Natalie Gois
The aim of this study was to examine adolescent perceptions of risky behaviour using a mobile phone. This research may contribute to creating an awareness of risky and healthy adolescent uses of mobile phones. Anonymous sketches were collected from Grade 10 learners depicting their understanding of risky behaviour using the mobile phone. Thereafter, 12 learners agreed, through informed consent, to participate in semi-structured interviews. All participants considered the mobile phone an i...
Billings, Jenny R.; Macvarish, Jan
The present report summarizes the work of the cross-frontier group which was established, within the\\ud framework of Interreg IV, to consider the concept of self-efficacy. A first full-scale study entitled "Let's\\ud Talk/Parlez-moi d'amour" had already been undertaken, under the aegis of the Interreg III programme, by\\ud several of the partners involved, to examine perceptions in Kent and the Somme of teenage pregnancy as a\\ud social phenomenon. This initial project was concluded in 2007 by a...
Full Text Available Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed.
Brussoni, Mariana; Gibbons, Rebecca; Gray, Casey; Ishikawa, Takuro; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Chabot, Guylaine; Fuselli, Pamela; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.
Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed. PMID:26062038
Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Keren, Gideon; Wu, George
This chapter reviews the experimental literature on ambiguity attitudes, focusing on three topics. First, it considers various approaches to operationalize ambiguity in experiments. Second, the chapter reviews basic findings in the field regarding the prevalence of ambiguity aversion and ambiguity
Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.
Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies on decision making have mainly focused on decisions on behalf of oneself. Considering that people often make decisions on behalf of others, it is intriguing that there is little neurobiological evidence on how decisions for others differ from those for self. Thus, the present study focused on the direct comparison between risky decisions for self and those for other using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants (N = 23 were asked to perform a gambling task for themselves (decision-for-self condition or for another person (decision-for-other condition while in the scanner. Their task was to choose between a low-risk option (i.e., win or lose 10 points and a high-risk option (i.e., win or lose 90 points. The winning probabilities of each option varied from 17% to 83%. Compared to choices for others, choices for self were more risk-averse at lower winning probability and more risk-seeking at higher winning probability, perhaps due to stronger affective process during risky decision for self compared to other. The brain activation pattern changed according to the target of the decision, such that reward-related regions were more active in the decision-for-self condition than in the decision-for-other condition, whereas brain regions related to the theory of mind (ToM showed greater activation in the decision-for-other condition than in the decision-for-self condition. A parametric modulation analysis reflecting each individual’s decision model revealed that activation of the amygdala and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC were associated with value computation for self and for other, respectively, during a risky financial decision. The present study suggests that decisions for self and other may recruit fundamentally distinctive neural processes, which can be mainly characterized by dominant affective/impulsive and cognitive/regulatory processes, respectively.
Jung, Daehyun; Sul, Sunhae; Kim, Hackjin
Previous neuroimaging studies on decision making have mainly focused on decisions on behalf of oneself. Considering that people often make decisions on behalf of others, it is intriguing that there is little neurobiological evidence on how decisions for others differ from those for oneself. The present study directly compared risky decisions for self with those for another person using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were asked to perform a gambling task on behalf of themselves (decision-for-self condition) or another person (decision-for-other condition) while in the scanner. Their task was to choose between a low-risk option (i.e., win or lose 10 points) and a high-risk option (i.e., win or lose 90 points) with variable levels of winning probability. Compared with choices regarding others, those regarding oneself were more risk-averse at lower winning probabilities and more risk-seeking at higher winning probabilities, perhaps due to stronger affective process during risky decisions for oneself compared with those for other. The brain-activation pattern changed according to the target, such that reward-related regions were more active in the decision-for-self condition than in the decision-for-other condition, whereas brain regions related to the theory of mind (ToM) showed greater activation in the decision-for-other condition than in the decision-for-self condition. Parametric modulation analysis using individual decision models revealed that activation of the amygdala and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) were associated with value computations for oneself and for another, respectively, during risky financial decisions. The results of the present study suggest that decisions for oneself and for other may recruit fundamentally distinct neural processes, which can be mainly characterized as dominant affective/impulsive and cognitive/regulatory processes, respectively. PMID:23519016
How is information integrated across the\\ud attributes of an option when making risky\\ud choices? In most descriptive models of\\ud decision under risk, information about\\ud risk, and reward is combined multiplicatively\\ud (e.g., expected value; expected utility\\ud theory, Bernouli, 1738/1954; subjective\\ud expected utility theory, Savage, 1954;\\ud Edwards, 1955; prospect theory, Kahneman\\ud and Tversky, 1979; rank-dependent utility,\\ud Quiggin, 1993; decision field theory,\\ud Busemeyer and To...
Raposo, Jakelline Cipriano Dos Santos; Costa, Ana Carolina de Queiroz; Valença, Paula Andréa de Melo; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Colares, Viviane; Franca, Carolina da
To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolescents. The Chi-square test (≤ 0.05) and Poisson regression analysis were used to estimate the prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. Use in life of illicit drugs was four times more prevalent among students who reported binge drinking (95%CI 3.19-5.45). Being in the age group of 16 to 19 years, being male, and having no religion were also significantly associated with illicit drug use. The prevalence of use in life of illicit drugs was higher in this study than in other studies carried out in Brazil and it was strongly associated with binge drinking. This factor was associated with gender, age, and religion. Estimar a prevalência do uso de drogas ilícitas e sua associação com binge drinking e fatores sociodemográficos entre estudantes adolescentes. Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerado, envolvendo 1.154 estudantes, de 13 a 19 anos de idade, da rede pública de ensino, no município de Olinda, PE, 2014. Foi utilizado o questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey, validado para uso com adolescentes brasileiros. Para análise dos dados foi utilizado o teste do Qui-quadrado (≤ 0,05) e análise de regressão de Poisson, para estimar razões de prevalência, com intervalos com 95% de confiança. O uso na vida de drogas ilícitas foi quatro vezes mais prevalente entre os estudantes que relataram o binge drinking (IC95% 3,19-5,45). Estar na faixa etária de 16 a 19 anos, ser do sexo masculino e não ter religião também foram significativamente associados ao uso de drogas
Mangus, J Michael; Turner, Benjamin O
Abstract While a persuasion network has been proposed, little is known about how network connections between brain regions contribute to attitude change. Two possible mechanisms have been advanced. One hypothesis predicts that attitude change results from increased connectivity between structures implicated in affective and executive processing in response to increases in argument strength. A second functional perspective suggests that highly arousing messages reduce connectivity between structures implicated in the encoding of sensory information, which disrupts message processing and thereby inhibits attitude change. However, persuasion is a multi-determined construct that results from both message features and audience characteristics. Therefore, persuasive messages should lead to specific functional connectivity patterns among a priori defined structures within the persuasion network. The present study exposed 28 subjects to anti-drug public service announcements where arousal, argument strength, and subject drug-use risk were systematically varied. Psychophysiological interaction analyses provide support for the affective-executive hypothesis but not for the encoding-disruption hypothesis. Secondary analyses show that video-level connectivity patterns among structures within the persuasion network predict audience responses in independent samples (one college-aged, one nationally representative). We propose that persuasion neuroscience research is best advanced by considering network-level effects while accounting for interactions between message features and target audience characteristics. PMID:29140500
Huskey, Richard; Mangus, J Michael; Turner, Benjamin O; Weber, René
While a persuasion network has been proposed, little is known about how network connections between brain regions contribute to attitude change. Two possible mechanisms have been advanced. One hypothesis predicts that attitude change results from increased connectivity between structures implicated in affective and executive processing in response to increases in argument strength. A second functional perspective suggests that highly arousing messages reduce connectivity between structures implicated in the encoding of sensory information, which disrupts message processing and thereby inhibits attitude change. However, persuasion is a multi-determined construct that results from both message features and audience characteristics. Therefore, persuasive messages should lead to specific functional connectivity patterns among a priori defined structures within the persuasion network. The present study exposed 28 subjects to anti-drug public service announcements where arousal, argument strength, and subject drug-use risk were systematically varied. Psychophysiological interaction analyses provide support for the affective-executive hypothesis but not for the encoding-disruption hypothesis. Secondary analyses show that video-level connectivity patterns among structures within the persuasion network predict audience responses in independent samples (one college-aged, one nationally representative). We propose that persuasion neuroscience research is best advanced by considering network-level effects while accounting for interactions between message features and target audience characteristics. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine employer...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master, or...
Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.
Background: Over-the-counter (OTC) drug use is an increasing health issue among adolescents. Purpose: This study investigated OTC drug use among 7th through 12th grade multiracial students in one metropolitan area. Methods: A total of 2134 students completed the PRIDE Questionnaire, which examines alcohol and other drug use. Results: A total of…
Non-injection drug use (mainly cannabis, methaqualone, crack cocaine and crystal methamphetamine) and injection drug use (mainly heroin) was occurring in these cities. Drug users report selling sex for money to buy drugs, and CSWs used drugs before, during and after sex. Most (70%) of the drug-using KIs offered HIV ...
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul
Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…
The urban residents (5.4%) were more likely to report use of any illicit drug including cannabis than rural dwellers (2.5%). Illicit drug use has a high association with illnesses thus call for interventions to address this serious problem. Key Words: Recreational drug use, South Africa, illicit drug use, HIV prevalence survey ...
Wang, Jue; Jia, Manhong; Luo, Hongbing; Li, Youfang; Song, Lijun; Mei, Jingyuan; Ma, Yanling; Yang, Yanling; Lu, Ran; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Renzhong; Pan, Songfeng; Li, Zhiqing; Lu, Lin
To analyze the characteristics of risky behaviors among different age groups of HIV positive female sex workers, and to explore the strengthening of their management. From January to June 2014, 22 814 female sex workers were investigated and tested HIV in 117 sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan Province, and 181 were confirmed to be HIV antibody positive, who accepted questionnaire surveys. According to the age, the participants were divided into the HIV/AIDS and related risk behaviors characteristics of the two groups were obtained via questionnaire surveys among 181 HIV positive female sex workers, and in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted from among 12 HIV positive sex workers. HIV antibody positive rate was 0.8% (181), the age of the 181 subjects were (35.83 ± 9.17) years old, 76 cases (42.0%) were HIV, the proportion of AIDS awareness was 95.6% (173); the proportion of drug use among ≥ 35 years old age group was 51.4% (54), which was higher than that in HIV counseling and testing in the past year. The proportion of continuing to engage in sexual services over 5 years after HIV infection was 48.5% (51/105) and the proportion of receiving antiretroviral treatment was 69.5% (73/105) in ≥ 35 years old age group, which were higher than those in the HIV positive female sex workers found that regular clients, not consistent use of condoms were the main cause of no condom use. Economic and livelihood factors are important reasons for continuing to engage in sexual services among HIV positive sex workers. HIV positive sex workers still have high risk behaviors including continuing to engage in commercial sexual service and no condom use after knowing their HIV infection status, and the proportion of using drugs in the ≥ 35 years old group was higher than that in < 35 years old group.
Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Yonamine, Maurício; Ramos, Andrea Luciana Martins; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Rodrigues, Caroline Rego; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos
The present study aimed to verify the prevalence of psychoactive drug use (amphetamines, methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opioids and benzodiazepines) among military police officers in the state of Goiás. Data were obtained from urine samples voluntarily provided by the officers participating in the study, who were informed of the study methods and signed a free and informed consent form. The samples were subject to screening analysis by immunochromatography (Multi-DrugOneStep Test®), with positive tests confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analyzed by descriptive statistics. The results indicated the presence of the following drugs: amphetamines (0.33%), cannabinoids (0.67%) and benzodiazepines (1.34%); 97.66% showed negative results. The positive cases were distributed as follows: benzodiazepines (57.1%); cannabinoids (28.6%) and amphetamines (14.3%). In conclusion, the detection of psychoactive substances in voluntary sampling of military police officers indicates the need to implement drug testing among active military officers and preventive public policies aimed at eliminating the abusive consumption of psychotropic drugs.
Arias Horcajadas, F; Sánchez Romero, S; Padín Calo, J J
To study the association between drugs use with schizophrenia clinical manifestations. The sample consists of 82 out-patients with schizophrenia, between 18 and 45 years old. They were evaluated with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). A 6 months follow up was carried out. 37,8% patients had lifetime drug dependence (including alcohol and others drugs except for tobacco). The prevalence of dependence for the different drugs were: opioids 9,8%, cocaine 11%, alcohol 29,3%, cannabis 24,4%, tobacco 68,3%, caffeine 15,9%. Drug dependent had more family and legal problems. At the multiple regression analysis it was observed that cannabis and tobacco dependence was associated with a decrease in the PANSS negative symptoms subscale, and on the contrary, alcohol dependence produces a similar intensity increase at that scoring. We don't detect any clinical relevance effects over positive symptoms. Cannabis and tobacco may improve schizophrenia negative symptoms or neuroleptic secondary effects or patients with few negative symptoms may have more predisposition to the use, on the contrary alcohol use can impairment those symptoms.
Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Hyeon Soo
As software based digital I and C (Instrumentation and Control) systems are used more prevalently in nuclear plants, enhancement of software dependability has become an important issue in the area of nuclear I and C systems. Critical attributes of software dependability are safety and reliability. These attributes are tightly related to software failures caused by faults. Software testing and V and V (Verification and Validation) activities are hence important for enhancing software dependability. If the risky modules of safety-critical software can be predicted, it will be possible to focus on testing and V and V activities more efficiently and effectively. It should also make it possible to better allocate resources for regulation activities. We propose a prediction technique to estimate risky software modules by adopting machine learning models based on software complexity metrics. An empirical study with various machine learning algorithms was executed for comparing the prediction performance. Experimental results show SVMs (Support Vector Machines) perform as well or better than the other methods.
Ojala, Karita E; Janssen, Lieneke K; Hashemi, Mahur M; Timmer, Monique H M; Geurts, Dirk E M; Ter Huurne, Niels P; Cools, Roshan; Sescousse, Guillaume
Dopamine has been associated with risky decision-making, as well as with pathological gambling, a behavioral addiction characterized by excessive risk-taking behavior. However, the specific mechanisms through which dopamine might act to foster risk-taking and pathological gambling remain elusive. Here we test the hypothesis that this might be achieved, in part, via modulation of subjective probability weighting during decision making. Human healthy controls ( n = 21) and pathological gamblers ( n = 16) played a decision-making task involving choices between sure monetary options and risky gambles both in the gain and loss domains. Each participant played the task twice, either under placebo or the dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor antagonist sulpiride, in a double-blind counterbalanced design. A prospect theory modelling approach was used to estimate subjective probability weighting and sensitivity to monetary outcomes. Consistent with prospect theory, we found that participants presented a distortion in the subjective weighting of probabilities, i.e., they overweighted low probabilities and underweighted moderate to high probabilities, both in the gain and loss domains. Compared with placebo, sulpiride attenuated this distortion in the gain domain. Across drugs, the groups did not differ in their probability weighting, although gamblers consistently underweighted losing probabilities in the placebo condition. Overall, our results reveal that dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor antagonism modulates the subjective weighting of probabilities in the gain domain, in the direction of more objective, economically rational decision making.
Timmer, Monique H. M.; ter Huurne, Niels P.
Abstract Dopamine has been associated with risky decision-making, as well as with pathological gambling, a behavioral addiction characterized by excessive risk-taking behavior. However, the specific mechanisms through which dopamine might act to foster risk-taking and pathological gambling remain elusive. Here we test the hypothesis that this might be achieved, in part, via modulation of subjective probability weighting during decision making. Human healthy controls (n = 21) and pathological gamblers (n = 16) played a decision-making task involving choices between sure monetary options and risky gambles both in the gain and loss domains. Each participant played the task twice, either under placebo or the dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist sulpiride, in a double-blind counterbalanced design. A prospect theory modelling approach was used to estimate subjective probability weighting and sensitivity to monetary outcomes. Consistent with prospect theory, we found that participants presented a distortion in the subjective weighting of probabilities, i.e., they overweighted low probabilities and underweighted moderate to high probabilities, both in the gain and loss domains. Compared with placebo, sulpiride attenuated this distortion in the gain domain. Across drugs, the groups did not differ in their probability weighting, although gamblers consistently underweighted losing probabilities in the placebo condition. Overall, our results reveal that dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonism modulates the subjective weighting of probabilities in the gain domain, in the direction of more objective, economically rational decision making. PMID:29632870
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9. Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1. Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation
Ng, Junice Y S; Wong, Mee-Lian
Malays, with majority of the individuals being Muslim, form the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia. This region is experiencing a rising incidence of HIV infections. Due to circumcision and prohibition of sex outside marriage, being Muslim was argued to be a protective factor against sexually transmitted infections (STI) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). However, Malay adolescents were found to be more likely to contract chlamydia and gonorrhea than non-Malay adolescents in Singapore. Using a cross-sectional survey, we examined and compared safer sex knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy, and sexual behaviors of 248 sexually active Malay adolescents with 384 Chinese adolescents aged 16-19 years in Singapore. Poisson regression, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, was used for modeling each dependent variable. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. On multivariate analysis, Malay adolescents were more likely to report marginally unfavorable attitude towards condom use (aPR 1.21 CI 1.00-1.48) and significantly lower confidence in using condoms correctly (aPR 1.24 CI 1.05-1.47) than Chinese adolescents. They were also more likely to report significantly younger first sex age (aPR 0.98 CI 0.96-1.00), never use of condoms for vaginal sex (aPR 1.32 CI 1.16-1.49) and anal sex (aPR 1.75 CI 1.11-2.76) and non-use of contraceptives at last sex (aPR 1.30 CI 1.17-1.45) than Chinese respondents. Malay males were less likely to buy sex (aPR 0.56 CI 0.37-0.85), but they reported higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use with female sex workers (aPR 2.24 CI 1.30-3.87). Malay ethnicity was associated with unfavorable condom use attitude and lower self-efficacy in using condoms, which was consistent with risky sexual behaviors such as non-use of condoms. Future research should use mixed methods to explore and identify cultural influences to these behaviors.
Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Murry, Velma M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Lorenz, Frederick O.
This study investigated how early experience with racial discrimination affected the subsequent risky sexual behaviors of a diverse sample of African American youths (N = 745). The analyses focused on 3 risk-promoting factors thought to mediate the hypothesized discrimination--risky sex relation: negative affect, affiliation with deviant peers,…
Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Goldfinger, Marc; Abela, John R. Z.; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao
The goals of the current study were to examine whether (a) negative events mediate the relationship between materialism and risky behavior engagement and (b) materialism moderates the relationship between stress and engagement in risky behaviors in Chinese youth. At Time 1, 406 adolescents (ages 14-19) from Yue Yang, China, completed measures…
Savage, Melissa N.; Bouck, Emily C.
Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) engage in risky behavior and offending. However, little is known on the impact school-related predictors have on engagement in risky behaviors for adolescents with ID. This study analyzed secondary data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to determine levels of engagement in risky…
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Cowan, Benjamin W.
This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in…
Bachanas, Pamela J; Morris, Mary K; Lewis-Gess, Jennifer K; Sarett-Cuasay, Eileen J; Sirl, Kimberly; Ries, Julie K; Sawyer, Mary K
To describe empirically the risky sexual behavior of an at-risk sample of adolescent girls, to assess psychosocial correlates of risky behavior, and to examine the utility of applying a risk and protective model to predicting teens' risky sexual behavior. Participants included 158 African American girls, ages 12 to 19, who were receiving medical care in an adolescent primary care clinic. Teens completed measures of depression, conduct problems, substance use, peer norms, social support, HIV knowledge, sexual self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Teens in this sample reported high rates of risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debuts and frequent unprotected sexual encounters with multiple partners. African American girls who reported high rates of substance use and who reported that their peers engaged in risky behaviors also reported engaging in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. Little support was obtained for protective factors (HIV knowledge, social support, sexual self-efficacy) moderating the relations between risk factors and adolescents' risky sexual behavior in this sample. Teens presenting in primary care settings in urban environments seem to be at high risk for HIV, STDs, and substance abuse, and risk reduction strategies should be introduced during the preteen years. An interdisciplinary model of care in primary care settings serving adolescents is clearly indicated, and prevention-oriented interventions aimed at reducing risky behaviors and preventing the development of more significant health, mental health, or substance abuse disorders are needed.
Dekkers, T.J.; Popma, A.; Agelink van Rentergem, J.A.; Bexkens, A.; Huizenga, H.M.
ADHD has been associated with various forms of risky real life decision making, for example risky driving, unsafe sex and substance abuse. However, results from laboratory studies on decision making deficits in ADHD have been inconsistent, probably because of between study differences. We therefore
Chapman, Stephanie; Ashack, Kurt; Bell, Eric; Sendelweck, Myra Ann; Dellavalle, Robert
Background: Understanding of associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among high school students across the United States is incomplete. Objective: To identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning and analyze differences between state specific data. Methods: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013 in...
This paper employs data from the 1998 South African Demographic and Health Survey in exploring the nature of socio-economic inequalities in and determinants of risky sexual behaviour. Risky sexual behaviour was associated with poverty only in the case of multiple partnerships. Affluent women that have engaged in ...
Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça; Gherardi-Donato, Edilaine Cristina da Silva
to examine the factors associated with problematic drug use among psychiatric outpatients. a cross-sectional study was carried out in two mental health services. Eligible individuals were patients of these mental health services, who used them within the data collection period. Instruments: standardized questionnaire with sociodemographic, social network, social harm, and clinical information; Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test; Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric statistics considering a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Study participants were 243 patients, with 53.9% of these presenting problematic drug use. the most important independent predictors of problematic drug use were marital status (OR = 0.491), religious practice (OR = 0.449), satisfaction with financial situation (OR = 0.469), having suffered discrimination (OR = 3.821) and practicing sports activities in previous 12 months (OR = 2.25). the variables found to be predictors were those related to the social context of the patient, there, it is recommended that mental health services valorize psychosocial actions, seeking to know the social support network of patients, their modes of socialization, their financial needs, and their experiences of life and suffering. analisar os fatores associados ao consumo problemático de droga entre pacientes psiquiátricos ambulatoriais. estudo transversal em dois serviços de saúde mental. Foram considerados indivíduos elegíveis os usuários desses serviços de saúde mental, que os utilizaram dentro do período de coleta de dados. Instrumentos: Questionário padronizado sobre dados sociodemográficos, redes sociais, prejuízos sociais e informações clínicas; Teste de Triagem do Envolvimento com Álcool, Cigarro e outras Substâncias (ASSIST); Escala de Impulsividade de Barratt; e Escala de Avaliação de Reajustamento Social de Holmes e Rahe. A análise estat
Lim, Megan S C; Hellard, Margaret E; Hocking, Jane S; Spelman, Tim D; Aitken, Campbell K
In order to monitor trends in illicit drug use among youth, surveillance of drug use behaviours among a variety of populations in different settings is required. We monitored drug use among music festival attendees. Cross-sectional studies of young people's reported drug use were performed at a music festival in Melbourne from 2005 to 2008. Self-administered questionnaires collected information on drug use, demographics and other risk behaviour. From 2005 to 2008, over 5000 questionnaires were completed by people aged 16-29; 2273 men and 3011 women. Overall, use of any illicit drug in the past month was reported by 44%. After adjusting for demographic and behavioural characteristics, the prevalence of recent illicit drug use decreased significantly from 46% in 2005 to 43% in 2008 (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97). After adjusting for age and sex the downwards trend was repeated for amphetamines and cannabis, but a significant increase in prevalence was observed in hallucinogen, ecstasy and inhalant use. Drug use was more common among men, older participants and those engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. Illicit drug use was much more common in this sample than in the National Drug Strategy Household survey, but the direction of trends in drug use were similar; drug use prevalences were much lower than in the Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System, the Illicit Drug Reporting System or National Needle and Syringe Program Survey. Music festival attendees are a potentially useful group for monitoring trends in illicit drug use.
Wong, Carolyn F; Weiss, George; Ayala, George; Kipke, Michele D
We examined the relationship among social discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) residing in Los Angeles. Five Hundred twenty-six YMSM (aged 18-24 years) were recruited using a venue-based, stratified probability sampling design. Surveys assessed childhood financial hardship, violence (physical assault, sexual assault, intimate partner violence), social discrimination (homophobia and racism), and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Analyses examined main and interaction effects of key variables on drug use. Experiences of financial hardship, physical intimate partner violence and homophobia predicted drug use. Although African American participants were less likely to report drug use than their Caucasian peers, those who experienced greater sexual racism were at significantly greater risk for drug use. Racial/ethnic minority YMSM were at increased risk for experiencing various forms of social discrimination and violence that place them at increased risk for drug use.
There were no decreases in drug use practices such as use of cannabis, heroin, cocaine and Ecstasy after the intervention with drug users; however, there was a significant reduction in alcohol use following the intervention. While there was a substantial increase in the proportion of participants using drugs daily as ...
Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B Abdul; Kamarudin, Rozanim Bt; Manickam, Mala; Abd Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Saari, Riyanti Bt
To identify the characteristics of current drinker and risky alcohol-drinking pattern by profiles in Malaysia. We analyzed data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. It was a cross-sectional population-based with two stages stratified random sampling design. A validated Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Malay questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol consumption and its alcohol related harms. Analysis of complex survey data using Stata Version 12 was done for descriptive analysis on alcohol use and risky drinking by socio-demography profiles. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of risky drinking status with the socio-demography characteristics. The prevalence of current alcohol use was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.5, 12.7], among them 23.6% (95% CI: 21.0, 26.4) practiced risky drinking. The onset for alcohol drinking was 21 years old (standard deviation 7.44) and majority preferred Beer. Males significantly consumed more alcohol and practiced risky drinking. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among urbanites, Chinese, those with high household income, and high education. Conversely, risky drinking was more prevalent among rural drinkers, Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak, low education and low household income. The estimated odds of risky drinking increased by a factor of 3.5 among Males while a factor of 2.7 among Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak. Education status and household income was not a significant predictor to risky drinking. There was an inverse drinking pattern between current drinker and risky drinking by the socio-demography profiles. Initiating early screening and focused intervention might avert further alcohol related harms and dependence among the risky drinkers. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar
Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our
Azwihangwisi Helen Mavhandu-Mudzusi
Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa, Preller Street, Muckleneuk Ridge, Pretoria, .... been successful in increasing knowledge, attitude and .... oral and/or anal sex. ..... sexual initiation due to increased freedom from parental.
Gene M Heyman
Full Text Available Years-of-school is negatively correlated with illicit drug use. However, educational attainment is positively correlated with IQ and negatively correlated with impulsivity, two traits that are also correlated with drug use. Thus, the negative correlation between education and drug use may reflect the correlates of schooling, not schooling itself. To help disentangle these relations we obtained measures of working memory, simple memory, IQ, disposition (impulsivity and psychiatric status, years-of-school and frequency of illicit and licit drug use in methadone clinic and community drug users. We found strong zero-order correlations between all measures, including IQ, impulsivity, years-of- school, psychiatric symptoms and drug use. However, multiple regression analyses revealed a different picture. The significant predictors of illicit drug use were gender, involvement in a methadone clinic, and years-of-school. That is, psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, cognition, and IQ no longer predicted illicit drug use in the multiple regression analyses. Moreover, high risk subjects ( low IQ and/or high impulsivity who spent 14 or more years in school used stimulants and opiates less than did low risk subjects who had spent less than 14 years in school. Smoking and drinking had a different correlational structure. IQ and years-of-school predicted whether someone ever became a smoker, whereas impulsivity predicted the frequency of drinking bouts, but years-of-school did not. Many subjects reported no use of one or more drugs, resulting in a large number of zeroes in the data sets. Cragg’s Double-Hurdle regression method proved the best approach for dealing with this problem. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that years-of-school predicts lower levels of illicit drug use after controlling for IQ and impulsivity. This paper also highlights the advantages of Double-Hurdle regression methods for analyzing the correlates of drug use in
Individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviours on sexually transmitted infections among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: results from the GOANNA survey
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have been increasing among Australian Indigenous young people for over two decades. Little is known about the association between alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviours and diagnosis of STIs among this population. Methods A cross-sectional, community based self-administered survey was conducted among young Aboriginal people aged 16–29 years of age. Questionnaires included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, sexual risk behaviours alcohol and other drug use and health service access including self-reported history of diagnosis with a STI. Logistic regression models and population attributable risks were used to assess individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use on high risk sexual behaviours and ever reported diagnosis of an STI. Results Of the 2877 participants, 2320 (81 % identified as sexually active and were included in this study. More than 50 % of the study population reported that they had used at least one illicit drug in past year. Cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamines were the three most commonly used illicit drugs in the past year. The prevalence of self-reported STI diagnosis was 25 %. Compared with people who did not report using illicit drugs, risky alcohol use and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners in the past year and sex with casual partners were all significantly higher among illicit drug users. In adjusted analysis, participants who reported using illicit drugs were significantly more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviours and to ever have been diagnosed with an STI. Adjusted Odds Ratios ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 (males and from 1.43 to 2.46 (females. At the population level, more than 70 % of the STI diagnoses were attributed to illicit drug-use and sexual risk behaviours for males and females. Conclusion Illicit drug use in this population is relatively high compared to other
Miech, Richard A; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Patrick, Megan E
This study examines the role of e-cigarettes in the drug use patterns of adolescents. Of specific interest is whether adolescent e-cigarette users fall into a group of (1) youth who do not use traditional drugs of abuse or (2) polysubstance users. Using latent class analysis, we identify major "classes" of substance users on the basis of recent use of e-cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, cigarettes, and prescription drugs. Analyses are conducted separately for adolescents in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. Data come from 16 615 participants in the 2014 Monitoring the Future survey. Youth who do not use traditional drugs of abuse account for about 50% of e-cigarette users in 8th grade, 35% in 10th grade, and 17% in 12th grade. These youth come from a large "low-level users" group found in each grade, characterized by low probability of use for all substances (e-cigarette probability in this group for 8th graders = .046; 10th graders = .071; 12th graders = .027). Other e-cigarette users come from a smaller, "poly-users" group found in each grade, characterized by high-to-moderate probabilities (.83-.21) of using e-cigarettes and other substances. Specific to 12th grade is a third, additional polysubstance group characterized by high likelihood of e-cigarette use (.93). The proportion of e-cigarette users who do not use traditional drugs of abuse is larger at younger ages. Longitudinal panel studies starting at 8th and 10th grades may best inform the current debate on whether e-cigarette use is a risk or protective factor for future transition to the use of other substances. The proportion of e-cigarette users who do not use traditional drugs of abuse is larger at younger ages. Longitudinal panel studies starting at 8th and 10th grades may best inform the current debate on whether e-cigarette use is a risk or protective factor for future transition to the use of other substances. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research
Scott, Cynthia G.
Alcohol and drug use may be a significant part of the adolescent, high school experience. Programs should be based on an understanding of attitudes and patterns of use, and how change occurs. Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion is a framework with which to examine attitude change and provide a base for building sound drug prevention…
Paul, Madanjit K.
Explored use of marijuana and attitudes toward its legalization among university students and school teachers in Alberta. Students had more permissive attitudes toward marijuana use and its legalization as compared to teachers. Significant relationships were found between drug use and age and legalization of marijuana and sex and religiosity.…
Scott-Parker, Bridie; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Hyde, Melissa K
While there is research indicating that many factors influence the young novice driver's increased risk of road crash injury during the earliest stages of their independent driving, there is a need to further understand the relationship between the perceived risky driving behaviour of parents and friends and the risky behaviour of drivers with a Provisional (intermediate) licence. As part of a larger research project, 378 drivers aged 17-25 years (M=18.22, SD=1.59, 113 males) with a Provisional licence completed an online survey exploring the perceived riskiness of their parents' and friends' driving, and the extent to which they pattern (i.e. base) their driving behaviour on the driving of their parents and friends. Young drivers who reported patterning their driving on their friends, and who reported they perceived their friends to be risky drivers, reported more risky driving. The risky driving behaviour of young male drivers was associated with the perceived riskiness of their fathers' driving, whilst for female drivers the perceived riskiness of their mothers' driving approached significance. The development and application of countermeasures targeting the risky behaviour of same-sex parents appears warranted by the robust research findings. In addition, countermeasures need to encourage young people in general to be non-risky drivers; targeting the negative influence of risky peer groups specifically. Social norms interventions may minimise the influence of potentially-overestimated riskiness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Transformation of economic and political course in the last decade in Russia has evoked big changes in the main agent of techno-genic risk, companies concerned with production, storage, recycling, and transportation of chemical, biological, energetic, etc. products. The basic aspect of the changes is the 'denationalizing' transformation of ownership, from state to shareholder or private, providing instability both during and, mainly, after the process of transformation, in cases of 'refreezing' the inadequate 'new order of things'. The transformation is hindered by compressed and indefinite terms of transformation, worsening of financial level of companies due to their 'transitional' status, struggle for power within and outside the companies initiated by provocative and dangerous actions by different fighting groups and forces in the firms, factories, and industry branches. The paper is written on the basis of in-depth expert interviews and clarifies the peculiarities of the risky transformation. (author)
The importance of business interrelationships for the success of the capital intensive and inherently risky petroleum industry was discussed. The major types of interrelationships include: (1) joint interest/ownership, (2) joint ventures, (3) production sharing contracts, and (4) strategic alliances. The makings of a successful and unsuccessful business relationship were also described. Examples of successful joint ventures, (Syncrude with Athabasca Oil Trust), joint ownerships (Gulf Oil with IPL), strategic alliances (Northrock Resources), and production sharing contracts (Gulf Oil with Talisman and Pertamina) were outlined by way of illustration. A failed joint venture between Gulf Oil, British Gas and Komineft to revitalize production and exploration in the Komi Republic (formerly part of the USSR) was also cited as an example of a situation where unsteady operational and political environments combined to bring about the failure of the project
Bhatia, Sudeep; Loomes, Graham
We examine the effects of multiple sources of noise in risky decision making. Noise in the parameters that characterize an individual's preferences can combine with noise in the response process to distort observed choice proportions. Thus, underlying preferences that conform to expected value maximization can appear to show systematic risk aversion or risk seeking. Similarly, core preferences that are consistent with expected utility theory, when perturbed by such noise, can appear to display nonlinear probability weighting. For this reason, modal choices cannot be used simplistically to infer underlying preferences. Quantitative model fits that do not allow for both sorts of noise can lead to wrong conclusions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Guo, Lisa; Trueblood, Jennifer S; Diederich, Adele
Every day, people face snap decisions when time is a limiting factor. In addition, the way a problem is presented can influence people's choices, which creates what are known as framing effects. In this research, we explored how time pressure interacts with framing effects in risky decision making. Specifically, does time pressure strengthen or weaken framing effects? On one hand, research has suggested that framing effects evolve through the deliberation process, growing larger with time. On the other hand, dual-process theory attributes framing effects to an intuitive, emotional system that responds automatically to stimuli. In our experiments, participants made decisions about gambles framed in terms of either gains or losses, and time pressure was manipulated across blocks. Results showed increased framing effects under time pressure in both hypothetical and incentivized choices, which supports the dual-process hypothesis that these effects arise from a fast, intuitive system.
Gueudré, Thomas; Martin, David G.
Essential to each other, growth and exploration are jointly observed in alive and inanimate entities, such as animals, cells or goods. But how the environment's structural and temporal properties weights in this balance remains elusive. We analyze a model of stochastic growth with time correlations and diffusive dynamics that sheds light on the way populations grow and spread over general networks. This model suggests natural explanations of empirical facts in econo-physics or ecology, such as the risk-return trade-off and the Zipf law. We conclude that optimal growth leads to a localized population distribution, but such risky position can be mitigated through the space geometry. These results have broad applicability and are subsequently illustrated over an empirical study of financial data.
Sacco, Donald F; Brown, Christina M; Young, Steven G; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt
Although past research has reliably established unique effects of social exclusion on human cognition and behavior, the current research focuses on the unique effects of social inclusion. Recent evidence indicates that social inclusion leads to enhanced prioritization of reproductive interests. The current study extends these findings by showing that the pursuit of these inclusion-induced reproductive goals occurs in sex-specific ways. Across three experiments, social inclusion led men, but not women, to endorse riskier, more aggressive mating strategies compared to control and socially excluded participants. Specifically, included men were more likely to endorse sexual aggression (Experiment 1), high-risk mate poaching behaviors (Experiment 2), and high-risk mate retention tactics (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that the experience of social inclusion can affect sex-differentiated preferences for risky mating strategies. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
McElroy, Todd; Corbin, Jonathan
The study of risk preference has become a widely investigated area of research. The current study is designed to investigate the relationship between handedness, hemispheric predominance and valence imposition in a risky-choice decision task. Research into the valence hypothesis (e.g., Ahern & Schwartz, 1985; Davidson, 1984) has shown that the left hemisphere is more active in processing positively valenced stimuli, whereas the right hemisphere is more active in processing negatively valenced stimuli. A total of 520 individuals (343 female, 117 male) participated in a self-imposed framing task and took a degree of handedness questionnaire. The results of the framing task and handedness questionnaire showed that participants' degree of handedness significantly influenced the positive/negative valence they imposed onto the framing task as well as their level of risk preference.
Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E
Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.
Full Text Available AiM: This study was planned as a descriptive study in order to investigate risky health behaviors of immigrant and non immigrant adolescents. METHODS: The study was performed in a high school situated Izmir between the dates of October and November 2008. Sample group of this research was included 293 immigrant and 813 non immigrant adolescents. Data were collected by using Socio-demographic question form and and Health Risk Behaviors Scale. Data were collected from students with a technical pencil-paper by researcher in classroom. Frequencies, one way anova (post-hoc bonferroni and independent t test were used with Stastical Package for Social Science 13.0 program for statistical analysis of data. Written consent was taken from Izmir Directorate of Education to carry out the study. Oral consent was taken from the school manager and the students. RESULTS: Mean age of adolescents was 15.42+/-0.03. It was determined that risky health behaviors mean score (t: 2.161, p: 0.031 and physical activity (t: 2.132, p: 0.033, nutrition (t:3.030, p: 0.003, hygiene (t: 3.850, p: 0.000 sub-scales mean scores of immigrant adolescent were statistically higher than non immigrant adolescents (p<0.05. CONCLUSiONS: Consequently, this study was important to health professionals worked primary health services and school health services The study have significant data about migration affects on health behaviors of adolescent to show health professionals worked primary care and school health services and to plan health services towards adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(4.000: 289-294
Diederich, Adele; Trueblood, Jennifer S
Many phenomena in judgment and decision making are often attributed to the interaction of 2 systems of reasoning. Although these so-called dual process theories can explain many types of behavior, they are rarely formalized as mathematical or computational models. Rather, dual process models are typically verbal theories, which are difficult to conclusively evaluate or test. In the cases in which formal (i.e., mathematical) dual process models have been proposed, they have not been quantitatively fit to experimental data and are often silent when it comes to the timing of the 2 systems. In the current article, we present a dynamic dual process model framework of risky decision making that provides an account of the timing and interaction of the 2 systems and can explain both choice and response-time data. We outline several predictions of the model, including how changes in the timing of the 2 systems as well as time pressure can influence behavior. The framework also allows us to explore different assumptions about how preferences are constructed by the 2 systems as well as the dynamic interaction of the 2 systems. In particular, we examine 3 different possible functional forms of the 2 systems and 2 possible ways the systems can interact (simultaneously or serially). We compare these dual process models with 2 single process models using risky decision making data from Guo, Trueblood, and Diederich (2017). Using this data, we find that 1 of the dual process models significantly outperforms the other models in accounting for both choices and response times. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.
Lim, Megan S C; Vella, Alyce M; Horyniak, Danielle R; Hellard, Margaret E
Background Sexting is a common emerging phenomenon. This study aims to explore young people's attitudes towards sexting. Participants (n=469, age range 15-29 years) were recruited at a music festival and self-completed a questionnaire. Attitudes towards sexting were assessed using a series of seven statements, rated on a five-point Likert scale from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree'. Correlates of sexting attitudes were determined using multivariable regression. Forty-six percent of respondents reported ever sexting. Most (88%) agreed 'It's risky for a girl to send a naked picture of herself,' fewer agreed with the statement 'It's risky for a boy to send a naked picture of himself' (77%). Thirty percent agreed that 'If someone I'd just started seeing sent me a sext I might show it to some friends,' however, only 14% might do the same with a sext from a boyfriend or girlfriend (this did not differ by sex). More permissive attitudes to sexting were associated with being male, lower sexual health knowledge, inconsistent condom use with casual partners, and higher alcohol consumption. Although the majority of young people surveyed agreed that sexting was risky it was a common practice. Given the potential psychosocial impact of sharing sexts without consent, it was concerning that up to a third of participants indicated they might do so. The findings of this study have implications for informing education on sexting.
Abdala, Nadia; Kershaw, Trace; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V; Kozlov, Andrei P
This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence of contraceptive methods and investigated whether abortion rates influence contraceptive behaviour among injection drug-using (IDU) women in St Petersburg, Russia. A self-administered questionnaire of behaviour in the last 3 months was applied to a convenient sample of IDU women. Of 80 sexually active participants, 67% had had an abortion. No participant reported using hormonal contraceptives or intrauterine devices (IUDs). The only valid method of contraception used was condoms, which was reported by half of the participants. Consistent condom use was reported by 22% of participants and was no more likely among those who had an abortion. Condom use was significantly associated with having multiple or casual sex partners [prevalence ratio (PR) 1.75, 95% (confidence interval) CI 1.11-2.78, p = 0.01], having an IDU sex partner (PR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.85, p = 0.029) and with a negative attitude toward condoms (PR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33-0.84, p = 0.01). Abortions were less likely among those who had multiple or casual sex partners (PR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97, p = 0.03). Despite the high prevalence of abortions among IDU women, none reported the use of hormonal contraception or IUDs. Having had an abortion was not associated with greater likelihood of using condoms. Participants mostly used condoms with casual or multiple sex partners, suggesting that condoms were used mainly to prevent HIV/sexually transmitted infection transmission and not to prevent pregnancy. Programmes to prevent unwanted pregnancies and reduce abortion-related health risks among this understudied vulnerable group are needed.
Sun, Xinying; Liu, Xiaona; Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Peiyu; Chang, Chun
The purposes of this study were to assess sexual behavior and condom use among Chinese college students, and to explore social-environmental and social-cognitive determinants associated with risky sexual behaviors within this population. A survey was conducted among 19,123 Chinese college students recruited through stratified cluster sampling. About 9% of the students reported having had sex (male=13.3%, female=5.0%, OR=2.918), 3.6% had multiple sexual partners (male=5.7%, female=1.6%, OR=3.624), and 0.9% had commercialized sex (male=1.6%, female=0.3%, OR=6.169). Only 24.8% of sexually active students had used a condom for every sexual encounter, and there was no significant difference in condom use between male students and female students. Logistic regression showed that sex (female, OR=0.769), age (older, OR=1.263), exposure to pornographic information (higher, OR=1.751), drinking (intoxication, OR=1.437), and smoking (OR=2.123-5.112) were all determinants of sexual behaviors. Path analysis showed that exposure to pornographic information, level of consumption, and sex education were important social-environmental factors of condom use. Condom use was more common among those who had greater HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes toward high-risk behavior, self-efficacy, and intent to use a condom. Intentions were the most important and direct factor influencing condom use. The study concluded that college students are vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases - including HIV/AIDS infection - through sexual contact. Therefore, future HIV/AIDS prevention and safer sex interventions should focus on self-protection skills and target behavior change.
Almuneef, Maha; Hollinshead, Dana; Saleheen, Hassan; AlMadani, Sereen; Derkash, Bridget; AlBuhairan, Fadia; Al-Eissa, Majid; Fluke, John
The aim of this study is to determine if ACEs impact the health and risk behavior burden among Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) adults. In 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted across KSA to identify the retrospective prevalence of ACEs and their association with high risk behaviors and chronic diseases. Surveys from 10,156 adults in all 13 Saudi regions were obtained using an Arabic version of the WHO ACE-IQ (KSA ACE-IQ). Compared to respondents reporting no ACEs, even just one ACE contributed significantly to the odds of experiencing diabetes mellitus (OR=1.3), depression (OR=1.32), or anxiety (OR=1.79) outcomes. Two ACEs were necessary for statistically significant, higher odds to emerge for hypertension (OR=1.46), mental illness (OR=1.93), smoking (OR=1.17), alcohol use (OR=1.75), and drug use (OR=1.45). Respondents who reported four or more ACEs had greater odds of coronary heart disease (OR=1.94), and obesity (OR=2.25). Compared to those reporting no ACEs, respondents reporting four or more ACEs had over four times the odds of Alcohol or Drug Use, Mental Illness, Depression, and/or Anxiety outcomes and more than twice the odds of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and/or smoking outcomes. Findings from this analysis underscore the potential benefit of providing focused preventative approaches to mitigating ACEs in KSA in relation to both the specific and cumulative burden of health and risky behavior outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Objectives: Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. Methods: This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL were searched for combinations of keywords including ‘healthcare workers’, ‘risky sexual behaviour’ and ‘HIV and AIDS’. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. Conclusion: More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.
Khamisa, Natasha; Mokgobi, Maboe
South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL) were searched for combinations of keywords including 'healthcare workers', 'risky sexual behaviour' and 'HIV and AIDS'. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula J.; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Temple, Jeff R.
Objective To examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents’ risky sexual behavior across one year, and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents’ gender and ethnicity. Methods A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from 7 public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Results Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior. PMID:25797949
Hosain, G M Monawar; Berenson, Abbey B; Tennen, Howard; Bauer, Lance O; Wu, Z Helen
This study was undertaken to assess the association between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and high-risk sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study interviewed 462 low-income women aged 18-30 years. We used the 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist to assess ADHD symptoms. Risky sexual behaviors included sex before 15 years of age, risky sex partners in lifetime, number of sex partners in the last 12 months, condom use in the last 12 months, alcohol use before sex in the last 12 months, traded sex in lifetime, and diagnosed with sexually transmitted infection (STI) in lifetime. Mean ADHD symptom score was 19.8 (SD±12.9), and summary index of all risky sexual behavior was 1.77 (SD±1.37). Using unadjusted odds ratios (OR), women who endorsed more ADHD symptoms reported engaging in more risky sexual behaviors of all types. However, when multivariable logistic regression was applied adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, the adjusted ORs remained significant for having risky sex partners and having ≥3 sex partners in the prior 12 months. We observed some differences in risky sexual behavior between two domains of ADHD. The ADHD symptom score appears to be associated with some risky sexual behaviors and deserves further attention. A brief ADHD screening can identify this high-risk group for timely evaluation and safe sex counseling.
Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R
The objectives of this study is to examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' risky sexual behavior across 1 year and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents' gender and ethnicity. A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from seven public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior.
Horyniak, Danielle; Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Ojeda, Victoria D
Deported migrants face numerous challenges which may elevate their risk for drug use. We examined relationships between integration and drug use among deported migrants in Tijuana, Mexico. A cross-sectional survey conducted at a free health clinic included 255 deported Mexican-born migrants residing in Tijuana ≥6 months. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between variables across four integration domains (public participation, social connections, macro-level facilitators and foundations) and recent (past 6-month) drug use. The prevalence of recent drug use was 46 %. Having sought work in Tijuana in the past 6 months, greater household affluence, lifetime history of incarceration in both US and Mexico, and lacking health insurance were independently associated with recent drug use. Policies that support access to employment, adequate housing and healthcare in Mexico, particularly for justice-involved deportees, may facilitate successful integration and reduce potential stressors that may contribute to drug use.
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride
Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.
Carliner, Hannah; Sarvet, Aaron L; Gordon, Allegra R; Hasin, Deborah S
While gender inequality has been a topic of concern for decades, little is known about the relationship between gender discrimination and illicit drug use. Further, whether this association varies by education level is unknown. Among 19,209 women participants in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005), we used logistic regression to test the association between gender discrimination (measured with four items from the Experiences of Discrimination instrument) and three outcomes: past-year illicit drug use, frequent drug use, and drug use disorders. We then tested whether associations differed by education level. Gender discrimination was reported by 9% of women and was associated with past-year drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-3.29], frequent drug use (aOR = 2.82; CI 1.99-4.00), and past-year drug use disorders (aOR = 3.15; CI 2.16-4.61). All specific domains of gender discrimination (on the job, in public, with institutions, being called a sexist name) were associated with all drug use outcomes. The association between gender discrimination and past-year drug use was stronger among women with less than a high school education (aOR = 6.33; CI 3.38-11.85) compared to those with more education (aOR = 2.45; CI 1.97-3.04; p interaction Gender discrimination is consistently and strongly associated with illicit drug use and drug use disorders among U.S. women, with significantly higher odds for drug use among women with less than a high school education. Future research should examine whether explicitly addressing distress from discrimination could benefit women in drug treatment, especially among clients with lower educational attainment.
Smith, Peter C; Schmidt, Susan M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard
Drug use (illicit drug use and nonmedical use of prescription drugs) is common but underrecognized in primary care settings. We validated a single-question screening test for drug use and drug use disorders in primary care. Adult patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms were asked the single screening question, "How many times in the past year have you used an illegal drug or used a prescription medication for nonmedical reasons?" A response of at least 1 time was considered positive for drug use. They were also asked the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10). The reference standard was the presence or absence of current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence) as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview. Drug use was also determined by oral fluid testing for common drugs of abuse. Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single screening question was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.6%-100%) and 73.5% specific (95% CI, 67.7%-78.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was less sensitive for the detection of self-reported current drug use (92.9%; 95% CI, 86.1%-96.5%) and drug use detected by oral fluid testing or self-report (81.8%; 95% CI, 72.5%-88.5%). Test characteristics were similar to those of the DAST-10 and were affected very little by participant demographic characteristics. The single screening question accurately identified drug use in this sample of primary care patients, supporting the usefulness of this brief screen in primary care.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of irrational beliefs and academic procrastination with attitudes towards drug abuse in students. Method: This was a correlational that was carried out on a sample of 254 senior high school students in Kermanshah. Students were selected via random cluster sampling and filled in Jones Irrational Beliefs Test (1968, Solomon & Rothblum's Academic Procrastination (1984 and Rahmati’s Attitude to Drug Use (2001. Results: The results showed that irrational beliefs and procrastination were positively correlated with attitudes towards drug use. In addition, regression analysis showed that irrational beliefs and academic procrastination could account for the total of 38.9 percent of variance pertaining to attitudes towards drug use. Conclusion: It can be argued that academic procrastination and irrational beliefs underlie addiction; therefore, they should be considered in the treatment and prevention of addiction.
Leal, Wanda E; Jackson, Dylan B
The aim of the current study is to determine whether energy drink consumption contributes to drug use and, more specifically, an escalation in the severity of drug use. We first examine the association between energy drink use and hard drug use, and subsequently investigate whether soft drug use mediates this relationship. Potential moderating influences are also investigated by testing whether the degree of mediation varies by age, gender, and race. The current study uses a nationally representative sample of 8th (ages 13-14), 10th (ages 15-16), and 12th (ages 17-18) grade adolescents from the 2015 Monitoring the Future survey. Negative binomial regression is employed to examine associations between energy drink consumption and soft and hard drug use. Mediation results indicate that energy drink consumption is significantly associated with increased soft drug use, which is, in turn, associated with significant increases in hard drug use. This cascading effect of energy drink consumption on drug use appears to be stronger among younger females and older males. Results for the moderating effect of race are mixed. Energy drinks appear to pose an important threat to adolescent health in the form of soft and hard drug use. The United States may want to consider adopting energy drink policies similar to European countries and Canada, which require warning labels on beverages with high caffeine content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chiang, A P; Butte, A J
Drug repositioning refers to the discovery of alternative uses for drugs--uses that are different from that for which the drugs were originally intended. One challenge in this effort lies in choosing the indication for which a drug of interest could be prospectively tested. We systematically evaluated a drug treatment-based view of diseases in order to address this challenge. Suggestions for novel drug uses were generated using a "guilt by association" approach. When compared with a control group of drug uses, the suggested novel drug uses generated by this approach were significantly enriched with respect to previous and ongoing clinical trials.
Nahas, Miriam Almeida; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cournos, Francine; Mckinnon, Karen; Wainberg, Milton; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate factors associated to illicit drug use among patients with mental illness in Brazil according to gender. METHODS A cross-sectional representative sample of psychiatric patients (2,475 individuals) was randomly selected from 11 hospitals and 15 public mental health outpatient clinics. Data on self-reported illicit drug use and sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with recent illicit drug use. RESULTS The prevalence of any recent illicit drug use was 11.4%. Men had higher prevalence than women for all substances (17.5% and 5.6%, respectively). Lower education, history of physical violence, and history of homelessness were associated with drug use among men only; not professing a religion was associated with drug use in women only. For both men and women, younger age, current hospitalization, alcohol and tobacco use, history of incarceration, younger age at sexual debut, and more than one sexual partner were statistically associated with illicit drug use. CONCLUSIONS Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients is higher than among the general Brazilian population and it is associated with multiple factors including markers of psychiatric severity. Our data indicate the need for the development of gender-based drug-use interventions among psychiatric patients in Brazil. Integration of substance use treatment strategies with mental health treatment should be a priority. PMID:28832753
Miriam Almeida Nahas
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate factors associated to illicit drug use among patients with mental illness in Brazil according to gender. METHODS A cross-sectional representative sample of psychiatric patients (2,475 individuals was randomly selected from 11 hospitals and 15 public mental health outpatient clinics. Data on self-reported illicit drug use and sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with recent illicit drug use. RESULTS The prevalence of any recent illicit drug use was 11.4%. Men had higher prevalence than women for all substances (17.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Lower education, history of physical violence, and history of homelessness were associated with drug use among men only; not professing a religion was associated with drug use in women only. For both men and women, younger age, current hospitalization, alcohol and tobacco use, history of incarceration, younger age at sexual debut, and more than one sexual partner were statistically associated with illicit drug use. CONCLUSIONS Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients is higher than among the general Brazilian population and it is associated with multiple factors including markers of psychiatric severity. Our data indicate the need for the development of gender-based drug-use interventions among psychiatric patients in Brazil. Integration of substance use treatment strategies with mental health treatment should be a priority.
Sørensen, H J; Jepsen, P W; Haastrup, S
. METHOD: In 1984, 188 persons (122 men and 66 women) with a history of intravenous narcotics addiction were interviewed about their drug-use pattern. A registry-based follow-up continued through 1999 and mortality was assessed. Three 1984-drug-use categories were formed. In category 1, cohort members had...... at lower risk of premature death than people with continued drug use. A residual observed excess mortality in people who had apparently achieved stable abstinence from drug use is consistent with the view of drug addiction as a chronic disease....
Hoffman, Beth R
Transgender women have a higher prevalence of drug use, HIV, drug use, and sex work than the general population. This article explores the interaction of these variables and discusses how sex work and drug use behaviors contribute to the high rates of HIV. A model predicting HIV rates with sex work and drug use as well as these behaviors in the transgender woman's social network is presented. Challenges to intervening with transgender women, as well as suggestions and criteria for successful interventions, are discussed.
Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results suggest that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper mining cities. These effects were partly concentrated among young adults and copper boom induced in-migration to mining cities appears to have contributed to these reductions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Corny, Jennifer; Pelletier, Elaine; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François
Only few medicines are licensed for children. The use of emerging drugs (unmarketed drug, off-label drug with poorly documented use, and/or costly drugs) might represent an essential alternative for pediatric patients. The objective of the study was to assess emerging drug uses rate and profile in our women's and children's centre to support the implementation of an appropriate policy. We identified retrospectively emerging drugs used between 2013-01-01 and 2014-02-28, using computerized pharmacist software extraction of drugs used. Conventional oncologic drugs were excluded. Retrospective analysis of medical charts for patients who received an emerging drug and literature review for each drug were performed to determine efficacy and safety endpoints. Median delays between first intention and final decision to use the drug and between final decision and first administration were calculated. Proportion of patients who experienced a positive evolution under treatment or a side effect possibly related to the drug was calculated. A total of 26 emerging drugs were identified (89 patients, 99 uses). Median treatment duration was 66 days [1-1435]. Median delay between first evocation and final decision to use the drug was 2 days [0-333] and 0 day [0-404] between final decision and first administration. 52/99 (53%) of patients experienced a positive evolution under treatment and 26/99 (26%) experienced a side effect possibly related to emerging drug use. This study allowed us to describe emerging drug uses in a women and children tertiary hospital. It led to the implementation of a local emerging drug use policy ensuring optimal and safe use of these drugs. There is a significant number of emerging drugs used in pediatric which shows positive improvement in 56% of patients. © 2017 Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology. All rights reserved.
May 1, 2000 ... ... describe the level of. AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioural intent ... Main outcome measures: The questionnaire included items on socio-economic and family background ... South Africa is facing an escalation of reported AIDS cases. ... the inventory knowledge, attitude and practice on different.
Hinchliff, Gemma L M; Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Patton, George C; Williams, Joanne
This study examined the association of risky dieting amongst adolescent girls with depressed mood, family conflict, and parent-child emotional closeness. Grade 6 and 8 females (aged 11-14years, N=4031) were recruited from 231 schools in 30 communities, across three Australian States (Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia). Key measures were based on the Adolescent Dieting Scale, Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and widely used short measures of family relationship quality. Controls included age, early pubertal onset, and socioeconomic status. Risky dieting was significantly related to family conflict and depressed mood, depressed mood mediated the association of family conflict and risky dieting, and these associations remained significant with controls in the model. Family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are associated with risky dieting. Prevention programs may benefit from a broadening of behavioural targets to include depressed mood and family problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
AJRH Managing Editor
people's practicing risky sexual behaviour in the era of HIV/AIDS. Data used in ... pregnancies, unsafe induced abortion and HIV .... additional selection criteria. ...... India. International. Family. Planning. Perspectives 1999; 25(3): 139-146. 18.
Pearson, Matthew R; Murphy, Elaine M; Doane, Ashley N
The present study examined the predictive effects of five impulsivity-like traits (Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation Seeking, Negative Urgency, and Positive Urgency) on driving outcomes (driving errors, driving lapses, driving violations, cell phone driving, traffic citations, and traffic collisions). With a convenience sample of 266 college student drivers, we found that each of the impulsivity-like traits was related to multiple risky driving outcomes. Positive Urgency (tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative affect) was the most robust predictor of risky driving outcomes. Positive Urgency is a relatively newly conceptualized impulsivity-like trait that was not examined in the driving literature previously, suggesting a strong need to further examine its role as a personality trait related to risky driving. These findings generally support the multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-like traits, and they specifically support the addition of Positive Urgency to a list of risk factors for risky driving behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wachs, Sebastian; Junger, Marianne; Sittichai, Ruthaychonee
This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies the...
Filges, Trine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Objectives: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) on drug use reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials...
A study of drug use pattern among inmates of Jos prison, Nigeria. ... A total of 3134 inmates who were admitted for drug use treatment in the ... children have been identified to abuse drugs should be co-opted into the rehabilitation process.
Rote, Sunshine M.; Taylor, John
Six specific hypotheses have been developed to account for why Caucasians have higher rates of drug use compared to African-Americans. This article utilizes data from a South Florida-based community study of 893 young adults (1998-2002) to test these hypotheses. Specifically, Caucasians (1) initiate drug use at younger ages than African-Americans…
Falck, Russel S.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Li, Linna; Carlson, Robert G.
Background: Illicit drug use by school-aged teens can adversely affect their health and academic achievement. This study used a survey administered in schools to assess the prevalence of problematic drug use among teenagers in a Midwestern community. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 11th- and 12th-grade students (N = 3974) in 16…
Alexander, Bruce K.
Two studies of perceived and actual drug use at Simon Fraser University found students estimating greater drug use among friends than for themselves, but 31 percent reported dependence and 5 percent reported current addiction, especially to caffeine and nicotine. An approach to drug abuse focusing on familiar substances is recommended. (MSE)
... another test, performed by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS). This procedure is... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use... Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall be...
Wong, Frank Y; He, N; Huang, Z J; Young, D; O'Conor, C; Ding, Y Y; Fu, C; Arayasirikul, S
Large-scale internal migrations within China have led to speculation of increased drug use, but with little empirical evidence. This cross-sectional study examines the association between migration characteristics and illicit drug use in 100 general male migrants and 239 "money boys" (i.e., male migrants engaging in same-sex transactional sex) in Shanghai, China. Only three general male migrants reported any drug use. Among money boys, lifetime illicit drug use was 12%; Ecstasy and methamphetamine appeared to be the most popular drugs. In addition, depression prevalence was very high among both types of male migrants. Depression was associated with lifetime soft- and hard-drug use, while earning a higher income was associated with lifetime soft-drug use. These findings provide the first set of quantitative evidence of illicit drug use among Chinese male migrants. Although illicit drug use among male migrants is low compared to Western countries, its resurgence after 30 years of drug control gives cause for concern.
Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.
Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…
Diaz, Tracy; Dusenbury, Linda; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Farmer-Huselid, Rebecca
Examined predictors of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use with homeless adolescents and preadolescents (N=234). Results reveal that social influences (friends and family drug use) are strong predictors of experimental drug use and intentions to use drugs, as are several psychological factors (psychological well-being, assertiveness, and social…
Filges, Trine; Jorgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Objectives: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on drug use reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Meta-analytic methods were used to…
Nijk, Renate M; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients are common and are often treated with psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing home patients with dementia. METHODS: Psychotropic drug use of 1322
Stein, Judith A.; And Others
Grandparents' and mothers' drug use predicted hyperactivity, psychosomatic complaints, and social problems for boys, and acting-out behaviors for boys and girls. Maternal drug use predicted fearfulness, hyperactivity, and social problems for boys, and developmental problems for boys and girls. (BC)
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1001 Diluents in color additive mixtures for drug use exempt from certification. The following...
Bødtger, Uffe; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Poulsen, Lars K
in a double-blind study. Drug use was recorded daily during the season 2000 and out-seasonally 6 months after the seasons 1999 and 2000. The mean daily drug use was transformed into a 4-point categorical scale for simplicity and was calculated for the out-seasonal rating and for 6 in-seasonal periods...
Ford, Jason A.
Objective: Given the substantial increase in nonmedical prescription drug use in recent years and a lack of research on the topic, the author analyzed data on nonmedical prescription drug use among college students. Participants and Methods: Using data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study (N = 10,904), the author examined variation in nonmedical…
Werch, Chudley E.; And Others
Examined stages of drug use acquisition among college students (n=669) and relationship between stage status and motivation to avoid drugs and frequency of drug use. College students differed with regard to their stage of habit acquisition across five drugs. Findings suggest that acquisition stage heuristic holds promise in increasing…
Mohammad Al-Nasser; Rushami Zien Yusoff; Rabiul Islam; Abdullah Al-Nasser
Purchasing is considered a risky business specifically in the online purchasing environment. The research was designed to fill the gap in the existing body of knowledge regarding attitudes and differences in electronic service quality perception between two different geographical and cultural countries-Malaysia and Saudi Arabia-regarding online shopping. Specifically, this research extended previous effort done in an online shopping context by providing evidence that high service quality incr...
Boutros, Nathalie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Semenova, Svetlana; Lee, Soon; Markou, Athina
Adolescent ethanol exposure increases risky choice and alters corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) systems in adulthood. The impact of stress on risky choice after adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure is not known. We investigated time-specific effects of AIE vapor exposure during early adolescence on risky choice after stress or no stress in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air or AIE vapor on postnatal days 28-42 (adolescence) and were exposed to 10days of social defeat or no stress on postnatal days 172-181 (adulthood). Risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task under baseline conditions and after days 1 and 10 of social defeat. CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) mRNA levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) 24h post-stress to evaluate persistent effects of stress on the brain. AIE exposure had no effect on risky choice either at baseline or after social defeat. Additionally, neither acute nor chronic social defeat affected risky choice in air-exposed rats. In the PFC, chronic social defeat selectively decreased CRF mRNA levels in air-exposed rats and increased CRFR1 mRNA levels in all rats. AIE exposure increased CRF mRNA levels in the CeA with no effect of social stress. Our results indicate no effect of ethanol exposure via vapor during early adolescence on risky choice, while our previous findings indicated that AIE exposure via gavage affected risky choice. Both AIE exposure and social defeat altered CRF and CRFR1 mRNA levels in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Šincek, Daniela; Tomašić Humer, Jasmina; Duvnjak, Ivana
Background: This paper explores problematic Internet gaming in the context of other forms of risky behaviour. The basic premise is that children and adolescents at risk will display different types of risky behaviour in various settings. Subjects and methods: Children and adolescents (N=1150) were surveyed about (cyber)violence, problematic gaming (habits, motives and symptoms), self-disclosure via Facebook and self-esteem. Results: Regular gamers were more violent both face-to-fa...
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact o...
Patel, Vimla L.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Kaufman, David R.; Gutnik, Lily A.; Shortliffe, Edward H.
To create a culture of safe practices, we need to understand how and under what conditions the public makes risky decisions about their health. Because risky sexual behaviors are known to be common in young adults, we investigated their decision making regarding sexual activities that could incur a high risk of HIV infection. Sixty young urban adults maintained journals for two weeks and were interviewed regarding condom use and sexual history. We characterized four patterns...
Anderson, Amy E.; Hure, Alexis J.; Forder, Peta M.; Powers, Jennifer; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Loxton, Deborah J.
BACKGROUND: Risky patterns of alcohol use prior to pregnancy increase the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes. It is important to understand how consumption changes once women become pregnant. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of women that partake in risky drinking patterns before pregnancy and to examine how these patterns change once they become pregnant. METHODS: A sample of 1577 women from the 1973-78 cohort of the Austra...
Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja
A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei
Gender differences in sexual behavior as a consequence of migration have been ignored in both the migration and the HIV literature in China. This study examines differences among temporary migrants in terms of sexual behavior and factors that make female migrants more vulnerable to the risk of acquiring HIV infection. Results suggest that the interplay of migration and gender renders female temporary migrants particularly vulnerable to engaging in casual and commercial sex. Although male temporary migrants do not differ from male nonmigrants in prevalence of casual and commercial sex, the prevalence rates of casual and commercial sex for female temporary migrants are found to be 14 and 80 times those for female nonmigrants, respectively. Female temporary migrants' higher unemployment rate and concentration in the service and entertainment sectors are keys to understanding differences in the prevalence of casual and commercial sex among temporary migrants according to sex. Policy measures to promote female temporary migrants' equal access to employment are urgently needed to improve their economic well-being and to reduce their risky sexual behavior.
Conclusion: Information of rational drug usage pattern is sufficient for the patients who visit Balcali Hospital and this condition is related to their gender, educational level and social security level. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1: 1-8
He, Fei; Li, Dongdong; Cao, Rong; Zeng, Juli; Guan, Hao
In medical practice, the dissatisfaction of patients about medical decisions made by doctors is often regarded as the fuse of doctor-patient conflict. However, a few studies have looked at why there are such dissatisfactions. This experimental study aimed to explore the discrepancy between attitude and behavior within medical situations and its interaction with framing description. A total of 450 clinical undergraduates were randomly assigned to six groups and investigated using the classic medical decision making problem, which was described either in a positive or a negative frame (2) × decision making behavior\\attitude to risky plan\\attitude to conservative plan (3). A discrepancy between attitude and behavior did exist in medical situations. Regarding medical dilemmas, if the mortality rate was described, subjects had a significant tendency to choose a conservative plan (t = 3.55, P 0.05). However, regardless of the plan chosen by the doctor, the subjects had a significant opposing attitude (P Framing description had a significant impact on both decision making behavior and attitude (t behavior = -3.24, P framing of a description has an impact on medical decision-making.
Smith, Peter C; Cheng, Debbie M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Winter, Michael R; Saitz, Richard
People who consume unhealthy amounts of alcohol are more likely to use illicit drugs. We tested the ability of a screening test for unhealthy alcohol use to simultaneously detect drug use. Adult English speaking patients (n=286) were enrolled from a primary care waiting room. They were asked the screening question for unhealthy alcohol use "How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?", where X is 5 for men and 4 for women, and a response of one or more is considered positive. A standard diagnostic interview was used to determine current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence). Oral fluid testing was also used to detect recent use of common drugs of abuse. The single screening question for unhealthy alcohol use was 67.6% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2-82.0%) and 64.7% specific (95% CI, 58.4-70.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was similarly insensitive for drug use detected by oral fluid testing and/or self-report. Although a patient with a drug use disorder has twice the odds of screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use compared to one without a drug use disorder, suggesting patients who screen positive for alcohol should be asked about drug use, a single screening question for unhealthy alcohol use was not sensitive or specific for the detection of other drug use or drug use disorders in a sample of primary care patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda; Sood, Neeraj
Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forster, Alice; Wardle, Jane; Stephenson, Judith; Waller, Jo
A significant minority of parents are concerned about adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The way the HPV vaccine is reported in the media has the potential to influence public understanding and vaccination decisions. The present study examined the content of articles published between 2003 and 2008 in British national newspapers that addressed the issue of adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination. We used mixed methods to analyze 92 articles in which the issue was mentioned. Qualitative framework analysis highlighted three main types of discussion: news stories proposing that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination, counterarguments insisting that adolescents will not engage in risky sexual behavior after HPV vaccination, and parents' views of the issue of risky sexual behavior. The results indicated that newspapers provide parents with broadly positive descriptive norms about vaccination; however, the issue that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behaviors following HPV vaccination is regularly discussed in the national press and has the potential to increase parents' concerns about vaccination.
Full Text Available Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD tend to exhibit disadvantageous risky decision-making not only in their real life but also in laboratory tasks. Decision-making is a complex multifaceted function and different cognitive processes are involved in decision-making for gains and losses. However, the relationship between impaired decision-making and gain versus loss processing in the context of IGD is poorly understood. The main aim of the present study was to separately evaluate decision-making for risky gains and losses among college students with IGD using the Cups task. Additionally, we further examined the effects of outcome magnitude and probability level on decision-making related to risky gains and losses respectively. Sixty college students with IGD and 42 matched healthy controls (HCs participated. Results indicated that IGD subjects exhibited generally greater risk taking tendencies than HCs. In comparison to HCs, IGD subjects made more disadvantageous risky choices in the loss domain (but not in the gain domain. Follow-up analyses indicated that the impairment was associated to insensitivity to changes in outcome magnitude and probability level for risky losses among IGD subjects. In addition, higher Internet addiction severity scores were associated with percentage of disadvantageous risky options in the loss domain. These findings emphasize the effect of insensitivity to losses on disadvantageous decisions under risk in the context of IGD, which has implications for future intervention studies.
Nobrega, José N; Hedayatmofidi, Parisa S; Lobo, Daniela S
Risky decision-making is characteristic of depression and of addictive disorders, including pathological gambling. However it is not clear whether a propensity to risky choices predisposes to depressive symptoms or whether the converse is the case. Here we tested the hypothesis that rats showing risky decision-making in a rat gambling task (rGT) would be more prone to depressive-like behaviour in the learned helplessness (LH) model. Results showed that baseline rGT choice behaviour did not predict escape deficits in the LH protocol. In contrast, exposure to the LH protocol resulted in a significant increase in risky rGT choices on retest. Unexpectedly, control rats subjected only to escapable stress in the LH protocol showed a subsequent decrease in riskier rGT choices. Further analyses indicated that the LH protocol affected primarily rats with high baseline levels of risky choices and that among these it had opposite effects in rats exposed to LH-inducing stress compared to rats exposed only to the escape trials. Together these findings suggest that while baseline risky decision making may not predict LH behaviour it interacts strongly with LH conditions in modulating subsequent decision-making behaviour. The suggested possibility that stress controllability may be a key factor should be further investigated.
Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Shalev, Idan
This study was designed to examine prospective associations of risky family environments with subsequent levels of negative emotions and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length (TL), a marker of cellular aging. A second purpose was to determine whether negative emotions mediate the hypothesized link between risky family processes and diminished telomere length. Participants were 293 adolescents (age 17 years at the first assessment) and their primary caregivers. Caregivers provided data on risky family processes when the youths were age 17 years, youths reported their negative emotions at age 18 years, and youths' TL was assayed from a blood sample at age 22 years. The results revealed that (a) risky family processes forecast heightened negative emotions (β = .316, p emotions forecast shorter TL (β = -.187, p = .012), and (c) negative emotions served as a mediator connecting risky family processes with diminished TL (indirect effect = -0.012, 95% CI [-0.036, -0.002]). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that risky family processes presage premature cellular aging through effects on negative emotions, with potential implications for lifelong health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Albert, Derek A; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Jarret, Julien; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Paquette, Martin; Badeau, Nancy; Brown, Thomas G
Risky driving is a significant contributor to road traffic crashes, especially in young drivers. Transient mind wandering states, an internal form of distraction, are associated with faster driving, reduced headway distance, slower response times, reduced driver vigilance, and increased crash risk. It is unclear whether a trait tendency to mind wander predicts risky driving, however. Mind wandering is also associated with poor executive control, but whether this capacity moderates the putative link between mind wandering tendency and risky driving is uncertain. The present study tested whether mind wandering tendency predicts risky driving behaviour in young male drivers aged 18-21 (N=30) and whether this relationship is mediated by driver vigilance and moderated by executive control capacity. Mind wandering was measured with the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and the Daydreaming Frequency Scale (DDFS). Risky driving was assessed by mean speed in a driving simulator and driver vigilance was quantified by horizontal eye movements measured with eye tracking. Results showed that greater mind wandering tendency based on SART performance significantly predicts faster mean speed, confirming the main hypothesis. Neither driver vigilance mediated nor executive control capacity moderated this relationship as hypothesized. These findings speak to the complexity of individual differences in mind wandering. Overall, mind wandering tendency is a significant marker of risky driving in young drivers, which could guide the development of targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Ferketich, Amy K; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D
To develop and validate a risky sexual behavior index specific to cervical cancer research. Sexual behavior data on 428 women from the Community Awareness Resources and Education (CARE) study were utilized. A weighting scheme for eight risky sexual behaviors was generated and validated in creating the CARE Risky Sexual Behavior Index. Cutpoints were then identified to classify women as having a low, medium, or high level of risky sexual behavior. Index scores ranged from 0 to 35, with women considered to have a low level of risky sexual behavior if their score was less than six (31.3% of sample), a medium level if their score was 6–10 (30.6%), or a high level if their score was 11 or greater (38.1%). A strong association was observed between the created categories and having a previous abnormal Pap smear test (p Sexual Behavior Index provides a tool for measuring risky sexual behavior level for cervical cancer research. Future studies are needed to validate this index in varied populations and test its use in the clinical setting.
Sarma, Kiran M; Carey, Rachel N; Kervick, Aoife A; Bimpeh, Yaw
This paper presents the results of a national survey of drivers in the Republic of Ireland that sought to examine psychological predictors of specific driving behaviours. 1638 respondents attending National Car Testing (NCT) centres nationwide completed a questionnaire battery that included personality, attitudinal, locus of control and social influence measures. The driving behaviours examined were drawn from a Driving Behaviour Scale (Iversen, 2004) and included Speeding and Rule Violation, Reckless Driving, Wearing of Seat Belts, Cautious Driving and Drink Driving. Cross-group comparisons suggested that males engaged in more risky and less cautious driving behaviours than females, and participants under the age of 25 were more risky and less cautious than those 25 years or older. Statistically significant models of each driving outcome emerged. The best model fit was for speeding and rule violation, which was predicted by a model including positive attitudes towards speeding, greater normative influences of friends and higher perceived behavioural control, extraversion and driving anger. These findings offer important insights into the correlates of different driving behaviours and can help inform the work of road safety practitioners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
J R, Alameda-Bailén; M P, Salguero-Alcañiz; A, Merchán-Clavellino; S, Paíno-Quesada
The relationship between the use of cannabis and the decision-making processes was explored. A computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (Cards Software) in its normal and reverse version was used, and the Prospect Valence Learning (PVL) model, which characterize the process of decision-making based on the parameters: Recency, Consistency, Loss aversion and Utility shape, was applied. Seventy-three cannabis consumers and a control group with 73 nonconsumers participated in the study. In the normal mode, subjects in the control group scored higher than cannabis consumers. Both groups showed consistent responses and aversion to loss. Nonconsumers showed greater influence of the gain-loss frequency, while consumers were more influenced by the magnitude of the gain-loss. The influence of immediate choices was higher among consumers who showed a quick oblivion while in the control group this process was more gradual. In the reverse mode, task performance was better among control group participants. Both groups showed consistency, loss aversion, more influenced by the magnitude of the gain-loss, and low influence of immediate elections. The results show the relationship between drug use and the decision-making processes, being consistent with the results obtained in other studies where consumers had worse results than control group. Moreover, the PVL parameters allow to adequately characterize decision-making. This confirms the relationship between drug use and decision-making by either the vulnerability prior to consumption or the neurotoxicity of drugs.
Over the past 20 years, the young-adult backpacking trip has emerged as a significant social phenomenon in Israeli society. This has received attention from scholars specializing in anthropology and tourism research, but only a few analytical studies exist on the drug policy processes and few provide Israeli social and health perspectives. The interaction of policymakers, media, and health deviancy is an important focus of inquiry. This study charts the establishment of a drug policy for Israeli backpackers. It covers the period from the emergence of the problem in the early 1990s until the present. This study employs content analysis of newspaper articles and official documents, protocols, and reports written by policymakers and professionals. The latter were mostly produced by the Israel Anti-Drug Authority (IADA) and the Special Committee on Drug and Alcohol Abuse (SCDAA) in the Israeli Knesset. These are the two major Israeli agencies responsible for drug policy. Three periods in the establishment of backpacker drug policy can be identified. First period - until late 1995: No drug problem was recognized. The subject was not part of the public agenda. Even so, many backpackers were actually taking drugs. Second Period - late 1995 to 2000: The Israeli media started to report intensively on backpacker drug use. The issue then flared up into a significant 'social problem' demanding health and social solutions. In this phase, policymakers capitalized on a window of opportunity, and formulated a policy emphasizing prevention. Third period - from 2001 until the present: A sea change in institutional attitude occurred. In this period, drug-policy emphasis shifted from prevention to therapeutic-treatment approaches. As a result, harm reduction and unique treatment strategies were developed. Policymakers should continue to improve health prevention, treatment, and harm reduction resources. It is recommended that the Ministry of Health set up consultation centers at
Muche, Achenef Asmamaw; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Berhe, Abadi Kidanemariam; Fekadu, Gedefaw Abeje
Risky sexual practice is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. There are various studies on the prevalence and determinants of risky sexual practice in different regions of the country but there is no study which shows the national estimate of risky sexual practices in Ethiopia. Therefore, this review was conducted to estimate the national pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice and its risk factors in Ethiopia. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline was followed to review published and unpublished studies in Ethiopia. The databases used were; PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL and African Journals Online. Search terms were; risky sexual behavior, risky sexual practice, unprotected sex, multiple sexual partner, early sexual initiation, and/or Ethiopia. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument was used for critical appraisal. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager software. Descriptive information of studies was presented in narrative form and quantitative results were presented in forest plots. The Cochran Q test and I 2 test statistics were used to test heterogeneity across studies. The pooled estimate prevalence and the odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed by a random effect model. A total of 31 studies with 43,695 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice was 42.80% (95% CI: 35.64%, 49.96%). Being male (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.37), substance use (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.41, 8.31), peer pressure (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.69, 6.87) and watching pornography (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.21, 5.86) were factors associated with an increase in risky sexual practices. The prevalence of risky sexual practices is high in Ethiopia. Being male, substance use, peer pressure and viewing pornographic materials were found to be associated with risky sexual practices. Therefore, life skills training is recommended to
Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stéphanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre; Acquarone, D; Aicardi, F; André-Mazeaud, P; Arsento, M; Astier, R; Baille, H; Bajon-Thery, F; Barre, E; Basire, C; Battu, J L; Baudry, S; Beatini, C; Beaud'huin, N; Becker, C; Bellezza, D; Beque, C; Bernstein, O; Beyssier, C; Blanc-Cascio, F; Blanchet, N; Blondel, C; Boisselot, R; Bordes-Dupuy, G; Borrelly, N; Bouhnik, D; Boulanger, M F; Boulard, J; Bourreau, P; Bourret, D; Boustière, A M; Breton, C; Bugeon, G; Buono-Michel, M; Canonne, J F; Capella, D; Cavin-Rey, M; Cervoni, C; Charreton, D; Charrier, D; Chauvin, M A; Chazal, B; Cougnot, C; Cuvelier, G; Dalivoust, G; Daumas, R; Debaille, A; De Bretteville, L; Delaforge, G; Delchambre, A; Domeny, L; Donati, Y; Ducord-Chapelet, J; Duran, C; Durand-Bruguerolle, D; Fabre, D; Faivre, A; Falleri, R; Ferrando, G; Ferrari-Galano, J; Flutet, M; Fouché, J P; Fournier, F; Freyder, E; Galy, M; Garcia, A; Gazazian, G; Gérard, C; Girard, F; Giuge, M; Goyer, C; Gravier, C; Guyomard, A; Hacquin, M C; Halimi, E; Ibagnes, T; Icart, P; Jacquin, M C; Jaubert, B; Joret, J P; Julien, J P; Kacel, M; Kesmedjian, E; Lacroix, P; Lafon-Borelli, M; Lallai, S; Laudicina, J; Leclercq, X; Ledieu, S; Leroy, J; Leroyer, L; Loesche, F; Londi, D; Longueville, J M; Lotte, M C; Louvain, S; Lozé, M; Maculet-Simon, M; Magallon, G; Marcelot, V; Mareel, M C; Martin, P; Masse, A M; Méric, M; Milliet, C; Mokhtari, R; Monville, A M; Muller, B; Obadia, G; Pelser, M; Peres, L; Perez, E; Peyron, M; Peyronnin, F; Postel, S; Presseq, P; Pyronnet, E; Quinsat, C; Raulot-Lapointe, H; Rigaud, P; Robert, F; Robert, O; Roger, K; Roussel, A; Roux, J P; Rubini-Remigy, D; Sabaté, N; Saccomano-Pertus, C; Salengro, B; Salengro-Trouillez, P; Samsom, E; Sendra-Gille, L; Seyrig, C; Stoll, G; Tarpinian, N; Tavernier, M; Tempesta, S; Terracol, H; Torresani, F; Triglia, M F; Vandomme, V; Vieillard, F; Vilmot, K; Vital, N
The association between workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use is not well established. This study was aimed at exploring the association between workplace bullying, and its characteristics, and psychotropic drug use and studying the mediating role of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the south-east of France. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument elaborated by Leymann, and psychotropic drug use, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physico-chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. Workplace bullying was strongly associated with psychotropic drug use. Past exposure to bullying increased the risk for this use. The more frequent and the longer the exposure to bullying, the stronger the association with psychotropic drug use. Observing bullying on someone else at the workplace was associated with psychotropic drug use. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms reduced the magnitude of the associations, especially for men. The association between bullying and psychotropic drug use was found to be significant and strong and was partially mediated by physical and mental health.
Razali, Muzafar Mohd; Kliewer, Wendy
This study investigated risk and protective factors for recreational and hard drug use in Malaysian adolescents and young adults. Participants (n = 859; M age = 17.24 years, SD = 2.75 years, range = 13-25 years; 59% male) were recruited from secondary schools, technical colleges, a juvenile detention center and a national training center in Malaysia. A version of the Communities That Care survey validated for use in Malaysia (Razali & Kliewer, 2015) was used to assess study constructs. One in 6 adolescents and 1 in 3 young adults reported lifetime recreational and hard drug use, with greater use reported by males across all drug categories. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the strongest risk and protective factors for recreational and hard drug use. The overall pattern of findings was similar for recreational and hard drug use. Shared risk factors for lifetime recreational and hard drug use included early initiation of antisocial behavior, peer antisocial behavior, and peer reinforcement for engaging in antisocial behavior; shared protective factors included religious practices and opportunities for prosocial school involvement. Multiple group analyses comparing adolescents and young adults indicated that patterns of risk and protective factors predicting drug use differed across these age groups. There were fewer significant predictors of either recreational or hard drug use for young adults relative to adolescents. Results suggest that interventions should target multiple microsystems (e.g., peer groups, family systems, school environments) and be tailored to the developmental stage of the individual. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fogel, Joshua; Shlivko, Alexander
Reality television watching and social media use are popular activities. Reality television can include mention of illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. To determine if reality television and social media use of Twitter are associated with either illegal drug use or prescription drug misuse. Survey of 576 college students in 2011. Independent variables included watching reality television (social cognitive theory), parasocial interaction (parasocial interaction theory), television hours watched (cultivation theory), following a reality television character on Twitter, and demographics. Outcome variables were illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Watching reality television and also identifying with reality TV program characters were each associated with greater odds for illegal drug use. Also, following a reality TV character on Twitter had greater odds for illegal drug use and also in one analytical model for prescription drug misuse. No support was seen for cultivation theory. Those born in the United States had greater odds for illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Women and Asians had lower odds for illegal drug use. African Americans and Asians had lower odds for prescription drug misuse. Physicians, psychologists, and other healthcare practitioners may find it useful to include questions in their clinical interview about reality television watching and Twitter use. Physician and psychology groups, public health practitioners, and government health agencies should consider discussing with television broadcasting companies the potential negative impact of including content with illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse on reality television programs.
Leslie, Hannah Hogan; Ahern, Jennifer; Chinaglia, Magda; Kerrigan, Deanna; Lippman, Sheri A
Structural interventions focused on community mobilisation to engender an enabling social context have reduced sexual risk behaviours among sex workers. Interventions to date have increased social participation and shown an association between participation and safer sex. Social participation could modify risk for other health behaviours, particularly drug use. We assessed social participation and drug use before and after implementation of a clinical, social and structural intervention with sex workers intended to prevent sexually transmitted infections/HIV infection. We followed 420 sex workers participating in the Encontros intervention in Corumbá, Brazil, between 2003 and 2005. We estimated the association of participation in external social groups with drug use at baseline and follow-up using logistic regression and marginal modelling. Follow-up analyses of preintervention/postintervention change in drug use employed inverse probability weighting to account for censoring and were stratified by exposure to the intervention. Social participation showed a protective association with drug use at baseline (1 SD higher level of social participation associated with 3.8% lower prevalence of drug use, 95% CI -0.1 to 8.3). Among individuals exposed to Encontros, higher social participation was associated with an 8.6% lower level of drug use (95% CI 0.1 to 23.3). No significant association was found among the unexposed. A structural intervention that modified sex workers' social environment, specifically participation in external social groups, was associated with reduced drug use. These findings suggest that sexual risk prevention initiatives that enhance social integration among marginalised populations can produce broad health impacts, including reductions in drug use.
Fisher, Celia B; True, Gala; Alexander, Leslie; Fried, Adam L
The role of front-line researchers, those whose responsibilities include face-to-face contact with participants, is critical to ensuring the responsible conduct of community-based drug use research. To date, there has been little empirical examination of how front-line researchers perceive the effectiveness of ethical procedures in their real-world application and the moral stress they may experience when adherence to scientific procedures appears to conflict with participant protections. This study represents a first step in applying psychological science to examine the work-related attitudes, ethics climate, and moral dilemmas experienced by a national sample of 275 front-line staff members whose responsibilities include face-to-face interaction with participants in community-based drug-use research. Using an anonymous Web-based survey we psychometrically evaluated and examined relationships among six new scales tapping moral stress (frustration in response to perceived barriers to conducting research in a morally appropriate manner); organizational ethics climate; staff support; moral practice dilemmas (perceived conflicts between scientific integrity and participant welfare); research commitment; and research mistrust. As predicted, front-line researchers who evidence a strong commitment to their role in the research process and who perceive their organizations as committed to research ethics and staff support experienced lower levels of moral stress. Front-line researchers who were distrustful of the research enterprise and frequently grappled with moral practice dilemmas reported higher levels of moral stress. Applying psychometrically reliable scales to empirically examine research ethics challenges can illuminate specific threats to scientific integrity and human subjects protections encountered by front-line staff and suggest organizational strategies for reducing moral stress and enhancing the responsible conduct of research.
Sørensen, H J; Jepsen, P W; Haastrup, S
OBJECTIVE: To compare the 15-year mortality of people with a history of opioid dependence that had achieved stable abstinence, with the mortality associated with continued drug use. Another objective was to study the influence of hospitalization with comorbid psychosis on the 15-year mortality. M...... at lower risk of premature death than people with continued drug use. A residual observed excess mortality in people who had apparently achieved stable abstinence from drug use is consistent with the view of drug addiction as a chronic disease....
Lindstrøm, Maia; Filges, Trine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) on drug use reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review and ultimately located three studies for final analysis...... and interpretation. Results: The results are mixed: BSFT does not seem to have better or worse effects on drug use frequency and family functioning than other treatments but has positive effects on treatment retention compared to control conditions. Longer retention in treatment has been identified as a consistent...
Xue, Feng; Droutman, Vita; Barkley-Levenson, Emily; Melrose, A James; Miller, Lynn C; Monterosso, John R; Bechara, Antoine; Appleby, Paul R; Christensen, John L; Godoy, Carlos G; Read, Stephen J
Abstract HIV is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and although most MSM use condoms consistently during casual sex, some take risks. To better understand the psychology of those risky decisions, we examined neural correlates of playing a virtual sexual ‘hook up’ game in an functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner in MSM who had, in the past 90 days, been sexually risky (N = 76) or safe (N = 31). We found that during potentially risky sexual choices, previously risky MSM had more right insula activity than previously safe MSM. Real-life sexual risk was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Insula activity that differentiated risky and safe MSM was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Future work should further examine if, and to what extent, insula activation during safe sex negotiation drives MSM’s rash risky sexual decision-making. PMID:29149326
Full Text Available The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316, with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or ���curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118. Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids. This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks
Yang, Jiaoyan; Du, Feng; Qu, Weina; Gong, Zhun; Sun, Xianghong
Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of injury-related fatalities in China and pose the most serious threat to driving safety. Driver personality is considered as an effective predictor for risky driving behavior and accident liability. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between personality and risky driving behavior, but only a few of them have explored the effects of personality variables on accident involvement. In addition, few studies have examined the effects of personality on Chinese drivers' risky driving and accident involvement. The present study aimed to examine the effects of personality variables on Chinese drivers' unsafe driving behaviors and accident involvement. Two hundred and twenty-four Chinese drivers aged 20 to 50 were required to complete questionnaires assessing their personality traits (anger, sensation-seeking, altruism, and normlessness), risky driving behaviors (aggressive violations, ordinary violations), and accident involvement (all accidents, serious accidents, at-fault accidents). Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for gender, age, and overall mileage, were conducted to identify the personality traits related to risky driving behaviors and accident involvement. Participants' personality traits were found to be significantly correlated with both risky driving behavior and accident involvement. Specifically, the traits of anger and normlessness were effective predictors for aggressive violations. The traits of anger, sensation-seeking, normlessness, and altruism were effective predictors for ordinary violations. Moreover, altruism and normlessness were significant predictors for the total number of accidents participants had during the past 3 years. Consistent with previous studies, the present study revealed that personality traits play an important role in predicting Chinese drivers' risky driving behaviors. In addition, Chinese drivers' personality characteristics were also associated with accident
Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is associated with heightened risk tolerance and altered decision- making. This raises the question as to whether alcohol dependent patients (ADP are incapable of proper risk assessment. We investigated how healthy controls (HC and ADP engage neural networks to cope with the increased cognitive demands of risky decisions. We collected fMRI data while 34 HC and 16 ADP played a game that included safe and risky trials. In safe trials, participants accrued money at no risk of a penalty. In risky trials, reward and risk simultaneously increased as participants were instructed to decide when to stop a reward accrual period. If the participant failed to stop before an undisclosed time, the trial would bust and participants would not earn the money from that trial. Independent Component Analysis was used to identify networks engaged during the anticipation and the decision execution of risky compared with safe trials. Like HC, ADP demonstrated distinct network engagement for safe and risky trials at anticipation. However, at decision execution, ADP exhibited severely reduced discrimination in network engagement between safe and risky trials. Although ADP behaviorally responded to risk they failed to appropriately modify network engagement as the decision continued, leading ADP to assume similar network engagement regardless of risk prospects. This may reflect disorganized network switching and a facile response strategy uniformly adopted by ADP across risk conditions. We propose that aberrant salience network (SN engagement in ADP might contribute to ineffective network switching and that the role of the SN in risky decisions warrants further investigation.
Anderson, Amy E; Hure, Alexis J; Forder, Peta M; Powers, Jennifer; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Loxton, Deborah J
Risky patterns of alcohol use prior to pregnancy increase the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes. It is important to understand how consumption changes once women become pregnant. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of women that partake in risky drinking patterns before pregnancy and to examine how these patterns change once they become pregnant. A sample of 1577 women from the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were included if they first reported being pregnant in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and reported risky drinking patterns prior to that pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine which risky drinking patterns were most likely to continue into pregnancy. When reporting risky drinking patterns prior to pregnancy only 6% of women reported weekly drinking only, whereas 46% reported binge drinking only and 48% reported both. Women in both binge categories were more likely to have experienced financial stress, not been partnered, smoked, used drugs, been nulliparous, experienced a violent relationship, and were less educated. Most women (46%) continued these risky drinking patterns into pregnancy, with 40% reducing these behaviors, and 14% completely ceasing alcohol consumption. Once pregnant, women who binged only prior to pregnancy were more likely to continue (55%) rather than reduce drinking (29%). Of the combined drinking group 61% continued to binge and 47% continued weekly drinking. Compared with the combined drinking group, binge only drinkers prior to pregnancy were less likely to reduce rather than continue their drinking once pregnant (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.47). Over a third of women continued risky drinking into pregnancy, especially binge drinking, suggesting a need to address alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy.
Amy E Anderson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risky patterns of alcohol use prior to pregnancy increase the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes. It is important to understand how consumption changes once women become pregnant. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of women that partake in risky drinking patterns before pregnancy and to examine how these patterns change once they become pregnant. METHODS: A sample of 1577 women from the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were included if they first reported being pregnant in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and reported risky drinking patterns prior to that pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine which risky drinking patterns were most likely to continue into pregnancy. RESULTS: When reporting risky drinking patterns prior to pregnancy only 6% of women reported weekly drinking only, whereas 46% reported binge drinking only and 48% reported both. Women in both binge categories were more likely to have experienced financial stress, not been partnered, smoked, used drugs, been nulliparous, experienced a violent relationship, and were less educated. Most women (46% continued these risky drinking patterns into pregnancy, with 40% reducing these behaviors, and 14% completely ceasing alcohol consumption. Once pregnant, women who binged only prior to pregnancy were more likely to continue (55% rather than reduce drinking (29%. Of the combined drinking group 61% continued to binge and 47% continued weekly drinking. Compared with the combined drinking group, binge only drinkers prior to pregnancy were less likely to reduce rather than continue their drinking once pregnant (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.47. CONCLUSIONS: Over a third of women continued risky drinking into pregnancy, especially binge drinking, suggesting a need to address alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy.
Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; ?stergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette
Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gende...
Hudek-Knežević, Jasna; Kardum, Igor; Krapić, Nada
On a sample of 203 males and 219 females the effects of HIV-transmission knowledge, five-factor personality traits and three components of psychopathy (antisocial behavior, interpersonal manipulation and impulsive thrill seeking) on overall risky sexual behaviors as well as risky sexual behaviors during previous month were explored by using a series of hierarchical regression analyses. The main hypothesis tested in this research is that psychopathy is an important predictor of risky sexual be...
This was a nationally representative study to estimate the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use among drivers. : Drugs studied included 98 over-the-counter, prescription, and illegal substances. Drivers were randomly selected at : 60 sites (300 l...
Keywords: Illicit drug use, violence, acute psychosis, psychiatric hospital. ... violence and substance abuse. Methods ... and identifiable data were anonymized and/or stored in .... only a handful had urine tests done at the referral centres.
Brown, William J; de Matviuk, Marcela Alejandra Chavan
Exposure to a sports celebrity through media and sporting events can have important influences on a public health issue associated with that celebrity. The battle against drug use by Argentinean soccer icon Diego Maradona has provoked concerns about drug abuse and prevention in Argentina, particularly among young people. The present study analyzes how two forms of involvement with Maradona affected the public's concern and perceptions of drug use after Maradona's drug-related health crisis in 2004. Results indicate that those who had a greater degree of parasocial interaction with Maradona were more likely to have an increased awareness of drug abuse, a greater personal concern about drug abuse, abstained from drug use, and more strongly support drug abuse prevention programs. In contrast, identification with Maradona had a mitigating effect on drug use prevention. Implications of these findings regarding the influence of sports celebrities on substance abuse are discussed.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the 8-year 2002-2009 data...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...
Amanda L. Divin
Full Text Available Adolescence represents a vulnerable time for the development of both drug use/abuse and mental illness. Although previous research has substantiated a relationship between drug use and suicidal behavior, little research has examined this relationship with non-medical prescription drug use. Given the growing prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU among adolescents, this study explored the association between NMPDU and suicidal behavior. Nationally representative data were derived from 16, 410 adolescents who completed the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Approximately 19.8% of participants reported lifetime NMPDU. NMPDU was associated with significantly increased odds of suicidal behavior (P < 0.01, with seriously considering attempting suicide and making a plan about attempting suicide representing the strongest correlates for males and females. Results suggest the importance of 1 continued reinforcement of drug education programs in high school begun at earlier ages and 2 mental health care and screenings among adolescents.
Filges, Trine; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Svendsen, Majken
), Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT), and Psychoeducational Therapy (PET)). RESULTS Our main objective was to evaluate the current evidence on the effect of CBT on abstinence and drug use reduction for young people in outpatient treatment for non-opioid drug use. Seven randomised trials, involving 953......, and PET ) with respect to reduction in young people’s drug use. The evidence drawn from this systematic review is based on seven included studies analysed in two separate analyses, depending on whether the intervention was CBT with an add-on component such as motivational interviewing (four studies......) or CBT without an add-on component (three studies). The seven studies are very different in terms of their findings regarding the effects of CBT interventions compared to other interventions (ACRA, CBOP (+ACC), DHPE, FFT, IT, MDFT, and PET ) on young people’s drug use. Therefore, the overall conclusion...
% females) reported having ever used marijuana or glue. ... Conclusions: Public health intervention aimed to prevent marijuana or glue use among adolescents should be designed with the understanding that illicit drug use may be associated ...
Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133
Bersamira, Clifford S; Lin, Yu-An; Park, Keunhye; Marsh, Jeanne C
This study examined past-year drug use among Asian Americans with respect to ethnic subgroup, acculturation, and gender differences. Survey data were collected during the National Latino and Asian American Survey, a national epidemiological household survey of behavioral health prevalence and service utilization rates. The analytical sample consisted of 505 Filipino, 598 Chinese, 518 Vietnamese, and 466 other Asian respondents. Results indicated that among ethnic subgroups, Filipinos had the highest rates of drug use. Among all Asian Americans, those who were born in the United States, those with higher levels of English proficiency, males, those who were younger, those with lifetime prevalence of a major depressive episode, and those who were frequent drinkers were all more likely to have reported past-year drug use. Findings suggest the need to better understand the heterogeneous character of Asian American drug use when considering the provision of culturally competent and linguistically appropriate prevention and treatment services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yildirim-Yenier, Zümrüt; Vingilis, Evelyn; Wiesenthal, David L; Mann, Robert E; Seeley, Jane
Attitudes and individual difference variables of car and racing enthusiasts regarding high-risk behaviors of street racing and stunt driving have recently been investigated. Positive attitudes toward high-risk driving, personality variables such as driver thrill seeking, and other self-reported risky driving acts were associated with these behaviors. However, probable relationships among high-risk driving tendencies, everyday driving behaviors, and negative road safety outcomes have remained largely unexamined. This study aimed to investigate the associations among car and racing enthusiasts' high-risk driving attitudes, self-reported everyday driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations), and self-reported negative outcomes (i.e., collisions and driving offense citations). A web-based survey was conducted with members and visitors of car club and racing websites in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from 366 participants. The questionnaire included 4 attitude measures-(1) attitudes toward new penalties for Ontario's Street Racers, Stunt and Aggressive Drivers Legislation; (2) attitudes toward new offenses of stunt driving under the same legislation; (3) general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving; (4) comparison of street racing with other risky driving behaviors-self-reported driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations); self-reported collisions and offense citations; and background and driving questions (e.g., age, driving frequency). Results revealed that attitudes toward stunt driving offenses negatively and general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted ordinary violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. Moreover, general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted aggressive violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. The findings indicate that positive high-risk driving attitudes may be transferring to driving violations in
I examine the transfer of the Problem Drug Use (PDU) concept into Czech scientific discourse through European institutions’ projects, and view PDU’s utilization by Czech researchers in relation to marijuana decriminalization efforts.PDU is defined as intravenous and/or long-term and regular use of opiates, cocaine, or amphetamines. Out of a vast array of illicit drug use patterns, this concept isolates a relatively small population with the riskiest use patterns to become the focus of public ...
Leukefeld, Carl G; Logan, T K; Farabee, David; Clayton, Richard
This paper presents approaches used in one rural U.S. state to describe the level of injecting drug use and to estimate the number of injectors not receiving drug-user treatment. The focus is on two broad areas of estimation that were used to present the prevalence of injecting drug use in Kentucky. The first estimation approach uses available data from secondary data sources. The second approach involves three small community studies.
Teesson, Maree; Hodder, Tracey; Buhrich, Neil
This paper describes alcohol and drug-use disorders among 210 homeless people in Australia, and compares the Australian findings with the international literature. While the prevalence of alcohol-use disorders among people who are homeless in Australia is comparable with other international studies, drug-use disorders appear to be more prevalent among Australian homeless than comparable international studies. Reasons for this difference are explored.
Thomsen, Súsanna við Streym; Vestergaard, Peter
Rheumatic disorders are linked to immuno-logical processes in the body; therefore, drugs used to treat these disorders may interfere with the immune system. The immune system shares several signaling mechanisms with bone cells, both directly via cytokines and prostaglandins, and indirectly via...... vitamin D, which is also an active immunological substance. As a result, drugs used to modulate the immune response may interfere with bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomechanical competence, and the risk of fractures [1–3]....
social relationships and job deviations are the consequences of addiction in women. Conclusion: woman drug use mostly affected by intimate relationships in family and friends. Social care systems should be developed for families with drug use persons to preventing family member’s involvement healthy lifestyle in Patients with type 2 diabetes. It was concluded that decrease in HbA1c level needs longer intervention period; more than three months.
Sznitman, Sharon R; Taubman, Danielle S
Drug use normalization, which is a process whereby drug use becomes less stigmatized and more accepted as normative behavior, provides a conceptual framework for understanding contemporary drug issues and changes in drug use trends. Through a mixed-methods systematic review of the normalization literature, this article seeks to (a) critically examine how the normalization framework has been applied in empirical research and (b) make recommendations for future research in this area. Twenty quantitative, 26 qualitative, and 4 mixed-methods studies were identified through five electronic databases and reference lists of published studies. Studies were assessed for relevance, study characteristics, quality, and aspects of normalization examined. None of the studies applied the most rigorous research design (experiments) or examined all of the originally proposed normalization dimensions. The most commonly assessed dimension of drug use normalization was "experimentation." In addition to the original dimensions, the review identified the following new normalization dimensions in the literature: (a) breakdown of demographic boundaries and other risk factors in relation to drug use; (b) de-normalization; (c) drug use as a means to achieve normal goals; and (d) two broad forms of micro-politics associated with managing the stigma of illicit drug use: assimilative and transformational normalization. Further development in normalization theory and methodology promises to provide researchers with a novel framework for improving our understanding of drug use in contemporary society. Specifically, quasi-experimental designs that are currently being made feasible by swift changes in cannabis policy provide researchers with new and improved opportunities to examine normalization processes.
Christian P. Müller
The majority of adult people in western societies regularly consume psychoactive drugs. While this consumption is integrated in everyday life activities and controlled in most consumers, it may escalate and result in drug addiction. Non-addicted drug use requires the systematic establishment of highly organized behaviors, such as drug-seeking and -taking. While a significant role for classical and instrumental learning processes is well established in drug use and abuse, declarative drug memo...
Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
The main aim of this review is to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of FFT on drug abuse reduction for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use.......The main aim of this review is to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of FFT on drug abuse reduction for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use....
In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the
Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Sanchez, Zila M
A school is a learning environment that contributes to the construction of personal values, beliefs, habits and lifestyles, provide convenient settings for the implementation of drug use prevention programs targeting adolescents, who are the population group at highest risk of initiating drug use. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in Brazilian public and private middle and high urban schools. The present population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a probability sample of 1151 school administrators stratified by the 5 Brazilian administrative divisions, in 2014. A close-ended, self-reported online questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in schools. A total of 51.1% of the schools had adopted drug use prevention programs. The factors associated with program implementation were as follows: belonging to the public school network; having a library; development of activities targeting sexuality; development of "Health at School Program" activities; offering extracurricular activities; and having an administrator that participated in training courses on drugs. The adoption of drug use prevention practices in Brazilian schools may be expanded with greater orchestration of schools through specialized training of administrators and teachers, expansion of the School Health Program and concomitant development of the schools' structural and curricular attributes.